WorldWideScience

Sample records for human factor aspects

  1. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Clefton, Gordon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  3. Periodic tests: a human factors analysis of documentary aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinet, Romuald; Rousseau, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    conclusions of this analysis are presented in this paper. The analysis carried out by the IRSN showed that the complexity of the design and implementation process of periodic tests is due to the diversity of.the organizations and participants, the number and the heterogeneity of the documents, and the technical and regulatory complexity of operation. In this context, defects related to the quality of the national reference document updates and to the conditions of their delivery were at the origin of difficulties in CNPEs. These difficulties address the integration of the updates by the participants, the overall vision of the rules to be respected, and the management of the workload to deal with these tasks. The analysis showed that CNPEs made efforts to produce reliable, station-specific updates, but improvements could still be made concerning the organization, the communication and the ergonomics of the operating ranges. More generally, from a human and organizational factors point of view, such an analysis surpasses the search for responsibility for the dysfunctions and allows for a more objective explanation of the encountered difficulties (inapplicable rules, delays of delivery, etc.). It also leads to a consolidated needs analysis in order to improve the global process. On the basis of a preliminary analysis, EDF has identified a plan for improvement. EDF has decided to deal with the improvement of the process within the framework of a thorough study. (authors)

  4. Human factors aspects of ICT for crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; van de Ven, Josine G.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a closer look at how to support humans in the crisis loop, based on a thorough understanding of the macrocognitive functions that have to be fulfilled, such as naturalistic decision making, sensemaking, coordination and communication, and planning and adaptation. The objectives

  5. Human Aspect as a Critical Factor for Organization Sustainability in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ulus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations adopt diverse strategies to govern the technical and managerial aspects of sustainability implementation processes. The need for better leading and managing people-related issues emerges as companies aim for more effective change towards sustainability. The human aspect of the sustainability implementation process is mostly not paid enough attention, but it can significantly affect the success of a change management program by creating hurdles or easing the process. This study considers three human-related factors: resistance to change, internal communication, and employee engagement in sustainability activities of organizations. The aim of the study is to explore how these human factors are managed by tourism companies for organizational sustainability. For this purpose four companies from different sectors of tourism are chosen as case studies and the results are examined using qualitative data analysis techniques. The results indicate that the companies which are in a more advanced stage of sustainability implementation manage human factors using a greater number of channels and employ varied strategies. The results can provide insights into how organizations tackle the challenges of managing human aspect and display the practices that contribute to successful change management programs for achieving organizational sustainability through people.

  6. Incorporation of human factors into ship collision risk models focusing on human centred design aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiralis, P.; Ventikos, N.P.; Hamann, R.; Golyshev, P.; Teixeira, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an approach that more adequately incorporates human factor considerations into quantitative risk analysis of ship operation. The focus is on the collision accident category, which is one of the main risk contributors in ship operation. The approach is based on the development of a Bayesian Network (BN) model that integrates elements from the Technique for Retrospective and Predictive Analysis of Cognitive Errors (TRACEr) and focuses on the calculation of the collision accident probability due to human error. The model takes into account the human performance in normal, abnormal and critical operational conditions and implements specific tasks derived from the analysis of the task errors leading to the collision accident category. A sensitivity analysis is performed to identify the most important contributors to human performance and ship collision. Finally, the model developed is applied to assess the collision risk of a feeder operating in Dover strait using the collision probability estimated by the developed BN model and an Event tree model for calculation of human, economic and environmental risks. - Highlights: • A collision risk model for the incorporation of human factors into quantitative risk analysis is proposed. • The model takes into account the human performance in different operational conditions leading to the collision. • The most important contributors to human performance and ship collision are identified. • The model developed is applied to assess the collision risk of a feeder operating in Dover strait.

  7. Analysis of human factor aspects in connection with available incident reports obligatorily reported by German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpert, B.; Freitag, M.; Miller, R.

    1993-01-01

    Goal of the present study is the analysis of human factor aspects in connection with available incident reports obligatorily reported by German nuclear power plants. Based on psychological theories and empirical studies this study develops a classification scheme which permits the identification of foci of erroneous human actions. This classification scheme is applied to a selection of human factor relevant incidents by calculating frequencies of the occurrence of human error categories. The results allow insights into human factor related problem areas. (orig.) [de

  8. NRC Reviewer Aid for Evaluating the Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Small Modular Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations (ConOps). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering (HFE) and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to support NRC HFE reviewers of SMR applications by identifying some of the questions that can be asked of applicants whose designs have characteristics identified in the issues. The questions for each issue were identified and organized based on the review elements and guidance contained in Chapter 18 of the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), and the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711).

  9. Comparative Aspects of Human, Canine, and Feline Obesity and Factors Predicting Progression to Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Margarethe Hoenig

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes mellitus are common diseases in humans, dogs and cats and their prevalence is increasing. Obesity has been clearly identified as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and cats but recent data are missing in dogs, although there is evidence that the unprecedented rise in canine obesity in the last decade has led to a rise in canine diabetes of similar magnitude. The insulin resistance of obesity has often been portrayed as major culprit in the loss of glucose control...

  10. Comparative Aspects of Human, Canine, and Feline Obesity and Factors Predicting Progression to Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarethe Hoenig

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and diabetes mellitus are common diseases in humans, dogs and cats and their prevalence is increasing. Obesity has been clearly identified as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and cats but recent data are missing in dogs, although there is evidence that the unprecedented rise in canine obesity in the last decade has led to a rise in canine diabetes of similar magnitude. The insulin resistance of obesity has often been portrayed as major culprit in the loss of glucose control; however, insulin resistance alone is not a good indicator of progression to diabetes in people or pets. A loss of beta cell function is necessary to provide the link to impaired fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose. Increased endogenous glucose output by the liver is also a prerequisite for the increase in fasting blood glucose when non-diabetic obese humans and pets develop diabetes. This may be due to decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin concentrations, or a combination of both. While inflammation is a major link between obesity and diabetes in humans, there is little evidence that a similar phenomenon exists in cats. In dogs, more studies are needed to examine this important issue.

  11. Study of human factors and its basic aspects, focusing the operators of IEA-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2008-01-01

    Human factors and situational variables, which ca, when modified, interfere in the actions of operators of nuclear installations is studied. This work is focused in the operators of the IEA-R1 research reactor, which is located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil. The accidents in Nuclear Plants have shown that the most serious have occurred due to human failure. This work also considers the item 5.5.3 of CNEN-NN-3.01 standard - 'Actions must be taken to reduce, as much as possible, the human failures that can lead to accidents or even other events which can originate inadvertent or unintentional expositions in any individual'. The model named 'Behavioral Analysis' is adopted. Relevant factors and aspects of the operators' routine are also considered. It is worth to remind that the performance depends on a series of variables, not only on the individual, but also situational, including in these categories; physical variables, work environment, organizational and the social ones. The subjective factors are also considered, such as: attitude, ability, motivation etc., aiming at a global perspective of the situation, which counts on a set of principles for the behaviour analysis and comprehension. After defining the applicability scenario, mechanisms and corrective actions to contribute with the reduction of failures will be proposed. (author)

  12. Study of human factors and its basic aspects, focusing the operators of IEA-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is the study of human factors and situational variables, which, when modified, can interfere in the work actions of the operators of nuclear installations. This work is focused on the operators of the IEA-R1 research reactor, which is located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN - CNEN/SP. The accidents in Nuclear Plants have shown that the most serious have occurred due to human failure. This work also considers the item 5.5.3 of CNEN-NN-3.01 standard - 'Actions must be taken to reduce, as much as possible, the human failures that may lead to accidents or even other events which may originate inadvertent or unintentional expositions in any individual'. The model named - Behavioral Analysis - is adopted. Relevant factors and aspects of the operators' routine are also considered. It is worth to remind that the performance depends on a series of variables, not only on the individual, but also the situational ones, which include physical, work, environment, organizational and social variables. Subjective factors are also considered, such as: attitude, ability, motivation etc., aiming at a global perspective of the situation, which counts on a set of principles for the behavior analysis and comprehension. After defining the applicability scenario, mechanisms and corrective actions to contribute with the reduction of failures will be proposed. (author)

  13. Aspects of QCD factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    The QCD factorization approach provides the theoretical basis for a systematic analysis of nonleptonic decay amplitudes of B mesons in the heavy-quark limit. After recalling the basic ideas underlying this formalism, several tests of QCD factorization in the decays B→D (*) L, B→K * γ, and B→πK, ππ are discussed. It is then illustrated how factorization can be used to obtain new constraints on the parameters of the unitarity triangle

  14. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  15. Human factors aspects of the major upgrade to control systems at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, J.; Pope, N.

    1997-01-01

    The Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been in operation for over 15 years. It handles projects such as: stockpile maintenance, surveillance, and dismantlement; pit rebuild; plutonium power source fabrication for long duration spacecraft missions (e.g., Cassini); nuclear materials technology research; nuclear materials storage; and remediation of nuclear waste. The Operations Center of TA-55 is the nerve center of the facility where operators are on duty around the clock and monitor several thousand data points using the Facility Control System (FCS). The FCS monitors, displays, alarms, and provides some limited control of the following systems; HVAC, fire detection and suppression, radiation detection, electrical, and other miscellaneous systems. The FCS was originally based on late 1970s digital technology, which is not longer supported by the vendors. Additionally, the equipment failure rates increased notably in the 1990s. Thus, plans were put into place to upgrade and replace the FCS hardware, software, and display components with modernized equipment. The process was complicated by the facts that: the facility was operational and could not be totally closed for the modifications; complete documentation was not available for the existing system; the Safety Analyses for the facility were in the process of being upgraded at the same time; and of course limited time and budgets. This paper will discuss the human factors aspects of the design, installation, and testing of the new FCS within the above noted constraints. Particular items to be discussed include the functional requirements definition, operating experience review, screen designs, test program, operator training, and phased activation of the new circuits in an operational facility

  16. Aspects of human chlamydial infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Tjiam

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis takes a closer look at three aspects of human chlamydial infections. With regard to diagnosis the influence of logistics on the sensitivity of the culture method is discussed, along with optimalization of the culture itself and an evaluation of new diagnostic methods.

  17. Human factors aspects of non-destructive testing in the nuclear power context. A review of research in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enkvist, J.; Edland, A.; Svenson, Ola [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

    1999-02-01

    The present report reviews literature relevant to human factors and non-destructive testing. The purpose is to cover research that has been done, and to find out what still needs to be done to improve inspection performance. Methods of non-destructive testing (e.g., ultrasonics, eddy current) are complex diagnostic tools used by operators to inspect materials, e.g., components of a nuclear power plant. In order to maintain the integrity of a plant, recurrent inspections are made while the components are still in service. To control the quality of inspections, operators have to follow a procedure that determines what equipment to use and how to use it. The procedure also guides the operator in assessment of indications. There are a number of factors that can affect the inspection quality (e.g., heat, time pressure, and fear of radiation). In earlier studies, experience, organizational practices, and work conditions have been shown to affect on the quality of inspections. The quality of inspection performance is considered to benefit from adapting equipment and procedure to man`s abilities and limitations. Furthermore, work conditions and feedback are considered determinants of performance quality. However, exactly how performance is affected by these factors, and the combined effect of them, need to be studied further. Further research is needed in decision criteria, procedure, and work conditions, and their effect on the quality of inspection performance

  18. Human factors aspects of non-destructive testing in the nuclear power context. A review of research in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkvist, J.; Edland, A.; Svenson, Ola

    1999-02-01

    The present report reviews literature relevant to human factors and non-destructive testing. The purpose is to cover research that has been done, and to find out what still needs to be done to improve inspection performance. Methods of non-destructive testing (e.g., ultrasonics, eddy current) are complex diagnostic tools used by operators to inspect materials, e.g., components of a nuclear power plant. In order to maintain the integrity of a plant, recurrent inspections are made while the components are still in service. To control the quality of inspections, operators have to follow a procedure that determines what equipment to use and how to use it. The procedure also guides the operator in assessment of indications. There are a number of factors that can affect the inspection quality (e.g., heat, time pressure, and fear of radiation). In earlier studies, experience, organizational practices, and work conditions have been shown to affect on the quality of inspections. The quality of inspection performance is considered to benefit from adapting equipment and procedure to man's abilities and limitations. Furthermore, work conditions and feedback are considered determinants of performance quality. However, exactly how performance is affected by these factors, and the combined effect of them, need to be studied further. Further research is needed in decision criteria, procedure, and work conditions, and their effect on the quality of inspection performance

  19. Study of human factors, and its basic aspects focusing the IEA-R1 research reactor operators, aiming at the prevention of accidents caused by human failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a study of human factors and possible human failure reasons that can cause incidents, accidents and workers exposition, associated to risks intrinsic to the profession. The objective is to contribute with the operators of IEA-R1 reactor located at IPEN CNEN/S P. Accidents in the technological field, including the nuclear, have shown that the causes are much more connected to human failure than to system and equipment failures, what has led the regulatory bodies to consider studies on human failure. The research proposed in this work is quantitative/qualitative and also descriptive. Two questionnaires were used to collect data. The first of them was elaborated from the safety culture attributes which are described by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. The second considered individual and situational factors composing categories that could affect people in the work area. A carefully selected transcription of the theoretical basis according to the study of human factors was used. The methodology demonstrated a good reliability degree. Results lead to mediate factors which need direct actions concerning the needs of the group and of the individual. This research shows that it is necessary to have a really effective unit of planning and organization, not only to the physical and psychological health issues but also to the safety in the work. (author)

  20. Structuring factoring business: accounting aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article theoretically substantiates the fact that factoring belongs to the main operational activity of a factoring company, and this allowed structuring the factoring business by types of activity. The lack of a unified approach to the classification of factoring (factoring services made it possible to systematize and refine their classification as a basis for developing accounting and analytical support for risk management of factoring business. The authors single out such classification signs as: the right of the reverse claim (reverse, irretrievable, a territorial feature (international, internal, the subject of the factoring contract (real, consensual, the availability of notification of the debtor (conventional, confidential. The structuring of factoring business contributes to the identification of the risks of the economic activities of a factoring company depending on the type of factoring, the development of methodological support for the bookkeeping of factoring transactions in a risk environment, the search for risk management practices and the determination of management effectiveness in general.

  1. Predictive power of inspection outcomes for future shipping accidents – an empirical appraisal with special attention for human factor aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates whether deficiencies detected during port state control (PSC) inspections have predictive power for future accident risk, in addition to other vessel-specific risk factors like ship type, age, size, flag, and owner. The empirical analysis links accidents to past

  2. Human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent reactor accidents have spurred the major review, described here, of the contribution of operator personnel to safety in Scottish Nuclear Power Stations. The review aims to identify factors leading to the Chernobyl accident and take preventative measures to avoid possible recurrence. Scottish Nuclear power stations aim to remove the operator from a position where failure to take correct action could lead to a safety hazard. Instead operators concentrate on routine and breakdown maintenance and measures are taken to minimize the probability of operator error. The review concluded that most safety procedures were satisfactory but safety analysis supported by good design practices may offer a significant reduction in the risk of operator error. (UK)

  3. Introduction to human factors engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derfuss, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the main aspects of human factors engineering are discussed. The following topics are considered: Integration into the design process; Identification and application of human-centered design requirements; Design of error-tolerant systems; Iterative process consisting of evaluations and feedback loops; Participation of operators/users; Utilization of an interdisciplinary design/ evaluation team; Documentation of the complete HFE-process: traceability

  4. Human factors in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, J.W.; Brown, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Human Factors concept is a focused effort directed at those activities which require human involvement. Training is, by its nature, an activity totally dependent on the Human Factor. This paper identifies several concerns significant to training situations and discusses how Human Factor awareness can increase the quality of learning. Psychology in the training arena is applied Human Factors. Training is a method of communication represented by sender, medium, and receiver. Two-thirds of this communications model involves the human element directly

  5. Conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of development ICT, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries setting out the previous new theoretical model and preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Smyrnova-Trybulska, Eugenia; Morze, Natalia; Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper, prepared by an international team of authors focuses on the conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of ICT development, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries, setting out the previous and new theoretical model and preliminary

  6. ENVIRONMENT IN THE HUMAN PERCEPTION: GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Dushkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work highlights the different aspects of human perception of environment, specific characteristics of the subjective estimation of its state and attitudes to environmental quality. The authors claim more scientific awareness for the understanding of the motivations determining human behavior during interaction with the environment and knowledge about the objective functional system “perception—action” as part of complex geoecological analyses. Furthermore the populations view on the further development of the landscape to improve its living conditions etc. is a crucial part of this concept.

  7. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  8. Growth factors: biological and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruifrok, A.C.C.; McBride, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this meeting summary is to provide an overview of cytokine research and its role in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: The sixth annual Radiation Workshop was held at the International Festival Institute at Round Top, TX. Results: Presentations of seventeen speakers provided the framework for discussions on the biological and clinical aspects of cytokine research. Conclusion: Orchestration of coordinated cellular responses over the time course of radiation effects requires the interaction of many growth factors with their receptors as well as cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Cytokine networks and integrated systems are important in tumor development, cancer treatment, and normal and tumor response to cancer treatment

  9. Assessment of the human factor in the quantification of technical system reliability taking into consideration cognitive-causal aspects. Partial project 2. Modeling of the human behavior for reliability considerations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennerich, Marco; Imbsweiler, Jonas; Straeter, Oliver; Arenius, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    This report presents the findings of the project for the consideration of human factor in the quantification of the reliability of technical systems, taking into account cognitive-causal aspects concerning the modeling of human behavior of reliability issues (funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology; grant number 15014328). This project is part of a joint project with the University of Applied Sciences Zittau / Goerlitz for assessing the human factor in the quantification of the reliability of technical systems. The concern of the University of Applied Sciences Zittau / Goerlitz is the mathematical modeling of human reliability by means of a fuzzy set approach (grant number 1501432A). The part of the project presented here provides the necessary data basis for the evaluation of the mathematical modeling using fuzzy set approach. At the appropriate places in this report, the interfaces and data bases between the two projects are outlined accordingly. HRA-methods (Human Reliability Analysis) are an essential component to analyze the reliability of socio-technical systems. Various methods have been established and are used in different areas of application. The established HRA methods have been checked on their congruence. In particular the underlying models and their parameters such as performance-influencing factors and situational influences have been investigated. The elaborated parameters were combined into a hierarchical class structure. Cross-domain incidents were studied. The specific performance-influencing factors have been worked out and have been integrated into a cross-domain database. The dominant (critical) situational factors and their interactions within the event data were identified using the CAHR method (connectionism Assessment of Human Reliability). Task dependent cognitive load profiles have been defined. Within these profiles qualitative and quantitative data of the possibility of emergence of errors have been acquired. This

  10. [Human factors in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovici, M; Trentzsch, H; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    The concept of human factors is commonly used in the context of patient safety and medical errors, all too often ambiguously. In actual fact, the term comprises a wide range of meanings from human-machine interfaces through human performance and limitations up to the point of working process design; however, human factors prevail as a substantial cause of error in complex systems. This article presents the full range of the term human factors from the (emergency) medical perspective. Based on the so-called Swiss cheese model by Reason, we explain the different types of error, what promotes their emergence and on which level of the model error prevention can be initiated.

  11. Human aspects in ambient intelligence contemporary challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bosse, Tibor; Neerincx, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent developments in the field of human aspects in Ambient Intelligence. It addresses multidisciplinary aspects of AmI with human-directed disciplines such as psychology, social science, neuroscience and biomedical sciences.

  12. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  13. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  14. Etiological Aspects of Human Trafficking in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Abdyli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is considered one of the most serious criminal offences, which is presented as a contemporary form of slavery and which implies the most brutal violation of basic human rights, which are guaranteed by international and law and national law. The phenomenon of human trafficking is present in many countries in transition (such as Kosovo, namely in those countries which were affected by internal political, economic, social, educational, etc. changes, and in such situations the perpetrators of this offense are in a very favorable position to victimize society. Therefore, this paper will focus on external criminogenic factors that influence the growth of this negative phenomenon, including the difficult economic situation, poverty and unemployment, poor housing, migration of people, domestic violence, the impact of mass media in society, lack of border control and insufficient effectiveness of institutions to deal with law enforcement. The paper is based on literature review, statistical data and interviews by treating the subject theoretically, legislatively and practically. To successfully fight against human trafficking, relevant authorities should more closely approach the etiological treatment of this negative phenomenon.

  15. Introduction to human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems

  16. Human factors information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.C.; DiPalo, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is dependent upon human performance related to plant operations. To provide improvements in human performance, data collection and assessment play key roles. This paper reports on the Human factors Information System (HFIS) which is designed to meet the needs of the human factors specialists of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These specialists identify personnel errors and provide guidance designed to prevent such errors. HFIS is a simple and modular system designed for use on a personal computer. It is designed to contain four separate modules that provide information indicative of program or function effectiveness as well as safety-related human performance based on programmatic and performance data. These modules include the Human Factors Status module; the Regulatory Programs module; the Licensee Event Report module; and the Operator Requalification Performance module. Information form these modules can either be used separately or can be combined due to the integrated nature of the system. HFIS has the capability, therefore, to provide insights into those areas of human factors that can reduce the probability of events caused by personnel error at nuclear power plants and promote the health and safety of the public. This information system concept can be applied to other industries as well as the nuclear industry

  17. Human factors guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  18. Human factors guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penington, J [PHF Services Inc., (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  19. Human Factors Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management

  20. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  1. Human Factor in Therapeutic Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Akdogan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available herapeutic relationship is a professional relationship that has been structured based on theoretical props. This relationship is a complicated, wide and unique relationship which develops between two people, where both sides' personality and attitudes inevitably interfere. Therapist-client relationship experienced through transference and counter transference, especially in psychodynamic approaches, is accepted as the main aspect of therapeutic process. However, the approaches without dynamic/deterministic tendency also take therapist-client relationship into account seriously and stress uniqueness of interaction between two people. Being a person and a human naturally sometimes may negatively influence the relationship between the therapist and client and result in a relationship going out of the theoretical frame at times. As effective components of a therapeutic process, the factors that stem from being human include the unique personalities of the therapist and the client, their values and their attitude either made consciously or subconsciously. Literature has shown that the human-related factors are too effective to be denied in therapeutic relationship process. Ethical and theoretical knowledge can be inefficient to prevent the negative effects of these factors in therapeutic process at which point a deep insight and supervision would have a critical role in continuing an acceptable therapeutic relationship. This review is focused on the reflection of some therapeutic factors resulting from being human and development of counter transference onto the therapeutic process.

  2. Human and Organizational Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshiett, P.B.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Human and Organizational Factors Approach to Industrial Safety (HOFS) consists of identifying and putting in place conditions which encourage a positive contribution from operators (individually and in a team) with regards to industrial safety. The knowledge offered by the HOFS approach makes it possible better to understand what conditions human activity and to act on the design of occupational situations and the organization, in the aim of creating the conditions for safe work. Efforts made in this area can also lead to an improvement in results in terms of the quality of production or occupational safety (incidence and seriousness rates) (Daniellou, F., et al., 2011). Research on industrial accidents shows that they rarely happen as a result of a single event, but rather emerge from the accumulation of several, often seemingly trivial, malfunctions, misunderstandings, incorrect assumptions and other issues. The nuclear community has established rigorous international safety standards and concepts to ensure the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation (IAEA, 2014). A review of major human induced disasters in a number of countries and in different industries yields insights into several of the human and organizational factors involved in their occurrence. Some of these factors relate to failures in: • Design or technology; • Training; • Decision making; • Communication; • Preparation for the unexpected; • Understanding of organizational interdependencies

  3. Human Aspects in Ambient Intelligence : Contemporary Challenges and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Cook, D.J.; Neerincx, M.A.; Sadri, F.

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent developments is the field of human aspects in Ambient Intelligence. This field, and the associated workshop series, addresses multidisciplinary aspects of AmI with human-directed disciplines such as psychology, social science, neuroscience and biomedical sciences. The aim

  4. The political aspects of human trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Lukach

    2014-01-01

    The negative international results of human trafficking are researched by the author. Namely, problems of governance organization that are created by powerful criminal groups of human traffickers and smugglers, mass stay of a significant number of non­citizens in the country; formation of the negative international image of the origin, destination or transit country as the state which is unable to counter effectively illegal migration and human trafficking.

  5. Human factoring administrative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, D.A.; Sturdivant, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    In nonnuclear business, administrative procedures bring to mind such mundane topics as filing correspondence and scheduling vacation time. In the nuclear industry, on the other hand, administrative procedures play a vital role in assuring the safe operation of a facility. For some time now, industry focus has been on improving technical procedures. Significant efforts are under way to produce technical procedure requires that a validated technical, regulatory, and administrative basis be developed and that the technical process be established for each procedure. Producing usable technical procedures requires that procedure presentation be engineered to the same human factors principles used in control room design. The vital safety role of administrative procedures requires that they be just as sound, just a rigorously formulated, and documented as technical procedures. Procedure programs at the Tennessee Valley Authority and at Boston Edison's Pilgrim Station demonstrate that human factors engineering techniques can be applied effectively to technical procedures. With a few modifications, those same techniques can be used to produce more effective administrative procedures. Efforts are under way at the US Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex and at some utilities (Boston Edison, for instance) to apply human factors engineering to administrative procedures: The techniques being adapted include the following

  6. Human factors in network security

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Francis B.

    1991-01-01

    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  7. Human factors in RBNK plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demitrack, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Safety of RBMK nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, The Ukraine and Lithuanian is a topic of concern to the European Union and other Western European countries. The European Commission, Sweden, Finland and Canada financed the project Safety Design Solutions and Operation of NPP with RBMK Reactors. The project examined nine issues and recommended safety improvements which will form the basis of future European Commission spending on these power plants. During its year of work, the project examined these issues: 1. Systems Engineering and progression of accidents 2. Protection System 3. Core Physics 4. External Events 5. Engineering Quality 6. Operating Experience 7. Human Factors 8. Regulatory Interface 9. Probabilistic Safety analysis Empresarios Agrupados, in collaboration with other western European firms, the Russian Federation and Lithuanian took part in two of these groups, Human Factors and Probabilistic Safety Analysis. This presentation gives a brief description of the most important aspects of human factors in RBMK plants, focusing on operations organization, training and education

  8. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Kawai, H.; Morishima, H.; Terano, T.; Sugeno, M.

    1984-01-01

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  9. Learning Human Aspects of Collaborative Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Irit; Sherman, Sofia; Hazzan, Orit

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration has become increasingly widespread in the software industry as systems have become larger and more complex, adding human complexity to the technological complexity already involved in developing software systems. To deal with this complexity, human-centric software development methods, such as Extreme Programming and other agile…

  10. Climate change: biological and human aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Cowie

    2007-07-15

    The textbook provides a broad review of past, present and likely future climate change from the viewpoints of biology, ecology and human ecology. Contents are: 1. An introduction to climate change; 2. Principal indicators of past climates; 3. Past climate change; 4. The Oligocene to the Quaternary: climate and biology; 5. Present climate and biological change; 6. Current warming and likely future impacts; 7. Human ecology of climate change; 8. Sustainability and policy; Appendix 1. Glossary and acronyms; Appendix 2. Bio-geological timescale; Appendix 3. Calculations of energy demand/supply, and orders of magnitude; Index. 69 figs.

  11. Human Factors Aspects of Aircraft Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    invaatiaaamanta traa important« : chainaa da grand entratian avion, revision daa motaura at banca d’aaaala, reviaion daa Equipements nEceaaitant daa...defectueux. Sur le plan des accidents d’apparells militaires, qui sort quelque peu de ma specia- lite, les renseignements disponibles dans la presse ...Undoubtedly, a compelling reason for staying with the aircraft was to try to regain pitch attitude control in view of a large audience of press and

  12. Human and positive aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, W.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    With the beginning of the exploitation of nuclear energy by over fifty years experience, a new kind of human disasters which were not known by all world languages were included as new terms not audible before such as radiation protection and risk issues. This was given the attention of people at all levels in view of nuclear terror by bombing the first nuclear bomb on Hiroshima-Japan on 6 August 1945 and the second nuclear bomb on Nagasaki on 9 August 1945. At the end of World War II scientists and officials realized the political and military risks of nuclear energy and its destructive side with benefits and positive repercussions. Atomic energy is produced from great power that God placed in the nucleus of the atom, where nuclear energy is liberated when a change in the structure of the atom and its formations happens or so-called nuclear reaction. (author)

  13. The human factors approach at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, A.

    2004-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, French electricity utility EDF is facing a number of major changes, in particular the liberalisation of European energy markets and the restructuring needed to cope with this development. EDF's approach to human factors (HF) aspects is also undergoing major changes, since people obviously play a predominant role in any organisational structure. (author)

  14. Human Factors in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  15. Human Factors in Marine Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenko Švetak

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Human factors play an important role in the origin of accidents,and it is commonly claimed that between seventy andninety-five percent of industrial and transport accidents involvehuman factors, see Figure 1.Some authorities, however, claim that ultimately, all accidentsinvolve human factors.

  16. Aspects of computer control from the human engineering standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.V.

    1979-03-01

    A Computer Control System includes data acquisition, information display and output control signals. In order to design such a system effectively we must first determine the required operational mode: automatic control (closed loop), computer assisted (open loop), or hybrid control. The choice of operating mode will depend on the nature of the plant, the complexity of the operation, the funds available, and the technical expertise of the operating staff, among many other factors. Once the mode has been selected, consideration must be given to the method (man/machine interface) by which the operator interacts with this system. The human engineering factors are of prime importance to achieving high operating efficiency and very careful attention must be given to this aspect of the work, if full operator acceptance is to be achieved. This paper will discuss these topics and will draw on experience gained in setting up the computer control system in Main Control Center for Stanford University's Accelerator Center (a high energy physics research facility)

  17. Cooperative and human aspects of software engineering: CHASE 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Sharp, Helen C.; Winschiers Theophilus, Heike

    2010-01-01

    Software is created by people -- software engineers in cooperation with domain experts, users and other stakeholders--in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspects of software development is crucial to comprehend how and which methods and tools...... are required, to improve the creation and maintenance of software. The 3rd workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering held at the International Conference on Software Engineering continued the tradition from earlier workshops and provided a lively forum to discuss current developments...... and high quality research in the field. Further dissemination of research results will lead to an improvement of software development and deployment across the globe....

  18. Waste - the human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Waste is a human concept, referring to things that have no use to human beings and arising entirely from human activities. It is the useless residue of any human process that affects the economy or environment. The changes brought about by the industrial revolution are enormous; fossil fuels, not just photosynthesis, now provide energy and wastes at rates far exceeding the capacity of the ecosystem to absorb or recycle. Three major problems face the Planet: accelerated population growth, accelerated use of resources for energy and industry, and the disproportionate use of resources and waste between the northern and southern parts of the Planet. Knowledge and science are in a position to provide both human creativity and the directed technology to take remedial action and rediscover harmony between nature and mankind. Only social and political will is lacking

  19. Human factors review of power plant maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.; Schmidt, W.J.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Dove, L.E.

    1980-10-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observations of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach be adopted to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel

  20. Clinical Aspects of Hypoxia-inducible Factors in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte Mayland; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2010-01-01

    Clinical Aspects of Hypoxia-inducible Factors in Colorectal Cancer  Birgitte Mayland Havelund1,4 MD, Karen-Lise Garm Spindler1,4 MD, PhD, Flemming Brandt Sørensen2,4 MD, DMSc, Ivan Brandslund3 MD, DMSc, Anders Jakobsen1,4 MD, DMSc.1Department of Oncology, 2Pathology and 3Biochemistry, Vejle...... Hospital, Vejle, Denmark4Institute of Regional Health Services Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense DenmarkBackgroundPrognostic and predictive markers are needed for individualizing the treatment of colorectal cancer. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription-inducing factor which...... the predictive and prognostic value of HIF-1α in colorectal cancer.Materials and MethodsThe project is divided into 3 substudies:1. Biological and methodological aspects. The expression of HIF-1α measured by immunohistochemistry in paraffin embedded tissue is related to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP...

  1. Human factors influencing decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...

  2. An EDF perspective on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    1987-01-01

    Human factors are important in the reliability or unreliability of industrial processes. The study of how to improve human performers, and their working conditions to enable them to perform reliably is difficult. Some of the human characteristics of importance for understanding human behaviour in this context are described. These include such things as ''man is not a component, man functions through a single channel'', ''man biases risk estimation''. The Electricite de France programme for improving human reliability following the Three Mile Island accident is then discussed. This has many aspects, the man-machine interfaces, operator training, crew organization, operator experience analysis and emergency planning. The control room planned for a new plant, which is based on this program is described. The improvements are in communication, identification and labelling, stress, simulator tests and human performance data banks. (UK)

  3. Some aspects of statistical modeling of human-error probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prairie, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    Human reliability analyses (HRA) are often performed as part of risk assessment and reliability projects. Recent events in nuclear power have shown the potential importance of the human element. There are several on-going efforts in the US and elsewhere with the purpose of modeling human error such that the human contribution can be incorporated into an overall risk assessment associated with one or more aspects of nuclear power. An effort that is described here uses the HRA (event tree) to quantify and model the human contribution to risk. As an example, risk analyses are being prepared on several nuclear power plants as part of the Interim Reliability Assessment Program (IREP). In this process the risk analyst selects the elements of his fault tree that could be contributed to by human error. He then solicits the HF analyst to do a HRA on this element

  4. Modeling aspects of human memory for scientific study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico); Watson, Patrick (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); McDaniel, Mark A. (Washington University); Eichenbaum, Howard B. (Boston University); Cohen, Neal J. (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); Vineyard, Craig Michael; Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Morrow, James Dan; Verzi, Stephen J.

    2009-10-01

    Working with leading experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience and computational intelligence, SNL has developed a computational architecture that represents neurocognitive mechanisms associated with how humans remember experiences in their past. The architecture represents how knowledge is organized and updated through information from individual experiences (episodes) via the cortical-hippocampal declarative memory system. We compared the simulated behavioral characteristics with those of humans measured under well established experimental standards, controlling for unmodeled aspects of human processing, such as perception. We used this knowledge to create robust simulations of & human memory behaviors that should help move the scientific community closer to understanding how humans remember information. These behaviors were experimentally validated against actual human subjects, which was published. An important outcome of the validation process will be the joining of specific experimental testing procedures from the field of neuroscience with computational representations from the field of cognitive modeling and simulation.

  5. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Review of some aspects of human reliability quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydell, B.O.Y.; Spurgin, A.J.; Hannaman, G.W.; Lukic, Y.D.

    1986-01-01

    An area in systems reliability considered to be weak, is the characterization and quantification of the role of the operations and maintenance staff in combatting accidents. Several R and D programs are underway to improve the modeling of human interactions and some progress has been made. This paper describes a specific aspect of human reliability analysis which is referred to as modeling of cognitive processes. In particular, the basis for the so- called Human Cognitive Reliability (HCR) model is described and the focus is on its validation and on its benefits and limitations

  7. Space operations and the human factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1993-10-01

    Although space flight does not put the public at high risk, billions of dollars in hardware are destroyed and the space program halted when an accident occurs. Researchers are therefore applying human-factors techniques similar to those used in the aircraft industry, albeit at a greatly reduced level, to the spacecraft environment. The intent is to reduce the likelihood of catastrophic failure. To increase safety and efficiency, space human factors researchers have simulated spacecraft docking and extravehicular activity rescue. Engineers have also studied EVA suit mobility and aids. Other basic human-factors issues that have been applied to the space environment include antropometry, biomechanics, and ergonomics. Workstation design, workload, and task analysis currently receive much attention, as do habitability and other aspects of confined environments. Much work also focuses on individual payloads, as each presents its own complexities.

  8. Human factors in atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Ryutaro

    1997-01-01

    To ensure safety should have priority over all other things in atomic power plants. In Chernobyl accident, however, various human factors including the systems for bulb check after inspection and communication, troubles in the interface between hardwares such as warning speakers and instruments, and their operators, those in education and training for operators and those in the general management of the plant have been pointed out. Therefore, the principles and the practical measures from the aspect of human factors in atomic power plants were discussed here. The word, ''human factor'' was given a definition in terms of the direct cause and the intellectual system. An explanatory model for human factors, model SHEL constructed by The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd., Inc. was presented; the four letter mean software(S), hardware(H), environment(E) and liveware(L). In the plants of the company, systemic measures for human error factors are taken now in all steps not only for design, operation and repairing but also the step for safety culture. Further, the level required for the safety against atomic power is higher in the company than those in other fields. Thus, the central principle in atomic power plants is changing from the previous views that technology is paid greater importance to a view regarding human as most importance. (M.N.)

  9. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1997-10-01

    The Objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, Human factors engineering program review model' and '26, Review criteria for human actors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides be ing performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we well update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  10. Ontological And Anthropological Aspects of the Concept of Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Asha Nimali Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropology is the study of the origin of the man. It is basically concern with the concept of Homo sapiens, and it is scientifically questioning what are human physical traits as well how do men behave and the variation among different groups of  human with his social and cultural dimensions. Ontology is a subfield in traditional philosophy which is mainly focuses on the nature of being, existence or reality as such. There are some similarities and differences among these two areas. However when we deeply study the philosophical basis of the anthropology it is proof that it was derived from ontology.Anthropology discusses the social and cultural world or the physical entity of human nature. Ontology focuses the invisible aspect of human nature along with the ultimate reality. Therefore, it has a metaphysical aspect of human being; this philosophical notion has in fact, contributed to the development of the subject of anthropology. The present modern day has given very little attention to this philosophical combination of  ontolog y to anthropology, rendering further investigation into the philosophical roots of anthropology.This research paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between ontology and anthropology by paying attention to the ontological arguments about the concept of man and human nature within Greek and modern western thoughts, in comparing with modern anthropological arguments.

  11. Effectiveness of human factors simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragas, F.

    2015-01-01

    En 2011, ANAV started the exploitation of the Human Factors Simulator installed in TECNATOM Training Center located in L'Hospital de L'Infant Tarragona. AVAN's Strategic Plan includes the Action Plan for the improvement of human behavior. The plan includes improving the efficiency of the efficiency of the human factors simulator. It is proposed to improve the efficiency into two different terms: winning effectiveness in modeling behaviors, and interweaving the activities in the simulator with the actual strategy of promoting Safety culture and human behaviour. (Author)

  12. The Human Aspect of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anegawa, T.; Kawano, A.

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing itself as the main party involved in the nuclear accident triggered by the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake on March 11, 2011, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) has performed accident investigation from various aspects. Results of the investigation are reported mainly in two reports; (1) Fukushima Nuclear Accident Analysis Report (June 20, 2012), which identified the timeline and the proximate causes of the accident, and (2) Summary of Fukushima Nuclear Accident and Nuclear Safety Reform Plan (March 29, 2013) to set forth the results of the investigation and provide an analysis of the background factors surrounding the accident and countermeasures taken. This presentation will first provide overview of the accident response at Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Stations. Voices from the first responders at the sites will be introduced in order to share thoughts of individuals involved in the emergency response. Summary of retrospective study of the accident by one of the shift supervisors at the time of the accident will be presented in order to share the facts that happened at main control rooms. The shift supervisor and his crew had to manage the situation for extended period of time that exceeded the scenarios that they had been trained, in a situation with no lightning and high radiation condition. During the accident response, shift supervisors had to decide to dispatch some of his crew members to the field to open valves, check the status of equipment etc., in the situation where the high radiation exposure is foreseen. The presentation will include conflict of shift supervisors and crew focusing on the human aspects. In addition, actions being taken at the Emergency Response Centers (ERC) set up at the seismic-isolated building on-site and the Headquarters in Tokyo will be shared focusing on the human aspects related to the accident progress. This includes difficult decisions to dispatch first responders to the field, in the

  13. Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE 2010)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; De Souza, Cleidson; Korpela, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Software is created by people---software engineers---working in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspect of software development is crucial to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improving the creation and maintenance...... research on human and cooperative aspects of software engineering. We aim at providing both a meeting place for the growing community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present their work in progress and get an overview over the field....... of software. Inspired by the hosting country's concept of co-responsibility -- ubuntu -- we especially invited contributions that address community-based development like open source development and sustainability of ICT eco-systems. The goal of this workshop is to provide a forum for discussing high quality...

  14. Clinical Aspects of Hypoxia-inducible Factors in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte Mayland; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    Clinical Aspects of Hypoxia-inducible Factors in Colorectal Cancer  Birgitte Mayland Havelund1,4 MD, Karen-Lise Garm Spindler1,4 MD, PhD, Flemming Brandt Sørensen2,4 MD, DMSc, Ivan Brandslund3 MD, DMSc, Anders Jakobsen1,4 MD, DMSc.1Department of Oncology, 2Pathology and 3Biochemistry, Vejle...... activates transcription of numerous genes associated with angiogenesis, ATP-metabolism, cell-proliferation, glycolysis and apoptosis. HIF-1α is over expressed in many malignant tumors and is reported to play an important role in tumor invasion and progression. The aim of this Ph.D. project is to investigate...... the predictive and prognostic value of HIF-1α in colorectal cancer.Materials and MethodsThe project is divided into 3 substudies:1. Biological and methodological aspects. The expression of HIF-1α measured by immunohistochemistry in paraffin embedded tissue is related to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP...

  15. Human Chagas Disease and Migration in the Context of Globalization: Some Particular Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Pinto Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Chagas disease originated in Latin America, being spread around the world in relation with multiple bioecological, sociocultural, and political factors. The process of the disease production and dispersion is discussed, emphasizing the human migration and correlated aspects, in the context of globalization. Positive and negative consequences concern the future of this trypanosomiasis, mainly in terms of the ecologic and sociopolitical characteristics of the endemic and nonendemic countries.

  16. Human factors in resuscitation teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Elizabeth M; Lockey, Andrew S

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in human factors within the healthcare environment reflecting the understanding of their impact on safety. The aim of this paper is to explore how human factors might be taught on resuscitation courses, and improve course outcomes in terms of improved mortality and morbidity for patients. The delivery of human factors training is important and this review explores the work that has been delivered already and areas for future research and teaching. Medline was searched using MESH terms Resuscitation as a Major concept and Patient or Leadership as core terms. The abstracts were read and 25 full length articles reviewed. Critical incident reporting has shown four recurring problems: lack of organisation at an arrest, lack of equipment, non functioning equipment, and obstructions preventing good care. Of these, the first relates directly to the concept of human factors. Team dynamics for both team membership and leadership, management of stress, conflict and the role of debriefing are highlighted. Possible strategies for teaching them are discussed. Four strategies for improving human factors training are discussed: team dynamics (including team membership and leadership behaviour), the influence of stress, debriefing, and conflict within teams. This review illustrates how human factor training might be integrated further into life support training without jeopardising the core content and lengthening the courses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Research on disaster prevention by human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Kang, Sun Duck; Jo, Young Do [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Mining, by its very nature, requires workers and technology to function in an unpredictable environment that can not easily be engineered to accommodate human factors. Miners' physical and cognitive capabilities are sometimes stretched to the point that 'human error' in performance result. Mine safety researchers estimate that 50-85% of all mining injuries are due, in large part, to human error. Further research suggests that the primary causes of these errors in performance lie outside the individual and can be minimized by improvements in equipment design, work environments, work procedures and training. The human factors research is providing the science needed to determine which aspects of the mining environment can be made more worker-friendly and how miners can work more safely in environments that can not be improved. Underground mines have long been recognized as an innately hazardous and physically demanding work environment. Recently, mining is becoming a more complicated process as more sophisticated technologies are introduced. The more complicated or difficult the tasks to be performed, the more critical it is to have a systematic understanding of the humans, the technology, the environments, and how they interact. Human factors is a key component in solving most of today's mine safety and health problems. Human factors research primarily centered around solving problems in the following four areas: 1) How mining methods and equipment affect safety, 2) Evaluating the fit between miner's physical capabilities and the demands of their job, 3) Improving miner's ability to perceive and react to hazards, 4) Understanding how organizational and managerial variables influence safety. Human factor research was begun during the World war II. National Coal Board (British Coal) of Great Britain commenced ergonomics in 1969, and Bureau of Mine of United States started human factor researches in same year. Japan has very short history

  18. Clinicopathological aspects and prevalence of human papillomavirus in anal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tayla Mesquita Aguiar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anal cancer is relatively rare; however, its incidence has increased in recent years. Several risk factors are associated with the development of anal cancer, including age older than 50 years, low-fiber diet, chronic anal fistulas, smoking, multiple partners, anal intercourse practice, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immunosuppression. However, the presence of human papillomavirus represents the main risk factor for the development of anal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological aspects of a series of patients with anal carcinomas diagnosed in Hospital Araújo Jorge, Goiânia-Goiás, as well as the prevalence of human papillomavirus genome in these tumors. Clinical, pathological and socio-demographic data were collected from the respective medical files and paraffin blocks containing anal carcinomas specimens were used for DNA extraction and detection of human papillomavirus, by means of polymerase chain reaction, using short PCR fragment primers. Forty-three cases were selected and had the data analyzed, while 38 cases were tested for human papillomavirus genome detection. Among the evaluated patients, 62.8% were women; 53.4% of tumors were squamous cell carcinoma and 46.5% of the patients were aged between 60 and 75 years. Risk factors, such as smoking (39.5% and alcoholism (20.9% were recorded in the studied group. Lymph node metastases were detected in 30.2% of cases and 7.0% had distant metastasis. The detection of human papillomavirus DNA was positive in 76% of cases assessed and this was significantly associated with squamous cell carcinomas. Aggressive behavior and advanced stage of anal cancer described in this study highlight the need for preventive measures that contemplate these tumors, including vaccination against human papillomavirus. Resumo: O câncer anal é relativamente raro, entretanto, sua incidência aumentou nos últimos anos. Vários fatores de risco são associados ao

  19. Radioimmunoassay of human Hageman factor (factor XII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Ratnoff, O.D.; Pensky, J.

    1976-01-01

    A specific, sensitive, and reproducible radioimmunoassay for human Hageman factor (HF, factor XII) has been developed with purified human HF and monospecific rabbit antibody. Precise measurements of HF antigen were possible for concentrations as low as 0.1 percent of that in normal pooled plasma. A good correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.82) existed between the titers of HF measured by clot-promoting assays and radioimmunoassays among 42 normal adults. Confirming earlier studies, HF antigen was absent in Hageman trait plasma, but other congenital deficient plasmas, including those of individuals with Fletcher trait and Fitzgerald trait, contained normal amounts of HF antigen. HF antigen was reduced in the plasmas of patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation or advanced liver cirrhosis, but it was normal in those of patients with chronic renal failure or patients under treatment with warfarin. HF antigen was detected by this assay in plasmas of primates, but not detectable in plasmas of 11 nonprimate mammalian and one avian species

  20. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  1. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  2. A framework for human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.D.G.

    As the complexity of industrial systems increases, the need for efficient integration of human beings into the systems that they design and operate grows more important. Human factors, or ergonomics, is concerned with the application of life science knowledge about human characteristics to maximise performance and well-being in any context. The most complex problem is to identify job demands in terms of different human dimensions and to apply established life science knowledge to determine optimum solutions. This requires the cooperation of many specialists

  3. Research and development studies on human factors: new trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.; Larchier-Boulanger, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is aimed at describing where the research work on human factors undertaken at EDF stands in relation to this European trend and to define the problematics of cognitive phenomena in relation to all (non cognitive) human phenomena, on the one hand, and to individual aspects as compared to collective and organizational aspects, on the other. Some important trends in the research and development studies will thus be examined one lay one: - analysis of operators' activity; - analysis of the activity cognitive aspects; - problem of the impact of non-cognitive aspects

  4. FACTORS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY: ENVIRONMENTAL AND EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kozachek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to consider the features of impact of nanotechnology on biodiversity in the future.Methods. We suggest an approach, according to which nanotechnologies are viewed as key technologies of the sixth technological order. It is assumed that nanotechnology may be a potential source of environmental problems of the future, and the basis for the creation of new advanced types of environmental engineering and technology. Since all of the above is important both within the actual environmental performance and for the purposes of professional engineering and environmental training. We suggest in this paper to view the problem of the impact of nanotechnology on biodiversity and the state of the environment through environmental and educational aspects.Results. We considered and analyzed the environmental and educational aspects of the application of nanotechnology in the period of the sixth technological order. Implementing procedures for their analysis has contributed to the identification and systematization of the various impacts of nanotechnology on biodiversity and the state of the environment, and identification of options for the prevention of such factors. Based on the results of such studies we have identified educational aspects of training environmental engineers during the sixth technological order; defined a new focus of the training in the sixth technological order, which involves, in our opinion, the study of features of a rational and prudent use of natural resources with the use of appropriate innovative eco-oriented nanotechnology, education of students in terms of the understanding of the causes, consequences and ways to prevent the global resource crisis on the planet due to the emergence of a new class of nano-contamination.Main conclusions. The results can be recommended to be used in practice for more in-depth analysis of the specific environmental challenges of nanotechnology, and revising approaches to the design of the

  5. Human factors engineering in nuclear plant rehabilitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernston, K.; Remisz, M.; Malcolm, S.

    2001-01-01

    There are several unique considerations when creating and maintaining a human factors program for a plant refurbishment. These consideration arise from a variety of sources, including budget and time constraints on life extension projects, working to existing plant protocols and current acceptable HFE practices, and issues relating to function and task analysis. This results in a need to streamline and carefully time HFE practices from project start up to completion. In order to perform this task adequately, a comprehensive Human Factors Engineering Program Plan should be designed and tailored to the project. Systems of planning and prioritization are essential, and the required HFE designer training needs to be established. HFE specialists need to be aware of the existing plant constraints, and he prepared to work within them when providing support. The current paper discusses these aspects in the context of major refurbishment work at CANDU stations. (author)

  6. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  7. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  8. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  9. INVESTMENT ASPECT IN MATERIAL INCENTIVE OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potasheva Galina Anatol’evna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Value of intellectual resources in modern economy due to which the assets of human resources became one of the factors of formation of value of systems on the basis of their investing, is considered. Adequate evaluation of employees’ activities as one of the basic resources will make it possible to meet competition under conditions of "survival" through periodic formation of socio-economic profile and stimulation of investment in human resources on the basis of the following technologies: formation of a balanced scorecard system, creation of a mechanism of formation and distribution of labour compensation funds, use of the golden section principle. Establishment of wages according to the golden section principle contributes to the stability and commitment of employees and increase of efficiency of investments in human resources, provided that it doubles the sales volume and should accordingly increase the wages of each employee by a factor of 1.62. Statistical analysis demonstrated that organizations that work using the golden section principle increased the labour productivity on average by 10-20 %, augmented the turnover by a factor of 1.3–1.5, minimized the costs by 15-20 %. Application of the golden section technology creates conditions necessary for economic growth on the basis of efficiency of investments in human resources.

  10. Psychosocial Aspects of Bruxism: The Most Paramount Factor Influencing Teeth Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckiewicz, Mieszko; Paradowska-Stolarz, Anna; Wieckiewicz, Wlodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    In clinical practice, patients suffering from an occlusal parafunctional activity have increased. It can be observed that a negative influence of environment aggravates patient's health. The aim of this paper is to present the impact of environment and development of human civilization on the prevalence of bruxism and the correlation between them. The authors grasp the most relevant aspects of psychological and anthropological factors changing over time as well as their interactions and describe a relationship between chronic stress and bruxism. Current literature shows how contemporary lifestyle, working environment, diet, and habits influence the patient's psychoemotional situation and the way these factors affect the occluso-muscle condition. PMID:25101282

  11. Statistical aspects and risks of human-caused earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    The seismological community invests ample human capital and financial resources to research and predict risks associated with earthquakes. Industries such as the insurance and re-insurance sector are equally interested in using probabilistic risk models developed by the scientific community to transfer risks. These models are used to predict expected losses due to naturally occurring earthquakes. But what about the risks associated with human-caused earthquakes? Such risk models are largely absent from both industry and academic discourse. In countries around the world, informed citizens are becoming increasingly aware and concerned that this economic bias is not sustainable for long-term economic growth, environmental and human security. Ultimately, citizens look to their government officials to hold industry accountable. In the Netherlands, for example, the hydrocarbon industry is held accountable for causing earthquakes near Groningen. In Switzerland, geothermal power plants were shut down or suspended because they caused earthquakes in canton Basel and St. Gallen. The public and the private non-extractive industry needs access to information about earthquake risks in connection with sub/urban geoengineeing activities, including natural gas production through fracking, geothermal energy production, carbon sequestration, mining and water irrigation. This presentation illuminates statistical aspects of human-caused earthquakes with respect to different geologic environments. Statistical findings are based on the first catalog of human-caused earthquakes (in Klose 2013). Findings are discussed which include the odds to die during a medium-size earthquake that is set off by geomechanical pollution. Any kind of geoengineering activity causes this type of pollution and increases the likelihood of triggering nearby faults to rupture.

  12. Human Leptospirosis and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabío Henry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The human leptospirosis is a zoonosis of world distribution, were risk factors exist that have favored the wild and domestic animal propagation and so man. A descpitive investigation was made with the objective of determining the behavior of risk factors in outpatients by human leptospirosis in “Camilo Cienfuegos“ University General Hospital from Sncti Spíritus In the comprised time period betwen december 1 st and 3 st , 2008.The sample of this study was conformed by 54 risk persons that keep inclusion criteria. Some variables were used:age, sex, risk factors and number of ill persons, according to the month. Some patients of masculine sex prevailed (61,9%, group of ages between 15-29 and 45-59 years (27,7%, patients treated since october to december (53,7%, the direct and indirect contact with animals (46,2 %. The risk factors cassually associated to human leptospirosis turned to be: the masculine sex, the contac with animals, the occupational exposition and the inmersion on sources of sweet water.

  13. Astrobiological aspects of Mars and human presence: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G

    2008-08-01

    After the realization of the International Space Station, human exploratory missions to Moon or Mars, i.e. beyond low Earth orbit, are widely considered as the next logical step of peaceful cooperation in space on a global scale. Besides the human desire to extend the window of habitability, human exploratory missions are driven by several aspects of science, technology, culture and economy. Mars is currently considered as a major target in the search for life beyond the Earth. Understanding the history of water on Mars appears to be one of the clues to the puzzle on the probability of life on Mars. On Earth microorganisms have flourished for more than 3.5 Ga and have developed strategies to cope with so-called extreme conditions (e.g., hot vents, permafrost, subsurface regions, rocks or salt crystals). Therefore, in search for life on Mars, microorganisms are the most likely candidates for a putative biota on Mars and the search for morphological or chemical signatures of life or its relics is one of the primary and most exciting goals of Mars exploration. The presence of humans on the surface of Mars will substantially increase this research potential, e.g., by supporting deep subsurface drilling and by allowing intellectual collection and sophisticated in situ analysis of samples of astrobiological interest. On the other hand, such long-duration missions beyond LEO will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity levels, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues, above all radiation protection, gravity related effects as well as psychological issues. Furthermore, the import of internal and external microorganisms inevitably accompanying any human mission to Mars, or brought purposely to Mars as part of a bioregenerative life support system needs careful consideration with

  14. Selected aspects of organizational culture vs. formation of Human Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Kisiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of employees in relation to organizational culture existing in a company and their knowledge in this subject - have a crucial meaning. In the face of intensity of transformations, constant searching for the best solutions which bring the organization closer to success seams necessary. The organizational culture can help employees among others to: engage in performance of tasks. Organizational culture helps to understand mission, strategy of the organization and assumptions carried out by it. The purpose of this paper is the description of different aspects of organizational culture with reference to actions taken in the scope of management of human resources. The nature of leadership was also stressed in shaping the organizational culture. The analysis of literature in the field of management, own experience and observation of the author in the above mentioned matter made it possible to respond to the research problem presented in this paper.

  15. Human factors in design modifications: panel alternative stop in Almaraz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Y.; Bote, J.

    2015-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering has acquired a crucial role in the development of any design modification (DM), where every aspect relative to any interaction with the human user has to be taken into account at any stage thereof. Considering this, during the last years, Almaraz Nuclear Powe Plants has developed a program of Human Factors Engineering in order to reach the internationally recognized standards or systematic collected on NUREG 0711 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NRC). One of the most important projects of this program at Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has been the implementation of the Alternative Stop Panel and their corresponding Transfer Panels. (Author)

  16. Aspects of elephant behavior, ecology, and interactions with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Caitlin Elizabeth

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters relating to the acoustic behavior of elephants, their surrounding ecology and interactions with humans. The first chapter investigates the seismic aspects of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) acoustic communication. The second chapter is comprised of a synthesis of two separate studies conducted on the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia, both in Etosha National Park and the Caprivi region. The two studies were combined and published in Biological Conservation as one large study on aspects of the economic and social impacts of elephant/human conflict and experiments conducted to reduce conflict. In chapter one, seismic and acoustic data were recorded simultaneously from Asian elephants during periods of vocalizations and locomotion. Acoustic and seismic signals from rumbles were highly correlated at near and far distances and were in phase near the elephant and were out of phase at an increased distance from the elephant. Data analyses indicated that elephant generated signals associated with rumbles and "foot stomps" propagated at different velocities in the two media, the acoustic signals traveling at 309 m/s and the seismic signals at 248--264 m/s. Both types of signals had predominant frequencies in the range of 20 Hz. Seismic signal amplitudes considerably above background noise were recorded at 40 m from the generating elephants for both the rumble and the stomp. Seismic propagation models suggest that seismic waveforms from vocalizations are potentially detectable by instruments at distances of up to 16 km, and up to 32 km for locomotion generated signals. Thus, if detectable by elephants, these seismic signals could be useful for long distance communication. In chapter two, the economic impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana , and predators, particularly lions, Panthera leo, on rural agriculturists in the Kwando region of the East Caprivi, Namibia was assessed from the years 1991 to 1995. Elephants

  17. Human Factors and Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick Sawyer

    1998-01-01

    Medical device hardware- and software-driven user interfaces should be designed to minimize the likelihood of use-related errors and their consequences. The role of design-induced errors in medical device incidents is attracting widespread attention. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is fully cognizant that human factors engineering is critical to the design of safe medical devices, and user interface design is receiving substantial attention by the agency. Companies are paying more attention to the impact of device design, including user instructions, upon the performance of those health professionals and lay users who operate medical devices. Concurrently, the FDA is monitoring human factors issues in its site inspections, premarket device approvals, and postmarket incident evaluations. Overall, the outlook for improved designs and safer device operation is bright

  18. Human factors reliability Benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.

    1989-06-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has organized a Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise (HF-RBE) with the aim of assessing the state of the art in human reliability modelling and assessment. Fifteen teams from eleven countries, representing industry, utilities, licensing organisations and research institutes, participated in the HF-RBE. The HF-RBE was organized around two study cases: (1) analysis of routine functional Test and Maintenance (T and M) procedures: with the aim of assessing the probability of test induced failures, the probability of failures to remain unrevealed and the potential to initiate transients because of errors performed in the test; (2) analysis of human actions during an operational transient: with the aim of assessing the probability that the operators will correctly diagnose the malfunctions and take proper corrective action. This report contains the final summary reports produced by the participants in the exercise

  19. Theoretical Fundamentals of Human Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Maria Ienciu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the theoretical approaches presented by the literature on the human factor. In order to achieve such objective we have performed a qualitative research by analyzing the content of several papers published in internationally renowned journals, classified according to the list of journals' ranking provided by the Association of Business Schools (UK), in relation to the theories that have been approached within it. Our findings suggest that from all ident...

  20. Human factors in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moray, N.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the role of human factors in radioactive waste management. Although few problems and ergonomics are special to radioactive waste management, some problems are unique especially with long term storage. The entire sociotechnical system must be looked at in order to see where improvement can take place because operator errors, as seen in Chernobyl and Bhopal, are ultimately the result of management errors

  1. Laboratory and Clinical Aspects of Human Herpesvirus 6 Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnafous, Pascale; Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a widespread betaherpesvirus which is genetically related to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and now encompasses two different species: HHV-6A and HHV-6B. HHV-6 exhibits a wide cell tropism in vivo and, like other herpesviruses, induces a lifelong latent infection in humans. As a noticeable difference with respect to other human herpesviruses, genomic HHV-6 DNA is covalently integrated into the subtelomeric region of cell chromosomes (ciHHV-6) in about 1% of the general population. Although it is infrequent, this may be a confounding factor for the diagnosis of active viral infection. The diagnosis of HHV-6 infection is performed by both serologic and direct methods. The most prominent technique is the quantification of viral DNA in blood, other body fluids, and organs by means of real-time PCR. Many active HHV-6 infections, corresponding to primary infections, reactivations, or exogenous reinfections, are asymptomatic. However, the virus may be the cause of serious diseases, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. As emblematic examples of HHV-6 pathogenicity, exanthema subitum, a benign disease of infancy, is associated with primary infection, whereas further virus reactivations can induce severe encephalitis cases, particularly in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Generally speaking, the formal demonstration of the causative role of HHV-6 in many acute and chronic human diseases is difficult due to the ubiquitous nature of the virus, chronicity of infection, existence of two distinct species, and limitations of current investigational tools. The antiviral compounds ganciclovir, foscarnet, and cidofovir are effective against active HHV-6 infections, but the indications for treatment, as well as the conditions of drug administration, are not formally approved to date. There are still numerous pending questions about HHV-6 which should stimulate future research works on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and

  2. Biological and social aspects of human sexual orientation: chemocommunicative hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene V. Daev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Failure to understand the role of biological and social factors in the formation of some socially important traits in humans can lead to the appearance of undue tension in interpersonal relationships. This is due to a distorted perception of man often unreliable information, its ambiguity due to the uncertainty of the terminology used and, as a consequence, the impossibility of its correct analysis. Using of term “sexual orientation” shows as a genetic understanding of the trait’s formation and data on sex formation control mechanisms may clarify and complement our knowledge on the subject. Under the theme chemocommunicative model is considered and its contribution to the formation of “sexual orientation” in humans.

  3. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A

    2008-01-01

    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...

  4. Human factors reliability benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.

    1989-08-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has organised a Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise (HF-RBE) with the aim of assessing the state of the art in human reliability modelling and assessment. Fifteen teams from eleven countries, representing industry, utilities, licensing organisations and research institutes, participated in the HF-RBE. The HF-RBE was organised around two study cases: (1) analysis of routine functional Test and Maintenance (TPM) procedures: with the aim of assessing the probability of test induced failures, the probability of failures to remain unrevealed and the potential to initiate transients because of errors performed in the test; (2) analysis of human actions during an operational transient: with the aim of assessing the probability that the operators will correctly diagnose the malfunctions and take proper corrective action. This report summarises the contributions received from the participants and analyses these contributions on a comparative basis. The aim of this analysis was to compare the procedures, modelling techniques and quantification methods used, to obtain insight in the causes and magnitude of the variability observed in the results, to try to identify preferred human reliability assessment approaches and to get an understanding of the current state of the art in the field identifying the limitations that are still inherent to the different approaches

  5. Human factors engineering program review model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element

  6. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume I. Human factors enhancement of existing nuclear control rooms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Seidenstein, S.; Eckert, S.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1979-11-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. Human factors approaches were applied in the design of representative nuclear power plant control panels. First, methods for upgrading existing operational control panels were examined. Then, based on detailed human factors analyses of operator information and control requirements, designs of reactor, feedwater, and turbine-generator control panels were developed to improve the operator-control board interface, thereby reducing the potential for operator errors. In addition to examining present-generation concepts, human factors aspects of advanced systems and of hybrid combinations of advanced and conventional designs were investigated. Special attention was given to warning system designs. Also, a survey was conducted among control board designers to (1) develop an overview of design practices in the industry, and (2) establish appropriate measures leading to a more systematic concern for human factors in control board design

  7. Organizational crisis management: the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    While many professionals are quite competent when dealing with operational aspects of organizational continuity, often the "human factor" does not receive adequate attention. This article provides a brief overview of a soon to be published book by the same title. It provides a comprehensive understanding of the ubiquitous yet complex reactions of the workforce to a wide array of organizational disruptions. It goes beyond the short term intervention of debriefings to describe the more extensive pre and post incident strategies required to mitigate the impact of crises on the workforce. It is important to remember: "An organization can get its phone lines back up and have its computers backed up...but its workers may still be messed up."

  8. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  9. Human Health and Performance Aspects of the Mars Design Reference Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will describe the current planning for exploration-class missions, emphasizing the medical, and human factors aspects of such expeditions. The details of mission architecture are still under study, but a typical Mars design reference mission comprises a six-month transit from Earth to Mar, eighteen months in residence on Mars, and a six-month transit back to Earth. Physiological stressors will include environmental factors such as prolonged exposure to radiation, weightlessness in transit, and hypogravity and a toxic atmosphere while on Mars. Psychological stressors will include remoteness from Earth, confinement, and potential interpersonal conflicts, all complicated by circadian alterations. Medical risks including trauma must also be considered. Results of planning for assuring human health and performance will be presented.

  10. Economic growth factors system: theoretical and methodological aspect

    OpenAIRE

    H.Ya. Hlukha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. The main objective of the article is to create theoretical grounds to build the system of economic growth factors, to modernize their classification, to define exogenous and endogenous factors, to analyze them within the state economic policy structure. The results of the analysis. The article focuses on economic growth factors theoretical studies: - economic growth factors classification characteristics have been highlighted; - various approaches to determine...

  11. Human factors engineering plan for reviewing nuclear plant modernization programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, John; Higgins, James

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plants (NPPs) involved in the modernization of the plant systems and control rooms. The purpose of a HFE review is to help ensure personnel and public safety by verifying that accepted HFE practices and guidelines are incorporated into the program and nuclear power plant design. Such a review helps to ensure the HFE aspects of an NPP are developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The review addresses eleven HFE elements: HFE Program Management, Operating Experience Review, Functional Requirements Analysis and Allocation, Task Analysis, Staffing, Human Reliability Analysis, Human-System Interface Design, Procedure Development, Training Program Development, Human Factors Verification and Validation, and Design Implementation

  12. Human factors engineering plan for reviewing nuclear plant modernization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, John; Higgins, James [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plants (NPPs) involved in the modernization of the plant systems and control rooms. The purpose of a HFE review is to help ensure personnel and public safety by verifying that accepted HFE practices and guidelines are incorporated into the program and nuclear power plant design. Such a review helps to ensure the HFE aspects of an NPP are developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The review addresses eleven HFE elements: HFE Program Management, Operating Experience Review, Functional Requirements Analysis and Allocation, Task Analysis, Staffing, Human Reliability Analysis, Human-System Interface Design, Procedure Development, Training Program Development, Human Factors Verification and Validation, and Design Implementation.

  13. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  14. Human factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1980-08-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants

  15. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-01-01

    Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to sta...

  16. Aspect-Aware Latent Factor Model: Rating Prediction with Ratings and Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Zhiyong; Ding, Ying; Zhu, Lei; Kankanhalli, Mohan

    2018-01-01

    Although latent factor models (e.g., matrix factorization) achieve good accuracy in rating prediction, they suffer from several problems including cold-start, non-transparency, and suboptimal recommendation for local users or items. In this paper, we employ textual review information with ratings to tackle these limitations. Firstly, we apply a proposed aspect-aware topic model (ATM) on the review text to model user preferences and item features from different aspects, and estimate the aspect...

  17. Company culture and human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerucha, F.

    1999-01-01

    Human beings constitute an important factor for smooth operation and fulfilment of special safety requirements in the workplace environment of a nuclear power station. It is therefore important to carry out investigations and continual checks in order to prevent routine complacency of the employees, not only for their respective tasks but also with regard to the structure of the plant. Frantisek Rerucha reports on the investigation of procedural approaches, the methods thereby involved and the results obtained in the nuclear power station Dukovany. The investigation came to the conclusion that communication and information problems exist in many areas. The company goals are communicated inadequately, especially on the lower and middle levels, with the result that employees do not always comply exactly with the directives. On the other hand, the employees are often overstressed with additional, often useless, information. However, willingness to communicate is mostly absent, and the employees have a feeling that personal relationships in general tend to be unsatisfactory in the nuclear power station. Management personnel is experienced as highly qualified experts without qualifications for leadership. But the study came to the conclusion that communication on the operative sector functions very well, by virtue of a well-established personal network. (orig.) [de

  18. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, C.

    1995-03-01

    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  19. Integrating human factors into process hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, S.G.; Loewe, K.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive process hazard analysis (PHA) needs to address human factors. This paper describes an approach that systematically identifies human error in process design and the human factors that influence its production and propagation. It is deductive in nature and therefore considers human error as a top event. The combinations of different factors that may lead to this top event are analysed. It is qualitative in nature and is used in combination with other PHA methods. The method has an advantage because it does not look at the operator error as the sole contributor to the human failure within a system but a combination of all underlying factors

  20. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to state, international legislation as well as to the ethics standards accepted in the field of regulated legal relations and to the traditions of business circulation to sustain the necessary regulations and standards of market behaviour, and to consolidate the image of a factoring company. Compliance risks should be understood as the risks of missed profit or losses caused by the conflicts of interests and the discrepancy of employees’ actions to internal and external standard documents. The attention is paid to the control over the compliance. The author singles out 3 kinds of the compliance control such as institutional, operational and the compliance control over the observance of conducting business professional ethics regulations which are necessary for providing of efficient management of factoring business risks. The paper shows the organizing process of factoring business compliance control (by the development of internal standard documents, a compliance program, the foundation of compliance control subdivision, monitoring of the risks cause the choice, made by management entities of a factoring company, of the management methods of risks for their business. The development of new and improvement of existed forms of compliance control organizing process help satisfy users’ information needs and requests of the risk management factoring company department. The suggestions proposed create the grounds for the transformation and improvement of factoring

  1. The Theoretical Aspects of the Security of Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Markova Natalia S.; Demyanenko Alina A.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at substantiating the basic categories of the conception of security of human development and formation of a definition of the concept of «security of human development» that would provide the most comprehensive understanding of the nature of this process. The main approaches to researching the phenomenon of «security» were analyzed. Characteristics of the formation of human security as part of a holistic paradigm of human development were considered together with rethink...

  2. Intercultural aspects and success factors of European companies entering the Indian market

    OpenAIRE

    Pilný, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on the Intercultural aspects and success factors of European companies entering the Indian market. Its main objective is to evaluate Intercultural aspects and success factors. Partial aims are to evaluate attractive-ness of chosen emerging segments in Indian market. Analyse external business environment in India. Recommend market entry strategy, business communica-tion and Intercultural management.

  3. The Theoretical Aspects of the Security of Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova Natalia S.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the basic categories of the conception of security of human development and formation of a definition of the concept of «security of human development» that would provide the most comprehensive understanding of the nature of this process. The main approaches to researching the phenomenon of «security» were analyzed. Characteristics of the formation of human security as part of a holistic paradigm of human development were considered together with rethinking it as a new theory of global security. A cross-categorical analysis of the concepts of «human development» and of «human security» was carried out by the main criteria: characteristics, time frames, main purpose and objectives. As a result, the human security is complementary to the concept of human development in the part of safe variants of choice (freedom from needs; it further facilitated the security provision at the level of prosperity and progress, not at the level of survival. It has been determined that the conception of human security is at the same time an element of the conception of human development as well as of human security.

  4. Human factors of safety: a few landmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosneron Dupin, F.

    1992-06-01

    This paper discusses factors to be taken into account, and methods to be used. It concludes that more realistic and positive conceptions of Human Factors should be developed, and that Human Factors should be addressed at the very beginning of any technical project

  5. Human Aspects of High Tech in Special Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichteler, Julie

    1986-01-01

    This investigation of library employees who spend significant portion of time in online computer interaction provides information on intellectual, psychological, social, and physical aspects of their work. Long- and short-term effects of special libraries are identified and solutions to "technostress" problems are suggested. (16…

  6. Charles Darwin and Evolution: Illustrating Human Aspects of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampourakis, Kostas; McComas, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the nature of science (NOS) has become recognized as an important element within the K-12 science curriculum. Despite differences in the ultimate lists of recommended aspects, a consensus is emerging on what specific NOS elements should be the focus of science instruction and inform textbook writers and curriculum developers. In this…

  7. Aspect of the early human occupation in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castineira, C.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about the studies carried out in the geological sedimentary formation called So pa which is located in the basaltic basin in the north of Uruguay. The results obtained allow to recognize characteristics of the late pleistocene - early holocene as well as geometric morpho metrics aspects

  8. Systematization of falsification risk factors in financial statements: accounting aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.О. Mizyakina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of false information in the financial statements significantly undermines the confidence of investors and creditors of a company. This necessitates finding and identifying risk factors for falsifying financial statements. Risk factors for financial statements falsification are various and there are different approaches to their classification. It is found out that there is the problem on the clear separation of the concept "creative accounting" (which allows to present a company in the best light for investors and creditors within the law and the concept "falsification of financial statements indicators", which undermines confidence and causes million expenditures of investors and creditors. The article determines the main reasons and factors that lead to the falsification of enterprise’s financial statements. The study suggests the approaches to the classification of risk factors for falsifying financial statements, including those, which have a direct or indirect impact on the reporting. The classification of risk factors for falsifying financial statements is necessary to systematize falsification risks of financial statements in order to minimize them and avoid them during the process of formation of financial reporting indicators.

  9. Factors contributing to the nuclear caloric curve aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raduta, Al.H.; Raduta, Ad.R.

    1999-01-01

    After the first experimental evaluation of the nuclear caloric curve a large amount of theoretical work was concentrated to reproduce the transition-like plateau of the caloric curve from 5 MeV temperature. Both dynamical and statistical models have been employed in order to deduce the excitation energy dependence of the temperature of the equilibrated nuclear systems formed in violent heavy ion collisions. For describing such kind of systems a microcanonical model fully obeying the involved physical constrains seems to be the most appropriate option. However, the currently used statistical multifragmentation models (SMM and MMMC ) are not fully satisfying the microcanonical rules. For these reasons the nuclear caloric curve is studied in the present work from the point of view of a sharp microcanonical model. In this respect a detailed analysis concerning the contribution of the various energetic degrees of freedom (binding, Coulomb repulsive and internal excitation) to the curve aspect is performed. The method adopted here consists in suppressing each of the above-mentioned degrees of freedom once at a time keeping the rest of the system parameters unchanged. The Coulomb repulsive (V) and excitation (ε) degrees of freedom are suppressed by fixing the respective energies to zero. The binding degree of freedom (B) is 'suppressed' by fixing it to the constant value of - 8.5 MeV/nucleon for all fragments. The effect of the correlation between the Coulomb repulsive and the excitation degrees of freedom on the caloric curve aspect is also studied. The resulting caloric curves are denoted T -V , T -ε , T -B , T -Vε . One may observe that the suppression of the excitation degree of freedom has the effect of lifting and diminishing the plateau and the suppression of the Coulomb degree of freedom is lowering the plateau and almost washes-out the plateau-like region. The spectacular effect concerns the complementary moves T -Vε and - B: While the Vε couple suppression

  10. Human factors methods in DOE nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C.T.; Banks, W.W.; Waters, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of developing a series of guidelines for the use of human factors standards, procedures, and methods to be used in nuclear facilities. This paper discusses the philosophy and process being used to develop a DOE human factors methods handbook to be used during the design cycle. The following sections will discuss: (1) basic justification for the project; (2) human factors design objectives and goals; and (3) role of human factors engineering (HFE) in the design cycle

  11. Human Factors Military Lexicon: Auditory Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letowski, Tomasz

    2001-01-01

    .... In addition to definitions specific to auditory displays, speech communication, and audio technology, the lexicon includes several terms unique to military operational environments and human factors...

  12. The Strategic Aspects of a Country's Human Capital Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkauskas, Aleksandras Vytautas; Gruževskis, Boguslavas; Danileviciene, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Often the perspective of human capital is drawn with different colours: from its growing importance to the possibility of changing it with current technical and information management tools. This usually happens when analysing the human capital education and corporate problems in the context of companies and other activity-organising units. In…

  13. Factors and aspects of the relocation strategies of companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei Margulescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades there have been significant changes in the factors that determine the geographic location or relocation of R &D, production and marketing of all transnational companies. Supply chains have expanded to new areas of the globe and big traditional providers have also expanded their global presence by an increasing trend of co-localization with their main customers. Contract manufacturers have multiplied and strengthened, expanding their geographical distribution. A more obvious trend was that of the geographic dispersion of other global value chain functions such as business services and logistics support functions. Relocation to countries with cheap labor is not always a successful strategy. Therefore the decision to relocate in international geographical area, regardless of the structure formula, offshoring or outsourcing, must be based on a more diverse set of factors.

  14. [The gift of human body's products: philosophical and ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertschi, B

    2014-09-01

    In continental Europe, there is a very strong moral condemnation against putting parts or products of the human body on sale-and, consequently, against putting sperms and oocytes on sale. Only a gift is morally permissible. The situation is different in Anglo-Saxon countries. Who is right? Above all, it must be noticed that two views of the human body are facing each other here: for the first, the human body is a part of the person (so, it partakes of the person's dignity), whereas for the second, the human body is a possession of the person (the person is the owner of his/her body). In my opinion, the argument of dignity comes up against serious objections, and the property argument is more consistent. However, it does not follow that it would be judicious to put parts and products of the human body for sale on a market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Human factors review of power plant maintainability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1981-02-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a check list guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observation of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Human Factors Program Plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This document is the Second Annual Revision to the NRC Human Factors Program Plan. The first edition was published in August 1983. Revision 1 was published in July of 1984. Purpose of the NRC Human Factors Program is to ensure that proper consideration is given to human factors in the design and operation of nuclear power plants. This document describes the plans of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation to address high priority human factors concerns of importance to reactor safety in FY 1986 and FY 1987. Revision 2 of the plan incorporates recent Commission decisions and policies bearing on the human factors aspects of reactor safety regulation. With a few exceptions, the principal changes from prior editions reflect a shift from developing new requirements to staff evaluation of industry progress in resolving human factors issues. The plan addresses seven major program elements: (1) Training, (2) Licensing Examinations, (3) Procedures, (4) Man-Machine Interface, (5) Staffing and Qualifications, (6) Management and Organization, and (7) Human Performance

  17. Human factor problem in nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Kenji; Fujimoto, Junzo

    1999-01-01

    Since a nuclear power plant accident at Threemile Island in U.S.A. occurred in March, 1979, twenty years have passed. After the accident, the human factor problem became focussed in nuclear power, to succeed its research at present. For direct reason of human error, most of factors at individual level or work operation level are often listed at their center. Then, it is natural that studies on design of a machine or apparatus suitable for various human functions and abilities and on improvement of relationship between 'human being and machine' and 'human being and working environment' are important in future. Here was, as first, described on outlines of the human factor problem in a nuclear power plant developed at a chance of past important accident, and then was described on educational training for its countermeasure. At last, some concrete researching results obtained by human factor research were introduced. (G.K.)

  18. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  19. Human factors and safe patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Beverley

    2009-03-01

    This paper aims to introduce the topic of human factors to nursing management and to identify areas where it can be applied to patient safety. Human factors is a discipline established in most safety critical industries and uses knowledge about human behaviour in the analysis and design of complex systems, yet it is relatively new to many in healthcare. Most safety critical industries have developed tools and techniques to apply human factors to system design, and these have been reviewed together with those resources already available for use in healthcare. Models of human behaviour such as the nature and patterns of human error, information processing, decision-making and team work have clear applications to healthcare. Human factors focus on a system view of safety, and propose that safety should, where possible, be 'designed in'. Other interventions such as building defences, mitigating hazards and education and training should only be used where design solutions cannot be found. Simple human factors principles such as: designing for standardization; the involvement of users and staff in designing services and procuring equipment; understanding how errors occur; and the workarounds that staff will inevitably take are vital considerations in improving patient safety. Opportunities for the application of human factors to healthcare and improved patient safety are discussed. Some existing tools and techniques for applying human factors in nursing management are also presented.

  20. User Interface Aspects of a Human-Hand Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifang Yi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the user interface design for a human-hand simulation system, a virtual environment that produces ground truth data (life-like human hand gestures and animations and provides visualization support for experiments on computer vision-based hand pose estimation and tracking. The system allows users to save time in data generation and easily create any hand gestures. We have designed and implemented this user interface with the consideration of usability goals and software engineering issues.

  1. [Clinical aspects of human infection by the avian influenza virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubau, P

    2009-01-01

    The species barrier is not perfect for Influenza A and numerous transmissions of the virus from pigs or poultry to humans have been described these years. Appearing in 1997 and becoming epidemic in 2003, influenza A/H5N1 provoked many deadly enzootics in poultry batteries (highly pathogenic avian influenza of HPAI). Starting in Asia, many countries throughout Africa and Europe were affected. Sporadic human cases were described in direct contact with diseased chicken or other poultry. Half of the cases are lethal, but human to human transmission occurs with difficulty. From January 2003 to August 11th 2009, 438 cases were declared worldwide with 262 deaths. Many countries declared cases, but recently most cases occurred in Egypt. Measures in hospital were taken which were copied from the measures for SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), but these were probably excessive in this case, considering the low rate of secondary cases with A/H5N1. In many human infections, signs of severe respiratory distress develop and multi organ failure. It was feared that this deadly virus could become easily transmitted between humans, leading to a new pandemic. This was not the case up to now. The strong pathogenicity of the virus is still not completely explained, but the deep location of infection in the lungs and the deregulation of cytokine production by the target cells, particularly macrophages, may be part of the explanation.

  2. Human factors review of nuclear power plant control room design. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Parsons, S.O.

    1976-11-01

    The human factors aspects of five representative nuclear power plant control rooms were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided observation system, structured interviews with operators and trainers, direct observations of operator behavior, task analyses and procedure evaluation, and historical error analyses. The human factors aspects of design practices are illustrated, and many improvements in current practices are suggested. The study recommends that a detailed set of applicable human factors standards be developed to stimulate a uniform and systematic concern for human factors in design considerations

  3. Excess of nerve growth factor in the ovary causes a polycystic ovary-like syndrome in mice, which closely resembles both reproductive and metabolic aspects of the human syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jenny L; Chen, Weiyi; Dissen, Gregory A; Ojeda, Sergio R; Cowley, Michael A; Garcia-Rudaz, Cecilia; Enriori, Pablo J

    2014-11-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the most common female endocrine disorder of unknown etiology, is characterized by reproductive abnormalities and associated metabolic conditions comprising insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. We previously reported that transgenic overexpression of nerve growth factor (NGF), a marker of sympathetic hyperactivity, directed to the ovary by the mouse 17α-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase promoter (17NF mice), results in ovarian abnormalities similar to those seen in PCOS women. To investigate whether ovarian overproduction of NGF also induces common metabolic alterations of PCOS, we assessed glucose homeostasis by glucose tolerance test, plasma insulin levels, and body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan in young female 17NF mice and wild-type mice. 17NF mice exhibited increased body weight and alterations in body fat distribution with a greater accumulation of visceral fat compared with sc fat (P ovary may suffice to cause both reproductive and metabolic alterations characteristic of PCOS and support the hypothesis that sympathetic hyperactivity may contribute to the development and/or progression of PCOS.

  4. Human Aspects and Habitat Studies from EuroGeoMars Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boche-Sauvan, L.; Pletser, V.; Foing, B. H.; Eurogeomars Team

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: In a human space mission, the human factor is one of the dominant aspects, which may strongly influence work results and efficiency. To quantify such a difficult and uncontrollable aspect of space missions, it is necessary to reproduce as exactly as possible the environmental and technical conditions in which astronauts may be confronted: limited re-sources, social interactions in an isolated and cramped area… We will take the benefit of the EuroGeoMars campaign in the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS, Mars Society) in Utah to observe and measure these characteristics. EuroGeoMars campaign: The EuroGeoMars team aims at assessing the development of scientific protocols and techniques in geology and biology research in planetary conditions. In this framework, MRDS simulation constitutes its main achievement. The scientific investigations conducted in MRDS are expected to provide valuable results, beyond the simple reflection on how managing planetary specific conditions. Nevertheless, the different scientific protocols, even tailored for extreme environmental conditions, require an exhaustive analysis to evaluate how the results and their timing may possibly be affected. MDRS: The MDRS habitat will demand the crew members to work in a cramped environment, surrounded by dust and very limited manpower. Moreover, energy power and communication bandwidth will be limited to the crew members. Human aspects and habitat studies: The crewmember will work in an uncomfortable environment in the habitat: dust, cramping and crowd. Moreover, the sustainibility of the mission will relie on an optimal energy and ressources sharing. This will impose a planification of the different investigating activities. The study of the human aspects and habitat will be performed in terms of impact on scientific and technical tasks rather than in terms of crew's comfort. As any astronaut will previously be aware of the daily condition, we want to improve the working conditions

  5. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-01-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  6. Human Factors Throughout the Life Cycle: Lessons Learned from the Shuttle Program. [Human Factors in Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    With the ending of the Space Shuttle Program, it is critical that we not forget the Human Factors lessons we have learned over the years. At every phase of the life cycle, from manufacturing, processing and integrating vehicle and payload, to launch, flight operations, mission control and landing, hundreds of teams have worked together to achieve mission success in one of the most complex, high-risk socio-technical enterprises ever designed. Just as there was great diversity in the types of operations performed at every stage, there was a myriad of human factors that could further complicate these human systems. A single mishap or close call could point to issues at the individual level (perceptual or workload limitations, training, fatigue, human error susceptibilities), the task level (design of tools, procedures and aspects of the workplace), as well as the organizational level (appropriate resources, safety policies, information access and communication channels). While we have often had to learn through human mistakes and technological failures, we have also begun to understand how to design human systems in which individuals can excel, where tasks and procedures are not only safe but efficient, and how organizations can foster a proactive approach to managing risk and supporting human enterprises. Panelists will talk about their experiences as they relate human factors to a particular phase of the shuttle life cycle. They will conclude with a framework for tying together human factors lessons-learned into system-level risk management strategies.

  7. Management of Human Resources in the Aspect of Innovativeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of human capital is widely emphasised in the literature as regards the achievement of durable competitive edge. It turns out that a company may achieve an equally durable competitive edge owing to its innovativeness. Which source should be chosen by a company’s managers, which source should they focus their attention and resources on so as not to be driven out of the market – and even more so – to achieve great success on it? This article provides an unambiguous answer to this question. Both these sources are inseparable and must be used simultaneously. The article presents dependencies occurring between Human Resource Management and innovativeness identifying the critical personnel areas from the viewpoint of innovativeness and simultaneously verifying the usefulness of various models of Human Resource Management.

  8. Radioimmunoassay for prostatic acid phosphatase in human serum. Methodologic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradalier, N; Canal, P; Pujol, A; Fregevu, Y [Groupe de Recherches du Centre Claudius-Regaud, Toulouse (France); Soula, G [Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Toulouse (France)

    1982-01-01

    We propose a double antibody radioimmunoassay for human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in serum for diagnosis and management of prostatic adenocarcinoma under treatment. The antigen is purified from human prostatic fluid by a gel-filtration on Sephadex G 100 followed by affinity chromatography on Con A Sepharose. A specific antibody is raised in rabbits and purified by immunoadsorption with a female serum. The described technique offers both radioisotopic sensibility and immunologic specificity. Physiological values determined in the serum of 125 healthy males are below 2 ng/ml. No significative differences are observed with age. The proposed technique also shows significant differences between values evaluated for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma.

  9. General Aspects Regarding the Crime of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Draghici

    2016-01-01

    Thus, according to article 210 of the Penal Code, the crime of human trafficking involves„recruiting, transportation, sheltering or receiving of a person with the purpose of exploiting.Forthe offense of human trafficking there may exist preparatory acts, but the law does not incriminatethese acts as crimes and does not punish them. The attempt is punished according to article 217 ofthe Penal Code, stating that the attempt to the offenses stipulated at articles 209- 211 and article213 paragraph 2 of the Penal Code shall be punished.

  10. Implementing human factors in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Methods Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have received aviation-derived human factors training. Results The human factors training was evaluated positively, and thought to be both acceptable and relevant to practice. However, the staff found it harder to implement what they had learned in their own clinical areas, and this was principally attributed to features of the informal organisational cultures. Conclusions In order to successfully apply human factors approaches in hospital, careful consideration needs to be given to the local context and informal culture of clinical practice. PMID:24631959

  11. Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

  12. Specifications for human factors guiding documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, W; Szlapetis, I; MacGregor, C [Rhodes and Associates Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    This report specifies the content, function and appearance of three proposed human factors guiding documents to be used by the Atomic Energy Control board and its licensees. These three guiding documents, to be developed at a later date, are: (a) Human Factors Process Guide; (b) Human Factors Activities Guide; and (c) Human Factors Design Integration Guide. The specifications were developed by examining the best documents as identified in a previous contract with the AECB (Review of Human Factors Guidelines and Methods by W. Rhodes, I. Szlapetis et al. 1992), and a brief literature review. The best features and content were selected from existing documents and used to develop specifications for the guiding documents. The developer of the actual guides would use these specifications to produce comprehensive and consolidated documents at a later date. (author). 128 ref., 7 figs.

  13. Specifications for human factors guiding documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, W.; Szlapetis, I.; MacGregor, C.

    1995-04-01

    This report specifies the content, function and appearance of three proposed human factors guiding documents to be used by the Atomic Energy Control board and its licensees. These three guiding documents, to be developed at a later date, are: (a) Human Factors Process Guide; (b) Human Factors Activities Guide; and (c) Human Factors Design Integration Guide. The specifications were developed by examining the best documents as identified in a previous contract with the AECB (Review of Human Factors Guidelines and Methods by W. Rhodes, I. Szlapetis et al. 1992), and a brief literature review. The best features and content were selected from existing documents and used to develop specifications for the guiding documents. The developer of the actual guides would use these specifications to produce comprehensive and consolidated documents at a later date. (author). 128 ref., 7 figs

  14. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has started research in human factors in nuclear power plants. One project, completed in March 1977, reviewed human factors problems in operating power plants and produced a report evaluating those problems. A second project developed computer programs for evaluating operator performance on training simulators. A third project is developing and evaluating control-room design approaches. A fourth project is reviewing human factors problems associated with power-plant maintainability and instrumentation and control technician activities. Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken four projects studying the application of human factors engineering principles to nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  16. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  18. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  19. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  20. Interactive analysis of human error factors in NPP operation events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Zou Yanhua; Huang Weigang

    2010-01-01

    Interactive of human error factors in NPP operation events were introduced, and 645 WANO operation event reports from 1999 to 2008 were analyzed, among which 432 were found relative to human errors. After classifying these errors with the Root Causes or Causal Factors, and then applying SPSS for correlation analysis,we concluded: (1) Personnel work practices are restricted by many factors. Forming a good personnel work practices is a systematic work which need supports in many aspects. (2)Verbal communications,personnel work practices, man-machine interface and written procedures and documents play great roles. They are four interaction factors which often come in bundle. If some improvements need to be made on one of them,synchronous measures are also necessary for the others.(3) Management direction and decision process, which are related to management,have a significant interaction with personnel factors. (authors)

  1. Immunological aspects of antibody formation against recombinant human therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauerborn, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    With about 200 new products in the pipeline, recombinant human (rh) therapeutics are becoming the most dominant class of drugs. One of the reasons to create rh therapeutics was to avoid recognition by the immune system due to foreign origin. Nevertheless, rh therapeutics induced formation of

  2. Haemostatic aspects of recombinant human erythropoietin in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, K A; Qvist, N; Winther, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find out whether recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) given perioperatively has any effect on haemostatic activity in patients undergoing elective colorectal resection. DESIGN: A placebo-controlled double-blind study. SETTING: Odense university hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 24...

  3. Tryptophan Biochemistry: Structural, Nutritional, Metabolic, and Medical Aspects in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palego, Lionella; Betti, Laura; Rossi, Alessandra; Giannaccini, Gino

    2016-01-01

    L-Tryptophan is the unique protein amino acid (AA) bearing an indole ring: its biotransformation in living organisms contributes either to keeping this chemical group in cells and tissues or to breaking it, by generating in both cases a variety of bioactive molecules. Investigations on the biology of Trp highlight the pleiotropic effects of its small derivatives on homeostasis processes. In addition to protein turn-over, in humans the pathways of Trp indole derivatives cover the synthesis of the neurotransmitter/hormone serotonin (5-HT), the pineal gland melatonin (MLT), and the trace amine tryptamine. The breakdown of the Trp indole ring defines instead the "kynurenine shunt" which produces cell-response adapters as L-kynurenine, kynurenic and quinolinic acids, or the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). This review aims therefore at tracing a "map" of the main molecular effectors in human tryptophan (Trp) research, starting from the chemistry of this AA, dealing then with its biosphere distribution and nutritional value for humans, also focusing on some proteins responsible for its tissue-dependent uptake and biotransformation. We will thus underscore the role of Trp biochemistry in the pathogenesis of human complex diseases/syndromes primarily involving the gut, neuroimmunoendocrine/stress responses, and the CNS, supporting the use of -Omics approaches in this field.

  4. Incorporating human aspects in ambient intelligence and smart environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Klein, M.C.A.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we propose to outline the scientific area that addresses Ambient Intelligence applications in which not only sensor data, but also knowledge from the human-directed sciences such as biomedical science, neuroscience, and psychological and social sciences is incorporated. This

  5. Human Factors Affecting the Patient's Acceptance of Wireless Biomedical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensli, Rune; Boisen, Egil

    In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.

  6. Preventive chemotherapy in human helminthiasis: theoretical and operational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsulo, L.; Engels, D.; Savioli, L.

    2017-01-01

    Preventive chemotherapy (PC), the large-scale distribution of anthelminthic drugs to population groups at risk, is the core intervention recommended by the WHO for reducing morbidity and transmission of the four main helminth infections, namely lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. The strategy is widely implemented worldwide but its general theoretical foundations have not been described so far in a comprehensive and cohesive manner. Starting from the information available on the biological and epidemiological characteristics of helminth infections, as well as from the experience generated by disease control and elimination interventions across the world, we extrapolate the fundamentals and synthesise the principles that regulate PC and justify its implementation as a sound and essential public health intervention. The outline of the theoretical aspects of PC contributes to a thorough understanding of the different facets of this strategy and helps comprehend opportunities and limits of control and elimination interventions directed against helminth infections. PMID:22040463

  7. General safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Priority to safety; (2) Financial and human resources;; (3) Human factor; (4) Operator's quality assurance system; (5) Safety assessment and Verification; (6) Radiation protection and (7) Emergency preparedness

  8. The quest for One Health: Human Resource training aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angwara Kiwara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Appropriately trained Human Resources for Health (HRH are key inputs into One Health. ‘… more than 50% of all infectious diseases of humans originate from animals and that, of the emerging diseases about 75% could be traced back to animal origin’ (Rweyemamu et al. 2006. A comprehensive understanding of the social determinants of health, through an appropriate training model for HRH, is a key input. This study aimed to explore if human and veterinary medical schools were using such a model or providing time for this model in their curricula. Specific objectives were to: determine the time that human and veterinary medical schools’ curricula provide for subjects or courses related to the social determinants of health; analyse the curricula contents to establish how they relate to the social determinants of health; and explore how a bio-medical model may influence the graduates’ understanding and practice of One Health. A review of human and veterinary graduate-level medical schools’ curricula in East Africa was performed in April 2013 and May 2013. The findings were: in the curricula, SDH contents for knowledge enhancement about One Health are minimal and that teaching is Germ Theory model-driven and partisan. Out of the total training time for physicians and veterinarians, less than 10% was provided for the social determinants of health-related courses. In conclusion, the curricula and training times provided are inadequate for graduates to fully understand the social determinants of health and their role in One Health. Furthermore, the Germ Theory model that has been adopted addresses secondary causes and is inappropriate. There is a need for more in-depth model. This article suggests that a vicious cycle of ill-health model must be taught.

  9. Why Koeberg - The human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovitz, A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses the nuclear debate from a psychological and sociological viewpoint. According to the author, the nuclear power industry made a serious error in the manner in which society has been misled about the assessment of the risks and consequences of operating the nuclear fuel cycle. The author has come to the conclusion that legislation that was passed in America years ago, namely the Price-Anderson Act, has led to civilian nuclear power to develope in a manner not calculated to serve the best health and safety interests of the public. The legislation allowed private operators of nuclear power plants to increase the size of the reactors and reduce the distance from centres of population. The American experiences has served as a model for the rest of the world. The result is that Koeberg may be built to cloce to people. The paper is an in-depth discussion of this aspects

  10. Radioimmunoassay for prostatic acid phosphatase in human serum. Methodologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradalier, N.; Canal, P.; Pujol, A.; Fregevu, Y.; Soula, G.

    1982-01-01

    We propose a double antibody radioimmunoassay for human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in serum for diagnosis and management of prostatic adenocarcinoma under treatment. The antigen is purified from human prostatic fluid by a gel-filtration on Sephadex G 100 followed by affinity chromatography on Con A Sepharose. A specific antibody is raised in rabbits and purified by immunoadsorption with a female serum. The described technique offers both radioisotopic sensibility and immunologic specificity. Physiological values determined in the serum of 125 healthy males are below 2 ng/ml. No significative differences are observed with age. The proposed technique also shows significant differences between values evaluated for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma [fr

  11. THERMOREGULATION AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank E Marino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vol 53 (Medicine & Sport Science This collection on the latest interpretation of research data about the relationship between thermoregulation, exercise performance and fatigue is published as the 53rd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal. PURPOSE The book aims to explain how the advances in technology and methodology allowed studying the affects of the changing body temperature on metabolism and the role played by the nervous system in shaping human performance under challenging thermal situations. FEATURES This publication provides different interpretations of recent research for a better understanding of the limitations of thermoregulation in nine titles. The presented titles are: The Evolutionary Basis of Thermoregulation and Exercise Performance; Comparative Thermoregulation and the Quest for Athletic Supremacy; Thermoregulation, Fatigue and Exercise Modality; Neuromuscular Response to Exercise Heat Stress; Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, Endotoxemia and Gastrointestinal Symptoms: The 'Canary in the Coal Mine' during Exercise-Heat Stress?; Effects of Peripheral Cooling on Characteristics of Local Muscle; Cooling Interventions for the Protection and Recovery of Exercise Performance from Exercise-Induced Heat Stress; Ethnicity and Temperature Regulation; Exercise Heat Stress and Metabolism. The evidence for the human's ability to adjust their performance according to the thermal limits in order to preserve cellular homeostasis is particularly noteworthy. AUDIENCE This is a fundamental book for any students and/or researchers involved in the fields of medicine, exercise physiology and human performance with special reference to thermal regulation. ASSESSMENT This publication is a must-read text for all those working in thermal medicine, exercise physiology and human performance fields

  12. Functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in experimental animals and human infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.; Ahlborg, U. G.; van den Berg, M.; Birnbaum, L. S.; Boersma, E. R.; Bosveld, B.; Denison, M. S.; Gray, L. E.; Hagmar, L.; Holene, E.

    1995-01-01

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. Persistent neurobehavioral, reproductive and

  13. The significance of human factors in nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, L.; Berg, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    Human factors is an aspect increasingly investigated in the last few years in efforts and programmes for enhancing the operational safety of nuclear systems. Methodology has been elaborated for analysis and evaluation of human reliability, or development of instruments supporting the decisions to be taken by the operators at the man-control room interface of nuclear installations, as well as initial approaches to introduce organisational factors which may influence the man-machine function allocation, and thus are an element of the safety culture concept. The significance of human factors in nuclear activities, as well as activities at the national and international level for optimisation of the man-machine interface and the man-organisation interface are discussed. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Biomechanical aspects of peak performance in human swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toussaint, H.M.; Truijens, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Peak performances in sport require the full deployment of all the powers an athlete possesses. How factors such as mechanical power output, technique and drag, each individually, but also in concert, determine swimming performance is the subject of this enquiry. This overview of swimming

  15. Preventive chemotherapy in human helminthiasis: theoretical and operational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, A-F; Montresor, A; Chitsulo, L; Engels, D; Savioli, L

    2011-12-01

    Preventive chemotherapy (PC), the large-scale distribution of anthelminthic drugs to population groups at risk, is the core intervention recommended by the WHO for reducing morbidity and transmission of the four main helminth infections, namely lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. The strategy is widely implemented worldwide but its general theoretical foundations have not been described so far in a comprehensive and cohesive manner. Starting from the information available on the biological and epidemiological characteristics of helminth infections, as well as from the experience generated by disease control and elimination interventions across the world, we extrapolate the fundamentals and synthesise the principles that regulate PC and justify its implementation as a sound and essential public health intervention. The outline of the theoretical aspects of PC contributes to a thorough understanding of the different facets of this strategy and helps comprehend opportunities and limits of control and elimination interventions directed against helminth infections. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human factors in safety and business management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  17. [Canine and human rabies in Conakry: epidemiology and preventive aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youla, A S; Traore, F A; Sako, F B; Feda, R M; Emeric, M A

    2014-02-01

    In Guinea, stray dogs are present in large numbers in public places and around landfills. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of human exposure to rabies risk, the cases of human and canine rabies and to describe the epidemiological profile of the cases. This retrospective and descriptive study was conducted in health and veterinarian facilities within the city of Conakry. All records of patients admitted in these facilities because of animal bites and veterinary records for aggression by domestic animals from 2002 to 2012, so, during an 11-year period, were collected. During the study period, 7 994 people were concerned by domestic animal bites. Males were the most affected with 60.4% of all cases. Students represented the higher class with 36.0%, followed by workers (18%). The majority of injuries were to the lower limbs (54.4%). The dog has been implicated in the attacks in 98.8% of cases. Among the 2 916 biting dogs which were placed under observation, 14 developed clinical rabies. Among those assaulted, 11 cases of rabies were reported. From 7 994 victims of domestic animal bites, 2 634 received post-exposure prophylaxis and the dropout rate was 51%. Rabies is a real risk in Conakry. Provisions in terms of public health strategy must be taken to minimize it.

  18. Human pancreatic cancer xenografts recapitulate key aspects of cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delitto, Daniel; Judge, Sarah M; Delitto, Andrea E; Nosacka, Rachel L; Rocha, Fernanda G; DiVita, Bayli B; Gerber, Michael H; George, Thomas J; Behrns, Kevin E; Hughes, Steven J; Wallet, Shannon M; Judge, Andrew R; Trevino, Jose G

    2017-01-03

    Cancer cachexia represents a debilitating syndrome that diminishes quality of life and augments the toxicities of conventional treatments. Cancer cachexia is particularly debilitating in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). Mechanisms responsible for cancer cachexia are under investigation and are largely derived from observations in syngeneic murine models of cancer which are limited in PC. We evaluate the effect of human PC cells on both muscle wasting and the systemic inflammatory milieu potentially contributing to PC-associated cachexia. Specifically, human PC xenografts were generated by implantation of pancreatic cancer cells, L3.6pl and PANC-1, either in the flank or orthotopically within the pancreas. Mice bearing orthotopic xenografts demonstrated significant muscle wasting and atrophy-associated gene expression changes compared to controls. Further, despite the absence of adaptive immunity, splenic tissue from orthotopically engrafted mice demonstrated elevations in several pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with cancer cachexia, including TNFα, IL1β, IL6 and KC (murine IL8 homologue), when compared to controls. Therefore, data presented here support further investigation into the complexity of cancer cachexia in PC to identify potential targets for this debilitating syndrome.

  19. Organizational root causes for human factor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.T.

    1997-01-01

    Accident prevention techniques and technologies have evolved significantly throughout this century from the earliest establishment of standards and procedures to the safety engineering improvements the fruits of which we enjoy today. Most of the recent prevention efforts focused on humans and defining human factor causes of accidents. This paper builds upon the remarkable successes of the past by looking beyond the human's action in accident causation to the organizational factors that put the human in the position to cause the accident. This organizational approach crosses all functions and all career fields

  20. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubler, W.F.; O'Hara, J..M.

    1996-01-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls

  1. OECD-NEA’s New Approach to Human Aspects of Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hah, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011 in Japan has brought us new challenge to deal with “human” aspects of nuclear safety which have always been crucial elements of safety, but which often receive less attention than technical and equipment issues. The key factors that led to the accident were not only a huge tsunami following a massive earthquake, but also a variety of human failures: organizational decision-making, safety culture of the plant staff and the regulator, training to assure that operators are well prepared for a wide range of possible challenges. In order to fully understand and respond to the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident, the OECD-NEA created a new Division of Human Aspects of Nuclear Safety (HANS) which is focusing on the human issues related to nuclear safety. The Division of HANS is responsible for supporting the relevant work programmes of the NEA; fostering greater focus and building expertise in areas vital to effective nuclear safety such as safety culture, personnel training policies and practices; and safety-related public communication and stakeholder engagement. In 2014, NEA produced the Green Booklet on the Characteristics of an Effective Nuclear Regulator noting that the characteristic of “safety focus and safety culture” was one of the four fundamental principles from which all regulatory body actions should be derived. Based on this understanding, in 2015, NEA published the follow up Green Booklet, Safety Culture of an Effective Nuclear Regulatory Body, providing main principles and attributes to be benchmarked for the regulatory bodies to encourage them to enhance their effectiveness as they fulfil their mission to protect public health and safety. Many challenges exist to regulatory bodies’ safety culture which must be recognised, understood and overcome. Continuing collective efforts could help turn these challenges into opportunities to further strengthen the overall health of the safety culture of regulatory

  2. Human Factor on Gravelines Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duboc, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    In a first part, the documents describes the commitments by EDF nuclear power plan operations to demands made by the Safety Authority regarding actions in the field of human factors (concerns expressed by the Authority, in-depth analysis, positions on different points raised by the Authority). In a second part, it presents the various actions undertaken in the Gravelines nuclear power station regarding human factors: creation of an 'operator club' (mission and objectives, methods and means, first meetings, tracking file), development of risk analysis strategy, setting up of a human factor engineering mission and example of action in case of a significant event

  3. ACSNI study group on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Organisational failures are now recognised as being as important as mechanical failures or individual human errors in causing major accidents such as the capsize of the Herald of Free Enterprise or the Pipa Alpha disaster. The Human Factors Study Group of the Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations was set up to look at the part played by human factors in nuclear risk and its reduction. The third report of the Study Group considers the role played by organisational factors and management in promoting nuclear safety. Actions to review and promote a safety culture are suggested. Three main conclusions are drawn and several recommendations made. (UK)

  4. Overview of EPRI's human factors research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.F.; Parris, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    The human factors engineering program in the Nuclear Power Division, EPRI is dedicated to the resolution of man-machine interface problems specific to the nuclear power industry. Particularly emphasis is placed on the capabilities and limitations of the people who operate and maintain the system, the tasks they must perform, and what they need to accomplish those tasks. Six human factors R and D projects are being conducted at the present time. In addition, technical consultation is being furnished to a study area, operator aids, being funded by another program area outside the human factors program area. All of these activities are summarized

  5. Human factors in nuclear safety oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.

    1989-01-01

    The mission of the nuclear safety oversight function at the Savannah River Plant is to enhance the process and nuclear safety of site facilities. One of the major goals surrounding this mission is the reduction of human error. It is for this reason that several human factors engineers are assigned to the Operations assessment Group of the Facility Safety Evaluation Section (FSES). The initial task of the human factors contingent was the design and implementation of a site wide root cause analysis program. The intent of this system is to determine the most prevalent sources of human error in facility operations and to assist in determining where the limited human factors resources should be focused. In this paper the strategy used to educate the organization about the field of human factors is described. Creating an awareness of the importance of human factors engineering in all facets of design, operation, and maintenance is considered to be an important step in reducing the rate of human error

  6. Historical aspects and relevance of the human coronary collateral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Christian; Meier, Pascal

    2014-02-01

    In 1669, anastomoses between the right and left coronary artery were first documented by Richard Lower of Amsterdam. Using post-mortem imaging, a debate followed on the existence of structural inter-coronary anastomoses, which was not resolved before the first half of the 20 ieth century in case of the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD), and not before the early 1960 ies in case of the normal human coronary circulation by William Fulton. Functional coronary collateral measurements during coronary interventions were first performed only in the 1970 ies, respectively in the early 1980 ies. In humans, the existence of functional coronary collaterals in the absence of CAD has not been documented before 2003. Though the coronary collateral circulation has been recognized as an alternative source of blood supply to ischemic myocardium, its prognostic significance for the CAD population as a whole has been controversial until recently. The debate was due to different populations examined (acute versus chronic CAD, varying severity of CAD), to variable definitions of the term "prognosis", to insufficient statistical power of the investigation with rare occurrence of prognostic endpoints, to short duration of follow-up and to blunt instruments employed for collateral assessment. Individually, it has been acknowledged that a well functioning collateral supply to a myocardial area at risk for necrosis reduces infarct size, preserves ventricular function, prevents ventricular remodelling and aneurysm formation. Collectively, evidence has accumulated only recently that an extensive coronary collateral circulation is a beneficial prognosticator quoad vitam. In a recent meta-analysis on the topic, the risk ratio to die from any cause for high vs low or absent collateralization in patients with subacute myocardial infarction was 0.53 (95% confidence interval 0.15-1.92; p=0.335), and for patients with acute myocardial infarction, it was 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0

  7. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  8. Human Factors Evaluation Mentor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To obtain valid and reliable data, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluations are currently conducted by people with specialized training and experience in HF. HFE...

  9. Aspects of structural landscape of human islet amyloid polypeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jianfeng, E-mail: hjf@bit.edu.cn; Dai, Jin, E-mail: daijing491@gmail.com [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: jinglichina@139.com [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Research, Yangtze River Pharmaceutical Group Beijing Haiyan Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Beijing 102206 (China); Peng, Xubiao, E-mail: xubiaopeng@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours (France)

    2015-01-28

    The human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) co-operates with insulin to maintain glycemic balance. It also constitutes the amyloid plaques that aggregate in the pancreas of type-II diabetic patients. We have performed extensive in silico investigations to analyse the structural landscape of monomeric hIAPP, which is presumed to be intrinsically disordered. For this, we construct from first principles a highly predictive energy function that describes a monomeric hIAPP observed in a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment, as a local energy minimum. We subject our theoretical model of hIAPP to repeated heating and cooling simulations, back and forth between a high temperature regime where the conformation resembles a random walker and a low temperature limit where no thermal motions prevail. We find that the final low temperature conformations display a high level of degeneracy, in a manner which is fully in line with the presumed intrinsically disordered character of hIAPP. In particular, we identify an isolated family of α-helical conformations that might cause the transition to amyloidosis, by nucleation.

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF GAMIFICATION WORKING WITH HUMAN RESOURCES: PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Babaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper examines the current situation with companies in the market and examines the need for such companies to make a qualitative leap in competitive strategy, because the dynamics of social processes requires continuous technological and ideological development of the HR departments are responsible for dealing with personnel problems in the organization. The modern concept of "lifelong learning" represents necessitaty of including in the process the development of postgraduate educational path specialist.Materials and methods: For better understanding, the role of gamification is needed to be defined, so the article also analyses the current state of the theory of gamification and main approaches to its interpretation. The article provides an overview of the discussions that unfolded in the last two decades around the phenomenon of gamification and the legality of its inclusion into scientific use. The authors insist on the distinction between the concepts "game" and "gamification". Gamification is treated as a special principle of social practices in contrast to "pure" game as self-contained, offline activity. Regardless of extra features, the game itself is not peculiar to the pragmatic, utilitarian character. In other words, the goal of the game lies within the game itself and could not exist outside it, while the goal of a gamified activity is always set to practical goals.Results: Such a leap could be made possible in human resources by introducing gamification, which is proven to provide a significant improvement in performance with HR services in the enterprise. We conducted research to see the connection between gamification and the four types of games considered by the theorist R. Caillois such as «agon», «mimicry», «illinx», «alea». These four applications of gamification both have advantages and disadvantages which have been identified.Discussion and Conclusions:  The findings make a conclusion on the

  11. Human Factors in Nuclear Reactor Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    While many people would blame nature for the disaster of the “Fukushima Daiichi” accident, experts considered this accident to be also a human-induced disaster. This confirmed the importance of human errors which have been getting a growing interest in the nuclear field after the Three Mile Island accident. Personnel play an important role in design, operation, maintenance, planning, and management. The interface between machine and man is known as a human factor. In the present work, the human factors that have to be considered were discussed. The effect of the control room configuration and equipment design effect on the human behavior was also discussed. Precise reviewing of person’s qualifications and experience was focused. Insufficient training has been a major cause of human error in the nuclear field. The effective training issues were introduced. Avoiding complicated operational processes and non responsive management systems was stressed. Distinguishing between the procedures for normal and emergency operations was emphasised. It was stated that human error during maintenance and testing activities could cause a serious accident. This is because safety systems do not cover much more risk probabilities in the maintenance and testing activities like they do in the normal operation. In nuclear industry, the need for a classification and identification of human errors has been well recognised. As a result of this, human reliability must be assessed. These errors are analyzed by a probabilistic safety assessment which deals with errors in reading, listening and implementing procedures but not with cognitive errors. Much efforts must be accomplished to consider cognitive errors in the probabilistic safety assessment. The ways of collecting human factor data were surveyed. The methods for identifying safe designs, helping decision makers to predict how proposed or current policies will affect safety, and comprehensive understanding of the relationship

  12. Physiological and methodological aspects of rate of force development assessment in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Aagaard, Per; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2017-12-20

    Rate of force development (RFD) refers to the ability of the neuromuscular system to increase contractile force from a low or resting level when muscle activation is performed as quickly as possible, and it is considered an important muscle strength parameter, especially for athletes in sports requiring high-speed actions. The assessment of RFD has been used for strength diagnosis, to monitor the effects of training interventions in both healthy populations and patients, discriminate high-level athletes from those of lower levels, evaluate the impairment in mechanical muscle function after acute bouts of eccentric muscle actions and estimate the degree of fatigue and recovery after acute exhausting exercise. Notably, the evaluation of RFD in human skeletal muscle is a complex task as influenced by numerous distinct methodological factors including mode of contraction, type of instruction, method used to quantify RFD, devices used for force/torque recording and ambient temperature. Another important aspect is our limited understanding of the mechanisms underpinning rapid muscle force production. Therefore, this review is primarily focused on (i) describing the main mechanical characteristics of RFD; (ii) analysing various physiological factors that influence RFD; and (iii) presenting and discussing central biomechanical and methodological factors affecting the measurement of RFD. The intention of this review is to provide more methodological and analytical coherency on the RFD concept, which may aid to clarify the thinking of coaches and sports scientists in this area. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    solution is war- more effe-ctive use of human resoUrecs , the neat step Ls to ane- uassol o efogte.S a hr sn tes te de. Af piot progfctram can...and Subtitle 5. Report Date November 1991 Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance - Phase One Progress Report 6. Perfarng Oon z’on Code i8. Perfo-rrng...Independence Avenue, SW 14. Sponsor,mg Agency Code Washington, DC 20591 15. Supplementary Notes 16. Abstract "• This human factors research in aviation

  14. Activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monkovic, D.D.; Tracy, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    The activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin was studied by functional assessment of cofactor activity and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polycarylamide gel electrophoresis followed by either autoradiography of 125 I-labeled factor V activation products or Western blot analyses of unlabeled factor V activation products. Cofactor activity was measured by the ability of the factor V/Va peptides to support the activation of prothrombin. The factor Xa catalyzed cleavage of factor V was observed to be time, phospholipid, and calcium ion dependent, yielding a cofactor with activity equal to that of thrombin-activated factor V (factor Va). The cleavage pattern differed markedly from the one observed in the bovine system. The factor Xa activated factor V subunits expressing cofactor activity were isolated and found to consist of peptides of M r 220,000 and 105,000. Although thrombin cleaved the M r 220,000 peptide to yield peptides previously shown to be products of thrombin activation, cofactor activity did not increase. N-Terminal sequence analysis confirmed that both factor Xa and thrombin cleave factor V at the same bond to generate the M r 220,000 peptide. The factor Xa dependent functional assessment of 125 I-labeled factor V coupled with densitometric analyses of the cleavage products indicated that the cofactor activity of factor Xa activated factor V closely paralleled the appearance of the M r 220,000 peptide. The data indicate that factor Xa is as efficient an enzyme toward factor V as thrombin

  15. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  16. Validation of human factor engineering integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Apart from hundreds of thousands of human-machine interface resources, the control room of a nuclear power plant is a complex system integrated with many factors such as procedures, operators, environment, organization and management. In the design stage, these factors are considered by different organizations separately. However, whether above factors could corporate with each other well in operation and whether they have good human factors engineering (HFE) design to avoid human error, should be answered in validation of the HFE integrated system before delivery of the plant. This paper addresses the research and implementation of the ISV technology based on case study. After introduction of the background, process and methodology of ISV, the results of the test are discussed. At last, lessons learned from this research are summarized. (authors)

  17. Implementing human factors in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon

    2015-05-01

    To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have received aviation-derived human factors training. The human factors training was evaluated positively, and thought to be both acceptable and relevant to practice. However, the staff found it harder to implement what they had learned in their own clinical areas, and this was principally attributed to features of the informal organisational cultures. In order to successfully apply human factors approaches in hospital, careful consideration needs to be given to the local context and informal culture of clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  19. Modelling human factor with Petri nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedreaga, Luminita; Constantinescu, Cristina; Guzun, Basarab

    2007-01-01

    The human contribution to risk and safety of nuclear power plant operation can be best understood, assessed and quantified using tools to evaluate human reliability. Human reliability analysis becomes an important part of every probabilistic safety assessment and it is used to demonstrate that nuclear power plants designed with different safety levels are prepared to cope with severe accidents. Human reliability analysis in context of probabilistic safety assessment consists in: identifying human-system interactions important to safety; quantifying probabilities appropriate with these interactions. Nowadays, the complex system functions can be modelled using special techniques centred either on states space adequate to system or on events appropriate to the system. Knowing that complex system model consists in evaluating the likelihood of success, in other words, in evaluating the possible value for that system being in some state, the inductive methods which are based on the system states can be applied also for human reliability modelling. Thus, switching to the system states taking into account the human interactions, the underlying basis of the Petri nets can be successfully applied and the likelihoods appropriate to these states can also derived. The paper presents the manner to assess the human reliability quantification using Petri nets approach. The example processed in the paper is from human reliability documentation without a detailed human factor analysis (qualitative). The obtained results by these two kinds of methods are in good agreement. (authors)

  20. Hematopoietic growth factors and human acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenberg, B; Touw, I

    1988-10-22

    The study of myelopoietic maturation arrest in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) has been eased by availability of the human recombinant hemopoietic growth factors, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), granulocyte-(G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage-(GM-CSF) and multilineage stimulating factor (IL-3). Nonphysiological expansion of the leukemic population is not due to escape from control by these factors. Proliferation in vitro of AML cells is dependent on the presence of one or several factors in most cases. The pattern of factor-dependency does not correlate with morphological criteria in individual cases, and may thus offer a new tool for classification of AML. Overproduction of undifferentiated cells is not due to abnormal expression of receptors for the stimulating factors acting at an immature level. Rather, autocrine secretion of early acting lymphokines maintains proliferation of the leukemic clone. When looking at causes of leukemic dysregulation, yet undefined inhibitors of differentiation probably are of equal importance as dysequilibrated stimulation by lymphokines.

  1. Human Research Program: Space Human Factors and Habitability Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2007-01-01

    The three project areas of the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element work together to achieve a working and living environment that will keep crews healthy, safe, and productive throughout all missions -- from Earth orbit to Mars expeditions. The Advanced Environmental Health (AEH) Project develops and evaluates advanced habitability systems and establishes requirements and health standards for exploration missions. The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project s goal is to ensure a safe and productive environment for humans in space. With missions using new technologies at an ever-increasing rate, it is imperative that these advances enhance crew performance without increasing stress or risk. The ultimate goal of Advanced Food Technology (AFT) Project is to develop and deliver technologies for human centered spacecraft that will support crews on missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  2. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OHARA, J.; BROWN, W.; STUBLER, W.; HIGGINS, J.; WACHTEL, J.; PERSENSKY, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ''Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1

  3. Regulatory perspectives on human factors validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.; Staples, L.

    2001-01-01

    Validation is an important avenue for controlling the genesis of human error, and thus managing loss, in a human-machine system. Since there are many ways in which error may intrude upon system operation, it is necessary to consider the performance-shaping factors that could introduce error and compromise system effectiveness. Validation works to this end by examining, through objective testing and measurement, the newly developed system, procedure or staffing level, in order to identify and eliminate those factors which may negatively influence human performance. It is essential that validation be done in a high-fidelity setting, in an objective and systematic manner, using appropriate measures, if meaningful results are to be obtained, In addition, inclusion of validation work in any design process can be seen as contributing to a good safety culture, since such activity allows licensees to eliminate elements which may negatively impact on human behaviour. (author)

  4. Human and organizational factors in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.; Barrientos, M.; Gil, B.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear installations are socio technical systems where human and organizational factors, in both utilities and regulators, have a significant impact on safety. Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, original of several initiatives in the human factors field, nevertheless became a lost opportunity to timely acquire lessons related to the upper tiers of the system. Nowadays, Spanish nuclear installations have integrated in their processes specialists and activities in human and organizational factors, promoted by the licensees After many years of hard work, Spanish installations have achieved a better position to face new challenges, such as those posed by Fukushima. With this experience, only technology-centered action plan would not be acceptable, turning this accident in yet another lost opportunity. (Author)

  5. Workshop on cooperative and human aspects of software engineering (CHASE 2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataldo, Marcelo; de Souza, Cleidson; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    is to provide a forum for discussing high quality research on human and cooperative aspects of software engineering. We aim at providing both a meeting place for the growing community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present their work in progress and get an overview over......Software is created by people for people working in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspects of software development is crucial to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improve the creation and maintenance of software. Over...

  6. Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Overhead Cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Faith; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This guideline provides standards for overhead crane cabs that can be applied to the design and modification of crane cabs to reduce the potential for human error due to design. This guideline serves as an aid during the development of a specification for purchases of cranes or for an engineering support request for crane design modification. It aids human factors engineers in evaluating existing cranes during accident investigations or safety reviews.

  7. Human factors issues in fuel handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, J.D.; Iwasa-Madge, K.M.; Tucker, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board wish to further their understanding of human factors issues of potential concern associated with fuel handling in CANDU nuclear power stations. This study contributes to that objective by analysing the role of human performance in the overall fuel handling process at Ontario Hydro's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, and reporting findings in several areas. A number of issues are identified in the areas of design, operating and maintenance practices, and the organizational and management environment

  8. HAMMLAB 2000 for human factor's studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvalem, J.

    1999-01-01

    The simulator-based Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB) has, since its establishment in 1983, been the main vehicle for the human-machine systems research at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The human factors programme relies upon HAMMLAB for performing experimental studies, but the laboratory is also utilised when evaluating computerised operator support systems, and for experimentation with advanced control room prototypes. The increased focus on experimentation as part of the research programme at the Halden Project, has led to a discussion whether today's laboratory will meet the demands of the future. A pre-project concluded with the need for a new laboratory, with extended simulation capabilities. Based upon these considerations, the HAMMLAB 2000 project was initiated with the goal of making HAMMLAB a global centre of excellence for the study of human-technology interaction in the management and control of industrial processes. This paper will focus on human factors studies to be performed in the new laboratory, and which requirements this will bring upon the laboratory infrastructure and simulation capabilities. The aim of the human factors research at the Halden Project is to provide knowledge which can be used by member organisations to enhance safety and efficiency in the operation of nuclear power plants by utilising research about the capabilities and limitations of the human operator in a control room environment. (author)

  9. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-09-30

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

  10. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report

  11. Human factors review of nuclear power plant control room design. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Parsons, S.O.

    1976-11-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. The human factors aspects of five representative nuclear power plant control rooms were evaluated using such methods as a checklist-guided observation system, structured interviews with operators and trainers, direct observations of operator behavior, task analyses and procedure evaluation, and historical error analyses. The human factors aspects of design practices are illustrated, and many improvements in current practices are suggested. The study recommends that a detailed set of applicable human factors standards be developed to stimulate a uniform and systematic concern for human factors in design considerations

  12. Human factors reliability benchmark exercise: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise has addressed the issues of identification, analysis, representation and quantification of Human Error in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of available techniques. Using a German PWR nuclear powerplant as the basis for the studies, fifteen teams undertook evaluations of a routine functional Test and Maintenance procedure plus an analysis of human actions during an operational transient. The techniques employed by the teams are discussed and reviewed on a comparative basis. The qualitative assessments performed by each team compare well, but at the quantification stage there is much less agreement. (author)

  13. The Tchernobyl enigma or: the human factors in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.

    1988-01-01

    Using the analysis of many documents published after the Tchernobyl accident, we attempt to distinguish the main human factors aspects in severe accidents that come out, and the causes the most frequently quoted to ''explain'' it. But the Tchernobyl accident keeps its ''enigmatic'' feature, like any other accident. The need to make a deeper investigation concerning safety leads to look for various research paths that go beyond the usual normative positions, based on a too much mechanistic model of man. It is to the functioning of groups in work situations that we suggest to devote part of the research and thinking effort. We attempt to show briefly how two theories, the theory of ''groupthink'' and the theory of ''trade defensive ideologies'', can throw a light on the problem of human factors in nuclear power plants [fr

  14. Human genetic factors in tuberculosis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tong, Hoang; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Thye, Thorsten; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat to human health, especially in many developing countries. Human genetic variability has been recognised to be of great relevance in host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and in regulating both the establishment and the progression of the disease. An increasing number of candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have focused on human genetic factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to TB. To update previous reviews on human genetic factors in TB we searched the MEDLINE database and PubMed for articles from 1 January 2014 through 31 March 2017 and reviewed the role of human genetic variability in TB. Search terms applied in various combinations were 'tuberculosis', 'human genetics', 'candidate gene studies', 'genome-wide association studies' and 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis'. Articles in English retrieved and relevant references cited in these articles were reviewed. Abstracts and reports from meetings were also included. This review provides a recent summary of associations of polymorphisms of human genes with susceptibility/resistance to TB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The differential impact of subjective and objective aspects of social engagement on cardiovascular risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamiya, Yumiko

    2010-01-01

    This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk.

  16. Human glia can both induce and rescue aspects of disease phenotype in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benraiss, Abdellatif; Wang, Su; Herrlinger, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The causal contribution of glial pathology to Huntington disease (HD) has not been heavily explored. To define the contribution of glia to HD, we established human HD glial chimeras by neonatally engrafting immunodeficient mice with mutant huntingtin (mHTT)-expressing human glial progenitor cells...... chimeras are hyperexcitable. Conversely, normal glia can ameliorate disease phenotype in transgenic HD mice, as striatal transplantation of normal glia rescues aspects of electrophysiological and behavioural phenotype, restores interstitial potassium homeostasis, slows disease progression and extends...

  17. Cross-cultural Human-Machine-Systems: selected aspects of a cross-cultural system engineering; Interkulturelle Mensch-Maschine-Systeme: ausgewaehlte Aspekte einer interkulturellen Systemgestaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roese, K. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). AG Nutzergerechte Produktentwicklung

    2006-07-01

    Cross-cultural Human-Machine-Systems are one key factor for success in the global market era. Nowadays the machine producer have to offer their products worldwide. With the export to other nations they have to consider on the user behaviour in these other cultures. The analysis of cross-cultural user requirements and their integration into the product development process is a real chance to cape with these challenge. This paper describe two aspects of cross-cultural user aspects. It gives an impression of the complex and sometimes unknown cultural influencing factors and their impact on Human-Machine-System-Engineering. (orig.)

  18. Integrating Data and Networks: Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The development of technical linkages and interoperability between scientific networks is a necessary but not sufficient step towards integrated use and application of networked data and information for scientific and societal benefit. A range of "human factors" must also be addressed to ensure the long-term integration, sustainability, and utility of both the interoperable networks themselves and the scientific data and information to which they provide access. These human factors encompass the behavior of both individual humans and human institutions, and include system governance, a common framework for intellectual property rights and data sharing, consensus on terminology, metadata, and quality control processes, agreement on key system metrics and milestones, the compatibility of "business models" in the short and long term, harmonization of incentives for cooperation, and minimization of disincentives. Experience with several national and international initiatives and research programs such as the International Polar Year, the Group on Earth Observations, the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System, the U.S. National Spatial Data Infrastructure, the Global Earthquake Model, and the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure provide a range of lessons regarding these human factors. Ongoing changes in science, technology, institutions, relationships, and even culture are creating both opportunities and challenges for expanded interoperability of scientific networks and significant improvement in data integration to advance science and the use of scientific data and information to achieve benefits for society as a whole.

  19. Mitochondrial transcription factor A protects human retinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), as a modulator of NF-κB, on proliferation of hypoxia-induced human retinal endothelial cell (HREC), and the probable mechanism. Methods: After exposure to hypoxia (1 % O2) for 5 days, cell proliferation and cell cycle of HREC were ...

  20. Warranty claim analysis considering human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaomin

    2011-01-01

    Warranty claims are not always due to product failures. They can also be caused by two types of human factors. On the one hand, consumers might claim warranty due to misuse and/or failures caused by various human factors. Such claims might account for more than 10% of all reported claims. On the other hand, consumers might not be bothered to claim warranty for failed items that are still under warranty, or they may claim warranty after they have experienced several intermittent failures. These two types of human factors can affect warranty claim costs. However, research in this area has received rather little attention. In this paper, we propose three models to estimate the expected warranty cost when the two types of human factors are included. We consider two types of failures: intermittent and fatal failures, which might result in different claim patterns. Consumers might report claims after a fatal failure has occurred, and upon intermittent failures they might report claims after a number of failures have occurred. Numerical examples are given to validate the results derived.

  1. Human factors in healthcare level two

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenorn-Lanng, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    This book builds on Human Factors in Healthcare Level One by delving deeper into the challenges of leadership, conflict resolution, and decision making that healthcare professionals currently face. It is written in an easy to understand style and includes a wealth of real-life examples of errors and patient safety issues.

  2. Cooperative mobility systems: The human factor challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Marieke; Kroon, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a vision on cooperative mobility systems from a human factors perspective. To create a common ground for future developments, it’s important to define the common research themes and knowledge gaps. This article presents what steps need to be taken in order to come to proper

  3. Review of human factors guidelines and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, W.; Szlapetis, I.; Hay, T.; Weihrer, S.

    1995-04-01

    The review examines the use of human factors guidelines and methods in high technology applications, with emphasis on application to the nuclear industry. An extensive literature review was carried out identifying over 250 applicable documents, with 30 more documents identified during interviews with experts in human factors. Surveys were sent to 15 experts, of which 11 responded. The survey results indicated guidelines used and why these were favoured. Thirty-three of the most applicable guideline documents were described in detailed annotated bibliographies. A bibliographic list containing over 280 references was prepared. Thirty guideline documents were rated for their completeness, validity, applicability and practicality. The experts survey indicated the use of specific techniques. Ten human factors methods of analysis were described in general summaries, including procedures, applications, and specific techniques. Detailed descriptions of the techniques were prepared and each technique rated for applicability and practicality. Recommendations for further study of areas of importance to human factors in the nuclear field in Canada are given. (author). 8 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Review of human factors guidelines and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, W; Szlapetis, I; Hay, T; Weihrer, S [Rhodes and Associates Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    The review examines the use of human factors guidelines and methods in high technology applications, with emphasis on application to the nuclear industry. An extensive literature review was carried out identifying over 250 applicable documents, with 30 more documents identified during interviews with experts in human factors. Surveys were sent to 15 experts, of which 11 responded. The survey results indicated guidelines used and why these were favoured. Thirty-three of the most applicable guideline documents were described in detailed annotated bibliographies. A bibliographic list containing over 280 references was prepared. Thirty guideline documents were rated for their completeness, validity, applicability and practicality. The experts survey indicated the use of specific techniques. Ten human factors methods of analysis were described in general summaries, including procedures, applications, and specific techniques. Detailed descriptions of the techniques were prepared and each technique rated for applicability and practicality. Recommendations for further study of areas of importance to human factors in the nuclear field in Canada are given. (author). 8 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Human factors considerations for reliability and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    1985-01-01

    Human factors in many industries have become an important issue, since the last few years. They should be considered during the whole life time of a plant: design, fabrication and construction, licensing, operation. Improvements have been performed in the field of man-machine interface such as procedures, control room lay-out, operator aids, training. In order to meet the needs of reliability and probabilistic risk studies, quantification of human errors has been developed but needs still improvements in the field of cognitive behaviour, diagnosis and representation errors. Data banks to support these quantifications are still in a development stage. This applies to nuclear power plants and several examples are given to illustrate the above ideas. In conclusion, human factors field is in a very quickly evolving process but the tendency is still to adapt the man to the machines whilst the reverse would be desirable

  6. The human factor in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, Armand

    1998-01-01

    After having evoked the progressive reduction and stabilization of significant incidents occurring every year in French nuclear power plants, and the challenges faced by nuclear energy (loss of public confidence, loss of competitiveness), and then outlined the importance of safety to overcome these challenges, the author comments EDF's approach to the human factor. He first highlights the importance of information and communication towards the population. He briefly discusses the meaning of human factors for the nuclear industry, sometimes perceived as the contribution people to the company's safety and performance. He comments the evolution observed in the perception of human error in different industrial or technical environments and situations, and outlines what is at stake to reduce the production of faults and organize a 'hunt for latent defects'

  7. An EDF perspective on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents the main lines of the program undertaken by Electricite de France in the field of human factors as a result of the Three-Mile Island (TMI) accident. As it is important to be aware of some human characteristics to understand the difficulties and needs in the field, the following behaviour characteristics are described: man is not a component, man functions through a single channel, man has a continuous need of information, man biases risk estimation and man uses mental representations. The following actions taken after TMI to improve the man-machine interface, the operator training, the crew organisation, the operating experience analysis, the state approach development and the emergency planning, are all linked to human factors. The paper ends by presenting the new control room studies for the N4 project (a light water reactor) and some other actions aimed at improving plant operation. (author)

  8. Human factors engineering in the design of colour-graphic displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    The operator interface for Ontario Hydro's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station will rely extensively on the use of coloured graphic display formats. These are used for the presentation of both control and monitoring information. The displays are organized in a hierarchical relationship and a simple interactive selection method using light pens has been implemented. The application of human factors engineering principles has been a major factor in all aspects of the design. This paper describes the system and the human factors engineering function

  9. Forensic and environmental aspects of neutron activation analysis of single human hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Boboli, K.

    1976-01-01

    A new analytical procedure consisting of special washing step, irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 10 14 n cm -2 s -1 , and Ge(Li) spectrometry enabled to determine as many as 14 elements in a 3 cm segment of a single human hair by neutron activation analysis. The criminalistic aspects of hair analysis were studied using a new statistical criterion for elimination/identification and an appropriate computer program was constructed. Hair dimensions as measured microscopically were used as additional individualizing attributes. It was shown that despite the dif--ficulties originating from from a relatively large intrinsic variation of the trace element concentration over one head, elimination of most or nearly all of the ''suspects'' could be achieved in simulated cases. Distincly elevated levels of Au as well as Cu and Ag were found in hair of some groups of persons working under specific conditions thus confirming the importance of the environmental factor related to some kinds of occupation. (author)

  10. Human Factors Principles in Information Dashboard Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; St. Germain, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    When planning for control room upgrades, nuclear power plants have to deal with a multitude of engineering and operational impacts. This will inevitably include several human factors considerations, including physical ergonomics of workstations, viewing angles, lighting, seating, new communication requirements, and new concepts of operation. In helping nuclear power utilities to deal with these challenges, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed effective methods to manage the various phases of the upgrade life cycle. These methods focus on integrating human factors engineering processes with the plant’s systems engineering process, a large part of which is the development of end-state concepts for control room modernization. Such an end-state concept is a description of a set of required conditions that define the achievement of the plant’s objectives for the upgrade. Typically, the end-state concept describes the transition of a conventional control room, over time, to a facility that employs advanced digital automation technologies in a way that significantly improves system reliability, reduces human and control room-related hazards, reduces system and component obsolescence, and significantly improves operator performance. To make the various upgrade phases as concrete and as visible as possible, an end-state concept would include a set of visual representations of the control room before and after various upgrade phases to provide the context and a framework within which to consider the various options in the upgrade. This includes the various control systems, human-system interfaces to be replaced, and possible changes to operator workstations. This paper describes how this framework helps to ensure an integrated and cohesive outcome that is consistent with human factors engineering principles and also provide substantial improvement in operator performance. The paper further describes the application of this integrated approach in the

  11. Role of human factors in system safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, D. M.; Robert, C.; Graham, T.

    2008-01-01

    What happens when technology goes wrong? Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, space shuttles Challenger and Columbia, numerous airplane crashes, and other notable and newsworthy as well as many more incidents that are not reported on the news, have all been attributed to human error. Millions of dollars in fines are levied against industry under the General Duty clause for ergonomic violations, all avoidable. These incidents and situations indicate a lack of consideration for the humans in the system during the design phase. As a consequence, all of these organizations had to retrofit, had to redesign and had to pay countless dollars for medical costs, Worker's Compensation, OSHA fines and in some instances had irrecoverable damage to their public image. Human Factors, otherwise known as Engineering Psychology or Ergonomics, found its origins in loss, loss of life, loss of confidence, loss of technology, loss of property. Without loss, there would be no need for human factors. No one really 'attends' to discomfort...nor are errors attended to that have little consequence. Often it is ultimately the compilation and cumulative effects of these smaller and often ignored occurrences that lead to the bigger and more tragic incidents that make the evening news. When an incident or accident occurs, they are frequently attributed to accomplished, credible, experienced people. In reality however, the crisis was inevitable when a series of events happen such that a human is caught in the whirlwind of accident sequence. The world as known is becoming smaller and more complex. Highly technical societies have been hard at work for several centuries rebuilding the world out of cold steel that is very far removed from ancient instincts and traditions and is becoming more remote to human users. The growth of technology is more than exponential, and is virtually beyond comprehension for many people. Humans, feeling comfortable with the familiar, fulfill their propensity to implement new

  12. Human factors estimation methods using physiological informations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Ken-ichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Nakasa, Hiroyasu

    1984-01-01

    To enhance the operational safety in the nuclear power plant, it is necessary to decrease abnormal phenomena due to human errors. Especially, it is essential to basically understand human behaviors under the work environment for plant maintenance workers, inspectors, and operators. On the above stand point, this paper presents the results of literature survey on the present status of human factors engineering technology applicable to the nuclear power plant and also discussed the following items: (1) Application fields where the ergonomical evaluation is needed for workers safety. (2) Basic methodology for investigating the human performance. (3) Features of the physiological information analysis among various types of ergonomical techniques. (4) Necessary conditions for the application of in-situ physiological measurement to the nuclear power plant. (5) Availability of the physiological information analysis. (6) Effectiveness of the human factors engineering methodology, especially physiological information analysis in the case of application to the nuclear power plant. The above discussions lead to the demonstration of high applicability of the physiological information analysis to nuclear power plant, in order to improve the work performance. (author)

  13. Human Factors in the Management of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Alting, Leo

    2006-01-01

    The ‘Human factor’ is a major issue when optimizing manufacturing systems. The development in recommendations on how to handle this factor in the management of production reflects the change in dominating challenges faced by production in society. Presently, industrial societies are meeting new...... challenges. Qualitative interviews with Danish stakeholders in the education of engineers (BA & MA) confirm the picture given in international literature. Therefore, the didactics concerning the ‘human factor’ in the curriculum on production management has to reflect these changes. This paper concludes...

  14. Human factors issues in fuel handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, J D; Iwasa-Madge, K M; Tucker, D A [Humansystems Inc., Milton, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board wish to further their understanding of human factors issues of potential concern associated with fuel handling in CANDU nuclear power stations. This study contributes to that objective by analysing the role of human performance in the overall fuel handling process at Ontario Hydro`s Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, and reporting findings in several areas. A number of issues are identified in the areas of design, operating and maintenance practices, and the organizational and management environment. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 19 refs.

  15. Can the hair follicle become a model for studying selected aspects of human ocular immune privilege?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinori, Michael; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2011-06-23

    Immune privilege (IP) is important in maintaining ocular health. Understanding the mechanism underlying this dynamic state would assist in treating inflammatory eye diseases. Despite substantial progress in defining eye IP mechanisms, because of the scarcity of human ocular tissue for research purposes, most of what we know about ocular IP is based on rodent models (of unclear relevance to human eye immunology) and on cultured human eye-derived cells that cannot faithfully mirror the complex cell-tissue interactions that underlie normal human ocular IP in situ. Therefore, accessible, instructive, and clinically relevant human in vitro models are needed for exploring the general principles of why and how IP collapses under clinically relevant experimental conditions and how it can be protected or even restored therapeutically. Among the few human IP sites, the easily accessible and abundantly available hair follicle (HF) may offer one such surrogate model. There are excellent human HF organ culture systems for the study of HF IP in situ that instructively complement in vivo autoimmunity research in the human system. In this article, we delineate that the human eye and HF, despite their obvious differences, share key molecular and cellular mechanisms for maintaining IP. We argue that, therefore, human scalp HFs can provide an unconventional, but highly instructive, accessible, easily manipulated, and clinically relevant preclinical model for selected aspects of ocular IP. This essay is an attempt to encourage professional eye researchers to turn their attention, with appropriate caveats, to this candidate surrogate model for ocular IP in the human system.

  16. DEFINING ASPECTS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY WITHIN THE GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE MODERN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil MUSCALU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of human resources requires the presence and action of several categories of persons and managerial structures interested in the quality of human resources and the activities developed by them. Besides managers and employees there are also the shareholders, the unions, the customers, the different national or local agencies, the local community, etc., with major interests regarding decisions in the human resources area. In order to harmonize their activities and achieve an optimal perspective within the evolution of Human Resource Management, special attention is paid to the strategy of human resources management. According to many specialists, strategies in the field of Human Resource Management show, in the first place, that personnel function adopts a broader perspective and a more dynamic view of human resources, which enables its full integration within the other functions of the organization. In the second place, strategies in the field of Human Resource Management designate the assembly of long term objectives concerning human resources, the main modalities of achieving them and the necessary resources which guarantee that the organization’s structure, value and culture as well as the utilization of its personnel contribute to fulfilling the general objectives of the organization. Therefore, we approached in this paper the problems of grounding and elaborating the Human Resource Management strategy, and we outlined their specific traits, as these are necessary aspects in order to emphasise at the end of our paper the correlation between the strategy in the field of Human Resource Management and the general strategy of the organization. Taking into account specialists and practitioners’ increased interest in knowing, substantiating and implementing strategies in the area of Human Resource Management, we consider that the aspects presented in this paper are modern issues and a starting pointing in solving the great problems of

  17. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean

  18. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposition of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existential aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the following tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of  fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inactivity through the opposition of  fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authentic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific novelty. For the first time the analysis of the  fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the  fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its essential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being.  If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with  human mind and conscious decision,  non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental meaning

  19. Incident factor as a learning aspect to enhance safety culture in the experimental fuel element installation of PTBN - BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heri Hardiyanti; Agus Sartono; Bambang Herutomo; AS Latief

    2013-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear facility depends not only on the fulfillment of all technical requirements, but also on the role of non-technical aspects. The primary causation of incidents or accidents in a nuclear facility is human error which is non-technical. Therefore, in order to enhance safety, efforts from the technical aspects are as important as efforts to deal with the human factor which can be done through the application of safety culture in the facility. Incidents that took place in the Experimental Fuel Element Installation (EFEI) of PTBN - BATAN from 2011 to 2012 were caused by aging instruments and human error. In order to prevent accidents and to enhance safety, non-technical efforts that were done in the EFEI were, interalia, the obligations on all personnel to attend the pre-lab briefing, to prepare a work proposal, to compose a HIRADC (hazard identification, risk assessment, and determining control) document, to utilize self protection devices, to perform a routine maintenance, and to practice safe behavior. All personnel were involved in all those efforts. Safety is the first priority and can always be improved in the facility. A strong commitment of and cooperation between the top management and the staff are needed. (author)

  20. Study on human factor at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopp, I.

    1984-01-01

    Factors affecting the reliabilty of the reactor control by an NPP operator are considered on the base of the Czechoslovakia NPP operating experience. The reliability level of NPP operators depends on objective factors (conditions and regime of labour) determining the labour productivity and on subjective ones (psychological morale, physical and mental abilities and occupational level of personnel). Problems of the effect of physical and mental abilities and professional level on the reliability of personnel are considered to be the most important ones. The effect of individual abilities and specific features of the human body on changes in his occupational abilities can be estimated only to a certain degree

  1. A human factors approach to effective maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.; Shakeri, S.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally in the field of Human Factors within the nuclear industry, the focus has been to identify the potential for human errors in operating tasks, and develop strategies to prevent their occurrence, provide recovery mechanisms, and mitigate the consequences of error as appropriate. Past experience has demonstrated however a significant number of human errors within the nuclear industry occur during maintenance tasks. It is for this reason, and the fact that our nuclear power plants are ageing and increasingly in need of maintenance, that the industry must pay more attention to maintenance tasks. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for effective maintenance programs, and based upon this framework discuss an approach (an audit tool) that can be used to both design such a program, and to assess existing programs. In addition, this tool can form the basis of cost benefit decisions relating to priorities for improvements to existing programs. (author)

  2. Immune Defence Factors In Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sanjeev

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence is accumulating to prove the nutritional, anti-infective, anti-fertility, psychosomal and economic advantages of breast-feeding. A number of studies have shown that breast milk protects against diarrheal, respiratory and other infections. Its value in protecting against allergy has also been established. This article reviews the studies on various immune defence factors present in the human milk. The available scientific knowledge makes a very strong case in favour of promoting breast-feeding.

  3. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, 2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, 3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, 4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, 5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). 6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: 1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, 2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, 3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, 4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, 5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, 6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  4. Observations on human-technology interaction aspects in remote handling for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Karoliina

    2009-01-01

    Remote handling can been seen as cooperation between human and machine. One of the characteristics of remote handling is that there is always a human involved in the technique: there is always a human guiding and supervising the movements and deciding the actions of the machine. Unlike many other fields of remote handling for fusion, the human-technology interaction side has not been studied carefully recently. The state-of-the-art research about different kinds of remote handling systems shows that there is a lot of information available in this subject, but there is a clear need for studies where the special needs of ITER are taken into account. During the PREFIT programme, the human-interaction aspects of remote handling have been studied, and the goal has been to find solutions compatible with ITER. Some of the aspects that make ITER a unique system are its new technology combining state-of-the-art knowledge from several different fields, and its very international working environment. When discussing the human aspects, the fact of the multinational cooperation cannot be neglected. Since the majority of the information found in the literature review is not about remote handling, references need to be taken from other industries, like aviation. This article consists of ITER remote handling relevant findings in state-of-the-art research and information and knowledge gained during the PREFIT programme, especially during the training periods at JET in Culham and at CEA in Fontenay-aux-Roses. It also discusses the importance of human-technology interaction field in remote handling, especially in ITER.

  5. Double Shell Tank (DST) Human Factors Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHAFFEE, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the data collection and analyses that were performed in development of material to be used in the Human Factors chapter for the upgrade to the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Double-Shell Tank Farms (DSTF). This study was conducted to collect the data that is necessary to prepare the Human Factors chapter for the upgrade of the SAR for the DSTF. Requirements for the HF chapter of the SAR generally dictate that the facility management describe how the consideration of operator capabilities and limitations and operating experience are used in ensuring the safe and effective operation of the facility. Additionally, analysis to indicate the contribution of human error to the safety basis accidents or events must be reported. Since the DSTF is a mature operating facility and the requirement to prepare a HF chapter is new, it was not expected that the consideration of HF principles would be an explicit part of DSTF operations. It can be expected, however, that the programs that guide the daily operations at the DSTF contain provisions for the consideration of the needs of their operating personnel and lessons learned from prior experience. Consideration of both the SAR requirements and the nature of the DSTF operations led to the following objectives being defined for the study: (1) to identify the programs at the OSTF where human performance may be considered; (2) to describe how HF principles and operating experience are used to ensure safe and reliable human performance at the DSTF; (3) to describe how HF principles and operating experience are considered as modifications or improvements are made at the DSTF; and (4) to perform task analysis sufficient to understand the potential for human error in OSTF operations

  6. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat. © RSNA, 2015.

  7. Future perspectives on space psychology: Recommendations on psychosocial and neurobehavioural aspects of human spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, Gabriel G.; van Baarsen, Berna; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Kanas, Nick; Weiss, Karine; Schneider, Stefan; Whiteley, Iya

    2012-12-01

    Recently the psychological effects of space flight have gained in attention. In uncovering the psychological challenges that individuals and teams can face, we need research options that integrate psychosocial aspects with behavioral, performance, technical and environmental issues. Future perspectives in Space Psychology and Human Spaceflight are reviewed in this paper. The topics covered include psychosocial and neurobehavioural aspects, neurocognitive testing tools, decision making, autonomy and delayed communications, well being, mental health, situational awareness, and methodology. Authors were members of a European Space Agency (ESA) Research Topical Team on Psychosocial and Behavioral Aspects of Human Spaceflight. They discuss the different topics under a common perspective of a theoretical and practical framework, showing interactions, relationships and possible solutions for the different aspects and variables in play. Recommendations for every topic are offered and summarized for future research in the field. The different proposed research ideas can be accomplished using analogs and simulation experiments, short- and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight microgravity studies. These topics are especially important for future Moon and Mars mission design and training.

  8. Face cognition in humans: Psychophysiological, developmental, and cross-cultural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernorizov A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigators are finding increasing evidence for cross-cultural specificity in face cognition along with individual characteristics. The functions on which face cognition is based not only are types of general cognitive functions (perception, memory but are elements of specific mental processes. Face perception, memorization, correct recognition of faces, and understanding the information that faces provide are essential skills for humans as a social species and can be considered as facets of social (cultural intelligence. Face cognition is a difficult, multifaceted set of processes. The systems and processes involved in perceiving and recognizing faces are captured by several models focusing on the pertinent functions or including the presumably underlying neuroanatomical substrates. Thus, the study of face-cognition mechanisms is a cross-disciplinary topic. In Russia, Germany, and China there are plans to organize an interdisciplinary crosscultural study of face cognition. The first step of this scientific interaction is conducting psychological and psychophysiological studies of face cognition in multinational Russia within the frame of a grant supported by the Russian Science Foundation and devoted to “cross-cultural tolerance”. For that reason and in the presence of the huge diversity of data concerning face cognition, we suggest for discussion, specifically within the psychological scientific community, three aspects of face cognition: (1 psychophysiological (quantitative data, (2 developmental (qualitative data from developmental psychology, and (3 cross-cultural (qualitative data from cross-cultural studies. These three aspects reflect the different levels of investigations and constitute a comprehensive, multilateral approach to the problem. Unfortunately, as a rule, neuropsychological and psychological investigations are carried out independently of each other. However, for the purposes of our overview here, we assume that the

  9. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the

  10. Human factor engineering analysis for computerized human machine interface design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhifang; Gu Pengfei; Zhang Jianbo

    2010-01-01

    The application of digital I and C technology in nuclear power plants is a significant improvement in terms of functional performances and flexibility, and it also poses a challenge to operation safety. Most of the new NPPs under construction are adopting advanced control room design which utilizes the computerized human machine interface (HMI) as the main operating means. Thus, it greatly changes the way the operators interact with the plant. This paper introduces the main challenges brought out by computerized technology on the human factor engineering aspect and addresses the main issues to be dealt with in the computerized HMI design process. Based on a operator task-resources-cognitive model, it states that the root cause of human errors is the mismatch between resources demand and their supply. And a task-oriented HMI design principle is discussed. (authors)

  11. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  12. Human reliability and human factors in complex organizations: epistemological and critical analysis - practical avenues to action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, A.

    1991-08-01

    This article starts out with comment on the existence of persistent problems inherent to probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). It first surveys existing American documents on the subject which make a certain number of criticisms on human reliability analyses, e.g. limitations due to the scant quantities of data available, lack of a basic theoretical model, non-reproducibility of analyses, etc. The article therefore examines and criticizes the epistemological bases of these analyses. One of the fundamental points stressed is that human reliability analyses do not take account of all the special features of the work situation which result in human error (so as to draw up statistical data from a sufficiently representative number of cases), and consequently lose all notion of the 'relationships' between human errors and the different aspects of the working environment. The other key points of criticism concern the collective nature of work which is not taken into account, and the frequent confusion between what operatives actually do and their formally prescribed job-tasks. The article proposes aspects to be given thought in order to overcome these difficulties, e.g. quantitative assessment of the social environment within a company, non-linear model for assessment of the accident rate, analysis of stress levels in staff on off-shore platforms. The method approaches used in these three studies are of the same type, and could be transposed to human-reliability problems. The article then goes into greater depth on thinking aimed at developing a 'positive' view of the human factor (and not just a 'negative' one, i.e. centred on human errors and organizational malfunctions), applying investigation methods developed in the occupational human sciences (occupational psychodynamics, ergonomics, occupational sociology). The importance of operatives working as actors of a team is stressed

  13. A development of the Human Factors Assessment Guide for the Study of Erroneous Human Behaviors in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yeon Ju; Lee, Yong Hee; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Sa Kil

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a human factors assessment guide for the study of the erroneous characteristic of operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We think there are still remaining the human factors issues such as an uneasy emotion, fatigue and stress, varying mental workload situation by digital environment, and various new type of unsafe response to digital interface for better decisions, although introducing an advanced main control room. These human factors issues may not be resolved through the current human reliability assessment which evaluates the total probability of a human error occurring throughout the completion of a specific task. This paper provides an assessment guide for the human factors issues a set of experimental methodology, and presents an assessment case of measurement and analysis especially from neuro physiology approach. It would be the most objective psycho-physiological research technique on human performance for a qualitative analysis considering the safety aspects. This paper can be trial to experimental assessment of erroneous behaviors and their influencing factors, and it can be used as an index for recognition and a method to apply human factors engineering V and V, which is required as a mandatory element of human factor engineering program plan for a NPP design

  14. A development of the Human Factors Assessment Guide for the Study of Erroneous Human Behaviors in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yeon Ju; Lee, Yong Hee; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Sa Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe a human factors assessment guide for the study of the erroneous characteristic of operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We think there are still remaining the human factors issues such as an uneasy emotion, fatigue and stress, varying mental workload situation by digital environment, and various new type of unsafe response to digital interface for better decisions, although introducing an advanced main control room. These human factors issues may not be resolved through the current human reliability assessment which evaluates the total probability of a human error occurring throughout the completion of a specific task. This paper provides an assessment guide for the human factors issues a set of experimental methodology, and presents an assessment case of measurement and analysis especially from neuro physiology approach. It would be the most objective psycho-physiological research technique on human performance for a qualitative analysis considering the safety aspects. This paper can be trial to experimental assessment of erroneous behaviors and their influencing factors, and it can be used as an index for recognition and a method to apply human factors engineering V and V, which is required as a mandatory element of human factor engineering program plan for a NPP design.

  15. Neuropsychological Aspects Observed in a Nuclear Plant Simulator and its Relation with Human Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, E.A.P. do; Martins, M.; Pinheiro, A.; Silveira, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper will discuss preliminary results of an evaluation methodology for the analysis and quantification of errors in manual (human) operation by training cognitive parameters and skill levels in the complex control system operation using Neuropsychophysiology and Neuro feedback equipment. The research was conducted using a game (nuclear power plant simulator) that simulates concepts of operation of a nuclear plant with a split sample evaluating aspects of learning and knowledge in the nuclear area. Operators were monitored using biomarkers (ECG, EEG, GSR, face detection and eye tracking) and the results were analyzed by Statistical multivariate techniques. An important component in the evaluation of complex systems is the human reliability during operation. Human reliability refers to the probability of the human element perform the tasks scheduled during the defined period for system operation when tested under specified environmental conditions, and additionally not to take any action detrimental to system operation.

  16. Implementation of VGB recommendations for optimisation of the VGB Human Factors System, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepner, H.

    1999-01-01

    A major objective of the review and adjustment activities was to incorporate a more holistic approach in the VGB Human Factors System for optimisation of the man-machine interface, so as to take into account in addition to ergonomic and work flow aspects all other competences in an NPP with an influence on the human performance, frequency of occurrence, or probability of occurrence, of human errors in operation. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Scale for positive aspects of caregiving experience: development, reliability, and factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, N; Grover, S; Kulhara, P; Nehra, R

    2012-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To develop an instrument (Scale for Positive Aspects of Caregiving Experience [SPACE]) that evaluates positive caregiving experience and assess its psychometric properties. METHODS. Available scales which assess some aspects of positive caregiving experience were reviewed and a 50-item questionnaire with a 5-point rating was constructed. In all, 203 primary caregivers of patients with severe mental disorders were asked to complete the questionnaire. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, cross-language reliability, split-half reliability, and face validity were evaluated. Principal component factor analysis was run to assess the factorial validity of the scale. RESULTS. The scale developed as part of the study was found to have good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, cross-language reliability, split-half reliability, and face validity. Principal component factor analysis yielded a 4-factor structure, which also had good test-retest reliability and cross-language reliability. There was a strong correlation between the 4 factors obtained. CONCLUSION. The SPACE developed as part of this study has good psychometric properties.

  18. Psychological aspects of human cloning and genetic manipulation: the identity and uniqueness of human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, N M

    2009-01-01

    Human cloning has become one of the most controversial debates about reproduction in Western civilization. Human cloning represents asexual reproduction, but the critics of human cloning argue that the result of cloning is not a new individual who is genetically unique. There is also awareness in the scientific community, including the medical community, that human cloning and the creation of clones are inevitable. Psychology and other social sciences, together with the natural sciences, will need to find ways to help the healthcare system, to be prepared to face the new challenges introduced by the techniques of human cloning. One of those challenges is to help the healthcare system to find specific standards of behaviour that could be used to help potential parents to interact properly with cloned babies or children created through genetic manipulation. In this paper, the concepts of personality, identity and uniqueness are discussed in relationship to the contribution of twin studies in these areas. The author argues that an individual created by human cloning techniques or any other type of genetic manipulation will not show the donor's characteristics to the extent of compromising uniqueness. Therefore, claims to such an effect are needlessly alarmist.

  19. Human Factors in Accidents Involving Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines human factors that contribute to RPA mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. RPA accident data from U.S. military and government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to identify human factors issues. Common contributors to RPA mishaps fell into several major categories: cognitive factors (pilot workload), physiological factors (fatigue and stress), environmental factors (situational awareness), staffing factors (training and crew coordination), and design factors (human machine interface).

  20. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Bohr, E.

    1976-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is a first attempt to give a survey of the kind of literature which is relevant for the ergonomic working conditions in nuclear power plants. Such a survey seems to be useful in view of the fact that the 'factor human being' comes recently more and more to the fore in nuclear power plants. In this context, the necessity is often pointed out to systematically include our knowledge of the performance capacity and limits of human beings when designing the working conditions for the personnel of nuclear power plants. For this reason, the bibliography is so much intended for the ergonomics experts as for the experts of nuclear engineering. (orig./LN) [de

  1. Human factors in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Z.A.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    An extensive effort is being devoted to developing a comprehensive human factor program that encompasses establishment of a data base for human error prediction using past operation experience in commercial nuclear power plants. Some of the main results of such an effort are reported including data retrieval and classification systems which have been developed to assist in estimation of operator error rates. Also, statistical methods are developed to relate operator error data to reactor type, age, and specific technical design features. Results reported in this paper are based on an analysis of LER's covering a six-year period for LWR's. Developments presently include a computer data management program, statistical model, and detailed error taxonomy

  2. Risky business: human factors in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laussen, Peter C; Allan, Catherine K; Larovere, Joan M

    2011-07-01

    Remarkable achievements have occurred in pediatric cardiac critical care over the past two decades. The specialty has become well defined and extremely resource intense. A great deal of focus has been centered on optimizing patient outcomes, particularly mortality and early morbidity, and this has been achieved through a focused and multidisciplinary approach to management. Delivering high-quality and safe care is our goal, and during the Risky Business symposium and simulation sessions at the Eighth International Conference of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society in Miami, December 2010, human factors, systems analysis, team training, and lessons learned from malpractice claims were presented.

  3. Diabetes technology and the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, A; Buckingham, B; Phillip, M

    2011-02-01

    When developing new technologies for human use the developer should take into consideration not only the efficacy and safety of the technology but also the desire and capabilities of the potential user. Any chronic disease is a challenge for both the patient and his/her caregivers. This statement is especially true in the case of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) where adherence to therapy is crucial 24 hours a day 365 days a year. No vacation days are possible for the T1DM patient. It is therefore obvious why any new technology which is developed for helping patients cope with the disease should take into consideration the 'human factor' before, during and after the production process starts. There is no doubt that technology has changed the life of patients with T1DM in the last few decades, but despite the availability of new meters, new syringes, new sophisticated insulin pumps and continuous glucose sensors and communication tools, these technologies have not been well utilised by many patients. It is therefore important to understand why the technology is not always utilised and to find new ways to maximise use and benefits from the technology to as many patients as possible. The present chapter will review papers published in the last year where the patient's ability or willingness was an important factor in the success of the technology. We will try to understand why insulin pumps, glucose sensors and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) are not used enough or appropriately, whether there is a specific group that finds it more difficult than others to adopt new technologies and what can be done to overcome that issue. For this chapter we chose articles from a Public Medicine review of the literature related to human factors affecting the outcome of studies and of user acceptance of continuous glucose monitoring, insulin infusion pump therapy. We also searched the literature in the field of psychology in order to accurately define the problems

  4. Review of EPRI Nuclear Human Factors Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, L.F.; O'Brien, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Human Factors Program, which is part of the EPRI Nuclear Power Group, was established in 1975. Over the years, the Program has changed emphasis based on the shifting priorities and needs of the commercial nuclear power industry. The Program has produced many important products that provide significant safety and economic benefits for EPRI member utilities. This presentation will provide a brief history of the Program and products. Current projects and products that have been released recently will be mentioned

  5. Applications of human factors engineering in the digital HMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bingjian

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent and minimize human errors in the digital main control room, the principles of human factors engineering must be complied strictly in the design process of digital human-machine interface. This paper briefly describes the basic human factors engineering principles of designing main control room, introduces the main steps to implement the human factors engineering verification and validation of main control room, including HSI task support verification, human factors engineering design verification and integrated system validation. Meanwhile, according to the new digital human-machine interface characteristics, the development models of human error are analyzed. (author)

  6. HLA-G in human reproduction: aspects of genetics, function and pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2006-01-01

    The non-classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib genes, HLA-E, -G and -F, are located on chromosome 6 in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC). HLA class Ib antigens resemble the HLA class Ia antigens in many ways, but several major differences have been described. This review will, in particular, discuss HLA-G and its role in human reproduction and in the human MHC. HLA-G seems to be important in the modulation of the maternal immune system during pregnancy and thereby the maternal acceptance of the semiallogenic fetus. Recent findings regarding aspects of HLA-G polymorphism, the possible significance of this polymorphism in respect to HLA-G function and certain complications of pregnancy (such as pre-eclampsia and recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA)) are discussed together with possible importance to IVF. Finally, aspects of a possible role of HLA-G in organ transplantation and in inflammatory or autoimmune disease, and of HLA-G in an evolutionary context, are also briefly examined.

  7. Perceived participation and autonomy: aspects of functioning and contextual factors predicting participation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahpour, Mandana; Tham, Kerstin; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Jonsson, Hans

    2011-04-01

    To describe perceived participation and autonomy among a sample of persons with stroke in Iran and to identify different aspects of functioning and contextual factors predicting participation after stroke. A cross-sectional study. A total of 102 persons, between 27 and 75 years of age, diagnosed with first-ever stroke. Participants were assessed for different aspects of functioning, contextual factors and health conditions. Participation was assessed using the Persian version of the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire. This study demonstrated that the majority of the study population perceived their participation and autonomy to be good to fair in the different domains of their participation, but not with respect to the autonomy outdoors domain. In addition, physical function was found to be the most important variable predicting performance-based participation, whereas mood state was the most important variable predicting social-based participation. The results emphasize the importance of physical function, mood state and access to caregiving services as predictors of participation in everyday life after stroke. Whilst there are two dimensions of participation in this Persian sample of persons with stroke, the factors explaining participation seem to be the same across the cultures.

  8. [Interaction of human factor X with thromboplastin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, S V; Zubairov, D M; Timarbaev, V N

    2003-01-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled human factor X to native and papaine-treated tissue tromboplastin in the presence of CaCl2 or EDTA was studied. The Scatchard analysis suggests the existence of high (Kd=l,8 x10(-9) M) and low affinity binding sites on the thromboplastin surface. The removal of Ca2+ reduced affinity of factor X to the high affinity sites. This was accompanied by some increase of their number. Proteolysis by papaine decreased affinity of high affinity sites and caused the increase of their number in the presence of Ca2+. In the absence of Ca2+ the affinity remained unchanged, but the number of sites decreased. At low concentrations of factor X positive cooperativity for high affinity binding sites was observed. It did not depend on the presence of Ca2+. The results indirectly confirm the role of hydrophobic interactons in Ca2+ dependent binding of factor X to thromboplastin and the fact that heterogeneity of this binding is determined by mesophase structure of the thromboplastin phospholipids.

  9. A review of the models for evaluating organizational factors in human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves da; Melo, Paulo Fernando Ferreira Frutuoso e

    2009-01-01

    Human factors should be evaluated in three hierarchical levels. The first level should concern the cognitive behavior of human beings during the control of processes that occur through the man-machine interface. Here, one evaluates human errors through human reliability models of first and second generation, like THERP, ASEP and HCR (first generation) and ATHEANA and CREAM (second generation). In the second level, the focus is in the cognitive behavior of human beings when they work in groups, as in nuclear power plants. The focus here is in the anthropological aspects that govern the interaction among human beings. In the third level, one is interested in the influence that the organizational culture exerts on human beings as well as on the tasks being performed. Here, one adds to the factors of the second level the economical and political aspects that shape the company organizational culture. Nowadays, the methodologies of HRA incorporate organizational factors in the group and organization levels through performance shaping factors. This work makes a critical evaluation of the deficiencies concerning human factors and evaluates the potential of quantitative techniques that have been proposed in the last decade to model organizational factors, including the interaction among groups, with the intention of eliminating this chronic deficiency of HRA models. Two important techniques will be discussed in this context: STAMP, based on system theory and FRAM, which aims at modeling the nonlinearities of socio-technical systems. (author)

  10. A review of the models for evaluating organizational factors in human reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: bayout@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.br; Melo, Paulo Fernando Ferreira Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear], e-mail: frutuoso@con.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    Human factors should be evaluated in three hierarchical levels. The first level should concern the cognitive behavior of human beings during the control of processes that occur through the man-machine interface. Here, one evaluates human errors through human reliability models of first and second generation, like THERP, ASEP and HCR (first generation) and ATHEANA and CREAM (second generation). In the second level, the focus is in the cognitive behavior of human beings when they work in groups, as in nuclear power plants. The focus here is in the anthropological aspects that govern the interaction among human beings. In the third level, one is interested in the influence that the organizational culture exerts on human beings as well as on the tasks being performed. Here, one adds to the factors of the second level the economical and political aspects that shape the company organizational culture. Nowadays, the methodologies of HRA incorporate organizational factors in the group and organization levels through performance shaping factors. This work makes a critical evaluation of the deficiencies concerning human factors and evaluates the potential of quantitative techniques that have been proposed in the last decade to model organizational factors, including the interaction among groups, with the intention of eliminating this chronic deficiency of HRA models. Two important techniques will be discussed in this context: STAMP, based on system theory and FRAM, which aims at modeling the nonlinearities of socio-technical systems. (author)

  11. Environmental factors in causing human cancers: emphasis on tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankpal, Umesh T; Pius, Hima; Khan, Moeez; Shukoor, Mohammed I; Maliakal, Pius; Lee, Chris M; Abdelrahim, Maen; Connelly, Sarah F; Basha, Riyaz

    2012-10-01

    The environment and dietary factors play an essential role in the etiology of cancer. Environmental component is implicated in ~80 % of all cancers; however, the causes for certain cancers are still unknown. The potential players associated with various cancers include chemicals, heavy metals, diet, radiation, and smoking. Lifestyle habits such as smoking and alcohol consumption, exposure to certain chemicals (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorines), metals and pesticides also pose risk in causing human cancers. Several studies indicated a strong association of lung cancer with the exposure to tobacco products and asbestos. The contribution of excessive sunlight, radiation, occupational exposure (e.g., painting, coal, and certain metals) is also well established in cancer. Smoking, excessive alcohol intake, consumption of an unhealthy diet, and lack of physical activity can act as risk factors for cancer and also impact the prognosis. Even though the environmental disposition is linked to cancer, the level and duration of carcinogen-exposure and associated cellular and biochemical aspects determine the actual risk. Modulations in metabolism and DNA adduct formation are considered central mechanisms in environmental carcinogenesis. This review describes the major environmental contributors in causing cancer with an emphasis on molecular aspects associated with environmental disposition in carcinogenesis.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE EU CONTEXT. ASPECTS OF EVALUATION AND DIMENSIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Negrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential of any organization depends, firstly, on its human potential. Human resource, especially through managerial activity, augments the material and financial potential of any organization. On the other hand, the public administration in Romania and elsewhere has been and is subject to numerous criticisms concerning the functioning and quality of its provided services. The conducted research is characterized by a sequential approach. It begins by establishing the research goals, after that continues with establishing the research methodology, conducting effective research, presentation of the results representing the final stage of the paper. The overall objective of the conducted research is substantiating the importance of evaluation of human resources in public administration. Fulfilling this objective is done by pursuing and achieving the following general objectives: approaches to human resource management in public administration; highlighting the main aspects specific to the new public management (NPM; the new public management reform areas; corruption in public administration; conceptual approach in terms of performance and evaluation of human resources; performance measurement in public administration in Romania; basically a study showing the importance of evaluating human resources. The approach process of the human resources management in the public sector requires a particle analysis framework to be able to highlight the influence that the political side it has on its evolution. Rosembloom (1982 considers that a long time has been pursued an assimilation of values from the private into the public domain in the management process in general and of human resources in particular. In this section we try to present what are the main approaches to human resource management in public administration, focusing on their sizing and performance evaluation in relation to the volume and quality level of activities. We will also highlight

  13. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, E.; Hennig, J.; Preuss, W.; Thau, G.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study on the functions of operating and maintenance personnel in nuclear power plants. Since an effective power plant design must take into systematic account the possibilities and limitations of the human element, the basic aim of the study was to identify what the human operators are required to do and how they achieve it. Information was acquired by direct observation and by interviews as well as by evaluation of written documents (e.g. incident reports, procedures manuals, work regulations) and of working conditions (e.g. equipment and workplace design). A literature search and evaluation carried out within the scope of this study has been published as a separate document. The main part of the report is devoted to discussions and conclusions on selected areas of potential improvements. The topics include control room design, factors of the physical environment including radiation, problems of maintainability, design of written documents, problems in communicating information, design and control of tasks, placement and training. A separate section deals with problems of recording human errors. (orig.) [de

  14. Workforce scheduling: A new model incorporating human factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Othman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The majority of a company’s improvement comes when the right workers with the right skills, behaviors and capacities are deployed appropriately throughout a company. This paper considers a workforce scheduling model including human aspects such as skills, training, workers’ personalities, workers’ breaks and workers’ fatigue and recovery levels. This model helps to minimize the hiring, firing, training and overtime costs, minimize the number of fired workers with high performance, minimize the break time and minimize the average worker’s fatigue level.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this objective, a multi objective mixed integer programming model is developed to determine the amount of hiring, firing, training and overtime for each worker type.Findings: The results indicate that the worker differences should be considered in workforce scheduling to generate realistic plans with minimum costs. This paper also investigates the effects of human fatigue and recovery on the performance of the production systems.Research limitations/implications: In this research, there are some assumptions that might affect the accuracy of the model such as the assumption of certainty of the demand in each period, and the linearity function of Fatigue accumulation and recovery curves. These assumptions can be relaxed in future work.Originality/value: In this research, a new model for integrating workers’ differences with workforce scheduling is proposed. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first time to study the effects of different important human factors such as human personality, skills and fatigue and recovery in the workforce scheduling process. This research shows that considering both technical and human factors together can reduce the costs in manufacturing systems and ensure the safety of the workers.

  15. Ergonomics in nuclear and human factors engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.; Schultheiss, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The work situation including man-machine-relationships in nuclear power plants is described. The overview gives only a compact summary of some important ergonomic parameters, i.e. human body dimension, human load, human characteristics and human knowledge. (DG)

  16. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dziechciaż

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists’ assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  17. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changpeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recognition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantifying the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled: information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  18. Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de

    2002-01-01

    The Final Proceedings for Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting, 7 November 2001 - 9 November 2001 This is an interdisciplinary conference in human factors and ergonomics...

  19. Didactic aspects of cognition of human as a bio-psycho-socio-cultural personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Borys I; Vaskivska, Halyna O; Palamar, Svitlana P

    Modern education, according to leading Ukrainian scientists, requires the development of a new paradigm, which will consider the phenomenon of man holistically. The article describes didactic aspects of cognition of human as a bio-psycho-socio-cultural personality, as social fact, as a phenomenon. For the actualization of the didactic aspects of the problem, the authors used the methods of scientific literature analysis, systemic analysis and generalizations, analysis own practice of didactic and methodological character. Reforming the systems of education and medicine should occur in the context of providing active, creative, productive human life. Practice of system analysis proved that man as a subject of study should be considered as a biological entity, a social being, the bearer of consciousness and culture. A holistic approach to the study of man, viewing him as creatures of the natural (bodily) and social individual (society, culture) and the subject of mental and spiritual (creative and deliberate) activity can reveal its unique originality. The uniqueness of the phenomenon of man as the subject and object of research lies in its indivisibility, which is based on the unity of the laws of nature and society. Therefore, when studying the person should take into account the interests of social and natural Sciences. This once again confirms the idea of the necessity of human studies with the help of a systematic approach, which generates true and holistic view of the person, that involves the development of meta-perception of world and ourselves.

  20. The differential impact of subjective and objective aspects of social engagement on cardiovascular risk factors

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamiya, Yumiko

    2010-11-02

    Abstract Background This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk. Methods Data from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA) were analyzed. The effects of social participation, social ties, marital status, and emotional support on hypertension, obesity, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen were estimated by logistic regression controlling for age, sex, education, physical function, depression, cardiovascular disease, other chronic diseases, physical activity, and smoking. Results Social participation is a consistent predictor of low risk for four risk factors, even after controlling for a wide range of covariates. Being married is associated with lower risk for hypertension. Social ties and emotional support are not significantly associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that participation in social activities has a stronger association with CV risk factors than marital status, social ties or emotional support. Different forms of social engagement may therefore have different implications for the biological risk factors involved.

  1. Cognitive aspects of human motor activity: Contribution of right hemisphere and cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedov A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Concepts of movement and action are not completely synonymous, but what distinguishes one from the other? Movement may be defined as stimulus- driven motor acts, while action implies realization of a specific motor goal, essential for cognitively driven behavior. Although recent clinical and neuroimaging studies have revealed some areas of the brain that mediate cognitive aspects of human motor behavior, the identification of the basic neural circuit underlying the interaction between cognitive and motor functions remains a challenge for neurophysiology and psychology. Objective. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate elementary cognitive aspects of human motor behavior. Design. Twenty healthy right-handed volunteers were asked to perform stimulus-driven and goal-directed movements by clenching the right hand into a fist (7 times. The cognitive component lay in anticipation of simple stimuli signals. In order to disentangle the purely motor component of stimulus-driven movements, we used the event-related (ER paradigm. FMRI was performed on a 3 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Verio MR-scanner with 32-channel head coil. Results. We have shown differences in the localization of brain activity depending on the involvement of cognitive functions. These differences testify to the role of the cerebellum and the right hemisphere in motor cognition. In particular, our results suggest that right associative cortical areas, together with the right posterolateral cerebellum (Crus I and lobule VI and basal ganglia, de ne cognitive control of motor activity, promoting a shift from a stimulus-driven to a goal-directed mode. Conclusion. These results, along with recent data from research on cerebro-cerebellar circuitry, redefine the scope of tasks for exploring the contribution of the cerebellum to diverse aspects of human motor behavior and cognition.

  2. The contributions of human factors and ergonomics to a sustainable minerals industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberry, Tim; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Fuller, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article describes examples of the application of human factors research and development work to a sustainable minerals industry. It begins by outlining human-related aspects of the minerals industry and the key human factors work previously undertaken in this domain. The focus then switches to sustainability in the minerals industry. Sustainability principles are introduced and illustrations provided of how human factors research and development work fits within such a framework. Three case studies of human factors in the minerals industry research are presented and the sustainability implications in each case study are highlighted. Finally, future trends related to human factors work in a sustainable minerals industry are addressed, in particular the opportunities and possible adverse consequences that increasing deployment of mining automation might bring. Minerals industries are a major global activity with significant sustainability implications. Aspects of sustainability in mining are examined using three case studies. These illustrate the contribution of human factors/ergonomics in reducing risks; developing emergency response management systems; and the value of participatory ergonomics in improving the design of mining equipment.

  3. Development of a Field Management Standard for Improving Human Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Young Su; Son, Il Moon; Son, Byung Chang; Kwak, Hyo Yean

    2009-07-01

    This project is to develop a management guideline for improving human performances as a part of the Human Factors Management System of Kori unit 1 which is managing all of human factors items such as man-machine system interfaces, work procedures, work environments, and human reliabilities in nuclear power plants. Human factors engineering includes an human factors suitability analysis and improvement of human works, an analysis of accidents by human error, an improvement of work environment, an establishment of human factors management rules and a development of human resources to manage and perform those things consistently. For assisting these human factors engineering tasks, we developed human factors management guidelines, checklists and work procedures to be used in staffing, qualification, training, and human information requirements and workload. We also provided a software tool for managing the above items. Additionally, contents and an item pool for a human factors qualifying examination and training programs were developed. A procedures improvement and a human factors V and V on the Kori unit 1 have been completed as a part of this project, too

  4. Some aspects of choice of specimen for biomedical trace element research studies in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Kollmer, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to extend the examination of the biological background of human specimens in order to identify their suitability to reflect the desired elemental composition status meaningfully, and to view the analytical aspects to ensure reliability. A few examples, which have shown consistent results of practical value are presented. They include: blood, hair, urine, feces, and milk. The most meaningful analysis can be done in the organs which are damaged if an essential element is not present in a sufficient amount or a harmful element is present at a toxic level. e.g., liver and kidney. 20 references, 2 tables

  5. Aspects of gastrointestinal immunology and nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castello-Branco Luiz RR

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal surfaces have a fundamental participation in many aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection pathogenesis. In Brazilian HIV-1 infected subjects, loss of weight and appetite are among the most debilitating symptoms. In this review we describe a defined mucosal immunogen that has profound but transient effects on HIV viral load, and we suggest that gut associated lymphoid tissue under constant immunostimulation is likely to provide a major contribution to the total levels of HIV. We also show that hypermetabolism appears to play a role in the wasting process in Brazilian patients coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis.

  6. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  7. Human factors and ergonomics for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; Jeffcott, Shelly

    2016-03-01

    In the second paper of this series, we provide a brief overview of the scientific discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). Traditionally the HFE focus in healthcare has been in acute hospital settings which are perceived to exhibit characteristics more similar to other high-risk industries already applying related principles and methods. This paper argues that primary care is an area which could benefit extensively from an HFE approach, specifically in improving the performance and well-being of people and organisations. To this end, we define the purpose of HFE, outline its three specialist sub-domains (physical, cognitive and organisational HFE) and provide examples of guiding HFE principles and practices. Additionally, we describe HFE issues of significance to primary care education, improvement and research and outline early plans for building capacity and capability in this setting.

  8. The human factor in maintenance work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, B.

    1996-01-01

    In most of the maintenance works performed at operating plants, the personnel is the warranty for both efficient performance and good quality. To reach the right quality level in performance, the personnel needs adequate tools and of course a maintenance strategy and an organisation that supports the efficient work. The human factor is mostly referred to when something went wrong and analyses are done. There is a great potential of doing preventive analysis. The presentation will focus on experience in this field and what has been done at Barsebaeck NPP to analyse and improve the maintenance work. As maintenance work can't be seen as an isolated area, the rest of the plant organisation is included in the presentation. (author) figs., tabs

  9. Program of organization and human factors in the Juzbado factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukaroff, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The human reliability is taking more and more importance and relevance in organizations with high safety requirements. The reason is very simple: as technological aspects are evolving and their failures are lower, the organizational aspects (leader hip, resources, training, organization chart, communications, identification and external resolution of problems, influences, etc.) and human (knowledge, skills, attitudes, motivation, performances, etc.) are taking more relevance. Two are the causes: the management are complex and the impact with the technological aspects as well as in the operative results. (Author)

  10. Dosimetry of hands and human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harr, R.

    2008-12-01

    The human factor in facilities where open radioactive sources are managed it can be controlled through the use of the ring dosimetry, however, that these devices only provide qualitative information that is not extrapolated to legislative limits. lt is present the case analysis of hands dosimetry of female person with responsibility for professional standards and a very high profile with ratings that allow her to have a high level of knowledge of the basic standards, and because with an attitude and a culture rooted of radiation protection, among other qualities. Their records reveal a trend in which monthly doses are below the 7 mSv, and only occasionally are between 7 and 12 mSv per month and hand. The other case correspond to a technician, trained in radiological techniques, also with a high profile, with two courses for occupationally exposed personnel more than 10 annual retraining, and work experience of over 10 years as occupationally exposed personnel, in which knowledge of standards and because of the entrenched culture of radiation protection and their interest degree in the care of their exposure is still in a phase half, in this case also shows a trend in the monthly dose where found registers between 7 and 11 mSv per month and hand. The third case is of a second technician with less experience and most basic knowledge, his dose register not show a real trend, sometimes be found reads of irregular values as if the dosimeter is not used and some other times as if misused by exposing to purpose (was observed at least one reading above the monthly 30 mSv). By way of conclusion, it is noted that the hands dosimetry is a useful tool to monitor transactions through the data compilation susceptible to analysis with variations which can be placed in the context of the human factor. (Author)

  11. A critical perspective on early communications concerning human health aspects of microplastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Sinja; Carney Almroth, Bethanie; Hartmann, Nanna B.

    2018-01-01

    exposure. We risk pulling the focus away from the root of the problem: the way in which we consume, use and dispose of plastics leading to their widespread presence in our everyday life and in the environment. Therefore we urge for a more careful and balanced discussion which includes these aspects.......Microplastic research in recent years has shown that small plastic particles are found almost everywhere we look. Besides aquatic and terrestrial environments, this also includes aquatic species intended for human consumption and several studies have reported their prevalence in other food products...... in certain products. While plastics can undoubtedly be hazardous to human health due to toxicity of associated chemicals or as a consequence of particle toxicity, the extent to which microplastics in individual food products and beverages contribute to this is debatable. Considering the enormous use...

  12. HLA-G in human reproduktion: aspects of genetics, function, and pregnancy complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, TVF

    2006-01-01

    -G polymorphism, the possible significance of this polymorphism in respect to HLA-G function and certain complications of pregnancy (such as pre-eclampsia and recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA)) are discussed together with possible importance to IVF. Finally, aspects of a possible role of HLA-G in organ...... transplantation and in inflammatory or autoimmune disease, and of HLA-G in an evolutionary context, are also briefly examined......The non-classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib genes, HLA-E, -G and -F, are located on chromosome 6 in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC). HLA class Ib antigens resemble the HLA class Ia antigens in many ways, but several major differences have been described. This review...

  13. A human transcription factor in search mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Kevin; Essuman, Bernard; He, Yiqing; Coutsias, Evangelos; Garcia-Diaz, Miguel; Simmerling, Carlos

    2016-01-08

    Transcription factors (TF) can change shape to bind and recognize DNA, shifting the energy landscape from a weak binding, rapid search mode to a higher affinity recognition mode. However, the mechanism(s) driving this conformational change remains unresolved and in most cases high-resolution structures of the non-specific complexes are unavailable. Here, we investigate the conformational switch of the human mitochondrial transcription termination factor MTERF1, which has a modular, superhelical topology complementary to DNA. Our goal was to characterize the details of the non-specific search mode to complement the crystal structure of the specific binding complex, providing a basis for understanding the recognition mechanism. In the specific complex, MTERF1 binds a significantly distorted and unwound DNA structure, exhibiting a protein conformation incompatible with binding to B-form DNA. In contrast, our simulations of apo MTERF1 revealed significant flexibility, sampling structures with superhelical pitch and radius complementary to the major groove of B-DNA. Docking these structures to B-DNA followed by unrestrained MD simulations led to a stable complex in which MTERF1 was observed to undergo spontaneous diffusion on the DNA. Overall, the data support an MTERF1-DNA binding and recognition mechanism driven by intrinsic dynamics of the MTERF1 superhelical topology. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Human factors paradigm and customer care perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Colin; Eales-Reynolds, Lesley-Jane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine if customer care (CC) can be directly linked to patient safety through a human factors (HF) framework. Data from an online questionnaire, completed by a convenience healthcare worker sample (n=373), was interrogated using thematic analysis within Vincent et al.'s (1998) HF theoretical framework. This proposes seven areas affecting patient safety: institutional context, organisation and management, work environment, team factors, individual, task and patient. Analysis identified responses addressing all framework areas. Responses (597) principally focused on work environment 40.7 per cent (n=243), organisation and management 28.8 per cent (n=172). Nevertheless, reference to other framework areas were clearly visible within the data: teams 10.2 per cent (n=61), individual 6.7 per cent (n=40), patients 6.0 per cent (n=36), tasks 4.2 per cent (n=24) and institution 3.5 per cent (n=21). Findings demonstrate congruence between CC perceptions and patient safety within a HF framework. The questionnaire requested participants to identify barriers to rather than CC enablers. Although this was at a single site complex organisation, it was similar to those throughout the NHS and other international health systems. CC can be viewed as consonant with patient safety rather than the potentially dangerous consumerisation stance, which could ultimately compromise patient safety. This work provides an original perspective on the link between CC and patient safety and has the potential to re-focus healthcare perceptions.

  15. Personal experience with diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of human Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in Três Braços

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D. Marsden

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of human infection with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis found in the littoral forest of the state of Bahia are reviewed. There is pressing need for alternative cheap oral drug therapy.

  16. Human factors in the Canadian nuclear industry: future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.

    2008-01-01

    Currently the industry is facing refurbishment and new builds. At present most licensees in Canada do not have sufficient numbers of Human Factors staff. As a result, the activities of the CNSC are too often focused on providing guidance regarding the application of Human Factors, in addition to reviewing work submitted by the licensee. Greater efficiencies for both the licensee and the CNSC could be realized if licensee staff had greater Human Factors expertise. Strategies for developing Human Factors expertise should be explored through cooperative partnerships with universities, which could be encouraged to include Human Factors courses specific to nuclear. (author)

  17. Erythropoietin Receptor in Human Tumor Cells: Expression and Aspects Regarding Functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); G. Westphal; E. Niederberger; C. Blum; Y. Wollman; W. Rebel; J. Debus; E. Friedrich

    2001-01-01

    textabstractRecombinant human erythropoietin (Epo)and granu l o cy t e - c o l o ny - s t i mulating factor (G-CSF) are used to stimulate hematopoiesis in patients with malignant dise a s e s . These cytokines transduce their biological signal via the Epo receptor (EpoR) and G-CSF receptor (G-CSF-R)

  18. The Study of some nutritional and pharmacological aspects of human radioactive contamination by cesium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.

    1988-04-01

    Foodchains are significant vectors of internal human radioactive contamination. Way of life, especially feeding habits are at present strikingly evolving under the influence of a better knowledge of food requirements and availability, greater use of additives, new technologies, economical, social and psychological factors. As a consequence, Cs and Pu in the diet vary, in spite of their unchanged concentration in the environment. Between source term and effective dose rate, many factors arise that lead to dose factor variability which must be quantified. These considerations should lead to a new optimization of radiological food control [fr

  19. Human factors design review guidelines for advanced nuclear control room technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Brown, W.; Granda, T.; Baker, C.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale, general approach, and initial development of an NRC Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline. 20 refs., 1 fig

  20. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  1. The science of human factors: separating fact from fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Alissa L; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Militello, Laura G; Saleem, Jason J; Wears, Robert L

    2013-10-01

    Interest in human factors has increased across healthcare communities and institutions as the value of human centred design in healthcare becomes increasingly clear. However, as human factors is becoming more prominent, there is growing evidence of confusion about human factors science, both anecdotally and in scientific literature. Some of the misconceptions about human factors may inadvertently create missed opportunities for healthcare improvement. The objective of this article is to describe the scientific discipline of human factors and provide common ground for partnerships between healthcare and human factors communities. The primary goal of human factors science is to promote efficiency, safety and effectiveness by improving the design of technologies, processes and work systems. As described in this article, human factors also provides insight on when training is likely (or unlikely) to be effective for improving patient safety. Finally, we outline human factors specialty areas that may be particularly relevant for improving healthcare delivery and provide examples to demonstrate their value. The human factors concepts presented in this article may foster interdisciplinary collaborations to yield new, sustainable solutions for healthcare quality and patient safety.

  2. Human failure and industrial safety. The human factor in technology and organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmer, N.

    1999-01-01

    Human failure is not the opposite of successful human action gut follows the same principles. The manner in which humans acquire and process information is influenced by cognitive, social and motivational aspects. Further, human failure generally means a failure of the whole system man/technology/organisation. If serious consequences are to be avoided, the logic of failures must be analyzed in the context of this system, and human staff should be trained in managing failures and not just avoiding them [de

  3. Human Factors and Data Fusion as Part of Control Systems Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I. Gertman

    2009-05-01

    Human performance and human decision making is counted upon as a crucial aspect of overall system resilience. Advanced control systems have the potential to provide operators and asset owners a wide range of data, deployed at different levels that can be used to support operator situation awareness. However, the sheer amount of data available can make it challenging for operators to assimilate information and respond appropriately. This paper reviews some of the challenges and issues associated with providing operators with actionable state awareness and argues for the over arching importance of integrating human factors as part of intelligent control systems design and implementation. It is argued that system resilience is improved by implementing human factors in operations and maintenance. This paper also introduces issues associated with resilience and data fusion and highlights areas in which human factors including field studies hold promise.

  4. Human Factors and Robotics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, H. McIlvaine; Kearsley, Greg P.

    The principal human factors engineering issue in robotics is the division of labor between automation (robots) and human beings. This issue reflects a prime human factors engineering consideration in systems design--what equipment should do and what operators and maintainers should do. Understanding of capabilities and limitations of robots and…

  5. Draft revision of human factors guideline HF-010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Jung Woon; Cha, Woo Chang; Lee, Dhong Ha

    2003-05-01

    The Application of Human Factors to the design of Man-Machine Interfaces System(MMIS) in the nuclear power plant is essential to the safety and productivity of the nuclear power plants, human factors standards and guidelines as well as human factors analysis methods and experiments are weightily used to the design application. A Korean engineering company has developed a human factors engineering guideline, so-call HF-010, and has used it for human factors design, however the revision of HF-010 is necessary owing to lack of the contents related to the advanced MMI(Man-Machine Interfaces). As the results of the reviews of HF-010, it is found out that the revision of Section 9. Computer Displays of HF-010 is urgent, thus the revision was drafted on the basis of integrated human factors design guidelines for VDT, human factors design guidelines for PMAS SPADES display, human factors design guidelines for PMAS alarm display, and human factors design guidelines for electronic displays developed by the surveillance and operation support project of KOICS. The draft revision of HF-010 Section 9 proposed in this report can be utilized for the human factors design of the advanced MMI, and the high practical usability of the draft can be kept up through the continuous revision according to the advancement of digital technology

  6. CAPTCHA Based on Human Cognitive Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Jabed Morshed; Chakraborty, Narayan Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    A CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) is an automatic security mechanism used to determine whether the user is a human or a malicious computer program. It is a program that generates and grades tests that are human solvable, but intends to be beyond the capabilities of current computer programs. CAPTCHA should be designed to be very easy for humans but very hard for machines. Unfortunately, the existing CAPTCHA systems while trying to maximize ...

  7. Human factor analysis and preventive countermeasures in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ye

    2010-01-01

    Based on the human error analysis theory and the characteristics of maintenance in a nuclear power plant, human factors of maintenance in NPP are divided into three different areas: human, technology, and organization. Which is defined as individual factors, including psychological factors, physiological characteristics, health status, level of knowledge and interpersonal skills; The technical factors including technology, equipment, tools, working order, etc.; The organizational factors including management, information exchange, education, working environment, team building and leadership management,etc The analysis found that organizational factors can directly or indirectly affect the behavior of staff and technical factors, is the most basic human error factor. Based on this nuclear power plant to reduce human error and measures the response. (authors)

  8. Enhanced Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Toward Definitive Endoderm on Ultrahigh Aspect Ratio Nanopillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Holzmann; Reynolds, Paul M.; Petersen, Dorthe Roenn

    2016-01-01

    highlighted that the properties of the physical environment, such as substrate stiffness, affect cellular behavior. Here, mass-produced, injection molded polycarbonate nanopillars are presented, where the surface mechanical properties, i.e., stiffness, can be controlled by the geometric design...... of the ultrahigh aspect ratio nanopillars (stiffness can be reduced by 25.000X). It is found that tall nanopillars, yielding softer surfaces, significantly enhance the induction of defi nitive endoderm cells from pluripotent human embryonic stem cells, resulting in more consistent differentiation of a pure...... population compared to planar control. By contrast, further differentiation toward the pancreatic endoderm is less successful on “soft” pillars when compared to “stiff ” pillars or control, indicating differential cues during the different stages of differentiation. To accompany the mechanical properties...

  9. LEGAL ISSUES AND ASPECTS RELATED TO THE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT REGARDING THE SELECTION OF CIVIL SERVANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELINDA CENUŞE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Public administration selects its servants exclusively on competence criteria (the so-called merit system. The selection of civil servants is performed by contest, organized within the limit of vacant public positions provided annually for this purpose, by the plan for occupation of public positions. As a general rule, the contest is organized on a quarterly basis. Any individual who meets the general conditions provided by law and the specific conditions established by law for occupying a certain public position may participate at the selection contest organized for the occupation of a public position. Among other aspects, in this study we underline an inconsistency regarding the recruitment defined in the field of Human Resources Management and its definition from The Statute of the Civil Servants.

  10. Safety and efficacy of subretinal visual implants in humans: methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Katarina; Bach, Michael; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Braun, Angelika; Bruckmann, Anna; Gekeler, Florian; Greppmaier, Udo; Hörtdörfer, Gernot; Kusnyerik, Akos; Peters, Tobias; Wilhelm, Barbara; Wilke, Robert; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2013-01-01

    Replacing the function of visual pathway neurons by electronic implants is a novel approach presently explored by various groups in basic research and clinical trials. The novelty raises unexplored methodological aspects of clinical trial design that may require adaptation and validation. We present procedures of efficacy and safety testing for subretinal visual implants in humans, as developed during our pilot trial 2005 to 2009 and multi-centre clinical trial since 2010. Planning such a trial requires appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria. For subretinal electronic visual implants, patients with photoreceptor degeneration are the target patient group, whereas presence of additional diseases affecting clear optic media or the visual pathway must be excluded. Because sham surgery is not possible, a masked study design with implant power ON versus OFF is necessary. Prior to the efficacy testing by psychophysical tests, the implant's technical characteristics have to be controlled via electroretinography (ERG). Moreover the testing methods require adaptation to the particular technology. We recommend standardised tasks first to determine the light perception thresholds, light localisation and movement detection, followed by grating acuity and vision acuity test via Landolt C rings. A laboratory setup for assessing essential activities of daily living is presented. Subjective visual experiences with the implant in a natural environment, as well as questionnaires and psychological counselling are further important aspects. A clinical trial protocol for artificial vision in humans, which leads a patient from blindness to the state of very low vision is a challenge and cannot be defined completely prior to the study. Available tests of visual function may not be sufficiently suited for efficacy testing of artificial vision devices. A protocol based on experience with subretinal visual implants in 22 patients is presented that has been found adequate to monitor

  11. HUMAN POTENTIAL AS A STRATEGIC FACTOR OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Korobeynikov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an insight of human potential as the strategic factor of regional development. The matter of human potential and its role in regional reproducing process is considered; regional intellectual potential as an integral part of human potential is analysed. The author outlines major directions of active social policy, aimed to develop regional human potential.

  12. [Some aspects of animal-to-human approximation of low frequency electromagnetic field exposure conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasin, A L

    2003-01-01

    Appropriateness of representation of a biological object surface as an equipotential surface has been proved for conditions of a quasistatic exposure to EMF of frequencies lower than 1 MHz. The conditions, at which a self capacitance of a biological object is its basic electrical parameter, have been considered. A factor of animal-to-human approximation of low-frequency EMF exposure conditions was estimated on the basis of equal dose loading in biological objects of different geometric sizes.

  13. Study on Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) Quantification Method in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, Inseok Jang; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of HRA implementation is 1) to achieve the human factor engineering (HFE) design goal of providing operator interfaces that will minimize personnel errors and 2) to conduct an integrated activity to support probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For these purposes, various HRA methods have been developed such as technique for human error rate prediction (THERP), simplified plant analysis risk human reliability assessment (SPAR-H), cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. In performing HRA, such conditions that influence human performances have been represented via several context factors called performance shaping factors (PSFs). PSFs are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. Most HRA methods evaluate the weightings of PSFs by expert judgment and explicit guidance for evaluating the weighting is not provided. It has been widely known that the performance of the human operator is one of the critical factors to determine the safe operation of NPPs. HRA methods have been developed to identify the possibility and mechanism of human errors. In performing HRA methods, the effect of PSFs which may increase or decrease human error should be investigated. However, the effect of PSFs were estimated by expert judgment so far. Accordingly, in order to estimate the effect of PSFs objectively, the quantitative framework to estimate PSFs by using PSF profiles is introduced in this paper

  14. Natural selection affects multiple aspects of genetic variation at putatively neutral sites across the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmueller, Kirk E; Albrechtsen, Anders; Li, Yingrui; Kim, Su Yeon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Vinckenbosch, Nicolas; Tian, Geng; Huerta-Sanchez, Emilia; Feder, Alison F; Grarup, Niels; Jørgensen, Torben; Jiang, Tao; Witte, Daniel R; Sandbæk, Annelli; Hellmann, Ines; Lauritzen, Torsten; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Wang, Jun; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-10-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across the human genome. Previous work has documented a reduction in genetic diversity in regions of the genome with low recombination rates. However, it is unclear whether other summaries of genetic variation, like allele frequencies, are also correlated with recombination rate and whether these correlations can be explained solely by negative selection against deleterious mutations or whether positive selection acting on favorable alleles is also required. Here we attempt to address these questions by analyzing three different genome-wide resequencing datasets from European individuals. We document several significant correlations between different genomic features. In particular, we find that average minor allele frequency and diversity are reduced in regions of low recombination and that human diversity, human-chimp divergence, and average minor allele frequency are reduced near genes. Population genetic simulations show that either positive natural selection acting on favorable mutations or negative natural selection acting against deleterious mutations can explain these correlations. However, models with strong positive selection on nonsynonymous mutations and little negative selection predict a stronger negative correlation between neutral diversity and nonsynonymous divergence than observed in the actual data, supporting the importance of negative, rather than positive, selection throughout the genome. Further, we show that the widespread presence of weakly deleterious alleles, rather than a small number of strongly positively selected mutations, is responsible for the correlation between neutral genetic diversity and recombination rate. This work suggests that natural selection has affected multiple aspects of linked neutral variation throughout the human genome and that positive selection is not required to explain these observations.

  15. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  16. Investigation of evaluation methods for human factors education effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Fujimoto, Junzo; Sasou Kunihide; Hasegawa, Naoko

    2004-01-01

    Education effectiveness in accordance with investment is required in the steam of electric power regulation alleviation. Therefore, evaluation methods for human factors education effectiveness which can observe human factors culture pervading process were investigated through research activities on education effectiveness in universities and actual in house education in industry companies. As a result, the contents of evaluation were found to be the change of feeling for human factors and some improving proposals in work places when considering the purpose of human factors education. And, questionnaire is found to be suitable for the style of evaluation. In addition, the timing of evaluation is desirable for both just after education and after some period in work places. Hereafter, data will be collected using these two kinds of questionnaires in human factors education courses in CRIEPI and some education courses in utilities. Thus, education effectiveness evaluation method which is suitable for human factors will be established. (author)

  17. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission human factors program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Human Factors Program Plan is to ensure that proper consideration is given to human factors in the design and operation of nuclear facilities. This revised plan addresses human factors issues related to the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The three issues of concern are (1) the activities planned to provide the technical bases to resolve the remaining tasks related to human factors as described in NUREG-0660, The NRC Action Plan Developed as a Result of the TMI-2 Accident, and NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements; (2) the need to address the additional human factors efforts that were identified during implementation of the Action Plan; and (3) the actual fulfillment of those developmental activities specified in Revision 1 of this plan. The plan represents a systematic approach for addressing high priority human factors concerns important to NPP safety in FY 1986 through 1987

  18. A human factors needs assessment and planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, H.E.; Van Cott, H.P.

    1982-06-01

    A study was done to assess the need for human factors research, development, and regulatory action in the Atomic Energy Control Board. Further study or development in nine human factors areas is proposed. The urgency, schedule, and resources judged to be necessary for the proposed efforts are estimated. Special emphasis is placed on the need for task analysis information, for the evaluation of control room and maintenance human engineering, and for the development of an improved human error reporting system

  19. Discussing the Effective Factors on Maintenance of Human Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Bahare Shahriari

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the author has elaborated on detection of effective factors on maintenance and retention of human resources. Since human resources are the most resources for obtaining competitive advantage, it is essential to pay attention to different dimensions of human resources management. One of these dimensions is retention of human resources. Factors such as providing correct and valid information at the time of recruitment, assigning tasks based on competence, existence of a clear c...

  20. Development of human factors evaluation techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I.S.; Lee, Y.H.; Lee, J.W.; Sim, B.S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes development of an operator task simulation analyzer and human factors evaluation techniques performed recently at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The first is the SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) for the assessment of task performance by simulating control room operation. The latter has two objectives: to establish a human factors experiment facility, the Integrated Test Facility (ITF), and to establish techniques for human factors experiments. (author)

  1. A regulatory perspective on human factors in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper sets out the approaches being taken by the United Kingdom Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) to monitoring the application of human factors principles and practice in the UK industry. The role of NII is outlined, the development of human factors concerns is reviewed, the assessment of the Sizewell 'B' safety case is presented as a particular example, and pertinent future developments in the human factors discipline are proposed. (author)

  2. Importance of human factors on nuclear installations safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Actually, installations safety and, in particular the nuclear installations infer a strong incidence in human factors related to the design and operation of such installations. In general, the experience aims to that the most important accidents have happened as result of the components' failures combination and human failures in the operation of safety systems. Human factors in the nuclear installations may be divided into two areas: economy and human reliability. Human factors treatments for the safety evaluation of the nuclear installations allow to diagnose the weak points of man-machine interaction. (Author) [es

  3. Beijing Lunar Declaration 2010: B) Technology and Resources; Infrastructures and Human Aspects; Moon, Space and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Foing, B. H.; Plescial, J.; Cohen, B.; Blamont, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the Beijing Lunar Declaration endorsed by the delegates of the Global Lunar Conference/11th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, held at Beijing on 30 May- 3 June 2010. Specifically we focus on Part B:Technologies and resources; Infrastructures and human aspects; Moon, Space, Society and Young Explorers. We recommend continued and enhanced development and implementation of sessions about lunar exploration, manned and robotic, at key scientific and engineering meetings. A number of robotic missions to the Moon are now undertaken independently by various nations, with a degree of exchange of information and coordination. That should increase towards real cooperation, still allowing areas of competition for keeping the process active, cost-effective and faster. - Lunar landers, pressurized lunar rover projects as presented from Europe, Asia and America are important steps that can create opportunities for international collaboration, within a coordinated village of robotic precursors and assistants to crew missions. - We have to think about development, modernization of existing navigation capabilities, and provision of lunar positioning, navigation and data relay assets to support future robotic and human exploration. New concepts and new methods for transportation have attracted much attention and are of great potential.

  4. Human resource aspects of antiretroviral treatment delivery models: current practices and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Yibeltal; Van Damme, Wim; Hermann, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF VIEW: To illustrate and critically assess what is currently being published on the human resources for health dimension of antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery models. The use of human resources for health can have an effect on two crucial aspects of successful ART programmes, namely the scale-up capacity and the long-term retention in care. Task shifting as the delegation of tasks from higher qualified to lower qualified cadres has become a widespread practice in ART delivery models in low-income countries in recent years. It is increasingly shown to effectively reduce the workload for scarce medical doctors without compromising the quality of care. At the same time, it becomes clear that task shifting can only be successful when accompanied by intensive training, supervision and support from existing health system structures. Although a number of recent publications have focussed on task shifting in ART delivery models, there is a lack of accessible information on the link between task shifting and patient outcomes. Current ART delivery models do not focus sufficiently on retention in care as arguably one of the most important issues for the long-term success of ART programmes. There is a need for context-specific re-designing of current ART delivery models in order to increase access to ART and improve long-term retention.

  5. Biological aspects of social bonding and the roots of human violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Cort A

    2004-12-01

    The brain systems that motivate humans to form emotional bonds with others probably first evolved to mobilize the high-quality maternal care necessary for reproductive success in placental mammals. In these species, the helplessness of infants at birth and their dependence upon nutrition secreted from their mothers' bodies (milk) and parental body heat to stay warm required the evolution of a new motivational system in the brain to stimulate avid and sustained mothering behavior. Other types of social bonds that emerged subsequently in placental mammals, in particular monogamous bonds between breeding pairs, appear to have evolved from motivational brain systems that stimulate maternal behavior. This chapter focuses on aspects of the evolution and neurobiology of maternal and pair bonding and associated behavioral changes that may provide insights into the origins of human violence. The roles of the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin as well as the neurotransmitter dopamine will be emphasized. Maternal and pair bonding are accompanied by increased aggressiveness toward perceived threats to the object of attachment as well as diminished fear and anxiety in stressful situations. The sustained closeness with mother required for the survival of infant mammals opened a new evolutionary niche in which aspects of the mother's care became increasingly important in regulating development in offspring. The quantity and quality of maternal care received during infancy determines adult social competence, ability to cope with stress, aggressiveness, and even preference for addictive substances. Indeed, the development of neurochemical systems within the brain that regulate mothering, aggression, and other types of social behavior, such as the oxytocin and vasopressin systems, are strongly affected by parental nurturing received during infancy. Evidence will be reviewed that the neural circuitry and neurochemistry implicated in studies of lower mammals also facilitate

  6. Human factors analysis of incident/accident report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Isao

    1992-01-01

    Human factors analysis of accident/incident has different kinds of difficulties in not only technical, but also psychosocial background. This report introduces some experiments of 'Variation diagram method' which is able to extend to operational and managemental factors. (author)

  7. Unified model for the electromechanical coupling factor of orthorhombic piezoelectric rectangular bar with arbitrary aspect ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rouffaud

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric Single Crystals (PSC are increasingly used in the manufacture of ultrasonic transducers and in particular for linear arrays or single element transducers. Among these PSCs, according to their microstructure and poled direction, some exhibit a mm2 symmetry. The analytical expression of the electromechanical coupling coefficient for a vibration mode along the poling direction for piezoelectric rectangular bar resonator is established. It is based on the mode coupling theory and fundamental energy ratio definition of electromechanical coupling coefficients. This unified formula for mm2 symmetry class material is obtained as a function of an aspect ratio (G where the two extreme cases correspond to a thin plate (with a vibration mode characterized by the thickness coupling factor, kt and a thin bar (characterized by k33′. To optimize the k33′ value related to the thin bar design, a rotation of the crystallogaphic axis in the plane orthogonal to the poling direction is done to choose the highest value for PIN-PMN-PT single crystal. Finally, finite element calculations are performed to deduce resonance frequencies and coupling coefficients in a large range of G value to confirm developed analytical relations.

  8. The contributions of human factors on human error in Malaysia aviation maintenance industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padil, H.; Said, M. N.; Azizan, A.

    2018-05-01

    Aviation maintenance is a multitasking activity in which individuals perform varied tasks under constant pressure to meet deadlines as well as challenging work conditions. These situational characteristics combined with human factors can lead to various types of human related errors. The primary objective of this research is to develop a structural relationship model that incorporates human factors, organizational factors, and their impact on human errors in aviation maintenance. Towards that end, a questionnaire was developed which was administered to Malaysian aviation maintenance professionals. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach was used in this study utilizing AMOS software. Results showed that there were a significant relationship of human factors on human errors and were tested in the model. Human factors had a partial effect on organizational factors while organizational factors had a direct and positive impact on human errors. It was also revealed that organizational factors contributed to human errors when coupled with human factors construct. This study has contributed to the advancement of knowledge on human factors effecting safety and has provided guidelines for improving human factors performance relating to aviation maintenance activities and could be used as a reference for improving safety performance in the Malaysian aviation maintenance companies.

  9. The contribution of human factors to risks from radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkin, J.J.; Ridsdale, E.; Wilkinson, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    The use of probabilistic risk assessment to assess the safety of radioactive material transport operations is well accepted. However, quantitative risk assessment of radioactive material transport operations have generally not explicitly considered human factors in estimating risks. Given the high profile of human factors as the root cause of many serious transport incidents omission of an explicit consideration of human factors in a risk assessment could lead to assessments losing credibility. In addition, scrutiny of radioactive material transport incident databases reveals a large number of operational incidents and minor accidents that would have been avoided if more attention had been paid to human factors aspects, and provides examples of instances where improvements have been achieved. This paper examines the areas of radioactive material transport risk assessments (both qualitative and quantitative) which could be strengthened by further examination of the impact of human errors. It is concluded that a more complete and detailed understanding of the effects of human factors on the risks from radioactive material transport operations has been obtained. Quality assurance has a key part to play in ensuring that packages are correctly manufactured and prepared for transport. Risk assessments of radioactive material transport operations can be strengthened by concentrating on the key human factors effects. (authors)

  10. A methodology to incorporate organizational factors into human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengcheng; Chen Guohua; Zhang Li; Xiao Dongsheng

    2010-01-01

    A new holistic methodology for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is proposed to model the effects of the organizational factors on the human reliability. Firstly, a conceptual framework is built, which is used to analyze the causal relationships between the organizational factors and human reliability. Then, the inference model for Human Reliability Analysis is built by combining the conceptual framework with Bayesian networks, which is used to execute the causal inference and diagnostic inference of human reliability. Finally, a case example is presented to demonstrate the specific application of the proposed methodology. The results show that the proposed methodology of combining the conceptual model with Bayesian Networks can not only easily model the causal relationship between organizational factors and human reliability, but in a given context, people can quantitatively measure the human operational reliability, and identify the most likely root causes or the prioritization of root causes caused human error. (authors)

  11. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated...

  12. NAS Human Factors Safety Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts an integrated program of research on the relationship of factors concerning individuals, work groups, and organizations as employees perform...

  13. An improvement of the applicability of human factors guidelines for coping with human factors issues in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lee, J. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Human factors have been well known as one of the key factors to the system effectiveness as well as the efficiency and safety of nuclear power plants(NPPs). Human factors engineering(HFE) are included in periodic safety review(PSR) on the existing NPPs and the formal safety assessment for the new ones. However, HFE for NPPs is still neither popular in practice nor concrete in methodology. Especially, the human factors guidelines, which are the most frequent form of human factors engineering in practice, reveal the limitations in their applications. We discuss the limitations and their casual factors found in human factors guidelines in order to lesson the workload of HFE practitioners and to improve the applicability of human factors guidelines. According to the purposes and the phases of HFE for NPPs, more selective items and specified criteria should be prepared carefully in the human factors guidelines for the each HFE applications in practice. These finding on the human factors guidelines can be transferred to the other HFE application field, such as military, aviation, telecommunication, HCI, and product safety

  14. Research of human factor in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopp, I.

    1983-01-01

    The question is discussed of the study of the human factor with regard to the reliability of nuclear power plant operation. The reliability of the human factor is the result of the functional fitness, motivation, working conditions and working regime of personnel. (J.B.)

  15. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  16. Accounting for human factor in QC and QA inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.

    1986-01-01

    Two types of human error during QC/QA inspection have been identified. The method of accounting for the effects of human error in QC/QA inspections was developed. The result of evaluation of the proportion of discrepant items in the population is affected significantly by human factor

  17. The human factor: enhancing women's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinzor, N

    1995-01-01

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN in 1948, declares that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, and that everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of person. In practice, however, far from everyone has these rights, especially women. Many women worldwide have neither the awareness of nor access to family planning methods with which they could regulate their fertility and childbearing. Thus deprived of their reproductive freedom, these women cannot pursue education, employment, and other life options which would otherwise be readily available to them were they not saddled with poor reproductive health and too many children. Expanded choices enhance the status of women, which in turn helps them to reduce fertility rates and stabilize population growth. The author discusses how the wide range of cultural and social norms, and economic and political systems worldwide make it very difficult and complex to actually implement universal human rights.

  18. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission human-factors program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of the NRC Human Factors Program Plan is to ensure that proper consideration is given to human factors in the design, operation, and maintenance of nuclear facilities. This initial plan addresses nuclear power plants (NPP) and describes (1) the technical assistance and research activities planned to provide the technical bases for the resolution of the remaining human factors related tasks described in NUREG-0660, The NRC Action Plan Developed as a Result of the TMI-2 Accident, and NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements, and (2) the additional human factors efforts identified during implementation of the Action Plan that should receive NRC attention. The plan represents a systematic and comprehensive approach for addressing human factors concerns important to NPP safety in the FY-83 through FY-85 time frame

  19. Research on the NPP human factors engineering operating experience review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiangchen; Miao Hongxing; Ning Zhonghe

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the human factors engineering (HFE) for the design of nuclear power plant (NPP), especially for the design of human-machine interface in the NPP. It also summarizes the scope and content of the NPP HFE. The function, scope, content and process of the NPP human factors engineering operating experience review (OER) are mainly focused on, and significantly discussed. Finally, it briefly introduces the situation of the studies on the OER in China. (authors)

  20. Applying Human Factors during the SIS Life Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, K.

    2010-01-01

    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are widely used in U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nonreactor nuclear facilities for safety-critical applications. Although use of the SIS technology and computer-based digital controls, can improve performance and safety, it potentially introduces additional complexities, such as failure modes that are not readily detectable. Either automated actions or manual (operator) actions may be required to complete the safety instrumented function to place the process in a safe state or mitigate a hazard in response to an alarm or indication. DOE will issue a new standard, Application of Safety Instrumented Systems Used at DOE Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, to provide guidance for the design, procurement, installation, testing, maintenance, operation, and quality assurance of SIS used in safety significant functions at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. The DOE standard focuses on utilizing the process industry consensus standard, American National Standards Institute/ International Society of Automation (ANSI/ISA) 84.00.01, Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector, to support reliable SIS design throughout the DOE complex. SIS design must take into account human-machine interfaces and their limitations and follow good human factors engineering (HFE) practices. HFE encompasses many diverse areas (e.g., information display, user-system interaction, alarm management, operator response, control room design, and system maintainability), which affect all aspects of system development and modification. This paper presents how the HFE processes and principles apply throughout the SIS life cycle to support the design and use of SIS at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities.

  1. Development of Human Factor Management Requirements and Human Error Classification for the Prevention of Railway Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sang Log; Park, Chan Woo; Shin, Seung Ryoung

    2008-08-01

    Railway accident analysis results show that accidents cased by human factors are not decreasing, whereas H/W related accidents are steadily decreasing. For the efficient management of human factors, many expertise on design, conditions, safety culture and staffing are required. But current safety management activities on safety critical works are focused on training, due to the limited resource and information. In order to improve railway safety, human factors management requirements for safety critical worker and human error classification is proposed in this report. For this accident analysis, status of safety measure on human factor, safety management system on safety critical worker, current safety planning is analysis

  2. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to determine the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among blood donors at Bolga-tanga Regional Hospital, Ghana by blood group type, sex and age and also determining the asso-ciation, if any, in the occurrence of the ...

  3. The successful management of programs for human factors certification of advanced aviation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Rod

    1994-01-01

    In recent years there have been immense pressures to enact changes on the air traffic control organizations of most states. In addition, many of these states are or have been subject to great political, sociological and economic changes. Consequently, any new schemes must be considered within the context of national or even international changes. Europe has its own special problems, and many of these are particularly pertinent when considering human factors certification programs. Although these problems must also be considered in the wider context of change, it is usually very difficult to identify which forces are pressing in support of human factors aspects and which forces are resisting change. There are a large number of aspects which must be taken into account if human factors certification programs are to be successfully implemented. Certification programs would be new ventures, and like many new ventures it will be essential to ensure that managers have the skills, commitment and experience to manage the programs effectively. However, they must always be aware of the content and the degree of certainty to which the human factors principles can be applied - as Debons and Horne have carefully described. It will be essential to avoid the well known pitfalls which occur in the implementation of performance appraisal schemes. While most appraisal schemes are usually extremely well thought out, they often do not produce good results because they are not implemented properly and staff therefore do not have faith in them. If the manager does not have the commitment and interest in his/her staff as human beings, then the schemes will not be effective. Thus, one aspect of considering human factors certification schemes is within the context of a managed organization. This paper outlines some of the management factors which need to be considered for the air traffic control services. Many of the points received attention during the plenary sessions while others were

  4. Comparative aspects of animal and human data on somatic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi

    1986-10-01

    This report contains presentations at the 17th Symposium organized by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, which took place in Chiba, Japan, from 11 to 12 December 1985. Unlike in the previous symposiums dealing with cellular and molecular levels, the present symposium discussed somatic effects of ionizing radiation at the organic level in conjunction with epidemiological data. This report is divided into five sections: the first is explanation for UNSCEAR's and ICRP's views of human and animal data in the current assessment of radiation health risks; the second covers comparison of epidemiological and animal experimental data on the dose-effect relationship for carcinogenesis, together with problems in epidemiological and experimental studies; the third discusses significance and problems in animal experiments on modifying factors of radiation carcinogenesis; the fourth deals with studies on carcinogenesis mechanism, aiming at elucidating their significance and potential role in the risk evaluation for humans; and the last section is a compilation of panel discussion of differences in humans and animals, giving a proposal for future research. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Human factors analysis of U.S. Navy afloat mishaps

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Rex D.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of maritime mishaps, which include loss of life as well as environmental and economic considerations, are significant. It has been estimated that over 80percent of maritime accidents areat least partially attributable to human error. Human error has been extensively studied in a number of fields, particularly aviation. The present research involves application of the Human Factors Accident Classification System (HFACS), developed by the Naval Safety Center, to human error causal f...

  6. Human-automation collaboration in manufacturing: identifying key implementation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambous, George; Fletcher, Sarah; Webb, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Human-automation collaboration refers to the concept of human operators and intelligent automation working together interactively within the same workspace without conventional physical separation. This concept has commanded significant attention in manufacturing because of the potential applications, such as the installation of large sub-assemblies. However, the key human factors relevant to human-automation collaboration have not yet been fully investigated. To maximise effective implement...

  7. Different aspects of visual impairment as risk factors for falls and fractures in older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Michiel R; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Lips, Paul; Moll, Annette C; Völker-Dieben, Hennie J; Deeg, Dorly J H; van Rens, Ger H M B

    UNLABELLED: Visual impairment has been implicated as a risk factor for falling and fractures, but results of previous studies have been inconsistent. The relationship between several aspects of vision and falling/fractures were examined in a prospective cohort study in 1,509 older men and women. The

  8. Usability: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2009-01-01

    The Usability project addresses the need for research in the area of metrics and methodologies used in hardware and software usability testing in order to define quantifiable and verifiable usability requirements. A usability test is a human-in-the-loop evaluation where a participant works through a realistic set of representative tasks using the hardware/software under investigation. The purpose of this research is to define metrics and methodologies for measuring and verifying usability in the aerospace domain in accordance with FY09 focus on errors, consistency, and mobility/maneuverability. Usability metrics must be predictive of success with the interfaces, must be easy to obtain and/or calculate, and must meet the intent of current Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Methodologies must work within the constraints of the aerospace domain, be cost and time efficient, and be able to be applied without extensive specialized training.

  9. Preliminary assessment of the gender aspects of disaster vulnerability and loss of human life in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tandlich, Roman; Chirenda, Tatenda G; Srinivas, Chandra S S

    2013-01-01

    South Africa has reached a medium level of human development and has a heterogeneous situation with respect to disaster risk management. In this article, a preliminary assessment of the gender aspects of disaster vulnerability and fatalities is presented. The United Nations, the Health Systems Trust and Statistics South Africa were used as data sources for the following gender-segregated values: the life expectancy at birth, unemployment rates, the human development index values, the maternal...

  10. Human factors and training the partnership agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macris, A.C.; Fleming, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Four fundamental activities directly affect human performance in operating nuclear power plants: Control Room Design Reviews (CRDR's); Operating Procedures; Training Curriculum Materials; Simulator Training. Typically it was believed that multi-disciplined core teams, for each activity, provided an integration of all activities. Representatives of each discipline (CRDR, Engineering, Training, Simulator Project) provided real time inputs during team deliberations. While these inputs affected team decisions, there were no assurances that any functional follow-up would result. Furthermore, no mechanism existed for systematic integration between activities. Now, with a majority of the Control Room Design Reviews complete, plant specific simulators becoming a reality, and the incorporation of Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) and Symptom Based EOP's; the reality is that these activities require more systematic integration than was previously recognized. This paper presents an innovative approach for integrating the above four activities using Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) and computerized Data Base Management (DBM) to synergistically optimize human performance

  11. Human Factors in Web-Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    questions is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle ( MITM ) attacks [113, 144]. Since these attacks exploit similar human tendencies as attacks against...researchers have discovered a “Universal Man-in-the-Middle Phishing Kit” [75], a hacker toolkit which enables a phisher to easily set up a MITM ...the-middle ( MITM ) attacker spoofing the login page of the target Web site [113, 144]. 1 When a user attempts to login 1Challenge questions also have

  12. Human factor in the problem of Russian nuclear industry safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.

    2002-01-01

    The approach to human factor definition, considered in the paper, consists of recognition of as many as possible factors for developing a complete list of factors, which have influence on mistakes or successful work of NPP personnel. Safety culture is considered as the main factor. The enhancement in nuclear power industry includes an optimization of organizational structures and development of personnel safety attitudes. The organizational factors, as possible root causes for human errors, need to be identified, assessed and improved. The organizational activities taken in Russia are presented

  13. Clinicodemographic aspect of resectable pancreatic cancer and prognostic factors for resectable cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Kun-Chun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PCA is one of the most lethal human malignancies, and radical surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment. After resection, the overall 5-year survival rate is only 10% to 29%. At the time of presentation, however, about 40% of patients generally have distant metastases and another 40% are usually diagnosed with locally advanced cancers. The remaining 20% of patients are indicated for surgery on the basis of the results of preoperative imaging studies; however, about half of these patients are found to be unsuitable for resection during surgical exploration. In the current study, we aimed to determine the clinicopathological characteristics that predict the resectability of PCA and to conduct a prognostic analysis of PCA after resection to identify favorable survival factors. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical files of 688 patients (422 men and 266 women who had undergone surgery for histopathologically proven PCA in the Department of Surgery at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan from 1981 to 2006. We compared the clinical characteristics of patients who underwent resection and patients who did not undergo resection in order to identify the predictive factors for successful resectability of PCA, and we conducted prognostic analysis for PCA after resection. Results A carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (CA 19–9 level of 37 U/ml or greater and a tumor size of 3 cm or more independently predicted resectability of PCA. In terms of survival after resection, PCA patients with better nutritional status (measured as having an albumin level greater than 3.5 g/dl, radical resection, early tumor stage and better-differentiated tumors were associated with favorable survival. Conclusions Besides traditional imaging studies, preoperative CA 19–9 levels and tumor size can also be used to determine the resectability of PCA. Better nutritional status, curative resection, early tumor stage and well

  14. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, A.; Valdivia, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. Such a plan should state: -) Activities to be performed, and -) Creation of a Human Factor Engineering team adequately qualified. The Human Factor Engineering team is an integral part of the design team and is strongly linked to the engineering organizations but simultaneously has independence to act and is free to evaluate designs and propose changes in order to enhance human behavior. TECNATOM S.A. (a Spanish company) has been a part of the Design and Human Factor Engineering Team and has collaborated in the design of an advanced Nuclear Power Plant, developing methodologies and further implementing those methodologies in the design of the plant systems through the development of the plant systems operational analysis and of the man-machine interface design. The methodologies developed are made up of the following plans: -) Human Factor Engineering implementation in the Man-Machine Interface design; -) Plant System Functional Requirement Analysis; -) Allocation of Functions to man/machine; -) Task Analysis; -) Human-System Interface design; -) Control Room Verification and -) Validation

  15. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques -The development of human factors technologies-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Seok; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1994-04-01

    In the 2nd year of the research project for the development of human factors evaluation techniques, we first defined the experimental target systems by the comparison study of the advanced control rooms proposed by foreign countries in order to make the experiment feasible and realistic for the 10 experimental items selected in the first year of the project. Then we have decided to confine our research on the big board overview panel and operator workstations. Following the development of selection criteria for our research interest, we have identified the design variables which may influence the performance of the operator by the functional analysis. The experimental variables which will be used for the evaluation of the proposed items are then defined by the relational analysis between evaluation items and design variables and they are classified by the characteristics of the measurement data. The functional requirements of ITF are developed to accommodate the necessary functions for carrying out the 10 evaluation items. The functional requirements for each sub-system of ITF have been developed with the experimental paradigm of APTEA. Finally we have reviewed the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) at KAERI from the point of view of jyman factors guidelines/principles and proposed the two possible layouts for the experimental apparatus for the evaluation of display alternative and operational procedure. (Author)

  16. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  17. Recent technology products from Space Human Factors research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, James P.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Space Human Factors program and the research carried out concerning human factors are discussed with emphasis given to the development of human performance models, data, and tools. The major products from this program are described, which include the Laser Anthropometric Mapping System; a model of the human body for evaluating the kinematics and dynamics of human motion and strength in microgravity environment; an operational experience data base for verifying and validating the data repository of manned space flights; the Operational Experience Database Taxonomy; and a human-computer interaction laboratory whose products are the display softaware and requirements and the guideline documents and standards for applications on human-computer interaction. Special attention is given to the 'Convoltron', a prototype version of a signal processor for synthesizing the head-related transfer functions.

  18. Status of human factors engineering system design in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ives, G.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the European status of human factors engineering has been carried out covering a wide scope of activities which includes psychology, cognitive science, ergonomics, design, training, procedure writing, operating, artificial intelligence and expert systems. There is an increasing awareness of the part that human factors play in major nuclear power plant accidents. The emphasis of attention in human factors is changing. In some areas there are encouraging signs of progress and development, but in other areas there is still scope for improvement

  19. Information Technology: A challenge to the Human Factors Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    In his presidential address at the annual meeting of the Human Factors Society, Julian Christensen urged the members of the society to spread the gospel and to persuade the members of other professional societies such as psychologists,sociologists and engineers to join the Human Factors Society......, the argument being that advanced technology requires a cross-disciplinary approach to human factors problems. In the present note, I would like to support this presidential effort. In fact, I will go further in that direction and argue that the present fast pace of information technology threatens to overrun...

  20. Lessons of TEPCO's Fukushima accident from human and organizational aspects and challenge for nuclear safety reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The author participated in international experts' meeting held by IAEA on May 21, 2013 and presented the paper focusing on human and organizational aspects of the Fukushima nuclear accident. It clarified TEPCO's basic recognition: 'The cause of the accident should not be treated merely as a natural disaster due to an enormous tsunami being something difficult to anticipate and we believe it is necessary to seriously acknowledge the result that TEPCO failed to avoid an accident which might have been avoided if ample preparations had been made in advance with thorough use of human intellect' and then reconsidered the Fukushima nuclear accident: 'could we predict an enormous tsunami and take whatever countermeasures?' and 'could we respond to the accident better?' for the worldwide operators to avoid such an accident, which moved meeting's participants deeply. Presentation's contents followed 'Reassessment of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident and Nuclear Safety Reform Plan' published by TEPCO on March 29. This article described outline of the presentation. Though the only way to explore the possibility to save Unit 1 was that operators could bravely go up to the 4th floor of reactor building and open the isolation valves to start IC, it was given up without any clear communication among key decision makers for confirming the IC operational status. As for Unit 3, operators could not achieve thorough focus on ensuring core cooling such that proactive transfer from RCIC/HPCI to low pressure water injection was not challenged, mainly because of low trust on Diesel/Driven Fire Protection Pump (DDFP). During the design stage and afterward, ample consideration was not given to common cause failures originating in external events, which led to a severe situation where almost all the power supplies and safety system functions were lost. Continuous efforts to reduce risks were not ample, including the collection, analysis and utilization of information on safety enhancement

  1. Endocrine effects of chemicals: aspects of hazard identification and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Colnot, Thomas

    2013-12-16

    Hazard and risk assessment of chemicals with endocrine activity is hotly debated due to claimed non-monotonous dose-response curves in the low-dose region. In hazard identification a clear definition of "endocrine disruptors" (EDs) is required; this should be based on the WHO/IPCS definition of EDs and on adverse effects demonstrated in intact animals or humans. Therefore, endocrine effects are a mode of action potentially resulting in adverse effects; any classification should not be based on a mode of action, but on adverse effects. In addition, when relying on adverse effects, most effects reported in the low-dose region will not qualify for hazard identification since most have little relation to an adverse effect. Non-monotonous dose-response curves that had been postulated from limited, exploratory studies could also not be reproduced in targeted studies with elaborate quality assurance. Therefore, regulatory agencies or advisory bodies continue to apply the safety-factor method or the concept of "margin-of-exposure" based on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) in the risk assessment of chemicals with weak hormonal activity. Consistent with this approach, tolerable levels regarding human exposure have been defined for such chemicals. To conclusively support non-monotonous dose-response curves, targeted experiments with a sufficient number of animals, determination of adverse endpoints, adequate statistics and quality control would be required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Model-based identification and use of task complexity factors of human integrated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Dong-Han; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2012-01-01

    Task complexity is one of the conceptual constructs that are critical to explain and predict human performance in human integrated systems. A basic approach to evaluating the complexity of tasks is to identify task complexity factors and measure them. Although a great deal of task complexity factors have been studied, there is still a lack of conceptual frameworks for identifying and organizing them analytically, which can be generally used irrespective of the types of domains and tasks. This study proposes a model-based approach to identifying and using task complexity factors, which has two facets—the design aspects of a task and complexity dimensions. Three levels of design abstraction, which are functional, behavioral, and structural aspects of a task, characterize the design aspect of a task. The behavioral aspect is further classified into five cognitive processing activity types. The complexity dimensions explain a task complexity from different perspectives, which are size, variety, and order/organization. Twenty-one task complexity factors are identified by the combination of the attributes of each facet. Identification and evaluation of task complexity factors based on this model is believed to give insights for improving the design quality of tasks. This model for complexity factors can also be used as a referential framework for allocating tasks and designing information aids. The proposed approach is applied to procedure-based tasks of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as a case study to demonstrate its use. Last, we compare the proposed approach with other studies and then suggest some future research directions.

  3. Human Factors Regulatory Research Program Plan, FY 1989--FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.; Persensky, J.; Ryan, T.; Ramey-Smith, A.; Goodman, C.; Serig, D.; Trager, E; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC

    1989-10-01

    This report describes the currently ongoing (FY 1989) and planned (FY 1989-1992) Human Factors Regulatory Research Program in the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES). Examples of the influence of human factors on nuclear safety are presented, and the role of personnel is discussed. Current regulatory issues associated with human factors in the nuclear system and the purpose of the research plan are provided. The report describes the research process applied to the human factors research issues and the program activities: Personnel Performance Measurement, Personnel Subsystem, Human-System Interface. Organization and Management, and Reliability Assessment. The research being conducted within each activity is summarized along with the objectives, background information, and expected regulatory products. Budget and personnel forecasts are provided along with a summary of contractors performing some of the ongoing research. Appendices contain a chronology of human factors research at NRC, a description of the research approach, an update on human factors programs and initiatives in RES and other NRC offices, and the integration among these programs. 46 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Supporting analyses of human-system interfaces, procedures and practices, training and organizational practices and policies. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L.

    1995-07-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the second, third, fourth, and fifth phases of the project, which involved detailed analyses of four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training practices and policies; and organizational practices and policies, respectively. Findings based on these analyses provided factual and conceptual support for the final phase of this project, which identified factors leading to human error in RAB. The impact of those factors on RAB performance was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance, and alternative approaches for resolving safety significant problems were identified and evaluated

  5. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Supporting analyses of human-system interfaces, procedures and practices, training and organizational practices and policies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L. [Pacific Science & Engineering Group, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the second, third, fourth, and fifth phases of the project, which involved detailed analyses of four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training practices and policies; and organizational practices and policies, respectively. Findings based on these analyses provided factual and conceptual support for the final phase of this project, which identified factors leading to human error in RAB. The impact of those factors on RAB performance was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance, and alternative approaches for resolving safety significant problems were identified and evaluated.

  6. Human factors in resuscitation: Lessons learned from simulator studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunziker S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical algorithms, technical skills, and repeated training are the classical cornerstones for successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Increasing evidence suggests that human factors, including team interaction, communication, and leadership, also influence the performance of CPR. Guidelines, however, do not yet include these human factors, partly because of the difficulties of their measurement in real-life cardiac arrest. Recently, clinical studies of cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity video-assisted simulations have provided opportunities to better delineate the influence of human factors on resuscitation team performance. This review focuses on evidence from simulator studies that focus on human factors and their influence on the performance of resuscitation teams. Similar to studies in real patients, simulated cardiac arrest scenarios revealed many unnecessary interruptions of CPR as well as significant delays in defibrillation. These studies also showed that human factors play a major role in these shortcomings and that the medical performance depends on the quality of leadership and team-structuring. Moreover, simulated video-taped medical emergencies revealed that a substantial part of information transfer during communication is erroneous. Understanding the impact of human factors on the performance of a complex medical intervention like resuscitation requires detailed, second-by-second, analysis of factors involving the patient, resuscitative equipment such as the defibrillator, and all team members. Thus, high-fidelity simulator studies provide an important research method in this challenging field.

  7. Development and test of a classification scheme for human factors in incident reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.; Freitag, M.; Wilpert, B.

    1997-01-01

    The Research Center System Safety of the Berlin University of Technology conducted a research project on the analysis of Human Factors (HF) aspects in incident reported by German Nuclear Power Plants. Based on psychological theories and empirical studies a classification scheme was developed which permits the identification of human involvement in incidents. The classification scheme was applied in an epidemiological study to a selection of more than 600 HF - relevant incidents. The results allow insights into HF related problem areas. An additional study proved that the application of the classification scheme produces results which are reliable and independent from raters. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  8. [Epidemiologic aspects of 42 cases of human brucellosis in the Republic of Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, G; Prigent, D; Baudet, J M; Banoita, S; Daoud, W

    1997-01-01

    Brucellosis is an ubiquitous anthropozoonoses in the Republic of Djibouti, but it has only been studied in the City of Djibouti. This retrospective study of 42 cases of human brucellosis diagnosed between April 1993 and April 1995 was carried out at the Peltier Hospital in Djibouti to obtain epidemiological data concerning brucellosis in the Republic of Djibouti. Diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and positive immunologic tests (Rose Bengal test > 100 UI and Wright serology > 1/80). The following information was obtained for each patient: nationality, ethnic origin, place of residence, age, sex, and risk factors for exposure to infected animals or products. There were 30 men and 12 women including 38 Djiboutis, 3 Somalis, and 1 Ethiopian. Ethnic origin was Afar in 32 cases, Somali in 6 cases, and undetermined in 4 cases. Mean age was 31.6 years. Of the 38 Djiboutis, 15 lived in the district of Djibouti, 17 in the district of Tadjourah, 3 in the district of Obock, and none in districts located in the Southern part of the country. In 18 cases brucellosis involved cattle raisers from the Northern part of the country. In five cases no risk factor could be identified. The incidence of brucellosis in the Republic of Djibouti appears to be comparable to that observed in other highly endemic countries. Further study is needed to determine the exact incidence in man and animals and ascertain the need and feasibility of preventive measures.

  9. [Molecular aspects of human papillomaviruses and their relation to uterine cervix cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carrancá, A; Gariglio, P V

    1993-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (wart viruses) are responsible for the development of benign and malignant epithelial lesions in mammals. More than 60 different types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been isolated to date. Some of them are major candidates as etiologic agents in cervical cancer. DNA from HPV types 16, 18 and 33 is usually found integrated in about 90 percent of genital carcinomas. Integration of the viral DNA into the cellular genome may be an important step towards the development of malignancy. Two early genes of HPVs (E6 y E7) are involved in cellular transformation. Another early gene (E2) participates in gene control by directly binding to conserved DNA motifs in the viral genome. Several protein factors of viral and cellular origin interact with the regulatory region of HPVs and participate in the regulation transcription of oncogenes E6 and E7. Cellular factors, such as immune system and oncogene and anti-oncogene alterations, seem to play an important role in papillomavirus-associated cervical carcinogenesis.

  10. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I ampersand C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I ampersand C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I ampersand C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I ampersand C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab

  11. Human Factors Science: Brief History and Applications to Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah Henrickson

    2015-12-01

    This section will define the science of human factors, its origins, its impact on safety in other domains, and its impact and potential for impact on patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. FAA airborne data link human factors research plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This report contains a five-year plan to perform research of human factors issues and topics : related to Data Link implementations in general aviation and transport category aircraft. : Elements such as resource allocation and management and coordin...

  13. Factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Deemter, Marielle; Bank, Ruud A.; Vehof, Jelle; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    Purpose: To explore factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous. Methods: Vitreous samples were obtained during trans pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Patient characteristics included age, gender, and diabetes mellitus. Ocular

  14. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Genital human papilloma virus, Pap smear, Risk factors. Access this article online .... their Pap smears taken and questionnaires on sexual attitudes, .... the high‑risk types, which mediate the response of the enhancer to steroid ...

  15. Traditional Values, Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Values, Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Resource Management Practices in ... Ghanaian worker in general and the HR manager in particular is influenced ... face -to-face interview methods were used to obtain information for the study.

  16. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume 2. Human factors survey of control room design practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1979-11-01

    An earlier review of the control rooms of operating nuclear power plants identified many design problems having potential for degrading operator performance. As a result, the formal application of human factors principles was found to be needed. This report demonstrates the use of human factors in the design of power plant control rooms. The approaches shown in the report can be applied to operating power plants, as well as to those in the design stage. This study documents human factors techniques required to provide a sustained concern for the man-machine interface from control room concept definition to system implementation

  17. Human factor as nuclear safety element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.C.; Preda, M.; Valeca, M.; Ana, E. M.; Popescu, D.

    2008-01-01

    National nuclear power system is based on western technology, it covers almost 20% from national need and could be briefly described by: - Safety and economic performances of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1; - Reduced influence on environment, population and workers; - Excellent ranking (place 4) among CANDU units from all over the world. Also, the national nuclear power system plays a major role in Romanian power policy accomplishment: - Energy safety and independence assurance; - Decrease of production of greenhouse effect gases; - Preserve the stability and adequacy of energy cost. 'Nuclear Safety' concept covers all the activities resulting from nuclear fuel cycle. By taking into account the international experience, the related activities are estimated to last around 70 years in Romania: - 10 years for site description and selection, design, manufacturing and commissioning activities; - 40 years for Nuclear Power Plant operation, maintenance and modernization activities; - 20 years for preservation and decommissioning activities. The above mentioned activities requires human resources, qualified and specialized in the following areas: - research and development; - equipment design, manufacturing and operation; - components construction and assembly, operation and maintenance. (authors)

  18. Human capital – investing in man (intangible development factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Ziejewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue considered in the paper is a man, and his place and role in the work environment in the knowledge driven development. The author emphasises the significance of the human factor and analyses related terms against the background of the contemporary social economics. The human capital as a development factor is a modern strategy for achieving competitive advantages on the market.

  19. A report on human factors in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Following the Three Mile Island incident of 1979, studies were undertaken by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), in-house and through outside consultants, to address the role of human factors in the regulatory process. This report by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) comments briefly on these studies and offers suggestions which would promote a more formal treatment of human factors by the AECB

  20. Human factors at the Department of Energy National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, D.J.; Waters, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    After World War II, a system of national laboratories was created to foster a suitable environment for scientific research. This paper reports that today, human factors activities are in evidence at most of the nine U.S. Department of Energy multi-program national laboratories as well as at a number of special program facilities. This paper provides historical and future perspectives on the DOE's human factors programs

  1. Development of human factors engineering guide for nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dangshi; Sheng Jufang

    1997-01-01

    'THE PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR APPLICATION OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING TO NUCLEAR POWER PROJECT (First Draft, in Chinese)', which was developed under a research program sponsored by National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) is described briefly. It is hoped that more conscious, more systematical and more comprehensive application of Human Factors Engineering to the nuclear power projects from the preliminary feasibility studies up to the commercial operation will benefit the safe, efficient and economical operations of nuclear power plants in China

  2. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    OpenAIRE

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-01-01

    Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such a...

  3. Survey of control-room design practices with respect to human factors engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary speciality concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. This emphasis has been applied to most military and space systems in the past 30 y. A review of five nuclear power-plant control rooms, reported in the November-December 1977 issue of Nuclear Safety, revealed that human factors principles of design have generally not been incorporated in present-generation control rooms. This article summarizes the findings of a survey of 20 control-board designers from a mix of nuclear steam-supply system and architect-engineering firms. The interviews with these designers probed design methods currently used in developing control rooms. From these data it was concluded that there is currently no consistent, formal, uniform concern for the human factors aspects of control-room design on the part of the design organizations, the utilities, or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Although all the parties involved are concerned with human factors issues, this responsibility is not focused, and human factors yardsticks, or design standards, specific to power plants have not been evolved and applied in the development and verification of control-room designs from the standpoint of the man-machine interface

  4. Human Factors: Spanning the Gap between OM & HRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.P. Neumann (Patrick); J. Dul (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: This paper examines the claim that the application of human factors (HF) knowledge can improve both human well-being and operations system performance. Methodology: A systematic review was conducted using a general and two specialist databases to identify empirical studies

  5. Prevalence of malaria and human blood factors among patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria has been and is still a major protozoan disease affecting the human population. Erythrocyte polymorphisms (mainly in blood groups and genotypes) influence the susceptibility to severe malaria. Aim: This study is aimed at assessing the prevalence malaria in relation to human blood factor and to ...

  6. Bringing organizational factors to the fore of human error management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.

    1991-01-01

    Human performance problems account for more than half of all significant events at nuclear power plants, even when these did not necessarily lead to severe accidents. In dealing with the management of human error, both technical and organizational factors need to be taken into account. Most important, a long-term commitment from senior management is needed. (author)

  7. Human factors design guidelines for maintainability of Department of Energy nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongarra, J.P. Jr.; VanCott, H.P.; Pain, R.F.; Peterson, L.R.; Wallace, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    Intent of these guidelines is to provide design and design review teams of DOE nuclear facilities with human factors principles to enhance the design and aid in the inspection of DOE nuclear facilities, systems, and equipment. These guidelines are concerned with design features of DOE nuclear facilities which can potentially affect preventive and corrective maintenance of systems within DOE nuclear facilities. Maintenance includes inspecting, checking, troubleshooting, adjusting, replacing, repairing, and servicing activities. Other factors which influence maintainability such as repair and maintenance suport facilities, maintenance information, and various aspects of the environment are also addressed

  8. Human factors design guidelines for maintainability of Department of Energy nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongarra, J.P. Jr.; VanCott, H.P.; Pain, R.F.; Peterson, L.R.; Wallace, R.I.

    1985-06-18

    Intent of these guidelines is to provide design and design review teams of DOE nuclear facilities with human factors principles to enhance the design and aid in the inspection of DOE nuclear facilities, systems, and equipment. These guidelines are concerned with design features of DOE nuclear facilities which can potentially affect preventive and corrective maintenance of systems within DOE nuclear facilities. Maintenance includes inspecting, checking, troubleshooting, adjusting, replacing, repairing, and servicing activities. Other factors which influence maintainability such as repair and maintenance suport facilities, maintenance information, and various aspects of the environment are also addressed.

  9. Human Research Program Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, Anna; Badler, Norman; Butler, Keith; Cummings, Mary; DeLucia, Patricia; Endsley, Mica; Scholtz, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated 22 gaps and 39 tasks in the three risk areas assigned to the SHFE Project. The area where tasks were best designed to close the gaps and the fewest gaps were left out was the Risk of Reduced Safety and Efficiency dire to Inadequate Design of Vehicle, Environment, Tools or Equipment. The areas where there were more issues with gaps and tasks, including poor or inadequate fit of tasks to gaps and missing gaps, were Risk of Errors due to Poor Task Design and Risk of Error due to Inadequate Information. One risk, the Risk of Errors due to Inappropriate Levels of Trust in Automation, should be added. If astronauts trust automation too much in areas where it should not be trusted, but rather tempered with human judgment and decision making, they will incur errors. Conversely, if they do not trust automation when it should be trusted, as in cases where it can sense aspects of the environment such as radiation levels or distances in space, they will also incur errors. This will be a larger risk when astronauts are less able to rely on human mission control experts and are out of touch, far away, and on their own. The SRP also identified 11 new gaps and five new tasks. Although the SRP had an extremely large quantity of reading material prior to and during the meeting, we still did not feel we had an overview of the activities and tasks the astronauts would be performing in exploration missions. Without a detailed task analysis and taxonomy of activities the humans would be engaged in, we felt it was impossible to know whether the gaps and tasks were really sufficient to insure human safety, performance, and comfort in the exploration missions. The SRP had difficulty evaluating many of the gaps and tasks that were not as quantitative as those related to concrete physical danger such as excessive noise and vibration. Often the research tasks for cognitive risks that accompany poor task or

  10. The human failure factors during emergency operating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bingji

    1994-01-01

    In the case of emergency operating, operating staff usually are in the limit state of mind, so the operating mistake rate will go up sharply, and the disastrous accidents usually will happen at this moment. So to study and resolve the problem is very important and imperative. Basing on raising the reliability of man-machine system, the psychology and pathology of operating staff under the limit state and the behavior characteristic of operating staff in the emergency operation have been expounded here, and the operating staff's psychological gradation partitioned by foreign experts also has been introduced, and the influence factors of psychology and equipment which lead to the limit state of mind also have been analyzed. In addition, taking the emergency operation of the nuclear power plant as a example, The authors has studied the countermeasures to prevent the limit state from occurring, which includes countermeasures to environment effects, measures to improve the technical equipment and the measures that the operating staff should be taken

  11. Development of HANARO human factors management plan and evaluation of BCS display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I. S.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, Y. H.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, human factors evaluation of BCS display design was performed. We adopted the suitability of design elements of BCS display as human factors evaluation measure. And, we also adopted guideline based evaluation, field survey and expert evaluation as evaluation method. The checklist was utilized for the evaluation, and the results of evaluation were well arranged in the evaluation format. We did not find out the HED (Human Engineering Discrepancy) impede safety of HANARO, except some necessary items to improve during short periods. We also provide some items of improvement for the enhancement of safety and operator's performance in the aspect of long periods. If the proposed improvement items were completely fulfilled, the more improved safety of HANARO will be secured

  12. Tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.A.; Jesty, J.

    1984-01-01

    A comparism was made of the tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in a human plasma system and a study was made of the role of proteases known to stimulate factor VII activity. Plasma was defibrinated by heating and depleted of its factors IX and X by passing it through antibody columns. Addition of human brain thromboplastin, Ca2+, and purified 3H-labeled factor X to the plasma resulted, after a short lag, in burst-like activation of the factor X, measured as the release of radiolabeled activation peptide. The progress of activation was slowed by both heparin and a specific inhibitor of factor Xa but factor X activation could not be completely abolished by such inhibitors. In the case of 3H-factor IX activation, the rate also increased for approximately 3 min after addition of thromboplastin, but was not subsequently curtailed. A survey of proteases implicated as activators of factor VII in other settings showed that both factor Xa and factor IXa could accelerate the activation of factor IX. However, factor Xa was unique in obliterating activation when present at concentrations greater than approximately 1 nM. Heparin inhibited the tissue factor-dependent activation of factor IX almost completely, apparently through the effect of antithrombin on the feedback reactions of factors Xa and IXa on factor VII. These results suggest that a very tight, biphasic control of factor VII activity exists in human plasma, which is modulated mainly by factor Xa. At saturation of factor VIIa/tissue factor, factor IX activation was significantly more rapid than was previously found in bovine plasma under similar conditions. The activation of factor X at saturation was slightly more rapid than in bovine plasma, despite the presence of heparin

  13. Selected aspects of the action of cobalt ions in the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnek, Katarzyna; Terpiłowska, Sylwia; Siwicki, Andrzej K

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt is widespread in the natural environment and can be formed as an effect of anthropogenic activity. This element is used in numerous industrial applications and nuclear power plants. Cobalt is an essential trace element for the human body and can occur in organic and inorganic forms. The organic form is a necessary component of vitamin B12 and plays a very important role in forming amino acids and some proteins in nerve cells, and in creating neurotransmitters that are indispensable for correct functioning of the organism. Its excess or deficiency will influence it unfavourably. Salts of cobalt have been applied in medicine in the treatment of anaemia, as well as in sport as an attractive alternative to traditional blood doping. Inorganic forms of cobalt present in ion form, are toxic to the human body, and the longer they are stored in the body, the more changes they cause in cells. Cobalt gets into the body in several ways: firstly, with food; secondly by the respiratory system; thirdly, by the skin; and finally, as a component of biomaterials. Cobalt and its alloys are fundamental components in orthopaedic implants and have been used for about 40 years. The corrosion of metal is the main problem in the construction of implants. These released metal ions may cause type IV inflammatory and hypersensitivity reactions, and alternations in bone modelling that lead to aseptic loosening and implant failure. The ions of cobalt released from the surface of the implant are absorbed by present macrophages, which are involved in many of the processes associated with phagocytose orthopaedic biomaterials particles and release pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin.

  14. Hypoxia-inducible factors - regulation, role and comparative aspects in tumourigenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A E; Kristensen, A T; Law, I

    2011-01-01

    important prognostic information and may help identify potential hypoxia circumventing and targeting strategies. This review summarizes current knowledge on HIF regulation and function in tumour cells and discusses the aspects of using companion animals as comparative spontaneous cancer models. Spontaneous...... tumours in companion animals hold a great research potential for the evaluation and understanding of tumour hypoxia and in the development of hypoxia-targeting therapeutics....

  15. Calculation of stress intensity factors for circumferential semi-elliptical cracks with high aspect ratio in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareei, A.; Nabavi, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, stress intensity factors are calculated at the deepest point of an internal circumferential semi-elliptical crack in a pipe subjected to any arbitrary load. Based on the three dimensional finite element analysis, a weight function is proposed for high aspect ratio semi-elliptical cracks in pipes. An effective expression is developed analytically to evaluate the stress intensity factor using the weight function method. For several crack face stress fields and welding residual stress distributions, the weight function is validated against finite element data and those in the literature. Based on the comparison results, it can be concluded that the solution proposed in this paper is effective in engineering applications. - Highlights: • Analysis of internal circumferential semi-elliptical cracks with high aspect ratio in pipes. • A weight function is proposed for the calculation of the stress intensity factors for the deepest point of the crack. • An effective closed form expression is proposed to evaluate the stress intensity factors. • Prediction of stress intensity factors for any applied stress gradients through the wall thickness without any limitations. • A three-dimensional finite element modeling employs to calculate the stress intensity factors for different geometries.

  16. Human-factor operating concept for Borssele Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieman, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The safety level in the operation of a reactor is determined basically by human beings. The Borssele Nuclear Power Station has carried out measures for improving the man-machine interface through training and operating instructions for the shift personnel. The retrofitting of control technology relevant to safety engineering should avoid operating instructions which can cause potential failures. A safety study has shown that the remaining risk following all retrofitting measures remains dependent to the extent of 80% on human factors and that human factors as a whole have a positive effect on reactor safety. (orig.) [de

  17. Human Factor Modelling in the Risk Assessment of Port Manoeuvers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Abramowicz-Gerigk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The documentation of human factor influence on the scenario development in maritime accidents compared with expert methods is commonly used as a basis in the process of setting up safety regulations and instructions. The new accidents and near misses show the necessity for further studies in determining the human factor influence on both risk acceptance criteria and development of risk control options for the manoeuvers in restricted waters. The paper presents the model of human error probability proposed for the assessment of ship masters and marine pilots' error decision and its influence on the risk of port manoeuvres.

  18. Human factors evaluation of the engineering test reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Boone, M.P.

    1981-03-01

    The Reactor and Process Control Rooms at the Engineering Test Reactor were evaluated by a team of human factors engineers using available human factors design criteria. During the evaluation, ETR, equipment and facilities were compared with MIL-STD-1472-B, Human Engineering design Criteria for Military Systems. The focus of recommendations centered on: (a) displays and controls; placing displays and controls in functional groups; (b) establishing a consistent color coding (in compliance with a standard if possible); (c) systematizing annunciator alarms and reducing their number; (d) organizing equipment in functional groups; and (e) modifying labeling and lines of demarcation

  19. The productivity from a human perspective: Dimensions and factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Marvel Cequea

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the literature, for both theoretical foundations and empirical research, in order to establish relationships between the variables related to human factors and their impact on productivity.Design/methodology/approach: The strategy employed corresponds to a descriptive non-experimental design, which is the establishment of three criteria for the literature review, in order to narrow down the topic to research works relating productivity with the human factor. This was investigated in databases and journals dealing with related topics, in addition to consulting doctoral theses and published books concerning the influence of human factors on productivity. About 250 papers which were considered the most relevant for the research were selected.Findings:  As a result of this exploration the classification of the factors in two dimensions that are manifested in people when they act in organizations was highlighted: the psychological and the psychosocial dimension. Human factors included in these dimensions are: individual factors (motivation, skills, job satisfaction, identification, commitment and involvement with the organization, group factors (participation, cohesion and management conflict and organizational factors (organizational culture, organizational climate and leadership. All these factors have an impact on the productivity of the organization and are addressed in this research.Originality/value: The selected variables were used to formulate a model that incorporates the human factors identified and considers the phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. It will be addressed through multivariate analysis, with the possible application of structural equations in order to assess the causal relationships that may exist between factors and productivity.

  20. Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: A discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire, T.; Stevenson, H.; Pieters, M.N.; Rennen, M.; Slob, W.; Hakkert, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute toward the further harmonization of human health risk assessment. It first discusses the development of a formal, harmonized set of assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed, that is, the type of

  1. Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: a discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire TG; Stevenson H; Pieters MN; Rennen M; Slob W; Hakkert BC; Nederlandse organisatie voor; CSR; LEO; TNO-ITV

    1998-01-01

    The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute towards further harmonisation of the human health risk assessment. It discusses the development of a formal, harmonised set of default assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed. Options are presented

  2. Kinetics of the Factor XIa catalyzed activation of human blood coagulation Factor IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.N.; Bradford, H.; Sinha, D.; Piperno, J.R.; Tuszynski, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of activation of human Factor IX by human Factor XIa was studied by measuring the release of a trichloroacetic acid-soluble tritium-labeled activation peptide from Factor IX. Initial rates of trichloroacetic acid-soluble 3 H-release were linear over 10-30 min of incubation of Factor IX (88 nM) with CaCl 2 (5 mM) and with pure (greater than 98%) Factor XIa (0.06-1.3 nM), which was prepared by incubating human Factor XI with bovine Factor XIIa. Release of 3 H preceded the appearance of Factor IXa activity, and the percentage of 3 H released remained constant when the mole fraction of 3 H-labeled and unlabeled Factor IX was varied and the total Factor IX concentration remained constant. A linear correlation (r greater than 0.98, P less than 0.001) was observed between initial rates of 3 H-release and the concentration of Factor XIa, measured by chromogenic assay and by radioimmunoassay and added at a Factor IX:Factor XIa molar ratio of 70-5,600. Kinetic parameters, determined by Lineweaver-Burk analysis, include K/sub m/ (0.49 microM) of about five- to sixfold higher than the plasma Factor IX concentration, which could therefore regulate the reaction. The catalytic constant (k/sub cat/) (7.7/s) is approximately 20-50 times higher than that reported by Zur and Nemerson for Factor IX activation by Factor VIIa plus tissue factor. Therefore, depending on the relative amounts of Factor XIa and Factor VIIa generated in vivo and other factors which may influence reaction rates, these kinetic parameters provide part of the information required for assessing the relative contributions of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways to Factor IX activation, and suggest that the Factor XIa catalyzed reaction is physiologically significant

  3. Production and properties of monoclonal antibodies to human blood coagulation factor VII and factor VIIa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, P.; Nesbitt, J.A.; Ge, M.; Kisiel, W.

    1986-01-01

    Human factor VII is a trace vitamin K-dependent protein that circulates in blood as a single-chain precursor to a serine protease. Upon activation, two-chain factor VIIa activates factor x in the presence of tissue factor and calcium. Purified preparations of single-chain (SC) human factor VII and two-chain (TC) factor VIIa were utilized to immunize Balb/c mice. Spleen cells from these immunized mice were fused to a non-secreting NS-1 derivative of X63-Ag8 myeloma cells and grown in selective medium. Analysis of culture supernatants by EIA revealed several hybridomas that were secreting IgG specific for Sc-factor VII and TC-factor VIIa. In addition, several hybridomas secreted IgG that reacted equally well with factor VII and factor VIIa. One of the latter McAb (A-29) reacted with the heavy chain of factor VIIa and the intact factor VII molecule equally as judged by Western blotting. A-29 was produced in ascites fluid, purified and coupled to activated CH-Sepharose. Application of one liter of normal human plasma to 10 ml of this immunoadsorbent column, elution of factor VII and subsequent Western blot using 125 I-rabbit anti-human factor VII indicated a single species of factor VII(M/sub r/ = 50 KDa) in normal plasma. These specific factor VII/VIIa McAbs may prove useful in the analysis of these factors, and in the separation of SC-factor VII from TC-factor VIIa

  4. Taking account of human factors in control-room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dien, Y.; Montmayeul, R.

    1995-07-01

    Since the Three Mile Island accident two ways for improving the Human-Machine Interface have mainly been followed: the development of computerized operator aids in existing control-rooms and the design of advanced control-rooms. Insufficient attention paid to human factors in the design of operator aids has generally led to these aids being neglected or unused by their potential users. While for the design of advanced control-rooms efforts have been made for dealing with human factors in more extensive way. Based upon this experience, a general method for taking account of human factors in a control-room design has been devised and is described in this paper. (author)

  5. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  6. [Stem Cells in the Brain of Mammals and Human: Fundamental and Applied Aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, M A; Marey, M V

    2015-01-01

    Brain stem cells represent an extremely intriguing phenomenon. The aim of our review is to present an integrity vision of their role in the brain of mammals and humans, and their clinical perspectives. Over last two decades, investigations of biology of the neural stem cells produced significant changes in general knowledge about the processes of development and functioning of the brain. Researches on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of NSC differentiation and behavior led to new understanding of their involvement in learning and memory. In the regenerative medicine, original therapeutic approaches to neurodegenerative brain diseases have been elaborated due to fundamental achievements in this field. They are based on specific regenerative potential of neural stem cells and progenitor cells, which possess the ability to replace dead cells and express crucially significant biologically active factors that are missing in the pathological brain. For the needs of cell substitution therapy in the neural diseases, adequate methods of maintaining stem cells in culture and their differentiation into different types of neurons and glial cells, have been developed currently. The success of modern cellular technologies has significantly expanded the range of cells used for cell therapy. The near future may bring new perspective and distinct progress in brain cell therapy due to optimizing the cells types most promising for medical needs.

  7. Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Elias G., E-mail: george.elias@medstar.net; Hasskamp, Joanne H.; Sharma, Bhuvnesh K. [Maryland Melanoma Center, Weinberg Cancer Institute, Franklin Square Hospital Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-β, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustrating the complexity of the milieu of the tumor microenvironment, some of these factors may have to be considered in targeted therapy.

  8. Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias G. Elias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-β, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustrating the complexity of the milieu of the tumor microenvironment, some of these factors may have to be considered in targeted therapy.

  9. Mek1Y130C mice recapitulate aspects of human cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoidi, Rifdat; Houde, Nicolas; Landry-Truchon, Kim; Holter, Michael; Jacquet, Kevin; Charron, Louis; Yu, Benjamin D.; Rauen, Katherine A.; Bisson, Nicolas; Newbern, Jason

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The RAS/MAPK signaling pathway is one of the most investigated pathways, owing to its established role in numerous cellular processes and implication in cancer. Germline mutations in genes encoding members of the RAS/MAPK pathway also cause severe developmental syndromes collectively known as RASopathies. These syndromes share overlapping characteristics, including craniofacial dysmorphology, cardiac malformations, cutaneous abnormalities and developmental delay. Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) is a rare RASopathy associated with mutations in BRAF, KRAS, MEK1 (MAP2K1) and MEK2 (MAP2K2). MEK1 and MEK2 mutations are found in ∼25% of the CFC patients and the MEK1Y130C substitution is the most common one. However, little is known about the origins and mechanisms responsible for the development of CFC. To our knowledge, no mouse model carrying RASopathy-linked Mek1 or Mek2 gene mutations has been reported. To investigate the molecular and developmental consequences of the Mek1Y130C mutation, we generated a mouse line carrying this mutation. Analysis of mice from a Mek1 allelic series revealed that the Mek1Y130C allele expresses both wild-type and Y130C mutant forms of MEK1. However, despite reduced levels of MEK1 protein and the lower abundance of MEK1 Y130C protein than wild type, Mek1Y130C mutants showed increased ERK (MAPK) protein activation in response to growth factors, supporting a role for MEK1 Y130C in hyperactivation of the RAS/MAPK pathway, leading to CFC. Mek1Y130C mutant mice exhibited pulmonary artery stenosis, cranial dysmorphia and neurological anomalies, including increased numbers of GFAP+ astrocytes and Olig2+ oligodendrocytes in regions of the cerebral cortex. These data indicate that the Mek1Y130C mutation recapitulates major aspects of CFC, providing a new animal model to investigate the physiopathology of this RASopathy. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. PMID:29590634

  10. Human Factors evaluation of LCS 254 and 255

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffe, L.; Held, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    This report includes the results of the Human Factors evaluation of the local control stations (LCS) 254 and 255 performed by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Human Factors. Recommendations are included in order that the panel designs will be upgraded to comply with human engineering design guidelines. Figures 1 and 2 are included as examples of recommended changes. Also, consideration was given to including the proposed engineering changes which are currently on-going for LCS 255. Appendix A identifies the human engineering requirements from NUREG-0700 which were used in the evaluation process, and the areas of the design which do not comply with the guidelines. Those areas of the panel design which fail to comply with the human engineering guidelines are label location, label content, location aids, panel layout, and control display integration. Each of these design deficiencies and proposed corrections are described in this report

  11. Human factors: A major issue in plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widrig, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Humans play a significant role in the effects of aging on safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. These human issues may be more important than the issues of materials and component degradation with age. Human actions can accelerate or decelerate physical aging of a plant. And an aging plant can have a significant negative impact on staff quality and performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide some insights into the nature of these human factors issues and their relationship to plant aging. An early awareness of these issues facilitates timely action to at least mitigate these problems before they become insurmountable

  12. [Construction and validation of the "La Salle Instrument" to evaluate the ethical aspects in biomedical research on human beings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia-Gómez, Gilberto Guzmán; Velasco-Jiménez, María Teresa; Domínguez-González, Alejandro; Meneses-Ruíz, Dulce María; Padilla-García, Raúl Amauri

    2017-01-01

    Research projects must demonstrate not only a rigorous scientific methodology, but also the ethical aspects that require profound reflection of the reviewers. Current regulations establish criteria for research projects on human health, but many of these aspects are subjective. How can the evaluation of such projects be standardized? This is the main subject of the current project. This project comprises two phases. First, the design and construction of an instrument of evaluation based on the fundamental principles of bioethics, which are autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, and other aspects. The second phase consists of content validation through expert. During the phase of reviewing the instrument, it was necessary to make changes by adding, removing, or changing the concepts or criteria, which lead to the construction of the second version of the format. This new instrument was reviewed and analyzed by using the AGREE II instrument, and this version was validated by experts by greater than 95%. There are some recommendations to analyze the ethical aspects in research protocols involving human subjects, but they define the concepts and criteria to be evaluated. By presenting the criteria to be evaluated individually, the "La Salle instrument" allows the evaluation to be more objective and standardized.

  13. Human factors in waste management - potential and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    There is enormous potential for human factors contributions in the realm of waste management. The reality, however, is very different from the potential. This is particularly true for low-level and low-level mixed-waste management. The hazards are less severe; therefore, health and safety requirements (including human factors) are not as rigorous as for high-level waste. High-level waste management presents its own unique challenges and opportunities. Waste management is strongly driven by regulatory compliance. When regulations are flexible and open to interpretation and the environment is driven so strongly by regulatory compliance, standard practice is to drop open-quotes nice to haveclose quotes features, like a human factors program, to save money for complying with other requirements. The challenge is to convince decision makers that human factors can help make operations efficient and cost-effective, as well as improving safety and complying with regulations. A human factors program should not be viewed as competing with compliance efforts; in fact, it should complement them and provide additional cost-effective means of achieving compliance with other regulations. Achieving this synergy of human factors with ongoing waste management operations requires educating program and facility managers and other technical specialists about human factors and demonstrating its value open-quotes through the back doorclose quotes on existing efforts. This paper describes ongoing projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in support of their waste management groups. It includes lessons learned from hazard and risk analyses, safety analysis reports, job and task analyses, operating procedure development, personnel qualification/certification program development, and facility- and job-specific training program and course development

  14. Transferring aviation human factors technology to the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemerlo, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the availability of aviation safety technology and research on problems which are sufficiently similar to those faced by the nuclear power industry that an agressive effort to adapt and transfer that technology and research is warranted. Because of time and space constraints, the scope of this paper is reduced from a discussion of all of aviation safety technology to the human factors of air carrier safety. This area was selected not only because of similarities in the human factors challenges shared by both industries (e.g. selection, training, evaluation, certification, etc.) but because experience in aviation has clearly demonstrated that human error contributes to a substantially greater proportion of accidents and incidents than does equipment failure. The Congress of the United States has placed a great deal of emphasis on investigating and solving human factors problems in aviation. A number of recent examples of this interest and of the resulting actions are described. The opinions of prominent aviation organizations as to the human factors problems most in need of research are presented, along with indications of where technology transfer to the nuclear power industry may be viable. The areas covered include: fatigue, crew size, information transfer, resource management, safety data-bases, the role of automation, voice and data recording systems, crew distractions, the management of safety regulatory agencies, equipment recertification, team training, crew work-load, behavioural factors, human factors of equipment design, medical problems, toxicological factors, the use of simulators for training and certification, determining the causes of human errors, the politics of systems improvement, and importance of both safety and public perception of safety if the industry is to be viable. (author)

  15. Effectiveness of human factors simulator; Eficiencia del simulador de factores humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moragas, F.

    2015-07-01

    En 2011, ANAV started the exploitation of the Human Factors Simulator installed in TECNATOM Training Center located in L'Hospital de L'Infant Tarragona. AVAN's Strategic Plan includes the Action Plan for the improvement of human behavior. The plan includes improving the efficiency of the efficiency of the human factors simulator. It is proposed to improve the efficiency into two different terms: winning effectiveness in modeling behaviors, and interweaving the activities in the simulator with the actual strategy of promoting Safety culture and human behaviour. (Author)

  16. Human factors evaluation of man-machine interface for periodic safety review of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Jang, Tong Il; Ku, Jin Young; Kim, Soo Jin

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the research results of human factors assessment on the MMI(Man Machine Interface) equipment as part of Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). As MMI is a key factor among human factors to be reviewed in PSR, we reviewed the MMI components of nuclear power plants in aspect of human factors engineering. The availability, suitability, and effectiveness of the MMI devices were chosen to be reviewed. The MMI devices were investigated through the review of design documents related to the MMI, survey of control panels, evaluation of experts, and experimental assessment. Checklists were used to perform this assessment and record the review results. The items mentioned by the expert comments to review in detail in relation with task procedures were tested by experiments with operators' participation. For some questionable issues arisen during this MMI review, operator workload and possibility of errors in operator actions were analysed. The reviewed MMI devices contain MCR(Main Control Room), SPDS(Safety Parameter Display System), RSP(Remote Shutdown Panel), and the selected LCBs(Local Control Boards) importantly related to safety. As results of the assessments, any significant problem challenging the safety was not found on human factors in the MMI devices. However, several small items to be changed and improved in suitability of MMI devices were discovered. An action plan is recommended to accommodate the suggestions and review comments. It will enhance the plant safety on MMI area

  17. Internal risks of factoring business: identification, cause-effect relationships, accounting and management aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the risks of the economic activity of a factoring company. The identified risks are divided into internal (fraud risk, credit risk, liquidity, nonpayment, staff, supplier's failure to meet the terms of the supply / factoring contract and external (legal, inflation, currency, interest, industry risks, country risk. The cause-effect relationships of the identified risks have been established. The content of information requests of the leading part of the factoring company, as well as the management subsystems (accounting, economic analysis, control and planning, and the direction of information flows between them (to manage the company's internal risks is determined. These proposals contribute to the improvement of accounting and analytical support for risk management of the factoring business, the choice of alternative risk management methods, the impact on their possible consequences, minimizing the negative impact of risks on the financial condition of the company, and establishing the effectiveness of factoring operations under risk.

  18. Predictors of having heard about human papillomavirus vaccination: Critical aspects for cervical cancer prevention among Colombian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermedo-Carrasco, Silvia; Feng, Cindy Xin; Peña-Sánchez, Juan Nicolás; Lepnurm, Rein

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether the probability of having heard about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination differs by socio-demographic characteristics among Colombian women; and whether the effect of predictors of having heard about HPV vaccination varies by educational levels and rural/urban area of residence. Data of 53,521 women aged 13-49 years were drawn from the 2010 Colombian National Demographic and Health Survey. Women were asked about aspects of their health and their socio-demographic characteristics. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with having heard about HPV vaccination. Educational level and rural/urban area of residence of the women were tested as modifier effects of predictors. 26.8% of the women had heard about HPV vaccination. The odds of having heard about HPV vaccination were lower among women: in low wealth quintiles, without health insurance, with subsidized health insurance, and those who had children (p<0.001). Although women in older age groups and with better education had higher probabilities of having heard about HPV vaccination, differences in these probabilities by age group were more evident among educated women compared to non-educated ones. Probability gaps between non-educated and highly educated women were wider in the Eastern region. Living in rural areas decreased the probability of having heard about HPV vaccination, although narrower rural/urban gaps were observed in the Atlantic and Amazon-Orinoquía regions. Almost three quarters of the Colombian women had not heard about HPV vaccination, with variations by socio-demographic characteristics. Women in disadvantaged groups were less likely to have heard about HPV vaccination. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Human factors certification in the development of future air traffic control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alyson E.

    1994-01-01

    If human factors certification of aviation technologies aims to encompass the wide range of issues which need to be addressed for any new system, then human factors involvement must be present throughout the whole design process in a manner which relates to final certification. A certification process cannot simply be applied to the final product of design. Standards and guidelines will be required by designers at the outset of design for reference in preparing for certification. The most effective use of human factors principles, methods, and measures is made as part of an iterative design process, leading to a system which reflects these as far as possible. This particularly applies where the technology is complex and may be represented by a number of components or sub-systems. Some aspects of the system are best certified during early prototyping, when there is still scope to make changes to software or hardware. At this stage in design, financial and/or time pressures will not rule out the possibility of necessary changes, as may be the case later. Other aspects of the system will be best certified during the final phases of design when the system is in a more complete form and in a realistic environment.

  20. Incorporating Human Factors into design change processes - a regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, L.; McRobbie, H.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants in Canada must receive written approval from the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) when making certain changes that are defined in their licenses. The CNSC expects the design change process to include a method for ensuring that the human-machine interface and workplace design support the safe and reliable performance of required tasks. When reviewing design changes for approval, the CNSC looks for evidence of analysis work, use of appropriate human factors design guide-lines, and verification and validation testing of the design. In addition to reviewing significant design changes, evaluations are conducted to ensure design change processes adequately address human performance. Findings from reviews and evaluations highlight the need to integrate human factors into the design change process, provide human factors training and support to engineering staff, establish processes to ensure coordination between the various groups with a vested interest in human factors, and develop more rigorous methods to validate changes to maintenance, field operations and testing interfaces. (author)

  1. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Human Factors Program Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of the NRC Human Factors Program Plan (NUREG-0985) is to ensure that proper consideration is given to human factors in the design, operation, and maintenance of nuclear facilities. This revised plan addresses nuclear power plants (NPPs) and describes (1) the technical assistance and research activities planned to provide the technical bases for the resolution of the remaining human factors related tasks described in NUREG-0660, THE NRC Action Plan developed as a result of the TMI-2 Accident, and NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements; (2) the additional human factors efforts identified during implementation of the Action Plan that should receive NRC attention; (3) conduct of developmental activities specified in NUREG-0985 during FY-83; and (4) the impact of Section 306 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, PL 97-425. The plan represents a systematic and comprehensive approach for addressing human factors concerns important to NPP safety in the FY-84 through FY-86 time frame

  2. Human factors reliability benchmark exercise, report of the SRD participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, Trevor

    1988-01-01

    Within the scope of the Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise, organised by the Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy, the Safety and Reliability Directorate (SRD) team has performed analysis of human factors in two different activities - a routine test and a non-routine operational transient. For both activities, an 'FMEA-like' task, potential errors, and the factors which affect performance. For analysis of the non-routine activity, which involved a significant amount of cognitive processing, such as diagnosis and decision making, a new approach for qualitative analysis has been developed. Modelling has been performed using both event trees and fault trees and examples are provided. Human error probabilities were estimated using the methods Absolute Probability Judgement (APJ), Human Cognitive Reliability Method (HCR), Human Error and Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART), Success-Likelihood Index Method (SLIM), Technica Empiriza Stima Eurori Operatori (TESEO), and Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP). A discussion is provided of the lessons learnt in the course of the exercise and unresolved difficulties in the assessment of human reliability. (author)

  3. Muon sticking factor in muon catalyzed fusion and the other aspect of this fusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of resonance nuclear fusion reaction on the initial muon sticking factor is formulated. The analysis shows that it is very sensitive to the resonance parameter, and the factor calculated, using the molecular wave function obtained by the Diffusion Monte Carlo method, is 0.1 +- 0.01 for the presently evaluated resonance parameter. The analysis of the multistep excitation effect on the reactivation factor shows that the effect is not so large, and the analysis of muonic x-ray spectra of μ 3 He from Pμd and dμd fusions is in good agreement with the values measured by Bossy et al

  4. Modeling ancient Egyptian mummification on fresh human tissue: macroscopic and histological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Shved, Natallia; Wanek, Johann; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have been concerned with the ancient Egyptian mummification method; nevertheless, little effort has been made to explore it experimentally. The goal of this study is to apply evidence-based diagnostic criteria and state-of-the art methodology in order to improve knowledge on soft tissues preservation and postmortem alterations. Two human lower limbs (LL) from a female donor were (1) "naturally" mummified by dry heat and (2) artificially in natron. At specific time intervals a macroscopic and radiological examination of the LL was performed and skin and muscle samples were taken for histological and biomolecular analysis. Temperature, humidity, pH, and weight of the LL were systematically measured. The mummification by dry heat was stopped after 7 days due to unexpected lack of mummification progress. The mummification in natron was completed successfully after 208 days. The humidity, the external temperature, and the pH were proven with Pearson correlation and principal component analysis as important factors for the mummification process. The steady removal of water from the tissues through the natron has prevented the putrefaction. This is also evident in the absence of bacteria or fungi through the microbiological analysis. The histological analysis revealed very good preservation of the skin and the muscle tissues. In the muscular sample certain degree of structural disintegration can be seen, particularly affecting the epimysium whilst in the skin samples the epidermis, especially the stratum corneum, is mostly affected. The samples show better preservation compared with ancient Egyptian sections and other mummified tissues from historic or forensic context. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Consciousness in the Study of Human Life and Experience: "Higher Aspects" and Their Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witz, Klaus G.; Lee, Hyunju; Huang, Wanju

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the consciousness in a person when one tries to understand her more deeply and as a whole, as is done in studies using the "Participant as Ally-Essentialist Portraiture" approach, and focuses on "higher aspects" or moral-ethical, metaphysical, social and religious ideals, values, commitments, or inspiration in a person. The…

  6. Basic aspects of tumor cell fatty acid-regulated signaling and transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comba, Andrea; Lin, Yi-Hui; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Valentich, Mirta Ana; Fernandez-Zapico, Martín Ernesto; Pasqualini, Marìa Eugenia

    2011-12-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge and experimental research about the mechanisms by which fatty acids and their derivatives control specific gene expression involved during carcinogenesis. Changes in dietary fatty acids, specifically the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 and ω-6 families and some derived eicosanoids from lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P-450, seem to control the activity of transcription factor families involved in cancer cell proliferation or cell death. Their regulation may be carried out either through direct binding to DNA as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors or via modulation in an indirect manner of signaling pathway molecules (e.g., protein kinase C) and other transcription factors (nuclear factor kappa B and sterol regulatory element binding protein). Knowledge of the mechanisms by which fatty acids control specific gene expression may identify important risk factors for cancer and provide insight into the development of new therapeutic strategies for a better management of whole body lipid metabolism.

  7. Infrastructural and Human Factors Affecting Safety Outcomes of Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Useche

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of registered road crashes involving cyclists during the last decade and the high proportion of road crashes resulting in severe injuries and fatalities among cyclists constitutes a global issue for community health, urban development and sustainability. Nowadays, the incidence of many risk factors for road crashes of cyclists remains largely unexplained. Given the importance of this issue, the present study has been conducted with the aim of determining relationships between infrastructural, human factors and safety outcomes of cyclists. Objectives: This study aimed, first, to examine the relationship between key infrastructural and human factors present in cycling, bicycle-user characteristics and their self-reported experience with road crashes. And second, to determine whether a set of key infrastructural and human factors may predict their self-reported road crashes. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a total of 1064 cyclists (38.8% women, 61.2% men; M = 32.8 years of age from 20 different countries across Europe, South America and North America, participated in an online survey composed of four sections: demographic data and cycling-related factors, human factors, perceptions on infrastructural factors and road crashes suffered. Results: The results of this study showed significant associations between human factors, infrastructural conditions and self-reported road crashes. Also, a logistic regression model found that self-reported road crashes of cyclists could be predicted through variables such as age, riding intensity, risky behaviours and problematic user/infrastructure interactions. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that self-reported road crashes of cyclists are influenced by features related to the user and their interaction with infrastructural characteristics of the road.

  8. DEFINING ASPECTS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY WITHIN THE GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE MODERN ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Emanoil MUSCALU; Silvana Nicoleta MUNTEAN

    2013-01-01

    The field of human resources requires the presence and action of several categories of persons and managerial structures interested in the quality of human resources and the activities developed by them. Besides managers and employees there are also the shareholders, the unions, the customers, the different national or local agencies, the local community, etc., with major interests regarding decisions in the human resources area. In order to harmonize their activities and achieve an optimal p...

  9. Immunolocalization of transforming growth factor alpha in normal human tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1996-01-01

    anchorage-independent growth of normal cells and was, therefore, considered as an "oncogenic" growth factor. Later, its immunohistochemical presence in normal human cells as well as its biological effects in normal human tissues have been demonstrated. The aim of the present investigation was to elucidate...... the distribution of the growth factor in a broad spectrum of normal human tissues. Indirect immunoenzymatic staining methods were used. The polypeptide was detected with a polyclonal as well as a monoclonal antibody. The polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies demonstrated almost identical immunoreactivity. TGF......-alpha was found to be widely distributed in cells of normal human tissues derived from all three germ layers, most often in differentiated cells. In epithelial cells, three different kinds of staining patterns were observed, either diffuse cytoplasmic, cytoplasmic in the basal parts of the cells, or distinctly...

  10. Meeting Human Reliability Requirements through Human Factors Design, Testing, and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    In the design of novel systems, it is important for the human factors engineer to work in parallel with the human reliability analyst to arrive at the safest achievable design that meets design team safety goals and certification or regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the System Development Safety Triptych, a checklist of considerations for the interplay of human factors and human reliability through design, testing, and modeling in product development. This paper also explores three phases of safe system development, corresponding to the conception, design, and implementation of a system.

  11. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  12. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, A.; Valdivia, J.C.; Jimenez, A.

    2001-01-01

    For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)

  13. Human Factors and Safety Culture in Maritime Safety (revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Peter Berg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As in every industry at risk, the human and organizational factors constitute the main stakes for maritime safety. Furthermore, several events at sea have been used to develop appropriate risk models. The investigation on maritime accidents is, nowadays, a very important tool to identify the problems related to human factor and can support accident prevention and the improvement of maritime safety. Part of this investigation should in future also be near misses. Operation of ships is full of regulations, instructions and guidelines also addressing human factors and safety culture to enhance safety. However, even though the roots of a safety culture have been established, there are still serious barriers to the breakthrough of the safety management. One of the most common deficiencies in the case of maritime transport is the respective monitoring and documentation usually lacking of adequacy and excellence. Nonetheless, the maritime area can be exemplified from other industries where activities are ongoing to foster and enhance safety culture.

  14. Human factors and fuzzy set theory for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Human reliability and performance is affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it is important to develop a theory by which both the non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. In reality, randomness and fuzziness are sometimes mixed. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measures may be considered a special case of fuzzy measures. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. The concept 'failure possibility' based on fuzzy sets is suggested as an approach to safety analysis and fault diagnosis of a large complex system. Fuzzy measures and fuzzy integrals are introduced and their possible applications are also discussed. (author)

  15. Quality management in the nuclear industry: the human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the nuclear industry it is vital to understand the 'human factor' with regard to plant performance and plant safety. A proper management system ensures that personnel perform their duties correctly. 'Quality Management in the Nuclear Industry: the Human Factor', was a conference organized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in October 1990. The conference covered a wide range of topics on an international level including: standards, licensing and regulatory procedures; selection assessment and training of personnel; feedback from experience of good practice and of deviations; management and support of personnel performance; modelling and evaluation of human factors. The papers presented at the conference are contained in this volume. All twenty papers are indexed separately. (author)

  16. A human factors design of a nuclear plant analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byeon, Seung Nam; Lee, Dong Hoon; Park, Chan Woo [Kyounghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The project consists of four key stages as follows : based on the review of various literature, human factors design principles and processes are identified, the literature reviewed in the project includes NUREG-0700, research papers for MMI, human factors handbooks, and laboratory reports, after the design principles and processes are determined, a design checklist is developed to evaluate the user interface of NPA, the design checklist consists of seven different categories such as display screen, menu interface, form-fillin, alphanumeric characters, symbols, color, and highlighting, NPA was tested with the design checklist for conformance to the human factors design principles, the expert reviews are performed to evaluate a graphic user interface of NPA, the application of the design checklist and the subjective opinion of the expert identify the design included in the user interface of NPA, based on the thorough analysis of design defects, design guidelines are recommended to improve the user interface of NPA.

  17. A human factors design of a nuclear plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, Seung Nam; Lee, Dong Hoon; Park, Chan Woo

    2000-12-01

    The project consists of four key stages as follows : based on the review of various literature, human factors design principles and processes are identified, the literature reviewed in the project includes NUREG-0700, research papers for MMI, human factors handbooks, and laboratory reports, after the design principles and processes are determined, a design checklist is developed to evaluate the user interface of NPA, the design checklist consists of seven different categories such as display screen, menu interface, form-fillin, alphanumeric characters, symbols, color, and highlighting, NPA was tested with the design checklist for conformance to the human factors design principles, the expert reviews are performed to evaluate a graphic user interface of NPA, the application of the design checklist and the subjective opinion of the expert identify the design included in the user interface of NPA, based on the thorough analysis of design defects, design guidelines are recommended to improve the user interface of NPA

  18. ASPECTS OF THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE PURDĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human rights protection within the European Community and the European Union has developed judicially, the human rights being protected by the Community Courts as general principles of Community law. The Treaty of Maastricht and the Treaty of Amsterdam have codified the Community law within the area of human rights. The codification of European Union’s concept of human rights in a single document was realized by adopting the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, on 7 December 2000 in Nice, whose provisions acquired legally binding under the Treaty of Lisbon.

  19. Human Factors and Habitability Challenges for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2015-01-01

    As NASA is planning to send humans deeper into space than ever before, adequate crew health and performance will be critical for mission success. Within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) team is responsible for characterizing the risks associated with human capabilities and limitations with respect to long-duration spaceflight, and for providing mitigations (e.g., guidelines, technologies, and tools) to promote safe, reliable and productive missions. SHFH research includes three domains: Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), Advanced Food Technology (AFT), and Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE). The AEH portfolio focuses on understanding the risk of microbial contamination of the spacecraft and on the development of standards for exposure to potential toxins such as chemicals, bacteria, fungus, and lunar/Martian dust. The two risks that the environmental health project focuses on are adverse health effects due to changes in host-microbe interactions, and risks associated with exposure to dust in planetary surface habitats. This portfolio also proposes countermeasures to these risks by making recommendations that relate to requirements for environmental quality, foods, and crew health on spacecraft and space missions. The AFT portfolio focuses on reducing the mass, volume, and waste of the entire integrated food system to be used in exploration missions, and investigating processing methods to extend the shelf life of food items up to five years, while assuring that exploration crews will have nutritious and palatable foods. The portfolio also delivers improvements in both the food itself and the technologies for storing and preparing it. SHFE sponsors research to establish human factors and habitability standards and guidelines in five risk areas, and provides improved design concepts for advanced crew interfaces and habitability systems. These risk areas include: Incompatible vehicle/habitat design

  20. Human Health/Human Factors Considerations in Trans-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Howard, Robert; Mendeck, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The human factors insights of how they are incorporated into the vehicle are crucial towards designing and planning the internal designs necessary for future spacecraft and missions. The adjusted mission concept of supporting the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will drive some human factors changes on how the Orion will be used and will be reassessed so as to best contribute to missions success. Recognizing what the human factors and health functional needs are early in the design process and how to integrate them will improve this and future generations of space vehicles to achieve mission success and continue to minimize risks.

  1. Education Factor and Human Resources Development - Albania Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sonila Berdo

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a general view of the actual situation and the potential importance that the education factor plays in the formation and development of human resources in Albania, based on the Albanian education system applied as well as the strategies undertaken regarding the development of human resources by transforming it in an important asset and an unstoppable source of values for all the society. In particular, the article is focused in analyzing and evaluating the link between the l...

  2. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Methods Five databases were searched through Januar...

  3. With eloquence and humanity? Human factors/ergonomics in sustainable human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dave; Barnard, Tim

    2012-12-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation given at the 18th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association in Recife, Brazil, February 2012. It considers new, and not so new, approaches and practical roles for the emerging field of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) in sustainable development (SD).The material for this article was largely drawn from the literature in the fields of human development, sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and social/environmental impact assessment. Identifying the role of HFE in SD is not a simple one and from the outset is complicated by the widely differing ideas in the sustainability literature about what exactly it is we are hoping to sustain. Is it individual companies, business models, cultures, or the carrying capacity of our planet? Or combinations of these? For the purposes of this article, certain assumptions are made, and various emerging opportunities and responsibilities associated with our changing world of work are introduced. First, there are new versions of traditional tasks for us, such as working with the people and companies in the renewable energy sectors. Beyond this, however, it is suggested that there are emerging roles for HFE professionals in transdisciplinary work where we might play our part, for example, in tackling the twinned issues of climate change and human development in areas of significant poverty. In particular we have the tools and capabilities to help define and measure what groups have reason to value, and wish to sustain. It is suggested, that to do this effectively, however, will require a philosophical shift, or perhaps just a philosophical restatement at a collective level, regarding who and what we ultimately serve.

  4. The Knowledge Economy: the Socio-Humanitarian Development Factors and Regional Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turskyy Ihor V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the socio-humanitarian factors in the development of small and medium-sized businesses at the current stage, in terms of the origins of the knowledge economy phenomenon. The conception of unconditional basic income was considered as a factor. Other concepts of the knowledge economy were analyzed: the paradigm of the economy of abundance, the «End of History» by F. Fukuyama – as the most perfect form of social organization, and the Toffler's wave theory; as well as the information civilization and the information society. On the basis of today’s most popular concepts of knowledge economy, a comprehensive model for the interaction of socio-humanitarian factors in the knowledge economy has been proposed. The excessive massing factor has been recognized as a major negative sociocultural factor in the regional and business development of our State. It has been concluded that the basic criterion for development of the knowledge economy, which is common to most modern theories, is a creative person working in an environment where most of its needs are satisfied.

  5. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubshait, Abdulaziz; Wiese, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents like robots, as long as their appearance and/or behavior allows them to be perceived as intentional beings. Previous studies have shown that human appearance and reliable behavior induce mind perception to robot agents, and positively affect attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. What has not been investigated so far is whether different triggers of mind perception have an independent or interactive effect on attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. We examine this question by manipulating agent appearance (human vs. robot) and behavior (reliable vs. random) within the same paradigm and examine how congruent (human/reliable vs. robot/random) versus incongruent (human/random vs. robot/reliable) combinations of these triggers affect performance (i.e., gaze following) and attitudes (i.e., agent ratings) in human-robot interaction. The results show that both appearance and behavior affect human-robot interaction but that the two triggers seem to operate in isolation, with appearance more strongly impacting attitudes, and behavior more strongly affecting performance. The implications of these findings for human-robot interaction are discussed.

  6. 77 FR 3500 - VTECH Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, OR; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... firm should read VTech Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, Oregon. New... Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, Oregon. The intent of the Department's certification... workers from VTech Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, Oregon, who became totally...

  7. Human factors guidelines for nuclear power plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchel, J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, Waters et al. reported to the Human Factors Society on developing human factors criteria for a new reactor plant. They correctly indicated that much of the guidance documentation in human factors engineering has derived from MIL-STD-1472 and its antecedents. Guidelines for human-computer interface have sprung primarily from the Smith and Mosier compendium and its source documents. NUREG-0700, which is currently being updated, was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a general evaluation guide for inspecting control rooms. In addition, the Electric Power Research Institute, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, US Department of Energy, the NRC, and others have published a number of specialized documents on a range of subjects. The number of guidelines and standards has grown in the past few years to an impressive number, including those published by international organizations and professional societies. This paper provides an update on current efforts to provide appropriate guidance for the power industry and, perhaps more importantly, offers a perspective on how users should think about using the available materials and what else is needed. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) continues to be one of the principal participants in providing guidance to the utilities. Human factors guidelines is indeed a timely topic, currently of great interest to EPRI's constituents and to designers of new and upgraded nuclear power plants (NPMs) in the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Instrumentation and Control Upgrade Initiative programs

  8. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  9. Overview of NRC's human factors regulatory research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.D. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The human factors research program is divided into distinct and interrelated program activities: (1) Personnel Performance measurement, (2) Personnel Subsystem, (3) Human-System Interface, (4) Organization and Management, and (5) a group of Reliability Assessment activities. The purpose of the Personnel Performance Measurement activity is to improve the Agency's understanding of the factors influencing personnel performance and the effects on the safety of nuclear operations and maintenance by developing improvements to methods for collecting and managing personnel performance data. Personnel Subsystem research will broaden the understanding of such factors as staffing, qualifications, and training that influence human performance in the nuclear system and will develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to reduce any adverse impact of these influences on nuclear safety. Research in the Human-System Interface activity will provide the technical basis for ensuring that the interface between the system and the human user supports safe operations and maintenance. Organization and Management research will result in the development of tools for evaluating organization and management issues within the nuclear industry. And finally, the Reliability Assessment group of activities includes multidisciplinary research that will integrate human and hardware considerations for evaluating reliability and risk in NRC licensing, inspection, and regulatory decisions

  10. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF

  11. Human factors questionnaire as a tool for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Oliveira, Mauro V.; Augusto, Silas C.

    2009-01-01

    The human factors engineering (HFE) as a discipline, and as a process, seeks to discover and to apply knowledge about human capabilities and limitations to system and equipment design, ensuring that the system design, human tasks and work environment are compatible with the sensory, perceptual, cognitive and physical attributes of the personnel who operates systems and equipment. Risk significance considers the magnitude of the consequences (loss of life, material damage, environmental degradation) and the frequency of occurrence of a particular adverse event. The questionnaire design was based on the following definitions: the score and the classification of the nuclear safety risk. The principal benefit of applying an approach based on the risk significance in the development of the questionnaire is to ensure the identification and evaluation of the features of the projects, related to human factors, which affect the nuclear safety risk, the human actions and the safety of the nuclear plant systems. The human factors questionnaire developed in this study will provide valuable support for risk assessment, making possible the identification of design problems that can influence the evaluation of the nuclear safety risk. (author)

  12. Patient safety - the role of human factors and systems engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety.

  13. Patient Safety: The Role of Human Factors and Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety. PMID:20543237

  14. Human factors engineering evaluation of the UTR-10 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, D.; Nilius, D.; Heithoff, D.; Roche, G.; Sage, S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a description of a student design team's review and evaluation of Iowa State University's University Test Reactor (UTR-10). The review was based on how well the control room of the UTR-10 measured up to selected portions of NUREG-0800, chapter 18, Human Factor Engineering/Standard Review Plan Development. The review was conducted by inspecting the reactor and interviewing reactor operators. The control room workspace, instrumentation controls and other equipment were evaluated from a human factors engineering point of view that takes into account both system demands and operator capabilities. Identification, assessment, and suggestion for control room design modifications that correct inadequate or unsuitable items was made

  15. A human factors data bank for French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villemeur, A.; Mosneron-Dupin, F.; Bouissou, M.; Meslin, T.

    1986-01-01

    CONFUCIUS is a computerized data bank developed by Electricite de France to study human factors in nuclear power plants. A detailed and homogeneous grouping of described operation and maintenance errors as well as of performance times is possible with CONFUCIUS. It also incorporates a selection of statistical treatment softwares. Readily usable and modifiable, the system can easily evolve. It allows a wide range of applications (safety analysis, event analysis, training, human factors engineering, probabilistic analysis). Data derived from the analysis of significant events reported in power plants and from the analysis of simulator tests are used as inputs into this data bank

  16. Battelle's human factors program for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikiar, R.

    1983-10-01

    Battelle has been involved in a programmatic effort of technical assistance to the Division of Human Factors Safety of the NRC. This program involves the efforts of over 75 professionals engaged in over 20 projects. These projects span the areas of human factors engineering, procedures, examinations, training, staffing and qualifications, and utility management and organization. All of these bear, one way or another, on the role of operators in nuclear power plants. This programmatic effort can be viewed as part of an integrative approach to system safety

  17. Genetic and environmental factors in experimental and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, S.; Takebe, H.; Gelboin, H.V.; MaChahon, B.; Matsushima, T.; Sugimura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Recently technological advances in assaying mutagenic principles have revealed that there are many mutagens in the environment, some of which might be carcinogenic to human beings. Other advances in genetics have shown that genetic factors might play an important role in the induction of cancer in human beings, e.g., the high incidence of skin cancers in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. These proceedings deal with the relationships between genetic and environmental factors in carcinogenesis. The contributors cover mixed-function oxidases, pharmacogenetics, twin studies, DNA repair, immunology, and epidemiology.

  18. Human factors engineering applied to Control Centre Design of a research nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Larissa P. de; Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R., E-mail: larissapfarias@ymail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (DENN/SEESC/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab, de Usabilidade e Confiabilidade Humana; Monteiro, Beany G. [Universidade Federal do Rio Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Desenho Industrial

    2017-07-01

    The Human Factors Engineering (HFE) program is an essential aspect for the design of nuclear installations. The overall aim of the HFE program is the improvement of the operational reliability and safety of plant operation. The HFE program main purpose is to ensure that human factor practices are incorporated into the plant design, emphasizing man-machine interface issues and design improvement of the nuclear reactor Control Centre. The Control Centre of nuclear reactor is a combination of control rooms, control suites and local control stations, which are functionally connected and located on the reactor site. The objective of this paper is to present a design approach for the Control Centre of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotopes and for nuclear research, including human factor issues. The design approach is based on participatory design principles, using human factor standards, ergonomic guidelines, and the participation of a multidisciplinary team during all design phases. Using the information gathered, an initial sketch 3D of the Control Centre was developed. (author)

  19. Human factors engineering applied to Control Centre Design of a research nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Larissa P. de; Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Monteiro, Beany G.

    2017-01-01

    The Human Factors Engineering (HFE) program is an essential aspect for the design of nuclear installations. The overall aim of the HFE program is the improvement of the operational reliability and safety of plant operation. The HFE program main purpose is to ensure that human factor practices are incorporated into the plant design, emphasizing man-machine interface issues and design improvement of the nuclear reactor Control Centre. The Control Centre of nuclear reactor is a combination of control rooms, control suites and local control stations, which are functionally connected and located on the reactor site. The objective of this paper is to present a design approach for the Control Centre of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotopes and for nuclear research, including human factor issues. The design approach is based on participatory design principles, using human factor standards, ergonomic guidelines, and the participation of a multidisciplinary team during all design phases. Using the information gathered, an initial sketch 3D of the Control Centre was developed. (author)

  20. Vestibular factors influencing the biomedical support of humans in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, B K

    1988-01-01

    This paper will describe the biomedical support aspects of humans in space with respect to the vestibular system. The vestibular system is thought to be the primary sensory system involved in the short-term effects of space motion sickness although there is increasing evidence that many factors play a role in this complex set of symptoms. There is the possibility that an individual's inner sense of orientation may be strongly coupled with the susceptibility to space motion sickness. A variety of suggested countermeasures for space motion sickness will be described. Although there are no known ground-based tests that can predict space motion sickness, the search should go on. The long term effects of the vestibular system in weightlessness are still relatively unknown. Some preliminary data has shown that the otoconia are irregular in size and distribution following extended periods of weightlessness. The ramifications of this data are not yet known and because the data was obtained on lower order animals, definitive studies and results must wait until the space station era when higher primates can be studied for long durations. This leads us to artificial gravity, the last topic of this paper. The vestibular system is intimately tied to this question since it has been shown on Earth that exposure to a slow rotating room causes motion sickness for some period of time before adaptation occurs. If the artificial gravity is intermittent, will this mean that people will get sick every time they experience it? The data from many astronauts returning to Earth indicates that a variety of sensory illusions are present, especially immediately upon return to a 1-g environment. Oscillopsia or apparent motion of the visual surround upon head motion along with inappropriate eye motions for a given head motion, all indicate that there is much to be studied yet about the vestibular and CNS systems reaction to a sudden application of a steady state acceleration field like 1-g. From

  1. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  2. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices

  3. REGIONAL ASPECTS OF CONTINUING EDUCATION OF THE POPULATION IN THE CONTEXT OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleymanova F. G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated pace of change, modernization and innovative development of society require huge resources. Human potential, and above all, the potential of youth is, in our opinion, the central of them. In the article on the material of sociological research «The Continuing Education and the Social Well-being» conducted by the Department of social problems IEIE RAS SB, studied educational behavior, value assessment and motivation of continuing education among the economically active population of the region, compares the educational and professional potential of different groups of urban and rural population in two generations «youth - non-youth». «Youth» refers to the population aged 16-30 years, «non-youth» - a population of 31 to 45 years. The research problem that directed this research, is the lack of informed knowledge about the role of continuing education in the formation of human development of young people in different socio-territorial conditions. Amid quite a mass we of equipment for both urban and rural youth, the factor of computer and digital devices plays a role in the inclusion of young adults in continuing education. It was found a direct link of dissatisfaction about continuing education with lack of access to information technology (laptop, home Internet, digital office equipment, etc. and with low material wellbeing of the family. Along with the importance of information technology in continuing education, young adults still considers the most preferred forms of supplementary professional education (hereinafter SPE activities in organized courses with qualified teachers and methods. Differences in attitudes to supplementary professional education (SPE between urban and rural youth are identified, first, by less involvement in the real educational activity (in particular, in formal education, compensated, however, by large intentions plans to engage in continuing education. Secondly, by different structure of types

  4. Neurological aspects of human parvovirus B19 infection: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barah, Faraj; Whiteside, Sigrid; Batista, Sonia; Morris, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 has been linked with various clinical syndromes including neurological manifestations. However, its role in the latter remains not completely understood. Although the last 10 years witnessed a surge of case reports on B19-associated neurological aspects, the literature data remains scattered and heterogeneous, and epidemiological information on the incidence of B19-associated neurological aspects cannot be accurately extrapolated. The aim of this review is to identify the characteristics of cases of B19-associated neurological manifestations. A computerized systematic review of existing literature concerning cases of B19-related neurological aspects revealed 89 articles describing 129 patients; 79 (61.2%) were associated with CNS manifestations, 41 (31.8%) were associated with peripheral nervous system manifestations, and 9 (7.0%) were linked with myalgic encephalomyelitis. The majority of the cases (50/129) had encephalitis. Clinical characteristic features of these cases were analyzed, and possible pathological mechanisms were also described. In conclusion, B19 should be included in differential diagnosis of encephalitic syndromes of unknown etiology in all age groups. Diagnosis should rely on investigation of anti-B19 IgM antibodies and detection of B19 DNA in serum or CSF. Treatment of severe cases might benefit from a combined regime of intravenous immunoglobulins and steroids. To confirm these outcomes, goal-targeted studies are recommended to exactly identify epidemiological scenarios and explore potential pathogenic mechanisms of these complications. Performing retrospective and prospective and multicenter studies concerning B19 and neurological aspects in general, and B19 and encephalitic syndromes in particular, are required. © 2014 The Authors. Reviews in Medical Virology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24459081

  5. Revolutions and shifting paradigms in human factors & ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Kenneth R

    2006-07-01

    The "Revolution in Information Technology" has spawned a series of transformational revolutions in the nature and practice of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). "Generation 1" HFE evolved with a focus on adapting equipment, workplace and tasks to human capabilities and limitations. Generation 2, focused on cognitive systems integration, arose in response to the need to manage automation and dynamic function allocation. Generation 3 is focused on symbiotic technologies that can amplify human physical and cognitive capabilities. Generation 4 is emergent and is focused on biological enhancement of physical or cognitive capabilities. The shift from HFE Generations 1 and 2 to Generations 3 and 4 profoundly alters accepted boundary constraints on the adaptability of humans in complex systems design. Furthermore, it has opened an ethical divide between those that see cognitive and physical enhancement as a great benefit to society and those who perceive this as tampering with the fundamentals of human nature.

  6. Tissue localization of human trefoil factors 1, 2, and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Ole; Tornøe, Ida

    2007-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TTFs) are small, compact proteins coexpressed with mucins in the gastrointestinal tract. Three trefoil factors are known in mammals: TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3. They are implicated to play diverse roles in maintenance and repair of the gastrointestinal channel. We compared the expression...... pattern of the three trefoil factors analyzing mRNA from a panel of 20 human tissues by conventional reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR and, in addition, by real-time PCR. These findings were supported by immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human tissues using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised...... against these factors. TFF1 showed highest expression in the stomach and colon, whereas TFF2 and TFF3 showed highest expression in stomach and colon, respectively. All three TFFs were found in the ducts of pancreas. Whereas TFF2 was found to be restricted to these two tissues, the structurally more...

  7. Human factors considerations in control room modernization: Trends and personnel performance issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Stubler, B.; Kramer, J.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors topics associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. A human performance topic is an aspect of hybrid HSIs, such as a design or implementation feature, for which human performance concerns were identified. The topics were then evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety. Twelve topics were identified as potentially safety significant issues, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development. 6 refs

  8. Immunohistochemical localisation and developmental aspects of epidermal growth factor in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, L; Nexø, E; Damsgaard Mikkelsen, J

    1988-01-01

    The tissue localisation and time of first appearance of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) in the developing rat were investigated by means of immunohistochemistry, radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay. In this study we were able to show, that EGF appears prenatally in the lung and the kidney from...

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DETAILED HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDELINES FOR DIGITAL CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, W.; O'HARA, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute's hybrid control room project, detailed human factors engineering guidance was developed for designing human-system interfaces that may be affected by introduction of additional digital technology during modernization of nuclear power plants. The guidance addresses several aspects of human-system interaction: information display, interface management, soft controls, alarms, computer-based procedures, computerized operator support systems, communications, and workstation/workplace design. In this paper, the ways in which digital upgrades might affect users' interaction with systems in each of these contexts are briefly described, and the contents of the guidance developed for each of the topics is also described

  10. Critical human-factors issues in nuclear-power regulation and a recommended comprehensive human-factors long-range plan. Critical discussion of human factors areas of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, C.O.; Snyder, H.L.; Price, H.E.; Hornick, R.J.; Mackie, R.R.; Smillie, R.J.; Sugarman, R.C.

    1982-08-01

    This comprehensive long-range human factors plan for nuclear reactor regulation was developed by a Study Group of the Human Factors Society, Inc. This Study Group was selected by the Executive Council of the Society to provide a balanced, experienced human factors perspective to the applications of human factors scientific and engineering knowledge to nuclear power generation. The report is presented in three volumes. Volume 1 contains an Executive Summary of the 18-month effort and its conclusions. Volume 2 summarizes all known nuclear-related human factors activities, evaluates these activities wherever adequate information is available, and describes the recommended long-range (10-year) plan for human factors in regulation. Volume 3 elaborates upon each of the human factors issues and areas of recommended human factors involvement contained in the plan, and discusses the logic that led to the recommendations

  11. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.; Manning, J.J.; Bovell, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure

  12. Approaches for the integration of human factors into the upgrading and refurbishment of control rooms - Summary and conclusions - Principal Working Group 1 on Operating Experience and Human Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    a broad range of interested parties, in relation to the upgrading and refurbishing of control rooms. The workshop attracted 16 contributions from 13 different countries and provided a range of insights and lessons based on design experience, practical experience, research and regulatory needs, and an opportunity for the exchange of experiences and approaches on a range of important topics. The workshop also sought to identify and prioritize areas meriting further consideration and research. The 34 participants shared their experiences and perceptions on a broad number of aspects including: - The identification of human factors issues from the utility, vendor, and regulatory perspectives. - Ensuring the inclusion and implementation of human factors issues within the upgrade or refurbishment process. - How this change process should be managed. - Feedback from practical experience and real concerns. - Meeting modern human factors requirements. This report presents a summary of the conclusions and recommendations from the workshop. five main points were considered by the participants in the workshop as important areas for future work or research: - There is a need to collate a 'lessons learnt' database relating to human factors and control room upgrades; - There is a need to co-ordinate the method/tool development and use in order to better support evaluations and comparisons; - there is a need to show how to establish a performance baseline before change in order to demonstrate that performance is at least as good, or better, that prior to the change; - It is important to support the use of a 'control room philosophy' prior to, during, and after the upgrade; - There is a need to have a better-shared understanding of the design process and how the different disciplines involved contribute to it

  13. Comorbidity and radiation: methodological aspects of health assessment of persons exposed to the Chornobyl accident factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosach, O V

    2013-01-01

    Comorbidity is one of the most challenging problems of a modern medicine. In a population exposed to the factors of the Chornobyl accident there is an obvious increase in the number of diseases occurring simultaneously against the background of rising prevalence of different classes of chronic medical nosology. The scientific data analysis are presented on the methodological approaches that can be used to create a specialized system for integrated assessment of the health of patients with comorbid disorders. Developing such a system it should be taken into account the trends of changes in the incidence, prevalence and structure of chronic disease, factors and regularities of comorbid disease in the cohorts of Chornobyl accident clean-up workers, evacuees and dwellers of contaminated territories. The system should provide a non-random selection of combinations (clusters) of the most common diseases with serious consequences for the survivors. Nosach O. V., 2013.

  14. Studies into abnormal aggression in humans and rodents: Methodological and translational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Jozsef

    2017-05-01

    Here we review the principles based on which aggression is rendered abnormal in humans and laboratory rodents, and comparatively overview the main methodological approaches based on which this behavior is studied in the two categories of subjects. It appears that the discriminating property of abnormal aggression is rule breaking, which renders aggression dysfunctional from the point of view of the perpetrator. We show that rodent models of abnormal aggression were created by the translation of human conditions into rodent equivalents, and discuss how findings obtained with such models may be "translated back" to human conditions when the mechanisms underlying aggression and its possibilities of treatment are investigated. We suggest that the complementary nature of human and rodent research approaches invite a more intense cross-talk between the two sides of aggression research than the one presently observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of colorectal cancer and its metastases in rodent models: comparative aspects with those in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobaek-Larsen, M; Thorup, I; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common cancer forms developing in industrialized countries, and its incidence appears to be rising. Studies of human population groups provide insufficient information about carcinogenesis, pathogenesis, and treatment of CRC...

  16. Human prion diseases in The Netherlands : clinico-pathological, genetic and molecular aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders that can be sporadic, inherited or acquired by infection. In humans, TSEs comprise three major groups showing a wide phenotypic heterogeneity: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD),

  17. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that traditional safety management needs to be improved on the aspect of preparedness for coping with expected and unexpected deviations, avoiding an overly optimistic reliance on safety systems. Remembering recent major accidents, such as the Deep Water Horizon, the Texas City....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...

  18. Epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane; Santos, Márcio; Tunon, Gabriel; Cunha, Luana; Magalhães, Lucas; Moraes, Juliana; Ramalho, Danielle; Lima, Sanmy; Pacheco, José Antônio; Lipscomb, Michael; Ribeiro de Jesus, Amélia; Pacheco de Almeida, Roque

    2017-05-11

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs) are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs for leishmaniasis increased from 4.73% in 2008 to 12.69% in 2014. Thus, these studies aimed to delineate the spatial distribution and epidemiological aspects of human and canine VL as mutually supportive for increased incidence. The number of human cases of VL and the frequency of canine positive serology for VL both increased between 2008 and 2014. Spatial distribution analyses mapped areas of the city with the highest concentration of human and canine VL cases. The neighbourhoods that showed the highest disease frequency were located on the outskirts of the city and in urbanised areas or subjected to development. Exponential increase in VL-positive dogs further suggests that the disease is expanding in urban areas, where it can serve as a reservoir for transmission of dogs to humans via the sand fly vector.

  19. Epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Campos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs for leishmaniasis increased from 4.73% in 2008 to 12.69% in 2014. Thus, these studies aimed to delineate the spatial distribution and epidemiological aspects of human and canine VL as mutually supportive for increased incidence. The number of human cases of VL and the frequency of canine positive serology for VL both increased between 2008 and 2014. Spatial distribution analyses mapped areas of the city with the highest concentration of human and canine VL cases. The neighbourhoods that showed the highest disease frequency were located on the outskirts of the city and in urbanised areas or subjected to development. Exponential increase in VL-positive dogs further suggests that the disease is expanding in urban areas, where it can serve as a reservoir for transmission of dogs to humans via the sand fly vector.

  20. Integrating human factors and artificial intelligence in the development of human-machine cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Lindenberg, J.; Neericx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing machine intelligence leads to a shift from a mere interactive to a much more complex cooperative human-machine relation requiring a multidisciplinary development approach. This paper presents a generic multidisciplinary cognitive engineering method CE+ for the integration of human factors

  1. Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

  2. About social and cultural aspects of human nature in the context of philosophical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kostiuchkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the approaches to socio­cultural understanding of human nature in the context of philosophical anthropology, analyzes the essence of human nature contradictions inherent in the contradiction between biological and social components; author focuses attention on the concept of «identity» in the context of philosophical anthropology and characterization of the status of human life; put forward a reasoned statement that outlook, as the level of philosophical understanding of the world, combining both biological and social components of human nature. It is emphasized that universal principle transistorychnym public attitudes towards human life is the recognition of its absolute value in different dimensions ­ religious, philosophical, scientific. The author notes that religious, especially biblical doctrine emphasizes the value of human life that flows from dignity of man, created in God’s image, a rational being who comes to Earth as, in a sense, a representative of God. The article stresses the urgency of a new philosophical paradigm as an important ideological guideline that requires perceive and understand the biological basis of man is not as indispensable, but neutral background of social life, but as a basis upon which and through which a person is transformed into a cultural and civilized being.

  3. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  4. Expression of human soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR NJ TONUKARI

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... bio-technique in bacterial (Lin et al., 2007), yeast (Xu et al., 2003) ... biological activity, such as human somatotropin (hST) .... sion way with chloroplast transit peptide (Wang et al., .... chloroplast protein synthesis capacity by massive expression of a ... necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in vivo.

  5. SafetyNet. Human factors safety training on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Pedrali, M.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes user requirements to an Internet based distance learning system of human factors training, i.e. the SafetyNet prototype, within the aviation (pilots and air traffic control), maritime and medical domains. User requirements totraining have been elicited through 19 semi...

  6. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  7. Sexual orientation and risk factors for Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of homosexuality attracts global debate, given that this constitutes risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases. An exploration of socio-cultural, religious and sexual activities of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex sector would inform future Human Immunodeficiency Virus programming.

  8. The future of intelligent manufacturing systems and human factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Stahre, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the results of a 3 year European project are described. In this project 20 experts in the field of human factors define the most promising way of using the European work force in manufacturing in the future. Based on discussions between the experts and participating companies and

  9. Pattern of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. With immunohistochemistry (IHC), breast cancer is classified into four groups based on IHC profile of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) expression, positive (+) and/or ...

  10. Human intrinsic factor expressed in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Laursen, Niels B; Nexø, Ebba

    2003-01-01

    Intrinsic factor (IF) is the gastric protein that promotes the intestinal uptake of vitamin B12. Gastric IF from animal sources is used in diagnostic tests and in vitamin pills. However, administration of animal IF to humans becomes disadvantageous because of possible pathogenic transmission...

  11. Impacts of geo-physical factors and human disturbance on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined vegetation-disturbance-environment relationships in the Xiaomengyang Section of Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve (XNR) using multivariate analysis to understand the impacts of geo-physical factors and human disturbance on vegetation along the highway corridor. We found that native forests were the best ...

  12. The influence of marital factors on genital human papilloma virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To study the association between marital factors and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the cervix. Method: The subjects were 450 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynaecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the ...

  13. Prevalence And Risk Factors For Human Pappiloma Virus Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Pappiloma Virus (HPV) infection is a disease of global public health importance, culminating into a high risk of cervical cancer. Most of the risk factors are modifiable, thus making HPV itself preventable. Efforts towards community HPV prevention and vaccination have not yielded the desired results, most especially ...

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors of High Risk Human Papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in northern Nigeria, yet the pattern of infection with human papillomavirus, the principal aetiologic agent is unknown. This was a preliminary study conducted in two referral hospitals in order to establish base-line data on the prevalence and risk factors for the infection in ...

  15. Human factors in organizational design and management VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Dhondt, S.

    1998-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management held in The Hague, The Netherlands, August 19-22, 1998. The Symposium was sponsored jointly by the International Ergonomics Society, the Dutch Ergonomics Society, NIA TNO and

  16. The factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    The factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Human Services Survey across a sample of client service employees. C. Steyn. 6ABSTRACT. 12The negative consequences of burnout in the client service environment point to the importance of further research into the manner in which the unique challenges faced by ...

  17. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such as the underutilisation of available skills, tolerance for individual preferences, and dynamically, and informally refining a role objective while an employee is occupying a certain role. The important professional skills required by individuals to cope with these real life factors are also explored in the skills gaps management context. Moreover, these industries need a profile they refer to as Special Forces, which denotes a high calibre of worker that possesses well-developed professional skills whilst having advanced technical expertise and sufficient experience. This resource profile is required largely due to the poor management of human resource processes in practice and the current reported lack of adequate skills. Furthermore, this study refers to the recent lack of a working definition for these Special Forces leading to the omitted active development of these profiles in industry today, which appears to become a key human performance inhibiting factor.

  18. Understanding human factors in cyber security as a dynamic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, H.J.; Vliet, A.J. van; Ven, J.G.S. van de; Jol, S.C.; Broekman, C.C.M.T.

    2018-01-01

    The perspective of human factors is largely missing from the wider cyber security dialogue and its scope is often limited. We propose a framework in which we consider cyber security as a state of a system. System change is brought on by an entity’s behavior. Interventions are ways of changing

  19. Anorexia in human and experimental animal models: physiological aspects related to neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Uezono, Yasuhito; Ueta, Yoichi

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia, a loss of appetite for food, can be caused by various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, firstly, clinical aspects of anorexia nervosa are summarized in brief. Secondly, hypothalamic neuropeptides responsible for feeding regulation in each hypothalamic nucleus are discussed. Finally, three different types of anorexigenic animal models; dehydration-induced anorexia, cisplatin-induced anorexia and cancer anorexia-cachexia, are introduced. In conclusion, hypothalamic neuropeptides may give us novel insight to understand and find effective therapeutics strategy essential for various kinds of anorexia.

  20. The use of simulation in the development of human factors guidelines for alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Brown, W.S.; Wachtel, J.; Persensky, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance was developed based on a broad review and analysis of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support guidance developed were identified. Experimental research is currently underway to address the highest priority topics: alarm processing and display characteristics. This paper provides an overview of the approach to guidance development and discusses the role of simulation in the development approach. Finally, the current simulator-based experiment is described to illustrate how the alarm system design features are being studied