WorldWideScience

Sample records for human factor considerations

  1. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  2. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant

  3. Human Factors and Human-Computer Considerations in Teleradiology and Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Krupinski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiology and pathology are unique among other clinical specialties that incorporate telemedicine technologies into clinical practice, as, for the most part in traditional practice, there are few or no direct patient encounters. The majority of teleradiology and telepathology involves viewing images, which is exactly what occurs without the “tele” component. The images used are generally quite large, require dedicated displays and software for viewing, and present challenges to the clinician who must navigate through the presented data to render a diagnostic decision or interpretation. This digital viewing environment is very different from the more traditional reading environment (i.e., film and microscopy, necessitating a new look at how to optimize reading environments and address human factors issues. This paper will review some of the key components that need to be optimized for effective and efficient practice of teleradiology and telepathology using traditional workstations as well as some of the newer mobile viewing applications.

  4. Human factors and ergonomics in home care: Current concerns and future considerations for health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Calvin K L; Valdez, Rupa S; Casper, Gail R; Carayon, Pascale; Burke, Laura J; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2009-01-01

    Sicker patients with greater care needs are being discharged to their homes to assume responsibility for their own care with fewer nurses available to aid them. This situation brings with it a host of human factors and ergonomic (HFE) concerns, both for the home care nurse and the home dwelling patient, that can affect quality of care and patient safety. Many of these concerns are related to the critical home care tasks of information access, communication, and patient self-monitoring and self-management. Currently, a variety of health information technologies (HITs) are being promoted as possible solutions to those problems, but those same technologies bring with them a new set of HFE concerns. This paper reviews the HFE considerations for information access, communication, and patients self-monitoring and self-management, discusses how HIT can potentially mitigate current problems, and explains how the design and implementation of HIT itself requires careful HFE attention.

  5. The Transition from Spacecraft Development Ot Flight Operation: Human Factor Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilio, Ralph R.

    2000-01-01

    In the field of aeronautics and astronautics, a paradigm shift has been witnessed by those in academia, research and development, and private industry. Long development life cycles and the budgets to support such programs and projects has given way to aggressive task schedules and leaner resources to draw from all the while challenging assigned individuals to create and produce improved products of processes. however, this "faster, better, cheaper" concept cannot merely be applied to the design, development, and test of complex systems such as earth-orbiting of interplanetary robotic spacecraft. Full advantage is not possible without due consideration and application to mission operations planning and flight operations, Equally as important as the flight system, the mission operations system consisting of qualified personnel, ground hardware and software tools, and verified and validated operational processes, should also be regarded as a complex system requiring personnel to draw upon formal education, training, related experiences, and heuristic reasoning in engineering an effective and efficient system. Unquestionably, qualified personnel are the most important elements of a mission operations system. This paper examines the experiences of the Deep Space I Project, the first in a series of new technology in-flight validation missions sponsored by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), specifically, in developing a subsystems analysis and technology validation team comprised of former spacecraft development personnel. Human factor considerations are investigated from initial concept/vision formulation; through operational process development; personnel test and training; to initial uplink product development and test support. Emphasis has been placed on challenges and applied or recommended solutions, so as to provide opportunities for future programs and projects to address and disposition potential issues and concerns as early

  6. A Review on the Regulatory Strategy of Human Factors Engineering Consideration in Pakistan Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohail, Sabir [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Nam [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the legal and regulatory infrastructure available in Pakistan for HFE requirements is assessed, and the methodology for strengthening of legal infrastructure is presented. The regulatory strategy on evaluation of HFE consideration should provide reviewers with guidance on review process. Therefore, the suggested methodology is based on preparation of guidance documents such as checklist, working procedures, S and Gs etc.; incorporation of PRM elements in regulatory system; and finally the development of PRM implementation criteria. Altogether, the scheme provide the enhancement in regulatory infrastructure and also the effective and efficient review process. The Three Mile Island (TMI) accident brought the general consensus among the nuclear community on the integration of human factors engineering (HFE) principles in all phases of nuclear power. This notion has further strengthened after the recent Fukushima nuclear accident. Much effort has been put over to incorporate the lesson learned and continuous technical evolution on HFE to device different standards. The total of 174 ergonomics standards are alone identified by Dul et al. (2004) published by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and number of standards and HFE guidelines (S and Gs) are also published by organizations like Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), etc. The ambition of effective review on HFE integration in nuclear facility might be accomplished through the development of methodology for systematic implementation of S and Gs. Such kind of methodology would also be beneficial for strengthening the regulatory framework and practices for countries new in the nuclear arena and with small scale nuclear program. The objective of paper is to review the

  7. A broader consideration of human factor to enhance sustainable building design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaianese, Erminia

    2012-01-01

    The link between ergonomic/human factor and sustainability seems to be clearly evidenced mainly in relation to social dimension of sustainability, in order to contribute to assure corporate social responsibility and global value creation. But the will to establish an equilibrated connection among used resources in human activities, supported by the sustainability perspective, evidences that the contribution of ergonomics/human factors can be effectively enlarged to other aspects, especially in relation to building design. In fact a sustainable building is meant to be a building that contributes, through its characteristics and attribute, to a sustainable development by assuring, in the same time, a decrease of resources use and environmental impact and an increase of health, safety and comfort of the occupants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze in a broader sense the contribution of ergonomic/human factor to design of sustainable building, focusing how ergonomics principles, methodology and techniques can improve building design, enhancing its sustainability performance during all phases of building lifecycle.

  8. Interface design and human factors considerations for model-based tight glycemic control in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Logan; Steel, James; Le Compte, Aaron; Evans, Alicia; Tan, Chia-Siong; Penning, Sophie; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Desaive, Thomas; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Tight glycemic control (TGC) has shown benefits but has been difficult to implement. Model-based methods and computerized protocols offer the opportunity to improve TGC quality and compliance. This research presents an interface design to maximize compliance, minimize real and perceived clinical effort, and minimize error based on simple human factors and end user input. The graphical user interface (GUI) design is presented by construction based on a series of simple, short design criteria based on fundamental human factors engineering and includes the use of user feedback and focus groups comprising nursing staff at Christchurch Hospital. The overall design maximizes ease of use and minimizes (unnecessary) interaction and use. It is coupled to a protocol that allows nurse staff to select measurement intervals and thus self-manage workload. The overall GUI design is presented and requires only one data entry point per intervention cycle. The design and main interface are heavily focused on the nurse end users who are the predominant users, while additional detailed and longitudinal data, which are of interest to doctors guiding overall patient care, are available via tabs. This dichotomy of needs and interests based on the end user's immediate focus and goals shows how interfaces must adapt to offer different information to multiple types of users. The interface is designed to minimize real and perceived clinical effort, and ongoing pilot trials have reported high levels of acceptance. The overall design principles, approach, and testing methods are based on fundamental human factors principles designed to reduce user effort and error and are readily generalizable. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Human factors considerations of IR sensors for the Canadian Integrated Soldier System Project (ISSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frim, John; Bossi, Linda; Tack, Dave

    2009-05-01

    The Integrated Soldier System Project (ISSP) is the cornerstone of Canada's future soldier modernization effort, which seeks to "significantly enhance tactical level individual and team Lethality, Mobility and C4I performance in the complex, network-enabled, command-centric, effects-based digitized battlespace." This capital acquisition project is supported by a number of R&D Technology Demonstration Projects within Defence R&D Canada. Several of these projects focus on the human factors aspects of future technologies, such as IR sensors. The Soldier Information Requirements Technology Demonstration (SIREQ TD) project examined the performance impact of NVGs, LWIR imaging systems, and fused systems (both optical and digital fusion) on target detection, recognition and identification. NVGs were shown to provide good identification performance while LWIR systems excelled in detection tasks. Fused systems show promise of augmenting the respective stand alone capabilities of each sensor type, but more work is required to optimize fusion algorithms. The Soldier Integrated Headwear Technology Demonstration (SIHS TD) project is looking at the human factors aspects of mounting a range of vision enhancement sensors on a helmet, including optimal placement of both sensors and displays with respect to center of mass, total head borne weight, and visual offset and parallax issues. Overall headwear system weight should be less than 2.5 kg, and if an offset from the eye is required then a horizontal offset (vice vertical or oblique) of the sensor appears most acceptable. These findings have implications on the design of future IR and fused sensor systems for dismounted soldiers.

  10. Pertuzumab in human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: clinical and economic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamond NW

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nathan WD Lamond, Tallal YounisDepartment of Medicine, Dalhousie University at the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS, CanadaAbstract: In the absence of specific therapy, the 15%–20% of breast cancers demonstrating human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2 (HER2 protein overexpression and/or gene amplification are characterized by a more aggressive phenotype and poorer prognosis compared to their HER2-negative counterparts. Trastuzumab (Herceptin, the first anti-HER2-targeted therapy, has been associated with improved survival outcomes in HER2-positive breast cancer. However, many patients with early stage disease continue to relapse, and metastatic disease remains incurable. In order to further improve these outcomes, several novel HER2-targeted agents have recently been developed. Pertuzumab (Perjeta, a monoclonal antibody against the HER2 dimerization domain, has also been associated with improved patient outcomes in clinical trials, and has recently been approved in combination with chemotherapy and trastuzumab for neoadjuvant therapy of early stage, HER2-positive breast cancer and first-line treatment of metastatic disease. This review briefly summarizes pertuzumab's clinical development as well as the published evidence supporting its use, and highlights some of the currently unanswered questions that will influence pertuzumab’s incorporation into clinical practice.Keywords: HER2/neu, clinical trials, drug development, novel therapies, targeted anticancer therapy

  11. Considerations in the development of a sensitive HPLC assay for human epidermal growth factors in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagel, J R; Rossi, D T; Nordblom, G D; Dudeck, R C; Barksdale, C M; Kuo, B S; Wright, D S

    1995-09-01

    A sensitive assay was developed for human epidermal growth factors (hEGF) 1-48 (dosed), hEGF 1-53 (endogenous), without interference from potential metabolites hEGFs 1-47 or 1-46. Spiked human plasma samples were injected directly, utilizing on-line immunoaffinity HPLC (anti-hEGF) clean-up. No change in capacity was noted after 81 cycles. After release from the immunoaffinity column, the fragments were further resolved by strong cation-exchange (SCX) via a column switching valve. Method development also required interfacing immunoaffinity, ion-exchange, and detection components. Immunoassays on collected fractions yielded a detection limit of 1 microgram ml-1, although a detection limit of 75 pg ml-1 appears feasible.

  12. The Contribution of Human Factors in Military System Development: Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

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  13. Human Factors and Technical Considerations for a Computerized Operator Support System Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Thomas Anthony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lew, Roger Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Medema, Heather Dawne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A prototype computerized operator support system (COSS) has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, PI&D system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. At this point, the prototype simulates an interface to a sensor validation module and a fault diagnosis module. These two modules will be fully integrated in the next version of the prototype. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is a full-scope, full-scale glass top simulator capable of simulating existing and future nuclear power plant main control rooms. The COSS is interfaced to the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (gPWR) simulator with industry-typical control board layouts. The glass top panels display realistic images of the control boards that can be operated by touch gestures. A section of the simulated control board was dedicated to the COSS human-system interface (HSI), which resulted in a seamless integration of the COSS into the normal control room environment. A COSS demonstration scenario has been developed for the prototype involving the Chemical & Volume Control System (CVCS) of the PWR simulator. It involves a primary coolant leak outside of containment that would require tripping the reactor if not mitigated in a very short timeframe. The COSS prototype presents a series of operator screens that provide the needed information and soft controls to successfully mitigate the event.

  14. Human factors considerations in designing for infection prevention and control in neonatal care - findings from a pre-design inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Chantal; Cobb, Sue; Momtahan, Kathryn; Brintnell, Janet; Mitchell, Ann

    2017-05-31

    Qualitative data collection methods drawn from the early stages of human-centred design frameworks combined with thematic analysis were used to develop an understanding of infection prevention practice within an existing neonatal intensive care unit. Findings were used to generate a framework of understanding which in turn helped inform a baseline approach for future research and design development. The study revealed that a lack of clarity between infection transmission zones and a lack of design attributes needed to uphold infection prevention measures may be undermining healthcare workers' understanding and application of good practice. The issue may be further complicated by well-intentioned behavioural attitudes to meeting work objectives; undue influences from spatial constraints; the influence of inadvertent and excessive touch-based interactions; physical and/or cognitive exertion to maintain transmission barriers; and the impact of expanding job design and increased workload to supplement for lack of effective barriers. Practitioner Summary: Despite high hand hygiene compliance within a neonatal intensive care unit, healthcare workers expressed concerns about the unit design and infection prevention practice. Early inquiry methods from human-centred design and thematic analysis helped develop a framework to understand how design can be used to aid infection prevention.

  15. Human Genome Editing and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Singh, Bahadur

    2016-04-01

    Editing human germline genes may act as boon in some genetic and other disorders. Recent editing of the genome of the human embryo with the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool generated a debate amongst top scientists of the world for the ethical considerations regarding its effect on the future generations. It needs to be seen as to what transformation human gene editing brings to humankind in the times to come.

  16. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  17. ISS Payload Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  18. Considerations in representing human individuals in social ecological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredo, Michael J.; Teel, Tara L.; Gavin, Michael C.; Fulton, David C.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on how to integrate the human individual into social-ecological systems analysis, and how to improve research on individual thought and action regarding the environment by locating it within the broader social-ecological context. We discuss three key questions as considerations for future research: (1) is human thought conceptualized as a dynamic and adaptive process, (2) is the individual placed in a multi-level context (including within-person levels, person-group interactions, and institutional and structural factors), and (3) is human thought seen as mutually constructed with the social and natural environment. Increased emphasis on the individual will be essential if we are to understand agency, innovation, and adaptation in social-ecological systems.

  19. Understanding and Using Factor Scores: Considerations for the Applied Researcher

    OpenAIRE

    Christine DiStefano; Min Zhu; Diana Mindrila

    2009-01-01

    Following an exploratory factor analysis, factor scores may be computed and used in subsequent analyses. Factor scores are composite variables which provide information about an individual's placement on the factor(s). This article discusses popular methods to create factor scores under two different classes: refined and non-refined. Strengths and considerations of the various methods, and for using factor scores in general, are discussed.

  20. Understanding and Using Factor Scores: Considerations for the Applied Researcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine DiStefano

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Following an exploratory factor analysis, factor scores may be computed and used in subsequent analyses. Factor scores are composite variables which provide information about an individual's placement on the factor(s. This article discusses popular methods to create factor scores under two different classes: refined and non-refined. Strengths and considerations of the various methods, and for using factor scores in general, are discussed.

  1. Ethical Considerations in Human Movement Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Highlights ethical issues for human subject research, identifying principles that form the construct of a code of research ethics and evaluating against this construct past human experimentation and current research in human movement studies. The efficacy of legislation and self-regulation is examined. Particular attention is given to the context…

  2. A Consideration of Human Resource Management Future

    OpenAIRE

    Samad Nasiri; Sahar Valikhanfard Zanjani

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of future events, at best, is a risky endeavor. Researchers and theorists have different views about what will happen to human resource managers. Most research has been done on topics of technology, intellectual capital, and government regulation, workforce demographic changes, shrinking organizations, international management and globalization. It is evident that all the issues mentioned play a very important role in human resource management over the coming decades, and some ...

  3. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-07-21

    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits.

  4. Neutron effects in humans: protection considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Committee I of the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that the Quality Factor for neutrons should be changed from 10 to 20. This article is an interesting recount of the tale of Q from the viewpoint of an observer which illustrates many of the problems that the selection of protection standards pose. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Human Mars Surface Mission Nuclear Power Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2018-01-01

    A key decision facing Mars mission designers is how to power a crewed surface field station. Unlike the solar-powered Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) that could retreat to a very low power state during a Martian dust storm, human Mars surface missions are estimated to need at least 15 kilowatts of electrical (kWe) power simply to maintain critical life support and spacecraft functions. 'Hotel' loads alone for a pressurized crew rover approach two kWe; driving requires another five kWe-well beyond what the Curiosity rover’s Radioisotope Power System (RPS) was designed to deliver. Full operation of a four-crew Mars field station is estimated at about 40 kWe. Clearly, a crewed Mars field station will require a substantial and reliable power source, beyond the scale of robotic mission experience. This paper explores the applications for both fission and RPS nuclear options for Mars.

  6. Human Factors Considerations of Undergrounds in Insurgencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-09-01

    agencies have diplomatic immunity and, if arrested for espionage activities, are not jailed but de- clared persona non grata and forced to leave the...Tactics Used Earlier a t Bien Hoa," The Washington Post, February 8 , 1965, p. A-10; Fred H. Barton, Salient Operational Aspects of Paramilitary...American-made ammunition and six 81-mm mortars, the Viet Cong attacked the Bien Hoa air base for 20 minutes. Targets were the control tower, the

  7. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  8. Introduction to human factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  9. Development of an Integrated Human Factors Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Marc L.

    2003-01-01

    An effective integration of human abilities and limitations is crucial to the success of all NASA missions. The Integrated Human Factors Toolkit facilitates this integration by assisting system designers and analysts to select the human factors tools that are most appropriate for the needs of each project. The HF Toolkit contains information about a broad variety of human factors tools addressing human requirements in the physical, information processing and human reliability domains. Analysis of each tool includes consideration of the most appropriate design stage, the amount of expertise in human factors that is required, the amount of experience with the tool and the target job tasks that are needed, and other factors that are critical for successful use of the tool. The benefits of the Toolkit include improved safety, reliability and effectiveness of NASA systems throughout the agency. This report outlines the initial stages of development for the Integrated Human Factors Toolkit.

  10. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todres, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter-though they may not identify-victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case scenario: criminal law, with a focus on conspiracy; service provider regulations, with a focus on mandatory reporting laws; and human rights law. In addition to imposing a legal mandate, the law can inform ethical considerations about how health care professionals should respond to human trafficking.

  11. Helicopter human factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  12. Human Factors Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  13. Human factors in network security

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Francis B.

    1991-01-01

    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  14. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohmert, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, and crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  15. Helicopter Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  16. Helicopter Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  17. Implementing human factors in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Methods Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have received aviation-derived human factors training. Results The human factors training was evaluated positively, and thought to be both acceptable and relevant to practice. However, the staff found it harder to implement what they had learned in their own clinical areas, and this was principally attributed to features of the informal organisational cultures. Conclusions In order to successfully apply human factors approaches in hospital, careful consideration needs to be given to the local context and informal culture of clinical practice. PMID:24631959

  18. Considerations for the integration of human and wildlife radiological assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copplestone, D [Environment Agency, PO Box 12, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington WA4 1HG (United Kingdom); Brown, J E [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, 1361 Oesteraas (Norway); Beresford, N A, E-mail: david.copplestone@environment-agency.gov.u [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    A number of tools and approaches have been developed recently to allow assessments of the environmental impact of radiation on wildlife to be undertaken. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has stated an intention to provide a more inclusive protection framework for humans and the environment. Using scenarios, which are loosely based on real or predicted discharge data, we investigate how radiological assessments of humans and wildlife can be integrated with special consideration given to the recent outputs of the ICRP. We highlight how assumptions about the location of the exposed population of humans and wildlife, and the selection of appropriate benchmarks for determining potential risks can influence the outcome of the assessments. A number of issues associated with the transfer component and numeric benchmarks were identified, which need to be addressed in order to fully integrate the assessment approaches. A particular issue was the lack of comparable benchmark values for humans and wildlife. In part this may be addressed via the ICRP's recommended derived consideration reference levels for their 12 Reference Animals and Plants.

  19. Considerations for the integration of human and wildlife radiological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copplestone, D; Brown, J E; Beresford, N A

    2010-06-01

    A number of tools and approaches have been developed recently to allow assessments of the environmental impact of radiation on wildlife to be undertaken. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has stated an intention to provide a more inclusive protection framework for humans and the environment. Using scenarios, which are loosely based on real or predicted discharge data, we investigate how radiological assessments of humans and wildlife can be integrated with special consideration given to the recent outputs of the ICRP. We highlight how assumptions about the location of the exposed population of humans and wildlife, and the selection of appropriate benchmarks for determining potential risks can influence the outcome of the assessments. A number of issues associated with the transfer component and numeric benchmarks were identified, which need to be addressed in order to fully integrate the assessment approaches. A particular issue was the lack of comparable benchmark values for humans and wildlife. In part this may be addressed via the ICRP's recommended derived consideration reference levels for their 12 Reference Animals and Plants.

  20. Consideration for solar system exploration - A system to Mars. [biomedical, environmental, and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Biomedical issues related to a manned mission to Mars are reviewed. Consideration is given to cardiovascular deconditioning, hematological and immunological changes, bone and muscle changes, nutritional issues, and the development of physiological countermeasures. Environmental issues are discussed, including radiation hazards, toxic chemical exposure, and the cabin environment. Also, human factors, performance and behavior, medical screening of the crew, disease prediction, and health maintenance are examined.

  1. [Compliance in schizophrenia: predictive factors, therapeutical considerations and research implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdrahi, D; Llorca, P M; Lançon, C; Bayle, F J

    2002-01-01

    Compliance has been defined as the extent to which a person's behavior coincides with the medical advice given. Medication compliance is one of the foremost problems affecting neuroleptic efficacy in psychiatric patients. Since chlorpromazine introduction in 1952, antipsychotics are the principal element of schizophrenia treatment. Actually progress links to the use of new antipsychotics are conditioned by quality of compliance. The problem of nonadherence to medication could concern 50% of prescription. The reported incidence of non-compliance with antipsychotic medication ranges from 11 to 80%. In a two thirds of case rehospitalization is the result of complete or partial noncompliance. After one year of first hospitalisation, 40% of relapse results from non adherence to medication. Medication adherence problems increase hospitalisation, morbidity and mortality. Social consequences, professional problems and family troubles linked to hospitalisations lead to low quality of life for patients and high cost for society. There are three main methods of measuring compliance. These include patient and clinical self-report, pill counts, and biological measures. Self-report methods are generally the most cost-effective and time-efficient way of obtaining an indication of compliance. In psychiatric research, the most commonly used self-report measure of compliance is the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) originally devised by Hogan et al. On the basis of criticism concerning DAI reliability, a new questionnaire of medication compliance was proposed: the Medication Adherence Rating scale (MARS). The main goal of compliance evaluation is to quantify this phenomenon with accuracy and to find predictive factors of medication nonadherence. Three types of factors influencing compliance are identified: factors due to medications, factors linked to patients and factors depending on the therapeutic relation with the clinician. Tolerance is considered as the principal reason explaining

  2. Human factors in safety and business management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  3. Human Factors and Robotics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, H. McIlvaine; Kearsley, Greg P.

    The principal human factors engineering issue in robotics is the division of labor between automation (robots) and human beings. This issue reflects a prime human factors engineering consideration in systems design--what equipment should do and what operators and maintainers should do. Understanding of capabilities and limitations of robots and…

  4. Human Factors in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  5. Human Factors in Marine Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenko Švetak

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Human factors play an important role in the origin of accidents,and it is commonly claimed that between seventy andninety-five percent of industrial and transport accidents involvehuman factors, see Figure 1.Some authorities, however, claim that ultimately, all accidentsinvolve human factors.

  6. Understanding and Using Factor Scores: Considerations for the Applied Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Zhu, Min; Mindrila, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Following an exploratory factor analysis, factor scores may be computed and used in subsequent analyses. Factor scores are composite variables which provide information about an individual's placement on the factor(s). This article discusses popular methods to create factor scores under two different classes: refined and non-refined. Strengths and…

  7. Human health and performance considerations for near earth asteroids (NEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John

    2013-11-01

    Humans are considered as a system in the design of any deep space exploration mission. The addition of many potential near asteroid (NEA) destinations to the existing multiple mission architecture for Lunar and Mars missions increases the complexity of human health and performance issues that are anticipated for exploration of space. We suggest that risks to human health and performance be analyzed in terms of the 4 major parameters related to multiple mission architecture: destination, duration, distance and vehicle design. Geological properties of the NEA will influence design of exploration tasks related to sample handling and containment, and extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities including suit ports and tools. A robotic precursor mission that collects basic information on NEA surface properties would reduce uncertainty about these aspects of the mission as well as aid in mission architecture and exploration task design. Key mission parameters are strongly impacted by duration and distance. The most critical of these is deep-space radiation exposure without even the temporary shielding of a nearby large planetary body. The current space radiation permissible exposure limits (PEL) limits mission duration to 3-10 months depending on age, gender and stage of the solar cycle. Duration also impacts mission architectures including countermeasures for bone, muscle, and cardiovascular atrophy during continuous weightlessness; and behavioral and psychological issues resulting from isolation and confinement. Distance affects communications and limits abort and return options for a NEA mission. These factors are anticipated to have important effects on crew function and autonomous operations, as well as influence medical capability, supplies and training requirements of the crew. The design of a habitat volume that can maintain the physical and psychological health of the crew and support mission operations with limited intervention from earth will require an

  8. Multi-Unit Considerations for Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Germain, S.; Boring, R.; Banaseanu, G.; Akl, Y.; Chatri, H.

    2017-03-01

    This paper uses the insights from the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) methodology to help identify human actions currently modeled in the single unit PSA that may need to be modified to account for additional challenges imposed by a multi-unit accident as well as identify possible new human actions that might be modeled to more accurately characterize multi-unit risk. In identifying these potential human action impacts, the use of the SPAR-H strategy to include both errors in diagnosis and errors in action is considered as well as identifying characteristics of a multi-unit accident scenario that may impact the selection of the performance shaping factors (PSFs) used in SPAR-H. The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi reactor accident will be addressed to further help identify areas where improved modeling may be required. While these multi-unit impacts may require modifications to a Level 1 PSA model, it is expected to have much more importance for Level 2 modeling. There is little currently written specifically about multi-unit HRA issues. A review of related published research will be presented. While this paper cannot answer all issues related to multi-unit HRA, it will hopefully serve as a starting point to generate discussion and spark additional ideas towards the proper treatment of HRA in a multi-unit PSA.

  9. NASA Space Human Factors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  10. Medical considerations for extending human presence in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Dietlein, L. F.; Pool, S. L.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    The prospects for extending the length of time that humans can safely remain in space depend partly on resolution of a number of medical issues. Physiologic effects of weightlessness that may affect health during flight include loss of body fluid, functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, loss of red blood cells and bone mineral, compromised immune system function, and neurosensory disturbances. Some of the physiologic adaptations to weightlessness contribute to difficulties with readaptation to Earth's gravity. These include cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of body fluids and electrolytes; red blood cell mass; muscle mass, strength, and endurance; and bone mineral. Potentially harmful factors in space flight that are not related to weightlessness include radiation, altered circadian rhythms and rest/work cycles, and the closed, isolated environment of the spacecraft. There is no evidence that space flight has long-term effects on humans, except that bone mass lost during flight may not be replaced, and radiation damage is cumulative. However, the number of people who have spent several months or longer in space is still small. Only carefully-planned experiments in space preceded by thorough ground-based studies can provide the information needed to increase the amount of time humans can safely spend in space.

  11. Human Factor Engineering Considerations for the Control Room of Nuclear Power Plant with Multiple Small Modular Reactors%多模块小型反应堆核电站控制室的人因工程考虑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾倩倩; 刘鹏; 陈凡

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear system with multiple small modular reactors is a promising solution to realize the economics as well as maintain the safety features. The control room of the nuclear power plant with multiple SMRs is different with current pressured water reactors, these differences may have potential to impact human performance. These differences include the function analysis and function allocation, the staffing level and the staffing responsibilities, human machine interface design, situation awareness support, etc. This paper makes a review of the human factor engineering issues associated with the control room design of the plant with multiple SMRs. Some strategies are presented based on the experiences of the two-modular design of the high temperature gas-cooled pebble-bed modules (HTR-PM).%发展多模块式的小型堆核能系统,是保持小型模块式反应堆安全性的同时实现规模经济性的重要途径.多模块小型堆核能系统的控制室与目前压水堆核电站的控制室有很大区别,这些区别对控制室的人因工程可能存在潜在影响,具体包括:功能分析与功能分配、人员规模及分工、人机界面设计、操纵员的注意力等.本文综述了多模块小型堆核能系统的控制室设计中可能潜在的人因问题,并根据两模块高温气冷堆的初步设计经验,提出了对策.

  12. Practical Considerations for Using Exploratory Factor Analysis in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Amy S.; Lounsbury, John W.; Richards, Jennifer K.; Huck, Schuyler W.; Skolits, Gary J.; Esquivel, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    The uses and methodology of factor analysis are widely debated and discussed, especially the issues of rotational use, methods of confirmatory factor analysis, and adequate sample size. The variety of perspectives and often conflicting opinions can lead to confusion among researchers about best practices for using factor analysis. The focus of the…

  13. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  14. Human Factors Evaluation Mentor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To obtain valid and reliable data, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluations are currently conducted by people with specialized training and experience in HF. HFE...

  15. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA-CODRUŢA DUDĂ-DĂIANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.

  16. Human factors in resuscitation teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Elizabeth M; Lockey, Andrew S

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in human factors within the healthcare environment reflecting the understanding of their impact on safety. The aim of this paper is to explore how human factors might be taught on resuscitation courses, and improve course outcomes in terms of improved mortality and morbidity for patients. The delivery of human factors training is important and this review explores the work that has been delivered already and areas for future research and teaching. Medline was searched using MESH terms Resuscitation as a Major concept and Patient or Leadership as core terms. The abstracts were read and 25 full length articles reviewed. Critical incident reporting has shown four recurring problems: lack of organisation at an arrest, lack of equipment, non functioning equipment, and obstructions preventing good care. Of these, the first relates directly to the concept of human factors. Team dynamics for both team membership and leadership, management of stress, conflict and the role of debriefing are highlighted. Possible strategies for teaching them are discussed. Four strategies for improving human factors training are discussed: team dynamics (including team membership and leadership behaviour), the influence of stress, debriefing, and conflict within teams. This review illustrates how human factor training might be integrated further into life support training without jeopardising the core content and lengthening the courses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. phMRI: methodological considerations for mitigating potential confounding factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius H Bourke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging (phMRI is a variant of conventional MRI that adds pharmacological manipulations in order to study the effects of drugs, or uses pharmacological probes to investigate basic or applied (e.g. clinical neuroscience questions. Issues that may confound the interpretation of results from various types of phMRI studies are briefly discussed, and a set of methodological strategies that can mitigate these problems are described. These include strategies that can be employed at every stage of investigation, from study design to interpretation of resulting data, and additional techniques suited for use with clinical populations are also featured. Pharmacological MRI is a challenging area of research that has both significant advantages and formidable difficulties, however with due consideration and use of these strategies many of the key obstacles can be overcome.

  18. Depression after Delivery: Risk Factors, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A. Scrandis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum mood disorders can negatively affect women, their offspring, and their families when left untreated. The identification and treatment of postpartum depression remains problematic since health care providers may often not differentiate postpartum blues from depression onset. Recent studies found potentially new risk factors, etiologies, and treatments; thus, possibly improving the untreated postpartum depression rates. This integrated review examined several postpartum psychiatric disorders, postpartum blues, generalized anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and postpartum psychosis for current findings on prevalence, etiologies, risk factors, and postpartum depression treatments.

  19. Depression after Delivery: Risk Factors, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Debra A. Scrandis; Sheikh, Tehmina M.; Robina Niazi; Tonelli, Leonardo H.; Teodor T. Postolache

    2007-01-01

    Postpartum mood disorders can negatively affect women, their offspring, and their families when left untreated. The identification and treatment of postpartum depression remains problematic since health care providers may often not differentiate postpartum blues from depression onset. Recent studies found potentially new risk factors, etiologies, and treatments; thus, possibly improving the untreated postpartum depression rates. This integrated review examined several postpartum psychiatric d...

  20. Clinical trials in "emerging markets": regulatory considerations and other factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Romi; Wang, Ouhong

    2013-11-01

    Clinical studies are being placed in emerging markets as part of global drug development programs to access large pool of eligible patients and to benefit from a cost effective structure. However, over the last few years, the definition of "emerging markets" is being revisited, especially from a regulatory perspective. For purposes of this article, countries outside US, EU and the traditional "western countries" are discussed. Multiple factors are considered for placement of clinical studies such as adherence to Good Clinical Practice (GCP), medical infrastructure & standard of care, number of eligible patients, etc. This article also discusses other quantitative factors such as country's GDP, patent applications, healthcare expenditure, healthcare infrastructure, corruption, innovation, etc. These different factors and indexes are correlated to the number of clinical studies ongoing in the "emerging markets". R&D, healthcare expenditure, technology infrastructure, transparency, and level of innovation, show a significant correlation with the number of clinical trials being conducted in these countries. This is the first analysis of its kind to evaluate and correlate the various other factors to the number of clinical studies in a country.

  1. Cardiorenal consideration as a risk factor for heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obialo, Chamberlain I

    2007-03-26

    Cardiovascular disease-related factors are responsible for about 50% of the mortality in patients with both chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Therefore, it is not surprising that 30%-50% of patients with congestive heart failure also have an impaired glomerular filtration rate. This signifies a co-dependence between the kidneys and the heart. The role of anemia, microalbuminuria, calcium, and phosphorus imbalance in this cardiorenal interdependence is discussed in this article.

  2. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. [Ethical considerations on human cloning. A psychoanalytic perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of ethical issues related to two types of human cloning is presented: cloning embryonic cells not intended to culminate in the birth of a new individual and cloning human beings. Advantages and objections related to both types of human cloning are analyzed from an ethical point of view. Repercussions on individuals born by the technique of cloning are discussed from a psychoanalytical perspective. It can be concluded that cloning embryonic cells could be admissible, while not cloning considered as a reproductive option.

  4. Planetary Protection Considerations for Human And Robotic Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogul, R.; Stabekis, P. D.; Race, M. S.; Conley, C. A.

    2012-06-01

    Incorporating planetary protection into human missions, as supported by NASA Policy Directive NPD 8020.7G, is essential to preventing the forward contamination of Mars, ensuring astronaut health, and preventing backward contamination of Earth.

  5. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE CURRENT DIMENSIONS OF HUMAN TRAFFICK IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Caunic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on realizing a better understanding of the aspects and the conditions that facilitate human traffick in a full transition society, such as the Romanian society. To highlight the characteristics of human trafficking and the actual dimensions of this phenomenon in Romania, the paper used both quantitative methods involving interpretation of statistics compiled by the competent institutions and the qualitative research methods, involving the analysis of reports, articles or case studies presented in the literature.

  6. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  7. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  8. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  10. Design, recruitment, and microbiological considerations in human challenge studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Thomas C; Blohmke, Christoph J; Moorthy, Vasee S; Altmann, Daniel M; Hayden, Frederick G; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Levine, Myron M; Hill, Adrian V S; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-07-01

    Since the 18th century a wealth of knowledge regarding infectious disease pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment has been accumulated from findings of infection challenges in human beings. Partly because of improvements to ethical and regulatory guidance, human challenge studies-involving the deliberate exposure of participants to infectious substances-have had a resurgence in popularity in the past few years, in particular for the assessment of vaccines. To provide an overview of the potential use of challenge models, we present historical reports and contemporary views from experts in this type of research. A range of challenge models and practical approaches to generate important data exist and are used to expedite vaccine and therapeutic development and to support public health modelling and interventions. Although human challenge studies provide a unique opportunity to address complex research questions, participant and investigator safety is paramount. To increase the collaborative effort and future success of this area of research, we recommend the development of consensus frameworks and sharing of best practices between investigators. Furthermore, standardisation of challenge procedures and regulatory guidance will help with the feasibility for using challenge models in clinical testing of new disease intervention strategies.

  11. Human Factors Principles in Information Dashboard Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; St. Germain, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    When planning for control room upgrades, nuclear power plants have to deal with a multitude of engineering and operational impacts. This will inevitably include several human factors considerations, including physical ergonomics of workstations, viewing angles, lighting, seating, new communication requirements, and new concepts of operation. In helping nuclear power utilities to deal with these challenges, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed effective methods to manage the various phases of the upgrade life cycle. These methods focus on integrating human factors engineering processes with the plant’s systems engineering process, a large part of which is the development of end-state concepts for control room modernization. Such an end-state concept is a description of a set of required conditions that define the achievement of the plant’s objectives for the upgrade. Typically, the end-state concept describes the transition of a conventional control room, over time, to a facility that employs advanced digital automation technologies in a way that significantly improves system reliability, reduces human and control room-related hazards, reduces system and component obsolescence, and significantly improves operator performance. To make the various upgrade phases as concrete and as visible as possible, an end-state concept would include a set of visual representations of the control room before and after various upgrade phases to provide the context and a framework within which to consider the various options in the upgrade. This includes the various control systems, human-system interfaces to be replaced, and possible changes to operator workstations. This paper describes how this framework helps to ensure an integrated and cohesive outcome that is consistent with human factors engineering principles and also provide substantial improvement in operator performance. The paper further describes the application of this integrated approach in the

  12. Human Factors Issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    subtle leaders of fish schools. Pheromone trails also suggest a way to support human interaction as has been explored to a limited extent... Human Factors issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms Michael Lewis*, Michael Goodrich**, Katia Sycara+, Mark Steinberg++ * School of...Enabling a human to control such bio-inspired systems is a considerable challenge due to the limitations of each individual robot and the sheer

  13. Human Factors Analysis in Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ren-zuo; Ma Ruo-feng; Liu Li-na; Xiong Zhong-wei

    2004-01-01

    The general human factors analysis analyzes human functions, effects and influence in a system. But in a narrow sense, it analyzes human influence upon the reliability of a system, it includes traditional human reliability analysis, human error analysis, man-machine interface analysis, human character analysis, and others. A software development project in software engineering is successful or not to be completely determined by human factors. In this paper, we discuss the human factors intensions, declare the importance of human factors analysis for software engineering by listed some instances. At last, we probe preliminarily into the mentality that a practitioner in software engineering should possess.

  14. Design Considerations for Human Rating of Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I.Human-rating is specific to each engine; a. Context of program/project must be understood. b. Engine cannot be discussed independently from vehicle and mission. II. Utilize a logical combination of design, manufacturing, and test approaches a. Design 1) It is crucial to know the potential ways a system can fail, and how a failure can propagate; 2) Fault avoidance, fault tolerance, DFMR, caution and warning all have roles to play. b. Manufacturing and Assembly; 1) As-built vs. as-designed; 2) Review procedures for assembly and maintenance periodically; and 3) Keep personnel trained and certified. c. There is no substitute for test: 1) Analytical tools are constantly advancing, but still need test data for anchoring assumptions; 2) Demonstrate robustness and explore sensitivities; 3) Ideally, flight will be encompassed by ground test experience. III. Consistency and repeatability is key in production a. Maintain robust processes and procedures for inspection and quality control based upon development and qualification experience; b. Establish methods to "spot check" quality and consistency in parts: 1) Dedicated ground test engines; 2) Random components pulled from the line/lot to go through "enhanced" testing.

  15. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A

    2008-01-01

    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...

  16. Computer science security research and human subjects: emerging considerations for research ethics boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Elizabeth; Aycock, John; Dexter, Scott; Dittrich, David; Hvizdak, Erin

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the growing concerns with computer science research, and in particular, computer security research and its relationship with the committees that review human subjects research. It offers cases that review boards are likely to confront, and provides a context for appropriate consideration of such research, as issues of bots, clouds, and worms enter the discourse of human subjects review.

  17. Meeting Human Reliability Requirements through Human Factors Design, Testing, and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    In the design of novel systems, it is important for the human factors engineer to work in parallel with the human reliability analyst to arrive at the safest achievable design that meets design team safety goals and certification or regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the System Development Safety Triptych, a checklist of considerations for the interplay of human factors and human reliability through design, testing, and modeling in product development. This paper also explores three phases of safe system development, corresponding to the conception, design, and implementation of a system.

  18. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques; Clefton, Gordon; Joe, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  19. Is My Project's Truck Factor Low? Theoretical and Empirical Considerations About the Truck Factor Threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Torchiano, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The Truck Factor is a simple way, proposed by the agile community, to measure the system's knowledge distribution in a team of developers. It can be used to highlight potential project problems due to the inadequate distribution of the system knowledge. Notwithstanding its relevance, only few studies investigated the Truck Factor and proposed ways to efficiently measure, evaluate and use it. In particular, the effective use of the Truck Factor is limited by the lack of reliable thresholds. In...

  20. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, C.

    1995-03-01

    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  1. Human Factors Plan for Maritime Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES IN THE MARITIME ENVIRONMENT .............. 13 2. 1 DEFINITION OF HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES ........................ 13 2.2 CONTENT...The dotted line around the human factors technical basis in Figure 1 signifies that it needs to be developed. Safety data Accidents ) Definition of...and activity surveys, but met with some resistance from the ship personnel, and so little quntitative data was available from this study. Subjective

  2. The use of animal tissues alongside human tissue: Cultural and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, Anu; Jones, D Gareth; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and research facilities often use cadaveric material alongside animal tissues, although there appear to be differences in the way we handle, treat, and dispose of human cadaveric material compared to animal tissue. This study sought to analyze cultural and ethical considerations and provides policy recommendations on the use of animal tissues alongside human tissue. The status of human and animal remains and the respect because of human and animal tissues were compared and analyzed from ethical, legal, and cultural perspectives. The use of animal organs and tissues is carried out within the context of understanding human anatomy and function. Consequently, the interests of human donors are to be pre-eminent in any policies that are enunciated, so that if any donors find the presence of animal remains unacceptable, the latter should not be employed. The major differences appear to lie in differences in our perceptions of their respective intrinsic and instrumental values. Animals are considered to have lesser intrinsic value and greater instrumental value than humans. These differences stem from the role played by culture and ethical considerations, and are manifested in the resulting legal frameworks. In light of this discussion, six policy recommendations are proposed, encompassing the nature of consent, respect for animal tissues as well as human remains, and appropriate separation of both sets of tissues in preparation and display. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Human Factors in Nuclear Power Engineering in Polish Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaczmarek-Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Human factors in nuclear power engineering in Polish conditions” focuses on analysis of dynamics of preparing Polish society to build fi rst nuclear power plant in XXI century in Poland. Authors compare experience from constructing nuclear power plant Sizewell B (Great Britain and Sizewell C, which is in preparation phase with polish nuclear power program. Paper includes aspects e.g. of creating nuclear safety culture and social opinion about investment. Human factors in nuclear power engineering are as well important as relevant economical and technical factors, but very often negligible. In Poland where history about Czarnobyl is still alive, and social opinion is created on emotions after accident in Fukushima, human factors are crucial and should be under comprehensive consideration.

  4. Safety and the Human Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Discusses four elements of safety programs: (1) safety training; (2) safety inspections; (3) accident investigations; and (4) protective safety equipment. Also discusses safety considerations in water/wastewater treatment facilities focusing on falls, drowning hazards, trickling filters, confined space entry, collection/distribution system safety,…

  5. The Human Factor in SCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schorsch, Timm; Wallenburg, Carl Marcus; Wieland, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    their research to enhance its contribution. Practical implications Results from this research indicate that supply chain decisions benefit from explicit consideration for cognitive and social phenomena. Originality/value This review is the first to provide a comprehensive overview of the field of BSCM research...

  6. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David

    1991-01-01

    The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  7. Effects of dietary factors on energy regulation: Consideration of multiple- versus single-dietary-factor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    While short-term studies demonstrate consistent effects of dietary protein, fiber, glycemic index and energy density on energy intake, long-term effectiveness trials typically indicate small or non-significant effects of these dietary factors on long-term weight change. In consequence, most lifestyl...

  8. A Broad Consideration of Risk Factors in Pediatric Chronic Pain: Where to Go from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Hannah N.; Banez, Gerard A.

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric chronic pain is a significant problem associated with substantial functional impairment. A variety of risk factors have been found to be associated with chronic pain in youth. The greatest amount of evidence appears to support that temperament, anxiety, depression, subjective experience of stress, passive coping strategies, sleep problems, other somatic-related problems, and parent and/or family factors are important variables. However, a great deal of this research focuses on a single risk factor or on multiple risk factors in isolation. Much of the literature utilizes older diagnostic criteria and would benefit from replication, larger sample sizes, and comparison across pain disorders. Problems also exist with disagreement across definitions, resulting in inconsistency or unclear use of terms. Furthermore, recent consideration has suggested that outcome measures should include functional disability in addition to pain. A second generation of research is needed to shed light on the complex interactions that likely play a role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Building on recent calls for changes in research in this area, we propose the next steps for this research, which involve consideration of both biopsychosocial and developmental contexts. PMID:27916884

  9. A Broad Consideration of Risk Factors in Pediatric Chronic Pain: Where to Go from Here?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N. McKillop

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric chronic pain is a significant problem associated with substantial functional impairment. A variety of risk factors have been found to be associated with chronic pain in youth. The greatest amount of evidence appears to support that temperament, anxiety, depression, subjective experience of stress, passive coping strategies, sleep problems, other somatic-related problems, and parent and/or family factors are important variables. However, a great deal of this research focuses on a single risk factor or on multiple risk factors in isolation. Much of the literature utilizes older diagnostic criteria and would benefit from replication, larger sample sizes, and comparison across pain disorders. Problems also exist with disagreement across definitions, resulting in inconsistency or unclear use of terms. Furthermore, recent consideration has suggested that outcome measures should include functional disability in addition to pain. A second generation of research is needed to shed light on the complex interactions that likely play a role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Building on recent calls for changes in research in this area, we propose the next steps for this research, which involve consideration of both biopsychosocial and developmental contexts.

  10. A Broad Consideration of Risk Factors in Pediatric Chronic Pain: Where to Go from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Hannah N; Banez, Gerard A

    2016-11-30

    Pediatric chronic pain is a significant problem associated with substantial functional impairment. A variety of risk factors have been found to be associated with chronic pain in youth. The greatest amount of evidence appears to support that temperament, anxiety, depression, subjective experience of stress, passive coping strategies, sleep problems, other somatic-related problems, and parent and/or family factors are important variables. However, a great deal of this research focuses on a single risk factor or on multiple risk factors in isolation. Much of the literature utilizes older diagnostic criteria and would benefit from replication, larger sample sizes, and comparison across pain disorders. Problems also exist with disagreement across definitions, resulting in inconsistency or unclear use of terms. Furthermore, recent consideration has suggested that outcome measures should include functional disability in addition to pain. A second generation of research is needed to shed light on the complex interactions that likely play a role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Building on recent calls for changes in research in this area, we propose the next steps for this research, which involve consideration of both biopsychosocial and developmental contexts.

  11. Quantifying Risk Factors for Human Brucellosis in Rural Northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kunda John; Julie Fitzpatrick; Nigel French; Rudovick Kazwala; Dominic Kambarage; Mfinanga, Godfrey S; Alastair MacMillan; Sarah Cleaveland

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission...

  12. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  13. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-01-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  14. Human factors in healthcare level one

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenorn-Lanng, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    The majority of errors, litigation, and complaints in the health service are due to 'human factors', yet the term is still not widely understood and is sometimes used interchangeably to refer to team training or communication skills. Although including these, the subject of 'human factors' goes far beyond this to look at systems, environmental influences, and interactions with equipment, in addition to self-awareness and human interaction. All of these aspects are captured inHuman Factors in Healthcare and are built into a new framework: the SHEEP model, which breaks down into five key areas:

  15. Switching clotting factor concentrates: considerations in estimating the risk of immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matino, D; Lillicrap, D; Astermark, J; Dolan, G; Kessler, C; Lambert, T; Makris, M; O'Donnell, J; Pipe, S; Santagostino, E; Saint-Remy, J-M; Schramm, W; Iorio, A

    2014-03-01

    The development of neutralizing antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) is the most serious complication of therapy for haemophilia A. There is now excellent documentation that a large number of both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk of FVIII inhibitor incidence. One of the environmental factors that has been proposed as an influence on this complication is the occurrence of FVIII product switching. There are only a small number of clinical studies that have addressed this question, and thus, the amount of objective information available to assess this association is limited. In this review, in addition to summarizing past evidence pertinent to this subject, we present the results of a complementary strategy, a Delphi analysis, to add to the considerations of product switching and FVIII immunogenicity. With the imminent arrival in the clinic of several new FVIII products, the haemophilia community must be prepared to collect prospectively controlled data to better address this important management issue.

  16. Ethical Considerations in Mandatory Disclosure of Data Acquired While Caring for Human Trafficking Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Patrick L; Dash, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Accurate data on the prevalence and psychological effects of human trafficking as well as treatment outcomes for survivors are essential for measuring the impact of interventions and generating better understanding of this phenomenon. However, such data are difficult to obtain. A legal mandate for health care professionals to report trafficking opens opportunities for advancing our work in the field of human trafficking but also poses risks to survivors seeking services. In this article, we provide an analysis of some critical ethical considerations for the development and implementation of a mandatory reporting policy and offer recommendations for the ethical implementation of such a policy.

  17. Human factors and simulation in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Emily M; Wong, Ambrose H; Ackerman, Jeremy; Sande, Margaret K; Lei, Charles; Kobayashi, Leo; Cassara, Michael; Cooper, Dylan D; Perry, Kimberly; Lewandowski, William E; Scerbo, Mark W

    2017-09-19

    This consensus group from the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference "Catalyzing System Change through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes" held in Orlando, Florida on May 16, 2017 focused on the use of human factors and simulation in the field of emergency medicine. The human factors discipline is often underutilized within emergency medicine but has significant potential in improving the interface between technologies and individuals in the field. The discussion explored the domain of human factors, its benefits in medicine, how simulation can be a catalyst for human factors work in emergency medicine, and how emergency medicine can collaborate with human factors professionals to affect change. Implementing human factors in emergency medicine through healthcare simulation will require a demonstration of clinical and safety outcomes, advocacy to stakeholders and administrators, and establishment of structured collaborations between human factors professionals and emergency medicine, such as in this breakout group. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Fundamentals of systems ergonomics/human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomics/human factors is, above anything else, a systems discipline and profession, applying a systems philosophy and systems approaches. Many things are labelled as system in today's world, and this paper specifies just what attributes and notions define ergonomics/human factors in systems terms. These are obviously a systems focus, but also concern for context, acknowledgement of interactions and complexity, a holistic approach, recognition of emergence and embedding of the professional effort involved within organization system. These six notions are illustrated with examples from a large body of work on rail human factors.

  19. Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L

    2011-01-01

    The Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design covers basic human factors issues relating to screen design, input devices, and information organization and processing, as well as addresses newer features which will become prominent in the next generation of Web technologies. These include multimodal interfaces, wireless capabilities, and agents that can improve convenience and usability. Written by leading researchers and/or practitioners in the field, this volume reflects the varied backgrounds and interests of individuals involved in all aspects of human factors and Web design and includes chap

  20. Selecting measures for human factors research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantowitz, B H

    1992-08-01

    Selecting measures is a necessary component of human factors research. Proper selection must take into account the representation problem (how is the assignment of numbers to objects or phenomena justified?) and the uniqueness problem (to what degree is this assignment unique?). Other key human factors measurement issues include subject representativeness, variable representativeness, and setting representativeness. It is difficult to create a single measure that captures essential characteristics of complex systems. Several examples illustrate how theory can guide measurement selection in such diverse human factors research as vigilance, turning off warning alarms, information requirements for military command centers, subjective workload, heart-rate signal analysis, and heat stress in nuclear power plants.

  1. Study on Angiogenesis Factor of Human Osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Angiogenesis factor of human osteosarcoma was partially purified and its biological features were studied. The active peptide with 8000 to 10 000 u molecular weight in the conditioned medium obtained from the cultivation of human osteosarcoma cells were partially purified by ultrafiltration, chromatography and dialysis. The angiogenic effects of the fractions were assessed by proliferation assay of human umbilical vein and pig aorta thoracic endothelial cells. The results showed that the chromatography fractions of 4 to 6 could significantly promote the proliferation of the endothelial cells. It was suggested that the human osteosarcoma cells could synthesize and secrete angiogenesis factor with a molecular weight of 8000 to 10 000 u.

  2. Human factors and information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    Key problem areas in the management and transfer of information in the National Airspace System, contributing to human errors are identified. Information-management aspects supporting the user's ability to assess prevailing situations accurately with adequate time to make an informed decision are considered. The relationship between judgment biases and requirements for managing weather information is illustrated by examining such hazardous weather phenomena as microbursts and windshears. The system of air-ground communication relying almost exclusively on voice transmissions is discussed, and recommendations in the areas of communications procedures and technology development are provided.

  3. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  4. [SOME CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE INTRINSIC VALUE OF THE IMPACT FACTOR OF SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-López, Ángeles; González-Gallego, Javier; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Tuñón, María Jesús; García-De-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-12-01

    The reason of higher number of citations of some articles is discussed. Some considerations about the journals' impact factor, its merits and its pitfalls are also made. Scientific journals' impact factor, popularized by the Institute for Scientific Information, has become an objective parameter for authors' evaluation and also for institutions and other related circumstances. There is no reason for the impact factor's gap between some English journals and those written in other languages. English journals probably benefit of the "Mathew's effect", according to which eminent scientists are more rewarded by similar contributions than others less known. It is paradoxical that most of the major achievements of our age do not appear among the 100 most cited articles. There is no homogeneity among all the articles appearing in each scientific journal: half of the articles are cited ten times more than the other half. However, those articles cited 0 times are credited like the better ones. Each article should be evaluated by its own citations, which would be its impact factor; the authors should be evaluated by their H index.

  5. Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    user’s location and then per- forming the (cognitive) task of Mark A. Livingston Naval Research Laboratory Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality ...00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...the basis for situation awareness or—in combina- tion with visual cues—a navigation task. Tactile tasks. Via haptic devices, we can apply vir- tual

  6. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Space Human Factors: Research to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Human Factors has been instrumental in preventing potential on-orbit hazards and increasing overall crew safety. Poor performance & operational learning curves on-orbit are mitigated. Human-centered design is applied to optimize design and minimize potentially hazardous conditions, especially with larger crew sizes and habitat constraints. Lunar and Mars requirements and design developments are enhanced, based on ISS Lessons Learned.

  8. Considerations of human inturison in U.S. programs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Regulations in the United States that govern the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories require the explicit consideration of hypothetical future human intrusions that disrupt the waste. Specific regulatory requirements regarding the consideration of human intrusion differ in the two sets of regulations currently in effect in the United States; one defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 197, applied only to the formerly proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the other defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 191, applied to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and potentially applicable to any repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States other than the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This report reviews the regulatory requirements relevant to human intrusion and the approaches taken by the Department of Energy to demonstrating compliance with those requirements.

  9. Research on disaster prevention by human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Kang, Sun Duck; Jo, Young Do [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Mining, by its very nature, requires workers and technology to function in an unpredictable environment that can not easily be engineered to accommodate human factors. Miners' physical and cognitive capabilities are sometimes stretched to the point that 'human error' in performance result. Mine safety researchers estimate that 50-85% of all mining injuries are due, in large part, to human error. Further research suggests that the primary causes of these errors in performance lie outside the individual and can be minimized by improvements in equipment design, work environments, work procedures and training. The human factors research is providing the science needed to determine which aspects of the mining environment can be made more worker-friendly and how miners can work more safely in environments that can not be improved. Underground mines have long been recognized as an innately hazardous and physically demanding work environment. Recently, mining is becoming a more complicated process as more sophisticated technologies are introduced. The more complicated or difficult the tasks to be performed, the more critical it is to have a systematic understanding of the humans, the technology, the environments, and how they interact. Human factors is a key component in solving most of today's mine safety and health problems. Human factors research primarily centered around solving problems in the following four areas: 1) How mining methods and equipment affect safety, 2) Evaluating the fit between miner's physical capabilities and the demands of their job, 3) Improving miner's ability to perceive and react to hazards, 4) Understanding how organizational and managerial variables influence safety. Human factor research was begun during the World war II. National Coal Board (British Coal) of Great Britain commenced ergonomics in 1969, and Bureau of Mine of United States started human factor researches in same year. Japan has very short history

  10. Computer Programs for Prediction of Mining Area Deformation with Time Factor Taken into Consideration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discussed the current of works on computerisation of all problems related to mining subsidence, including the time factor,carried out in the Division of Mining Geodesy of Technical University of Silesia, Poland. First, the formulas implemented in the programs were presented. These formulas considerably increase the description accuracy of final deformations by taking into uncaved strip along extraction rib (extraction margin). They also improve the deformation description of areas located far from the extraction place. Then, the research results aiming to improving the description of deformation with time were introduced. Finally, the Windows-based version of the program for the creation of mining-geological opinions were presented in the form accepted by Mining Offices of Poland.

  11. Human engineering design considerations for the use of signal color enhancement in ASW displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.W.

    1990-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was requested to examine and define man-machine limits as part of the Office of Naval Technology's High Gain Initiative program (HGI). As an initial investigative area, LLNL's Systems and Human Performance effort focused upon color display interfaces and the use of color enhancement techniques to define human and system interface limits in signal detection and discrimination tasks. The knowledgeable and prudent use of color in different types of display is believed to facilitate human visual detection, discrimination and recognition in complex visual tasks. The consideration and understanding of the complex set of interacting variables associated with the prudent use of color is essential to optimize human performance, especially in the ASW community. The designers of advanced display technology and signal processing algorithms may be eventually called upon to present pre-processed information to ASW operators and researchers using the latest color enhancement techniques. These techniques, however, may be limited if one does not understand the complexity and limits of human information processing which reflects the assessed state of knowledge relevant to the use of color in displays. The initial sections of this report discuss various aspects of color presentation and the problems typically encountered, while the last section deals with a specific research proposal required to further our understanding and proper use of color enhancement methods.

  12. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  13. Space nuclear power: technology, policy, and risk considerations in human missions to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedensen, V P

    1998-01-01

    There is a large discrepancy between potential needs for nuclear propulsion and power systems for the human exploration of Mars and the current status of R&D funding, public opinion, and governmental support for these technologies. Mission planners and spacecraft designers, energized by the recent claims of possible discovery of life on Mars and responding to increased public interest in the human exploration of Mars, frequently propose nuclear reactors and radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for interplanetary spacecraft propulsion and for power supply on the surface of Mars. These plans and designs typically assume that reactors will be available "on-the-shelf," and do not take the extensive R&D costs required to develop such reactors into consideration. However, it is likely that current U.S. policies, if unchanged, will prohibit the launch of nuclear reactors and large RTGs in response to a perceived risk by the public.

  14. Biotechnology and law: biotechnology patents. Special considerations on the inventions with human material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    The EC and the US differ considerably in their ruling on the patentability of biotechnological inventions apart from some exceptions. The most extreme positions in either direction with regard to the individual biotechnological inventions mark the margins of the scope which the WTO members may use for the ratification of Art. 27 TRIPS. Rulings which are not in accordance with Art. 27 TRIPS remain without consideration. In the most important point both WTO member agree: Human beings are not patentable. Other regulations could be considered, but one may assume that no member of the WTO intends to make use thereof. Thus the scope involving this option is only a theoretical one. The situation is different when it comes to the components of the human body. These may, provided they are produced artificially or are separated from the human body, be patented. According to the regulations in the US, this applies to all components with the exception of totipotent stem cells. They may be exempted from patenting entirely or their patenting is linked to far reaching conditions. As an example should be named here the regulation of the EPA for patenting gene sequences. The scope of this area is, thus, very great and allows for many options of applying the regulations of Art. 27 TRIPS. With regard to patenting procedures for cloning human beings, the scope is unlimited. These procedures may either be completely excluded from patenting as in the EC or may be considered patentable independent of their purpose as in the US. The same applies to procedures for gathering human stem cells in the US. Exempting procedures with regard to human genes or DNA sequences are, however, only possible in special cases, as for example in the EC with regard to procedures for altering the genetic identity of the germline of human beings. However, the interpretation of general patentability preconditions allows to influence the patenting of such procedures. This means, though, that the scope for

  15. Human Health and Performance Considerations for Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will describe the human health and performance issues that are anticipated for the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEA). Humans are considered a system in the design of any such deep-space exploration mission, and exploration of NEA presents unique challenges for the human system. Key factors that define the mission are those that are strongly affected by distance and duration. The most critical of these is deep-space radiation exposure without even the temporary shielding of a nearby large planetary body. The current space radiation permissible exposure limits (PEL) restrict mission duration to 3-10 months depending on age and gender of crewmembers and stage of the solar cycle. Factors that affect mission architecture include medical capability; countermeasures for bone, muscle, and cardiovascular atrophy during continuous weightlessness; restricted food supplies; and limited habitable volume. The design of a habitat that can maintain the physical and psychological health of the crew and support mission operations with limited intervention from Earth will require an integrated research and development effort by NASA s Human Research Program, engineering, and human factors groups. Limited abort and return options for an NEA mission are anticipated to have important effects on crew psychology as well as influence medical supplies and training requirements of the crew. Other important factors are those related to isolation, confinement, communication delays, autonomous operations, task design, small crew size, and even the unchanging view outside the windows for most of the mission. Geological properties of the NEA will influence design of sample handling and containment, and extravehicular activity capabilities including suit ports and tools. A robotic precursor mission that collects basic information on NEA surface properties would reduce uncertainty about these aspects of the mission as well as aid in design of mission architecture and

  16. Considerations on nonclinical approaches to modeling risk factors of suicidal ideation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goody, S M G; Cannon, K E; Liu, M; Kallman, M J; Martinolle, J P; Mazelin-Winum, L; Giarola, A; Ardayfio, P; Moyer, J A; Teuns, G; Hudzik, T J

    2017-10-01

    Given the serious nature of suicidal ideation and behavior (SIB) and the possibility of treatment-emergent SIB, pharmaceutical companies are now applying more proactive approaches in clinical trials and are considering the value of nonclinical models to predict SIB. The current review summarizes nonclinical approaches to modeling three common risk factors associated with SIB: aggression, impulsivity, and anhedonia. For each risk factor, a general description, advantages and disadvantages, species considerations, nonclinical to clinical translation, and pharmacological validation with respect to treatments associated with SIB are summarized. From this review, several gaps were identified that need to be addressed before use of these nonclinical models can be considered a viable option to predict the relative risk for SIB. Other future directions that may compliment these nonclinical approaches, including the use of selectively-bred or genetically-modified rodent models, transgenic models, gene expression profiling, and biomarker analysis, are discussed. This article was developed with the support of the DruSafe Leadership Group of the International Consortium for Innovation and Quality in Pharmaceutical Development (IQ, www.iqconsortium.org). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Factors and IT Competitive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the system of relationships that may explain the impact of information technology (IT on competitive advantage. In this social and economic system, the study focuses on the human factors that play a key role in IT effectiveness. This is a first step to empirically specifying which human resources can complement the effect of IT on organizations. The paper revisits the main theoretical frameworks that can explain the research issue and proposes an empirical model to test the hypotheses. The results, obtained from a Data Envelopment Analysis, show that there are some human factors that positively affect the influence of IT utilization on competitive advantage. Nevertheless, other structural, industrial and internal factors may play an important role in the relationship.

  18. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  19. Factors controlling inter-catchment variation of mean transit time with consideration of temporal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenchao; Yamanaka, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    The catchment transit time, a lumped descriptor reflecting both time scale and spatial structure of catchment hydrology can provide useful insights into chemical/nuclear pollution risks within a catchment. Despite its importance, factors controlling spatial variation of mean transit time (MTT) are not yet well understood. In this study, we estimated time-variant MTTs for about ten years (2003-2012) in five mesoscale sub-catchments of the Fuji River catchment, central Japan, to establish the factors controlling their inter-catchment variation with consideration of temporal variability. For this purpose, we employed a lumped hydrological model that was calibrated and validated by hydrometric and isotopic tracer observations. Temporal variation patterns of estimated MTT were similar in all sub-catchments, but with differing amplitudes. Inter-catchment variation of MTT was greater in dry periods than wet periods, suggesting spatial variation of MTT is controlled by water 'stock' rather than by 'flow'. Although the long-term average MTT (LAMTT) in each catchment was correlated with mean slope, coverage of forest (or conversely, other land use types), coverage of sand-shale conglomerate, and groundwater storage, the multiple linear regression revealed that inter-catchment variation of LAMTT is principally controlled by the amount of groundwater storage. This is smaller in mountainous areas covered mostly by forests and greater in plain areas with less forest coverage and smaller slope. This study highlights the topographic control of MTT via groundwater storage, which might be a more important factor in mesoscale catchments, including both mountains and plains, rather than in smaller catchments dominated by mountainous topography.

  20. Information sciences and human factors overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee B.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of program objectives of the Information Sciences and Human Factors Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the organizational structure, goals, the research and technology base, telerobotics, systems autonomy in space operations, space sensors, humans in space, space communications, space data systems, transportation vehicle guidance and control, spacecraft control, and major program directions in space.

  1. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-09-30

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

  2. Human factors issues in the design of stereo-rendered photorealistic objects: a stereoscopic Turing test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Collin D.; Clewlow, John C.; Kessel, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    We present visual acuity metrics, human factors issues, and technical considerations in the construction of a stereorendered reality test in the spirit of the Turing test, Alan Turing's famous artificial intelligence test designed to explore the boundaries between human and machine interaction. The overall aim of this work is to provide guiding principles in the design of a stereoscopic reality test.

  3. Human Factors Problems of the Command, Control, and Communication Process in the 1990’s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-14

    generally not received adequate consideration in the literature to allow accurate discrimination of the determinants or consequences of several human... discrimination . 10. (-) Ability to learn or remember. 1-3 11. (+) Unwillingness to take risks. 12. (+) Tendency to partially compensate...and Terwilliger, 1962; Milburn, 1963; Moffitt and Stagner, 1956; Rokcach, I960; Tajfel , 1969. 1-6 HUMAN FACTOR; MEMORY (C2

  4. Human genetic factors in tuberculosis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tong, Hoang; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Thye, Thorsten; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat to human health, especially in many developing countries. Human genetic variability has been recognised to be of great relevance in host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and in regulating both the establishment and the progression of the disease. An increasing number of candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have focused on human genetic factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to TB. To update previous reviews on human genetic factors in TB we searched the MEDLINE database and PubMed for articles from 1 January 2014 through 31 March 2017 and reviewed the role of human genetic variability in TB. Search terms applied in various combinations were 'tuberculosis', 'human genetics', 'candidate gene studies', 'genome-wide association studies' and 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis'. Articles in English retrieved and relevant references cited in these articles were reviewed. Abstracts and reports from meetings were also included. This review provides a recent summary of associations of polymorphisms of human genes with susceptibility/resistance to TB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES IN HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room. Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  6. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon

    1997-07-01

    New human factors issues, such as evaluation of information navigation, the consideration of operator characteristics, and operator performance assessment, related to the HMI design based on VDUs are being risen. Thus, in order to solve these human factors issues, this project aims to establish the experimental technologies including the techniques for experimental design, experimental measurement, data collection and analysis, and to develop ITF (Integrated Test Facility) suitable for the experiment of HMI design evaluation. For the establish of the experimental data analysis and evaluation methodologies, we developed as the following: (1) a paradigm for human factors experimentation including experimental designs, procedures, and data analysis. (2) the methods for the assessment of operator`s mental workload (3) DAEXESS (data analysis and experiment evaluation supporting system). Also, we have established a experiment execution technologies through the preliminary experiments, such as the suitability evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of computerized operation procedure and an experiment of advanced alarm system (ADIOS). Finally, we developed the ITF including human machine simulator, telemetry system, an eye tracking system, an audio/video data measurement system, and three dimensional micro behaviour analysis system. (author). 81 refs., 68 tabs., 73 figs.

  7. Runway Incursion: Human Factors In Runway Incursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    R. S., & Harbeson, M. M. (1981). Effects of Extended Practice on Dual-Task Tracking Performance. Human Factors, 23(5), 627- 631. David , H. (1997...investigated, and test results obtained from the installation at Long Beach airport. Edwards, V., Daskalakis, A. C., Oswald, L. J., Brading , J

  8. Animal Farm: Considerations in Animal Gastrointestinal Physiology and Relevance to Drug Delivery in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Grace B; Yadav, Vipul; Basit, Abdul W; Merchant, Hamid A

    2015-09-01

    "All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others" was the illustrious quote derived from British writer George Orwell's famed work, Animal Farm. Extending beyond the remit of political allegory, however, this statement would appear to hold true for the selection of appropriate animal models to simulate human physiology in preclinical studies. There remain definite gaps in our current knowledge with respect to animal physiology, notably those of intra- and inter-species differences in gastrointestinal (GI) function, which may affect oral drug delivery and absorption. Factors such as cost and availability have often influenced the choice of animal species without clear justification for their similarity to humans, and lack of standardization in techniques employed in past studies using various animals may also have contributed to the generation of contradictory results. As it stands, attempts to identify a single animal species as appropriately representative of human physiology and which may able to adequately simulate human in vivo conditions are limited. In this review, we have compiled and critically reviewed data from numerous studies of GI anatomy and physiology of various animal species commonly used in drug delivery modeling, commenting on the appropriateness of these animals for in vivo comparison and extrapolation to humans.

  9. Military suicide: factors that need to be taken into consideration to understand the phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José R; Quiñones-Maldonado, Randy; Alvarado-Pomales, Awilda

    2009-01-01

    Soldier suicide rates, unfortunately, continue to rise in our military services. It is well known that military personnel are highly vulnerable to multiple psychopathologies due to a lack of social support system, traumatizing life events and deprived sense of control. Serious psychopathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorders, other anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder) and depression may increase the risk of suicide. In addition, malingering may be a serious problem that can affect valid treatment due to an intentional production of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by external incentive such as avoiding military duty or obtaining financial compensation. Moreover, Hispanic soldiers may be at a higher risk for such psychopathologies due to extreme marginalization conditions by military peers, lack of bilingual language management and discrimination that can severely affect their quality of life. Thus, it is important to recognize those problems in order to prevent them. Literature demonstrate that Primary Preventive Interventions (PPI) can help to reduce the incidence of psychiatric disorders due to an early identification of the mental conditions associate to serious outcome, such as suicide. Taking the previous factors into consideration, the relevant literature pertaining suicidality in service members and the mental disorders associated with it is reviewed. Furthermore, emphasis is made in the importance to develop and validate a battery of screening instruments that address the previous conditions in the military personnel, especially in the Hispanic/Latino soldier and/or veteran as future plans of interventions. This implies the creation, adaptation and administration of a Psychological Battery that will be culturally sensitive for Hispanic/Latino soldiers in which the screening of the previously mentioned pathologies and conditions can be identified. This may help to prevent serious

  10. Where's the emotion? How sport psychology can inform research on emotion in human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.

  11. Human factors programs for high-level radioactive waste handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Human Factors is the discipline concerned with the acquisition of knowledge about human capabilities and limitations, and the application of such knowledge to the design of systems. This paper discusses the range of human factors issues relevant to high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) management systems and, based on examples from other organizations, presents mechanisms through which to assure application of such expertise in the safe, efficient, and effective management and disposal of high-level waste. Additionally, specific attention is directed toward consideration of who might be classified as a human factors specialist, why human factors expertise is critical to the success of the HLRW management system, and determining when human factors specialists should become involved in the design and development process.

  12. [Human factors and crisis resource management: improving patient safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, M; Oberfrank, S

    2013-10-01

    A continuing high number of patients suffer harm from medical treatment. In 60-70% of the cases the sources of harm can be attributed to the field of human factors (HFs) and teamwork; nevertheless, those topics are still neither part of medical education nor of basic and advanced training even though it has been known for many years and it has meanwhile also been demonstrated for surgical specialties that training in human factors and teamwork considerably reduces surgical mortality.Besides the medical field, the concept of crisis resource management (CRM) has already proven its worth in many other industries by improving teamwork and reducing errors in the domain of human factors. One of the best ways to learn about CRM and HFs is realistic simulation team training with well-trained instructors in CRM and HF. The educational concept of the HOTT (hand over team training) courses for trauma room training offered by the DGU integrates these elements based on the current state of science. It is time to establish such training for all medical teams in emergency medicine and operative care. Accompanying safety measures, such as the development of a positive culture of safety in every department and the use of effective critical incident reporting systems (CIRs) should be pursued.

  13. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  14. MARINE ACCIDENTS RESEARCHED THROUGH HUMAN FACTOR PRISMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav M Ćorović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We are aware of a large number of marine accidents that result in numerous casualties and even deaths and substantial negative environmental effects. The objective of this paper is to indicate factors that contribute to human errors which is identified as the most frequent cause to marine accidents. Despite rapid technological development and safety legislation, this paper identifies the human factor as the waekest link in maritime safety system. This analysis could lead to decrease of vessel accidents. In addition, starting from the European Maritime Safety Agency data and by linear regression model application, we have obtained the trend of number of ships involved in marine accidents as well as the trend of lives lost in marine accidents  in and around European Union waters.

  15. Human factors in aircraft maintenance and inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, William T.

    1992-01-01

    The events which have led to the intensive study of aircraft structural problems have contributed in no less measure to the study of human factors which influence aircraft maintenance and inspection. Initial research emphasis on aging aircraft maintenance and inspection has since broadened to include all aircraft types. Technicians must be equally adept at repairing old and new aircraft. Their skills must include the ability to repair sheet metal and composite materials; control cable and fly-by-wire systems; round dials and glass cockpits. Their work performance is heavily influenced by others such as designers, technical writers, job card authors, schedulers, and trainers. This paper describes the activities concerning aircraft and maintenance human factors.

  16. Canadian Ranger Rifle: Human Factors Requirements Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    nation building through programs such as the Junior Canadian Rangers ( JCR )6. Other tasks of the CR include providing local expertise, guidance, and...Requirements FN Fabrique Nationale HF Human Factors HSI Humansystems® Incorporated JCR Junior Canadian Rangers MOTS Military off the Shelf NATO...support the Junior Canadian Rangers ( JCR ) Program, which helps to achieve national and territorial goals through nation building. DEFICIENCY

  17. HSE management excellence: a Human Factors approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Theobald

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Present work discusses the integration of Human Factors in Health, Safety and Enviroment(HSE Management System allowing it as a way of checking the progress obtained, therebyminimizing the efforts and maximizing the result. A bibliographical research was carried outon the theoretical elements of the theme. As a result of this work, a proposal “conceptualstructure” for the integration of “Humais Factors” with the HSE management system ofAssociation of Oil & Gas Produces was presented.

  18. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    AA NUREG -0711,Rev. 2 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model 20081009191 I i m To] Bi U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of...Material As of November 1999, you may electronically access NUREG -series publications and other NRC records at NRC’s Public Electronic Reading Room at...http://www.nrc.qov/readinq-rm.html. Publicly released records include, to name a few, NUREG -series publications; Federal Register notices; applicant

  19. Human factors by descent energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes some of the results of a human factors study of energy management during descent using standard aircraft displays. Discussions with pilots highlighted the practical constraints involved and the techniques (algorithms) used to accomplish the descent. The advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms are examined with respect to workload and their sensitivity to disturbances. Vertical navigation and flight performance computers are discussed in terms of the information needed for effective pilot monitoring and takeover

  20. Addressing Human Factors Gaps in Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    network attack graphs. Paper presented at the IEEE Workshop on Visualization for Computer Security , Minneapolis, MN. Roberts, J.C. (2007). State of...Cyber security is a high-ranking national priority that is only likely to grow as we become more dependent on cyber systems. From a research perspective...Cyber security , cyber operations, human factors 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 5 19a

  1. Human factors for a sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Current human activities are seriously eroding the ability of natural and social systems to cope. Clearly we cannot continue along our current path without seriously damaging our own ability to survive as a species. This problem is usually framed as one of sustainability. As concerned professionals, citizens, and humans there is a strong collective will to address what we see as a failure to protect the natural and social environments that supports us. While acknowledging that we cannot do this alone, human factors and ergonomics needs to apply its relevant skills and knowledge to assist where it can in addressing the commonly identified problem areas. These problems include pollution, climate change, renewable energy, land transformation, and social unrest amongst numerous other emerging global problems. The issue of sustainability raises two fundamental questions for human factors and ergonomics: which system requires sustaining and what length of time is considered sustainable? In this paper we apply Wilson (2014) parent-sibling-child model to understanding what is required of an HFE sustainability response. This model is used to frame the papers that appear in this Special Issue.

  2. Space Station crew safety - Human factors model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this Space Station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  3. Human epidermal growth factor and the proliferation of human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, G; Cohen, S

    1976-06-01

    The effect of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), a 5,400 molecular weight polypeptide isolated from human urine, on the growth of human foreskin fibroblasts (HF cells) was studied by measuring cell numbers and the incorporation of labeled thymidine. The addition of hEGF to HF cells growing in a medium containing 10% calf serum resulted in a 4-fold increase in the final density. The presence of hEGF also promoted the growth of HF cells in media containing either 1% calf serum or 10% gamma globulin-free serum. The addition of hEGF to quiescent confluent monolayers of HF cells, maintained in a medium with 1% calf serum for 48 hours, resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in the amount of 3H-thymidine incorporation after 20-24 hours. The stimulation of thymidine incorporation was maximal at an hEGF concentration of 2 ng/ml, was dependent on the presence of serum, and was enhanced by the addition of ascorbic acid. In confluent cultures of HF cells, subject to density dependent inhibition of growth, hEGF was able to stimulate DNA synthesis more effectively than fresh calf serum. Human EGF stimulated DNA synthesis in quiescent cultures, however, regardless of cell density. The addition of rabbit anti-hEGF inhibited all effects of this growth factor on HF cells.

  4. Neuroethical considerations: cognitive liberty and converging technologies for improving human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sententia, Wrye

    2004-05-01

    Developers of NBIC (Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno) technologies face a multitude of obstacles, not the least of which is navigating the public ethics of their applied research. Biotechnologies have received widespread media attention and spawned heated interest in their perceived social implications. Now, in view of the rapidly expanding purview of neuroscience and the growing array of technologic developments capable of affecting or monitoring cognition, the emerging field of neuroethics calls for a consideration of the social and ethical implications of neuroscientific discoveries and trends. To negotiate the complex ethical issues at stake in new and emerging kinds of technologies for improving human cognition, we need to overcome political, disciplinary, and religious sectarianism. We need analytical models that protect values of personhood at the heart of a functional democracy-values that allow, as much as possible, for individual decision-making, despite transformations in our understanding and ability to manipulate cognitive processes. Addressing cognitive enhancement from the legal and ethical notion of "cognitive liberty" provides a powerful tool for assessing and encouraging NBIC developments.

  5. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  6. Human reliability, error, and human factors in power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, B S

    2014-01-01

    Human reliability, error, and human factors in the area of power generation have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Each year billions of dollars are spent in the area of power generation to design, construct/manufacture, operate, and maintain various types of power systems around the globe, and such systems often fail due to human error. This book compiles various recent results and data into one volume, and eliminates the need to consult many diverse sources to obtain vital information.  It enables potential readers to delve deeper into a specific area, providing the source of most of the material presented in references at the end of each chapter. Examples along with solutions are also provided at appropriate places, and there are numerous problems for testing the reader’s comprehension.  Chapters cover a broad range of topics, including general methods for performing human reliability and error analysis in power plants, specific human reliability analysis methods for nuclear power pl...

  7. Microenvironmental considerations in the application of human mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Greco

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Steven J Greco1, Pranela Rameshwar21Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences; 2Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USAAbstract: The therapeutic utilization of stem cells has been ongoing for several decades, principally in the form of bone marrow (BM transplants to treat various hematological disorders and other immune-related diseases. More recently, stem cells have been examined as a potential therapy for a multitude of other diseases and disorders, many of which are currently untreatable. One consideration that poses a formidable task for the successful clinical application of stem cells in new disease models is the impact of the host tissue microenvironment on the desired therapeutic outcome. In vitro, stem cells exist in surroundings directly controllable by the researcher to produce the desired cellular behavior. In vivo, the transplanted cells are exposed to a dynamic host microenvironment laden with soluble mediators and immunoreactive cells. In this review, we focus on the possible contribution by microenvironmental factors, and how these influences can be overcome in therapies utilizing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, such as for graft versus host disease, multiple sclerosis and ischemia among others. Specifically, we examine three ubiquitous microenvironmental factors, IL-1α/β, TNFα, and SDF-1α, and consider how inhibitors and receptor antagonists to these molecules could be applied to increase the efficacy of MSC therapies while minimizing unforeseen harm to the patient.Keywords: cytokine, microenvironment, mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow

  8. Human factors engineering program review model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  9. Architecture of human translation initiation factor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol-Audi, Jordi; Sun, Chaomin; Vogan, Jacob M; Smith, M Duane; Gu, Yu; Cate, Jamie H D; Nogales, Eva

    2013-06-04

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) plays a central role in protein synthesis by organizing the formation of the 43S preinitiation complex. Using genetic tag visualization by electron microscopy, we reveal the molecular organization of ten human eIF3 subunits, including an octameric core. The structure of eIF3 bears a close resemblance to that of the proteasome lid, with a conserved spatial organization of eight core subunits containing PCI and MPN domains that coordinate functional interactions in both complexes. We further show that eIF3 subunits a and c interact with initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A, which control the stringency of start codon selection. Finally, we find that subunit j, which modulates messenger RNA interactions with the small ribosomal subunit, makes multiple independent interactions with the eIF3 octameric core. These results highlight the conserved architecture of eIF3 and how it scaffolds key factors that control translation initiation in higher eukaryotes, including humans.

  10. Epidermal growth factor (urogastrone) in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Y; Orth, D N

    1979-04-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), which stimulates the growth of a variety of tissues, was first isolated from mouse submandibular glands, but is also excreted in large amounts (about 50 micrograms/day) in human urine and is probably identical to human beta-urogastrone (hUG), a potent inhibitor of stimulated gastric acid secretion. However, the primary tissue source of hEGF/hUG is as yet unknown. The hEGF/hUG in homogenates of human salivary glands and a wide variety of other endocrine and nonendocrine tissues was extracted by Amberlite CG-50 cation exchange chromatography and immune affinity chromatography using the immunoglobulin fraction of rabbit anti-hEGF serum covalently bound to agarose. The extracts were subjected to homologous hEGF RIA. Immunoreactive hEGF was found in extracts of adult submandibular gland, thyroid gland, duodenum, jejunum, and kidney, but not in several fetal tissues. The tissue immunoreactive hEGF was similar to standard hEGF in terms of immunoreactivity and elution from Sephadex G-50 Fine resin, but its concentrations were very low (1.3-5.5 ng/g wet tissue). Thus, it is not certain that these tissues represent the only source of the large amounts of hEGF/hUG that appear to be filtered by the kidneys each day.

  11. Humanism as a common factor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    There are many forms of psychotherapies, each distinctive in its own way. From the origins of psychotherapy, it has been suggested that psychotherapy is effective through factors that are common to all therapies. In this article, I suggest that the commonalities that are at the core of psychotherapy are related to evolved human characteristics, which include (a) making sense of the world, (b) influencing through social means, and (c) connectedness, expectation, and mastery. In this way, all psychotherapies are humanistic. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Review of EPRI Nuclear Human Factors Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, L.F.; O`Brien, J.F. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Human Factors Program, which is part of the EPRI Nuclear Power Group, was established in 1975. Over the years, the Program has changed emphasis based on the shifting priorities and needs of the commercial nuclear power industry. The Program has produced many important products that provide significant safety and economic benefits for EPRI member utilities. This presentation will provide a brief history of the Program and products. Current projects and products that have been released recently will be mentioned.

  13. Feasibility and Technical Considerations of Mammary Ductoscopy in Human Mastectomy Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Jill R.; Kim, Julian A.; Malycky, Jan L.; Levy, Lawrence; Crowe, Joseph

    2000-05-01

    Recent advances in endoscopic technology have made visualization of human mammary ducts possible. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and technical factors influencing the ability to successfully visualize the epithelium of the human mammary ductal system. Lacrimal duct probes were used to dilate nipple orifices to 1.2 mm on 42 mastectomy specimens. The Depth of Field Imaging Micro-Minimally Invasive (DOFI(R) MMI) system consisting of a 1.2 mm rigid ductoscope with a 350 &mgr;m working channel was introduced into mammary ducts under air insufflation or saline irrigation. At least one major duct could be dilated and cannulated in all 42 specimens. Visualization of the proximal duct was accomplished in 34 of 42 (81%) specimens, whereas more extensive navigation through the distal subsegmental ducts was achieved in 22 of 42 (52%) specimens. Ductoscopy into the terminal ducts was accomplished in all patients with a previous history of nipple discharge or discharge at the time of the procedure (10 of 10). In three patients with no history of nipple discharge prior to ductoscopy, incidental papillomas were discovered and confirmed by the pathologist. In conclusion, mammary ductoscopy is technically feasible and may have an application as an additional diagnostic modality for patients with pathologic nipple discharge.

  14. CE: Human Papillomavirus-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Review of Nursing Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiernan, Janet; Thom, Bridgette

    2016-08-01

    : The overall incidence of head and neck cancer-which includes laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, nasal cavity, paranasal sinus, nasopharyngeal, oral, oropharyngeal, and salivary gland cancers-has declined in the United States over the past 30 years with the concomitant reduction in tobacco use. Over that same period, however, the worldwide incidence of oropharyngeal cancer has escalated significantly, most notably among men and women under age 60 who live in developed countries. This epidemic rise in oropharyngeal cancer is largely attributed to certain genotypes of the human papillomavirus (HPV). In the United States, HPV prevalence in oropharyngeal tumors increased dramatically, from roughly 16% between 1984 and 1989 to nearly 73% between 2000 and 2004, and the annual incidence of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer is expected to surpass that of HPV-related cervical cancer by 2020.This article provides an overview of head and neck cancer-its incidence, risk factors, treatment, and posttreatment sequelae-with a focus on HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. Unlike other forms of head and neck cancer, HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer tends to affect younger patients with few or none of the traditional risk factors and has a distinctive presentation, histology, and natural course. In order to provide appropriate patient education and to help these patients monitor and manage late and long-term treatment effects, it is important for nurses to be aware of this disease and its treatment, and of the unique survivorship issues that arise for affected patients.

  15. Human papillomavirus infection in the oromaxillofacial area: Clinical anatomy and histological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; MiclĂuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; BĂbţan, Anida Maria; CÂmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2015-11-01

    Clinical manifestations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the head and neck can range from benign lesions, which are the most frequent, to malignant lesions. The prevalence of head and neck cancer is increasing, despite currently decreasing trends in known risk factors such as smoking and alcohol use. A new patient profile has appeared in recent practice: most frequently a middle-aged male patient who does not smoke or drink alcohol, is sexually active (possibly having multiple partners), and presents with oral or cervicofacial lesions requiring diagnosis and treatment. Another risk factor that should be considered in these patients is HPV infection. The association of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with HPV is a challenge for the medical practitioner. The gold standard for diagnosis is histopathological examination, which can also yield evidence suggesting HPV infection. Determination of the viral genotype provides additional data for assessing the oncological risk of an HPV infection. Treatment of these patients is aimed at removing the lesions, in association or not with antiviral treatment and recurrence control. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Design considerations for massively parallel sequencing studies of complex human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Jian Feng

    Full Text Available Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS allows sequencing of entire exomes and genomes to now be done at reasonable cost, and its utility for identifying genes responsible for rare Mendelian disorders has been demonstrated. However, for a complex disease, study designs need to accommodate substantial degrees of locus, allelic, and phenotypic heterogeneity, as well as complex relationships between genotype and phenotype. Such considerations include careful selection of samples for sequencing and a well-developed strategy for identifying the few "true" disease susceptibility genes from among the many irrelevant genes that will be found to harbor rare variants. To examine these issues we have performed simulation-based analyses in order to compare several strategies for MPS sequencing in complex disease. Factors examined include genetic architecture, sample size, number and relationship of individuals selected for sequencing, and a variety of filters based on variant type, multiple observations of genes and concordance of genetic variants within pedigrees. A two-stage design was assumed where genes from the MPS analysis of high-risk families are evaluated in a secondary screening phase of a larger set of probands with more modest family histories. Designs were evaluated using a cost function that assumes the cost of sequencing the whole exome is 400 times that of sequencing a single candidate gene. Results indicate that while requiring variants to be identified in multiple pedigrees and/or in multiple individuals in the same pedigree are effective strategies for reducing false positives, there is a danger of over-filtering so that most true susceptibility genes are missed. In most cases, sequencing more than two individuals per pedigree results in reduced power without any benefit in terms of reduced overall cost. Further, our results suggest that although no single strategy is optimal, simulations can provide important guidelines for study design.

  17. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changpeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recognition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantifying the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled: information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  18. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  19. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  20. Quantifying risk factors for human brucellosis in rural northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunda John

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania. METHODS: This was a matched case-control study. Any patient with a positive result by a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test for brucellosis, and presenting to selected hospitals with at least two clinical features suggestive of brucellosis such as headache, recurrent or continuous fever, sweating, joint pain, joint swelling, general body malaise or backache, was defined as a case. For every case in a district, a corresponding control was traced and matched by sex using multistage cluster sampling. Other criteria for inclusion as a control included a negative c-ELISA test result and that the matched individual would present to hospital if falls sick. RESULTS: Multivariable analysis showed that brucellosis was associated with assisted parturition during abortion in cattle, sheep or goat. It was shown that individuals living in close proximity to other households had a higher risk of brucellosis. People who were of Christian religion were found to have a higher risk of brucellosis compared to other religions. The study concludes that assisting an aborting animal, proximity to neighborhoods, and Christianity were associated with brucellosis infection. There was no association between human brucellosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV serostatus. Protecting humans against contact with fluids and tissues during assisted parturition of livestock may be an important means of reducing the risk of transferring brucellosis from

  1. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  2. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  3. Mutations and binding sites of human transcription factors

    KAUST Repository

    Kamanu, Frederick Kinyua

    2012-06-01

    Mutations in any genome may lead to phenotype characteristics that determine ability of an individual to cope with adaptation to environmental challenges. In studies of human biology, among the most interesting ones are phenotype characteristics that determine responses to drug treatments, response to infections, or predisposition to specific inherited diseases. Most of the research in this field has been focused on the studies of mutation effects on the final gene products, peptides, and their alterations. Considerably less attention was given to the mutations that may affect regulatory mechanism(s) of gene expression, although these may also affect the phenotype characteristics. In this study we make a pilot analysis of mutations observed in the regulatory regions of 24,667 human RefSeq genes. Our study reveals that out of eight studied mutation types, insertions are the only one that in a statistically significant manner alters predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). We also find that 25 families of TFBSs have been altered by mutations in a statistically significant manner in the promoter regions we considered. Moreover, we find that the related transcription factors are, for example, prominent in processes related to intracellular signaling; cell fate; morphogenesis of organs and epithelium; development of urogenital system, epithelium, and tube; neuron fate commitment. Our study highlights the significance of studying mutations within the genes regulatory regions and opens way for further detailed investigations on this topic, particularly on the downstream affected pathways. 2012 Kamanu, Medvedeva, Schaefer, Jankovic, Archer and Bajic.

  4. Consideration of factors affecting strip effluent pH and sodium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  5. Consideration of factors affecting strip effluent pH and sodium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  6. Pharmacological targeting of the KIT growth factor receptor: a therapeutic consideration for mast cell disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Akin, C; Gilfillan, A M

    2008-01-01

    KIT is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factor receptors which is expressed on a variety of haematopoietic cells including mast cells. Stem cell factor (SCF)-dependent activation of KIT is critical for mast cell homeostasis and function. However, when KIT is inappropriately activa...

  7. Moral and aesthetic considerations of humanity according to the Polish philosopher Mieczysław Wallis

    OpenAIRE

    Zegzuła-Nowak Joanna

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an overview of the 20th century Polish humanist Mieczysław Wallis who searches for answers to the question of the essence of humanity. The philosopher saw it in human axiological activities building a world of specifically human creations thus giving Man a meaningful existence. An axiological perspective of human subjectivity – the search for the purpose and meaning of human existence in the implementation of aesthetical and ethical values can be seen as a...

  8. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  9. A consideration of select pre-trauma factors as key vulnerabilities in PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomyea, Jessica; Risbrough, Victoria; Lang, Ariel J.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a pathological response to a traumatic event. A number of risk and vulnerability factors predicting PTSD development have been identified in the literature. Many of these variables are specific factors occurring during and after exposure to a traumatic event or are not measured prospectively to assess temporal sequence. Recent research, however, has begun to focus on pre-trauma individual differences that could contribute to risk for developing PTSD. The present review proposes that a number of biological and cognitive vulnerability factors place individuals at risk for PTSD development prior to the actual experience of trauma. Accordingly, this review provides a summary of evidence for a select number of these factors as pre-trauma vulnerabilities to PTSD. Included is a discussion of biological factors, including molecular genetic studies of systems regulating serotonin, catecholamines, and glucocorticoids as well as aspects of the neuroendocrine system. Specific cognitive factors are also considered, including intelligence, neuropsychological functioning and cognitive biases such as negative attributional style and appraisals. For each factor, the present review summarizes evidence to date regarding PTSD vulnerability and highlights directions for future research in this area. PMID:22917742

  10. Human factors and ergonomics for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; Jeffcott, Shelly

    2016-03-01

    In the second paper of this series, we provide a brief overview of the scientific discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). Traditionally the HFE focus in healthcare has been in acute hospital settings which are perceived to exhibit characteristics more similar to other high-risk industries already applying related principles and methods. This paper argues that primary care is an area which could benefit extensively from an HFE approach, specifically in improving the performance and well-being of people and organisations. To this end, we define the purpose of HFE, outline its three specialist sub-domains (physical, cognitive and organisational HFE) and provide examples of guiding HFE principles and practices. Additionally, we describe HFE issues of significance to primary care education, improvement and research and outline early plans for building capacity and capability in this setting.

  11. Organizational crisis management: the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    While many professionals are quite competent when dealing with operational aspects of organizational continuity, often the "human factor" does not receive adequate attention. This article provides a brief overview of a soon to be published book by the same title. It provides a comprehensive understanding of the ubiquitous yet complex reactions of the workforce to a wide array of organizational disruptions. It goes beyond the short term intervention of debriefings to describe the more extensive pre and post incident strategies required to mitigate the impact of crises on the workforce. It is important to remember: "An organization can get its phone lines back up and have its computers backed up...but its workers may still be messed up."

  12. Locational Factors and Foreign Market-entry Considerations for Malaysian Contractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Abdul_Aziz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Past studies on contractor internationalisation adopt a unimodelapproach. Taking up the call of a few scholars, a study isconducted, this time by integrating several extant models of fi rminternationalisation. Malaysian international contractors are usedto test this approach. Due to space limitation, this paper is focusedonly on locational factors. It begins by justifying the inclusion oflocational factors in a multi-model approach. Then it posits thatlocational disadvantage is a more intellectually appealing conceptthan locational advantages. Empirically, it shows that the surveyedcontractors evaluate a wide range of factors before making thego/no go decision to enter foreign markets. It also shows thatpsychic distance was not their major concern. Finally, the locationaldisadvantages create a market space for international contractorswith the tenacity to overcome them, which the sampled populationpossessed.

  13. [Debating disease: the risk factor concept in political economic and scientific consideration, 1968 to 1986].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarász, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The risk factor concept was developed in American epidemiological studies ongoing since the 1940s researching the causes of chronic cardiovascular diseases. By looking at the depiction of this model in a variety of media in Germany between 1968 and 1986 we can put its close interaction with contemporary socio-political debates under scrutiny. Thereby, a strong connection between the various agents' political and economic interests on the one hand and the incorporation of the risk factor concept into their specific agendas will become apparent. The risk factor concept was not fundamentally changed in the process but it was adapted to contemporary conditions and political constellations. Thereby, so it will be argued, the medical uses of the model, especially regarding the prevention of chronic cardiovascular disease, were forced into the background of public debates.

  14. Optimizing and slope determination of final wall for Maiduk Mine with consideration of destabilizer factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shamsoddin Saeed Masoud; Maarefvand Parviz; Yaaghubi Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this research, determination of final slope for Maiduk copper mine of Kerman is investigated according to destabilizing factors of the mine. The development of the Maiduk Mine caused the extension of the mine area and also withdrawal of its wall. So, optimizing possibility of mine slope is essential. Finally, the magnitude of optimized slopes for different walls of the mine in association with executive com-mands with better factors of safety is provided. The results show that the most important destabilizer factors are the presence of water and pore pressure in the faults and the main joints. With the omission of pore pressure, mine wall for the designed depth is quite stable. This requires a drainage pattern in the lifetime of the mine. In an optimistic point of view, the minimum factor of safety of the wall will be 2.81 even without drainage. This conclusion allows optimizing the slope to its maximum magnitude of 51 degree. With the pessimistic engineering judgment and with the higher SF, the magnitude of the slope is optimized to 47 degree.

  15. A Consideration of Cognitive Factors in the Learning and Education of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Prem S.

    1992-01-01

    Considers the unique cognitive and intellectual factors that influence the learning and education of older adults. Reviews research on patterns of intellectual and cognitive aging and the implications of patterns in attention, memory, information retrieval, and tolerance for interference in the development of cognitive training programs for older…

  16. Prevention of Obesity and Eating Disorders: A Consideration of Shared Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    In response to the high prevalence of obesity, eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors among youth, researchers in both the obesity and eating disorders fields have proposed using an integrated approach to prevention that addresses the spectrum of weight-related disorders within interventions. The identification of risk factors that are…

  17. Methodological considerations to determine the effect of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels

    OpenAIRE

    Pareja Galeano, Helios; Alis, Rafael; Sanchís-Gomar, Fabián; Cabo, Helena; Cortell-Ballester, José; Gómez Cabrera, María del Carmen; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Viña, José

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise up-regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain and blood. However, there is yet no consensus about the adequate blood processing conditions to standardize its assessment. We aimed to find a reliable blood sample processing method to determine changes in BDNF due to exercise. 2.382 JCR (2015) Q2, 9/30 Medical laboratory technology UEM

  18. Consideration of Real World Factors Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in ALPHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discuss a variety of factors that influence the simulated fuel economy and GHG emissions that are often overlooked and updates made to ALPHA based on actual benchmarking data observed across a range of vehicles and transmissions. ALPHA model calibration is also examined, focusin...

  19. Prevention of Obesity and Eating Disorders: A Consideration of Shared Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    In response to the high prevalence of obesity, eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors among youth, researchers in both the obesity and eating disorders fields have proposed using an integrated approach to prevention that addresses the spectrum of weight-related disorders within interventions. The identification of risk factors that are…

  20. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    Rapid prototyping and the human factors • • engineering process David Beevis* and Gaetan St Denist *Senior Human Factors Engineer , Defence and...factors engineering analyses. Therefore, an investigation of the use of the V APS virtual prototyping system was carried out in five organizations. The...factors engineering (HFE) process re- commended for the development of human-machine systems is based on a series of increasin¥ly detailed analyses of

  1. Pedagogical Factors that Influence EFL Teaching: Some Considerations for Teachers’ Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abad José Vicente

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the results of a qualitative research study on the pedagogical factors that influence English teaching in four public schools of Medellín, Colombia. Twelve teachers were interviewed regarding three linguistic principles: communicative competence, native language effect, and interlanguage. The data analysis led to the identification of various factors, such as teachers’ linguistic ego, view of their teaching role, and attitude towards English, which shape English teaching and are tied to teachers’ education. It was concluded that teachers’ professional development must tap into these factors so teachers can effectively revise their beliefs and adjust their practices to ensure a high qualityin their teaching.En este artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación cualitativa acerca de los factorespedagógicos que influyen en la enseñanza del inglés en cuatro escuelas públicas de Medellín (Colombia. Doce maestros fueron entrevistados sobre tres principios lingüísticos: competencia comunicativa, efecto de la lengua nativa e interlenguaje. A partir del análisis se concluyó que factores como el ego lingüístico, la percepción del papel del docente y la actitud frente al inglés son determinantes en laenseñanza de esta lengua. Se concluye que dichos factores deben ser incorporados en los programas de desarrollo profesional para que los maestros puedan revisar sus creencias y ajustar sus prácticas efectivamente y así asegurar la calidad de su enseñanza.

  2. Considerations in meeting protein needs of the human milk-fed preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Hanson, Corrine; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2014-08-01

    Preterm infants provided with sufficient nutrition to achieve intrauterine growth rates have the greatest potential for optimal neurodevelopment. Although human milk is the preferred feeding for preterm infants, unfortified human milk provides insufficient nutrition for the very low-birth-weight infant. Even after fortification with human milk fortifier, human milk often fails to meet the high protein needs of the smallest preterm infants, and additional protein supplementation must be provided. Although substantial evidence exists to support quantitative protein goals for human milk-fed preterm infants, the optimal type of protein for use in human milk fortification remains uncertain. This question was addressed through a PubMed literature search of prospective clinical trials conducted since 1990 in preterm or low-birth-weight infant populations. The following 3 different aspects of protein quality were evaluated: whey-to-casein ratio, hydrolyzed versus intact protein, and bovine milk protein versus human milk protein. Because of a scarcity of current studies conducted with fortified human milk, studies examining protein quality using preterm infant formulas were included to address certain components of the clinical question. Twenty-six studies were included in the review study. No definite advantage was found for any specific whey-to-casein ratio. Protein hydrolyzate products with appropriate formulations can support adequate growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status and may reduce gastrointestinal transit time, gastroesophageal reflux events, and later incidence of atopic dermatitis in some infants. Plasma amino acid levels similar to those of infants fed exclusive human milk-based diets can be achieved with products composed of a mixture of bovine proteins, peptides, and amino acids formulated to replicate the amino acid composition of human milk. Growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status are similar for infants fed human milk

  3. A Consideration of Factors Affecting Sport Tourism in Kish Island-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahimian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the important factors determining the quality of sport tourism package in kish island, with the perspective of the seven elements of the marketing mix. Using a questionnaire containing 66 questions, the data was collected from 7 aspects: product, promotion, people, physical evidence, process, price, and place. Its validity was confirmed by experts; and the Cronbach's alpha was used for confirming the reliability (0.96. The sample was consisted of 172 people including experts from the tourism department of Kish Free Zone Organization, university faculty members, graduate and post graduate students of Kish International Campus and Tehran University. The descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis were used for describing and analyzing data. The results indicated the factors determining the quality of sports tourism package in Kish island include suitable accommodation, transportation, and food costs, national and international events, focused marketing, research, and planning for the development of sports tourism, access to tourist information and tips via mobile, special road and stationary bike riding, and the peace and security.

  4. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; Stone, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  5. Inhalation devices and patient interface: human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Stefan; Parkins, David; Lastow, Orest

    2015-03-01

    The development of any inhalation product that does not consider the patient needs will fail. The needs of the patients must be identified and aligned with engineering options and physical laws to achieve a robust and intuitive-to-use inhaler. A close interaction between development disciplines and real-use evaluations in clinical studies or in human factor studies is suggested. The same holds true when a marketed product needs to be changed. Caution is warranted if an inhaler change leads to a change in the way the patient handles the device. Finally, the article points out potential problems if many inhaler designs are available. Do they confuse the patients? Can patients recall the correct handling of each inhaler they use? How large is the risk that different inhaler designs pose to the public health? The presentations were given at the Orlando Inhalation Conference: Approaches in International Regulation co-organised by the University of Florida and the International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation & Science (IPAC-RS) in March 2014.

  6. Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Deem, R. (BNL); Xing, J.; DAgostino, A. (NRC)

    2010-11-07

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants, and so may require a concept of operations (ConOps) that also is different. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has begun examining the human factors engineering- (HFE) and ConOps- aspects of SMRs; if needed, they will formulate guidance to support SMR licensing reviews. We developed a ConOps model, consisting of the following dimensions: Plant mission; roles and responsibilities of all agents; staffing, qualifications, and training; management of normal operations; management of off-normal conditions and emergencies; and, management of maintenance and modifications. We are reviewing information on SMR design to obtain data about each of these dimensions, and have identified several preliminary issues. In addition, we are obtaining operations-related information from other types of multi-module systems, such as refineries, to identify lessons learned from their experience. Here, we describe the project's methodology and our preliminary findings.

  7. Parental Factors Associated with Child Post-traumatic Stress Following Injury: A Consideration of Intervention Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Wise

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms are relatively common following pediatric traumatic injury and are related to poor long-term child outcomes. However, due to concerns regarding the efficacy of early child preventive interventions, and difficulty intervening with injured and medicated children soon after the event, it is not feasible to provide early psychological interventions to children exposed to traumatic injury. Parental PTSD symptoms and reactions to the child’s traumatic injury impact child outcomes and provide potential targets for early intervention to reduce child symptom development without involving the child. The authors conducted a review of the literature using Psycinfo and Pubmed research databases (publication years = 1990–2017 and identified 65 published studies relevant to the topic of the review. The present review considers parent factors [parenting styles, parental post-traumatic pathology (PTS, adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, and communication regarding the traumatic injury] and their impact on child PTS. We focus specifically on factors amenable to intervention. We further review moderators of these relationships (e.g., child age and gender, parent gender and conclude that it is unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach to treatment will be successful. Rather, it is necessary to consider the age and gender of parent child dyads in designing and providing targeted interventions to families following the traumatic injury of a child.

  8. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  9. Considerations on private human access to space from an institutional point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufenbach, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Private human access to space as discussed in this article addresses two market segments: suborbital flight and crew flights to Low Earth Orbit. The role of entrepreneurs, the technical complexity, the customers, the market conditions as well as the time to market in these two segments differ significantly. Space agencies take currently a very different approach towards private human access to space in both segments. Analysing the outcome of broader inter-agency deliberations on the future of human spaceflight and exploration, performed e.g. in the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, enables to derive some common general views on this topic. Various documents developed by inter-agency working groups recognise the general strategic importance for enabling private human access to space for ensuring a sustainable future of human spaceflight, although the specific definition of private human access and approaches vary. ESA has performed some reflections on this subject throughout the last 5 years. While it gained through these reflections a good understanding on the opportunities and implications resulting from the development of capabilities and markets for Private Human Access, limited concrete activities have been initiated in relation to this topic as of today.

  10. African swine fever in Mozambique: review, risk factors and considerations for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrith, M L; Lopes Pereira, C; Lopes da Silva, M M R; Quembo, C; Nhamusso, A; Banze, J

    2007-06-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is the most important disease that constrains pig production in Mozambique. Until 1994 it was apparently restricted to the central and northern provinces, but since 1994 outbreaks have been experienced throughout the country. ASF causes severe economic losses both in the small commercial sector and among the large numbers of small-scale producers in the family sector in rural and peri-urban areas. The history of ASF in Mozambique since its first confirmation in 1960 is briefly reviewed, recent outbreaks are reported, and the available information on the virus genotypes that have been responsible for some of the outbreaks is presented. Epidemiological factors that contribute to ASF outbreaks and strategies for limiting the negative effects of the disease in the different pig farming sectors in Mozambique, including raising farmer and community awareness, are discussed.

  11. Presampling, algorithm factors, and noise: considerations for CT in particular and for medical imaging in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachelriess, Marc; Kalender, Willi A

    2005-05-01

    CT scanners acquire noisy data at discrete sample positions. Typically, a convention of how to continue these data from discrete integer positions to the continuous domain must be applied during processing. We study the properties of three typical one-dimensional spatial domain interpolation algorithms in terms of a cost or quality factor Q. This figure of merit Q is a function of spatial resolution, data noise, and dose and is used to optimize detector design. Spatial resolution R is defined as either mean square width delta or as the full width at half maximum W of the point spread function (PSF). Our results show that a trapezoidal interpolation algorithm is optimal for the high resolution domain (relative to the detector aperture size g) and should be replaced by a triangular or Gaussian interpolation function for spatial resolutions of about 1.3g or larger; these result in bell-shaped PSFs. Assuming such a hybrid algorithm we find a 1.5-fold increase of Q2-this is equivalent to 50% improved dose usage-when smoothing the data to a spatial resolution of 3g or more compared to a highest resolution reconstruction. Therefore it is advisable to use detectors of one-third of the size of the desired spatial resolution W and to compensate for the 1.5-fold increase in Q2 by reducing dose by 33%. Under the presence of moderately sized septa (e.g., 10% of the spatial resolution element size) the benefit of optimizing still lies in the order of 30% improved dose usage; in that case the detector size g should be on the order of W/2 and a dose reduction of 23% can be achieved. Again, bell-shaped PSFs show a better tradeoff between noise and resolution for a given dose than rectangular-shaped PSFs. The general interpretation of our results is that the degree of freedom of choosing the weighting or interpolation function for a given resolution is large for small detectors and small for large detectors. Thus systems with small g have a higher potential of optimization compared

  12. Human impact on the planet: an earth system science perspective and ethical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Earth Narrative, the scientific story of the 4.5 billion-year natural and human history of the Earth, has emerged from the solid foundation of two factual concepts: Deep (or Geologic) Time and Biological Evolution. spread acceptance of the Earth Narrative is critically important as we begin the third millennium, because it provides a clear understanding of the growing impact of human population growth and associated activities on the Earth System, especially the negative impact on Earth?s biosphere. It is important for humans to realize that we are but one of 4,500 species of mammals that exist on Earth and that we are but one species in the estimated 30 to 100 million species that form the complex biosphere. We also need to recognize that all species exist within the physical limits imposed by the geosphere. We are totally dependent on the biosphere for food, oxygen, and other necessities of life. mans are one of the latest results of biological evolution operating over a long period of Geologic Time. We find ourselves on Earth, after 4.5 billion years of Earth history by chance, not by design. Humans have become so successful at modifying their environment that many of the natural limitations on the expansion of populations of our fellow animals have been overcome by technological and cultural innovations. According to Peter Raven, ?Humans, at a current population of 6 billion [expected to nearly double by 2050], are consuming or wasting about 50 percent of the total net biological productivity on land and 50 percent of the available supply of freshwater. The overwhelming and expanding human presence leaves less and less room in the environment for other biota.? st century will be a pivotal time in the fate of Earth?s biosphere. Whereas human modification of the geosphere will slowly recover over time, human changes to the biosphere are a far more consequential matter? extinction of a species is forever! Will humans effectively use our new knowledge of

  13. A review of the use of human factors classification frameworks that identify causal factors for adverse events in the hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R J; Williamson, A M; Molesworth, B; Chung, A Z Q

    2014-01-01

    Various human factors classification frameworks have been used to identified causal factors for clinical adverse events. A systematic review was conducted to identify human factors classification frameworks that identified the causal factors (including human error) of adverse events in a hospital setting. Six electronic databases were searched, identifying 1997 articles and 38 of these met inclusion criteria. Most studies included causal contributing factors as well as error and error type, but the nature of coding varied considerably between studies. The ability of human factors classification frameworks to provide information on specific causal factors for an adverse event enables the focus of preventive attention on areas where improvements are most needed. This review highlighted some areas needing considerable improvement in order to meet this need, including better definition of terms, more emphasis on assessing reliability of coding and greater sophistication in analysis of results of the classification. Practitioner Summary: Human factors classification frameworks can be used to identify causal factors of clinical adverse events. However, this review suggests that existing frameworks are diverse, limited in their identification of the context of human error and have poor reliability when used by different individuals.

  14. Discussing the Effective Factors on Maintenance of Human Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Bahare Shahriari

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the author has elaborated on detection of effective factors on maintenance and retention of human resources. Since human resources are the most resources for obtaining competitive advantage, it is essential to pay attention to different dimensions of human resources management. One of these dimensions is retention of human resources. Factors such as providing correct and valid information at the time of recruitment, assigning tasks based on competence, existence of a clear c...

  15. Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, its variation, and its clinical relevance. The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules (eg, lactoferrin) are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. Human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, within feeds, by gestational age, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing.

  16. Conceptual and Operational Considerations in Identifying Socioenvironmental Factors Associated with Disability among Community-Dwelling Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Philibert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disability is conceived as a person–context interaction. Physical and social environments are identified as intervention targets for improving social participation and independence. In comparison to the body of research on place and health, relatively few reports have been published on residential environments and disability in the health sciences literature. We reviewed studies evaluating the socioenvironmental correlates of disability. Searches were conducted in Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases for peer-reviewed articles published between 1997 and 2014. We found many environmental factors to be associated with disability, particularly area-level socioeconomic status and rurality. However, diversity in conceptual and methodological approaches to such research yields a limited basis for comparing studies. Conceptual inconsistencies in operational measures of disability and conceptual disagreement between studies potentially affect understanding of socioenvironmental influences. Similarly, greater precision in socioenvironmental measures and in study designs are likely to improve inference. Consistent and generalisable support for socioenvironmental influences on disability in the general adult population is scarce.

  17. Assessing Joint Service Opportunities through a Consideration of the Motivating and Constraining Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Borman

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In a wide range of industries services are increasingly being developed, or evolving, to support groups of organisations. Not all such joint service initiatives though have been successful. The paper aims to highlight potential issues that need to be addressed when investigating the introduction of a joint service by identifying the motivators and constraints. The approach outlined draws upon network externality theory to provide the motivation for a joint service, and resource based and dependency theories to highlight the constraining factors. Three instances of joint services – in the Banking, Telecommunications and Travel sectors – are subsequently examined. It is concluded that as well as providing externality benefits joint service initiatives can also improve the terms of access to a service – in particular through realising economies of scale. Furthermore it would appear that organisations will have to think carefully about the best way to create, structure and manage a joint service initiative – including who to partner with – given their own particular circumstances, as multiple alternative approaches, with potentially differing ramifications, are available.

  18. A consideration of cognitive factors in the learning and education of older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Prem S.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the unique cognitive and intellectual factors that influence the learning and education of older adults. With this objective in mind, the paper reviews the empirical literature on patterns of intellectual and cognitive aging, and ends by discussing the implications and applications of these patterns for the practical and effective education of our elderly citizenry. When we consider the aging of intellectual abilities we are concerned with studying the development of fluid, crystallized and practical intelligence and variations in these abilities from adulthood into advanced old age. We are also concerned with looking at changes in cognitive functions such as attention, memory, information retrieval and tolerance for interference in learning capacity. Much recent work has been successful in showing that intellectual and cognitive decline in old age is not necessarily irreversible. While many elderly persons are very able learners, are highly self-directed, and have ample educational and intellectual resources available, others may benefit from assistance or suggestions about how to compensate for some of the cognitive declines in old age. With this objective the implications are discussed for educators and practitioners who must formulate cognitive training programs for older adults.

  19. Consideration of some factors affecting low-frequency fuselage noise transmission for propeller aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixson, J. S.; Roussos, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Possible reasons for disagreement between measured and predicted trends of sidewall noise transmission at low frequency are investigated using simplified analysis methods. An analytical model combining incident plane acoustic waves with an infinite flat panel is used to study the effects of sound incidence angle, plate structural properties, frequency, absorption, and the difference between noise reduction and transmission loss. Analysis shows that these factors have significant effects on noise transmission but they do not account for the differences between measured and predicted trends at low frequencies. An analytical model combining an infinite flat plate with a normally incident acoustic wave having exponentially decaying magnitude along one coordinate is used to study the effect of a localized source distribution such as is associated with propeller noise. Results show that the localization brings the predicted low-frequency trend of noise transmission into better agreement with measured propeller results. This effect is independent of low-frequency stiffness effects that have been previously reported to be associated with boundary conditions.

  20. Reporting on Strategic Considerations About the Role of Science in Initial Human Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, David; Bass, Deborah; Thronson, Harley; Hays, Lindsay; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, Joe; Craig, Mark; Duggan, Matt; Drake, Bret; Stern, Jennifer; Zucker, Rick

    2016-07-01

    In December 2015, the "Third Community Workshop on Affording and Sustaining Human Mars Exploration" (AM III) was held, which was designed to provide community recommendations on the potential human exploration of Mars. To facilitate the workshop, we focused on two key questions: 1) From the dual and interrelated perspectives of affordability and sustainability, what are the strengths/challenges of Mars exploration scenarios?; and 2) From the perspective of prioritized scientific objectives for the martian system (the planet's surface or its moons), what are the most enabling capabilities of the different exploration architecture(s) and why? Group discussion over three days resulted in the following findings and observations: 1. NASA's incremental approach to deep-space exploration defines the so-called "Proving Ground," specifically in cis-lunar space, generally occurring in the 2020s and prior to human journeys to Mars. We concluded that there are capabilities directly related to, and on the critical path to, human exploration of Mars that could be developed in cis-lunar space. However, we also concluded that the Proving Ground should best be viewed as a campaign that occurs within a certain timeframe (including activities at Mars), rather than merely occurring at a specific location. 2. The workshop participants agreed that the most valuable purposes of sending humans to the martian system would be accomplished only by surface operations. We concluded that specific benefits, both technical and cost, of sending humans to the Mars system without landing on the martian surface should be assessed in depth. We discussed - although were unable to conclude - whether Mars orbit or Phobos/Deimos as a destination would make sufficient contributions towards humans landing on the martian surface or to answering high-priority science questions (as identified by the Decadal Survey) to justify their associated costs and possible risks. Further study on the value of an orbital

  1. Pathobiology of transforming growth factor beta in cancer, fibrosis and immunologic disease, and therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Gérald J

    2007-11-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a highly pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in wound healing, angiogenesis, immunoregulation and cancer. The cells of the immune system produce the TGF-beta1 isoform, which exerts powerful anti-inflammatory functions, and is a master regulator of the immune response. However, this is context dependent, because TGF-beta can contribute to the differentiation of both regulatory (suppressive) T cells (Tr cells) and inflammatory Th17 cells. While TGF-beta might be underproduced in some autoimmune diseases, it is overproduced in many pathological conditions. This includes pulmonary fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, renal interstitial fibrosis, cirrhosis, Crohn's disease, cardiomyopathy, scleroderma and chronic graft-vs-host disease. In neoplastic disease, TGF-beta suppresses the progression of early lesions, but later this effect is lost and cancer cells produce TGF-beta, which then promotes metastasis. This cytokine also contributes to the formation of the tumor stroma, angiogenesis and immunosuppression. In view of this, several approaches are being studied to inhibit TGF-beta activity, including neutralizing antibodies, soluble receptors, receptor kinase antagonist drugs, antisense reagents and a number of less specific drugs such as angiotensin II antagonists and tranilast. It might be assumed that TGF-beta blockade would result in severe inflammatory disease, but this has not been the case, presumably because the neutralization is only partial. In contrast, the systemic administration of TGF-beta for therapeutic purposes is limited by toxicity and safety concerns, but local administration appears feasible, especially to promote wound healing. Immunotherapy or vaccination stimulating TGF-beta production and/or Tr differentiation might be applied to the treatment of autoimmune diseases. The benefits of new therapies targeting TGF-beta are under intense investigation.

  2. Pattern of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... Key words: Breast cancer, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu, immunohistochemistry, ... therapy.[6‑8] Of all these prognostic and predictive factors, ... one of the biggest private medical laboratories in Nigeria.

  3. Elements of a regulatory strategy for the consideration of future human actions in safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Wickham, S.M.; Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this report is to discuss issues that should be considered in the development of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in any forthcoming license application for a deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden and for sites of other repositories. The report comprises an outline of key issues concerning the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, reviews of regulatory developments, recent safety assessments and supporting studies, and international initiatives on the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, and the principal elements of a regulatory strategy. Performance assessments (PAs) are generally accepted as providing illustrations of system performance under given sets of assumptions. The results of PAs are clearer and easier tounderstand if certain large uncertainties are accounted for by determining performance under several different sets of assumptions or scenarios, each of which defines a possible evolution of the disposal system. A number of assumptions can be made that would restrict the scope of an assessment without reducing the credibility of the corresponding safety case. Reducing speculation about technological development, by assuming that the techniques used in future human activities are similar to those currently in use in the region or at similar sites, will simplify the assessment. A distinction is generally made between inadvertent and intentional intrusion, with intentional activities excluded because society cannot protect future populations from their own actions if they understand the potential consequences. A division of human activities into 'recent and ongoing' and 'future' activities considers not only the timing of the activities but also the degree of control or influence that can be imposed on them. Recent and ongoing human activities are those that affect an area beyond the immediate vicinity of the disposal facility and which neither the proponent

  4. Active site similarity between human and Plasmodium falciparum phosphodiesterases: considerations for antimalarial drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Brittany L.; Thompson, Philip E.; Manallack, David T.

    2011-08-01

    The similarity between Plasmodium falciparum phosphodiesterase enzymes ( PfPDEs) and their human counterparts have been examined and human PDE9A was found to be a suitable template for the construction of homology models for each of the four PfPDE isoforms. In contrast, the architecture of the active sites of each model was most similar to human PDE1. Molecular docking was able to model cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) substrate binding in each case but a docking mode supporting cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) binding could not be found. Anticipating the potential of PfPDE inhibitors as anti-malarial drugs, a range of reported PDE inhibitors including zaprinast and sildenafil were docked into the model of PfPDEα. The results were consistent with their reported biological activities, and the potential of PDE1/9 inhibitor analogues was also supported by docking.

  5. Mission Design Considerations for Mars Cargo of the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team's Evolvable Mars Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjauw, Waldy K.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Freeh, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent NASA interest in human missions to Mars has led to an Evolvable Mars Campaign by the agency's Human Architecture Team. Delivering the crew return propulsion stages and Mars surface landers, SEP based systems are employed because of their high specific impulse characteristics enabling missions requiring less propellant although with longer transfer times. The Earth departure trajectories start from an SLS launch vehicle delivery orbit and are spiral shaped because of the low SEP thrust. Previous studies have led to interest in assessing the divide in trip time between the Earth departure and interplanetary legs of the mission for a representative SEP cargo vehicle.

  6. Considerations for a Human Rights Impact Assessment of a Population Wide Treatment for HIV Prevention Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the potential of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV prevention. The possibility of eliminating HIV from a population through a universal test and treat intervention, where all people within a population are tested for HIV and all positive people immediately initiated on ART, as part of a wider prevention intervention, was first proposed in 2009. Several clinical trials testing this idea are now in inception phase. An intervention which relies on universally testing the entire population for HIV will pose challenges to human rights, including obtaining genuine consent to testing and treatment. It also requires a context in which people can live free from fear of stigma, discrimination and violence, and can access services they require. These challenges are distinct from the field of medical ethics which has traditionally governed clinical trials and focuses primarily on patient researcher relationship. This paper sets out the potential impact of a population wide treatment as prevention intervention on human rights. It identifies five human right principles of particular relevance: participation, accountability, the right to health, non-discrimination and equality, and consent and confidentiality. The paper proposes that explicit attention to human rights can strengthen a treatment as prevention intervention, contribute to mediating likely health systems challenges and offer insights on how to reach all sections of the population.

  7. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Dental Caries Research Using Human Subjects: Conference Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Joanna

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research are discussed. It is concluded that dentistry must not uncritically accept guidelines meant for a broader class of research, that guidelines can be misapplied, and that researchers must educate themselves on the Commission…

  8. The Effect of Part-simulation of Weightlessness on Human Control of Bilateral Teleoperation: Neuromotor Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, K.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of weightlessness on the human operator's performance in force reflecting position control of remote manipulators was investigated. A gravity compensation system was developed to simulate the effect of weightlessness on the operator's arm. A universal force reflecting hand controller (FRHC) and task simulation software were employed. Two experiments were performed because of anticipated disturbances in neuromotor control specification on the human operator in an orbital control environment to investigate: (1) the effect of controller stiffness on the attainment of a learned terminal position in the three dimensional controller space, and (2) the effect of controller stiffness and damping on force tracking of the contour of a simulated three dimensional cube using the part simulation of weightless conditions. The results support the extension of neuromotor control models, which postulate a stiffness balance encoding of terminal position, to three dimensional motion of a multilink system, confirm the existence of a disturbance in human manual control performance under gravity compensated conditions, and suggest techniques for compensation of weightlessness induced performance decrement through appropriate specification of hand controller response characteristics. These techniques are based on the human control model.

  9. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2008-01-31

    One argument used by detractors of human embryonic stem cell research (hESCR) invokes Kant's formula of humanity, which proscribes treating persons solely as a means to an end, rather than as ends in themselves. According to Fuat S. Oduncu, for example, adhering to this imperative entails that human embryos should not be disaggregated to obtain pluripotent stem cells for hESCR. Given that human embryos are Kantian persons from the time of their conception, killing them to obtain their cells for research fails to treat them as ends in themselves. This argument assumes two points that are rather contentious given a Kantian framework. First, the argument assumes that when Kant maintains that humanity must be treated as an end in itself, he means to argue that all members of the species Homo sapiens must be treated as ends in themselves; that is, that Kant regards personhood as co-extensive with belonging to the species Homo sapiens. Second, the argument assumes that the event of conception is causally responsible for the genesis of a Kantian person and that, therefore, an embryo is a Kantian person from the time of its conception. In this paper, I will present challenges against these two assumptions by engaging in an exegetical study of some of Kant's works. First, I will illustrate that Kant did not use the term "humanity" to denote a biological species, but rather the capacity to set ends according to reason. Second, I will illustrate that it is difficult given a Kantian framework to denote conception (indeed any biological event) as causally responsible for the creation of a person. Kant ascribed to a dualistic view of human agency, and personhood, according to him, was derived from the supersensible capacity for reason. To argue that a Kantian person is generated due to the event of conception ignores Kant's insistence in various aspects of his work that it is not possible to understand the generation of a person qua a physical operation. Finally, I will end the

  10. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Bertha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One argument used by detractors of human embryonic stem cell research (hESCR invokes Kant's formula of humanity, which proscribes treating persons solely as a means to an end, rather than as ends in themselves. According to Fuat S. Oduncu, for example, adhering to this imperative entails that human embryos should not be disaggregated to obtain pluripotent stem cells for hESCR. Given that human embryos are Kantian persons from the time of their conception, killing them to obtain their cells for research fails to treat them as ends in themselves. This argument assumes two points that are rather contentious given a Kantian framework. First, the argument assumes that when Kant maintains that humanity must be treated as an end in itself, he means to argue that all members of the species Homo sapiens must be treated as ends in themselves; that is, that Kant regards personhood as co-extensive with belonging to the species Homo sapiens. Second, the argument assumes that the event of conception is causally responsible for the genesis of a Kantian person and that, therefore, an embryo is a Kantian person from the time of its conception. In this paper, I will present challenges against these two assumptions by engaging in an exegetical study of some of Kant's works. First, I will illustrate that Kant did not use the term "humanity" to denote a biological species, but rather the capacity to set ends according to reason. Second, I will illustrate that it is difficult given a Kantian framework to denote conception (indeed any biological event as causally responsible for the creation of a person. Kant ascribed to a dualistic view of human agency, and personhood, according to him, was derived from the supersensible capacity for reason. To argue that a Kantian person is generated due to the event of conception ignores Kant's insistence in various aspects of his work that it is not possible to understand the generation of a person qua a physical

  11. An improvement of the applicability of human factors guidelines for coping with human factors issues in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lee, J. Y. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Human factors have been well known as one of the key factors to the system effectiveness as well as the efficiency and safety of nuclear power plants(NPPs). Human factors engineering(HFE) are included in periodic safety review(PSR) on the existing NPPs and the formal safety assessment for the new ones. However, HFE for NPPs is still neither popular in practice nor concrete in methodology. Especially, the human factors guidelines, which are the most frequent form of human factors engineering in practice, reveal the limitations in their applications. We discuss the limitations and their casual factors found in human factors guidelines in order to lesson the workload of HFE practitioners and to improve the applicability of human factors guidelines. According to the purposes and the phases of HFE for NPPs, more selective items and specified criteria should be prepared carefully in the human factors guidelines for the each HFE applications in practice. These finding on the human factors guidelines can be transferred to the other HFE application field, such as military, aviation, telecommunication, HCI, and product safety.

  12. Design Considerations for Spacecraft Operations During Uncrewed Dormant Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Antol, Jeff; Jefferies, Sharon; Goodliff, Kandyce; Williams, Phillip; Ambrose, Rob; Sylvester, Andre; Anderson, Molly; Dinsmore, Craig; Hoffman, Stephen; Lawrence, James; Seibert, Marc; Schier, Jim; Frank, Jeremy; Alexander, Leslie; Ruff, Gary; Soeder, Jim; Guinn, Joseph; Stafford, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Subject matter experts from NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) are currently studying a human exploration campaign that involves deployment of assets for planetary exploration. This study, called the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) study, explores options with solar electric propulsion as a central component of the transportation architecture. This particular in-space transportation option often results in long duration transit to destinations. The EMC study is also investigating deployed human rated systems like landers, habitats, rovers, power systems and ISRU system to the surface of Mars, which also will involve long dormant periods when these systems are staged on the surface. In order to enable the EMC architecture, campaign and element design leads along with system and capability development experts from HEOMD's System Maturation Team (SMT) have identified additional capabilities, systems and operation modes that will sustain these systems especially during these dormant phases of the mission. Dormancy is defined by the absence of crew and relative inactivity of the systems. For EMC missions, dormant periods could range from several months to several years. Two aspects of uncrewed dormant operations are considered herein: (1) the vehicle systems that are placed in a dormant state and (2) the autonomous vehicle systems and robotic capabilities that monitor, maintain, and repair the vehicle and systems. This paper describes the mission stages of dormancy operations, phases of dormant

  13. Legal, ethical, and human rights considerations for physicians treating children with atypical or ambiguous genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Julie A

    2017-06-01

    Some governments, human rights organizations, intersex organizations, and doctors have called for a moratorium on genital and gonadal surgeries for infants born with atypical or ambiguous genitalia. Moratorium supporters believe that the surgeries carry physical and emotional risks, the psychosocial benefits of these procedures have not been proven, and the surgeries violate the patients׳ fundamental human rights if they are performed before these patients can provide informed consent. Given these calls for a moratorium, treatment teams must determine how to treat their patients and how to counsel their patients׳ parents. This article examines the treatment teams׳ ethical and legal responsibilities and provides advice for treatment teams to follow that will protect their patients and their practices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Postnatal Human Genetic Enhancement – A Consideration of Children’s Right to Be Genetically Enhanced

    OpenAIRE

    Tamir, Sivan

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers children’s rights with respect to genetic enhancement (GE). It is focused on the futuristic prospect of postnatal GE, namely, genetic modifications, in vivo, of actual existing individuals. More specifically, the paper examines whether, in a future reality where pre- and postnatal human GE is safely and prevalently practiced, a child would have a right to be genetically enhanced by her parents or guardians, as well as the right not to be genetically enhanced. It is in fac...

  15. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated...

  16. DOT/FAA Human Factors Workshop on AVIATION. Transcript. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    for the Controller. Human factors considerations form an important part of the development of new electronic data displays, such as ETABS and the...system. As new functions are designed and made a part of the ATC system software , the methods for displaying data to the controller must be carefully...evaluated. Examples of new software functions which will require an optimally designed man/machine interface are en route metering, terminal metering and

  17. HFBUIT: Design Aid Tools For A Human Factor Based User Interface Design

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. S.Qamar Abbas; Shahnaz Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Exploring user interface design and development problems is the core of current HCI research. Although there have been considerableadvancements in computer technology, human factors considerations are still lacking. This results in the user frequently becoming confused or frustrated when trying to interact with the software. Designers should utilize the knowledge about the user to configure the interface for different users, i.e. each user may have different skills, level of experience, or co...

  18. WHO DOES WHAT IN HUMAN FACTORS/ERGONOMICS IN MALAYSIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahasan, Rabiul

    2014-12-01

    Individuals' expertise in human factors and ergonomics in Malaysia was studied with a view to aiding in gauging the confusion and conjectures of the expertise in this area. The choices and preferences of individuals in dealing with the current issues of human factors and ergonomics were examined. The authors suggest the ways to meet ethical challenges in their work and professions.

  19. Implications of the new Food and Drug Administration draft guidance on human factors engineering for diabetes device manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Stephen B; Drucker, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    This article discusses the implications of the new Food and Drug Administration's draft guidance on human factors and usability engineering for the development of diabetes-related devices. Important considerations include the challenge of identifying users, when the user population is so dramatically broad, and the challenge of identifying use environments when the same can be said for use environments. Another important consideration is that diabetes-related devices, unlike many other medical devices, are used constantly as part of the user's lifestyle--adding complexity to the focus on human factors and ease of use emphasized by the draft guidance.

  20. NAS Human Factors Safety Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts an integrated program of research on the relationship of factors concerning individuals, work groups, and organizations as employees perform...

  1. Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT and E) Considerations for Safe and Reliable Human Rated Spacecraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James; Leggett, Jay; Kramer-White, Julie

    2008-01-01

    A team directed by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) collected methodologies for how best to develop safe and reliable human rated systems and how to identify the drivers that provide the basis for assessing safety and reliability. The team also identified techniques, methodologies, and best practices to assure that NASA can develop safe and reliable human rated systems. The results are drawn from a wide variety of resources, from experts involved with the space program since its inception to the best-practices espoused in contemporary engineering doctrine. This report focuses on safety and reliability considerations and does not duplicate or update any existing references. Neither does it intend to replace existing standards and policy.

  2. Factors influencing use of dental services in rural and urban communities: considerations for practitioners in underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Lisa J; Smith, Timothy A; Raybould, Ted P

    2004-10-01

    Individuals' utilization of dental services depends upon an array of factors, including access to care, financial restrictions, attitudes toward dental care, and dental fear. These factors, in turn, may vary across geographic locations and demographic groups. The goals of this study were to assess the use of dental services in both rural and urban areas of Kentucky and to examine challenges facing practitioners in rural areas. Individuals sampled from a rural population and patients in rural and urban dental clinics completed questionnaires about use of dental services, self-rated dental health, and dental fear. While these variables were strongly interrelated, differences emerged across locations. Patients in the urban area reported having more dental insurance but not better dental health. Patients in more rural areas reported seeking more emergency dental treatment but not more dental fear. While these factors are important considerations across locations, dental practitioners in rural areas in particular should be aware of barriers to dental care facing individuals in these areas. They have unique opportunities to provide education to their patients regarding the importance of dental care and the role of oral health in overall physical health.

  3. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  4. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Harte

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications.

  5. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Meredith; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-05-06

    It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human-horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human-horse interactions. Whilst most-if not all-horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of WHS to prevent horse-related injury by discussing effective evidence-based guidelines and regulatory monitoring for equestrian sectors. It suggests that the WHS framework has significant potential not only to reduce the occurrence and likelihood of horse-related human accident and injury, but to enable systematic accident analysis and investigation of horse-related adverse events.

  6. Sleep deprivation and anxiety in humans and rodents--translational considerations and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel Natan; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-10-01

    The effects of acute sleep deprivation on anxiety are the focus of controversy in the literature. While clinical research studies on the effects of sleep deprivation seem to show a consistent increase in acute anxiety, rodent studies have produced inconsistent results, with some experiments pointing to anxiogenesis and others to anxiolysis. Such observations impair the translational applicability of rodent models on the paradigm between sleep deprivation and anxiety. Current studies fail in the very basic principle of biomedical translational research: to provide relevant and reliable knowledge from basic experimental science that can be applied in clinical environments. Possible explanations for the disparity between human and animal studies include the accuracy of both human and rodent research, the ability of current behavioral protocols to truly reflect the anxiety response of rodents to sleep deprivation, and the nature of sleep deprivation-induced anxiety in rodents. Based on these hypotheses, we performed a brief overview of the literature on the relationship between sleep deprivation and anxiety and propose a research agenda that could lead to a better understanding of the reasons for the discrepancies found in the literature and provide more reliable data on the translational relationship between sleep deprivation and anxiety.

  7. Nutritional and biochemical properties of human milk: II. Lipids, micronutrients, and bioactive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Palmero, M; Koletzko, B; Kunz, C; Jensen, R

    1999-06-01

    Human milk lipids contain preformed LCPUFA in considerable amounts, which serve as precursors for the formation of prostaglandins, prostacyclins, and other lipid mediators, as well as essential components in membrane-rich tissues (such as the brain and the retina), thus affecting functional outcomes. Besides a balanced nutrient composition and a number of conditionally essential nutrients, human milk provides different types and classes of bioactive factors, such as enzymes, hormones, and growth factors, many of which appear to have a role in supporting infantile growth and development. The bioactive agents include antimicrobial factors (e.g., secretory IgA, oligosaccharides, FA); anti-inflammatory agents; transporters (e.g., lactoferrin); and digestive enzymes (e.g., BSSL). Several nonpeptide hormones (thyroid hormones, cortisol, progesterone, pregnanediol, estrogens, and artificial contraceptive) and peptide hormones and growth factors (erythropoietin, hHG, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, epidermal growth factor insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, nerve growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, gastrointestinal regulatory peptides and thyroid-parathyroid hormones) have been isolated and quantitated in human milk. Some of these components are also involved in the maturation of the gastrointestinal tract of the infant. In addition to the passive benefits provided by human milk, several data support the hypothesis that breastfeeding promotes the development of the infant's own immune system, which might confer long-term benefits for the newborn infant. The risk of IDDM, Crohn's disease, and atopic disease is lower in individuals who had been breastfed during infancy. Areas of major interest in human milk research include the study of human milk synthesis and the contributions of dietary composition and maternal metabolism to human milk composition, infantile utilization of human milk components, and the study of bioactive components, such as

  8. Influencing Factors of Rural Human Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun LI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper combines the social capital theory, the ordered choice model, and the case study in order to analyze the influence factors of the rural human consumption. The results show the presence of inverted U shape curve relation between human consumption amount and age. Human communication range, income, the highest single human consumption amount and the minimum amount, occupation, family population, the existing of human consumption capacity and the scope of the existing relationships between interpersonal relationship satisfaction and other factors on human consumption level has positive influence on human consumption level. Domestic researches on human behaviour are wide, but most of the studies are focused on the social, human, and psychological disciplines. For the origin of human consumption, scholars focus on four aspects like novelty, human or mutual needs. This research is based on field investigation conducted in Niuxintai village, Liaoning Province, in order to understand the current situation of the rural human consumption in China, and to explain the function and influencing factors of human consumption.

  9. Suggestion: Human Factor Based User Interface Design Tool

    OpenAIRE

    S.Q. Abbas,; Rizwan Beg; Shahnaz Fatima

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce HFBUIT, Human Factor based user interface tool that enables designers and engineers to create human factor based user interface. This tool will help the designer to utilize the knowledge about the user to configure the interface for different users, i.e. each user may have different skills, level of experience, or cognitive and physical disabilities. The tool makes it easy to knowhuman factors & to reduce the number of usability problems. HFBUIT can be used in real...

  10. Transmission of infection with human allografts: essential considerations in donor screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jay A; Greenwald, Melissa A; Grossi, Paolo A

    2012-09-01

    Transmission of infection via transplantation of allografts including solid organs, eyes, and tissues are uncommon but potentially life-threatening events. Donor-derived infections have been documented following organ, tissue, and ocular transplants. Each year, more than 70 000 organs, 100 000 corneas, and 2 million human tissue allografts are implanted worldwide. Single donors may provide allografts for >100 organ and tissue recipients; each allograft carries some, largely unquantifiable, risk of disease transmission. Protocols for screening of organ or tissue donors for infectious risk are nonuniform, varying with the type of allograft, national standards, and availability of screening assays. In the absence of routine, active surveillance, coupled with the common failure to recognize or report transmission events, few data are available on the incidence of allograft-associated disease transmission. Research is needed to define the optimal screening assays and the transmissibility of infection with allografts. Approaches are reviewed that may contribute to safety in allograft transplantation.

  11. [Practical considerations for high resolution anoscopy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren-Díaz, Mauricio; Ocampo Hermida, Antonio; González-Carreró Fojón, Joaquín; Alonso-Parada, María; Rodríguez-Girondo, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Anal cancer is uncommon in the general population, however its incidence is increasing significantly in certain risk groups, mainly in men who have sex with men, and particularly those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. High resolution anoscopy technique is currently considered the standard in the diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia, but at present there is no agreed standard method between health areas. High resolution anoscopy is an affordable technique that can be critical in the screening of anal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, but is not without difficulties. We are currently studying the most effective strategy for managing premalignant anal lesions, and with this article we attempt to encourage other groups interested in reducing the incidence of an increasing neoplasia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Current issues and considerations regarding trichomoniasis and human immunodeficiency virus in African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Shira C; Sorvillo, Frank J; Smith, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis has long been recognized as one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections. However, it is only in recent years that it has been appreciated that Trichomonas may play a critical role in amplifying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Given the evidence that T. vaginalis likely promotes HIV infection, the apparent high level of Trichomonas infection in the African-American community is cause for concern. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small or modest amount, it translates into a sizable population effect since Trichomonas is so common in this community. Therefore, control of trichomoniasis may represent an important avenue of control for the prevention of HIV transmission, particularly among African-Americans.

  13. Human consciousness and sleep/waking rhythms: a review and some neuropsychological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, R

    1982-09-01

    The relevance of sleep/waking rhythms to issues of human consciousness is reviewed from data in the literature and from personal studies. Consciousness is often considered to be markedly attenuated or absent in sleep. There is, however, much evidence for a rich subjective experience during sleep, much of which is not recalled later. This implies that William James' "stream of consciousness' persists continuously throughout sleep as well as wakefulness, but that problems of memory recall interfere with its being reported as such. Sleeping subjects show selective awareness of external stimuli, with significant stimuli generally leading to awakening and relatively nonsignificant stimuli, at least at times, being incorporated into the ongoing mental activity of REM or NREM sleep. Mentation throughout sleep is characterized by a high degree of autonomy and little willful control. Creative insight and problem solving of a very high order may occur in sleep and involve either dreaming or thought-like mentation. Parameters of waking consciousness show possibly sleep-related rhythmic fluctuations at both circadian (24 hr sleep/waking) and ultradian (90-120) min, NREM/REM sleep) rates. Moreover, waking consciousness is markedly influenced by the quality of temporal stability of preceding sleep. A substantial number of so-called "altered states of consciousness" is found to involve primarily or exclusively dysfunction of sleep/waking mechanisms. Cerebral lesions can produce selective impairment of aspects of sleep mentation. It is concluded that further analysis of subjective awareness in sleep or in partial sleep states is very relevant and indeed vital to a more comprehensive understanding of human consciousness.

  14. Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: A discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire, T.; Stevenson, H.; Pieters, M.N.; Rennen, M.; Slob, W.; Hakkert, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute toward the further harmonization of human health risk assessment. It first discusses the development of a formal, harmonized set of assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed, that is, the type of factor

  15. Use of Computers in Human Factors Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    SENSES (PHYSIOLOGY), THERMOPLASTIC RESINS, VISUAL ACUITY (U)R RESEARCH CONCERNS DETERMINATION OF THE INFORMATION PRESENTATION REQUIREMENTS OF HUMAN DATA...THE GEOMETRY OF THE wORK STATION, IS CURRENTLY BEING DEVELOPED. IT IS CALLED COMBIMAN, AN ACRONYM FOR COMPUTERIZED BIOMECHANICAL MAN- MODELo COMBIMAN

  16. Factors affecting transmission of mucosal human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Veldhuijzen; P.J. Snijders; P. Reiss; C.J. Meijer; J.H. van de Wijgert

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. The effect of HPV on public health is especially related to the burden of anogenital cancers, most notably cervical cancer. Determinants of exposure to HPV are similar to those for most sexually transmitted infections, but

  17. Human Factors in the Management of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Alting, Leo

    2006-01-01

    challenges. Qualitative interviews with Danish stakeholders in the education of engineers (BA & MA) confirm the picture given in international literature. Therefore, the didactics concerning the ‘human factor’ in the curriculum on production management has to reflect these changes. This paper concludes...... with a proposal on essential issues to be addressed in the curriculum qualifying university candidates to production management....

  18. Alternative Control Technologies: Human Factors Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    vertical vibration to the 29,4, 1980, pp 462-466. head and shoulders of seated men", Royal Aircraft Lee, J. M.; Chartier , V. L.; Hartmann, D. P.; Lee, G...Suarez, P. F., Rogers , S., K., Ruck, D. W., for Effective Human-Computer Interaction", 2nd edition, Arndt, C., and Kabrisky, M., "A facial feature

  19. Interleukin-16 Gene Polymorphisms Are Considerable Host Genetic Factors for Patients’ Susceptibility to Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Romani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Host genetic background is known as an important factor in patients’ susceptibility to infectious diseases such as viral hepatitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of genetic polymorphisms of interleukin-16 (IL-16 cytokine on susceptibility of hepatitis B virus (HBV infected patients to develop chronic HBV infection. Genotyping was conducted using PCR followed by enzymatic digestion and RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We genotyped three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the Il-16 gene (rs11556218 T>G, rs4778889 T>C, and rs4072111 C>T to test for relationship between variation at these loci and patients’ susceptibility to chronic HBV infection. Allele frequency of Il-16 gene rs4072111 and rs11556218 was significantly different between chronic HBV patients and healthy blood donors. Genotype frequency of rs4778889 polymorphism of Il-16 gene was significantly different when chronic HBV patients and HBV clearance subjects were compared. Our results showed that Il-16 gene polymorphisms are considerable host genetic factors when we chase biomarkers for prognosis of HBV infected patients.

  20. Recent technology products from Space Human Factors research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, James P.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Space Human Factors program and the research carried out concerning human factors are discussed with emphasis given to the development of human performance models, data, and tools. The major products from this program are described, which include the Laser Anthropometric Mapping System; a model of the human body for evaluating the kinematics and dynamics of human motion and strength in microgravity environment; an operational experience data base for verifying and validating the data repository of manned space flights; the Operational Experience Database Taxonomy; and a human-computer interaction laboratory whose products are the display softaware and requirements and the guideline documents and standards for applications on human-computer interaction. Special attention is given to the 'Convoltron', a prototype version of a signal processor for synthesizing the head-related transfer functions.

  1. The Human Factors of Sensor Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    humans tend to use a combination of deductive and inductive logic, as well as intuition and emotion to reach general conclusions; however, if...into a machine but only resulting in a warning or caution and not as the actual emotion felt by the observer. The element of fear induced by the...extract meaning from text or spoken language which is veiled by semantic features such as sarcasm or formalism that contain a very great amount of

  2. Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abkowitz, M.D.; Abkowitz, S.B.; Lepofsky, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors effects are evaluated on driving and loading/transfer operations only. Particular emphasis is placed on the driving function, examining the relationship between human error and safety as it relates to the impairment of driver performance. Although multi-modal in focus, the widespread availability of data and previous literature on truck operations resulted in a primary study focus on the trucking mode from the standpoint of policy development. In addition to the analysis of human factors accident statistics, the report provides relevant background material on several policies that have been instituted or are under consideration, directed at improving human reliability in the transport sector. On the basis of reported findings, preliminary policy areas are identified. 71 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Usability: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2009-01-01

    The Usability project addresses the need for research in the area of metrics and methodologies used in hardware and software usability testing in order to define quantifiable and verifiable usability requirements. A usability test is a human-in-the-loop evaluation where a participant works through a realistic set of representative tasks using the hardware/software under investigation. The purpose of this research is to define metrics and methodologies for measuring and verifying usability in the aerospace domain in accordance with FY09 focus on errors, consistency, and mobility/maneuverability. Usability metrics must be predictive of success with the interfaces, must be easy to obtain and/or calculate, and must meet the intent of current Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Methodologies must work within the constraints of the aerospace domain, be cost and time efficient, and be able to be applied without extensive specialized training.

  4. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  5. Human factors in resuscitation: Lessons learned from simulator studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunziker S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical algorithms, technical skills, and repeated training are the classical cornerstones for successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Increasing evidence suggests that human factors, including team interaction, communication, and leadership, also influence the performance of CPR. Guidelines, however, do not yet include these human factors, partly because of the difficulties of their measurement in real-life cardiac arrest. Recently, clinical studies of cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity video-assisted simulations have provided opportunities to better delineate the influence of human factors on resuscitation team performance. This review focuses on evidence from simulator studies that focus on human factors and their influence on the performance of resuscitation teams. Similar to studies in real patients, simulated cardiac arrest scenarios revealed many unnecessary interruptions of CPR as well as significant delays in defibrillation. These studies also showed that human factors play a major role in these shortcomings and that the medical performance depends on the quality of leadership and team-structuring. Moreover, simulated video-taped medical emergencies revealed that a substantial part of information transfer during communication is erroneous. Understanding the impact of human factors on the performance of a complex medical intervention like resuscitation requires detailed, second-by-second, analysis of factors involving the patient, resuscitative equipment such as the defibrillator, and all team members. Thus, high-fidelity simulator studies provide an important research method in this challenging field.

  6. Numerical model of heat transfer in the human eye with consideration of fluid dynamics of the aqueous humour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampatzakis, Andreas; Samaras, Theodoros, E-mail: theosama@auth.g [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-10-07

    In this work we present a new 3D numerical model for heat transfer in the human eye, which takes into account the aqueous humour flow in the anterior chamber. We show that consideration of this phenomenon in the calculations alters the temperature distribution on the corneal and lens surfaces, without, however, noticeably changing their absolute values. The most notable effect is that the coolest area of the cornea moves at a point of 2 mm inferior to its geometric centre. The maximum velocity of the fluid in the anterior chamber was found to be 3.36 x 10{sup -4} m s{sup -1}. The effect of the flow on displacing the cool area of the corneal surface temperature is counterbalanced by assuming anisotropic thermal conductivity. The model was implemented in the case of an artificial intraocular lens to show the resulting temperature variations.

  7. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Factors likely to enhance mycotoxin introduction into the human diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors likely to enhance mycotoxin introduction into the human diet through maize in Kenya. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... are no strict regulations that impose limits on the concentration of mycotoxins in ...

  9. An Integrated Simulation System for Human Factors Study

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ying; Bennis, Fouad; Chablat, Damien

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that virtual reality can be a useful tool for ergonomics study. The proposed integrated simulation system aims at measuring operator's performance in an interactive way for 2D control panel design. By incorporating some sophisticated virtual reality hardware/software, the system allows natural human-system and/or human-human interaction in a simulated virtual environment; enables dynamic objective measurement of human performance; and evaluates the quality of the system design in human factors perspective based on the measurement. It can also be for operation training for some 2D control panels.

  10. Considerations in applying compressed sensing to in vivo phosphorus MR spectroscopic imaging of human brain at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatay, Gokce Hale; Yildirim, Muhammed; Ozturk-Isik, Esin

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply compressed sensing method for accelerated phosphorus MR spectroscopic imaging ((31)P-MRSI) of human brain in vivo at 3T. Fast (31)P-MRSI data of five volunteers were acquired on a 3T clinical MR scanner using pulse-acquire sequence with a pseudorandom undersampling pattern for a data reduction factor of 5.33 and were reconstructed using compressed sensing. Additionally, simulated (31)P-MRSI human brain tumor datasets were created to analyze the effects of k-space sampling pattern, data matrix size, regularization parameters of the reconstruction, and noise on the compressed sensing accelerated (31)P-MRSI data. The (31)P metabolite peak ratios of the full and compressed sensing accelerated datasets of healthy volunteers in vivo were similar according to the results of a Bland-Altman test. The estimated effective spatial resolution increased with reduction factor and sampling more at the k-space center. A lower regularization parameter for both total variation and L1-norm penalties resulted in a better compressed sensing reconstruction of (31)P-MRSI. Although the root-mean-square error increased with noise levels, the compressed sensing reconstruction was robust for up to a reduction factor of 10 for the simulated data that had sharply defined tumor borders. As a result, compressed sensing was successfully applied to accelerate (31)P-MRSI of human brain in vivo at 3T.

  11. Considerations Related To Human Intrusion In The Context Of Disposal Of Radioactive Waste-The IAEA HIDRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger; Kumano, Yumiko; Bailey, Lucy; Markley, Chris; Andersson, Eva; Beuth, Thomas

    2014-01-09

    The principal approaches for management of radioactive waste are commonly termed ‘delay and decay’, ‘concentrate and contain’ and ‘dilute and disperse’. Containing the waste and isolating it from the human environment, by burying it, is considered to increase safety and is generally accepted as the preferred approach for managing radioactive waste. However, this approach results in concentrated sources of radioactive waste contained in one location, which can pose hazards should the facility be disrupted by human action in the future. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) agree that some form of inadvertent human intrusion (HI) needs to be considered to address the potential consequences in the case of loss of institutional control and loss of memory of the disposal facility. Requirements are reflected in national regulations governing radioactive waste disposal. However, in practice, these requirements are often different from country to country, which is then reflected in the actual implementation of HI as part of a safety case. The IAEA project on HI in the context of Disposal of RadioActive waste (HIDRA) has been started to identify potential areas for improved consistency in consideration of HI. The expected outcome is to provide recommendations on how to address human actions in the safety case in the future, and how the safety case may be used to demonstrate robustness and optimize siting, design and waste acceptance criteria within the context of a safety case.

  12. Advanced Human Factors Engineering Tool Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-20

    the mail and telephone surveys. The authors would also like to extend a special thanks to Mr. David Rose of the Naval Air Development Center for his...ADVANCED NUNAN FACTORS ENGINEERING TOOL TECHNOLOGIES 3/3 (U) CARLON ASSOCIATES INC FAIRFAX Yff S A FLEGER ET AL. UNCLRS 20 NAR B? DARI5-BS-C-NO64 WIL...34" ".--: :’-...2,,. ,..:,.- ,’-"-’:"- "’-::"-,2 ., ..,," ,.- ..’.-.-.’.-,-. : .....v. _ *’--..., ...-- ,,. - -.; , :¢ 4., 5 5 lPeter laines Mr. David M. Ilarrah

  13. Human Factors and Safety Considerations of Night Vision Systems Flight Using Thermal Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    divides the Sensor pack- result in nonuniform solar h ing. The tank also age into scparviely fimnctional asemblies. This has a major interna source of...Duke) Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234-6200 26 Director of Professional Services U.S. Air Force School AFMSC/GSP of Aerospace Medicina Brooks Air Force Base

  14. Simplicity in command and control systems - A human factors consideration. [for man computer interfare design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafin, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of simplicity in the man computer interface (MCI) is stressed because of the effect it has on the system containing the MCI. Results are used from an MCI study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to find an area where the system MCIs can be simplified. The circumstances under which these simplifications are appropriate are listed. The concepts of cognitive simplicity and process simplicity are presented as design alternatives for the MCI. In addition, the concepts of understandability, operation, learnability, level of learning, and usability are presented as tools for the system designer. The use of these concepts in developing a systematic MCI design is discussed.

  15. Factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon, with emphasis on human impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Aarestrup, Kim

    2008-01-01

    be delayed at natural migration barriers. Often, the magnitude of delay is not predictable; fish may be considerably delayed at barriers that appear to humans to be easily passable, or they may quickly pass barriers that appear difficult. Stressful events like catch-and-release angling may affect upstream...... migration. Impacts of human activities may also cause altered migration patterns, affect the within-river distribution of the spawning population, and severe barriers may result in displacement of the spawning population to other rivers. Factors documented to affect within-river migration include previous......We review factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon. With populations declining across the entire distribution range, it is important that spawners survive in the last phase of the spawning migration. Knowledge on the factors affecting migration is essential...

  16. Human factors assessment mechanical compression tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C. [BC Research Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    The design and use of mechanical compression tools in electrical distribution functions were examined from the point of view of effects of design and use of tools on human operators. Various alternative tools such as manual compression tools, battery operated tools, wedge pressure tools, hydraulic tools, and insulating piercing connectors were also examined for purposes of comparison. Results of the comparative assessment were summarized and a tool satisfaction ratings table was produced for Burndy MD6, Huskie-Robo (REC 258) and Ampact (small) tools, rating level of effort, fatigue experienced, tool mass, force required to crimp, ease of use, comfort while using the tool, maneuverability, and overall satisfaction. Both the battery operated tool as well as the wedge pressure tool have been found to have ergonomic advantages over the mechanical compression tool.

  17. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  19. Human Factors in Financial Trading: An Analysis of Trading Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W

    2016-09-01

    This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors-related issues in operational trading incidents. In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors-related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  20. Human Factors of Queuing: A Library Circulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Jerry W.

    1981-01-01

    Classical queuing theories and their accompanying service facilities totally disregard the human factors in the name of efficiency. As library managers we need to be more responsive to human needs in the design of service points and make every effort to minimize queuing and queue frustration. Five references are listed. (Author/RAA)

  1. Research Directory for Manpower, Personnel, Training, and Human Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Design 89 * * * HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING (lIFE) * AIR FORCE Arnaiz J* Gentex Corp 717-282-3550 Support of the Evaluation of Night Vision Devices...Command 8 48 Armstrong R Mr Human Engineering Lab 10 76 Arnaiz J* Gentex Corp 10 90 Arnold D Office of the Chief of Naval Operations 6 41 Arnold L

  2. Human Factors Throughout the Life Cycle: Lessons Learned from the Shuttle Program. [Human Factors in Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    With the ending of the Space Shuttle Program, it is critical that we not forget the Human Factors lessons we have learned over the years. At every phase of the life cycle, from manufacturing, processing and integrating vehicle and payload, to launch, flight operations, mission control and landing, hundreds of teams have worked together to achieve mission success in one of the most complex, high-risk socio-technical enterprises ever designed. Just as there was great diversity in the types of operations performed at every stage, there was a myriad of human factors that could further complicate these human systems. A single mishap or close call could point to issues at the individual level (perceptual or workload limitations, training, fatigue, human error susceptibilities), the task level (design of tools, procedures and aspects of the workplace), as well as the organizational level (appropriate resources, safety policies, information access and communication channels). While we have often had to learn through human mistakes and technological failures, we have also begun to understand how to design human systems in which individuals can excel, where tasks and procedures are not only safe but efficient, and how organizations can foster a proactive approach to managing risk and supporting human enterprises. Panelists will talk about their experiences as they relate human factors to a particular phase of the shuttle life cycle. They will conclude with a framework for tying together human factors lessons-learned into system-level risk management strategies.

  3. Development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques - Human factors design and evaluation of the main control room of atomic power plants using visual display terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sung Ho; Chung, Min Kyun; Choi, Kyung Lim; Song, Young Woong; Eoh, Hong Joon; Lee, In Suk; Kim, Bom Soo; Yeo, Yun Shin; Lee, Haeo Sun [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This study was conducted to build a prototype of the operator interface on a visual display terminal, and to provide a framework for using and applying prototyping techniques. A typical subsystem of an MCR was prototyped and validated by operator testing. Lessons learned during the development as well as prototyping techniques were described in this report for an efficient development. In addition, human factors experimental plans were surveyed and summarized for evaluating new design alternatives as well as the current design of the operator interface. The major results of this study are listed as follow: A method for designing an operator interface prototype on a VDT, A prototype of the operator interface of a typical subsystem, Guidelines for applying prototyping techniques, Characteristics and major considerations of experimental plans, Guidelines for applying prototyping techniques, Characteristics and major considerations of experimental plans, Guidelines for analyzing experimental data, A paradigm for human factors experimentation including experimental designs, procedures, and data analyses. 27 refs., 60 tabs., 47 figs. (author)

  4. The productivity from a human perspective: Dimensions and factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Marvel Cequea

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the literature, for both theoretical foundations and empirical research, in order to establish relationships between the variables related to human factors and their impact on productivity.Design/methodology/approach: The strategy employed corresponds to a descriptive non-experimental design, which is the establishment of three criteria for the literature review, in order to narrow down the topic to research works relating productivity with the human factor. This was investigated in databases and journals dealing with related topics, in addition to consulting doctoral theses and published books concerning the influence of human factors on productivity. About 250 papers which were considered the most relevant for the research were selected.Findings:  As a result of this exploration the classification of the factors in two dimensions that are manifested in people when they act in organizations was highlighted: the psychological and the psychosocial dimension. Human factors included in these dimensions are: individual factors (motivation, skills, job satisfaction, identification, commitment and involvement with the organization, group factors (participation, cohesion and management conflict and organizational factors (organizational culture, organizational climate and leadership. All these factors have an impact on the productivity of the organization and are addressed in this research.Originality/value: The selected variables were used to formulate a model that incorporates the human factors identified and considers the phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. It will be addressed through multivariate analysis, with the possible application of structural equations in order to assess the causal relationships that may exist between factors and productivity.

  5. Ethical consideration of experimentation using living human embryos: the Catholic Church's position on human embryonic stem cell research and human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, N

    2003-01-01

    Although the potential applications of human embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning hold promise for the alleged medical benefits, these technologies have posed profound ethical issues because they necessitate the destruction of human embryos. A fundamental point in the issues is the concept of the moral status of human embryos. The Catholic Church has held that human life begins at the moment of conception and therefore, has defended the dignity, inviolable right to life and integrity of human embryos. The Catholic Church has opposed human embryonic stem cell research and any kind of human cloning because they are contrary to the dignity of procreation, of conjugal union and of human embryos. Moreover, these techniques have the risk of creating a sub-category of human beings that are destined basically for the convenience of others. In conclusion, science and technology can never be independent of the criterion of morality, since technology exists for man and must respect his finality.

  6. 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), and NASA Headquarters on November 17, 2014 (list of participants is in Section XI of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (HAB Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design (Task Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk).

  7. Effectiveness of human factors simulator; Eficiencia del simulador de factores humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moragas, F.

    2015-07-01

    En 2011, ANAV started the exploitation of the Human Factors Simulator installed in TECNATOM Training Center located in L'Hospital de L'Infant Tarragona. AVAN's Strategic Plan includes the Action Plan for the improvement of human behavior. The plan includes improving the efficiency of the efficiency of the human factors simulator. It is proposed to improve the efficiency into two different terms: winning effectiveness in modeling behaviors, and interweaving the activities in the simulator with the actual strategy of promoting Safety culture and human behaviour. (Author)

  8. Discovery of insect and human dengue virus host factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, October M; Barrows, Nicholas J; Souza-Neto, Jayme A; Robinson, Timothy J; Hershey, Christine L; Rodgers, Mary A; Ramirez, Jose L; Dimopoulos, George; Yang, Priscilla L; Pearson, James L; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A

    2009-04-23

    Dengue fever is the most frequent arthropod-borne viral disease of humans, with almost half of the world's population at risk of infection. The high prevalence, lack of an effective vaccine, and absence of specific treatment conspire to make dengue fever a global public health threat. Given their compact genomes, dengue viruses (DENV-1-4) and other flaviviruses probably require an extensive number of host factors; however, only a limited number of human, and an even smaller number of insect host factors, have been identified. Here we identify insect host factors required for DENV-2 propagation, by carrying out a genome-wide RNA interference screen in Drosophila melanogaster cells using a well-established 22,632 double-stranded RNA library. This screen identified 116 candidate dengue virus host factors (DVHFs). Although some were previously associated with flaviviruses (for example, V-ATPases and alpha-glucosidases), most of the DVHFs were newly implicated in dengue virus propagation. The dipteran DVHFs had 82 readily recognizable human homologues and, using a targeted short-interfering-RNA screen, we showed that 42 of these are human DVHFs. This indicates notable conservation of required factors between dipteran and human hosts. This work suggests new approaches to control infection in the insect vector and the mammalian host.

  9. Integrating human factors research and surgery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouhed, Daniel; Gewertz, Bruce; Wiegmann, Doug; Catchpole, Ken

    2012-12-01

    To provide a review of human factors research within the context of surgery. We searched PubMed for relevant studies published from the earliest available date through February 29, 2012. The search was performed using the following keywords: human factors, surgery, errors, teamwork, communication, stress, disruptions, interventions, checklists, briefings, and training. Additional articles were identified by a manual search of the references from the key articles. As 2 human factors specialists, a senior clinician, and a junior clinician, we carefully selected the most appropriate exemplars of research findings with specific relevance to surgical error and safety. Seventy-seven articles of relevance were selected and reviewed in detail. Opinion pieces and editorials were disregarded; the focus was solely on articles based on empirical evidence, with a particular emphasis on prospectively designed studies. The themes that emerged related to the development of human factors theories, the application of those theories within surgery, a specific interest in the concept of flow, and the theoretical basis and value of human-related interventions for improving safety and flow in surgery. Despite increased awareness of safety, errors routinely continue to occur in surgical care. Disruptions in the flow of an operation, such as teamwork and communication failures, contribute significantly to such adverse events. While it is apparent that some incidence of human error is unavoidable, there is much evidence in medicine and other fields that systems can be better designed to prevent or detect errors before a patient is harmed. The complexity of factors leading to surgical errors requires collaborations between surgeons and human factors experts to carry out the proper prospective and observational studies. Only when we are guided by this valid and real-world data can useful interventions be identified and implemented.

  10. Applying human factors to the design of control centre and workstation of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Goncalves, Gabriel de L., E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Tamara D.M.F.; Falcao, Mariana A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Desenho Industrial

    2013-07-01

    Human factors is a body of scientific factors about human characteristics, covering biomedical, psychological and psychosocial considerations, including principles and applications in the personnel selection areas, training, job performance aid tools and human performance evaluation. Control Centre is a combination of control rooms, control suites and local control stations which are functionally related and all on the same site. Digital control room includes an arrangement of systems, equipment such as computers and communication terminals and workstations at which control and monitoring functions are conducted by operators. Inadequate integration between control room and operators reduces safety, increases the operation complexity, complicates operator training and increases the likelihood of human errors occurrence. The objective of this paper is to present a specific approach for the conceptual and basic design of the control centre and workstation of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards, guidelines and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the conceptual and basic phases of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary team, an initial sketch 3D of the control centre and workstation are being developed. (author)

  11. 77 FR 3500 - VTECH Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, OR; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, OR; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To... the subject firm should read VTech Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, Oregon... VTech Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, Oregon. The intent of the...

  12. Ethical and legal considerations regarding the ownership and commercial use of human biological materials and their derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrini C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlo PetriniItalian National Institute of Health, Rome, ItalyAbstract: This article considers some of the ethical and legal issues relating to the ownership and use – including for commercial purposes – of biological material and products derived from humans. The discussion is divided into three parts: after first examining the general notion of ownership, it moves to the particular case of possible commercial use, and finally reflects on the case in point in the light of the preceding considerations. Units of cord blood donated altruistically for transplantation and which are found unsuitable for storage and transplantation, or which become unsuitable while stored in biobanks, are taken as an example. These cord-blood units can be discarded together with other biological waste, or they can be used for research or the development of blood-derived products such as platelet gel. Several ethical questions (eg, informed consent, property, distribution of profits, and others arise from these circumstances. In this regard, some criteria and limits to use are proposed.Keywords: bioethics, biological specimen banks, cord-blood stem cell transplantation, ethics, informed consent, legislation

  13. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A. [TECNATOM SA, BWR General Electric Business Manager, Madrid (Spain); Valdivia, J.C. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Project Manager, Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Div. Manager, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)

  14. Automotive Technology and Human Factors Research: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyuki Akamatsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of automotive technology development and human factors research, largely by decade, since the inception of the automobile. The human factors aspects were classified into primary driving task aspects (controls, displays, and visibility, driver workspace (seating and packaging, vibration, comfort, and climate, driver’s condition (fatigue and impairment, crash injury, advanced driver-assistance systems, external communication access, and driving behavior. For each era, the paper describes the SAE and ISO standards developed, the major organizations and conferences established, the major news stories affecting vehicle safety, and the general social context. The paper ends with a discussion of what can be learned from this historical review and the major issues to be addressed. A major contribution of this paper is more than 180 references that represent the foundation of automotive human factors, which should be considered core knowledge and should be familiar to those in the profession.

  15. Human factors engineering plan for reviewing nuclear plant modernization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, John; Higgins, James [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plants (NPPs) involved in the modernization of the plant systems and control rooms. The purpose of a HFE review is to help ensure personnel and public safety by verifying that accepted HFE practices and guidelines are incorporated into the program and nuclear power plant design. Such a review helps to ensure the HFE aspects of an NPP are developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The review addresses eleven HFE elements: HFE Program Management, Operating Experience Review, Functional Requirements Analysis and Allocation, Task Analysis, Staffing, Human Reliability Analysis, Human-System Interface Design, Procedure Development, Training Program Development, Human Factors Verification and Validation, and Design Implementation.

  16. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Kramer, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  17. Human Factors and Habitability Challenges for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2015-01-01

    As NASA is planning to send humans deeper into space than ever before, adequate crew health and performance will be critical for mission success. Within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) team is responsible for characterizing the risks associated with human capabilities and limitations with respect to long-duration spaceflight, and for providing mitigations (e.g., guidelines, technologies, and tools) to promote safe, reliable and productive missions. SHFH research includes three domains: Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), Advanced Food Technology (AFT), and Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE). The AEH portfolio focuses on understanding the risk of microbial contamination of the spacecraft and on the development of standards for exposure to potential toxins such as chemicals, bacteria, fungus, and lunar/Martian dust. The two risks that the environmental health project focuses on are adverse health effects due to changes in host-microbe interactions, and risks associated with exposure to dust in planetary surface habitats. This portfolio also proposes countermeasures to these risks by making recommendations that relate to requirements for environmental quality, foods, and crew health on spacecraft and space missions. The AFT portfolio focuses on reducing the mass, volume, and waste of the entire integrated food system to be used in exploration missions, and investigating processing methods to extend the shelf life of food items up to five years, while assuring that exploration crews will have nutritious and palatable foods. The portfolio also delivers improvements in both the food itself and the technologies for storing and preparing it. SHFE sponsors research to establish human factors and habitability standards and guidelines in five risk areas, and provides improved design concepts for advanced crew interfaces and habitability systems. These risk areas include: Incompatible vehicle/habitat design

  18. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tiffaney Miller

    2017-01-01

    Research results have shown that more than half of aviation, aerospace and aeronautics mishaps incidents are attributed to human error. As a part of Quality within space exploration ground processing operations, the identification and or classification of underlying contributors and causes of human error must be identified, in order to manage human error.This presentation will provide a framework and methodology using the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), as an analysis tool to identify contributing factors, their impact on human error events, and predict the Human Error probabilities (HEPs) of future occurrences. This research methodology was applied (retrospectively) to six (6) NASA ground processing operations scenarios and thirty (30) years of Launch Vehicle related mishap data. This modifiable framework can be used and followed by other space and similar complex operations.

  19. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  20. How Many Performance Shaping Factors are Necessary for Human Reliability Analysis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2010-06-01

    It has been argued that human reliability analysis (HRA) has expended considerable energy on creating detailed representations of human performance through an increasingly long list of performance shaping factors (PSFs). It is not clear, however, to what extent this refinement and expansion of PSFs has enhanced the quality of HRA. Indeed, there is considerable range in the number of PSFs provided by individual HRA methods, ranging from single factor models such as time-reliability curves, up to 50 or more PSFs in some current HRA models. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission advocates 15 PSFs in its HRA Good Practices (NUREG-1792), while its SPAR-H method (NUREG/CR-6883) espouses the use of eight PSFs and its ATHEANA method (NUREG-1624) features an open-ended number of PSFs. The apparent differences in the optimal number of PSFs can be explained in terms of the diverse functions of PSFs in HRA. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of PSFs across different stages of HRA, including identification of potential human errors, modeling of these errors into an overall probabilistic risk assessment, quantifying errors, and preventing errors.

  1. Human factors in the management of the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bion, J F; Abrusci, T; Hibbert, P

    2010-07-01

    Unreliable delivery of best practice care is a major component of medical error. Critically ill patients are particularly susceptible to error and unreliable care. Human factors analysis, widely used in industry, provides insights into how interactions between organizations, tasks, and the individual worker impact on human behaviour and affect systems reliability. We adopt a human factors approach to examine determinants of clinical reliability in the management of critically ill patients. We conducted a narrative review based on a Medline search (1950-March 2010) combining intensive/critical care (units) with medical errors, patient safety, or delivery of healthcare; keyword and Internet search 'human factors' or 'ergonomics'. Critical illness represents a high-risk, complex system spanning speciality and geographical boundaries. Substantial opportunities exist for improving the safety and reliability of care of critically ill patients at the level of the task, the individual healthcare provider, and the organization or system. Task standardization (best practice guidelines) and simplification (bundling or checklists) should be implemented where scientific evidence is strong, or adopted subject to further research ('dynamic standardization'). Technical interventions should be embedded in everyday practice by the adjunctive use of non-technical (behavioural) interventions. These include executive 'adoption' of clinical areas, systematic methods for identifying hazards and reflective learning from error, and a range of techniques for improving teamworking and communication. Human factors analysis provides a useful framework for understanding and rectifying the causes of error and unreliability, particularly in complex systems such as critical care.

  2. Patient safety - the role of human factors and systems engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety.

  3. Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

  4. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  5. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  6. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated 60-70 years ago that a critical reassessment of the basis for HFE is needed. If HFE should be a systems discipline, it should be a soft systems rather than a hard systems discipline. It is not enough for HFE to seek to improve performance and well-being through systems design, since any change to the work environment in principle alters the very basis for the change. Instead HFE should try to anticipate how the nature of work will change so that it can both foresee what work will be and propose what work should be.

  7. Comparative genomics of human stem cell factor (SCF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein Dehbashi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell factor (SCF is a critical protein with key roles in the cell such as hematopoiesis, gametogenesis and melanogenesis. In the present study a comparative analysis on nucleotide sequences of SCF was performed in Humanoids using bioinformatics tools including NCBI-BLAST, MEGA6, and JBrowse. Our analysis of nucleotide sequences to find closely evolved organisms with high similarity by NCBI-BLAST tools and MEGA6 showed that human and Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes were placed into the same cluster. By using JBrowse, we found that SCF in Neanderthal had a single copy number similar to modern human and partly conserved nucleotide sequences. Together, the results approved the gene flow and genetics similarity of SCF among human and P. troglodytes. This may suggest that during evolution, SCF gene transferred partly intact either on the basis of sequence or function from the same ancestors to P. troglodytes, the ancient human like Neanderthal, and then to the modern human.

  8. Revolutions and shifting paradigms in human factors & ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Kenneth R

    2006-07-01

    The "Revolution in Information Technology" has spawned a series of transformational revolutions in the nature and practice of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). "Generation 1" HFE evolved with a focus on adapting equipment, workplace and tasks to human capabilities and limitations. Generation 2, focused on cognitive systems integration, arose in response to the need to manage automation and dynamic function allocation. Generation 3 is focused on symbiotic technologies that can amplify human physical and cognitive capabilities. Generation 4 is emergent and is focused on biological enhancement of physical or cognitive capabilities. The shift from HFE Generations 1 and 2 to Generations 3 and 4 profoundly alters accepted boundary constraints on the adaptability of humans in complex systems design. Furthermore, it has opened an ethical divide between those that see cognitive and physical enhancement as a great benefit to society and those who perceive this as tampering with the fundamentals of human nature.

  9. Klotho is a serum factor related to human aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖能明; 张焱明; 郑权; 顾军

    2004-01-01

    Background Does klotho (KL) protein exist in human serum, and is there any correlation between KL protein in serum with human aging? In order to answer those questions, we identified KL protein in human serum and established the correlation between KL protein in human serum and aging.Methods We prepared a polyclonal antibody against human KL protein that was able to recognize the C-terminal of human secreted KL protein. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to identify KL protein in human serum.Results In Western blot, the antibody specifically recognized a 60-kD KL protein in both human and mice serum. The population aged from 0 to 91 years screened by ELISA revealed that the level of serum KL declined while age increased, though each individual level was variable and that the trend of decreasing in serum KL had no difference in sex.Conclusion Our data suggest that KL is a serum factor related to human aging.

  10. With eloquence and humanity? Human factors/ergonomics in sustainable human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dave; Barnard, Tim

    2012-12-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation given at the 18th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association in Recife, Brazil, February 2012. It considers new, and not so new, approaches and practical roles for the emerging field of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) in sustainable development (SD).The material for this article was largely drawn from the literature in the fields of human development, sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and social/environmental impact assessment. Identifying the role of HFE in SD is not a simple one and from the outset is complicated by the widely differing ideas in the sustainability literature about what exactly it is we are hoping to sustain. Is it individual companies, business models, cultures, or the carrying capacity of our planet? Or combinations of these? For the purposes of this article, certain assumptions are made, and various emerging opportunities and responsibilities associated with our changing world of work are introduced. First, there are new versions of traditional tasks for us, such as working with the people and companies in the renewable energy sectors. Beyond this, however, it is suggested that there are emerging roles for HFE professionals in transdisciplinary work where we might play our part, for example, in tackling the twinned issues of climate change and human development in areas of significant poverty. In particular we have the tools and capabilities to help define and measure what groups have reason to value, and wish to sustain. It is suggested, that to do this effectively, however, will require a philosophical shift, or perhaps just a philosophical restatement at a collective level, regarding who and what we ultimately serve.

  11. The relevance of coagulation factor X protection of adenoviruses in human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, M R; Doszpoly, A; Turner, G; Nicklin, S A; Baker, A H

    2016-07-01

    Intravenous delivery of adenoviruses is the optimal route for many gene therapy applications. Once in the blood, coagulation factor X (FX) binds to the adenovirus capsid and protects the virion from natural antibody and classical complement-mediated neutralisation in mice. However, to date, no studies have examined the relevance of this FX/viral immune protective mechanism in human samples. In this study, we assessed the effects of blocking FX on adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) activity in the presence of human serum. FX prevented human IgM binding directly to the virus. In individual human sera samples (n=25), approximately half of those screened inhibited adenovirus transduction only when the Ad5-FX interaction was blocked, demonstrating that FX protected the virus from neutralising components in a large proportion of human sera. In contrast, the remainder of sera tested had no inhibitory effects on Ad5 transduction and FX armament was not required for effective gene transfer. In human sera in which FX had a protective role, Ad5 induced lower levels of complement activation in the presence of FX. We therefore demonstrate for the first time the importance of Ad-FX protection in human samples and highlight subject variability and species-specific differences as key considerations for adenoviral gene therapy.

  12. SafetyNet. Human factors safety training on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Pedrali, M.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes user requirements to an Internet based distance learning system of human factors training, i.e. the SafetyNet prototype, within the aviation (pilots and air traffic control), maritime and medical domains. User requirements totraining have been elicited through 19 semi...

  13. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such as the underutilisation of available skills, tolerance for individual preferences, and dynamically, and informally refining a role objective while an employee is occupying a certain role. The important professional skills required by individuals to cope with these real life factors are also explored in the skills gaps management context. Moreover, these industries need a profile they refer to as Special Forces, which denotes a high calibre of worker that possesses well-developed professional skills whilst having advanced technical expertise and sufficient experience. This resource profile is required largely due to the poor management of human resource processes in practice and the current reported lack of adequate skills. Furthermore, this study refers to the recent lack of a working definition for these Special Forces leading to the omitted active development of these profiles in industry today, which appears to become a key human performance inhibiting factor.

  14. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  15. Human Factors Engineering and School Furniture: A Circular Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kenneth E.; Richardson, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    A search reveals only six articles that concern human-factors engineering as it relates to student furniture. Contacts with five school-furniture manufacturers disclose that designs were basically unaltered for years and are claimed to reflect what schools want in furniture. Proposes recommendations to design and secure furniture to meet students'…

  16. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  17. Neuroscience in ergonomics and human factors research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the possible application of neuroscientific knowledge in human factors research and pratice. Can this knowledge be implemented to improve the design and evaluation of systems and functional environments? Or - to take it one step further - could it bring about the integration of

  18. Human factors in organizational design and management VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Dhondt, S.

    1998-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management held in The Hague, The Netherlands, August 19-22, 1998. The Symposium was sponsored jointly by the International Ergonomics Society, the Dutch Ergonomics Society, NIA TNO and

  19. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  20. Human factors issues of tactice displays for military environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Self, B.P.

    2008-01-01

    The overall goal of this chapter is to give the reader insights into the human factors issues related to the use of tactile displays. Torso-mounted displays, which are particularly suited for direction and orientation cues, are emphasized. First, perceptual issues relevant to tactile stimulation are

  1. Human factors in organizational design and management VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Dhondt, S.

    1998-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management held in The Hague, The Netherlands, August 19-22, 1998. The Symposium was sponsored jointly by the International Ergonomics Society, the Dutch Ergonomics Society, NIA TNO and

  2. Human intrinsic factor expressed in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Laursen, Niels B; Nexø, Ebba

    2003-01-01

    Intrinsic factor (IF) is the gastric protein that promotes the intestinal uptake of vitamin B12. Gastric IF from animal sources is used in diagnostic tests and in vitamin pills. However, administration of animal IF to humans becomes disadvantageous because of possible pathogenic transmission...

  3. Immunolocalization of transforming growth factor alpha in normal human tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1996-01-01

    the distribution of the growth factor in a broad spectrum of normal human tissues. Indirect immunoenzymatic staining methods were used. The polypeptide was detected with a polyclonal as well as a monoclonal antibody. The polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies demonstrated almost identical immunoreactivity. TGF...

  4. Integrating human factors and artificial intelligence in the development of human-machine cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Lindenberg, J.; Neericx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing machine intelligence leads to a shift from a mere interactive to a much more complex cooperative human-machine relation requiring a multidisciplinary development approach. This paper presents a generic multidisciplinary cognitive engineering method CE+ for the integration of human factors

  5. Inhibition of the Human ABC Efflux Transporters P-gp and BCRP by the BDE-47 Hydroxylated Metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47: Considerations for Human Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchitti, Satori A; Mazur, Christopher S; Dillingham, Caleb M; Rawat, Swati; Sharma, Anshika; Zastre, Jason; Kenneke, John F

    2017-01-01

    High body burdens of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in infants and young children have led to increased concern over their potential impact on human development. PBDE exposure can alter the expression of genes involved in thyroid homeostasis, including those of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which mediate cellular xenobiotic efflux. However, little information exists on how PBDEs interact with ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interactions of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and its hydroxylated metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 with P-gp and BCRP, using human MDR1- and BCRP-expressing membrane vesicles and stably transfected NIH-3T3-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells. In P-gp membranes, BDE-47 did not affect P-gp activity; however, 6-OH-BDE-47 inhibited P-gp activity at low µM concentrations (IC50 = 11.7 µM). In BCRP membranes, BDE-47 inhibited BCRP activity; however, 6-OH-BDE-47 was a stronger inhibitor [IC50 = 45.9 µM (BDE-47) vs. IC50 = 9.4 µM (6-OH-BDE-47)]. Intracellular concentrations of known P-gp and BCRP substrates [((3)H)-paclitaxel and ((3)H)-prazosin, respectively] were significantly higher (indicating less efflux) in NIH-3T3-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells in the presence of 6-OH-BDE-47, but not BDE-47. Collectively, our results indicate that the BDE-47 metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 is an inhibitor of both P-gp and BCRP efflux activity. These findings suggest that some effects previously attributed to BDE-47 in biological systems may actually be due to 6-OH-BDE-47. Considerations for human exposure are discussed.

  6. A Keyword Analysis for Human Resource Management Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Kürşad ÖZLEN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the constant increasing in technology and education, with development of multinational corporations and frequent changes in economic status and structures, Human Resources become the most crucial, the most reliable and necessary department. Moreover, in many companies, Human Resource Department is the most important department. The main purpose of this research is to mark off top rated factors related with Human Resource Management by analyzing all the abstracts of the published papers of a Human Resource Management journal for the period between the first issue of 2005 and the first issue of 2013. We identified the most frequent categories of the articles during this analyzed period. The literature is reviewed according to the identified factors related to Human Resource Management. If the keywords about Human Resources (35,7 % is not considered, it is observed that the researches, for the selected period, have organizational approach (39,2 % (Management, organizational strategy, organizational performance, organizational culture, contextual issues, technical issues and location and from the individual approach (24,4 % (Individual performance, training and education, employee rights, and behavioral issues. Furthermore, it is also observed that the researchers (a mainly give importance to the practice more than the theory and (b consider the organization more than the individual.

  7. An Illumination Modeling System for Human Factors Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Thong; Maida, James C.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Seeing is critical to human performance. Lighting is critical for seeing. Therefore, lighting is critical to human performance. This is common sense, and here on earth, it is easily taken for granted. However, on orbit, because the sun will rise or set every 45 minutes on average, humans working in space must cope with extremely dynamic lighting conditions. Contrast conditions of harsh shadowing and glare is also severe. The prediction of lighting conditions for critical operations is essential. Crew training can factor lighting into the lesson plans when necessary. Mission planners can determine whether low-light video cameras are required or whether additional luminaires need to be flown. The optimization of the quantity and quality of light is needed because of the effects on crew safety, on electrical power and on equipment maintainability. To address all of these issues, an illumination modeling system has been developed by the Graphics Research and Analyses Facility (GRAF) and Lighting Environment Test Facility (LETF) in the Space Human Factors Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center. The system uses physically based ray tracing software (Radiance) developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, a human factors oriented geometric modeling system (PLAID) and an extensive database of humans and environments. Material reflectivity properties of major surfaces and critical surfaces are measured using a gonio-reflectometer. Luminaires (lights) are measured for beam spread distribution, color and intensity. Video camera performances are measured for color and light sensitivity. 3D geometric models of humans and the environment are combined with the material and light models to form a system capable of predicting lighting conditions and visibility conditions in space.

  8. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at

  9. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Chapman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a situation-specific hazards, and (b the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of WHS to prevent horse-related injury by discussing effective evidence-based guidelines and regulatory monitoring for equestrian sectors. It suggests that the WHS framework has significant potential not only to reduce the occurrence and likelihood of horse-related human accident and injury, but to enable systematic accident analysis and investigation of horse-related adverse events.

  10. Does human cognition allow Human Factors (HF) certification of advanced aircrew systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Iain S.; Taylor, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper has examined the requirements of HF specification and certification within advanced or complex aircrew systems. It suggests reasons for current inadequacies in the use of HF in the design process, giving some examples in support, and suggesting an avenue towards the improvement of the HF certification process. The importance of human cognition to the operation and performance of advanced aircrew systems has been stressed. Many of the shortfalls of advanced aircrew systems must be attributed to over automated designs that show little consideration on either the mental limits or the cognitive capabilities of the human system component. Traditional approaches to system design and HF certification are set within an over physicalistic foundation. Also, traditionally it was assumed that physicalistic system functions could be attributed to either the human or the machine on a one to one basis. Moreover, any problems associated with the parallel needs, or promoting human understanding alongside system operation and direction, were generally equated in reality by the natural flexibility and adaptability of human skills. The consideration of the human component of a complex system is seen as being primarily based on manifestations of human behavior to the almost total exclusion of any appreciation of unobservable human mental and cognitive processes. The argument of this paper is that the considered functionality of any complex human-machine system must contain functions that are purely human and purely cognitive. Human-machine system reliability ultimately depends on human reliability and dependability and, therefore, on the form and frequency of cognitive processes that have to be conducted to support system performance. The greater the demand placed by an advanced aircraft system on the human component's basic knowledge processes or cognition, rather than on skill, the more insiduous the effects the human may have on that system. This paper discusses one

  11. Human and organizational factors in nuclear safety; Factores humanos y organizativos en la seguridad nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.; Barrientos, M.; Gil, B.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear installations are socio technical systems where human and organizational factors, in both utilities and regulators, have a significant impact on safety. Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, original of several initiatives in the human factors field, nevertheless became a lost opportunity to timely acquire lessons related to the upper tiers of the system. Nowadays, Spanish nuclear installations have integrated in their processes specialists and activities in human and organizational factors, promoted by the licensees After many years of hard work, Spanish installations have achieved a better position to face new challenges, such as those posed by Fukushima. With this experience, only technology-centered action plan would not be acceptable, turning this accident in yet another lost opportunity. (Author)

  12. Human Factors Issues For Multi-Modular Reactor Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q Tran; Humberto E. Garcia; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Bruce P. Hallbert

    2007-08-01

    Smaller and multi-modular reactor (MMR) will be highly technologically-advanced systems allowing more system flexibility to reactors configurations (e.g., addition/deletion of reactor units). While the technical and financial advantages of systems may be numerous, MMR presents many human factors challenges that may pose vulnerability to plant safety. An important human factors challenge in MMR operation and performance is the monitoring of data from multiple plants from centralized control rooms where human operators are responsible for interpreting, assessing, and responding to different system’s states and failures (e.g., simultaneously monitoring refueling at one plant while keeping an eye on another plant’s normal operating state). Furthermore, the operational, safety, and performance requirements for MMR can seriously change current staffing models and roles, the mode in which information is displayed, procedures and training to support and guide operators, and risk analysis. For these reasons, addressing human factors concerns in MMR are essential in reducing plant risk.

  13. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered.

  14. Human factors for the Moon: the gap in anthropometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Foing, Bernard H.; Rittweger, Joern; Masali, Melchiorre; Stevenin, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Since the space era began, we learned first to survive and then to live in space. In the state of the art, we know how important human factors research and development is to guarantee maximum safety and performance for human missions. With the extension of the duration of space missions, we also need to learn how habitability and comfort factors are closely related to safety and performance. Humanities disciplines such as design, architecture, anthropometry, and anthropology are now involved in mission design from the start. Actual plans for building a simulated Moon village in order to simulate and test Moon missions are now being carried out using a holistic approach, involving multidisciplinary experts cooperating concurrently with regard to the interactions among humans, technology, and the environment. However, in order to implement such plans, we need basic anthropometrical data, which is still missing. In other words: to optimize performance, we need to create doors and ceilings with dimensions that support a natural human movement in the reduced gravity environment of the Moon, but we are lacking detailed anthropometrical data on human movement on the Moon. In the Apollo missions more than 50 years ago, no anthropometrical studies were carried in hypogravity out as far as we know. The necessity to collect data is very consistent with state-of-the-art research. We still have little knowledge of how people will interact with the Moon environment. Specifically, it is not known exactly which posture, which kind of walking and running motions astronauts will use both inside and outside a Moon station. Considering recent plans for a Moon mission where humans will spend extensive time in reduced gravity conditions, the need for anthropometric, biomechanics and kinematics field data is a priority in order to be able to design the right architecture, infrastructure, and interfaces. Objective of this paper: Bring knowledge on the relevance of anthropometrical and

  15. What Is the Predictive Value of Animal Models for Vaccine Efficacy in Humans? Consideration of Strategies to Improve the Value of Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herati, Ramin Sedaghat; Wherry, E John

    2017-03-27

    Animal models are an essential feature of the vaccine design toolkit. Although animal models have been invaluable in delineating the mechanisms of immune function, their precision in predicting how well specific vaccines work in humans is often suboptimal. There are, of course, many obvious species differences that may limit animal models from predicting all details of how a vaccine works in humans. However, careful consideration of which animal models may have limitations should also allow more accurate interpretations of animal model data and more accurate predictions of what is to be expected in clinical trials. In this article, we examine some of the considerations that might be relevant to cross-species extrapolation of vaccine-related immune responses for the prediction of how vaccines will perform in humans.

  16. My 20 years of experience in the human factors field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnino, A. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

    1992-01-01

    My first encounter with human factors happened in early 1973: I was performing a reliability assessment of the safety injection system of the Fessenheim reactor, and I found that the operators had to switch to the recirculation phase manually and had only 6 min between the low and low-low level alarm indicating that the water tank was empty. It of course led us to replace this manual action by an automatic positioning for the recirculation phase. In July of the same year, I attended a North Atlantic Treaty Organization workshop in Liverpool on reliability assessment, and I met Alan Swain from the United States and Jens Rasmussen from Denmark. During the long rainy evenings of the seminar, we had time to discuss human errors and human factors, and that was the beginning of a very fruitful collaboration between us. I realized then the complexity of the problem. Quantification needs were obvious for reliability and risk assessment studies, but, at the same time, there were needs for better understanding of human behavior and the mechanisms that could lead to human errors. Knowledge of the man-machine interface also seemed very poor, although some basic ergonomic rules were available and could be applied. But a major problem was the lack of data.

  17. An expansive human regulatory lexicon encoded in transcription factor footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neph, Shane; Vierstra, Jeff; Stergachis, Andrew B; Reynolds, Alex P; Haugen, Eric; Vernot, Benjamin; Thurman, Robert E; John, Sam; Sandstrom, Richard; Johnson, Audra K; Maurano, Matthew T; Humbert, Richard; Rynes, Eric; Wang, Hao; Vong, Shinny; Lee, Kristen; Bates, Daniel; Diegel, Morgan; Roach, Vaughn; Dunn, Douglas; Neri, Jun; Schafer, Anthony; Hansen, R Scott; Kutyavin, Tanya; Giste, Erika; Weaver, Molly; Canfield, Theresa; Sabo, Peter; Zhang, Miaohua; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; MacCoss, Michael J; Akey, Joshua M; Bender, M A; Groudine, Mark; Kaul, Rajinder; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

    2012-09-06

    Regulatory factor binding to genomic DNA protects the underlying sequence from cleavage by DNase I, leaving nucleotide-resolution footprints. Using genomic DNase I footprinting across 41 diverse cell and tissue types, we detected 45 million transcription factor occupancy events within regulatory regions, representing differential binding to 8.4 million distinct short sequence elements. Here we show that this small genomic sequence compartment, roughly twice the size of the exome, encodes an expansive repertoire of conserved recognition sequences for DNA-binding proteins that nearly doubles the size of the human cis-regulatory lexicon. We find that genetic variants affecting allelic chromatin states are concentrated in footprints, and that these elements are preferentially sheltered from DNA methylation. High-resolution DNase I cleavage patterns mirror nucleotide-level evolutionary conservation and track the crystallographic topography of protein-DNA interfaces, indicating that transcription factor structure has been evolutionarily imprinted on the human genome sequence. We identify a stereotyped 50-base-pair footprint that precisely defines the site of transcript origination within thousands of human promoters. Finally, we describe a large collection of novel regulatory factor recognition motifs that are highly conserved in both sequence and function, and exhibit cell-selective occupancy patterns that closely parallel major regulators of development, differentiation and pluripotency.

  18. Human cytomegalovirus IE2 protein interacts with transcription activating factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Jinping(徐进平); YE; Linbai(叶林柏)

    2002-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IE86 Cdna was cloned into Pgex-2T and fusion protein GST-IE86 was expressed in E. Coli. SDS-PAGE and Western blot assay indicated that fusion protein GST-IE86 with molecular weight of 92 ku is soluble in the supernatant of cell lysate. Protein GST and fusion protein GST-IE86 were purified by affinity chromatography. The technology of co-separation and specific affinity chromatography was used to study the interactions of HCMV IE86 protein with some transcriptional regulatory proteins and transcriptional factors. The results indicated that IE86 interacts separately with transcriptional factor TFIIB and promoter DNA binding transcription trans-activating factors SP1, AP1 and AP2 to form a heterogenous protein complex. These transcriptional trans-activating factors, transcriptional factor and IE86 protein were adsorbed and retained in the affinity chromatography simultaneously. But IE86 protein could not interact with NF-Кb, suggesting that the function of IE86 protein that can interact with transcriptional factor and transcriptional trans-activating factors has no relevance to protein glycosylation. IE86 protein probably has two domains responsible for binding transcriptional trans-activating regulatory proteins and transcriptional factors respectively, thus activating the transcription of many genes. The interactions accelerated the assembly of the transcriptional initiation complexes.

  19. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Iyengar, G.V. [Biomineral Sciences International, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  20. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  1. Transcription of human respiratory syncytial virus genome RNA in vitro: requirement of cellular factor(s).

    OpenAIRE

    Barik, S

    1992-01-01

    Extracts made from human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-infected Hep-2 cells synthesized mRNAs encoded by all known viral genes. In contrast, RSV ribonucleoproteins purified from infected cells failed to transcribe in vitro; transcription was restored by addition of a cytoplasmic extract of uninfected Hep-2 cells, demonstrating that a cellular factor(s) has a role in RSV gene expression. Quantitation of the individual gene mRNAs transcribed in vitro revealed polarity of transcription of th...

  2. Vancouver Experience of Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Alistair; Penner, Murray; Montijo, Harvey E

    2016-12-01

    Joint arthrodesis utilizing autogenous bone graft remains the gold standard of treatment in fusion procedures of the foot and ankle. Graft harvest, however, has been associated with increased morbidity to patients as well as increased costs. With this in mind, multiple clinical studies have evaluated the efficacy of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rh-PDGF-BB) with beta-tricalcium phosphate (B-TCP) to augment in foot and ankle arthrodesis with favorable results. These factors have led to the increased use of rh-PDGF-BB with B-TCP in Vancouver with good clinical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors which influence the cardiac surgeon's decision not to operate on patients referred for consideration of surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaprakasam Rajesh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to document what proportion of patients referred for consideration of cardiac surgery are turned down, the reasons given for not operating and also to evaluate what happens to those patients who do not undergo surgery. Methods 382 elective patients referred for consideration of cardiac surgery to one of six consultant cardiac surgeons at Wythenshawe Hospital during a one year period from were included in the study. Data for those patients who underwent an operation were collected prospectively in a cardiac surgery database. The case notes of those patients who did not undergo an operation were reviewed to establish reasons given by surgeons for not operating. Patients were followed up to determine vital status at the end of the study period. Results 333 (87.2% patients underwent an operation and 49 (12.8% did not. 68% of patients turned down were thought to be too high-risk. 14% of patients did not fulfill symptomatic or prognostic criteria for surgery and in 8% of patients coronary artery surgery was thought ineffective due to poor distal vessels. 6% of patients declined an operation and 4% were thought to be more suitable for coronary angioplasty. Patients turned down for surgery had more renal dysfunction (p = 0.017, respiratory disease (p Conclusion 12.8% of patients referred for consideration of cardiac surgery did not undergo an operation. Two thirds of patients not accepted for surgery were thought too high risk. Those patients who did not undergo an operation had a significantly worse mortality.

  4. Tissue localization of human trefoil factors 1, 2, and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Ole; Tornøe, Ida

    2007-01-01

    pattern of the three trefoil factors analyzing mRNA from a panel of 20 human tissues by conventional reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR and, in addition, by real-time PCR. These findings were supported by immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human tissues using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised...... against these factors. TFF1 showed highest expression in the stomach and colon, whereas TFF2 and TFF3 showed highest expression in stomach and colon, respectively. All three TFFs were found in the ducts of pancreas. Whereas TFF2 was found to be restricted to these two tissues, the structurally more...... closely related TFF1 and TFF3 showed a more general tissue distribution and were found to colocalize on an array of mucosal surfaces. This is the first thorough parallel description of the tissue distribution of TFFs in normal tissues, and it provides a baseline for similar analysis in diseased tissues...

  5. The Partial Purification of Angiogenesis Factor of Human Osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUHua; DENGZhongduan; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective To partially purify the angiogenesis factor of human osteosarcoma(HuOs) and study its biological features. Methods The active peptide with a molecular weight of 8000-10000 Da in the conditioned medium obtained from the cultivation of Hu-Os cells(osteoblastic osteosarcoma) was partially purified by ultrafiltration, chromatography and dialysis.The angiogenic effects of the fractions were assessed by proliferation assay of human umbilical vein and pig thoracic aorta endothelial cells. Results The chromatography fractions 4-6 could significantly promote the proliferation of the endothelial cells.Conclusion The HuOs cells could synthesize and secrete angiogenesis factor with a molecular weight of 8000-10000 Da.

  6. Linking human factors to corporate strategy with cognitive mapping techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Greig, Michael; Salustri, Filippo A; Neumann, W Patrick

    2012-01-01

    For human factors (HF) to avoid being considered of "side-car" status, it needs to be positioned within the organization in such a way that it affects business strategies and their implementation. Tools are needed to support this effort. This paper explores the feasibility of applying a technique from operational research called cognitive mapping to link HF to corporate strategy. Using a single case study, a cognitive map is drawn to reveal the complex relationships between human factors and achieving an organization's strategic goals. Analysis of the map for central concepts and reinforcing loops enhances understanding that can lead to discrete initiatives to facilitate integration of HF. It is recommended that this technique be used with senior managers to understand the organizations` strategic goals and enhance understanding of the potential for HF to contribute to the strategic goals.

  7. DNA-binding specificities of human transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolma, Arttu; Yan, Jian; Whitington, Thomas; Toivonen, Jarkko; Nitta, Kazuhiro R; Rastas, Pasi; Morgunova, Ekaterina; Enge, Martin; Taipale, Mikko; Wei, Gonghong; Palin, Kimmo; Vaquerizas, Juan M; Vincentelli, Renaud; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Hughes, Timothy R; Lemaire, Patrick; Ukkonen, Esko; Kivioja, Teemu; Taipale, Jussi

    2013-01-17

    Although the proteins that read the gene regulatory code, transcription factors (TFs), have been largely identified, it is not well known which sequences TFs can recognize. We have analyzed the sequence-specific binding of human TFs using high-throughput SELEX and ChIP sequencing. A total of 830 binding profiles were obtained, describing 239 distinctly different binding specificities. The models represent the majority of human TFs, approximately doubling the coverage compared to existing systematic studies. Our results reveal additional specificity determinants for a large number of factors for which a partial specificity was known, including a commonly observed A- or T-rich stretch that flanks the core motifs. Global analysis of the data revealed that homodimer orientation and spacing preferences, and base-stacking interactions, have a larger role in TF-DNA binding than previously appreciated. We further describe a binding model incorporating these features that is required to understand binding of TFs to DNA.

  8. Human factors issues for resolving adverse effects of human work underload and workload transitions in complex human-machine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-10-01

    A workshop was conducted whose specific purpose was to build on earlier work of the United States National Research Council, United States Federal government agencies, and the larger human factors community to: (1) clarify human factors issues pertaining to degraded performance in advanced human-machine systems (e.g., nuclear production, transportation, aerospace) due to human work underload and workload transition, and (2) develop strategies for resolving these issues. Recent history demonstrates that: (1) humans often react adversely to their diminishing roles in advanced human-machine systems, and therefore (2) new allocation models and strategies are required if humans are to be willing and able to assume diminishing and shifting roles assigned to them in these systems, and are to accept new technologies making up these systems. Problems associated with theses diminishing and shifting human roles are characterized as work underload and workload transitions. The workshop affirmed that: (1) work underload and workload transition are issues that will have to be addressed by designers of advanced human-machine systems, especially those relying on automation, if cost, performance, safety, and operator acceptability are to be optimized, (2) human machine allocation models, standards, and guidelines which go beyond simple capability approaches will be needed to preclude or seriously diminish the work underload and workload transition problems, and (3) the 16 workload definition, measurement, situational awareness, and trust issues identified during the workshop, need resolution if these models, standards, and guidelines are to be achieved.

  9. New frontiers in human assisted reproduction ‑ from research to clinical practice: Several considerations (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Venturella, Roberta; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Gangemi, Michele; D'Antona, Donato

    2016-11-01

    In the era of very late, or advanced, motherhood, in which 'egg banks', 'social' egg‑freezing, egg donation and surrogacy represent a potential solution to a number of obstacles to human reproduction, what is the role of scientists and clinicians involved in assisted reproduction? In light of the apprehension that, in the future, through fertility treatment infertility may be passed on to the offspring, boundaries of medical vs. 'social' infertility are being created. Scientists and clinicians are joining forces in a synergistic effort to improve the effectiveness of infertility care by introducing novel therapeutic protocols with the intent of customising care and improving cost‑effectiveness, testing novel drugs and formulations, and searching for novel markers (for estimating biological age) and nomograms (to optimise the yield of a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle). On the other hand, political, social and health institutions are doing little to educate young women with respect to disinformation and to increase their awareness regarding age as the predominant factor that contributes towards the decline in fertility. Nevertheless, despite the great advances that have been made, 38 years after the birth of the first baby via in vitro fertilisation, the intricate road leading from the antral follicle to the fully developed baby continues to be designated as being too 'expensive', 'empirical', 'mysterious' or 'bound by ethics', with few significant improvements in terms of real cost‑effectiveness.

  10. Soft Controls: Technical Basis and Human Factors Review Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Controlling Office is (insert controlling DoD office). NUREG /CR-6635 BNL- NUREG -52565 Soft Controls: Technical Basis and Human Factors Review Guidance...DC 20555-0001 AVAILABILITY NOTICE Availability of Reference Materials Cited in NRC Publications NRC publications in the NUREG series, NRC regu...Technical Information Service Springfield, VA 22161 -0002 <http://www.ntis.gov> 1 -800-553-6847 or locally 703-605-6000 The NUREG series

  11. The challenges for human factors in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Møller, Niels; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2011-01-01

    The development towards a service and knowledge intensive economy arise new challenges for ergonomics and human factors. Knowledge on work within mass service production exists, but the challenges within knowledge work have still to be addressed. The focus of this paper is on some of the challeng...... with the demands of the knowledge intensive work when KPI’s are central management tools. Especially handling the balance between high motivation and enthusiasm and burn out will be addressed....

  12. Purification of human platelet-derived growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes a method for purification of human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from outdated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) using commonly available laboratory reagents and yielding a mitogen purified 800,000-fold over the starting material. (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into DNA of cultured cells responsive to PDGF represents the most readily available method to follow its purification and define the biological activity of a purified preparation. Other assays to quantitate PDGF include radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay.

  13. Birds of Prey: Training Solutions to Human Factors Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) 2007 2007 Paper No. 7133 Page 1 of 12 Birds of Prey: Training...2007 2. REPORT TYPE Conference Proceedings 3. DATES COVERED 01-01-2006 to 30-11-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Birds of Prey: Training Solutions...ITSEC) 2007 2007 Paper No. 7133 Page 3 of 12 Birds of Prey: Training Solutions to Human Factors Issues Robert T. Nullmeyer Air Force Research

  14. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Human factors design methodology and integration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the recommended activities and methods to be employed by a team of human factors engineers during the development of a nuclear waste retrieval system. This system, as it is presently conceptualized, is intended to be used for the removal of storage canisters (each canister containing a spent fuel rod assembly) located in an underground salt bed depository. This document, and the others in this series, have been developed for the purpose of implementing human factors engineering principles during the design and construction of the retrieval system facilities and equipment. The methodology presented has been structured around a basic systems development effort involving preliminary development, equipment development, personnel subsystem development, and operational test and evaluation. Within each of these phases, the recommended activities of the human engineering team have been stated, along with descriptions of the human factors engineering design techniques applicable to the specific design issues. Explicit examples of how the techniques might be used in the analysis of human tasks and equipment required in the removal of spent fuel canisters have been provided. Only those techniques having possible relevance to the design of the waste retrieval system have been reviewed. This document is intended to provide the framework for integrating human engineering with the rest of the system development effort. The activities and methodologies reviewed in this document have been discussed in the general order in which they will occur, although the time frame (the total duration of the development program in years and months) in which they should be performed has not been discussed.

  15. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-. alpha. in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Masaki; Wakai, Kae; Shizume, Kazuo (Research Institute for Growth Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)); Iwashita, Mitsutoshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical College (Japan)); Ohmura, Eiji; Kamiya, Yoshinobu; Murakami, Hitomi; Onoda, Noritaka; Tsushima, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{alpha} and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-{alpha} was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-{alpha} was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-{alpha} and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-{alpha} was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-{alpha}. Although the physiological role of TGF-{alpha} in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants.

  16. The Influence of Human Factor in Aircraft Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Virovac

    2017-06-01

    during aircraft maintenance. In the EASA approved aircraft maintenance organisation, which includes in its working system the human factor as well, the tendency is to apply the approach by continuous monitoring and analysis of errors in aircraft maintenance. Such approach achieves advance prevention or reduction of the occurrence of harmful events, such as accidents, incidents, injuries and in a wider sense damages related to aircraft operation and maintenance. The research presented in this paper is a result of gathering and systematization of errors caused by human factors over the last five years in one organisation for aircraft maintenance certified according to the European standards. The study encompasses an analysis of 28 (twenty-eight investigations of individual cases and provides insight into the main factors of errors. The results of analyses on the cause of occurrence of human error show similar results like the Boeing study which was carried out for the world fleet.

  17. Transgenic Soybean Production of Bioactive Human Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua He

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is a devastating condition of premature infants that results from the gut microbiome invading immature intestinal tissues. This results in a life-threatening disease that is frequently treated with the surgical removal of diseased and dead tissues. Epidermal growth factor (EGF, typically found in bodily fluids, such as amniotic fluid, salvia and mother's breast milk, is an intestinotrophic growth factor and may reduce the onset of NEC in premature infants. We have produced human EGF in soybean seeds to levels biologically relevant and demonstrated its comparable activity to commercially available EGF. Transgenic soybean seeds expressing a seed-specific codon optimized gene encoding of the human EGF protein with an added ER signal tag at the N' terminal were produced. Seven independent lines were grown to homozygous and found to accumulate a range of 6.7 +/- 3.1 to 129.0 +/- 36.7 μg EGF/g of dry soybean seed. Proteomic and immunoblot analysis indicates that the inserted EGF is the same as the human EGF protein. Phosphorylation and immunohistochemical assays on the EGF receptor in HeLa cells indicate the EGF protein produced in soybean seed is bioactive and comparable to commercially available human EGF. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using soybean seeds as a biofactory to produce therapeutic agents in a soymilk delivery platform.

  18. Novel factors modulating human β-cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, J; Kulkarni, R N

    2016-09-01

    β-Cell dysfunction in type 1 and type 2 diabetes is accompanied by a progressive loss of β-cells, and an understanding of the cellular mechanism(s) that regulate β-cell mass will enable approaches to enhance hormone secretion. It is becoming increasingly recognized that enhancement of human β-cell proliferation is one potential approach to restore β-cell mass to prevent and/or cure type 1 and type 2 diabetes. While several reports describe the factor(s) that enhance β-cell replication in animal models or cell lines, promoting effective human β-cell proliferation continues to be a challenge in the field. In this review, we discuss recent studies reporting successful human β-cell proliferation including WS6, an IkB kinase and EBP1 inhibitor; harmine and 5-IT, both DYRK1A inhibitors; GNF7156 and GNF4877, GSK-3β and DYRK1A inhibitors; osteoprotegrin and Denosmab, receptor activator of NF-kB (RANK) inhibitors; and SerpinB1, a protease inhibitor. These studies provide important examples of proteins and pathways that may prove useful for designing therapeutic strategies to counter the different forms of human diabetes.

  19. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING REMUNERATION OF THE FACTOR OF PRODUCTION “ORE” - THE MINING RENT SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN-IULIU MANGU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The setting mechanism of the remuneration proper to the factors of production is not different from the merchandise price determination, in this case the type of the market pattern being. When the price of the production factors is determined it must be considered both the type of the market where the goods are sold (as output of the manufacture process and the type of the market where the production factors are provided (engaged. Among the incomes determined by using the production factors mix, the rent represents a very important one. Due to its long term existence, the revenue of rent is one of the economical notion, which has the largest application and the most different signification. For a long time, the rent was attached to the use of the natural resources, especially to those of the earth. Nowadays the application area of this notion has been extended over some other factors of production. In Romania, on the ground of the mining branch development, there were not too many reason of the economic efficiency and the theoretical developments with reference to the costs generated by using the factors of production were ignored. The correct substantiation of the decisions with reference to the application of the national mineral potential can’t ignore the costs generated by the remuneration of the production factor in the mining revenue system.

  20. Review of Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight from a Human Factors Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Martinez, Jackelynne; Ellenberger, Richard; Dory, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This project aims to identify poor human factors design decisions that led to error-prone systems, or did not facilitate the flight crew making the right choices; and to verify that NASA is effectively preventing similar incidents from occurring again. This analysis was performed by reviewing significant incidents and close calls in human spaceflight identified by the NASA Johnson Space Center Safety and Mission Assurance Flight Safety Office. The review of incidents shows whether the identified human errors were due to the operational phase (flight crew and ground control) or if they initiated at the design phase (includes manufacturing and test). This classification was performed with the aid of the NASA Human Systems Integration domains. This in-depth analysis resulted in a tool that helps with the human factors classification of significant incidents and close calls in human spaceflight, which can be used to identify human errors at the operational level, and how they were or should be minimized. Current governing documents on human systems integration for both government and commercial crew were reviewed to see if current requirements, processes, training, and standard operating procedures protect the crew and ground control against these issues occurring in the future. Based on the findings, recommendations to target those areas are provided.

  1. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Meredith; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Attempts to reduce horse-related injuries and fatalities to humans have mostly focused on personal protective equipment like helmets. In organizational contexts, such technical interventions are considered secondary to reducing the frequency and severity of accidents. In this article, we describe the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) framework that has been associated with reduced risks in industries and organisations. We consider how such a framework could be used to reduce horse-related risks in workplaces, as well as non-work equestrian competition and leisure environments. In this article, we propose that the simplicity and concepts of the WHS framework can provide risk mitigation benefits to both work and non-work equine identities. Abstract It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of

  2. Human Systems Interface and Plant Modernization Process: Technical Basis and Human Factors Review Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    NUREG /CR-6637 BNL- NUREG -52567 Human Systems Interface and Plant Modernization Process: Technical Basis and Human Factors Review Guidance Brookhaven...NOTICE Availability of Reference Materials Cited in NRC Publications NRC publications in the NUREG series, NRC regu- <http://www.nrc.gov>lations, and...sources: access NUREG -series publications and other NRCrecords in NRC’s Agencywide Document Access 1. The Superintendent of Documents and Management

  3. Quantitative risk analysis offshore-Human and organizational factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espen Skogdalen, Jon, E-mail: jon.espen.skogdalen@gmail.co [Department of Industrial Economics, Risk Management and Planning, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway); Vinnem, Jan Erik, E-mail: jev@preventor.n [Department of Industrial Economics, Risk Management and Planning, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway)

    2011-04-15

    Quantitative Risk Analyses (QRAs) are one of the main tools for risk management within the Norwegian and UK oil and gas industry. Much criticism has been given to the limitations related to the QRA-models and that the QRAs do not include human and organizational factors (HOF-factors). Norway and UK offshore legislation and guidelines require that the HOF-factors are included in the QRAs. A study of 15 QRAs shows that the factors are to some extent included, and there are large differences between the QRAs. The QRAs are categorized into four levels according to the findings. Level 1 QRAs do not describe or comment on the HOF-factors at all. Relevant research projects have been conducted to fulfill the requirements of Level 3 analyses. At this level, there is a systematic collection of data related to HOF. The methods are systematic and documented, and the QRAs are adjusted. None of the QRAs fulfill the Level 4 requirements. Level 4 QRAs include the model and describe the HOF-factors as well as explain how the results should be followed up in the overall risk management. Safety audits by regulatory authorities are probably necessary to point out the direction for QRA and speed up the development.

  4. [Factors associated with job satisfaction of human resources in healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Вежновець, Тетяна А; Парій, Валентин Д; Вишнивецький, Іван І; Москаленко, Максим В

    Healthcare employee satisfaction is an important criterion for the efficiency of human resource management and prognostic impact factor for high turnover of staff. Furthermore, job satisfaction positively affects patient satisfaction, which is an important indicator for quality of care. The goal of our study was to identify factors associated with job satisfaction in healthcare organizations in Ukraine. We conducted sociological and psychological survey of 190 healthcare professionals (81% response rate) in Kherson City Hospital. Job satisfaction and organizational climate was assessed through developed questionnaire, "Test Motype" method of Gerchikov (motivational profile designing) and "Diagnosis Syndrome emotional burnout" method of Boyko. Spearman rank correlation was used for analysis. Job satisfaction positively correlated with personnel age and time record, career prospects, professional development, superior-subordinate, peer-to-peer and patient communications (psatisfaction did not correlate with responsibility of executives, factors for satisfaction of job description, working conditions and range of wages (all p> 0.05). Based on findings we developed dual job satisfaction-dissatisfaction approach specific for healthcare employee in Ukraine. This model includes internal factors such as work experience, career prospects, professional motivation; external factors such as leadership, governance, work environment, customer satisfaction and preventive factors such as staff role, job description, company policies, salary and benefits.

  5. Crystal Structure of Human Factor VIII: Implications for the Formation of the Factor IXa-Factor VIIIa Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, J.C.; Huang, M.; Roth, D.A.; Furie, B.C.; Furie, B. (Wyeth); (MBL)

    2008-06-03

    Factor VIII is a procofactor that plays a critical role in blood coagulation, and is missing or defective in hemophilia A. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of B domain-deleted human factor VIII. This protein is composed of five globular domains and contains one Ca{sup 2+} and two Cu{sup 2+} ions. The three homologous A domains form a triangular heterotrimer where the A1 and A3 domains serve as the base and interact with the C2 and C1 domains, respectively. The structurally homologous C1 and C2 domains reveal membrane binding features. Based on biochemical studies, a model of the factor IXa-factor VIIIa complex was constructed by in silico docking. Factor IXa wraps across the side of factor VIII, and an extended interface spans the factor VIII heavy and light chains. This model provides insight into the activation of factor VIII and the interaction of factor VIIIa with factor IXa on the membrane surface.

  6. Crystal Structure of Human Factor VIII: Implications for the Formation of the Factor IXa-Factor VIIIa Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi Ki Ngo,J.; Huang, M.; Roth, D.; Furie, B.; Furie, B.

    2008-01-01

    Factor VIII is a procofactor that plays a critical role in blood coagulation, and is missing or defective in hemophilia A. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of B domain-deleted human factor VIII. This protein is composed of five globular domains and contains one Ca(2+) and two Cu(2+) ions. The three homologous A domains form a triangular heterotrimer where the A1 and A3 domains serve as the base and interact with the C2 and C1 domains, respectively. The structurally homologous C1 and C2 domains reveal membrane binding features. Based on biochemical studies, a model of the factor IXa-factor VIIIa complex was constructed by in silico docking. Factor IXa wraps across the side of factor VIII, and an extended interface spans the factor VIII heavy and light chains. This model provides insight into the activation of factor VIII and the interaction of factor VIIIa with factor IXa on the membrane surface.

  7. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems: Human factors design methodology and integration plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, S. M.

    1980-06-01

    The nuclear waste retrieval system intended to be used for the removal of storage canisters (each canister containing a spent fuel rod assembly) located in an underground salt bed depository is discussed. The implementation of human factors engineering principles during the design and construction of the retrieval system facilities and equipment is reported. The methodology is structured around a basic system development effort involving preliminary development, equipment development, personnel subsystem development, and operational test and evaluation. Examples of application of the techniques in the analysis of human tasks, and equipment required in the removal of spent fuel canisters is provided. The framework for integrating human engineering with the rest of the system development effort is documented.

  8. Methodological considerations for the 3D measurement of the X-factor and lower trunk movement in golf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Ball, Kevin

    2010-09-01

    It is believed that increasing the X-factor (movement of the shoulders relative to the hips) during the golf swing can increase ball velocity at impact. Increasing the X-factor may also increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to provide recommendations for the three-dimensional (3D) measurement of the X-factor and lower trunk movement during the golf swing. This three-part validation study involved; (1) developing and validating models and related algorithms (2) comparing 3D data obtained during static positions representative of the golf swing to visual estimates and (3) comparing 3D data obtained during dynamic golf swings to images gained from high-speed video. Of particular interest were issues related to sequence dependency. After models and algorithms were validated, results from parts two and three of the study supported the conclusion that a lateral bending/flexion-extension/axial rotation (ZYX) order of rotation was deemed to be the most suitable Cardanic sequence to use in the assessment of the X-factor and lower trunk movement in the golf swing. The findings of this study have relevance for further research examining the X-factor its relationship to club head speed and lower trunk movement and low back pain in golf.

  9. Human factors in aircraft incidents: results of a 7-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, C E; Reynard, W D

    1984-10-01

    Human error causes or contributes to considerably over half of all aviation mishaps. This report describes a 7-year study of aircraft incident data conducted in an attempt to further our understanding of the phenomenon of human error. The study of incidents as a surrogate for aircraft accidents is relevant only if incidents constitute a population or universe of which accidents are a subset. This assumption has been examined in a study of over 35,000 reports of aviation incidents collected from 1976-83 by the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System. One-third of the reports involve conflicts among aircraft. The most common single-aircraft anomalies in flight involve altitude or track deviations. The most common controller errors involve failure to coordinate traffic with other elements of the air traffic control system. Analysis of these reports indicates that both human and system factors contributing to human errors can be identified. Many other incidents involve shortcomings specifically of the human, rather than of the system. Failures of control are rare in this series, but failures of decision-making and cockpit resource management are frequent. Boredom, complacency and ennui appear to underlie some failures, while very high workloads are associated with others. These data indicate that at least several categories of aircraft accidents involving operational and human factors are, in fact, subsets of populations of incidents containing the same elements. The environment in which an incident occurs is extremely important in determining its outcome. It is concluded that aviation incident reports are a necessary and important instrument in safety surveillance.

  10. Workforce scheduling: A new model incorporating human factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Othman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The majority of a company’s improvement comes when the right workers with the right skills, behaviors and capacities are deployed appropriately throughout a company. This paper considers a workforce scheduling model including human aspects such as skills, training, workers’ personalities, workers’ breaks and workers’ fatigue and recovery levels. This model helps to minimize the hiring, firing, training and overtime costs, minimize the number of fired workers with high performance, minimize the break time and minimize the average worker’s fatigue level.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this objective, a multi objective mixed integer programming model is developed to determine the amount of hiring, firing, training and overtime for each worker type.Findings: The results indicate that the worker differences should be considered in workforce scheduling to generate realistic plans with minimum costs. This paper also investigates the effects of human fatigue and recovery on the performance of the production systems.Research limitations/implications: In this research, there are some assumptions that might affect the accuracy of the model such as the assumption of certainty of the demand in each period, and the linearity function of Fatigue accumulation and recovery curves. These assumptions can be relaxed in future work.Originality/value: In this research, a new model for integrating workers’ differences with workforce scheduling is proposed. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first time to study the effects of different important human factors such as human personality, skills and fatigue and recovery in the workforce scheduling process. This research shows that considering both technical and human factors together can reduce the costs in manufacturing systems and ensure the safety of the workers.

  11. Human Factors in Training - Space Flight Resource Management Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryne, Vicky; Connell, Erin; Barshi, Immanuel; Arsintescu, L.

    2009-01-01

    . Work on SFRM training has been conducted in collaboration with the Expedition Vehicle Division at the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) and with United Space Alliance (USA) which provides training to Flight Controllers. The space flight resource management training work is part of the Human Factors in Training Directed Research Project (DRP) of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project under the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Human factors researchers at the Ames Research Center have been investigating team work and distributed decision making processes to develop a generic SFRM training framework for flight controllers. The work proposed for FY10 continues to build on this strong collaboration with MOD and the USA Training Group as well as previous research in relevant domains such as aviation. In FY10, the work focuses on documenting and analyzing problem solving strategies and decision making processes used in MCC by experienced FCers.

  12. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and ..cap alpha..-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin.

  13. Human Resource – Potential Factor of Organiztional Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Cristian Negrulescu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At the level of any economic system, the change brings about the modification of the internal operating method of the relations between the actors and of the work habits. In other words, the substance (main, important modifications can be shaped on each of the organizational dominant of the system at a structural, functional or cultural level, in which the main actor, the human resource, intends to be part of this equation of changes. In this context, significant is the role played by the main organization actors, a role which can be materialized either as a factor of innovation, prevention and even progress, or as a conflict promoting factor, which, in time, generates a state of abnormality, of crisis. That is why major importance must be allotted to the human resources at the level of each organisation, considering the progress focused on knowledge, experience, experiments, attitude, behaviour and competences, these implying factors of correction and efficient reaction for the administration of the organizational crises.

  14. Identifying Human Factors Issues in Aircraft Maintenance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinott, Elizabeth S.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Maintenance operations incidents submitted to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) between 1986-1992 were systematically analyzed in order to identify issues relevant to human factors and crew coordination. This exploratory analysis involved 95 ASRS reports which represented a wide range of maintenance incidents. The reports were coded and analyzed according to the type of error (e.g, wrong part, procedural error, non-procedural error), contributing factors (e.g., individual, within-team, cross-team, procedure, tools), result of the error (e.g., aircraft damage or not) as well as the operational impact (e.g., aircraft flown to destination, air return, delay at gate). The main findings indicate that procedural errors were most common (48.4%) and that individual and team actions contributed to the errors in more than 50% of the cases. As for operational results, most errors were either corrected after landing at the destination (51.6%) or required the flight crew to stop enroute (29.5%). Interactions among these variables are also discussed. This analysis is a first step toward developing a taxonomy of crew coordination problems in maintenance. By understanding what variables are important and how they are interrelated, we may develop intervention strategies that are better tailored to the human factor issues involved.

  15. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V. [Hematological Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A. [Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. A re-examination of the benefits of exercise for state body satisfaction: consideration of individual difference factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matt; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita

    2013-01-01

    Although the link between exercise and body image is well documented, the considerable inter-individual variability in this relationship has been largely ignored. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the contributions of key body image and exercise-related moderators (age, body mass index (BMI), exercise frequency, trait body dissatisfaction, internalisation of appearance standards, and body surveillance tendencies) in predicting variability in the exercise-body satisfaction relationship. Thirty-seven undergraduate women completed a questionnaire containing the above trait-based measures and then carried a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) for a 7-day period. Participants were instructed to use the PDA to self-report their state body satisfaction immediately following an exercise session and also when the PDA signalled at each of six random intervals throughout the day. Multilevel modelling revealed a bi-directional relationship between exercise and state body satisfaction. Moreover, post-exercise increases in state body satisfaction were strongest for individuals who were younger and engaged in regular exercise, and weakest for individuals with high BMI and/or the tendency to compare their appearance with others. These findings highlight potential limits on the efficacy of exercise-based therapy for body image disturbances.

  17. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Human-system interfaces and procedures. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, R.D.; Henriksen, K.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. In addition, a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists served as subject matter experts. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The present report focuses on an evaluation of the human-system interfaces in relation to the treatment machines and supporting equipment (e.g., simulators, treatment planning computers, control consoles, patient charts) found in the teletherapy environment. The report also evaluates operating, maintenance and emergency procedures and practices involved in teletherapy. The evaluations are based on the function and task analysis and established human engineering guidelines, where applicable.

  18. An integrated approach to rotorcraft human factors research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Hartzell, E. James; Voorhees, James W.; Bucher, Nancy M.; Shively, R. Jay

    1988-01-01

    As the potential of civil and military helicopters has increased, more complex and demanding missions in increasingly hostile environments have been required. Users, designers, and manufacturers have an urgent need for information about human behavior and function to create systems that take advantage of human capabilities, without overloading them. Because there is a large gap between what is known about human behavior and the information needed to predict pilot workload and performance in the complex missions projected for pilots of advanced helicopters, Army and NASA scientists are actively engaged in Human Factors Research at Ames. The research ranges from laboratory experiments to computational modeling, simulation evaluation, and inflight testing. Information obtained in highly controlled but simpler environments generates predictions which can be tested in more realistic situations. These results are used, in turn, to refine theoretical models, provide the focus for subsequent research, and ensure operational relevance, while maintaining predictive advantages. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of research are described along with examples of experimental results.

  19. [Surgeons can learn from pilots: human factors in surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockeel, P; Chatelain, E; Massoure, M-P; David, P; Chapellier, X; Buffat, S

    2009-06-01

    Human factors (HF) study is mandatory to get air transport pilot licences. In aviation, crew resource management (CRM) and declaration of adverse events (feedback) result in improving of air safety. Air missions and surgical procedures have similarities. Bridging the gap is tempting, despite severe warnings against simplistic adaptation. Putting HF theory into surgical practice: how to? Educational principles derived from CRM improve professional attitudes of a team. We propose to translate concepts of CRM to clinical teams. CRM training applying in surgery could allow the work environment to be restructured to reduce human error. Feedback: in aviation, the Bureau of Flight Safety deals with investigations for air events. Pilots, air traffic controllers can anonymously declare nuisance, resulting in a feedback for the whole air force. Adverse events are analysed. Usually, multilevel problems are found, rather than the only responsibility of the last operator. Understanding the mechanisms of human failure finally improves safety. In surgery, CRM and feedback would probably be helpful. Anyway, it requires time; people have to change their mind. Nevertheless people such as fighter pilots, who were very unwilling at the beginning, now consider HF as a cornerstone for security. But it is difficult to estimate the extent of HF-related morbidity and mortality. We propose as a first step to consider CRM and feedback in surgical procedure. HF deals with the mechanisms of human errors and the ways to improve safety and probably improve the surgical team's efficacy.

  20. Cloning the human gene for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paralkar, V.; Wistow, G. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was originally identified as a lymphokine. However, recent work strongly suggests a wider role for MIF beyond the immune system. It is expressed specifically in the differentiating cells of the immunologically privileged eye lens and brain, is a delayed early response gene in fibroblasts, and is expressed in many tissues. Here, the authors report the structure of the remarkably small gene for human MIF that has three exons separated by introns of only 189 and 95 bp and covers less than 1 kb. The cloned sequence also includes 1 kb of 5[prime] flanking region. Primer extension and 5[prime] rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) of human brain RNA both indicate the presence of a single transcription start site in a TATA-less promoter. Northern blot analysis shows a single size of MIF mRNA (about 800 nt) in all human tissues examined. In contrast to previous reports, they find no evidence for multiple genes for MIF in the human genome. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Humanized cobra venom factor decreases myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, W Brian; Guikema, Benjamin J; Fritzinger, David C; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Stahl, Gregory L

    2009-12-01

    Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a complement activating protein in cobra venom, which functionally resembles C3b, and has been used for decades for decomplementation of serum to investigate the role of complement in many model systems of disease. The use of CVF for clinical practice is considered impractical because of immunogenicity issues. Humanization of CVF was recently demonstrated to yield a potent CVF-like molecule. In the present study, we demonstrate that mice treated with recombinant humanized CVF (HC3-1496) are protected from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injuries with resultant preservation of cardiac function. Also, C3 deposition in the myocardium following MI/R was not observed following treatment with HC3-1496. HC3-1496 led to complement activation and depletion of C3, but preserved C5 titers. These data suggest, unlike CVF, HC3-1496 does not form a C5 convertase in the mouse, similar to recent studies in human sera/plasma. These results suggest that humanized CVF (HC3-1496) protects the ischemic myocardium from reperfusion injuries induced by complement activation and represents a novel anti-complement therapy for potential clinical use.

  2. 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 2 - 3, 2015. The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Mission, Process and Task Design (MPTask Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (Hab Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP is pleased with the progress and responsiveness of the SHFE team. The presentations were much improved this year. The SRP is also pleased with the human-centered design approach. Below are some of the more extensive comments from the SRP. We have also made comments in each section concerning gaps/tasks in each. The comments below reflect more significant changes that impact more than just one particular section.

  3. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. human error analysis and application techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  4. [総説]Suicide in Okinawa from an international perspective : A consideration of socio-cultural factors

    OpenAIRE

    Naka, Koichi; Willcox, D. Craig; Todoriki, Hidemi; Kageyama, Takayuki; Department of Cli花ical Psychology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Department of Anthropology and Institute for Human Development, Life Course and Aging, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Urban Environment and Health Project, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan

    1998-01-01

    In studies of suicide, a common problem is an over-focus on psychopathology of individual suicidal acts. As a result, the social determinants of suicide are often obscured. In order to rectify this situation, in this paper, we took a Durkheimian approach and focused on social factors that may be linked to suicide. We reviewed research on suicide in Okinawa from an international perspective and reconsidered suicide as a socio-cultural phenomenon. We also compared suicide in Okinawa to trends i...

  5. Risk management with regard to the effect of human factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kiseleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components in today's market is a party decision-making under risk and uncertainty. The first step in making such decisions - to adequately process the information for estimating the future value of assets and the interests of investors probabilities of each particular scenario. The next step is to choose the alternative that has the greatest utility for the investor. Each of these steps is associated with numerous difficulties, the roots of which stem from the specificity of human psychology. The article notes that an integral part of professional risk management is to identify the nature of the object of management in the sphere of economy. Since the domestic theory of risk management is being formed-tion, the problem of a clear comprehensive definition of “risk” becomes now particularly relevant-ness. The article deals with along with economic forecasts of the risks and the human factor in decision-tions solutions. Along with economic forecasts, the report focuses on psychological problems and attempts to take into account the human factor in decision-making at the forecast of risks arising in the company. The important parameters are the status and position of the person in the society, as well as its social well-being. Analysis Meto-ing risk assessment concluded that the need to develop new models and methods of risk management, taking into account the four-lovecheskogo factor. Economic psychology and its applications have developed into a special branch of economic knowledge - the so-called behavioral economics, which surely develops a wide range of economic issues - from the actual theory of individual behavior to the problems of public choice and the financial economy. The most interesting item is the fact that the concept of “risk” is considered from different points of view - as the economist-mathematician with the position, and a psychologist.

  6. True or False, Process or Procedure: Parrhesia and a Consideration of Humanism, Subjectivity, and Ethics within Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, David; Polush, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine ethics, humanism, and the concept of "parrhesia" ("pa???s?a") in the context of educational research. More specifically, it surveys Foucault's lectures on ethics to explore a framework for educational research that disrupts subjectivity and traditional forms of humanism while retaining a relational…

  7. A consideration of the nature of work and the consequences for the human-oriented design of production and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubb, Heiner

    2006-07-01

    In this article, it is shown that human work can be understood as a process of creating order, and that order can be seen as a form of information. Since information can be considered as negative entropy, work is associated with energy consumption. Therefore, it is important to investigate the nature of human necessities in more detail in order to meet the desire for comfort through the efficient application of energy. Temporary increases of information cause accelerated increases in entropy. This explains the appearance of living organisms, and the historic development of increasingly complex technology. Through technical progress, repetitive human work is being replaced by automation, so that primarily creative work remains. Now the question arises of how much creative work a human can manage. In addition, one goal of automation should be the reduction of human errors, but in doing so, an optimal balance should be found between supporting the operator both during normal procedures and during unforeseen circumstances.

  8. Advances in human factors and ergonomics in healthcare

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, Vincent G

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent research, this book discusses how to improve quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness in patient care through the application of human factors and ergonomics principles. It provides guidance for those involved with the design and application of systems and devices for effective and safe healthcare delivery from both a patient and staff perspective. Its huge range of chapters covers everything from the proper design of bed rails to the most efficient design of operating rooms, from the development of quality products to the rating of staff patient interaction. It considers

  9. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Hwan Lee; Yin-Shen Lin; Ching-Fu Tu; Chon-Ho Yen

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitat...

  10. Immunoassays of human trefoil factors 1 and 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E M; Brynskov, J; Ejskjaer, K;

    2004-01-01

    The trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are cysteine-rich peptides expressed in the gastrointestinal tract where they play a critical role in mucosal protection and repair. The expression is up-regulated at sites of ulceration in various chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, we presented an ELISA method ...... for measurement of TFF3. The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate ELISAs for the other two known human trefoil peptides, TFF1 and TFF2, and to carry out a cross-sectional study on serum TFF levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)....

  11. Risk factors for human brucellosis in northern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Shehada, M N; Abu-Halaweh, M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the risk factors of human brucellosis in Jordan. A case-control study was conducted involving 56 Jordanians who had been treated for brucellosis and at least 3 matched controls for each case (n = 247). Matching was for sex, age, locality (the same village) and socioeconomic standard. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. In all, 17 risk factors were examined related to: contact with various livestock, milk and milk product consumption, drinking-water treatment and disease awareness. Most variables were associated with brucellosis in the univariate analysis but the final logistic model included only 4: milking sheep and goats (OR 3.5), consumption of raw feta cheese made from sheep and goat milk (OR 2.8) and consumption of cows' milk (OR 0.4) and boiled feta cheese (OR 0.4). Small ruminant farmers need to be trained in safer milking practices and feta cheese making procedures.

  12. APPLICATION OF EYE TRACKING FOR MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN HUMAN FACTORS STUDIES IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Spielman, Z.; LeBlanc, K.; Rice, B.

    2017-05-01

    An important element of human factors engineering (HFE) pertains to measurement and evaluation (M&E). The role of HFE-M&E should be integrated throughout the entire control room modernization (CRM) process and be used for human-system performance evaluation and diagnostic purposes with resolving potential human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) and other human machine interface (HMI) design issues. NUREG-0711 describes how HFE in CRM should employ a hierarchical set of measures, particularly during integrated system validation (ISV), including plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, and anthropometric/ physiological factors. Historically, subjective measures have been primarily used since they are easier to collect and do not require specialized equipment. However, there are pitfalls with relying solely on subjective measures in M&E such that negatively impact reliability, sensitivity, and objectivity. As part of comprehensively capturing a diverse set of measures that strengthen findings and inferences made of the benefits from emerging technologies like advanced displays, this paper discusses the value of using eye tracking as an objective method that can be used in M&E. A brief description of eye tracking technology and relevant eye tracking measures is provided. Additionally, technical considerations and the unique challenges with using eye tracking in full-scaled simulations are addressed. Finally, this paper shares preliminary findings regarding the use of a wearable eye tracking system in a full-scale simulator study. These findings should help guide future full-scale simulator studies using eye tracking as a methodology to evaluate human-system performance.

  13. The Impact of Neighborhood Social and Built Environment Factors across the Cancer Continuum: Current Research, Methodologic Considerations, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Shariff-Marco, Salma; De Rouen, Mindy; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Yen, Irene H.; Mujahid, Mahasin; Satariano, William A.; Glaser, Sally L.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood social and built environments have been recognized as important contexts in which health is shaped. We review the extent to which these neighborhood factors have been addressed in population-level cancer research, with a scan of the literature for research that focuses on specific social and/or built environment characteristics and association with outcomes across the cancer continuum, including incidence, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and survival. We discuss commonalities and differences in methodologies across studies, current challenges in research methodology, and future directions in this research area. The assessment of social and built environment factors in relation to cancer is a relatively new field, with 82% of 34 reviewed papers published since 2010. Across the wide range of social and built environment exposures and cancer outcomes considered by the studies, numerous associations were reported. However, the directions and magnitudes of association varied, due in large part to the variation in cancer sites and outcomes being studied, but also likely due to differences in study populations, geographical region, and, importantly, choice of neighborhood measure and geographic scale. We recommend that future studies consider the life course implications of cancer incidence and survival, integrate secondary and self-report data, consider work neighborhood environments, and further develop analytical and statistical approaches appropriate to the geospatial and multilevel nature of the data. Incorporating social and built environment factors into research on cancer etiology and outcomes can provide insights into disease processes, identify vulnerable populations, and generate results with translational impact of relevance for interventionists and policy makers. PMID:25847484

  14. Factors Involved in Extracellular Matrix Turnover in Human Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregori Casals

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The molecular mechanisms by which myocardial ischemia translates into ventricular remodeling remain unclear. Methods: We investigated whether hypoxia and proinflammatory cytokines are specific inducers of remodeling signals in an in vitro model of cultured adult human ventricular myocytes (AC16 cells. Results:Hypoxia modified the ratio of matrix remodeling factors by increasing the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP and reducing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase type 1 (TIMP-1 secretion in AC16 cells. These effects, however, were not associated with either modifications in expression of matrix metalloproteinase type 2, collagen-I or metalloproteinase activity. Hypoxia does, actually increase the production of the cardiac antifibrogenic growth factors, Apelin and VEGF, through an Hypoxia Inducible Factor type 1-dependent mechanism. Concerning proinflammatory signaling pathways, IL1β emerged as a powerful inducer of matrix turnover, since it significantly enhanced PIIINP, TIMP-1 and hyaluronic acid production and increased metalloproteinase activity. In contrast, TNFα did not modify matrix turnover but markedly induced the production of Apelin and VEGF. Conclusion: Hypoxia and increased TNFα activity likely exert cardioprotective actions by activating the cardiac antifibrogenic factors Apelin and VEGF. In contrast, IL1β is a strong promoter of interstitial collagen remodeling that may contribute to ventricular dilation and heart failure in the ischemic myocardium.

  15. [Transfer factor effectiveness patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Most HPV infections are cleared within two years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women the infection persists determining a high risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The transfer factor (TF) or dialyzable leukocyte extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. One daily dose of transfer factor was given for five days and subsequently each week for five weeks to a group of women with persistent genital papillomavirus infection. We included 13 patients, aged 19 to 45 years, with first intercourse between the ages of 14 to 23, and a mean of three sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options, including cervical freezing, cervical conization, cauterizing loop, imiquimod and podophyllin. Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and subsequently at 7-day intervals for 5 weeks. We found a clinical significant improvement in the gynaecological evaluation of cervical, vaginal, vulvar and perineal lesions. No recurrences have developed for at least 1 year of follow-up. The use of transfer factor in women with HPV showed resolution of genital lesions, without recurrences for at least one year after the treatment was ended.

  16. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Cardiac Patients: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Considerations for Assessment and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Tulloch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing awareness of the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD on physical health, particularly cardiovascular disease. We review the literature on the role of trauma in the development of cardiovascular risk factors and disease, aftermath of a cardiac event, and risk for recurrence in cardiac patients. We explore possible mechanisms to explain these relationships, as well as appropriate assessment and treatment strategies for this population. Our main conclusion is that screening and referral for appropriate treatments are important given the high prevalence rates of PTSD in cardiac populations and the associated impact on morbidity and mortality.

  17. Contribution of thermal and nonthermal factors to the regulation of body temperature in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Igor B. Mekjavic; Ola Eiken

    2006-01-01

    .... This reciprocal inhibition theory, presumably reflecting the manner in which thermal factors contribute to homeothermy in humans, does not incorporate the effect of nonthermal factors on temperature regulation...

  18. SCN5A variant that blocks fibroblast growth factor homologous factor regulation causes human arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Hassan; Kline, Crystal F.; Sturm, Amy C.; Murphy, Nathaniel; Adelman, Sara; Wang, Chaojian; Yan, Haidun; Johnson, Benjamin L.; Csepe, Thomas A.; Kilic, Ahmet; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Janssen, Paul M. L.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Weiss, Raul; Salazar, Christina; Hund, Thomas J.; Pitt, Geoffrey S.; Mohler, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Nav channels are essential for metazoan membrane depolarization, and Nav channel dysfunction is directly linked with epilepsy, ataxia, pain, arrhythmia, myotonia, and irritable bowel syndrome. Human Nav channelopathies are primarily caused by variants that directly affect Nav channel permeability or gating. However, a new class of human Nav channelopathies has emerged based on channel variants that alter regulation by intracellular signaling or cytoskeletal proteins. Fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs) are a family of intracellular signaling proteins linked with Nav channel regulation in neurons and myocytes. However, to date, there is surprisingly little evidence linking Nav channel gene variants with FHFs and human disease. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that mutations in SCN5A (encodes primary cardiac Nav channel Nav1.5) that alter FHF binding result in human cardiovascular disease. We describe a five*generation kindred with a history of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, and sudden cardiac death. Affected family members harbor a novel SCN5A variant resulting in p.H1849R. p.H1849R is localized in the central binding core on Nav1.5 for FHFs. Consistent with these data, Nav1.5 p.H1849R affected interaction with FHFs. Further, electrophysiological analysis identified Nav1.5 p.H1849R as a gain-of-function for INa by altering steady-state inactivation and slowing the rate of Nav1.5 inactivation. In line with these data and consistent with human cardiac phenotypes, myocytes expressing Nav1.5 p.H1849R displayed prolonged action potential duration and arrhythmogenic afterdepolarizations. Together, these findings identify a previously unexplored mechanism for human Nav channelopathy based on altered Nav1.5 association with FHF proteins. PMID:26392562

  19. Human factors/ergonomics implications of big data analytics: Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors annual lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Colin G

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, advances in sensor technology, connectedness and computational power have come together to produce huge data-sets. The treatment and analysis of these data-sets is known as big data analytics (BDA), and the somewhat related term data mining. Fields allied to human factors/ergonomics (HFE), e.g. statistics, have developed computational methods to derive meaningful, actionable conclusions from these data bases. This paper examines BDA, often characterised by volume, velocity and variety, giving examples of successful BDA use. This examination provides context by considering examples of using BDA on human data, using BDA in HFE studies, and studies of how people perform BDA. Significant issues for HFE are the reliance of BDA on correlation rather than hypotheses and theory, the ethics of BDA and the use of HFE in data visualisation.

  20. CONSIDERATION OF THE DESTABILIZING FACTORS INFLUENCE FOR INCREASING OF THE MEASUREMENTS ACCURACY OF A RANGEFINDER BASED ON STEREO IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Kozlov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide using of digital photography has led to significant progress in the development of the theory and methods of restoring the three-dimensional space picture on base of two-dimensional digital images. To solve the problem of increasing the measurements accuracy of such systems, it is necessary to take into account the influence of a number of destabilizing factors. The aim of this work was development of technique for accounting and compensating of destabilizing factors influence, such as the deviation from the horizontal position line of the stereo pair lens, the non-parallelism of the lenses optical axes, the mutual inclination of the photo detector matrices, and the distortion of the stereo camera optical system for increasing of the measurements accuracy of rangefinder based on the correlation analysis of the stereo image.A software application has been developed for analyzing the optical distortions of serially produced lenses, which allows to visually demonstrate the distortions nature and to determine the polynomial coefficients for compensating of the optical distortion.It is obtained that for the Fujifilm FinePix Real 3D stereo camera the distortion of the digital image reaches ± 20–35 pixels at the edges of the photo detective matrix and is not the same for the first and second lenses. The difference in the optical distortion values is due to the unequal slope of the photo detector matrix to the optical axis of the objective. Compensating polynomials for the optical system distortions of the first and second lenses of the stereo camera are experimentally determined.The range object expression from the stereo images taking into account the optical distortion compensation is obtained. It is shown for increasing of the measurements accuracy, the determining factor is not the absolute value of the lenses distortion, but the difference in the optical distortions of the stereo camera lenses, depending on the difference of the

  1. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS and air mass factor concept for a multiply scattering vertically inhomogeneous medium: theoretical consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rozanov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS technique is widely used to retrieve amounts of atmospheric species from measurements of the direct solar light transmitted through the Earth's atmosphere as well as of the solar light scattered in the atmosphere or reflected from the Earth's surface. For the transmitted direct solar light the theoretical basis of the DOAS technique represented by the Beer-Lambert law is well studied. In contrast, scarcely investigated is the theoretical basis and validity range of the DOAS method for those cases where the contribution of the multiple scattering processes is not negligible. Our study is intended to fill this gap by means of a theoretical investigation of the applicability of the DOAS technique for the retrieval of amounts of atmospheric species from observations of the scattered solar light with a non-negligible contribution of the multiple scattering.

    Starting from the expansion of the intensity logarithm in the functional Taylor series we formulate the general form of the DOAS equation. The thereby introduced variational derivative of the intensity logarithm with respect to the variation of the gaseous absorption coefficient, which is often referred to as the weighting function, is demonstrated to be closely related to the air mass factor. Employing some approximations we show that the general DOAS equation can be rewritten in the form of the weighting function (WFDOAS, the modified (MDOAS, and the standard DOAS equations. For each of these forms a specific equation for the air mass factor follows which, in general, is not suitable for other forms of the DOAS equation. Furthermore, the validity range of the standard DOAS equation is quantitatively investigated using a suggested criterion of a weak absorption.

    The results presented in this study are intended to provide a basis for a better understanding of the applicability range of different forms of the DOAS equation as

  2. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Expression in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrita DOSANJH

    2006-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a cysteine-rich protein that promotes extracellular matrix deposition. CTGF is selectively induced by transforming growth factor β and des-Arg kallidin in lung fibroblasts and increases steady-state mRNA levels of α type I collagen, 5α-integrin and fibronectin in fibroblasts. Bronchial epithelial cells have been proposed to functionally interact with lung fibroblasts. We therefore investigated if bronchial epithelial cells are able to synthesize CTGF. Human bronchial epithelial cells were grown to subconfluence in standard growth media. Proliferating cells grown in small airway growth media were harvested following starvation for up to 24 h. Expression of CTGF transcripts was measured by PCR. Immunocytochemistry was also completed using a commercially available antibody.The cells expressed readily detectable CTGF transcripts. Starvation of these cells resulted in a quantitative decline of CTGF transcripts. Direct sequencing of the PCR product identified human CTGF. Immunocytochemistry confirmed intracellular CTGF in the cells and none in negative control cells. We conclude that bronchial epithelial cells could be a novel source of CTGF. Bronchial epithelial cell-derived CTGF could thus directly influence the deposition of collagen in certain fibrotic lung diseases.

  3. Human factors and error prevention in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleetman, Anthony; Sanusi, Seliat; Dale, Trevor; Brace, Samantha

    2012-05-01

    Emergency departments are one of the highest risk areas in health care. Emergency physicians have to assemble and manage unrehearsed multidisciplinary teams with little notice and manage critically ill patients. With greater emphasis on management and leadership skills, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of human factors in making changes to improve patient safety. Non-clinical skills are required to achieve this in an information-poor environment and to minimise the risk of errors. Training in these non-clinical skills is a mandatory component in other high-risk industries, such as aviation and, needs to be part of an emergency physician's skill set. Therefore, there remains an educational gap that we need to fill before an emergency physician is equipped to function as a team leader and manager. This review will examine the lessons from aviation and how these are applicable to emergency medicine. Solutions to averting errors are discussed and the need for formal human factors training in emergency medicine.

  4. Developing human factors/ergonomics as a design discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norros, Leena

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with internal challenges that the human factors/ergonomics (HFE) research faces when wishing to strengthen its contribution to development of work systems. Three established characteristics of high-quality HFE, i.e., HFE takes a systems approach, HFE is design-driven, and HFE focuses on two closely related outcomes, performance and well-being, are taken as a starting point of a methodological discussion, in which conceptual innovations, e.g. adopting the technology-in-use perspective, are proposed to support development of HFE towards the high-quality aims. The feasibility of the proposed conceptual choices is demonstrated by introducing a naturalistic HFE analysis approach including four HFE functions. The gained experience of the use of this approach in a number of complex work domains allows the conclusion that becoming design-driven appears as that most difficult quality target for HFE to reach. Creating an own design discipline identity in a multi-voiced collaboration is the key internal challenge for human factors/ergonomics.

  5. The challenges for human factors in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Møller, Niels; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2011-01-01

    The development towards a service and knowledge intensive economy arise new challenges for ergonomics and human factors. Knowledge on work within mass service production exists, but the challenges within knowledge work have still to be addressed. The focus of this paper is on some of the challeng...... with the demands of the knowledge intensive work when KPI’s are central management tools. Especially handling the balance between high motivation and enthusiasm and burn out will be addressed.......The development towards a service and knowledge intensive economy arise new challenges for ergonomics and human factors. Knowledge on work within mass service production exists, but the challenges within knowledge work have still to be addressed. The focus of this paper is on some of the challenges...... in knowledge intensive work to establish productive and satisfying jobs by a case study of our own place of work: a university department. Testimonials from a young associate professor, a first line manager and the department manager lead us to identify some of the major challenges for ergonomics to comply...

  6. [Influence of genetic factors on human sexual orientation. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Paradisi, Irene

    2009-09-01

    Human sexual orientation is a complex trait, influenced by several genes, experiential and sociocultural factors. These elements interact and produce a typical pattern of sexual orientation towards the opposite sex. Some exceptions exist, like bisexuality and homosexuality, which seem to be more frequent in males than females. Traditional methods for the genetic study of behavior multifactorial characteristics consist in detecting the presence of familial aggregation. In order to identify the importance of genetic and environmental factors in this aggregation, the concordance of the trait for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and for adopted sibs, reared together and apart, is compared. These types of studies have shown that familial aggregation is stronger for male than for female homosexuality. Based on the threshold method for multifactorial traits, and varying the frequency of homosexuality in the population between 4 and 10%, heritability estimates between 0.27 and 0.76 have been obtained. In 1993, linkage between homosexuality and chromosomal region Xq28 based on molecular approaches was reported. Nevertheless, this was not confirmed in later studies. Recently, a wide search of the genome has given significant or close to significant linkage values with regions 7q36, 8p12 and 10q26, which need to be studied more closely. Deviation in the proportion of X chromosome inactivation in mothers of homosexuals seems to favor the presence of genes related with sexual orientation in this chromosome. There is still much to be known about the genetics of human homosexuality.

  7. Stem cell factor and c-Kit in human primordial germ cells and fetal ovaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Poul Erik; Byskov, Anne Grete; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal ovary (human), Primordial germ cells, Folliculogenesis, c-Kit, Stem cell factor, immunohistochemistry......Prenatal ovary (human), Primordial germ cells, Folliculogenesis, c-Kit, Stem cell factor, immunohistochemistry...

  8. Verification and validation of human factors issues in control room design and upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Collier, S. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reactor Project

    1999-12-01

    Systems, facilities and equipment are periodically updated during a power plant's lifetime. This has human factors implications, especially if the central control room is involved. Human factors work may therefore be required. There is an extensive literature on human factors itself, but not so much on how it is verified and validated. Therefore, HRP and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate commissioned a study. The objective was to review the literature and establish a knowledge base on verification and validation (V and V) of human factors issues. The report first discusses verification and validation as applied to human factors work. It describes a design process and the typical human factors topics involved. It then presents a generic method for V and V of human factors. This is built on a review of standards, guidelines and other references given in an annotated bibliography. The method is illustrated by application to some human factors topics.

  9. Factors for Consideration in an Open-Flame Test for Assessing Fire Blocking Performance of Barrier Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shonali Nazaré

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the work reported here is to assess factors that could affect the outcome of a proposed open flame test for barrier fabrics (BF-open flame test. The BF-open flame test characterizes barrier effectiveness by monitoring the ignition of a flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF layer placed in contact with the upper side of the barrier fabric, exposed to a burner flame from below. Particular attention is given to the factors that influence the ignitibility of the FPUF, including thermal resistance, permeability, and structural integrity of the barrier fabrics (BFs. A number of barrier fabrics, displaying a wide range of the properties, are tested with the BF-open flame test. Visual observations of the FPUF burning behavior and BF char patterns, in addition to heat flux measurements on the unexposed side of the barrier fabrics, are used to assess the protective performance of the BF specimen under the open flame test conditions. The temperature and heat transfer measurements on the unexposed side of the BF and subsequent ranking of BFs for their thermal protective performance suggest that the BF-open flame test does not differentiate barrier fabrics based on their heat transfer properties. A similar conclusion is reached with regard to BF permeability characterized at room temperature. However, the outcome of this BF-open flame test is found to be heavily influenced by the structural integrity of thermally degraded BF. The BF-open flame test, in its current form, only ignited FPUF when structural failure of the barrier was observed.

  10. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libermann, T A; Razon, N; Bartal, A D; Yarden, Y; Schlessinger, J; Soreq, H

    1984-02-01

    The expression of receptors for epidermal growth factor (EGF-R) was determined in 29 samples of brain tumors from 22 patients. Primary gliogenous tumors, of various degrees of cancer, five meningiomas, and two neuroblastomas were examined. Tissue samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after the operation and stored at -70 degrees until use. Cerebral tissue samples from 11 patients who died from diseases not related to the central nervous system served as controls. Immunoprecipitation of functional EGF-R-kinase complexes revealed high levels of EGF-R in all of the brain tumors of nonneuronal origin that were examined. The level of EGF-R varied between tumors from different patients and also between specimens prelevated from different areas of the same tumor. In contrast, the levels of EGF-R from control specimens were invariably low. The biochemical properties of EGF-R in brain tumor specimens were found to be indistinguishable from those of the well-characterized EGF-R from the A-431 cell line, derived from human epidermoid carcinomas. Human brain EGF-R displays a molecular weight of 170,000 by polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. It is phosphorylated mainly in tyrosine residues and shows a 2-dimensional phosphopeptide map similar to that obtained with the phosphorylated EGF-R from membranes of A-431 cells. Our observations suggest that induction of EGF-R expression may accompany the malignant transformation of human brain cells of nonneuronal origin.

  11. Tissue factor: A potent stimulator of Von Willebrand factor synthesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiring, Muriel; Allers, W.; Le Roux, E.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and dysfunction of endothelial cells are thought to be triggers for the secretion of Von Willebrand factor. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and the coagulation factors, tissue factor and thrombin on the release and cleavage potential of ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) and its cleavage protease by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC were treated with IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, tissue factor (TF) and thrombin, and combinations thereof for 24 hours under static conditions. The cells were then exposed to shear stress after which the VWF-propeptide levels and the VWF cleavage protease, ADAMTS13 content were measured. All treatments and their combinations, excluding IL-6, significantly stimulated the secretion of VWF from HUVEC. The VWF secretion from the HUVEC was stimulated most by the combination of TF with TNF-α. Slightly lower levels of ADAMTS13 secretion were found with all treatments. This may explain the thrombogenicity of patients with inflammation where extremely high VWF levels and slightly lower ADAMTS13 levels are present.

  12. Helicopter flights with night-vision goggles: Human factors aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Night-vision goggles (NVGs) and, in particular, the advanced, helmet-mounted Aviators Night-Vision-Imaging System (ANVIS) allows helicopter pilots to perform low-level flight at night. It consists of light intensifier tubes which amplify low-intensity ambient illumination (star and moon light) and an optical system which together produce a bright image of the scene. However, these NVGs do not turn night into day, and, while they may often provide significant advantages over unaided night flight, they may also result in visual fatigue, high workload, and safety hazards. These problems reflect both system limitations and human-factors issues. A brief description of the technical characteristics of NVGs and of human night-vision capabilities is followed by a description and analysis of specific perceptual problems which occur with the use of NVGs in flight. Some of the issues addressed include: limitations imposed by a restricted field of view; problems related to binocular rivalry; the consequences of inappropriate focusing of the eye; the effects of ambient illumination levels and of various types of terrain on image quality; difficulties in distance and slope estimation; effects of dazzling; and visual fatigue and superimposed symbology. These issues are described and analyzed in terms of their possible consequences on helicopter pilot performance. The additional influence of individual differences among pilots is emphasized. Thermal imaging systems (forward looking infrared (FLIR)) are described briefly and compared to light intensifier systems (NVGs). Many of the phenomena which are described are not readily understood. More research is required to better understand the human-factors problems created by the use of NVGs and other night-vision aids, to enhance system design, and to improve training methods and simulation techniques.

  13. Single cycle structure-based humanization of an anti-nerve growth factor therapeutic antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Covaceuszach

    Full Text Available Most forms of chronic pain are inadequately treated by present therapeutic options. Compelling evidence has accumulated, demonstrating that Nerve Growth Factor (NGF is a key modulator of inflammatory and nociceptive responses, and is a promising target for the treatment of human pathologies linked to chronic and inflammatory pain. There is therefore a growing interest in the development of therapeutic molecules antagonising the NGF pathway and its nociceptor sensitization actions, among which function-blocking anti-NGF antibodies are particularly relevant candidates.In this respect, the rat anti-NGF αD11 monoclonal antibody (mAb is a potent antagonist, able to effectively antagonize rodent and human NGF in a variety of in vitro and in vivo systems. Here we show that mAb αD11 displays a significant analgesic effect in two different models of persistent pain in mice, with a remarkable long-lasting activity. In order to advance αD11 mAb towards its clinical application in man, anti-NGF αD11 mAb was humanized by applying a novel single cycle strategy based on the a priori experimental determination of the crystal and molecular structure of the parental Fragment antigen-binding (Fab. The humanized antibody (hum-αD11 was tested in vitro and in vivo, showing that the binding mode and the NGF neutralizing biological activities of the parental antibody are fully preserved, with even a significant affinity improvement. The results firmly establish hum-αD11 as a lead candidate for clinical applications in a therapeutic area with a severe unmet medical need. More generally, the single-cycle structure-based humanization method represents a considerable improvement over the standard humanization methods, which are intrinsically empirical and require several refinement cycles.

  14. Single Cycle Structure-Based Humanization of an Anti-Nerve Growth Factor Therapeutic Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covaceuszach, Sonia; Marinelli, Sara; Krastanova, Ivet; Ugolini, Gabriele; Pavone, Flaminia; Lamba, Doriano; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Most forms of chronic pain are inadequately treated by present therapeutic options. Compelling evidence has accumulated, demonstrating that Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is a key modulator of inflammatory and nociceptive responses, and is a promising target for the treatment of human pathologies linked to chronic and inflammatory pain. There is therefore a growing interest in the development of therapeutic molecules antagonising the NGF pathway and its nociceptor sensitization actions, among which function-blocking anti-NGF antibodies are particularly relevant candidates. In this respect, the rat anti-NGF αD11 monoclonal antibody (mAb) is a potent antagonist, able to effectively antagonize rodent and human NGF in a variety of in vitro and in vivo systems. Here we show that mAb αD11 displays a significant analgesic effect in two different models of persistent pain in mice, with a remarkable long-lasting activity. In order to advance αD11 mAb towards its clinical application in man, anti-NGF αD11 mAb was humanized by applying a novel single cycle strategy based on the a priori experimental determination of the crystal and molecular structure of the parental Fragment antigen-binding (Fab). The humanized antibody (hum-αD11) was tested in vitro and in vivo, showing that the binding mode and the NGF neutralizing biological activities of the parental antibody are fully preserved, with even a significant affinity improvement. The results firmly establish hum-αD11 as a lead candidate for clinical applications in a therapeutic area with a severe unmet medical need. More generally, the single-cycle structure-based humanization method represents a considerable improvement over the standard humanization methods, which are intrinsically empirical and require several refinement cycles. PMID:22403636

  15. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2017-01-01

    The study, discovery, and application of information about human abilities, human limitations, and other human characteristics to the design of tools, devices, machines, systems, job tasks and environments for effective human performance.

  16. 75 FR 69912 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety..., 2010, PHMSA published a Control Room Management/Human Factors notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... to expedite the program implementation deadlines of the Control Room Management/Human Factors rule...

  17. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Regulations to address human factors and other aspects of control room management for pipelines where... 63310) entitled ``Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors.'' This final rule...

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES ON THE HUMAN FACTOR WITHIN AN ORGNANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkiunaite, Ingrida

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses a number of important changes of influence of information technologies on human factor within the organization. The focus of the article is on human factor and IT using problem. According to the theoretical and empirical material of IT influence on human factor, aspects of information technology are analyzed.

  19. Visual Genome-Wide RNAi Screening to Identify Human Host Factors Required for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo Dossin, Fernando; Choi, Seo Yeon; Kim, Nam Youl; Kim, Hi Chul; Jung, Sung Yong; Schenkman, Sergio; Almeida, Igor C.; Emans, Neil; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H.

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, a neglected tropical infection that affects millions of people in the Americas. Current chemotherapy relies on only two drugs that have limited efficacy and considerable side effects. Therefore, the development of new and more effective drugs is of paramount importance. Although some host cellular factors that play a role in T. cruzi infection have been uncovered, the molecular requirements for intracellular parasite growth and persistence are still not well understood. To further study these host-parasite interactions and identify human host factors required for T. cruzi infection, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen using cellular microarrays of a printed siRNA library that spanned the whole human genome. The screening was reproduced 6 times and a customized algorithm was used to select as hits those genes whose silencing visually impaired parasite infection. The 162 strongest hits were subjected to a secondary screening and subsequently validated in two different cell lines. Among the fourteen hits confirmed, we recognized some cellular membrane proteins that might function as cell receptors for parasite entry and others that may be related to calcium release triggered by parasites during cell invasion. In addition, two of the hits are related to the TGF-beta signaling pathway, whose inhibition is already known to diminish levels of T. cruzi infection. This study represents a significant step toward unveiling the key molecular requirements for host cell invasion and revealing new potential targets for antiparasitic therapy. PMID:21625474

  20. Visual genome-wide RNAi screening to identify human host factors required for Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auguste Genovesio

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, a neglected tropical infection that affects millions of people in the Americas. Current chemotherapy relies on only two drugs that have limited efficacy and considerable side effects. Therefore, the development of new and more effective drugs is of paramount importance. Although some host cellular factors that play a role in T. cruzi infection have been uncovered, the molecular requirements for intracellular parasite growth and persistence are still not well understood. To further study these host-parasite interactions and identify human host factors required for T. cruzi infection, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen using cellular microarrays of a printed siRNA library that spanned the whole human genome. The screening was reproduced 6 times and a customized algorithm was used to select as hits those genes whose silencing visually impaired parasite infection. The 162 strongest hits were subjected to a secondary screening and subsequently validated in two different cell lines. Among the fourteen hits confirmed, we recognized some cellular membrane proteins that might function as cell receptors for parasite entry and others that may be related to calcium release triggered by parasites during cell invasion. In addition, two of the hits are related to the TGF-beta signaling pathway, whose inhibition is already known to diminish levels of T. cruzi infection. This study represents a significant step toward unveiling the key molecular requirements for host cell invasion and revealing new potential targets for antiparasitic therapy.

  1. The return periods and risk assessment of severe dust storms in Inner Mongolia with consideration of the main contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueqin; Li, Ning; Xie, Wei; Wu, Jidong; Zhang, Peng; Ji, Zhonghui

    2012-09-01

    This study presents a methodology for return period analysis and risk assessment of severe dust storm disaster. Meteorological observation data, soil moisture data, and remote sensing data from 30 meteorological stations in Inner Mongolia (western China) from 1985 to 2006 were used for the study. A composite index of severe dust storm disaster (Index I (SDS)) based on the influence mechanisms of the main contributing factors was developed by using the analytic hierarchy process and the weighted comprehensive method, and the hazard risk curves (i.e., the transcendental probability curves of I (SDS)) for the 30 stations were established using the parameter estimation method. We then analyzed the risk of the occurrence of severe dust storm under different scenarios of 5-, 10-, 20-, and 50-year return periods. The results show that the risk decreased from west to east across Inner Mongolia, and there are four severe dust storm occurrence peak value centers, including Guaizihu, Jilantai, Hailisu, and Zhurihe-Erenhot. The severity of dust storms in seven places will be intolerable in the 50-year return period scenario and in three places in the 20-year return period scenario. These results indicate that these locations should concentrate forces on disaster prevention, monitoring, and early warning. The I (SDS) was developed as an easily understandable tool useful for the assessment and comparison of the relative risk of severe dust storm disasters in different areas. The risk assessment was specifically intended to support local and national government agencies in their management of severe dust storm disasters in their efforts to (1) make resource allocation decisions, (2) make high-level planning decisions, and (3) raise public awareness of severe dust storm risk.

  2. Design for human factors (DfHF): a grounded theory for integrating human factors into production design processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Searcy, Cory; Salustri, Filipo; Patrick Neumann, W

    2015-01-01

    The 'design for human factors' grounded theory explains 'how' human factors (HF) went from a reactive, after-injury programme in safety, to being proactively integrated into each step of the production design process. In this longitudinal case study collaboration with engineers and HF Specialists in a large electronics manufacturer, qualitative data (e.g. meetings, interviews, observations and reflections) were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The central tenet in the theory is that when HF Specialists acclimated to the engineering process, language and tools, and strategically aligned HF to the design and business goals of the organisation, HF became a means to improve business performance. This led to engineers 'pulling' HF Specialists onto their team. HF targets were adopted into engineering tools to communicate HF concerns quantitatively, drive continuous improvement, visibly demonstrate change and lead to benchmarking. Senior management held engineers accountable for HF as a key performance indicator, thus integrating HF into the production design process. Practitioner Summary: Research and practice lack explanations about how HF can be integrated early in design of production systems. This three-year case study and the theory derived demonstrate how ergonomists changed their focus to align with design and business goals to integrate HF into the design process.

  3. Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health and the Human Integration Design Handbook. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    For decades, Space Life Sciences and NASA as an Agency have considered NASA-STD-3000, Man-Systems Integration Standards, a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration in general. The document has been referenced in numerous design standards both within NASA and by organizations throughout the world. With research program and project results being realized, advances in technology and new information in a variety of topic areas now available, the time arrived to update this extensive suite of requirements and design information. During the past several years, a multi-NASA center effort has been underway to write the update to NASA-STD-3000 with standards and design guidance that would be applicable to all future human spaceflight programs. NASA-STD-3001 - Volumes 1 and 2 - and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) were created. Volume 1, Crew Health, establishes NASA s spaceflight crew health standards for the pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight phases of human spaceflight. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, focuses on the requirements of human-system integration and how the human crew interacts with other systems, and how the human and the system function together to accomplish the tasks for mission success. The HIDH is a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge, and provides useful background information and research findings. And as the HIDH is a stand-alone companion to the Standards, the maintenance of the document has been streamlined. This unique and flexible approach ensures that the content is current and addresses the fundamental advances of human performance and human capabilities and constraints research. Current work focuses on the development of new sections of Volume 2 and collecting updates to the HIDH. The new sections in development expand the scope of the standard and address mission operations and support operations. This effort is again collaboration

  4. Effect of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection on Nerve Growth Factor Expression in Human Glioma U251 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-TAO WANG; BIN WANG; ZHI-JUN LIU; ZHI-QIANG BAI; LING LI; HAI-YAN LIU; DONG-MENG QIAN; ZHI-YONG YAN; XU-XIA SONG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To explore the change of endogenic nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in human glioma cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Methods U251 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 culture medium and infected with HCMV AD169 strain in vitro to establish a cell model of viral infection. Morphologic changes of U251 cells were observed under inverted microscope before and after infection with HCMV. Expression of NGF gene and protein of cells was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting before and after infection with HCMV. Results The cytopathic effects of HCMV-infected cells appeared on day 5 after infection. However, differential NGF expression was evident on day 7. NGF expression was decreased significantly in U251 cells on day 7 after infection in comparison with control group (P<0.05). Conclusion HCMV can down-regulate endogenous NGF levels in human glioma cell line U251.

  5. Organizations as Social Inventions: Some Considerations for Those Who Would Design Schools To Serve Human Ends. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, T. Barr

    In searching for a concept of organization which recognizes its base in human action rather than in objective structure, the author draws on a European tradition stemming from the works of Max Weber. This tradition, combined with examples of organizational life in schools, serves to identify implications for those who attempt to design better…

  6. Considerations for the use of human participants in vector biology research: a tool for investigators and regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achee, Nicole L; Youngblood, Laura; Bangs, Michael J; Lavery, James V; James, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    A thorough search of the existing literature has revealed that there are currently no published recommendations or guidelines for the interpretation of US regulations on the use of human participants in vector biology research (VBR). An informal survey of vector biologists has indicated that issues related to human participation in vector research have been largely debated by academic, national, and local Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) in the countries where the research is being conducted, and that interpretations and subsequent requirements made by these IRBs have varied widely. This document is intended to provide investigators and corresponding scientific and ethical review committee members an introduction to VBR methods involving human participation and the legal and ethical framework in which such studies are conducted with a focus on US Federal Regulations. It is also intended to provide a common perspective for guiding researchers, IRB members, and other interested parties (i.e., public health officials conducting routine entomological surveillance) in the interpretation of human subjects regulations pertaining to VBR.

  7. Human roughness perception and possible factors effecting roughness sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Tugba; Chen, Jianshe; Ettelaie, Rammile; Holmes, Melvin; Henson, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Surface texture sensation is significant for business success, in particular for solid surfaces for most of the materials; including foods. Mechanisms of roughness perception are still unknown, especially under different conditions such as lubricants with varying viscosities, different temperatures, or under different force loads during the observation of the surface. This work aims to determine the effect of those unknown factors, with applied sensory tests on 62 healthy participants. Roughness sensation of fingertip was tested under different lubricants including water and diluted syrup solutions at room temperature (25C) and body temperature (37C) by using simple pair-wise comparison to observe the just noticeable difference threshold and perception levels. Additionally, in this research applied force load during roughness observation was tested with pair-wise ranking method to illustrate its possible effect on human sensation. Obtained results showed that human's capability of roughness discrimination reduces with increased viscosity of the lubricant, where the influence of the temperature was not found to be significant. Moreover, the increase in the applied force load showed an increase in the sensitivity of roughness discrimination. Observed effects of the applied factors were also used for estimating the oral sensation of texture during eating. These findings are significant for our fundamental understanding to texture perception, and for the development of new food products with controlled textural features. Texture discrimination ability, more specifically roughness discrimination capability, is a significant factor for preference and appreciation for a wide range of materials, including food, furniture, or fabric. To explore the mechanism of sensation capability through tactile senses, it is necessary to identify the relevant factors and define characteristics that dominate the process involved. The results that will be obtained under these principles

  8. Beyond crisis resource management: new frontiers in human factors training for acute care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosoniak, Andrew; Hicks, Christopher M

    2013-12-01

    Error is ubiquitous in medicine, particularly during critical events and resuscitation. A significant proportion of adverse events can be attributed to inadequate team-based skills such as communication, leadership, situation awareness and resource utilization. Aviation-based crisis resource management (CRM) training using high-fidelity simulation has been proposed as a strategy to improve team behaviours. This review will address key considerations in CRM training and outline recommendations for the future of human factors education in healthcare. A critical examination of the current literature yields several important considerations to guide the development and implementation of effective simulation-based CRM training. These include defining a priori domain-specific objectives, creating an immersive environment that encourages deliberate practice and transfer-appropriate processing, and the importance of effective team debriefing. Building on research from high-risk industry, we suggest that traditional CRM training may be augmented with new training techniques that promote the development of shared mental models for team and task processes, address the effect of acute stress on team performance, and integrate strategies to improve clinical reasoning and the detection of cognitive errors. The evolution of CRM training involves a 'Triple Threat' approach that integrates mental model theory for team and task processes, training for stressful situations and metacognition and error theory towards a more comprehensive training paradigm, with roots in high-risk industry and cognitive psychology. Further research is required to evaluate the impact of this approach on patient-oriented outcomes.

  9. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human endometrial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Ottesen, B

    1993-01-01

    Little data exist on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-Rs) in human endometrial cancer. EGF-R status was studied in 65 patients with endometrial carcinomas and in 26 women with nonmalignant postmenopausal endometria, either inactive/atrophic endometrium or adenomatous...... hyperplasia. EGF-R was identified on frozen tissue sections by means of an indirect immunoperoxidase technique with a monoclonal antibody against the external domain of the EGF-R. Seventy-one percent of the carcinomas expressed positive EGF-R immunoreactivity. In general, staining was most prominent....../inactive endometria and seven of 13 (54%) endometria with adenomatous hyperplasia were EGF-R positive, with an immunostaining pattern rather similar to that of the carcinomas....

  10. Human factors assessments of innovative technologies: Robotics sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.B. [Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program, Beaver, WV (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has funded major environmental technology developments over the past several years. One area that received significant attention is robotics, which has resulted in the development of a wide range of unique robotic systems tailored to the many tasks unique to the DOE complex. These systems are often used in highly hazardous environments, which reduces or eliminates worker exposures. The DOE, concurrent with the technology development initiative, also established and funded a 5-yr cooperative agreement intended to interface with the technology development community-with specific attention to the occupational safety and health aspects associated with individual technologies through human factors and hazard assessments. This program is now in its third year.

  11. Human factors regulation in response to advanced reactor design trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innes, L.; Harrison, F. (Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Rhodes, W. (Rhodes Associates Inc., Willowdale, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the direction being taken in the Canadian regulatory program to guide the incorporation of human factors principles, knowledge, information, and methods in activities such as those that address the design and implementation of the advanced control room (ACR) in nuclear power plants. Within the current activity in the international nuclear industry aimed at the development of ACR concepts, the steps that are being taken to develop design review guidelines for ACRs, such as the work sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission are filling an identified important need. The salient feature of most ACR projects is the increased use of digital technology for the analysis, synthesis, management, and display of information. The greatly increased functionality of the devices that can be introduced during such projects allows changes to be made at the design and implementation stages that are not necessarily based on prior function allocation or task analyses.

  12. Integrated Human Factors Design Guidelines for Sound Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Woo Chang [Kumoh National Univ. of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-15

    Digital MMI, such as CRT, LCD etc., has been used increasingly in the design of main control room of the Korean standard nuclear power plants following the YGN units 3 and 4. The utilization of digital MMI may introduce various kind of sound interface into the control room design. In this project, for five top-level guideline items, including Sound Formats, Alarms, Sound Controls, Communications, and Environments, a total of 147 detail guidelines were developed and a database system for these guidelines was developed. The integrated human factors design guidelines for sound interface and the database system developed in this project will be useful for the design of sound interface of digital MMI in Korean NPPs.

  13. Human Factors in Fire Safety Management and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Othuman Mydin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behavior, compartmentalization, and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production, testing and application of mitigating systems. Problems still occurred despite of the adequate fire safety systems installed. For most people in high-risk buildings, not all accidents were caused by them. They were more likely to be the victims of a fire that occurred. Besides damaging their properties and belongings, some people were burned to death for not knowing what to do if fire happens in their place. This paper will present the human factors in fire safety management and prevention system.

  14. [Human factors caused the third plague epidemic in Harbin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dong-Ying; Li, Zhi-Ping

    2011-03-01

    The third plague epidemic in Harbin broke out in 1946 and ended in 1954. Different from the first two plague epidemics (imported), the third prevalence was both imported and idiopathic infectious disease which was caused by human factors. Japanese troops set forbidden zones to build a biological weapon center, which destroyed the natural environment and offered a good growth condition for Citellus Undulatus. In 1945, on the eve of surrender, the Japanese blew up the Unit 731 germ factory located in a bungalow district, which caused diffusion of infected plague fleas. Mice of the district were infected and a man-made plague focus was created. During the prevalence of the third plague, prevention departments at all levels took a series of actions and with people's efforts, the plague was effectively controlled.

  15. Patents and the obligation to protect health: examining the significance of human rights considerations in the protection of pharmaceutical patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, Olasupo Ayodeji

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses the human right to health in the context of patent protection and access to medicines. It considers the limitations in international human rights law, especially in relation to socioeconomic rights, that make it difficult for the right to health to be a potent justification for derogation from trade or intellectual property agreements. It concludes by taking the view that while the right to health may be somewhat unenforceable in international law, its close association with enforceable rights such as the right to life can be a legitimate basis for making maximum use of the flexibilities in the international intellectual property regime to protect public health. The article takes the view that trade and intellectual property agreements must be interpreted in a way that endeavours as much as possible to resolve any seeming inconsistency with the right to health.

  16. Procoagulant tissue factor-exposing vesicles in human seminal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, C; Böing, A N; Hau, C M; Montag, M; Strowitzki, T; Nieuwland, R; Toth, B

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that various types of vesicles, like microparticles (MP) and exosomes, are present in blood, saliva, bone marrow, urine and synovial fluid. These vesicles, which are released upon activation or shear stress, are thought to play a role in coagulation, neovascularisation, inflammation and intercellular signalling. Seminal fluid is a cell-, sperm- and protein-rich suspension. Although seminal fluid is known to contain vesicles like prostasomes, MP and exosomes have never been characterised. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyse and characterise vesicles in seminal fluid in male partners of patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF/ICSI. MP from seminal fluid of patients during routine IVF/ICSI procedures were detected and analysed with flow cytometry (FACS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using antibodies against tissue factor (TF), CD10, CD13, CD26 and annexin V. The coagulant properties of vesicles were studied using a fibrin generation test. MP were detected in human seminal fluid by both flow cytometry and TEM. Seminal fluid-derived MP expressed CD10, CD13, CD26 and TF, which was highly procoagulant and a powerful trigger of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. The extent to which the procoagulant activity of MP in seminal fluid contributes to the implantation process itself and therefore affects human reproduction needs to be further elucidated.

  17. Pluripotent stem cell transcription factors during human odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Juliana Malta; da Costa-Neves, Adriana; Kerkis, Irina; da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Stem cells are capable of generating various cell lines and can be obtained from adult or embryonic tissues for clinical therapies. Stem cells from deciduous dental pulp are among those that are easily obtainable from adult tissues and have been widely studied because of their ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lines in the presence of various chemical mediators. We have analyze the expression of several proteins related to the differentiation and proliferative potential of cell populations that compose the tooth germ of human fetuses. We evaluate 20 human fetuses of both genders. After being paraffin-embedded, cap and bell stages of tooth germ development were subjected to immunohistochemistry for the following markers: Oct-4, Nanog, Stat-3 and Sox-2. The studied antibodies showed nuclear or cytoplasmic immunnostaining within various anatomical structures and with various degrees of expression, indicating the action of these proteins during tooth development. We conclude that the interrelationship between these transcription factors is complex and associated with self-renewal and cell differentiation. Our results suggest that the expression of Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2 and Stat-3 are related to differentiation in ameloblasts and odontoblasts.

  18. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöberl, Iris; Wedl, Manuela; Beetz, Andrea; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100) over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, pNeuroticism (NEO-FFI) and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT), had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016), as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ) or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ) (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003). We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context) in science and in counselling. PMID:28178272

  19. Managing commingled remains from mass graves: considerations, implications and recommendations from a human rights case in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Varas, Claudia; Intriago Leiva, Marisol

    2012-06-10

    This paper focuses on a little discussed part of Chilean history and the efforts to resolve Human Rights cases from the period 1973 to 1990. A case file is presented to illustrate the different stages, problems and solutions found in one particularly challenging case studied by the Special Unit of Identification of Detained and Missing (UEIDDDD) of the Human Rights Program of the Forensic Service, Chile, during the period 2006-2009. A major complication found in this example was the fact that the remains studied were commingled, and in addition, were mixed with remains that were not of medico-legal interest - deposited prior to and after the case in question, but within the same common grave. Multiple burials and the consequences of commingled skeletal human remains are reviewed, paying special attention to the roles that different agents related to these types of cases play, how they influence the decision making process and the outcomes that can be expected in commingled cases due to the complexities and challenges they present. Effective communication between prosecutors and forensic practitioners is vital to optimize the resources. Equally important is the relationship that is built between the practitioners and the victims' families regarding communication, information and expectations that both parties may have. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Selection and characterization of a human neutralizing antibody to human fibroblast growth factor-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Jun [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Xiang, Jun-Jian, E-mail: txjj@jnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Antibody Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Technologies, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Li, Dan [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Deng, Ning; Wang, Hong; Gong, Yi-Ping [Laboratory of Antibody Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Technologies, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-04-09

    Compelling evidences suggest that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) plays important roles in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Molecules blocking the FGF-2 signaling have been proposed as anticancer agents. Through screening of a human scFv phage display library, we have isolated several human single-chain Fv fragments (scFvs) that bind to human FGF-2. After expression and purification in bacteria, one scFv, named 1A2, binds to FGF-2 with a high affinity and specificity, and completes with FGF-2 binding to its receptor. This 1A2 scFv was then cloned into the pIgG1 vector and expressed in 293T cells. The purified hIgG1-1A2 antibody showed a high binding affinity of 8 x 10{sup -9} M to rhFGF-2. In a set of vitro assays, it inhibited various biological activities of FGF-2 such as the proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. More importantly, hIgG1-1A2 antibody also efficiently blocked the growth while inducing apoptosis of glioma cells. For the first time, we generated a human anti-FGF-2 antibody with proven in vitro anti-tumor activity. It may therefore present a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of cancers that are dependent on FGF-2 signaling for growth and survival.

  1. Humanized versus murine anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies for immunoscintigraphic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alejo A. Morales; Duconge, Jorge; Alvarez-Ruiz, Daniel; Becquer-Viart, Maria de Los Angeles; Nunez-Gandolff, Gilda; Fernandez, Eduardo; Caballero-Torres, Idania; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando

    2000-02-01

    The anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) humanized antibody h-R3 (IgG{sub 1}), which binds to an extracellular domain of EGF-R, was used to evaluate the biodistribution on nude mice xenografted with A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line. Results are compared with its murine version ior egf/r3 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Twenty-one athymic female 4NMRI nu/nu mice were injected intravenously with 10 {mu}g/100 {mu}Ci of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled mAbs. The mAb ior C5 that recognizes an antigen expressed preferentially on the surface of malignant and cytoplasm of normal colorectal cells was used as negative control. Immunoreactivity of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled mAbs was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay on A431 cell line and the immunoreactive fractions determined by Lindmo method. Among all organs significant accumulation was found in tumor (6.14{+-}2.50 %ID/g, 5.06{+-}2.61 %ID/g for murine and humanized mAbs, respectively) 4 h after injection. The immunoreactive fractions were found to be 0.88 and 0.81 for murine and humanized mAb, respectively. Thus, we expect better results using the humanized mAb h-R3 for diagnostic immunoscintigraphy.

  2. The human factors of quality and QA in R D environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S.G.

    1990-01-01

    Achieving quality is a human activity. It is therefore important to consider the human in the design, development and evaluation of work processes and environments in an effort to enhance human performance and minimize error. It is also important to allow for individual differences when considering human factors issues. Human Factors is the field of study which can provide information on integrating the human into the system. Human factors and quality are related for the customer of R D work, R D personnel who perform the work, and the quality professional who overviews the process of quality in the work. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Correlation Relationship of Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) for Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bheka, M. Khumalo; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    At TMI-2, operators permitted thousands of gallons of water to escape from the reactor plant before realizing that the coolant pumps were behaving abnormally. The coolant pumps were then turned off, which in turn led to the destruction of the reactor itself as cooling was completely lost within the core. Human also plays a role in many aspects of complex systems e.g. in design and manufacture of hardware, interface between human and system and also in maintaining such systems as well as for coping with unusual events that place the NPP system at a risk. This is why human reliability analysis (HRA) - an aspect of risk assessments which systematically identifies and analyzes the causes and consequences of human decisions and actions - is important in nuclear power plant operations. It either upgrades or degrades human performance; therefore it has an impact on the possibility of error. These PSFs can be used in various HRA methods to estimate Human Error Probabilities (HEPs). There are many current HRA methods who propose sets of PSFs for normal operation mode of NPP. Some of these PSFs in the sets have some degree of dependency and overlap. Overlapping PSFs introduce error in HEP evaluations due to the fact that some elements are counted more than once in data; this skews the relationship amongst PSF and masks the way that the elements interact to affect performance. This study uses a causal model that represents dependencies and relationships amongst PSFs for HEP evaluation during normal NPP operational states. The model is built taking into consideration the dependencies among PSFs and thus eliminating overlap. The use of an interdependent model of PSFs is expected to produce more accurate HEPs compared to other current methods. PSF sets produced in this study can be further used as nodes (variables) and directed arcs (causal influence between nodes) in HEP evaluation methods such as Bayesian belief (BN) networks. This study was done to estimate the relationships

  4. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1in Human Meningiomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Wei; CHEN Jian; Filimon H. Golwa; XUE Delin

    2005-01-01

    The expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1) in human meningiomas and the relationships between their expression and the tumors' histological features and angiogenesis were investigated by means of immunohistochemical technique. The expression of bFGF and FGFR-1 was detected by antibody of bFGF or FGFR-1.The tumors' angiogenesis was evaluated by microvascular density (MVD) and, which was observed by use of CD34-antibody immunohistochemically. The results showed that there were varied degrees of the expression of bFGF and FGFR-1 proteins in meningiomas. The expression was correlated with the tumors' histological characters and angiogenesis. It was concluded that bFGF and FGFR-1 might play important roles in meningiomas' angiogenesis and proliferation. The expression positive rate of bFGF and FGFR-1 may provide an indication of evaluating the histological and malignant degree of the tumor.

  5. A HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING PROCESS TO SUPPORT HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.; Boring, R.

    2017-05-01

    The primary objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is to sustain operation of the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through a multi-pathway approach in conducting research and development (R&D). The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and other information systems in existing U.S. NPPs. Control room modernization is an important part following this pathway, and human factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been involved in conducting R&D to support migration of new digital main control room (MCR) technologies from legacy analog and legacy digital I&C. This paper describes a human factors engineering (HFE) process that supports human-system interface (HSI) design in MCR modernization activities, particularly with migration of old digital to new digital I&C. The process described in this work is an expansion from the LWRS Report INL/EXT-16-38576, and is a requirements-driven approach that aligns with NUREG-0711 requirements. The work described builds upon the existing literature by adding more detail around key tasks and decisions to make when transitioning from HSI Design into Verification and Validation (V&V). The overall objective of this process is to inform HSI design and elicit specific, measurable, and achievable human factors criteria for new digital technologies. Upon following this process, utilities should have greater confidence with transitioning from HSI design into V&V.

  6. Production of human intestinal trefoil factor in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yong; PENG Xi; Lü Shang-jun; ZHANG Yong; WANG Shi-liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To construct a Pichia pastoris (P. Pastoris) expression vector of human intestinal trefoil factor (hITF) and study its expression and purification procedures. Methods:hITF gene encoding mature peptide was modified with a polyhistidine tag sequence at the N-terminal, and then inserted into the P. Pastoris expression vector pGAPZαA at the ownstream of the α-mating factor signal. After gene sequencing, the recombinant pGAPZαA-hITF was transformed into the P. Pastoris strain X-33 with lithium chloride. rhITF was induced to constitutively express in shake flask, and then analyzed with Tricine SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The obtained rhITF was isolated from the cultured supernatants y ammonium sulfate precipitation, Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, and ultrafiltration. Results:The correctness and integrity of rhITF were identified by restriction digestion and gene sequencing. rhITF was successfully expressed to 50 mg/L as a secretive protein. After purification, the purity was above 95%.Tricine SDS-PAGE and Western-blot analysis howed that rhITF presented as a single band with a molecular weight of 10 kDa, a little larger than 7 879 Da as assayed by mass spectrometry analysis. Conclusion:hITF P. Pastoris expression vector is successfully constructed and rhITF is expressed in P. Pastoris at commercially relevant level. This research lays foundation for the further functional tudying of hITF.

  7. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  8. [Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Jan W

    2007-01-01

    Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of

  9. Factors governing risk of cougar attacks on humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David; Logan, Kenneth; Sweanor, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s wildlife managers in the United States and Canada have expressed increasing concern about the physical threat posed by cougars (Puma concolor) to humans. We developed a conceptual framework and analyzed 386 human–cougar encounters (29 fatal attacks, 171 instances of nonfatal contact, and 186 close-threatening encounters) to provide information relevant to public safety. We conceived of human injury and death as the outcome of 4 transitions affected by different suites of factors: (1) a human encountering a cougar: (2) given an encounter, odds that the cougar would be aggressive; (3) given aggression, odds that the cougar would attack; and (4) given an attack, odds that the human would die. We developed multivariable logistic regression models to explain variation in odds at transitions three and four using variables pertaining to characteristics of involved people and cougars. Young (≤ 2.5 years) or unhealthy (by weight, condition, or disease) cougars were more likely than any others to be involved in close (typically females were more likely than males to attack, and of attacking animals, adults were more likely than juveniles to kill the victim (32% versus 9% fatality, respectively). During close encounters, victims who used a weapon killed the involved cougar in 82% of cases. Other mitigating behaviors (e.g., yelling, backing away, throwing objects, increasing stature) also substantially lessened odds of attack. People who were moving quickly or erratically when an encounter happened (running, playing, skiing, snowshoeing, biking, ATV-riding) were more likely to be attacked and killed compared to people who were less active (25% versus 8% fatality). Children (≤ 10 years) were more likely than single adults to be attacked, but intervention by people of any age reduced odds of a child’s death by 4.6×. Overall, cougar attacks on people in Canada and the United States were rare (currently 4 to 6/year) compared to attacks by large felids and

  10. Adding a strategic edge to human factors/ergonomics: principles for the management of uncertainty as cornerstones for system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Gudela

    2014-01-01

    It is frequently lamented that human factors and ergonomics knowledge does not receive the attention and consideration that it deserves. In this paper I argue that in order to change this situation human factors/ergonomics based system design needs to be positioned as a strategic task within a conceptual framework that incorporates both business and design concerns. The management of uncertainty is presented as a viable candidate for such a framework. A case is described where human factors/ergonomics experts in a railway company have used the management of uncertainty perspective to address strategic concerns at firm level. Furthermore, system design is discussed in view of the relationship between organization and technology more broadly. System designers need to be supported in better understanding this relationship in order to cope with the uncertainties this relationship brings to the design process itself. Finally, the emphasis on uncertainty embedded in the recent surge of introducing risk management across all business sectors is suggested as another opportunity for bringing human factors and ergonomics expertise to the fore.

  11. Spectral data compression using weighted principal component analysis with consideration of human visual system and light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Wan, Xiaoxia; Li, Junfeng; Liu, Qiang; Liang, Jingxing; Li, Chan

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposed two weight functions based on principal component analysis (PCA) to reserve more colorimetric information in spectral data compression process. One weight function consisted of the CIE XYZ color-matching functions representing the characteristic of the human visual system, while another was made up of the CIE XYZ color-matching functions of human visual system and relative spectral power distribution of the CIE standard illuminant D65. The improvement obtained from the proposed two methods were tested to compress and reconstruct the reflectance spectra of 1600 glossy Munsell color chips and 1950 Natural Color System color chips as well as six multispectral images. The performance was evaluated by the mean values of color difference under the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer and the CIE standard illuminant D65 and A. The mean values of root mean square errors between the original and reconstructed spectra were also calculated. The experimental results show that the proposed two methods significantly outperform the standard PCA and another two weighted PCA in the aspects of colorimetric reconstruction accuracy with very slight degradation in spectral reconstruction accuracy. In addition, weight functions with the CIE standard illuminant D65 can improve the colorimetric reconstruction accuracy compared to weight functions without the CIE standard illuminant D65.

  12. Culture, mobility and human rights: considerations on social occupational therapy in the context of immigrants municipal policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Takao Sato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the need to revise education and professional action, in the context of social occupational therapy, facing the growing phenomenon of international migration, especially in the current construction of the municipal policy for immigrant populations in São Paulo, SP. The discussion is methodologically structured into three complementary lines of analysis results from documentary research accompanied by field study, visits, participations in meetings, inter-institutional forums, public hearings, thematic debates, in addition to literature review. In the first analysis axis, we discuss the current legislation in Brazil, the construction of migration policy at the municipal level and civil society articulations about human mobility, understood as a fundamental right. In the second, we discuss people care services, families and groups in migratory situation in São Paulo, SP. Finally, on the third axis, we discuss the cultural developments in social occupational therapy for professional action and training in the field of human mobility. As a result it was observed that the current panorama poses new professional challenges, forcing the occupational therapist to review its technical-political position face to the new realities of the contemporary world.

  13. Spectral data compression using weighted principal component analysis with consideration of human visual system and light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Wan, Xiaoxia; Li, Junfeng; Liu, Qiang; Liang, Jingxing; Li, Chan

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposed two weight functions based on principal component analysis (PCA) to reserve more colorimetric information in spectral data compression process. One weight function consisted of the CIE XYZ color-matching functions representing the characteristic of the human visual system, while another was made up of the CIE XYZ color-matching functions of human visual system and relative spectral power distribution of the CIE standard illuminant D65. The improvement obtained from the proposed two methods were tested to compress and reconstruct the reflectance spectra of 1600 glossy Munsell color chips and 1950 Natural Color System color chips as well as six multispectral images. The performance was evaluated by the mean values of color difference under the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer and the CIE standard illuminant D65 and A. The mean values of root mean square errors between the original and reconstructed spectra were also calculated. The experimental results show that the proposed two methods significantly outperform the standard PCA and another two weighted PCA in the aspects of colorimetric reconstruction accuracy with very slight degradation in spectral reconstruction accuracy. In addition, weight functions with the CIE standard illuminant D65 can improve the colorimetric reconstruction accuracy compared to weight functions without the CIE standard illuminant D65.

  14. A development of the Human Factors Assessment Guide for the Study of Erroneous Human Behaviors in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yeon Ju; Lee, Yong Hee; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Sa Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe a human factors assessment guide for the study of the erroneous characteristic of operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We think there are still remaining the human factors issues such as an uneasy emotion, fatigue and stress, varying mental workload situation by digital environment, and various new type of unsafe response to digital interface for better decisions, although introducing an advanced main control room. These human factors issues may not be resolved through the current human reliability assessment which evaluates the total probability of a human error occurring throughout the completion of a specific task. This paper provides an assessment guide for the human factors issues a set of experimental methodology, and presents an assessment case of measurement and analysis especially from neuro physiology approach. It would be the most objective psycho-physiological research technique on human performance for a qualitative analysis considering the safety aspects. This paper can be trial to experimental assessment of erroneous behaviors and their influencing factors, and it can be used as an index for recognition and a method to apply human factors engineering V and V, which is required as a mandatory element of human factor engineering program plan for a NPP design.

  15. Hemoglobin is a co-factor of human trypanosome lytic factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Widener

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosome lytic factor (TLF is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL subclass providing innate protection to humans against infection by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Two primate-specific plasma proteins, haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr and apolipoprotein L-1 (ApoL-1, have been proposed to kill T. b. brucei both singularly or when co-assembled into the same HDL. To better understand the mechanism of T. b. brucei killing by TLF, the protein composition of TLF was investigated using a gentle immunoaffinity purification technique that avoids the loss of weakly associated proteins. HDL particles recovered by immunoaffinity absorption, with either anti-Hpr or anti-ApoL-1, were identical in protein composition and specific activity for T. b. brucei killing. Here, we show that TLF-bound Hpr strongly binds Hb and that addition of Hb stimulates TLF killing of T. b. brucei by increasing the affinity of TLF for its receptor, and by inducing Fenton chemistry within the trypanosome lysosome. These findings suggest that TLF in uninfected humans may be inactive against T. b. brucei prior to initiation of infection. We propose that infection of humans by T. b. brucei causes hemolysis that triggers the activation of TLF by the formation of Hpr-Hb complexes, leading to enhanced binding, trypanolytic activity, and clearance of parasites.

  16. Time to accelerate integration of human factors and ergonomics in patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, Ayse P; Ozok, A Ant; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-04-01

    Progress toward improving patient safety has been slow despite engagement of the health care community in improvement efforts. A potential reason for this sluggish pace is the inadequate integration of human factors and ergonomics principles and methods in these efforts. Patient safety problems are complex and rarely caused by one factor or component of a work system. Thus, health care would benefit from human factors and ergonomics evaluations to systematically identify the problems, prioritize the right ones, and develop effective and practical solutions. This paper gives an overview of the discipline of human factors and ergonomics and describes its role in improving patient safety. We provide examples of how human factors and ergonomics principles and methods have improved both care processes and patient outcomes. We provide five major recommendations to better integrate human factors and ergonomics in patient safety improvement efforts: build capacity among health care workers to understand human factors and ergonomics, create market forces that demand the integration of human factors and ergonomics design principles into medical technologies, increase the number of human factors and ergonomic practitioners in health care organizations, expand investments in improvement efforts informed by human factors and ergonomics, and support interdisciplinary research to improve patient safety. In conclusion, human factors and ergonomics must play a more prominent role in health care if we want to increase the pace in improving patient safety.

  17. Characterization of golimumab, a human monoclonal antibody specific for human tumor necrosis factor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David J; Cai, Ann; Staquet, Kim; Baker, Audrey; Lacy, Eilyn R; Johns, Laura; Vafa, Omid; Gunn, George; Tam, Susan; Sague, Sarah; Wang, Dana; Brigham-Burke, Mike; Dalmonte, Paul; Emmell, Eva; Pikounis, Bill; Bugelski, Peter J; Zhou, Honghui; Scallon, Bernard J; Giles-Komar, Jill

    2010-01-01

    We prepared and characterized golimumab (CNTO148), a human IgG1 tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antagonist monoclonal antibody chosen for clinical development based on its molecular properties. Golimumab was compared with infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept for affinity and in vitro TNFα neutralization. The affinity of golimumab for soluble human TNFα, as determined by surface plasmon resonance, was similar to that of etanercept (18 pM versus 11 pM), greater than that of infliximab (44 pM) and significantly greater than that of adalimumab (127 pM, p=0.018).  The concentration of golimumab necessary to neutralize TNFα-induced E-selectin expression on human endothelial cells by 50% was significantly less than those for infliximab (3.2 fold; p=0.017) and adalimumab (3.3-fold; p=0.008) and comparable to that for etanercept. The conformational stability of golimumab was greater than that of infliximab (primary melting temperature [Tm] 74.8 °C vs. 69.5 °C) as assessed by differential scanning calorimetry.  In addition, golimumab showed minimal aggregation over the intended shelf life when formulated as a high concentration liquid product (100 mg/mL) for subcutaneous administration.  In vivo, golimumab at doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg significantly delayed disease progression in a mouse model of human TNFα-induced arthritis when compared with untreated mice, while infliximab was effective only at 10 mg/kg. Golimumab also significantly reduced histological scores for arthritis severity and cartilage damage, as well as serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with arthritis. Thus, we have demonstrated that golimumab is a highly stable human monoclonal antibody with high affinity and capacity to neutralize human TNFα in vitro and in vivo.

  18. A Consideration on the Future Direction of Japanese Educational System About Fostering Human Resources for the Global Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shusuke; Shimura, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koji

    The lectures are taken, making use of the textbook of the same contents, for high school students in Japan, students at Yamagata University and at Korea Maritime University in Korea. I’ ll find the similarity and difference, by comparing vertical and horizontal relations among three groups. As a result, I can find the directionality of cultivating human resources of doing well in the global society. I think there is “Matrix Thinking Frame” as one of the effective countermeasures for fostering men of ability. It is possible to part from conventional passiveness type education, according to planning and practicing one’ s “Life Management Plan” by using this system. The case where one’ s capability has been extended appears in students, as above mentioned.

  19. Human Factors for Situation Assessment in Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttromson, Ross T.; Schur, Anne; Greitzer, Frank L.; Paget, Mia L.

    2007-08-08

    Executive Summary Despite advances in technology, power system operators must assimilate overwhelming amounts of data to keep the grid operating. Analyses of recent blackouts have clearly demonstrated the need to enhance the operator’s situation awareness (SA). The long-term objective of this research is to integrate valuable technologies into the grid operator environment that support decision making under normal and abnormal operating conditions and remove non-technical barriers to enable the optimum use of these technologies by individuals working alone and as a team. More specifically, the research aims to identify methods and principles to increase SA of grid operators in the context of system conditions that are representative or common across many operating entities and develop operationally relevant experimental methods for studying technologies and operational practices which contribute to SA. With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the grid, the scope and complexity of situation awareness have grown. New paradigms are needed to guide research and tool development aimed to enhance and improve operations. In reviewing related research, operating practices, systems, and tools, the present study established a taxonomy that provides a perspective on research and development surrounding power grid situation awareness and clarifies the field of human factors/SA for grid operations. Information sources that we used to identify critical factors underlying SA included interviews with experienced operational personnel, available historical summaries and transcripts of abnormal conditions and outages (e.g., the August 14, 2003 blackout), scientific literature, and operational policies/procedures and other documentation. Our analysis of August 2003 blackout transcripts and interviews adopted a different perspective than previous analyses of this material, and we complemented this analysis with additional interviews. Based on our analysis and a broad

  20. Noninvasive brain stimulation to suppress craving in substance use disorders: review of human evidence and methodological considerations for future work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Ciraulo, Domenic A; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fecteau, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) can be viewed as a pathology of neuroadaptation. The pharmacological overstimulation of neural mechanisms of reward, motivated learning and memory leads to drug-seeking behavior. A critical characteristic of SUDs is the appearance of craving, the motivated desire and urge to use, which is a main focus of current pharmacological and behavioral therapies. Recent proof-of-concept studies have tested the effects of non-invasive brain stimulation on craving. Although its mechanisms of action are not fully understood, this approach shows interesting potential in tuning down craving and possibly consumption of diverse substances. This article reviews available results on the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) in SUDs, specifically tobacco, alcohol and psychostimulant use disorders. We discuss several important factors that need to be addressed in future works to improve clinical assessment and effects of non-invasive brain stimulation in SUDs. Factors discussed include brain stimulation devices and parameters, study designs, brain states and subjects’ characteristics. PMID:26449761

  1. Experiences in the application of human factors engineering to human-system interface modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba Alonso, Pedro; Fernandez Illobre, Luis; Ortega Pascual, Fernando [Tecnatom S.A., San Sebastian de los Reyes (Spain). Simulation and Control Rooms Div.

    2015-07-15

    Almost all the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) include plans to modernize their existing Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems and associated Human System Interfaces (HSIs), due to obsolescence problems. Tecnatom, S.A. has been participating in modernization programs in NPPs to help them to plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and associated I and C and HSIs. The application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in modernization programs is nowadays unavoidable. This is because is becoming a regulatory requirement, and also because it is needed to ensure that any plant modification, involving the modernization of I and C and HSI, is well designed to improve overall plant operations, reliability, and safety. This paper shows some experiences obtained during the application of HFE to the modernization of these HSIs. The experience applying HFE in modernizations and design modifications show a positive effect, improving the associated HSIs, with the acceptability of the final user.

  2. Muscle Carnosine Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora de Courten

    Full Text Available Carnosine is a naturally present dipeptide abundant in skeletal muscle and an over-the counter food additive. Animal data suggest a role of carnosine supplementation in the prevention and treatment of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease but only limited human data exists.Samples of vastus lateralis muscle were obtained by needle biopsy. We measured muscle carnosine levels (high-performance liquid chromatography, % body fat (bioimpedance, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity (magnetic resonance imaging, insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, resting energy expenditure (REE, indirect calorimetry, free-living ambulatory physical activity (accelerometers and lipid profile in 36 sedentary non-vegetarian middle aged men (45±7 years with varying degrees of adiposity and glucose tolerance. Muscle carnosine content was positively related to % body fat (r = 0.35, p = 0.04 and subcutaneous (r = 0.38, p = 0.02 but not visceral fat (r = 0.17, p = 0.33. Muscle carnosine content was inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.44, p = 0.008, REE (r = -0.58, p<0.001 and HDL-cholesterol levels (r = -0.34, p = 0.048. Insulin sensitivity and physical activity were the best predictors of muscle carnosine content after adjustment for adiposity.Our data shows that higher carnosine content in human skeletal muscle is positively associated with insulin resistance and fasting metabolic preference for glucose. Moreover, it is negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol and basal energy expenditure. Intervention studies targeting insulin resistance, metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors are necessary to evaluate its putative role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  3. Applying Human Factors during the SIS Life Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, K.

    2010-05-05

    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are widely used in U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nonreactor nuclear facilities for safety-critical applications. Although use of the SIS technology and computer-based digital controls, can improve performance and safety, it potentially introduces additional complexities, such as failure modes that are not readily detectable. Either automated actions or manual (operator) actions may be required to complete the safety instrumented function to place the process in a safe state or mitigate a hazard in response to an alarm or indication. DOE will issue a new standard, Application of Safety Instrumented Systems Used at DOE Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, to provide guidance for the design, procurement, installation, testing, maintenance, operation, and quality assurance of SIS used in safety significant functions at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. The DOE standard focuses on utilizing the process industry consensus standard, American National Standards Institute/ International Society of Automation (ANSI/ISA) 84.00.01, Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector, to support reliable SIS design throughout the DOE complex. SIS design must take into account human-machine interfaces and their limitations and follow good human factors engineering (HFE) practices. HFE encompasses many diverse areas (e.g., information display, user-system interaction, alarm management, operator response, control room design, and system maintainability), which affect all aspects of system development and modification. This paper presents how the HFE processes and principles apply throughout the SIS life cycle to support the design and use of SIS at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities.

  4. Homologous radioimmunoassay for human epidermal growth factor (urogastrone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dailey, G.E.; Kraus, J.W.; Orth, D.N.

    1978-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a polypeptide hormone originally discovered in the mouse submaxillary gland, stimulates growth in a variety of tissues in several species. This hormone has recently been identified in human urine. A homologous RIA for human EGF (RIA-hEGF) has been developed. In general, levels were similar to those recently reported using a heterologous RIA system. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of RIA-hEGF by normal adult males and females was 63.0 +- 3.0 and 52.0 +- 3.5 (mean +- SE) ..mu..g/total vol, or 29.7 +- 1.1 and 39.8 +- 1.7 ..mu..g/g creatinine, respectively. Excretion by females taking oral contraceptives was significantly greater (60.1 +- 2.7 ..mu..g/g creatinine; P < 0.01) than that by females who were not. Recent evidence suggests the probable identity of hEGF and ..beta..-urogastrone, a potent inhibitor of gastric acid secretion. Adult males with active peptic ulcer disease appeared to have lower urinary RIA-hEGF excretion (22.9 +- 2.6 ..mu..g/g creatinine) than normal men, but this was not significant (P > 0.05). Several of those with very low values had histories of alcohol abuse. Excretion by patients with Cushing's syndrome was normal. Patients with psoriasis or recovering from major burns excreted both abnormally high and abnormally low levels of RIA-hEGF, with no obvious correlation to their clinical condition. There was no apparent diurnal or postprandial variation in urinary RIA-hEGF excretion by normal subjects. An excellent linear correlation was observed between RIA-hEGF and creatinine concentrations in each urine sample for each subject, suggesting that RIA-hEGF concentration in a random urine sample provides a valid index of 24-h RIA-hEGF excretion.

  5. Comparative view on risk factor of human death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Atsuhiko; Sugahara, Tsutomu [Health Research Foundation, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Human being, namely. 'living' get involved in risk factor. Even if risk is limited to lethal danger, human history is coresponding with numberless risks from ancient up to today. For example, there is increase in risk of death by car-crash owing to get high efficiency in transfer. In Japan, the death toll by car-accident is about ten thousands per year constantly. State of deaths by car-accident not only include driver itself but cyclist and pedestrian. Death rate of both the cyclist and pedestrian amounts to 40% of all. In the age, rate of fracture as result of fall-down while walking is very high. It shows that the aged who give up driving and get out of danger car-crush are attacked the another accident as walkers. On type of danger, the decrease in risk of one-side come to increase in risk of other side. That is 'risk trade-off'. Examples of risk trade-off as above are numerous in environment. Acceptable death rate of various causes is about 10{sup -4} per year in generally. Flight accident happens on rare occasions (10{sup -7} per year in Japan, usually). Spite of insignificant probability, people fear by both reasons that the possibility of rescue is very few and the size of accident is enormous. In the cases of flight and nuclear power plant, estimated accidents is sever, but its probability is very small. Therefore, risk of annual deaths by accident must be considered as multiplication of size of risk (deaths per year) by probability (frequency per year). Obtained result by such analysis shall conduct to right risk perception and stable 'risk acceptance'. (author)

  6. Teleoperator hand controllers: A contextual human factors assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1994-05-01

    This document provides a human factors assessment of controllers for use with remotely controlled manipulators deployed to remove hazardous waste from underground storage tanks. The analysis concentrates on controller technique (i.e., the broad class of hand controller) and not on details of controller ergonomics. Examples of controller techniques include, for example, direct rate control, resolved unilateral position control, and direct bilateral position control. Using an existing concept, the Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System, as a reference, two basic types of manipulators may be identified for this application. A long reach, gross-positioning manipulator (LRM) may be used to position a smaller manipulator or an end-effector within a work site. For a Long Reach Manipulator, which will have an enormous motion range and be capable of high end-effector velocity, it will be safest and most efficient to use a resolved rate control system. A smaller, dexterous manipulator may be used to perform handling work within a relatively small work site, (i.e., to complete tasks requiring near-human dexterity). For a Dexterous Manipulator, which will have a smaller motion range than the LRM and be required to perform more difficult tasks, a resolved bilateral position control system will be safest and most efficient. However, during some waste recovery tasks it may be important to support the users by restricting movements to a single plane or axis. This can be done with a resolved bilateral position control system by (1) using the master controller force output to restrict controller inputs or (2) switching the controller to a multiaxis rate control mode and using the force output to provide a spring return to center functionality.

  7. Trefoil factor-3 expression in human colon cancer liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyatsky, Mark; Lin, Jing; Yio, Xianyang; Chen, Anli; Zhang, Jie-yu; Zheng, Yan; Twyman, Christina; Bao, Xiuliang; Schwartz, Myron; Thung, Swan; Lawrence Werther, J; Itzkowitz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Deaths from colorectal cancer are often due to liver metastasis. Trefoil factor-3 (TFF3) is expressed by normal intestinal epithelial cells and its expression is maintained throughout the colon adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Our previous work demonstrated a correlation between TFF3 expression and metastatic potential in an animal model of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether TFF3 is expressed in human colon cancer liver metastasis (CCLM) and whether inhibiting TFF3 expression in colon cancer cells would alter their invasive potential in vitro. Human CCLMs were analyzed at the mRNA and protein level for TFF3 expression. Two highly metastatic rat colon cancer cell lines that either natively express TFF3 (LN cells) or were transfected with TFF3 (LPCRI-2 cells), were treated with two rat TFF3 siRNA constructs (si78 and si365), and analyzed in an in vitro invasion assay. At the mRNA and protein level, TFF3 was expressed in 17/17 (100%) CCLMs and 10/11 (91%) primary colon cancers, but not in normal liver tissue. By real time PCR, TFF3 expression was markedly inhibited by both siRNA constructs in LN and LPCRI-2 cells. The si365 and si78 constructs inhibited invasion by 44% and 53%, respectively, in LN cells, and by 74% and 50%, respectively, in LPCRI-2 cells. These results provide further evidence that TFF3 contributes to the malignant behavior of colon cancer cells. These observations may have relevance for designing new diagnostic and treatment approaches to colorectal cancer.

  8. The human enhancer blocker CTC-binding factor interacts with the transcription factor Kaiso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defossez, Pierre-Antoine; Kelly, Kevin F; Filion, Guillaume J P; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Magdinier, Frédérique; Menoni, Hervé; Nordgaard, Curtis L; Daniel, Juliet M; Gilson, Eric

    2005-12-30

    CTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a DNA-binding protein of vertebrates that plays essential roles in regulating genome activity through its capacity to act as an enhancer blocker. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify protein partners of CTCF that could regulate its activity. Using full-length CTCF as bait we recovered Kaiso, a POZ-zinc finger transcription factor, as a specific binding partner. The interaction occurs through a C-terminal region of CTCF and the POZ domain of Kaiso. CTCF and Kaiso are co-expressed in many tissues, and CTCF was specifically co-immunoprecipitated by several Kaiso monoclonal antibodies from nuclear lysates. Kaiso is a bimodal transcription factor that recognizes methylated CpG dinucleotides or a conserved unmethylated sequence (TNGCAGGA, the Kaiso binding site). We identified one consensus unmethylated Kaiso binding site in close proximity to the CTCF binding site in the human 5' beta-globin insulator. We found, in an insulation assay, that the presence of this Kaiso binding site reduced the enhancer-blocking activity of CTCF. These data suggest that the Kaiso-CTCF interaction negatively regulates CTCF insulator activity.

  9. Cinq propositions pour appréhender le temps Five Considerations on the relationship of humans to Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Chesneaux

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ce bref essai tente de dégager un certain nombre de caractères communs DU temps, considéré comme catégorie générale de « l’être » des humains. À ce titre, il se sépare délibérément de la tradition gurvitchienne, et de la méthode sociologique DES divers « temps sociaux ». Cinq entrées sont ici proposées :- La spécificité du temps dont les humains ont l’expérience par rapport à l’espace- Le rôle majeur du triptyque présent-passé-avenir (dans cet ordre- La capacité DU temps à transcender les diverses « cultures du temps » comme données anthropologiques- L’apparentement (« homologique » entre temps social et temps personnel, comme prenant le pas sur l’irréductibilité singulière du temps personnel- L’unité ultime entre le temps-englobant comme devenir général et continu (dit « temps-compagnon », et le temps inscrit (dit « temps-paramètre » en tant que fractionnable et mesurableThis brief essay attempts to delineate some characteristics of time as such, seen as a general category upon which the existence, the «Sein», of human beings, rests. Consequently, it deliberately departs from the tradition established by the sociologist Georges Gurvitch and the sociological method based on the diversity of «social times» (temps sociaux. Five major points are outlined here :- the specificity, as experienced by human beings, of time vs. space.- the foremost relevance of the present-past-future trilogy (in that order.- the ability of time as such to transcend the diversity of «time cultures» as a cluster of anthropologicalconstructs.- the close parallel between social time and personal time, this homology taking precedence over the intimate singularity of personal time.- the ultimate unity between two opposite versions of time, i.e. time as an all-embracing entity, a general, continuously moving force, and on the other hand time as a measurable, fractionable quantum, inscribed in our

  10. Stem cell-based treatments against stroke: observations from human proof-of-concept studies and considerations regarding clinical applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Roland Doeppner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke remains a heavy burden for industrialized countries. The only causal therapy is the recanalization of occluded vessels via thrombolysis, which due to a narrow time window still can be offered only to a minority of patients. Since the majority of patients continues to exhibit neurological deficits even following successful thrombolysis, restorative therapies are urgently needed that promote brain remodeling and repair once stroke injury has occurred. Due to their unique properties of action, stem cell-based strategies gained increasing interest during recent years. Using various stroke models in both rodents and primates, the transplantation of stem cells, namely of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs or neural progenitor cells (NPCs, has been shown to promote neurological recovery most likely via indirect bystander actions. In view of promising observations, clinical proof-of-concept studies are currently under way, in which effects of stem and precursor cells are evaluated in human stroke patients. In this review we summarize already published studies, which due to the broad experience in other medical contexts mostly employed bone marrow-derived MSCs by means of intravenous transplantation. With the overall number of clinical trials limited in number, only a fraction of these studies used non-treated control groups, and only single studies were adequately blinded. Despite these limitations, first promising results justify the need for more elaborate clinical trials in order to make stem cell transplantation a success for stroke treatment in the future.

  11. Theoretical Considerations and a Mathematical Model for the Analysis of the Biomechanical Response of Human Keratinized Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Tsaira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Removable complete and partial dentures are supported by the residual alveolar ridges consisting of mucosa, submucosa, periosteum and bone. An understanding of the biomechanical behavior of the oral mucosa is essential in order to improve the denture-bearing foundations for complete and partially edentulous patients. The purpose of this paper was to examine the biomechanical behavior of the soft tissues supporting a removable denture and develop a model for that reason. Keratinized oral mucosa blocks with their underlying bone were harvested from the maxillary palatal area adjacent to the edentulous ridges of a cadaver. The compressive response of the oral mucosa was tested by using atomic force microscopy. The specimens were first scanned in order their topography to be obtained. The mechanical properties of the specimens were tested using a single crystal silicon pyramidal tip, which traversed towards the keratinized oral mucosa specimens. Loading-unloading cycles were registered and four mathematical models were tested using MATLAB to note which one approximates the force-displacement curve as close as possible: a. spherical, b. conical, c. third order polynomial, d. Murphy (fourth order polynomial, non-linear Hertzian based. The third order polynomial model showed the best accuracy in representing the force-displacement data of the tested specimens. A model was developed in order to analyze the biomechanical behavior of the human oral keratinized mucosa and obtain information about its mechanical properties.

  12. Training for planning tumour resection: augmented reality and human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Kamyar; Baxter, John S H; Chen, Elvis C S; Khan, Ali R; Peters, Terry M; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2015-06-01

    Planning surgical interventions is a complex task, demanding a high degree of perceptual, cognitive, and sensorimotor skills to reduce intra- and post-operative complications. This process requires spatial reasoning to coordinate between the preoperatively acquired medical images and patient reference frames. In the case of neurosurgical interventions, traditional approaches to planning tend to focus on providing a means for visualizing medical images, but rarely support transformation between different spatial reference frames. Thus, surgeons often rely on their previous experience and intuition as their sole guide is to perform mental transformation. In case of junior residents, this may lead to longer operation times or increased chance of error under additional cognitive demands. In this paper, we introduce a mixed augmented-/virtual-reality system to facilitate training for planning a common neurosurgical procedure, brain tumour resection. The proposed system is designed and evaluated with human factors explicitly in mind, alleviating the difficulty of mental transformation. Our results indicate that, compared to conventional planning environments, the proposed system greatly improves the nonclinicians' performance, independent of the sensorimotor tasks performed ( ). Furthermore, the use of the proposed system by clinicians resulted in a significant reduction in time to perform clinically relevant tasks ( ). These results demonstrate the role of mixed-reality systems in assisting residents to develop necessary spatial reasoning skills needed for planning brain tumour resection, improving patient outcomes.

  13. An evaluation of human factors research for ultrasonic inservice inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, D.J.; Donohoo, D.T.; Harris, R.V. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine if human factors research has yielded information applicable to upgrading requirements in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, improving methods and techniques in Section V, and/or suggesting relevant research. A preference was established for information and recommendations which have become accepted and standard practice. Manual Ultrasonic Testing/Inservice Inspection (UT/ISI) is a complex task subject to influence by dozens of variables. This review frequently revealed equivocal findings regarding effects of environmental variables as well as repeated indications that inspection performance may be more, and more reliably, influenced by the workers` social environment, including managerial practices, than by other situational variables. Also of significance are each inspector`s relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities, and determination of these is seen as a necessary first step in upgrading requirements, methods, and techniques as well as in focusing research in support of such programs, While understanding the effects and mediating mechanisms of the variables impacting inspection performance is a worthwhile pursuit for researchers, initial improvements in industrial UTASI performance may be achieved by implementing practices already known to mitigate the effects of potentially adverse conditions. 52 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Discriminating Drivers through Human Factor and Behavioral Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seok Oh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Greenwood and Woods' (1919 study in tendency of accident, many researchers have insisted that various human factors (sensation seeking, anger, anxiety are highly correlated with reckless driving and traffic accidents. Oh and Lee (2011 designed the Driving Behavior Determinants Questionnaire, a psychological tool to predict danger level of drivers and discriminate them into three groups (normal, unintentionally reckless, and intentionally reckless by their characteristics, attitude, and expected reckless behavior level. This tool's overall accuracy of discrimination was 70%. This study aimed to prove that the discrimination reflects the behavioral difference of drivers. Twenty-four young drivers were requested to react to the visual stimuli (tests for subjective speed sense, simple visual reaction time, and left turning at own risk. The results showed no differences in subjective speed sense among the driver groups, which means drivers' excessive speeding behaviors occur due to intention based on personality and attitude, not because of sensory disorders. In addition, there were no differences in simple reaction time among driver groups. However, the results of the ‘Left turning at drivers’ own risk task” revealed significant group differences. All reckless drivers showed a greater degree of dangerous left turning behaviors than the normal group did.

  15. Seventh enemy: the human factor in the global crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, R.

    1978-01-01

    During the next twenty-five years, Higgins says we and our children will face a world of mounting confusion and horror, including hardship, disorder, war, and the starvation of millions. Daring to see mankind's rapidly converging crisis for what it is, he starkly forecasts the course it is likely to take. He shows that there are six immense impersonal threats to the human future: overpopulation, famine, resource shortage, environmental degradation, nuclear abuse, and technologies racing out of control. Theoretically these six challenges are not beyond solving; but, asks Higgins, do we have the time, or the will, or the capacity to organize against them. The frightening inertia of our political institutions and our obstinate individual blindness to the realities of the late twentieth century are the critical factors. To avoid a holocaust, we need a remarkable transformation of the moral basis of our politics. The Seventh Enemy can be defeated, argues the author, and he concludes with a thoughtful and controversial discussion of the qualities of consciousness that mankind must bring to bear so urgently on its extraordinary situation. Thus, this cogent analysis ends on a note of cautious hope.

  16. Recombinant human factor IX produced from transgenic porcine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  17. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hwan Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa. The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX. The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  18. Growth factor-induced contraction of human bronchial smooth muscle is Rho-kinase-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Reinout; Schaafsma, D.; Grootte Bromhaar, M.M; Vrugt, B.; Zaagsma, Hans; Meurs, Herman; Nelemans, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Growth factors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the putative effects of these growth factors on human airway smooth muscle tone are still largely unknown. We performed contraction experiments using human bronchial smooth muscle ring preparations. The growth factor

  19. Dosimetry of hands and human factor; Dosimetria de manos y factor humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harr, R. [Sociedad Mexicana de Seguridad Radiologica A. C., Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    The human factor in facilities where open radioactive sources are managed it can be controlled through the use of the ring dosimetry, however, that these devices only provide qualitative information that is not extrapolated to legislative limits. lt is present the case analysis of hands dosimetry of female person with responsibility for professional standards and a very high profile with ratings that allow her to have a high level of knowledge of the basic standards, and because with an attitude and a culture rooted of radiation protection, among other qualities. Their records reveal a trend in which monthly doses are below the 7 mSv, and only occasionally are between 7 and 12 mSv per month and hand. The other case correspond to a technician, trained in radiological techniques, also with a high profile, with two courses for occupationally exposed personnel more than 10 annual retraining, and work experience of over 10 years as occupationally exposed personnel, in which knowledge of standards and because of the entrenched culture of radiation protection and their interest degree in the care of their exposure is still in a phase half, in this case also shows a trend in the monthly dose where found registers between 7 and 11 mSv per month and hand. The third case is of a second technician with less experience and most basic knowledge, his dose register not show a real trend, sometimes be found reads of irregular values as if the dosimeter is not used and some other times as if misused by exposing to purpose (was observed at least one reading above the monthly 30 mSv). By way of conclusion, it is noted that the hands dosimetry is a useful tool to monitor transactions through the data compilation susceptible to analysis with variations which can be placed in the context of the human factor. (Author)

  20. Human Factors engineering criteria and design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant preliminary safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.A.; Schur, A.; Stitzel, J.C.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides a rationale and systematic methodology for bringing Human Factors into the safety design and operations of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Human Factors focuses on how people perform work with tools and machine systems in designed settings. When the design of machine systems and settings take into account the capabilities and limitations of the individuals who use them, human performance can be enhanced while protecting against susceptibility to human error. The inclusion of Human Factors in the safety design of the HWVP is an essential ingredient to safe operation of the facility. The HWVP is a new construction, nonreactor nuclear facility designed to process radioactive wastes held in underground storage tanks into glass logs for permanent disposal. Its design and mission offer new opposites for implementing Human Factors while requiring some means for ensuring that the Human Factors assessments are sound, comprehensive, and appropriately directed.

  1. Human B cell activating factor (BCAF): production by a human T cell tumor line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevrier, M; Diu, A; Mollier, P; Abadie, A; Olive, D; Mawas, C; Theze, J

    1989-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that supernatants from human T cell clones stimulated by a pair of anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies cause resting human B cells to become activated and to proliferate in the absence of any other signals. The activity responsible for these effects was shown to be different from already characterized lymphokines and in particular from IL-2 and IL-4, and was named B Cell Activating Factor or BCAF. In this paper, we describe the production of BCAF by a human T cell tumor line T687 after phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation; this production can be potentiated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). We further show that the stimulatory phase can be separated from the secretory phase thereby avoiding contamination of BCAF-containing supernatant by PMA and PHA. Supernatants produced under these conditions do not contain either IL-4 or IFN but contain traces of lymphotoxin and 2 to 10 ng/ml of IL-2. The T687 cell line will allow us to obtain a large volume of supernatant for biochemical study and purification of the molecule(s) responsible for BCAF activity.

  2. Integrating human factors knowledge into certification: The point of view of the Internatioanal Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurino, Daniel; Galotti, Vincent

    1994-01-01

    It is appropriate here to repeat the analogy described in the introduction to this paper which is that: The consideration of human factors requirements during the design stage of advanced, new technology systems may be seen as resting over a three-legged stool. The first leg, the equipment that a system will utilize to achieve its goals, has traditionally attracted ergonomic considerations associated with equipment design, usually centered around 'knobs and dials.' Lately, this view has expanded to include the so-called other important aspect of Human Factor's study which deals with the cognitive, behaviorial and social processes of the human operators. Study in this area must be furthered. The second leg of the stool, the procedures to operate the equipment, however, has been largely unaddressed. Procedures are not inherent to equipment, but must be developed. The importance of proper human factors consideration in the design of procedures can not be overstated. Lastly, the third leg of the stool, the certification of personnel who will operate the equipment, is very much underway, but far from being complete. The real quest now, however, is to integrate these three legs into an indivisible one. Finally, and most importantly, this workshop and its topic are extremely timely in that we are at the dawn of the most ambitious development ever undertaken in international civil aviation. This would allow us the rather unique opportunity to put theory into practice in the near future by ensuring that the concepts developed and furthered by this workshop and the follow-up are implemented in the design and certification of the ICAO future CNS/ATM systems described earlier in this paper. Now is the time to incorporate human factors requirements during the certification processes of these systems. This might act as a test to the feasibility of these ideas. Such endeavors represent a challenge for the research, engineering, training, operational and regulatory communities

  3. Awareness grows of importance of human factors issues in aircraft maintenance and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Until recently, the role of human factors in maintenance operations was not adequately addressed. That is changing, because it is clear that human error in aircraft maintenance can have a serious impact on flight safety.

  4. Factors affecting the gene expression of in vitro cultured human preimplantation embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.; Jonker, M.J.; Wong, K.M.; van Montfoort, A.P.A.; de Jong, M.; Breit, T.M.; Repping, S.; Mastenbroek, S.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the relative effect of common environmental and biological factors on transcriptome changes during human preimplantation development? SUMMARY ANSWER: Developmental stage and maternal age had a larger effect on the global gene expression profile of human preimplantation

  5. EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-a AND THEIR RECEPTOR IN HUMAN PITUITARY TUMORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Long

    2001-01-01

    [1]LIU Xu-wen, FU Pei-yu, GAO Zhi-xian. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human glioma [J]. Chin J Neurosurgery 1998; 14:71.[2]Wong AJ, Ruppert JM, Bigner SH, et al. Structural alterations of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene in human gliomas [J]. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992; 89:4309.[3]Webster J, Ham J, Bevan JS. Preliminary characterization of growth factors secreted by human pituitary tumors [J]. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 72:687.[4]Klibanski A. Nonsecreting pituitary tumors [J]. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1987; 16:793.[5]LeRiche VK, Asa SL, Ezzat S. Epidermal growth factor and its receptor (EGF-R) in human pituitary adenomas: EGF-R correlates with tumor aggressiveness [J]. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81:656.

  6. Occupational and public health considerations for work-hour limitations policy regarding public health workers during response to natural and human-caused disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the occupational health considerations that might impact the health and wellbeing of public health workers during responses to natural (eg, floods and hurricanes) and human-caused (eg, terrorism, war, and shootings) disasters. There are a number of articles in the medical literature that argue the impact of how working long hours by house staff physicians, nurses, and first-responders may pose health and safety concerns regarding the patients being treated. The question examined here is how working long hours may pose health and/or safety concerns for the public health workers themselves, as well as to those in the communities they serve. The health problems related to sleep deprivation are reviewed. Current policies and legislations regarding work-hour limitations are examined. Policy implications are discussed.

  7. Universal and uniquely human factors in spontaneous number perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Stephen; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

    2017-01-01

    A capacity for nonverbal numerical estimation is widespread among humans and animals. However, it is currently unclear whether numerical percepts are spontaneously extracted from the environment and whether nonverbal perception is influenced by human exposure to formal mathematics. We tested US adults and children, non-human primates, and numerate and innumerate Tsimane' adults on a quantity task in which they could choose to categorize sets of dots on the basis of number alone, surface area alone or a combination of the two. Despite differences in age, species and education, subjects are universally biased to base their judgments on number as opposed to the alternatives. Numerical biases are uniquely enhanced in humans compared to non-human primates, and correlated with degree of mathematics experience in both the US and Tsimane' groups. We conclude that humans universally and spontaneously extract numerical information, and that human nonverbal numerical perception is enhanced by symbolic numeracy. PMID:28091519

  8. Digital communication to support clinical supervision: considering the human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Carey; Marlow, Annette; Cummings, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    During the last three years the School of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Tasmania has used a needs assessment survey to explore the needs of organizations and nursing professionals that facilitate and clinically supervise Bachelor of Nursing students in the workplace. Findings from the survey indicated that staff at healthcare organizations wanted a communication strategy that was easily accessible by clinicians who supervised students during work integrated learning placements. In particular they wanted to receive timely information related to the role and function of supervisors in practice. The development of the digital strategy to strengthen the development of a community of practice between the University, organizations, facilities and clinical supervisors was identified as the key method of improving communication. Blogging and micro blogging were selected as methods of choice for the implementation of the digital strategy because they were easy to set up, use and enable equity of access to geographically dispersed practitioners in urban and rural areas. Change champions were identified to disseminate information about the strategy within their workplaces. Although clinicians indicated electronic communication as their preferred method, there were a number of human factors at a systems and individual level identified to be challenges when communicating with clinical supervisors who were based off-campus. Information communication technology policies and embedded culture towards social presence were impediments to using this approach in some organizations. Additionally, it was found that it is necessary for this group of clinicians to be educated about using digital methods to undertake their role as clinical supervisors in their varied clinical practice environments.

  9. Topography of human placental receptors for epidermal growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V; Ramani, N; Chegini, N; Stadig, B K; Carman, F R; Woost, P G; Schultz, G S; Cook, C L

    1985-02-10

    These studies were undertaken to determine whether term human placental microvillus plasma membranes, which are exposed to maternal blood, and basolateral plasma membranes, which are in close proximity to fetal blood capillaries, contain receptors for epidermal growth factor (EGF). These two highly purified membranes bound 125I-EGF with similar affinity (apparent dissociation constants, 0.07-0.12 nM, but the total number of available receptors was greater in microvillus (8.2 pmol/mg protein) compared to basolateral (4.9 pmol/mg protein) plasma membranes. Detailed characterization of 125I-EGF binding to these membranes revealed numerous similarities as well as differences. The two membranes contained two major (155 and 140 kDa) and at least three minor (115, 175, and 210 kDa) specific 125I-EGF binding proteins. The 115-kDa protein was only found in basolateral plasma membranes. The 155-kDa protein was predominantly labeled in microvillus, whereas the 140-kDa protein was labeled predominantly in basolateral plasma membranes. The addition of protease inhibitors did not alter the multiple 125I-EGF binding proteins pattern found in these membranes. EGF stimulated phosphorylation of 140- and 155-kDa proteins in both microvillus and basolateral plasma membranes. However, the 155-kDa protein was phosphorylated to a greater extent in microvillus, whereas both 140- and 155-kDa proteins were phosphorylated equally in basolateral plasma membranes. Light and electron microscope autoradiographic studies revealed that 125I-EGF preferentially associated with microvillus plasma membranes. The data demonstrates the presence of EGF receptors in outer cell membranes of syncytiotrophoblasts and suggests that maternal EGF may influence syncytiotrophoblast function by binding to receptors in microvillus plasma membranes, while fetal EGF may also influence syncytiotrophoblast function but via receptors in basolateral plasma membranes.

  10. Cloning and expression of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Pichia Pink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babavalian, H; Latifi, A M; Shokrgozar, M A; Bonakdar, S; Tebyanian, H; Shakeri, F

    2016-07-31

    The PDGF-BB plays a key role in several pathogenesis diseases and it is believed to be an important mediator for wound healing. The recombinant human PDGF-BB is safe and effective to stimulate the healing of chronic, full thickness and lower extremity diabetic neurotrophic ulcers. In the present study, we attempted to produce a PDGF-BB growth factor and also, evaluate its functionality in cell proliferation in yeast host Pichia pink. Pichia pink yeast was used as a host for evaluation of the rhPDGF-BB expression. The coding sequence of PDGF-BB protein was synthesized after optimization and packed into the pGEM. Recombinant proteins were produced and purified. The construct of pPinkα-HC-pdgf was confirmed by sequence, the PDGF-BB protein was expressed and purified with using a nickel affinity chromatography column and then characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The biological activity of PDGF-BB was estimated with using human fibroblast cell line. The measurement of protein concentration was determined by Bradford and human PDGF-BB ELISA kit. Purified rhPDGF-BB showed similar biological activity (as the standard PDGF-BB) and suggested that the recombinant protein has a successful protein expression (as well as considerable biological activity in P. pink host). The exact amount of recombinant PDGF-BB concentrations were measured by specific ELISA test which it was about 30 μg/ml. Our study suggested that efficiency of biological activity of PDGF-BB protein may be related to its conformational similarity with standard type and also, it practically may be important in wound healing and tissue regeneration.

  11. Semantic Language and Tools for Reporting Human Factors Incidents Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Incidents related to impaired human performance in space operations can be caused by environmental conditions, situational challenges, and operational deficiencies....

  12. Semantic Language and Tools for Reporting Human Factors Incidents Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Incidents related to impaired human performance in space operations can be caused by environmental conditions, situational challenges, and operational deficiencies....

  13. Human Research Program Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, Anna; Badler, Norman; Butler, Keith; Cummings, Mary; DeLucia, Patricia; Endsley, Mica; Scholtz, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated 22 gaps and 39 tasks in the three risk areas assigned to the SHFE Project. The area where tasks were best designed to close the gaps and the fewest gaps were left out was the Risk of Reduced Safety and Efficiency dire to Inadequate Design of Vehicle, Environment, Tools or Equipment. The areas where there were more issues with gaps and tasks, including poor or inadequate fit of tasks to gaps and missing gaps, were Risk of Errors due to Poor Task Design and Risk of Error due to Inadequate Information. One risk, the Risk of Errors due to Inappropriate Levels of Trust in Automation, should be added. If astronauts trust automation too much in areas where it should not be trusted, but rather tempered with human judgment and decision making, they will incur errors. Conversely, if they do not trust automation when it should be trusted, as in cases where it can sense aspects of the environment such as radiation levels or distances in space, they will also incur errors. This will be a larger risk when astronauts are less able to rely on human mission control experts and are out of touch, far away, and on their own. The SRP also identified 11 new gaps and five new tasks. Although the SRP had an extremely large quantity of reading material prior to and during the meeting, we still did not feel we had an overview of the activities and tasks the astronauts would be performing in exploration missions. Without a detailed task analysis and taxonomy of activities the humans would be engaged in, we felt it was impossible to know whether the gaps and tasks were really sufficient to insure human safety, performance, and comfort in the exploration missions. The SRP had difficulty evaluating many of the gaps and tasks that were not as quantitative as those related to concrete physical danger such as excessive noise and vibration. Often the research tasks for cognitive risks that accompany poor task or

  14. A review of foot-and-mouth disease with special consideration for the clinical and epidemiological factors relevant to predictive modelling of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, R P; Hutber, A M; Thrusfield, M V

    2005-03-01

    Modelling the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been undertaken since the early 1970s. We review here clinical factors and modelling procedures that have been used in the past, differentiating between those that have proved to be more relevant in controlling FMD epidemics, and those that have showed less significance. During the 2001 UK FMD epidemic, many previously developed FMD models were available for consideration and use. Accurate epidemiological models can become useful tools for determining relevant control policies for different scenarios and, conversely, inaccurate models may become an abuse for disease control. Inaccuracy presents two opposing difficulties. Firstly, too much control (in terms of animal slaughter for 2001) would negatively impact the farming community for many subsequent years, whilst too little control would permit an epidemic to persist. Accuracy however, presents the optimal permutation of control measures that could be implemented for a given set of conditions, and is a prerequisite to boosting public confidence in the use of epidemiological models for future epidemics.

  15. Commentary: Treatment Considerations for Patients With Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases in the Era of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Silvia Daniela; Connolly, Ian David; Ho, Clement; Neal, Joel; Hayden Gephart, Melanie

    2017-08-12

    Brain metastasis is a serious complication of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) affecting up to 40% of NSCLC patients. A subset of NSCLC tumors has mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and determination of tumor EGFR mutation status is essential in guiding treatment decisions, as it directly affects the treatment approach. Patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC have a higher cumulative incidence of brain metastases, and are especially sensitive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Patients with newly diagnosed EGFR-mutated lung cancer presenting to a neurosurgeon with a new diagnosis of brain metastases now have a variety of treatment options available, including whole brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, surgical resection, chemotherapy, and targeted therapeutics such as the EGFR TKIs. In this review, we discuss the impact of EGFR mutation status on brain and leptomeningeal metastasis treatment considerations. Additionally, we present clinical cases of patients treated with EGFR TKIs alone and in combination with other therapies to highlight treatment alternatives. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  16. General safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness.

  17. General safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness.

  18. On the Use of Biomineral Oxygen Isotope Data to Identify Human Migrants in the Archaeological Record: Intra-Sample Variation, Statistical Methods and Geographical Considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lightfoot

    Full Text Available Oxygen isotope analysis of archaeological skeletal remains is an increasingly popular tool to study past human migrations. It is based on the assumption that human body chemistry preserves the δ18O of precipitation in such a way as to be a useful technique for identifying migrants and, potentially, their homelands. In this study, the first such global survey, we draw on published human tooth enamel and bone bioapatite data to explore the validity of using oxygen isotope analyses to identify migrants in the archaeological record. We use human δ18O results to show that there are large variations in human oxygen isotope values within a population sample. This may relate to physiological factors influencing the preservation of the primary isotope signal, or due to human activities (such as brewing, boiling, stewing, differential access to water sources and so on causing variation in ingested water and food isotope values. We compare the number of outliers identified using various statistical methods. We determine that the most appropriate method for identifying migrants is dependent on the data but is likely to be the IQR or median absolute deviation from the median under most archaeological circumstances. Finally, through a spatial assessment of the dataset, we show that the degree of overlap in human isotope values from different locations across Europe is such that identifying individuals' homelands on the basis of oxygen isotope analysis alone is not possible for the regions analysed to date. Oxygen isotope analysis is a valid method for identifying first-generation migrants from an archaeological site when used appropriately, however it is difficult to identify migrants using statistical methods for a sample size of less than c. 25 individuals. In the absence of local previous analyses, each sample should be treated as an individual dataset and statistical techniques can be used to identify migrants, but in most cases pinpointing a specific

  19. Don't fear 'fear conditioning': Methodological considerations for the design and analysis of studies on human fear acquisition, extinction, and return of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, Tina B; Menz, Mareike M; Andreatta, Marta; Fullana, Miguel A; Golkar, Armita; Haaker, Jan; Heitland, Ivo; Hermann, Andrea; Kuhn, Manuel; Kruse, Onno; Drexler, Shira Meir; Meulders, Ann; Nees, Frauke; Pittig, Andre; Richter, Jan; Römer, Sonja; Shiban, Youssef; Schmitz, Anja; Straube, Benjamin; Vervliet, Bram; Wendt, Julia; Baas, Johanna M P; Merz, Christian J

    2017-03-03

    The so-called 'replicability crisis' has sparked methodological discussions in many areas of science in general, and in psychology in particular. This has led to recent endeavours to promote the transparency, rigour, and ultimately, replicability of research. Originating from this zeitgeist, the challenge to discuss critical issues on terminology, design, methods, and analysis considerations in fear conditioning research is taken up by this work, which involved representatives from fourteen of the major human fear conditioning laboratories in Europe. This compendium is intended to provide a basis for the development of a common procedural and terminology framework for the field of human fear conditioning. Whenever possible, we give general recommendations. When this is not feasible, we provide evidence-based guidance for methodological decisions on study design, outcome measures, and analyses. Importantly, this work is also intended to raise awareness and initiate discussions on crucial questions with respect to data collection, processing, statistical analyses, the impact of subtle procedural changes, and data reporting specifically tailored to the research on fear conditioning.

  20. Synergism between human tumor necrosis factor and human interferon-alpha: effects on cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, K; Ando, S; Kurimoto, M

    1987-08-01

    The cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of highly purified natural human tumor necrosis factor (HuTNF-alpha) and natural human interferon-alpha (HuIFN-alpha) on 23 cell lines were studied in vitro. Natural HuTNF-alpha showed cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on PC-9, KHG-2, HT-1197, KG-1 and L-929 cells, and HuIFN-alpha showed both effects on KHG-2 and Daudi cells. A mixture of HuTNF-alpha and HuIFN-alpha (1:1, by unit) showed cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on HuTNF-alpha- or HuIFN-alpha-resistant cell lines such as KB, KATO-III, HEp-2, P-4788, as well as on HuTNF-alpha- or HuIFN-alpha-susceptible cells. Thus, the combined preparation of HuTNF-alpha and HuIFN-alpha expanded the spectrum of sensitive cells. The dosage of the mixed preparation required to produce 50% inhibition of cell growth was less than 20% of that of HuTNF-alpha or HuIFN-alpha alone. These results indicate that the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of HuTNF-alpha and HuIFN-alpha are synergistically enhanced when they are administered together.

  1. Synergism between human tumor necrosis factor and human interferon-alpha: effects on cells in culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orita,Kunzo

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of highly purified natural human tumor necrosis factor (HuTNF-alpha and natural human interferon-alpha (HuIFN-alpha on 23 cell lines were studied in vitro. Natural HuTNF-alpha showed cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on PC-9, KHG-2, HT-1197, KG-1 and L-929 cells, and HuIFN-alpha showed both effects on KHG-2 and Daudi cells. A mixture of HuTNF-alpha and HuIFN-alpha (1:1, by unit showed cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on HuTNF-alpha- or HuIFN-alpha-resistant cell lines such as KB, KATO-III, HEp-2, P-4788, as well as on HuTNF-alpha- or HuIFN-alpha-susceptible cells. Thus, the combined preparation of HuTNF-alpha and HuIFN-alpha expanded the spectrum of sensitive cells. The dosage of the mixed preparation required to produce 50% inhibition of cell growth was less than 20% of that of HuTNF-alpha or HuIFN-alpha alone. These results indicate that the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of HuTNF-alpha and HuIFN-alpha are synergistically enhanced when they are administered together.

  2. Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for the Human Lactational Transfer of PCB 153 with Consideration of Worldwide Human Biomonitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redding, Laurel E.; Sohn, Michael D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Yang, Raymond S. H.

    2008-03-01

    We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of PCB 153 in women, and predict its transfer via lactation to infants. The model is the first human, population-scale lactational model for PCB 153. Data in the literature provided estimates for model development and for performance assessment. Physiological parameters were taken from a cohort in Taiwan and from reference values in the literature. We estimated partition coefficients based on chemical structure and the lipid content in various body tissues. Using exposure data in Japan, we predicted acquired body burden of PCB 153 at an average childbearing age of 25 years and compare predictions to measurements from studies in multiple countries. Forward-model predictions agree well with human biomonitoring measurements, as represented by summary statistics and uncertainty estimates. The model successfully describes the range of possible PCB 153 dispositions in maternal milk, suggesting a promising option for back estimating doses for various populations. One example of reverse dosimetry modeling was attempted using our PBPK model for possible exposure scenarios in Canadian Inuits who had the highest level of PCB 153 in their milk in the world.

  3. Integrating Human Factors into Space Vehicle Processing for Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Sarah; Richards, Kimberly J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the multiple projects performed in United Space Alliance's Human Engineering Modeling and Performance (HEMAP) Lab, improvements that resulted from analysis, and the future applications of the HEMAP Lab for risk assessment by evaluating human/machine interaction and ergonomic designs.

  4. Mecasermin (recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Arlan L

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) exercises its growth effects by stimulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) synthesis in the liver (endocrine IGF-I) and by inducing chondrocyte differentiation/replication and local production of IGF-I (paracrine/autocrine IGF-I). Injectable recombinant human (rh)IGF-I (mecasermin) has been available for nearly 20 years for treatment of the rare instances of GH insensitivity caused by GH receptor defects or GH-inhibiting antibodies. Full restoration of normal growth, as occurs with rhGH replacement of GH deficiency, is not seen, presumably because only the endocrine deficiency is addressed. RhIGF-I has also been effective as an insulin-sensitizing agent in severe insulin-resistant conditions. Although the insulin-sensitizing effect may benefit both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, there are no ongoing clinical trials because of concern about risk of retinopathy and other complications. Promotion of rhIGF-I for treatment of idiopathic short stature has been intensive, with neither data nor rationale suggesting that there might be a better response than has been documented with rhGH. Other applications that have either been considered or are undergoing clinical trial are based on the ubiquitous tissue-building properties of IGF-I and include chronic liver disease, cystic fibrosis, wound healing, AIDS muscle wasting, burns, osteoporosis, Crohn's disease, anorexia nervosa, Werner syndrome, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, Alzheimer's disease, muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, hearing loss prevention, spinal cord injury, cardiovascular protection, and prevention of retinopathy of prematurity. The most frequent side effect is hypoglycemia, which is readily controlled by administration with meals. Other common adverse effects involve hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue, which may require tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy, accumulation of body fat, and coarsening of facies. The anti-apoptotic properties of IGF-I are implicated in cancer

  5. SULFs in human neoplasia: implication as progression and prognosis factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schved Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sulfation pattern of heparan sulfate chains influences signaling events mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans located on cell surface. SULF1 and SULF2 are two endosulfatases able to cleave specific 6-O sulfate groups within the heparan chains. Their action can modulate signaling processes, many of which with key relevance for cancer development and expansion. SULF1 has been associated with tumor suppressor effects in various models of cancer, whereas SULF2 dysregulation was in relation with protumorigenic actions. However, other observations argue for contradictory effects of these sulfatases in cancer, suggesting the complexity of their action in the tumor microenvironment. Methods We compared the expression of the genes encoding SULF1, SULF2 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans in a large panel of cancer samples to their normal tissue counterparts using publicly available gene expression data, including the data obtained from two cohorts of newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma patients, the Oncomine Cancer Microarray database, the Amazonia data base and the ITTACA database. We also analysed prognosis data in relation with these databases. Results We demonstrated that SULF2 expression in primary multiple myeloma cells was associated with a poor prognosis in two independent large cohorts of patients. It remained an independent predictor when considered together with conventional multiple myeloma prognosis factors. Besides, we observed an over-representation of SULF2 gene expression in skin cancer, colorectal carcinoma, testicular teratoma and liver cancer compared to their normal tissue counterpart. We found that SULF2 was significantly over-expressed in high grade uveal melanoma compared to low grade and in patients presenting colorectal carcinoma compared to benign colon adenoma. We observed that, in addition to previous observations, SULF1 gene expression was increased in T prolymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia

  6. [Expression of TGFbeta family factors and FGF2 in mouse and human embryonic stem cells maintained in different culture systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifantseva, N V; Kol'tsova, A M; Polianskaia, G G; Gordeeva, O F

    2013-01-01

    Mouse and human embryonic stem cells are in different states of pluripotency (naive/ground and primed states). Mechanisms of signaling regulation in cells with ground and primed states of pluripotency are considerably different. In order to understand the contribution of endogenous and exogenous factors in the maintenance of a metastable state of the cells in different phases ofpluripotency, we examined the expression of TGFbeta family factors (ActivinA, Nodal, Leftyl, TGFbeta1, GDF3, BMP4) and FGF2 initiating the appropriate signaling pathways in mouse and human embryonic stem cells (mESCs, hESCs) and supporting feeder cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of gene expression showed that the expression patterns of endogenous factors studied were considerably different in mESCs and hESCs. The most significant differences were found in the levels of endogenous expression of TGFbeta1, BMP4 and ActivinA. The sources of exogenous factors ActivnA, TGFbeta1, and FGF2 for hESCs are feeder cells (mouse and human embryonic fibroblasts) expressing high levels of these factors, as well as low levels of BMP4. Thus, our data demonstrated that the in vitro maintenance of metastable state of undifferentiated pluripotent cells is achieved in mESCs and hESCs using different schemes of the regulations of ActivinA/Nodal/Lefty/Smad2/3BMP/Smad1/5/8 endogenous branches of TGFbeta signaling. The requirement for exogenous stimulation or inhibition of these signaling pathways is due to different patterns of endogenous expression of TGFbeta family factors and FGF2 in the mESCs and hESCs. For the hESCs, enhanced activity of ActivinA/Nodal/Lefty/Smad2/3 signaling by exogenous factor stimulation is necessary to mitigate the effects of BMP/Smadl/5/8 signaling pathways that promote cell differentiation into the extraembryonic structures. Significant differences in endogenous FGF2 expression in the cells in the ground and primary states of pluripotency demonstrate diverse involvement of this

  7. Virological factors that increase the transmissibility of emerging human viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Jemma L; Senior, Alistair M; Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Holmes, Edward C

    2016-04-12

    The early detection of pathogens with epidemic potential is of major importance to public health. Most emerging infections result in dead-end "spillover" events in which a pathogen is transmitted from an animal reservoir to a human but is unable to achieve the sustained human-to-human transmission necessary for a full-blown epidemic. It is therefore critical to determine why only some virus infections are efficiently transmitted among humans whereas others are not. We sought to determine which biological features best characterized those viruses that have achieved sustained human transmission. Accordingly, we compiled a database of 203 RNA and DNA human viruses and used an information theoretic approach to assess which of a set of key biological variables were the best predictors of human-to-human transmission. The variables analyzed were as follows: taxonomic classification; genome length, type, and segmentation; the presence or absence of an outer envelope; recombination frequency; duration of infection; host mortality; and whether or not a virus exhibits vector-borne transmission. This comparative analysis revealed multiple strong associations. In particular, we determined that viruses with low host mortality, that establish long-term chronic infections, and that are nonsegmented, nonenveloped, and, most importantly, not transmitted by vectors were more likely to be transmissible among humans. In contrast, variables including genome length, genome type, and recombination frequency had little predictive power. In sum, we have identified multiple biological features that seemingly determine the likelihood of interhuman viral transmissibility, in turn enabling general predictions of whether viruses of a particular type will successfully emerge in human populations.

  8. Extraction of human factors issues caused by application of the advanced HSI technology and development of human factor issue management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Oh, In Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive literature survey was performed in this study to collect human performance issues related to the advanced HSI design features. The literature from not only nuclear industry but also other industries was collected and reviewed. The issues were categorized into the following advanced HSI design features: devices characteristics, levels of automation, information design and management, display management, computerized controls, alarm systems, computerized procedures, staffing and crew coordination, and operator support systems. The classified issues were described with the description framework. Then, the relationship of issues to HSI design process such as human factors analyses, human factors design, and human factors verification and validation was investigated. Finally, the issue management system of server-client environment was developed using Microsoft's Active Server Page technology and Access 97. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Measuring and Enhancing the Contribution of Human Factors in Military System Development: Case Studies of the Application of Impact Assessment Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    The value of the human factors cure e Feedback: Increasing value with use. Section 5: Rules of the Game - Strategic considerations 0 Tactical...8217SECTION 4: RULES OF THE GAME ,w centered Unnumbered Ift. page - Blank p. 74, rt. page - Brief narrative swinary p. 75, if t. page - Semi-graphical p. 76...system/item malfunction ( MOBA ) MILITARY 1) communications distance (limitations) OPERATIONS IN 2) weapons effectiveness BUI LT-UP AREAS 3) tactics

  10. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics: combat performance-shaping factors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2006-01-01

    The US military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives. To support this goal, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has undertaken a program of HPM as an integral augmentation to its system-of-system (SoS) analytics capabilities. The previous effort, reported in SAND2005-6569, evaluated the effects of soldier cognitive fatigue on SoS performance. The current effort began with a very broad survey of any performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that also might affect soldiers performance in combat situations. The work included consideration of three different approaches to cognition modeling and how appropriate they would be for application to SoS analytics. This bulk of this report categorizes 47 PSFs into three groups (internal, external, and task-related) and provides brief descriptions of how each affects combat performance, according to the literature. The PSFs were then assembled into a matrix with 22 representative military tasks and assigned one of four levels of estimated negative impact on task performance, based on the literature. Blank versions of the matrix were then sent to two ex-military subject-matter experts to be filled out based on their personal experiences. Data analysis was performed to identify the consensus most influential PSFs. Results indicate that combat-related injury, cognitive fatigue, inadequate training, physical fatigue, thirst, stress, poor perceptual processing, and presence of chemical agents are among the PSFs with the most negative impact on combat performance.

  11. Computer-aided human factors analysis of the industrial vehicle driver cabin to improve occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushik Balaji, K; Alphin, M S

    2016-09-01

    Industrial vehicle operator's solace and safety have gained significant consideration because of the increment in occupational health issues and accidents. The purpose of this work was to amend the design of the excavator driver cabin through human factor analysis. Thirty operators of excavators who were serving as subjects, were interviewed and identified that their wrist, upper arm and trunk were at a higher risk level while operating. Photograph of the operators was taken and the work environment was simulated. RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment) and REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) scoring was made on different simulated work posture of operators using CATIA V5 and UEAT1.8 softwares. Based on overall RULA and REBA scoring, it was found nearly 46% of the operators were operating at a high hazard level and needed investigation immediately, whereas 35% of operators were at a medium risk level and only 19% of operators were operating safely. The individual RULA and REBA scoring proved prevalence of discomfort in wrist, upper arm and trunk while operating. Identifying the optimized conditions to hold the control levers will help to reduce the operator strain. From the design optimization in excavators, the optimal conditions to hold the control lever is found to be 40cm for popliteal height, 60.51 cm for distance from elbow to ground and 15.07º for reach angle from the seat reference point.

  12. Trefoil factor 3 is oncogenic and mediates anti-estrogen resistance in human mammary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Nagarajan; Kang, Jian; Kong, Xiangjun; Tang, Jianzhong; Perry, Jo K; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M; Miller, Lance D; Liu, Edison T; Mertani, Hichem C; Zhu, Tao; Grandison, Prudence M; Liu, Dong-Xu; Lobie, Peter E

    2010-12-01

    We report herein that trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is oncogenic and mediates anti-estrogen resistance in human mammary carcinoma. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells increased cell proliferation and survival, enhanced anchorage-independent growth, and promoted migration and invasion. Moreover, forced expression of TFF3 increased tumor size in xenograft models. Conversely, depletion of endogenous TFF3 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased the oncogenicity and invasiveness of mammary carcinoma cells. Neutralization of secreted TFF3 by antibody promoted apoptosis, decreased cell growth in vitro, and arrested mammary carcinoma xenograft growth. TFF3 expression was significantly correlated to decreased survival of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells increased ER transcriptional activity, promoted estrogen-independent growth, and produced resistance to tamoxifen and fulvestrant in vitro and to tamoxifen in xenograft models. siRNA-mediated depletion or antibody inhibition of TFF3 significantly enhanced the efficacy of antiestrogens. Increased TFF3 expression was observed in tamoxifen-resistant (TAMR) cells and antibody inhibition of TFF3 in TAMR cells improved tamoxifen sensitivity. Functional antagonism of TFF3 therefore warrants consideration as a novel therapeutic strategy for mammary carcinoma.

  13. Using a knowledge elicitation method to specify the business model of a human factors organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Ven, J. van de; Hoffman, R.R.; Moon, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Concept Mapping was used to structure knowledge elicitation interviews with a group of human factors specialists whose goal was to describe the business model of their Department. This novel use of cognitive task analysis to describe the business model of a human factors organization resulted in a n

  14. Study of an investigation on factors influencing human resources productivity in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghasemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing human resources management plays an essential role in the success of the firms. In this study, we investigated different factors influencing human resources productivity of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences staff. Method: The present research was a cross-sectional study. Sample size was calculated 208 individuals. To access information about the human resource productivity, a valid and reliable questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis of the data (p=0.05. Results:The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship (p-value<0.001 between human resources productivity and factors affecting the productivity of human resources (motivational factors, leadership style, creativity and innovation, general and applied education, and competitive spirit. Motivational factors (r =0.89 and general education (r =0.65 had the most and the least effects on human resources productivity. Conclusion: Considering the fact that motivational factors were the most effective factors on human resource productivity, we recommend that managers should care more than before about this factor; also, in order to motivate the employees, they should consider the staff’s individual differences.

  15. Previous experience in manned space flight - A survey of human factors lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandlee, George O.; Woolford, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Human factors data from Apollo, Skylab, and Space Shuttle flights are reviewed. The sources of data and collection methods are described. A classification scheme for human factors data is proposed. The implications of the results for the design of the Space Station program are considered.

  16. Using a knowledge elicitation method to specify the business model of a human factors organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Ven, J. van de; Hoffman, R.R.; Moon, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Concept Mapping was used to structure knowledge elicitation interviews with a group of human factors specialists whose goal was to describe the business model of their Department. This novel use of cognitive task analysis to describe the business model of a human factors organization resulted in a n

  17. Using a knowledge elicitation method to specify the business model of a human factors organization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; van de Ven, Josine; Hoffman, Robert R.; Moon, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Concept Mapping was used to structure knowledge elicitation interviews with a group of human factors specialists whose goal was to describe the business model of their Department. This novel use of cognitive task analysis to describe the business model of a human factors organization resulted in a n

  18. 75 FR 82132 - ITS Joint Program Office; Human Factors for IntelliDrive SM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... ITS Joint Program Office; Human Factors for IntelliDrive \\SM\\ (HFID); Public Meeting; Notice of Public.... ACTION: Notice. The U.S. Department of Transportation ITS Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) and the National... trucks. At this meeting, ITS JPO and NHTSA will provide an overview of the entire Human Factors...

  19. Expert System Design Aid for Applications of Human Factors in Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-12

    Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, 1984. Parsons, H.M., ERGONOMIE ET ROBOTIQUE (Human Factors and Robotics), Paper presented at The International Conference on...Amsterdam, 1984. Parsons, H.M., ERGONOMIE ET ROBOTIQUE (Human Factors and Robotics), Paper presented at The International Conference on Occupational

  20. Development of a draft of human factors safety review procedures for the Korean next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Moon, B. S.; Park, J. C.; Lee, Y. H.; Oh, I. S.; Lee, H. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    In this study, a draft of human factors engineering (HFE) safety review procedures (SRP) was developed for the safety review of KNGR based on HFE Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidelines (SRRG). This draft includes acceptance criteria, review procedure, and evaluation findings for the areas of review including HFE Program Management, Human Factors Analyses, Human Factors Design, and HFE Verification and Validation, based on Section 15.1 'Human Factors Engineering Design Process' and 15.2 'Control Room Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Specific Safety Requirements and Chapter 15 'Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Safety Regulatory Guides. For the effective review, human factors concerns or issues related to advanced HSI design that have been reported so far should be extensively examined. In this study, a total of 384 human factors issues related to the advanced HSI design were collected through our review of a total of 145 documents. A summary of each issue was described and the issues were identified by specific features of HSI design. These results were implemented into a database system. 8 refs., 2 figs. (Author)