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Sample records for human face discrimination

  1. Discrimination of human and dog faces and inversion responses in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Anaïs; Amadei, Eleonora; Ligout, Séverine; Guo, Kun; Meints, Kerstin; Mills, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Although domestic dogs can respond to many facial cues displayed by other dogs and humans, it remains unclear whether they can differentiate individual dogs or humans based on facial cues alone and, if so, whether they would demonstrate the face inversion effect, a behavioural hallmark commonly used in primates to differentiate face processing from object processing. In this study, we first established the applicability of the visual paired comparison (VPC or preferential looking) procedure for dogs using a simple object discrimination task with 2D pictures. The animals demonstrated a clear looking preference for novel objects when simultaneously presented with prior-exposed familiar objects. We then adopted this VPC procedure to assess their face discrimination and inversion responses. Dogs showed a deviation from random behaviour, indicating discrimination capability when inspecting upright dog faces, human faces and object images; but the pattern of viewing preference was dependent upon image category. They directed longer viewing time at novel (vs. familiar) human faces and objects, but not at dog faces, instead, a longer viewing time at familiar (vs. novel) dog faces was observed. No significant looking preference was detected for inverted images regardless of image category. Our results indicate that domestic dogs can use facial cues alone to differentiate individual dogs and humans and that they exhibit a non-specific inversion response. In addition, the discrimination response by dogs of human and dog faces appears to differ with the type of face involved.

  2. Learning to Discriminate Face Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although visual feature leaning has been well studied, we still know little about the mechanisms of perceptual learning of complex object. Here, human perceptual learning in discrimination of in-depth orientation of face view was studied using psychophysics, EEG and fMRI. We trained subjects to discriminate face orientations around a face view (i.e. 30° over eight daily sessions, which resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity to the face view orientation. This improved sensitivity was highly specific to the trained orientation and persisted up to six months. Different from perceptual learning of simple visual features, this orientation-specific learning effect could completely transfer across changes in face size, visual field and face identity. A complete transfer also occurred between two partial face images that were mutually exclusive but constituted a complete face. However, the transfer of the learning effect between upright and inverted faces and between a face and a paperclip object was very weak. Before and after training, we measured EEG and fMRI BOLD signals responding to both the trained and the untrained face views. Analyses of ERPs and induced gamma activity showed that face view discrimination training led to a larger reduction of N170 latency at the left occipital-temporal area and a concurrent larger decrease of induced gamma activity at the left frontal area with the trained face view, compared with the untrained ones. BOLD signal amplitude and MVPA analyses showed that, in face-selective cortical areas, training did not lead to a significant amplitude change, but induced a more reliable spatial pattern of neural activity in the left FFA. These results suggest that the visual system had learned how to compute face orientation from face configural information more accurately and that a large amount of plastic changes took place at a level of higher visual processing where size-, location-, and identity

  3. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  4. Visual discrimination of primate species based on faces in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan A; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2018-01-23

    Many primate studies have investigated discrimination of individual faces within the same species. However, few studies have looked at discrimination between primate species faces at the categorical level. This study systematically examined the factors important for visual discrimination between primate species faces in chimpanzees, including: colour, orientation, familiarity, and perceptual similarity. Five adult female chimpanzees were tested on their ability to discriminate identical and categorical (non-identical) images of different primate species faces in a series of touchscreen matching-to-sample experiments. Discrimination performance for chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan faces was better in colour than in greyscale. An inversion effect was also found, with higher accuracy for upright than inverted faces. Discrimination performance for unfamiliar (baboon and capuchin monkey) and highly familiar (chimpanzee and human) but perceptually different species was equally high. After excluding effects of colour and familiarity, difficulty in discriminating between different species faces can be best explained by their perceptual similarity to each other. Categorical discrimination performance for unfamiliar, perceptually similar faces (gorilla and orangutan) was significantly worse than unfamiliar, perceptually different faces (baboon and capuchin monkey). Moreover, multidimensional scaling analysis of the image similarity data based on local feature matching revealed greater similarity between chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan faces than between human, baboon and capuchin monkey faces. We conclude our chimpanzees appear to perceive similarity in primate faces in a similar way to humans. Information about perceptual similarity is likely prioritized over the potential influence of previous experience or a conceptual representation of species for categorical discrimination between species faces.

  5. Neural correlates of face gender discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junzhu; Tan, Qingleng; Fang, Fang

    2013-04-01

    Using combined psychophysics and event-related potentials (ERPs), we investigated the effect of perceptual learning on face gender discrimination and probe the neural correlates of the learning effect. Human subjects were trained to perform a gender discrimination task with male or female faces. Before and after training, they were tested with the trained faces and other faces with the same and opposite genders. ERPs responding to these faces were recorded. Psychophysical results showed that training significantly improved subjects' discrimination performance and the improvement was specific to the trained gender, as well as to the trained identities. The training effect indicates that learning occurs at two levels-the category level (gender) and the exemplar level (identity). ERP analyses showed that the gender and identity learning was associated with the N170 latency reduction at the left occipital-temporal area and the N170 amplitude reduction at the right occipital-temporal area, respectively. These findings provide evidence for the facilitation model and the sharpening model on neuronal plasticity from visual experience, suggesting a faster processing speed and a sparser representation of face induced by perceptual learning.

  6. Cross-correlation in face discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, William A.; Loffler, Gunter; Tucha, Lara

    2013-01-01

    An extensive body of literature suggests that face perception depends critically upon specialised face processing mechanisms. Although it seems clear that specialised face processing is required to explain face recognition, face discrimination is a simpler task that could possibly be solved with a

  7. Evolutionary Relevance and Experience Contribute to Face Discrimination in Infant Macaques ("Macaca mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Paukner, Annika

    2016-01-01

    In human children and adults, familiar face types--typically own-age and own-species faces--are discriminated better than other face types; however, human infants do not appear to exhibit an own-age bias but instead better discriminate adult faces, which they see more often. There are two possible explanations for this pattern: Perceptual…

  8. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Nichols

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  9. Local discriminability determines the strength of holistic processing for faces in the Fusiform Face Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eGoffaux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the Fusiform Face Area (FFA is not exclusively dedicated to the interactive processing of face features, but also contains neurons sensitive to local features. This suggests the existence of both interactive and local processing modes, consistent with recent behavioral findings that the strength of interactive feature processing (IFP engages most strongly when similar features need to be disambiguated.Here we address whether the engagement of the FFA into interactive versus featural representational modes is governed by local feature discriminability. We scanned human participants while they matched target features within face pairs, independently of the context of distracter features. IFP was operationalized as the failure to match the target without being distracted by distracter features. Picture-plane inversion was used to disrupt IFP while preserving input properties. We found that FFA activation was comparably strong, irrespective of whether similar target features were embedded in dissimilar contexts (i.e., inducing robust IFP or dissimilar target features were embedded in the same context, (i.e., engaging local processing. Second, inversion decreased FFA activation to faces most robustly when similar target features were embedded in dissimilar contexts, indicating that FFA engages into IFP mainly when features cannot be disambiguated at a local level. Third, by means of Spearman rank correlation tests, we show that the local processing of feature differences in the FFA is supported to a large extent by the Occipital Face Area (OFA, the Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC, and early visual cortex (EVC, suggesting that these regions encode the local aspects of face information. The present findings confirm the co-existence of holistic and featural representations in the FFA. Furthermore, they establish FFA as the main contributor to the featural/holistic representational mode switches determined by local

  10. Picasso: (in)human face

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Rejecting the notion that Picasso's representations of faces should always be considered in a biographical context as portraits, it is argued that in considering them as human faces we encounter a crisis in the idea of an essential humanity. The essay then discusses Picasso's faces relation to Georges Bataille's treatment of vernacular portrait photography and of animality in human emotional expression, arguing that Picasso's human faces court the inhuman. This inhuman countenance, bred so ef...

  11. Face Spoof Attack Recognition Using Discriminative Image Patches

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    Zahid Akhtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition systems are now being used in many applications such as border crossings, banks, and mobile payments. The wide scale deployment of facial recognition systems has attracted intensive attention to the reliability of face biometrics against spoof attacks, where a photo, a video, or a 3D mask of a genuine user’s face can be used to gain illegitimate access to facilities or services. Though several face antispoofing or liveness detection methods (which determine at the time of capture whether a face is live or spoof have been proposed, the issue is still unsolved due to difficulty in finding discriminative and computationally inexpensive features and methods for spoof attacks. In addition, existing techniques use whole face image or complete video for liveness detection. However, often certain face regions (video frames are redundant or correspond to the clutter in the image (video, thus leading generally to low performances. Therefore, we propose seven novel methods to find discriminative image patches, which we define as regions that are salient, instrumental, and class-specific. Four well-known classifiers, namely, support vector machine (SVM, Naive-Bayes, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA, and Ensemble, are then used to distinguish between genuine and spoof faces using a voting based scheme. Experimental analysis on two publicly available databases (Idiap REPLAY-ATTACK and CASIA-FASD shows promising results compared to existing works.

  12. Discriminating Projections for Estimating Face Age in Wild Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Ricanek, Karl [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach to estimating the age of a human from a single uncontrolled image. Current face age estimation algorithms work well in highly controlled images, and some are robust to changes in illumination, but it is usually assumed that images are close to frontal. This bias is clearly seen in the datasets that are commonly used to evaluate age estimation, which either entirely or mostly consist of frontal images. Using pose-specific projections, our algorithm maps image features into a pose-insensitive latent space that is discriminative with respect to age. Age estimation is then performed using a multi-class SVM. We show that our approach outperforms other published results on the Images of Groups dataset, which is the only age-related dataset with a non-trivial number of off-axis face images, and that we are competitive with recent age estimation algorithms on the mostly-frontal FG-NET dataset. We also experimentally demonstrate that our feature projections introduce insensitivity to pose.

  13. A parametric study of fear generalization to faces and non-face objects: relationship to discrimination thresholds

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    Daphne J. Holt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fear generalization is the production of fear responses to a stimulus that is similar – but not identical - to a threatening stimulus. Although prior studies have found that fear generalization magnitudes are qualitatively related to the degree of perceptual similarity to the threatening stimulus, the precise relationship between these two functions has not been measured systematically. Also, it remains unknown whether fear generalization mechanisms differ for social and non-social information.To examine these questions, we measured perceptual discrimination and fear generalization in the same subjects, using images of human faces and non-face control stimuli (blobs that were perceptually matched to the faces. First, each subject’s ability to discriminate between pairs of faces or blobs was measured. Each subject then underwent a Pavlovian fear conditioning procedure, in which each of the paired stimuli were either followed (CS+ or not followed (CS- by a shock. Skin conductance responses (SCRs were also measured. Subjects were then presented with the CS+, CS- and five levels of a CS+-to-CS- morph continuum between the paired stimuli, based on individual discrimination thresholds. Finally, subjects rated the likelihood that each stimulus had been followed by a shock. Subjects showed both autonomic (SCR-based and conscious (ratings-based fear responses to morphs that they could not discriminate from the CS+ (generalization. For both faces and non-face objects, fear generalization was not found above discrimination thresholds. However, subjects exhibited greater fear generalization in the shock likelihood ratings compared to the SCRs, particularly for faces. These findings reveal that autonomic threat detection mechanisms in humans are highly sensitive to small perceptual differences between stimuli. Also, the conscious evaluation of threat shows broader generalization than autonomic responses, biased towards labeling a stimulus as threatening.

  14. Giant pandas can discriminate the emotions of human facial pictures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Youxu Li; Qiang Dai; Rong Hou; Zhihe Zhang; Peng Chen; Rui Xue; Feifei Feng; Chao Chen; Jiabin Liu; Xiaodong Gu; Zejun Zhang; Dunwu Qi

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) can discriminate face-like shapes, but little is known about their cognitive ability with respect to the emotional expressions of humans...

  15. Individual discriminative face recognition models based on subsets of features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    person from another using only subsets of features will both decrease the computational cost and increase the generalization capacity of the face recognition algorithm. Moreover, identifying which are the features that better discriminate between persons will also provide a deeper understanding...

  16. Face Context Advantage Explained by Vernier and Separation Discrimination Acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh R Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face-context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and head-outline can be explained in terms of two-point separation measurements, obeying Weber's law as established in the literature. We also demonstrate that performance improvements due to the presence of the mouth can be explained in terms of vernier acuity judgements between eye positions and the corners of the mouth. Overall, our study shows that the improvements in perception of facial features due to the face-context effect can be traced to well understood basic visual measurements that may play a very general role in perceptual measurements of distance. Deficiencies in these measurements may also play a role in prosopagnosia. Additionaly, we show interference of the eyebrows with the face-inversion effect for interocular discrimination.

  17. Face context advantage explained by vernier and separation discrimination acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesker, Michael; Wilson, Hugh R

    2012-01-01

    Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and head-outline can be explained in terms of two-point separation measurements, obeying Weber's law as established in the literature. We also demonstrate that performance improvements due to the presence of the mouth can be explained in terms of Vernier acuity judgments between eye positions and the corners of the mouth. Overall, our study shows that the improvements in perception of facial features due to the face context effect can be traced to well understood basic visual measurements that may play a very general role in perceptual measurements of distance. Deficiencies in these measurements may also play a role in prosopagnosia. Additionally, we show interference of the eyebrows with the face-inversion effect for interocular discrimination.

  18. Human faces are slower than chimpanzee faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Burrows

    Full Text Available While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech?Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers.These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on human facial musculature to slow down while the function of this muscle

  19. Discriminative Deep Metric Learning for Face and Kinship Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiwen; Hu, Junlin; Tan, Yap-Peng

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a new discriminative deep metric learning (DDML) method for face and kinship verification in wild conditions. While metric learning has achieved reasonably good performance in face and kinship verification, most existing metric learning methods aim to learn a single Mahalanobis distance metric to maximize the inter-class variations and minimize the intra-class variations, which cannot capture the nonlinear manifold where face images usually lie on. To address this, we propose a DDML method to train a deep neural network to learn a set of hierarchical nonlinear transformations to project face pairs into the same latent feature space, under which the distance of each positive pair is reduced and that of each negative pair is enlarged. To better use the commonality of multiple feature descriptors to make all the features more robust for face and kinship verification, we develop a discriminative deep multi-metric learning method to jointly learn multiple neural networks, under which the correlation of different features of each sample is maximized, and the distance of each positive pair is reduced and that of each negative pair is enlarged. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed methods achieve the acceptable results in both face and kinship verification.

  20. A face recognition algorithm based on multiple individual discriminative models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    Abstract—In this paper, a novel algorithm for facial recognition is proposed. The technique combines the color texture and geometrical configuration provided by face images. Landmarks and pixel intensities are used by Principal Component Analysis and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis to associate...... facial image corresponds to a person in the database. Each projection is also able to visualizing the most discriminative facial features of the person associated to the projection. The performance of the proposed method is tested in two experiments. Results point out the proposed technique...... as an accurate and robust tool for facial identification and unknown detection....

  1. Demodicidosis Involving Human Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Hati

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available From the face of each of 9 patients having rosacea-like lesions the follicle mites identified as Demodex folliculorum (DF (Simon were in varying numbers. In our control cases no mites were demonstrated from similar sites. Treatment with one percent lindane (Cosmascab lotion-Napha applied locally for seven consecutive days improved the condition in all patients.

  2. Quaternion-based discriminant analysis method for color face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Pattern recognition techniques have been used to automatically recognize the objects, personal identities, predict the function of protein, the category of the cancer, identify lesion, perform product inspection, and so on. In this paper we propose a novel quaternion-based discriminant method. This method represents and classifies color images in a simple and mathematically tractable way. The proposed method is suitable for a large variety of real-world applications such as color face recognition and classification of the ground target shown in multispectrum remote images. This method first uses the quaternion number to denote the pixel in the color image and exploits a quaternion vector to represent the color image. This method then uses the linear discriminant analysis algorithm to transform the quaternion vector into a lower-dimensional quaternion vector and classifies it in this space. The experimental results show that the proposed method can obtain a very high accuracy for color face recognition.

  3. Different faces of discrimination: perceived discrimination among homeless adults with mental illness in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skosireva, Anna; O'Campo, Patricia; Zerger, Suzanne; Chambers, Catharine; Gapka, Susan; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2014-09-07

    Research on discrimination in healthcare settings has primarily focused on health implications of race-based discrimination among ethno-racial minority groups. Little is known about discrimination experiences of other marginalized populations, particularly groups facing multiple disadvantages who may be subjected to other/multiple forms of discrimination. (1) To examine the prevalence of perceived discrimination due to homelessness/poverty, mental illness/alcohol/drug related problems, and race/ethnicity/skin color while seeking healthcare in the past year among racially diverse homeless adults with mental illness; (2) To identify whether perceiving certain types of discrimination is associated with increased likelihood of perceiving other kinds of discrimination; and (3) To examine association of these perceived discrimination experiences with socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported measures of psychiatric symptomatology and substance use, and Emergency Department utilization. We used baseline data from the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial of Housing First for homeless adults with mental illness (n = 550). Bivariate statistics and multivariable logistic regression models were used for the analysis. Perceived discrimination related to homelessness/poverty (30.4%) and mental illness/alcohol/substance use (32.5%) is prevalent among ethnically diverse homeless adults with mental illness in healthcare settings. Only 15% of the total participants reported discrimination due to race/ethnicity/skin color. After controlling for relevant confounders and presence of psychosis, all types of discrimination in healthcare settings were associated with more frequent ED use, a greater - 3 - severity of lifetime substance abuse, and mental health problems. Perceiving discrimination of one type was associated with increased likelihood of perceiving other kinds of discrimination. Understanding the experience of discrimination in healthcare

  4. Comparing the face inversion effect in crows and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Katharina F; Wagener, Lysann; Ostojić, Ljerka; Clayton, Nicola S; Nieder, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Humans show impaired recognition of faces that are presented upside down, a phenomenon termed face inversion effect, which is thought to reflect the special relevance of faces for humans. Here, we investigated whether a phylogenetically distantly related avian species, the carrion crow, with similar socio-cognitive abilities to human and non-human primates, exhibits a face inversion effect. In a delayed matching-to-sample task, two crows had to differentiate profiles of crow faces as well as matched controls, presented both upright and inverted. Because crows can discriminate humans based on their faces, we also assessed the face inversion effect using human faces. Both crows performed better with crow faces than with human faces and performed worse when responding to inverted pictures in general compared to upright pictures. However, neither of the crows showed a face inversion effect. For comparative reasons, the tests were repeated with human subjects. As expected, humans showed a face-specific inversion effect. Therefore, we did not find any evidence that crows-like humans-process faces as a special visual stimulus. Instead, individual recognition in crows may be based on cues other than a conspecific's facial profile, such as their body, or on processing of local features rather than holistic processing.

  5. The Role of the Right to Non-Discrimination While Facing Colonial Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Víctor Schroeder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of human being that takes as starting point the conception of the subject arisen from the modern imagination has proven itself exclusionary. The colonial reasoning results in a vulnerabilization process of subjects based on specific characteristics such as race, gender, ethnicity and sexuality. The International Human Rights Law responds to the demand of subalternized subjects through the no subordination face of the right to non-discrimination, reproving treatments that create or perpetuate situations of oppression, and materializing strategies to face the individualist conception of the right to equality.

  6. Mnemonic discrimination of similar face stimuli and a potential mechanism for the "other race" effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Allen; Murray, Elizabeth; Yassa, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Face recognition is an important component of successful social interactions in humans. A large literature in social psychology has focused on the phenomenon termed the "other race" (ORE) effect, the tendency to be more proficient with face recognition within one's own ethnic group compared with other ethnic groups. Several potential hypotheses have been proposed for this effect, including perceptual expertise, social grouping, and holistic face processing. Recent work on mnemonic discrimination (i.e., the ability to resolve mnemonic interference among similar experiences) may provide a mechanistic account for the ORE. In the current study, we examined how discrimination and generalization in the presence of mnemonic interference may contribute to the ORE. We developed a database of computerized faces divided evenly among ethnic origins (Black, Caucasian, East Asian, South Asian), as well as morphed face stimuli that varied in the amount of similarity to the original stimuli (30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% morphs). Participants first examined the original unmorphed stimuli during study, then during test were asked to judge the prior occurrence of repetitions (targets), morphed stimuli (lures), and new stimuli (foils). We examined participants' ability to correctly reject similar morphed lures and found that it increased linearly as a function of face dissimilarity. We additionally found that Caucasian participants' mnemonic discrimination-generalization functions were sharply tuned for Caucasian faces but considerably less tuned for East Asian and Black faces. These results suggest that expertise plays an important role in resolving mnemonic interference, which may offer a mechanistic account for the ORE. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Human bites of the face

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of human bites of the face in black Africans, the present study shows a marked female preponderance both as assailants (95.5%) and victims (81.8%); Venter reports figures of 66.7% female and 33.3% male victims; Muguti et al.3 56% female and 44% male victims (these included bites to other parts of the body) with 61 % of ...

  8. Modeling human dynamics of face-to-face interaction networks

    CERN Document Server

    Starnini, Michele; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-01-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of inter-conversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents which perform a random walk in a two dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  9. Temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barrat, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented levels of details and scale. Wearable sensors are opening up a new window on human mobility and proximity at the finest resolution of face-to-face proximity. As a consequence, empirical data describing social and behavioral networks are acquiring a longitudinal dimension that brings forth new challenges for analysis and modeling. Here we review recent work on the representation and analysis of temporal networks of face-to-face human proximity, based on large-scale datasets collected in the context of the SocioPatterns collaboration. We show that the raw behavioral data can be studied at various levels of coarse-graining, which turn out to be complementary to one another, with each level exposing different features of the underlying system. We briefly review a generative model of temporal contact networks that reproduces some statistical observables. Then, we shift our focus from surface ...

  10. Discriminative Local Sparse Representations for Robust Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi; Srinivas, Umamahesh; Do, Thong T.; Monga, Vishal; Tran, Trac D.

    2011-01-01

    A key recent advance in face recognition models a test face image as a sparse linear combination of a set of training face images. The resulting sparse representations have been shown to possess robustness against a variety of distortions like random pixel corruption, occlusion and disguise. This approach however makes the restrictive (in many scenarios) assumption that test faces must be perfectly aligned (or registered) to the training data prior to classification. In this paper, we propose...

  11. Intersensory Redundancy Hinders Face Discrimination in Preschool Children: Evidence for Visual Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Argumosa, Melissa A.; Lopez, Hassel

    2014-01-01

    Although infants and children show impressive face-processing skills, little research has focused on the conditions that facilitate versus impair face perception. According to the intersensory redundancy hypothesis (IRH), face discrimination, which relies on detection of visual featural information, should be impaired in the context of…

  12. Visual and cognitive processing of face information in schizophrenia: detection, discrimination and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Norton, Daniel; McBain, Ryan; Ongur, Dost; Heckers, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Face recognition involves several physiological and psychological processes, including those in visual, cognitive and affective domains. Studies have found that schizophrenia patients are deficient at recognizing facial emotions, yet visual and cognitive processing of facial information in this population has not been systematically examined. In this study, we examined visual detection, perceptual discrimination and working memory of faces as well as non-face visual objects in patients. Visual detection was measured by accuracy when detecting the presence of a briefly displayed face, image which contained only the basic configural information of a face. Perceptual discrimination was measured by discriminability scores for individual facial identity images, in which the degree of similarity between images was systematically varied via morphing. Working memory was measured by the discriminability scores when two comparison face images were separated by 3 or 10 s. All measurements were acquired using a psychophysical method (two-alternative forced choice). Relative to controls, patients showed significantly reduced accuracy in visual detection of faces (p=0.003), moderately degraded performance in perceptual discrimination of faces (p=0.065), and significantly impaired performance in working memory of faces (pface versions of these tasks, while degraded, was not correlated with performance on face recognition. This pattern of results indicates that greater signal strength is required for visual and cognitive processing of facial information in schizophrenia.

  13. Discrimination and numerical analysis of human pathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discrimination and numerical analysis of human pathogenic Candida albicans strains based on SDSPAGE protein profiles. ... obtaining a correct identification, both the commercial yeast kit system and the numerical analysis of whole-cell protein patterns can be useful for the more reliable identification of C. albicans strains.

  14. Reaction times and face discrimination with emotional content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARÍA MARTÍNEZ

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-two university subjects students located in two groups, with a stocking of age of 21.6 for thegroup of women and 22 for the group of men with the purpose to carry out a study upon visual timesof reaction TRV with emotional content keeping in mind the position: start, half and end; the emotionalcontent: neutral, friendly and threatening; and the combinations of the stimuli. The group of womenI present TR more prolonged than that of the men in all the experimental conditions. Also it wasobserved, that more are prolonged when the stimulus to discriminate this located in the half so muchin men as women.

  15. Sand Face: Humanism after Antihumanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcilla, René V.

    2015-01-01

    Have the critiques of humanism of the 1960s and 1970s buried this idea once and for all? Or is there a way that humanism can absorb some of this antihumanist thinking and thereby renew itself? Drawing on writings of Michel Foucault, Charles Taylor, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Martin Heidegger in order to illuminate artworks by Robert Smithson and…

  16. Mnemonic discrimination of similar face stimuli and a potential mechanism for the “other race” effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Allen; Murray, Elizabeth; Yassa, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is an important component of successful social interactions in humans. A large literature in social psychology has focused on the phenomenon termed “the other race” (ORE) effect, the tendency to be more proficient with face recognition within one’s own ethnic group, as compared to other ethnic groups. Several potential hypotheses have been proposed for this effect including perceptual expertise, social grouping, and holistic face processing. Recent work on mnemonic discrimination (i.e. the ability to resolve mnemonic interference among similar experiences) may provide a mechanistic account for the ORE. In the current study, we examined how discrimination and generalization in the presence of mnemonic interference may contribute to the ORE. We developed a database of computerized faces divided evenly among ethnic origins (Black, Caucasian, East Asian, South Asian), as well as morphed face stimuli that varied in the amount of similarity to the original stimuli (30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% morphs). Participants first examined the original unmorphed stimuli during study, then during test were asked to judge the prior occurrence of repetitions (targets), morphed stimuli (lures), and new stimuli (foils). We examined participants’ ability to correctly reject similar morphed lures and found that it increased linearly as a function of face dissimilarity. We additionally found that Caucasian participants’ mnemonic discrimination/generalization functions were sharply tuned for Caucasian faces but considerably less tuned for East Asian and Black faces. These results suggest that expertise plays an important role in resolving mnemonic interference, which may offer a mechanistic account for the ORE. PMID:26413724

  17. Efficient human face detection in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Krisztina V; Umstead, Lindsey; Simpson, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Adults detect conspecific faces more efficiently than heterospecific faces; however, the development of this own-species bias (OSB) remains unexplored. We tested whether 6- and 11-month-olds exhibit OSB in their attention to human and animal faces in complex visual displays with high perceptual load (25 images competing for attention). Infants (n = 48) and adults (n = 43) passively viewed arrays containing a face among 24 non-face distractors while we measured their gaze with remote eye tracking. While OSB is typically not observed until about 9 months, we found that, already by 6 months, human faces were more likely to be detected, were detected more quickly (attention capture), and received longer looks (attention holding) than animal faces. These data suggest that 6-month-olds already exhibit OSB in face detection efficiency, consistent with perceptual attunement. This specialization may reflect the biological importance of detecting conspecific faces, a foundational ability for early social interactions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Face Recognition in Humans and Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Alice; Tistarelli, Massimo

    The study of human face recognition by psychologists and neuroscientists has run parallel to the development of automatic face recognition technologies by computer scientists and engineers. In both cases, there are analogous steps of data acquisition, image processing, and the formation of representations that can support the complex and diverse tasks we accomplish with faces. These processes can be understood and compared in the context of their neural and computational implementations. In this chapter, we present the essential elements of face recognition by humans and machines, taking a perspective that spans psychological, neural, and computational approaches. From the human side, we overview the methods and techniques used in the neurobiology of face recognition, the underlying neural architecture of the system, the role of visual attention, and the nature of the representations that emerges. From the computational side, we discuss face recognition technologies and the strategies they use to overcome challenges to robust operation over viewing parameters. Finally, we conclude the chapter with a look at some recent studies that compare human and machine performances at face recognition.

  19. The role of the occipital face area in holistic processing involved in face detection and discrimination: A tDCS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, Chiara; Ferrari, Chiara; Schiavi, Susanna; Pisoni, Alberto; Papagno, Costanza; Vecchi, Tomaso; Antal, Andrea; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of occipital face area (OFA) in mediating observers' tendency to perceive faces as "wholes" (holistic processing) both when detecting and discriminating faces. To investigate this issue, we modulated OFA activity using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In Experiment 1, participants performed a face detection task (the Mooney faces task) and a face discrimination task (the Composite faces task), which both assess holistic face processing. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to detect both Mooney faces and Mooney objects, to test face selectivity of OFA. In each experimental session, the tasks were presented once before (pre) and once after (post) administration of 20 min of excitability increasing anodal tDCS (real) and sham stimulation over the putative OFA. Compared with sham stimulation, we found that real anodal tDCS interfered with both Mooney faces and objects detection, whereas it had no effect on holistic processing involved in face discrimination, as measured by the Composite faces task. Our results suggest that OFA is causally implicated in facial detection at least in degraded conditions (i.e., when the "face" signal needs to be extracted from a noisy background). In turn, our data do not implicate OFA in holistic processing in face discrimination. Finally, our data suggest a possible role of OFA in categorization of other nonface stimuli, a conclusion that must be taken with caution, as stimulation over OFA may affect object-selective adjacent regions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. From Pixels to Response Maps: Discriminative Image Filtering for Face Alignment in the Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asthana, Akshay; Asthana, Ashish; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Cheng, Shiyang; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    We propose a face alignment framework that relies on the texture model generated by the responses of discriminatively trained part-based filters. Unlike standard texture models built from pixel intensities or responses generated by generic filters (e.g. Gabor), our framework has two important

  1. Discriminant Analysis on Riemannian Manifold of Gaussian Distributions for Face Recognition With Image Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Wang, Ruiping; Huang, Zhiwu; Shan, Shiguang; Chen, Xilin

    To address the problem of face recognition with image sets, we aim to capture the underlying data distribution in each set and thus facilitate more robust classification. To this end, we represent image set as the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) comprising a number of Gaussian components with prior probabilities and seek to discriminate Gaussian components from different classes. Since in the light of information geometry, the Gaussians lie on a specific Riemannian manifold, this paper presents a method named discriminant analysis on Riemannian manifold of Gaussian distributions (DARG). We investigate several distance metrics between Gaussians and accordingly two discriminative learning frameworks are presented to meet the geometric and statistical characteristics of the specific manifold. The first framework derives a series of provably positive definite probabilistic kernels to embed the manifold to a high-dimensional Hilbert space, where conventional discriminant analysis methods developed in Euclidean space can be applied, and a weighted Kernel discriminant analysis is devised which learns discriminative representation of the Gaussian components in GMMs with their prior probabilities as sample weights. Alternatively, the other framework extends the classical graph embedding method to the manifold by utilizing the distance metrics between Gaussians to construct the adjacency graph, and hence the original manifold is embedded to a lower-dimensional and discriminative target manifold with the geometric structure preserved and the interclass separability maximized. The proposed method is evaluated by face identification and verification tasks on four most challenging and largest databases, YouTube Celebrities, COX, YouTube Face DB, and Point-and-Shoot Challenge, to demonstrate its superiority over the state-of-the-art.To address the problem of face recognition with image sets, we aim to capture the underlying data distribution in each set and thus facilitate more

  2. Evidence for Individual Face Discrimination in Non-Face Selective Areas of the Visual Cortex in Acquired Prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Dricot

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two areas in the human occipito-temporal cortex respond preferentially to faces: ‘the fusiform face area’ (‘FFA’ and the ‘occipital face area’ (‘OFA’. However, it is unclear whether these areas have an exclusive role in processing faces, or if sub-maximal responses in other visual areas such as the lateral occipital complex (LOC are also involved. To clarify this issue, we tested a brain-damaged patient (PS presenting a face-selective impairment with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The right hemisphere lesion of the prosoagnosic patient encompasses the ‘OFA’ but preserves the ‘FFA’ and LOC [14,16]. Using fMRI-adaptation, we found a larger response to different faces than repeated faces in the ventral part of the LOC both for normals and the patient, next to her right hemisphere lesion. This observation indicates that following prosopagnosia, areas that do not respond preferentially to faces such as the ventral part of the LOC (vLOC may still be recruited to subtend residual perception of individual faces.

  3. Evidence for Individual Face Discrimination in Non-Face Selective Areas of the Visual Cortex in Acquired Prosopagnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dricot, Laurence; Sorger, Bettina; Schiltz, Christine; Goebel, Rainer; Rossion, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Two areas in the human occipito-temporal cortex respond preferentially to faces: ‘the fusiform face area’ (‘FFA’) and the ‘occipital face area’ (‘OFA’). However, it is unclear whether these areas have an exclusive role in processing faces, or if sub-maximal responses in other visual areas such as the lateral occipital complex (LOC) are also involved. To clarify this issue, we tested a brain-damaged patient (PS) presenting a face-selective impairment with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The right hemisphere lesion of the prosoagnosic patient encompasses the ‘OFA’ but preserves the ‘FFA’ and LOC [14,16]. Using fMRI-adaptation, we found a larger response to different faces than repeated faces in the ventral part of the LOC both for normals and the patient, next to her right hemisphere lesion. This observation indicates that following prosopagnosia, areas that do not respond preferentially to faces such as the ventral part of the LOC (vLOC) may still be recruited to subtend residual perception of individual faces. PMID:18413922

  4. Human skin color clustering for face detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač, Jure; Peer, Peter; Solina, Franc

    2003-01-01

    Computer vision is one out of many areas that wants to understand the process of human functionality and copy that process with intention to complement human life with intelligent machines. For better human–computer interaction it is necessary for the machine to see people. This can be achieved by employing face detection algorithms, like the one used in the installation “15 Seconds of Fame”. Mentioned installation unites the areas of modern art and technology. Its algorithm...

  5. Human skin colour clustering for face detection

    OpenAIRE

    Solina, Franc; Peer, Peter; Kovač, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Computer vision is one out of many areas that wants to understand the process of human functionality and copy that process with intention to complement human life with intelligent machines. For better human–computer interaction it is necessary for the machine to see people. This can be achieved by employing face detection algorithms, like the one used in the installation “15 Seconds of Fame”. Mentioned installation unites the areas of modern art and technology. Its algorithm...

  6. Multiple Data-Dependent Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA method has demonstrated its success in extracting facial features for face recognition. Compared to linear techniques, it can better describe the complex and nonlinear variations of face images. However, a single kernel is not always suitable for the applications of face recognition which contain data from multiple, heterogeneous sources, such as face images under huge variations of pose, illumination, and facial expression. To improve the performance of KFDA in face recognition, a novel algorithm named multiple data-dependent kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (MDKFDA is proposed in this paper. The constructed multiple data-dependent kernel (MDK is a combination of several base kernels with a data-dependent kernel constraint on their weights. By solving the optimization equation based on Fisher criterion and maximizing the margin criterion, the parameter optimization of data-dependent kernel and multiple base kernels is achieved. Experimental results on the three face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Instant Human Face Attributes Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    N.Bellustin; Y. Kalafati

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a simple and yet efficient tool for human attributes like gender, age and ethnicity by the human facial image in the real time image as we all aware this term that “Real-Time frame rate is a vital factor for practical deployment of computer vision system”. In this particular paper we are trying to presents the progress towards face detection and human attributes classification system. We have developed an algorithm for the classification of gender, age...

  8. Untold stories: the human face of poverty dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Key Points • Life histories offer an important window for policy makers, and should be brought to the policy table much more frequently. • Life histories show the human face of chronic poverty. Such vignettes provide concrete examples of poverty traps – such as insecurity, social discrimination a...... have ambivalent effects. • Whilst life histories are not representative, they highlight key themes and processes which are ‘typical’ of individuals with similar sets of sociobiographical characteristics who live in similar social, economic and political circumstances.......Key Points • Life histories offer an important window for policy makers, and should be brought to the policy table much more frequently. • Life histories show the human face of chronic poverty. Such vignettes provide concrete examples of poverty traps – such as insecurity, social discrimination...... and poor working conditions – and how poor people struggle to escape them. • The vignettes presented here illustrate how social protection measures have improved the wellbeing of four out of five selected individuals. They also show the importance of kin and social networks, and how these connections can...

  9. Acute stress influences the discrimination of complex scenes and complex faces in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M; Lech, R K; Scheil, J; Dierolf, A M; Suchan, B; Wolf, O T

    2016-04-01

    The stress-induced release of glucocorticoids has been demonstrated to influence hippocampal functions via the modulation of specific receptors. At the behavioral level stress is known to influence hippocampus dependent long-term memory. In recent years, studies have consistently associated the hippocampus with the non-mnemonic perception of scenes, while adjacent regions in the medial temporal lobe were associated with the perception of objects, and faces. So far it is not known whether and how stress influences non-mnemonic perceptual processes. In a behavioral study, fifty male participants were subjected either to the stressful socially evaluated cold-pressor test or to a non-stressful control procedure, before they completed a visual discrimination task, comprising scenes and faces. The complexity of the face and scene stimuli was manipulated in easy and difficult conditions. A significant three way interaction between stress, stimulus type and complexity was found. Stressed participants tended to commit more errors in the complex scenes condition. For complex faces a descriptive tendency in the opposite direction (fewer errors under stress) was observed. As a result the difference between the number of errors for scenes and errors for faces was significantly larger in the stress group. These results indicate that, beyond the effects of stress on long-term memory, stress influences the discrimination of spatial information, especially when the perception is characterized by a high complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 3D Face Discriminant Analysis Using Gauss-Markov Posterior Marginals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocegueda, Omar; Fang, Tianhong; Shah, Shishir K; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A

    2013-03-01

    We present a Markov Random Field model for the analysis of lattices (e.g., images or 3D meshes) in terms of the discriminative information of their vertices. The proposed method provides a measure field that estimates the probability of each vertex being "discriminative" or "nondiscriminative" for a given classification task. To illustrate the applicability and generality of our framework, we use the estimated probabilities as feature scoring to define compact signatures for three different classification tasks: 1) 3D Face Recognition, 2) 3D Facial Expression Recognition, and 3) Ethnicity-based Subject Retrieval, obtaining very competitive results. The main contribution of this work lies in the development of a novel framework for feature selection in scenaria in which the most discriminative information is smoothly distributed along a lattice.

  11. Crossing the 'uncanny valley': adaptation to cartoon faces can influence perception of human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwen; Russell, Richard; Nakayama, Ken; Livingstone, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    In this study we assessed whether there is a single face space common to both human and cartoon faces by testing whether adaptation to cartoon faces can affect perception of human faces. Participants were shown Japanese animation cartoon videos containing faces with abnormally large eyes. The use of animated videos eliminated the possibility of position-dependent retinotopic adaptation (because the faces appear at many different locations) and more closely simulated naturalistic exposure. Adaptation to cartoon faces with large eyes significantly shifted preferences for human faces toward larger eyes, consistent with a common, non-retinotopic representation for both cartoon and human faces. This supports the possibility that there are representations that are specific to faces yet common to all kinds of faces.

  12. Towards Designing Android Faces after Actual Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Using their face as their prior affective interface, android robots and other agents embody emotional facial expressions, and convey messages on their identity, gender, age, race, and attractiveness. We are examining whether androids can convey emotionally relevant information via their static...... human) and its’ Original (the actual human). The emotional judgments were achieved through an online survey with video-stimuli and questionnaires, following a forced-choice design. Analysis of the results indicated that the emotional judgments for the Geminoid-DK highly depend on the emotional judgments...... of the robotic task, in order to increase the chance of sustaining a more emotional interaction....

  13. Imprinting and flexibility in human face cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska, Urszula M.; Terraube, Julien; Kaminski, Gwenaël

    2016-01-01

    Faces are an important cue to multiple physiological and psychological traits. Human preferences for exaggerated sex typicality (masculinity or femininity) in faces depend on multiple factors and show high inter-subject variability. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying facial femininity preferences in men, we tested the interactive effect of family structure (birth order, sibling sex-ratio and number of siblings) and parenthood status on these preferences. Based on a group of 1304 heterosexual men, we have found that preference for feminine faces was not only influenced by sibling age and sex, but also that fatherhood modulated this preference. Men with sisters had a weaker preference for femininity than men with brothers, highlighting a possible effect of a negative imprinting-like mechanism. What is more, fatherhood increased strongly the preference for facial femininity. Finally, for fathers with younger sisters only, the more the age difference increased between them, the more femininity preference increased. Overall our findings bring new insight into how early-acquired experience at the individual level may determine face preference in adulthood, and what is more, how these preferences are flexible and potentially dependent on parenthood status in adult men. PMID:27680495

  14. The role of reduced humanity in producing linguistic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarello, Flavia; Rubini, Monica

    2015-02-01

    This article addresses the role of perceived (reduced) humanity and group membership of others in producing linguistic discrimination. Study 1 assessed the effects of these factors on a subtle measure of linguistic discrimination, namely, linguistic abstraction. Study 2 considered the explicit level of verbal abuse. Results highlighted that target's reduced humanity led to enhanced linguistic discrimination toward the target, while group membership moderated this effect in specific conditions. Overall, the evidence of this set of studies sheds light on the role of humanity and its interplay with social categorization on discrimination outcomes. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. Crossing the “Uncanny Valley”: adaptation to cartoon faces can influence perception of human faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwen; Russell, Richard; Nakayama, Ken; Livingstone, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation can shift what individuals identify to be a prototypical or attractive face. Past work suggests that low-level shape adaptation can affect high-level face processing but is position dependent. Adaptation to distorted images of faces can also affect face processing but only within sub-categories of faces, such as gender, age, and race/ethnicity. This study assesses whether there is a representation of face that is specific to faces (as opposed to all shapes) but general to all kinds of faces (as opposed to subcategories) by testing whether adaptation to one type of face can affect perception of another. Participants were shown cartoon videos containing faces with abnormally large eyes. Using animated videos allowed us to simulate naturalistic exposure and avoid positional shape adaptation. Results suggest that adaptation to cartoon faces with large eyes shifts preferences for human faces toward larger eyes, supporting the existence of general face representations. PMID:20465173

  16. HUMAN RIGHTS BETWEEN ABUSE AND NON-DISCRIMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena MARIN

    2014-11-01

    In our study we follow the method of protecting human rights in relation to free access to justice, to the abuse of law or procedural rights, non-discrimination and solutions of causes to the European Court of Human Rights.

  17. Enhanced Local Gradient Order Features and Discriminant Analysis for Face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chuan-Xian; Lei, Zhen; Dai, Dao-Qing; Li, Stan Z

    2016-11-01

    Robust descriptor-based subspace learning with complex data is an active topic in pattern analysis and machine intelligence. A few researches concentrate the optimal design on feature representation and metric learning. However, traditionally used features of single-type, e.g., image gradient orientations (IGOs), are deficient to characterize the complete variations in robust and discriminant subspace learning. Meanwhile, discontinuity in edge alignment and feature match are not been carefully treated in the literature. In this paper, local order constrained IGOs are exploited to generate robust features. As the difference-based filters explicitly consider the local contrasts within neighboring pixel points, the proposed features enhance the local textures and the order-based coding ability, thus discover intrinsic structure of facial images further. The multimodal features are automatically fused in the most discriminant subspace. The utilization of adaptive interaction function suppresses outliers in each dimension for robust similarity measurement and discriminant analysis. The sparsity-driven regression model is modified to adapt the classification issue of the compact feature representation. Extensive experiments are conducted by using some benchmark face data sets, e.g., of controlled and uncontrolled environments, to evaluate our new algorithm.

  18. Probabilistic recognition of human faces from video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Saohua; Krüger, Volker; Chellappa, Rama

    2003-01-01

    Recognition of human faces using a gallery of still or video images and a probe set of videos is systematically investigated using a probabilistic framework. In still-to-video recognition, where the gallery consists of still images, a time series state space model is proposed to fuse temporal...... demonstrate that, due to the propagation of the identity variable over time, a degeneracy in posterior probability of the identity variable is achieved to give improved recognition. The gallery is generalized to videos in order to realize video-to-video recognition. An exemplar-based learning strategy...... of the identity variable produces the recognition result. The model formulation is very general and it allows a variety of image representations and transformations. Experimental results using videos collected by NIST/USF and CMU illustrate the effectiveness of this approach for both still-to-video and video...

  19. Faces in places: humans and machines make similar face detection errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Marius 't Hart

    Full Text Available The human visual system seems to be particularly efficient at detecting faces. This efficiency sometimes comes at the cost of wrongfully seeing faces in arbitrary patterns, including famous examples such as a rock configuration on Mars or a toast's roast patterns. In machine vision, face detection has made considerable progress and has become a standard feature of many digital cameras. The arguably most wide-spread algorithm for such applications ("Viola-Jones" algorithm achieves high detection rates at high computational efficiency. To what extent do the patterns that the algorithm mistakenly classifies as faces also fool humans? We selected three kinds of stimuli from real-life, first-person perspective movies based on the algorithm's output: correct detections ("real faces", false positives ("illusory faces" and correctly rejected locations ("non faces". Observers were shown pairs of these for 20 ms and had to direct their gaze to the location of the face. We found that illusory faces were mistaken for faces more frequently than non faces. In addition, rotation of the real face yielded more errors, while rotation of the illusory face yielded fewer errors. Using colored stimuli increases overall performance, but does not change the pattern of results. When replacing the eye movement by a manual response, however, the preference for illusory faces over non faces disappeared. Taken together, our data show that humans make similar face-detection errors as the Viola-Jones algorithm, when directing their gaze to briefly presented stimuli. In particular, the relative spatial arrangement of oriented filters seems of relevance. This suggests that efficient face detection in humans is likely to be pre-attentive and based on rather simple features as those encoded in the early visual system.

  20. Faces in places: humans and machines make similar face detection errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hart, Bernard Marius; Abresch, Tilman Gerrit Jakob; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The human visual system seems to be particularly efficient at detecting faces. This efficiency sometimes comes at the cost of wrongfully seeing faces in arbitrary patterns, including famous examples such as a rock configuration on Mars or a toast's roast patterns. In machine vision, face detection has made considerable progress and has become a standard feature of many digital cameras. The arguably most wide-spread algorithm for such applications ("Viola-Jones" algorithm) achieves high detection rates at high computational efficiency. To what extent do the patterns that the algorithm mistakenly classifies as faces also fool humans? We selected three kinds of stimuli from real-life, first-person perspective movies based on the algorithm's output: correct detections ("real faces"), false positives ("illusory faces") and correctly rejected locations ("non faces"). Observers were shown pairs of these for 20 ms and had to direct their gaze to the location of the face. We found that illusory faces were mistaken for faces more frequently than non faces. In addition, rotation of the real face yielded more errors, while rotation of the illusory face yielded fewer errors. Using colored stimuli increases overall performance, but does not change the pattern of results. When replacing the eye movement by a manual response, however, the preference for illusory faces over non faces disappeared. Taken together, our data show that humans make similar face-detection errors as the Viola-Jones algorithm, when directing their gaze to briefly presented stimuli. In particular, the relative spatial arrangement of oriented filters seems of relevance. This suggests that efficient face detection in humans is likely to be pre-attentive and based on rather simple features as those encoded in the early visual system.

  1. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Tramadol in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Angela N.; Bigelow, George E.; Lanier, Ryan K.

    2011-01-01

    Tramadol is an unscheduled atypical analgesic that acts as an agonist at μ-opioid receptors and inhibits monoamine reuptake. Tramadol can suppress opioid withdrawal, and chronic administration can produce opioid physical dependence; however, diversion and abuse of tramadol is low. The present study further characterized tramadol in a three-choice discrimination procedure. Nondependent volunteers with active stimulant and opioid use (n = 8) participated in this residential laboratory study. Subjects were trained to discriminate between placebo, hydromorphone (8 mg), and methylphenidate (60 mg), and tests of acquisition confirmed that all volunteers could discriminate between the training drugs. The following drug conditions were then tested during discrimination test sessions: placebo, hydromorphone (4 and 8 mg), methylphenidate (30 and 60 mg), and tramadol (50, 100, 200, and 400 mg). In addition to discrimination measures, which included discrete choice, point distribution, and operant responding, subjective and physiological effects were measured for each test condition. Both doses of hydromorphone and methylphenidate were identified as hydromorphone- and methylphenidate-like, respectively. Lower doses of tramadol were generally identified as placebo, with higher doses (200 and 400 mg) identified as hydromorphone, or opioid-like. The highest dose of tramadol increased ratings on the stimulant scale, but was not significantly identified as methylphenidate-like. Tramadol did not significantly increase subjective ratings associated with reinforcement. Taken together, these results extend previous work with tramadol as a potential medication for the treatment of opioid dependence and withdrawal, showing acute doses of tramadol exhibit a profile of effects similar to opioid agonists and may have abuse liability in certain populations. PMID:21467190

  2. Using Human Rights Cases to Teach about Prejudice and Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Donald

    1983-01-01

    High school students analyze real-life case studies, taken from the files of the Ontario Human Rights Commission, to learn about the effects of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination with regard to native people in Canada. (RM)

  3. Face-Likeness and Image Variability Drive Responses in Human Face-Selective Ventral Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidenko, Nicolas; Remus, David A.; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2012-01-01

    The human ventral visual stream contains regions that respond selectively to faces over objects. However, it is unknown whether responses in these regions correlate with how face-like stimuli appear. Here, we use parameterized face silhouettes to manipulate the perceived face-likeness of stimuli and measure responses in face- and object-selective ventral regions with high-resolution fMRI. We first use “concentric hyper-sphere” (CH) sampling to define face silhouettes at different distances from the prototype face. Observers rate the stimuli as progressively more face-like the closer they are to the prototype face. Paradoxically, responses in both face- and object-selective regions decrease as face-likeness ratings increase. Because CH sampling produces blocks of stimuli whose variability is negatively correlated with face-likeness, this effect may be driven by more adaptation during high face-likeness (low-variability) blocks than during low face-likeness (high-variability) blocks. We tested this hypothesis by measuring responses to matched-variability (MV) blocks of stimuli with similar face-likeness ratings as with CH sampling. Critically, under MV sampling, we find a face-specific effect: responses in face-selective regions gradually increase with perceived face-likeness, but responses in object-selective regions are unchanged. Our studies provide novel evidence that face-selective responses correlate with the perceived face-likeness of stimuli, but this effect is revealed only when image variability is controlled across conditions. Finally, our data show that variability is a powerful factor that drives responses across the ventral stream. This indicates that controlling variability across conditions should be a critical tool in future neuroimaging studies of face and object representation. PMID:21823208

  4. Recognition of human face images by the free flying wasp Vespula vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Avarguès-Weber

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to recognize perceptually similar complex visual stimuli such as human faces has classically been thought to require a large primate, and/or mammalian brain with neurobiological adaptations. However, recent work suggests that the relatively small brain of a paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, possesses specialized face processing capabilities. In parallel, the honeybee, Apis mellifera, has been shown to be able to rely on configural learning for extensive visual learning, thus converging with primate visual processing. Therefore, the honeybee may be able to recognize human faces, and show sophisticated learning performance due to its foraging lifestyle involving visiting and memorizing many flowers. We investigated the visual capacities of the widespread invasive wasp Vespula vulgaris, which is unlikely to have any specialization for face processing. Freely flying individual wasps were trained in an appetitive-aversive differential conditioning procedure to discriminate between perceptually similar human face images from a standard face recognition test. The wasps could then recognize the target face from novel dissimilar or similar human faces, but showed a significant drop in performance when the stimuli were rotated by 180°, thus paralleling results acquired on a similar protocol with honeybees. This result confirms that a general visual system can likely solve complex recognition tasks, the first stage to evolve a visual expertise system to face recognition, even in the absence of neurobiological or behavioral specialization.

  5. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  6. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Tramadol in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Angela N.; Bigelow, George E.; Lanier, Ryan K.; Strain, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Tramadol is an unscheduled atypical analgesic that acts as an agonist at μ-opioid receptors and inhibits monoamine reuptake. Tramadol can suppress opioid withdrawal, and chronic administration can produce opioid physical dependence; however, diversion and abuse of tramadol is low. The present study further characterized tramadol in a three-choice discrimination procedure. Nondependent volunteers with active stimulant and opioid use (n = 8) participated in this residential laboratory study. Su...

  7. Optogenetic and pharmacological suppression of spatial clusters of face neurons reveal their causal role in face gender discrimination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arash Afraz; Edward S. Boyden; James J. DiCarlo

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, using optogenetic and pharmacological methods, we reversibly suppressed the neural activity in small subregions of IT cortex of macaque monkeys performing a facial gender-discrimination task...

  8. Face Recognition via Collaborative Representation: Its Discriminant Nature and Superposed Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weihong; Hu, Jiani; Guo, Jun

    2017-09-29

    Collaborative representation methods, such as sparse subspace clustering (SSC) and sparse representation-based classification (SRC), have achieved great success in face clustering and classification by directly utilizing the training images as the dictionary bases. In this paper, we reveal that the superior performance of collaborative representation relies heavily on the sufficiently large class separability of the controlled face datasets such as Extended Yale B. On the uncontrolled or undersampled dataset, however, collaborative representation suffers from the misleading coefficients of the incorrect classes. To address this limitation, inspired by the success of linear discriminant analysis (LDA), we develop a superposed linear representation classifier (SLRC) to cast the recognition problem by representing the test image in term of a superposition of the class centroids and the shared intra-class differences. In spite of its simplicity and approximation, the new SLRC largely improves the generalization ability of collaborative representation, and competes well with more sophisticated dictionary learning techniques, on the experiments of AR and FRGC databases. Enforced with the sparsity constraint, SLRC achieves the state-of-the-art performance on FERET database using single sample per person.

  9. Human wagering behavior depends on opponents' faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J Schlicht

    Full Text Available Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best "poker face" for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent.

  10. Discrimination against women and the human rights of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concept of the human rights of women and its connection with the phenomenon and the instances of discrimination against women. Discrimination against women, its social visibility and the fight against it, within the idea of the rights and the equality of women, are a source of many theoretical debates. Academic discussions and a powerful influence of the women's movement have brought about the establishment and the exercise of the human rights of women at different levels of the public and the private spheres of society, as a substantial part of the universal regime of human rights.

  11. Rotation and Noise Invariant Near-Infrared Face Recognition by means of Zernike Moments and Spectral Regression Discriminant Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farokhi, S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Flusser, Jan; Sheikh, U. U.; Khansari, M.; Jafari-Khouzani, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-11 ISSN 1017-9909 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Keywords : face recognition * infrared imaging * image moments Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.850, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/ZOI/flusser-rotation and noise invariant near-infrared face recognition by means of zernike moments and spectral regression discriminant analysis.pdf

  12. Brain imaging reveals neuronal circuitry underlying the crow’s perception of human faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzluff, John M.; Miyaoka, Robert; Minoshima, Satoshi; Cross, Donna J.

    2012-01-01

    Crows pay close attention to people and can remember specific faces for several years after a single encounter. In mammals, including humans, faces are evaluated by an integrated neural system involving the sensory cortex, limbic system, and striatum. Here we test the hypothesis that birds use a similar system by providing an imaging analysis of an awake, wild animal’s brain as it performs an adaptive, complex cognitive task. We show that in vivo imaging of crow brain activity during exposure to familiar human faces previously associated with either capture (threatening) or caretaking (caring) activated several brain regions that allow birds to discriminate, associate, and remember visual stimuli, including the rostral hyperpallium, nidopallium, mesopallium, and lateral striatum. Perception of threatening faces activated circuitry including amygdalar, thalamic, and brainstem regions, known in humans and other vertebrates to be related to emotion, motivation, and conditioned fear learning. In contrast, perception of caring faces activated motivation and striatal regions. In our experiments and in nature, when perceiving a threatening face, crows froze and fixed their gaze (decreased blink rate), which was associated with activation of brain regions known in birds to regulate perception, attention, fear, and escape behavior. These findings indicate that, similar to humans, crows use sophisticated visual sensory systems to recognize faces and modulate behavioral responses by integrating visual information with expectation and emotion. Our approach has wide applicability and potential to improve our understanding of the neural basis for animal behavior. PMID:22984177

  13. The Near-Race and Other-Race Effect in Taiwanese Adults: Exploring the Featural versus Configural Face Discrimination Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fong Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Other-race-effect (ORE refers to the observation that we can recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces (Meissner & Brigham, 2001. Yet, whether featural or configural face processing might contribute to other-race effect is still unclear. In the present study, we tested Taiwanese adults with faces of four ethnic groups (Taiwanese, Philippine, Caucasian, African and each with four levels of discriminability: Easy (change configuration and component: change identity, Medium (change component: change eyes, Hard-I (change configuration: widen eye spacing, and Hard-II (change configuration: mouth moved up. We adopted the visual paired-comparison task with two-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC procedure. The overall results showed that accuracy decreased and response time increased as the stimulus difficulty increased for each race. The accuracy was highest and the response time was lowest for the Taiwanese easy condition, which suggests an own-race advantage. In addition, the pattern of response time for Philippine faces was similar to that of Taiwanese faces and was shorter than Caucasian faces in the medium and Hard-I conditions. In conclusion, our study had two main findings. First, Philippine faces were seen as more like own-race faces rather than other-race faces. Second, both featural and configural face processing contribute to the other-race-effect.

  14. Quality indicators for palliative care services: mixed-method study testing for face validity, feasibility, discriminative power and usefulness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, K.; Deliens, L.; Francke, A.L.; Stichele, R. Vander; Block, L. van den; Cohen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the absence of a standardized, comprehensive and valid set of quality indicators for palliative care, we developed one for palliative care services in Belgium. Aim: This study evaluates its face validity, feasibility, discriminative power and usefulness. Design: We combined a

  15. Quality indicators for palliative care services: Mixed-method study testing for face validity, feasibility, discriminative power and usefulness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, K.; Deliens, L.; Francke, A.L.; van der Stichele, R.; Block, L.; Cohen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the absence of a standardized, comprehensive and valid set of quality indicators for palliative care, we developed one for palliative care services in Belgium. Aim: This study evaluates its face validity, feasibility, discriminative power and usefulness. Design: We combined a

  16. Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, P; Rezac, K; Slama, P

    2015-12-01

    Facial injuries caused by dog bites pose a serious problem. The aims of this study were to determine human behavior immediately preceding a dog bite to the face and to assess the effects of victim age and gender and dog sex and size on the location of the bite to the face and the need for medical treatment. Complete data on 132 incidents of bites to the face were analysed. A human bending over a dog, putting the face close to the dog's face, and gazing between victim and dog closely preceded a dog bite to the face in 76%, 19% and 5% of cases, respectively. More than half of the bites were directed towards the central area of the victim's face (nose, lips). More than two thirds of the victims were children, none of the victims was an adult dog owner and only adult dogs bit the face. Victim's age and gender and dog's sex and size did not affect the location of the bite on the face. People who were bitten by large dogs sought medical treatment more often than people who were bitten by small dogs (P dog, putting the face close to the dog's face and gazing between human and dog should be avoided, and children should be carefully and constantly supervised when in the presence of dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Face Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan-Daniel Albu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I present a novel hybrid face recognition approach based on a convolutional neural architecture, designed to robustly detect highly variable face patterns. The convolutional network extracts successively larger features in a hierarchical set of layers. With the weights of the trained neural networks there are created kernel windows used for feature extraction in a 3-stage algorithm. I present experimental results illustrating the efficiency of the proposed approach. I use a database of 796 images of 159 individuals from Reims University which contains quite a high degree of variability in expression, pose, and facial details.

  18. Perceptions of human attractiveness comprising face and voice cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Timothy; Baguley, Thom; Sergeant, Mark; Dunn, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    In human mate choice, sexually dimorphic faces and voices comprise hormone-mediated cues that purportedly develop as an indicator of mate quality or the ability to compete with same-sex rivals. If preferences for faces communicate the same biologically relevant information as do voices, then ratings of these cues should correlate. Sixty participants (30 male and 30 female) rated a series of opposite-sex faces, voices, and faces together with voices for attractiveness in a repeated measures computer-based experiment. The effects of face and voice attractiveness on face-voice compound stimuli were analyzed using a multilevel model. Faces contributed proportionally more than voices to ratings of face-voice compound attractiveness. Faces and voices positively and independently contributed to the attractiveness of male compound stimuli although there was no significant correlation between their rated attractiveness. A positive interaction and correlation between attractiveness was shown for faces and voices in relation to the attractiveness of female compound stimuli. Rather than providing a better estimate of a single characteristic, male faces and voices may instead communicate independent information that, in turn, provides a female with a better assessment of overall mate quality. Conversely, female faces and voices together provide males with a more accurate assessment of a single dimension of mate quality.

  19. Intracranial markers of conscious face perception in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Fabiano; van Kempen, Jochem; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Kovach, Christopher K; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Adolphs, Ralph; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2017-11-15

    Investigations of the neural basis of consciousness have greatly benefited from protocols that involve the presentation of stimuli at perceptual threshold, enabling the assessment of the patterns of brain activity that correlate with conscious perception, independently of any changes in sensory input. However, the comparison between perceived and unperceived trials would be expected to reveal not only the core neural substrate of a particular conscious perception, but also aspects of brain activity that facilitate, hinder or tend to follow conscious perception. We take a step towards the resolution of these confounds by combining an analysis of neural responses observed during the presentation of faces partially masked by Continuous Flash Suppression, and those responses observed during the unmasked presentation of faces and other images in the same subjects. We employed multidimensional classifiers to decode physical properties of stimuli or perceptual states from spectrotemporal representations of electrocorticographic signals (1071 channels in 5 subjects). Neural activity in certain face responsive areas located in both the fusiform gyrus and in the lateral-temporal/inferior-parietal cortex discriminated seen vs. unseen faces in the masked paradigm and upright faces vs. other categories in the unmasked paradigm. However, only the former discriminated upright vs. inverted faces in the unmasked paradigm. Our results suggest a prominent role for the fusiform gyrus in the configural perception of faces, and possibly other objects that are holistically processed. More generally, we advocate comparative analysis of neural recordings obtained during different, but related, experimental protocols as a promising direction towards elucidating the functional specificities of the patterns of neural activation that accompany our conscious experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. HIV, disability and discrimination: making the links in international and domestic human rights law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Richard; Utyasheva, Leah; Zack, Elisse

    2009-11-09

    Stigma and discrimination constitute one of the greatest barriers to dealing effectively with the HIV epidemic, underlying a range of human rights violations and hindering access to prevention, care, treatment and support. There is some existing protection against HIV-based discrimination under international law, but the extent of states' obligations to address such discrimination has not been comprehensively addressed in an international instrument.The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities entered into force in May 2008. As countries ratify the convention, they are required to amend national laws and policies to give greater protection to the human rights of people with disabilities, including abolishing disability-based discrimination by the state and protecting persons against such discrimination by others. The Disability Convention addresses many of the issues faced by people living with HIV (PLHIV) but does not explicitly include HIV or AIDS within its open-ended definition of "disability".Therefore, the advent of the Disability Convention prompts us to consider the links between HIV and disability and, specifically, to consider the opportunities it and other legal mechanisms, international or domestic, may afford for advancing the human rights of PLHIV facing human rights infringements. We do so in the belief that the movement for human rights is stronger when constituencies with so many common and overlapping interests are united, and that respectful and strategic collaboration ultimately strengthens both the disability rights and the AIDS movements.In this article, we first examine the links between HIV and disability. We then provide a brief overview of how international human rights law has treated both disability and HIV/AIDS. We note some of the different ways in which national anti-discrimination laws have reflected the links between HIV and disability, illustrated with representative examples from a number of countries

  1. [Discrimination and homophobia associated to the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Núñez, Emanuel; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Ruiz-Larios, José Arturo; Sucilla-Pérez, Héctor; García-Cerde, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    To describe a political mapping on discrimination and homophobia associated to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the context of public institutions in Mexico. The political mapping was conducted in six Mexican states. Stakeholders who were involved in HIV actions from public and private sectors were included. Semistructured interviews were applied to explore homophobia and discrimination associated with HIV. Information was systematized using the Policy Maker software, which is a good support for analyzing health policies. Discriminatory and homophobic practices in the public domain occurred, damaging people´s integrity via insults, derision and hate crimes. Most stakeholders expressed a supportive position to prevent discrimination and homophobia and some of them had great influence on policy-making decisions. It was found that state policy frameworks are less specific in addressing these issues. Homophobia and discrimination associated to HIV are still considered problematic in Mexico. Homophobia is a very sensitive issue that requires further attention. Also, an actual execution of governmental authority requires greater enforcement of laws against discrimination and homophobia.

  2. A novel BCI based on ERP components sensitive to configural processing of human faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Qibin; Jing, Jin; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2012-04-01

    This study introduces a novel brain-computer interface (BCI) based on an oddball paradigm using stimuli of facial images with loss of configural face information (e.g., inversion of face). To the best of our knowledge, till now the configural processing of human faces has not been applied to BCI but widely studied in cognitive neuroscience research. Our experiments confirm that the face-sensitive event-related potential (ERP) components N170 and vertex positive potential (VPP) have reflected early structural encoding of faces and can be modulated by the configural processing of faces. With the proposed novel paradigm, we investigate the effects of ERP components N170, VPP and P300 on target detection for BCI. An eight-class BCI platform is developed to analyze ERPs and evaluate the target detection performance using linear discriminant analysis without complicated feature extraction processing. The online classification accuracy of 88.7% and information transfer rate of 38.7 bits min-1 using stimuli of inverted faces with only single trial suggest that the proposed paradigm based on the configural processing of faces is very promising for visual stimuli-driven BCI applications.

  3. Size discrimination in barn owls as compared to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, Torsten; Nikolay, Petra; Nüttgens, Aline; Skorupa, Jan; Orlowski, Julius; Wagner, Hermann

    2017-12-11

    We tested how well barn owls can discriminate objects of different sizes. This ability may be important for the owls when catching prey. We performed a quantitative experiment in the laboratory and trained owls in a task in which the owls had to discriminate whether two rhombi presented simultaneously on a computer monitor were of the same or of different sizes. We obtained full data sets with two experienced owls and one data point with a third owl. For objects being sufficiently larger than the spatial resolution of the barn owl, the angular threshold was related to object size, implying that the discrimination followed Weber's law. The range of Weber fractions we determined was between 0.026 and 0.09. For object sizes close to the spatial resolution, performance degraded. We conducted similar experiments with human subjects. Human thresholds showed the same dependence on object size, albeit down to smaller object sizes. Human performance resulted in a range of Weber fractions extending from 0.025 to 0.036. The differences between owls and humans could be explained by the much higher spatial acuity of humans compared with owls.

  4. [Health and humanization Diploma: the value of reflection and face to face learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gutiérrez, Javiera; Magliozzi, Pietro; Torres, Patricio; Soto, Mauricio; Walker, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    In a rapidly changing culture like ours, with emphasis on productivity, there is a strong need to find the meaning of health care work using learning instances that privilege reflection and face to face contact with others. The Diploma in Health and Humanization (DSH), was developed as an interdisciplinary space for training on issues related to humanization. To analyze the experience of DSH aiming to identify the elements that students considered key factors for the success of the program. We conducted a focus group with DSH graduates, identifying factors associated with satisfaction. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two independent reviewers. DSH graduates valued a safe space, personal interaction, dialogue and respect as learning tools of the DSH. They also appreciates the opportunity to have emotional interactions among students and between them and the teacher as well as the opportunity to share personal stories and their own search for meaning. DSH is a learning experience in which their graduates value the ability to think about their vocation and the affective interaction with peers and teachers. We hope to contribute to the development of face to face courses in the area of humanization. Face to face methodology is an excellent teaching technique for contents related to the meaning of work, and more specifically, to a group of learners that require affective communication and a personal connection of their work with their own values and beliefs.

  5. First human face allograft: early report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devauchelle, Bernard; Badet, Lionel; Lengelé, Benoit; Morelon, Emmanuel; Testelin, Sylvie; Michallet, Mauricette; D'Hauthuille, Cédric; Dubernard, Jean-Michel

    2006-07-15

    Extended soft tissue defects of the face are difficult to reconstruct, and autologous tissue transfers usually lead to poor cosmetic and functional outcomes. We judged that composite tissue transplantation could be valuable in facial reconstructive surgery. We transplanted the central and lower face of a brain-dead woman onto a woman aged 38 years who had suffered amputation of distal nose, both lips, chin, and adjacent parts of the cheeks. Transplantation consisted of revascularisation of right and left facial arteries and veins (ischaemic time 4 h), mucosal repair of oral and nasal vestibules, bilateral anastomoses of infraorbital and mental sensitive nerves, joining of mimic muscles with motor nerve suture on mandibular branch of the left facial nerve, and skin closure. Immunosuppressive treatment was with thymoglobulin, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. Two infusions of donor bone-marrow cells were given. Follow-up included routine tests, biopsies, physiotherapy, and psychological support. The initial postoperative course was uneventful. No surgical complication occurred. Bone-marrow graft and immunosuppression were well tolerated. Mild clinical signs of rejection were seen at day 20. Increased corticoids initially did not reverse rejection, but signs of rejection disappeared after three boluses of prednisone. Anatomical and psychological integration and recovery of sensation were excellent. At the end of the first postoperative week, the patient could eat, and speech improved quickly. Passive transmission of muscle contractions to the graft already exists; physiotherapy is being done to restore dynamic motions around the lips. The 4-month outcome demonstrates the feasibility of this procedure. The functional result will be assessed in the future, but this graft can already be deemed successful with respect to appearance, sensitivity, and acceptance by the patient.

  6. Resilience in the face of peer victimisation and discrimination: The who, when and why in five patterns of adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Daniela Fonseca; Coimbra, Susana; Marturano, Edna Maria; Marques, Susana C; Oliveira, José Egídio; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2017-08-01

    Victimisation has a negative effect on psychosocial functioning. Based on the resilience theory, and with a sample of 2975 Portuguese students, the present study aims to: i) identify patterns of adjustment in the face of peer victimisation and perceptions of discrimination; ii) explore the association between the patterns of adjustment and the characteristics of participants (the who) and of the victimisation (the when and why). Cluster analysis revealed five patterns of adjustment: Unchallenged; Externally Maladjusted; Internally Maladjusted; Resilient, and At-Risk. The results suggest that there is no complete resilience in the face of social victimisation. Group differences were found regarding: i) gender, type of course, sexual orientation, ethnicity, nationality, parental educational level and religious beliefs; ii) the age at which peer victimisation was more frequent, and; iii) the motives underlying discrimination. Globally considered, peer victimisation is representative of the wider cultural environment and interventions should also target social prejudices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. National and ethnic identity in the face of discrimination: ethnic minority and majority perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Ludwin E; Phillips, Nia L; Sidanius, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Does the United States afford people of different backgrounds a sense of equal identification with the nation? Past research has documented ethnic/racial group differences on levels of national identity but there has been little research examining what psychologically moderates these disparities. The present research investigates how perceived group discrimination is associated with national and ethnic identification among ethnic majority and minority groups. Study 1 examines whether perceived group discrimination moderates subgroup differences on national and ethnic identification. Study 2 makes salient group discrimination--via an item order manipulation--and examines the effects on national and ethnic identification. In general, the 2 studies demonstrate that for most ethnic minorities higher perceptions of group discrimination are related to lower levels of national identity and higher ethnic identity. Conversely, among majority group members, higher levels of perceived discrimination predict higher levels of national identity with little influence on ethnic identification. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. THE CHANGING FACE OF HUMAN ANATOMY PRACTICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporary practice of Human Anatomy should combine historical practices and current advances in technology. The history of Anatomy has changed dramatically over the years. It was not until the Grecian Period that people began to accept anatomy as a science. Originally nobody knew anything about anatomy and its.

  9. Human Face Identification using KL Transform and Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Joo [LG Electronics Inc. Multimedia Research Lab. (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Seung Hwan [Mi Re Industry Inc. (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jung Hwan; Park, Min Yong [Yonsei University (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    Machine recognition of faces from still and video images is emerging as an active research area spanning several disciplines such as image processing, pattern recognition, computer vision and neural networks. In addition, human face identification has numerous applications such as human interface based systems and real-time video systems of surveillance and security. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that can identify a particular individual face. We consider human face identification system in color space, which hasn`t often considered in conventional methods. In order to make the algorithm insensitive to luminance, we convert the conventional RGB coordinates into normalized CIE coordinates. The normalized-CIE-based facial images are KL-transformed. The transformed data are used as used as the input of multi-layered neural network and the network are trained using error-backpropagation methods. Finally, we verify the system performance of the proposed algorithm by experiments. (author). 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Can theories of animal discrimination explain perceptual learning in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Chris; Hall, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of recent studies of perceptual learning conducted with nonhuman animals. The focus of this research has been to elucidate the mechanisms by which mere exposure to a pair of similar stimuli can increase the ease with which those stimuli are discriminated. These studies establish an important role for 2 mechanisms, one involving inhibitory associations between the unique features of the stimuli, the other involving a long-term habituation process that enhances the relative salience of these features. We then examine recent work investigating equivalent perceptual learning procedures with human participants. Our aim is to determine the extent to which the phenomena exhibited by people are susceptible to explanation in terms of the mechanisms revealed by the animal studies. Although we find no evidence that associative inhibition contributes to the perceptual learning effect in humans, initial detection of unique features (those that allow discrimination between 2 similar stimuli) appears to depend on an habituation process. Once the unique features have been detected, a tendency to attend to those features and to learn about their properties enhances subsequent discrimination. We conclude that the effects obtained with humans engage mechanisms additional to those seen in animals but argue that, for the most part, these have their basis in learning processes that are common to animals and people. In a final section, we discuss some implications of this analysis of perceptual learning for other aspects of experimental psychology and consider some potential applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Putting A Human Face on Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickstein, Neil

    2005-03-01

    A short biography of chemist Fritz Haber is used to personalize the abstract concepts of equilibrium chemistry for high school students in an introductory course. In addition to giving the Haber Bosch process an historic, an economic, and a scientific background the reading and subsequent discussion allows students for whom the human perspective is of paramount importance a chance to investigate the irony of balance or equilibrium in Haber's life story. Since the inclusion of the Haber biography, performance in the laboratory and on examinations for those students who are usually only partially engaged has dramatically improved.

  12. The Processing of Human Emotional Faces by Pet and Lab Dogs: Evidence for Lateralization and Experience Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Anjuli L A; Randi, Dania; Müller, Corsin A; Huber, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    From all non-human animals dogs are very likely the best decoders of human behavior. In addition to a high sensitivity to human attentive status and to ostensive cues, they are able to distinguish between individual human faces and even between human facial expressions. However, so far little is known about how they process human faces and to what extent this is influenced by experience. Here we present an eye-tracking study with dogs emanating from two different living environments and varying experience with humans: pet and lab dogs. The dogs were shown pictures of familiar and unfamiliar human faces expressing four different emotions. The results, extracted from several different eye-tracking measurements, revealed pronounced differences in the face processing of pet and lab dogs, thus indicating an influence of the amount of exposure to humans. In addition, there was some evidence for the influences of both, the familiarity and the emotional expression of the face, and strong evidence for a left gaze bias. These findings, together with recent evidence for the dog's ability to discriminate human facial expressions, indicate that dogs are sensitive to some emotions expressed in human faces.

  13. The Processing of Human Emotional Faces by Pet and Lab Dogs: Evidence for Lateralization and Experience Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjuli L A Barber

    Full Text Available From all non-human animals dogs are very likely the best decoders of human behavior. In addition to a high sensitivity to human attentive status and to ostensive cues, they are able to distinguish between individual human faces and even between human facial expressions. However, so far little is known about how they process human faces and to what extent this is influenced by experience. Here we present an eye-tracking study with dogs emanating from two different living environments and varying experience with humans: pet and lab dogs. The dogs were shown pictures of familiar and unfamiliar human faces expressing four different emotions. The results, extracted from several different eye-tracking measurements, revealed pronounced differences in the face processing of pet and lab dogs, thus indicating an influence of the amount of exposure to humans. In addition, there was some evidence for the influences of both, the familiarity and the emotional expression of the face, and strong evidence for a left gaze bias. These findings, together with recent evidence for the dog's ability to discriminate human facial expressions, indicate that dogs are sensitive to some emotions expressed in human faces.

  14. “Review on Human Face Detection based on Skin Color and Edge Information”

    OpenAIRE

    Divyesh S. Gondaliya; Pratik P. Kamothi; Vicky N. Fudnawala; Kevin P. Patel; Hiren S. Patel; Sapan Naik

    2015-01-01

    Human face detection system is gradually used for the tracking a human face. Face detection system is mainly used in face reorganization system for detecting human face. Here in this review paper we have describe how face detection system works and where it is useful in real world environment. We have describes different technique like template matching, skin color and edge information based on face detection from skin region, symmetry based face detection and etc.

  15. Sex discrimination: how do we tell the difference between male and female faces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, V; Burton, A M; Hanna, E; Healey, P; Mason, O; Coombes, A; Fright, R; Linney, A

    1993-01-01

    People are remarkably accurate (approaching ceiling) at deciding whether faces are male or female, even when cues from hair style, makeup, and facial hair are minimised. Experiments designed to explore the perceptual basis of our ability to categorise the sex of faces are reported. Subjects were considerably less accurate when asked to judge the sex of three-dimensional (3-D) representations of faces obtained by laser-scanning, compared with a condition where photographs were taken with hair concealed and eyes closed. This suggests that cues from features such as eyebrows, and skin texture, play an important role in decision-making. Performance with the laser-scanned heads remained quite high with 3/4-view faces, where the 3-D shape of the face should be easiest to see, suggesting that the 3-D structure of the face is a further source of information contributing to the classification of its sex. Performance at judging the sex from photographs (with hair concealed) was disrupted if the photographs were inverted, which implies that the superficial cues contributing to the decision are not processed in a purely 'local' way. Performance was also disrupted if the faces were shown in photographic negatives, which is consistent with the use of 3-D information, since negation probably operates by disrupting the computation of shape from shading. In 3-D, the 'average' male face differs from the 'average' female face by having a more protuberant nose/brow and more prominent chin/jaw. The effects of manipulating the shapes of the noses and chins of the laser-scanned heads were assessed and significant effects of such manipulations on the apparent masculinity or femininity of the heads were revealed. It appears that our ability to make this most basic of facial categorisations may be multiply determined by a combination of 2-D, 3-D, and textural cues and their interrelationships.

  16. Overcoming the other-race effect in infancy with multisensory redundancy: 10-12-month-olds discriminate dynamic other-race faces producing speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minar, Nicholas J; Lewkowicz, David J

    2017-09-24

    We tested 4-6- and 10-12-month-old infants to investigate whether the often-reported decline in infant sensitivity to other-race faces may reflect responsiveness to static or dynamic/silent faces rather than a general process of perceptual narrowing. Across three experiments, we tested discrimination of either dynamic own-race or other-race faces which were either accompanied by a speech syllable, no sound, or a non-speech sound. Results indicated that 4-6- and 10-12-month-old infants discriminated own-race as well as other-race faces accompanied by a speech syllable, that only the 10-12-month-olds discriminated silent own-race faces, and that 4-6-month-old infants discriminated own-race and other-race faces accompanied by a non-speech sound but that 10-12-month-old infants only discriminated own-race faces accompanied by a non-speech sound. Overall, the results suggest that the ORE reported to date reflects infant responsiveness to static or dynamic/silent faces rather than a general process of perceptual narrowing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Discriminating Drivers through Human Factor and Behavioral Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seok Oh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Greenwood and Woods' (1919 study in tendency of accident, many researchers have insisted that various human factors (sensation seeking, anger, anxiety are highly correlated with reckless driving and traffic accidents. Oh and Lee (2011 designed the Driving Behavior Determinants Questionnaire, a psychological tool to predict danger level of drivers and discriminate them into three groups (normal, unintentionally reckless, and intentionally reckless by their characteristics, attitude, and expected reckless behavior level. This tool's overall accuracy of discrimination was 70%. This study aimed to prove that the discrimination reflects the behavioral difference of drivers. Twenty-four young drivers were requested to react to the visual stimuli (tests for subjective speed sense, simple visual reaction time, and left turning at own risk. The results showed no differences in subjective speed sense among the driver groups, which means drivers' excessive speeding behaviors occur due to intention based on personality and attitude, not because of sensory disorders. In addition, there were no differences in simple reaction time among driver groups. However, the results of the ‘Left turning at drivers’ own risk task” revealed significant group differences. All reckless drivers showed a greater degree of dangerous left turning behaviors than the normal group did.

  18. Recognizing age-separated face images: humans and machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Daksha; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Noore, Afzel

    2014-01-01

    Humans utilize facial appearance, gender, expression, aging pattern, and other ancillary information to recognize individuals. It is interesting to observe how humans perceive facial age. Analyzing these properties can help in understanding the phenomenon of facial aging and incorporating the findings can help in designing effective algorithms. Such a study has two components--facial age estimation and age-separated face recognition. Age estimation involves predicting the age of an individual given his/her facial image. On the other hand, age-separated face recognition consists of recognizing an individual given his/her age-separated images. In this research, we investigate which facial cues are utilized by humans for estimating the age of people belonging to various age groups along with analyzing the effect of one's gender, age, and ethnicity on age estimation skills. We also analyze how various facial regions such as binocular and mouth regions influence age estimation and recognition capabilities. Finally, we propose an age-invariant face recognition algorithm that incorporates the knowledge learned from these observations. Key observations of our research are: (1) the age group of newborns and toddlers is easiest to estimate, (2) gender and ethnicity do not affect the judgment of age group estimation, (3) face as a global feature, is essential to achieve good performance in age-separated face recognition, and (4) the proposed algorithm yields improved recognition performance compared to existing algorithms and also outperforms a commercial system in the young image as probe scenario.

  19. Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe

    2018-01-01

    for the face the be put into action. Based on an ethnographic study of Danish teenagers’ use of SnapChat we demonstrate how the face is used as a central medium for interaction with peers. Through the analysis of visual SnapChat messages we investigate how SnapChat requires the sender to put an ‘ugly’ face...... displays a single person make use of, and how this ‘pool of faces’ carries sociocultural meaning. While the past decades of swift technological development may seem to have diminished the role of face to face contact, the many new media has – on the contrary – established multiple new and innovative arenas...... forward. Especially the teenage girls engage in manipulating their faces into hideous expressions. However, this type of interaction is not random facial displays, but follow an ‘aesthetics of ugliness’. This aesthetics involve specific ways of looking ugly and is primarily performed by girls who have...

  20. A Database of Registered, Textured Models of the Human Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Lading, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This note describes a data set of 24 registered human faces represented by both shape and texture. The data was collected during 2003 as part of the preparation of the master thesis of Karl Sjöstrand (former name Karl Skoglund). The data is ready to be used in shape, appearance and data analysis....

  1. Human Bites of the Face with Tissue Losses in Cosmopolitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Milaki Asuku

    Abstract. A retrospective series of thirty-six cases of human bites to the face with tissue losses requiring reconstruction during a five-year period, January 1999 to December 2003 is presented. The unmarried female in her third decade dominated both as victim and assailant in incidences related to love affairs and love gone ...

  2. Human Bites of the Face with Tissue Losses in Cosmopolitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective series of thirty-six cases of human bites to the face with tissue losses requiring reconstruction during a five-year period, January 1999 to December 2003 is presented. The unmarried female in her third decade dominated both as victim and assailant in incidences related to love affairs and love gone sour.

  3. Building a 3-D Appearance Model of the Human Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Larsen, Rasmus; Lading, Brian

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a method for building an appearance model from three-dimensional data of human faces. The data consists of 3-D vertices, polygons and a texture map. The method uses a set of nine manually placed landmarks to automatically form a dense correspondence of thousands of points...

  4. Multi-Modal Human Verification Using Face and Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Changhan; Paik, Joonki

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a human verification method using combined face and speech information in order to improve the problem of single biometric verification. Single biometric verification has the fundamental problems of high FAR and FRR. So we present a

  5. German muslims and the 'integration debate': negotiating identities in the face of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Peter; Dahinden, Janine; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    Based on five focus groups (total N = 56) with German Muslims, we analyze discourses on the experience of discrimination and feelings of national and religious attachment. The focus groups took place in mid to late 2010 in four German cities. Whereas only few participants describe personal discrimination by non-Muslim Germans, almost all participants complain about being collectively discriminated and rejected. This perception triggers processes of confirming their original cultural identity, primarily their Muslim affiliation and of strengthening the boundary towards the wider society. The analysis of the discourse shows the participants to fall back into an essentialized way of thinking that makes their ethnic being incompatible with being German; and they resort to their Muslim roots as a cultural resource for identity construction and self-worth. Others cope with their feeling of rejection by engaging in local politics and sports activities that allows them to attribute themselves a hyphenated identity as Turkish-Germans. The findings are discussed in terms of social identity, psychological essentialism, transnationalized religion, and boundary making.

  6. Emotion identification method using RGB information of human face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Shinya; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the number of single households is drastically increased due to the growth of the aging society and the diversity of lifestyle. Therefore, the evolution of building spaces is demanded. Biofied Building we propose can help to avoid this situation. It helps interaction between the building and residents' conscious and unconscious information using robots. The unconscious information includes emotion, condition, and behavior. One of the important information is thermal comfort. We assume we can estimate it from human face. There are many researchs about face color analysis, but a few of them are conducted in real situations. In other words, the existing methods were not used with disturbance such as room lumps. In this study, Kinect was used with face-tracking. Room lumps and task lumps were used to verify that our method could be applicable to real situation. In this research, two rooms at 22 and 28 degrees C were prepared. We showed that the transition of thermal comfort by changing temperature can be observed from human face. Thus, distinction between the data of 22 and 28 degrees C condition from face color was proved to be possible.

  7. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaya, Laura V; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs.

  8. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura V Cuaya

    Full Text Available Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs.

  9. Appearance of symmetry, beauty, and health in human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, Dahlia W; Aarde, Shawn M; Baig, Kiran

    2005-04-01

    Symmetry is an important concept in biology, being related to mate selection strategies, health, and survival of species. In human faces, the relevance of left-right symmetry to attractiveness and health is not well understood. We compared the appearance of facial attractiveness, health, and symmetry in three separate experiments. Participants inspected front views of faces on the computer screen and judged them on a 5-point scale according to their attractiveness in Experiment 1, health in Experiment 2, and symmetry in Experiment 3. We found that symmetry and attractiveness were not strongly related in faces of women or men while health and symmetry were related. There was a significant difference between attractiveness and symmetry judgments but not between health and symmetry judgments. Moreover, there was a significant difference between attractiveness and health. Facial symmetry may be critical for the appearance of health but it does not seem to be critical for the appearance of attractiveness, not surprisingly perhaps because human faces together with the human brain have been shaped by adaptive evolution to be naturally asymmetrical.

  10. Face Discrimination Skills in Prader-Willi Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Benjamin H.; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) are at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including socialization problems. The PWS chromosome 15q11-13 maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD) subtype displays greater ASD symptoms than the paternal deletion (DEL) subtype. Since interpreting faces leads to successful socialization, we compared face…

  11. Sensors system design for discrimination between humans and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ǎgulinescu, Ana-Maria Claudia, Dr; Marcu, Ioana; Halunga, Simona; Fratu, Octavian

    2016-12-01

    The applicability areas for sensor networks vary from industrial automation, environmental observation to medical domain [1]. As the quality of life has improved, the life expectancy also increased during the last years, fact that leads to an aging of the population. It is well known that elderly people need special treatment and resources due to their decreasing capacity of self-caring. It is, thus, desirable to increase the length of independent living for this category without depriving them from the known life environment and personal habits. Another possible application is the one of child care and monitoring in closed precincts. This paper illustrates the implementation steps of a sensor network used for discriminating between the presence of a human being and of an animal that may be useful in case of medical emergency situations. The design takes into account the main challenges that may occur such as achievement of not accurate results due to the fact that children are moving much more than an adult. The basic structure is designed using Arduino platform, sensors for distance measurements, for height determination as well as DHT22 temperature sensor and sensors for motion detection and takes into account cases of walking and standing subjects. Several configurations have been tested in order to improve the relative error for discrimination between children and pet entering a room.

  12. Neurolaw: Differential brain activity for black and white faces predicts damage awards in hypothetical employment discrimination cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Harrison A; Johnson, Micah A; Chun, Marvin M

    2012-07-01

    Currently, potential jurors' racial biases are measured by explicit questioning--a poor measure because people often hide their views to adhere to social norms, and people have implicit views they are not consciously aware of. In this experiment, we investigated whether two alternative methods of measuring racial bias--a standard black/white, good/bad implicit association test (IAT) and neural activity, measured by fMRI, in response to seeing faces of black and white individuals--could predict how much money subjects would award Black victims in hypothetical employment discrimination cases. IAT scores failed to predict how much money subjects awarded victims. However, in right inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and in right superior/middle frontal gyrus (BA 9/10)--which have both previously been implicated in measuring biases and implicit preferences--the difference in neural activity between when subjects viewed black faces paired with neutral adjectives and when subjects viewed white faces paired with neutral adjectives was positively correlated with the amount of money the subjects awarded victims. This suggests that brain activity measures racial bias with more practical validity, at least in this situation and with our sample size, than a common behavioral measure (the IAT).

  13. The human face as a dynamic tool for social communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, Rachael E.; Schyns, Philippe G.

    2015-01-01

    As a highly social species, humans frequently exchange social information to support almost all facets of life. One of the richest and most powerful tools in social communication is the face, from which observers can quickly and easily make a number of inferences — about identity, gender, sex, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, physical health, attractiveness, emotional state, personality traits, pain or physical pleasure, deception, and even social status. With the advent of the digit...

  14. A study of human bite injuries to the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukwe, O N

    2002-01-01

    To analyse human bites injuries of the face as seen in Benin City, Nigeria and to compare the results with similar studies. Prospective cross sectional study. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Twenty patients with human bites to the face. The patients had a mean age of 36.0 years (range: 26 to 48 years), with a female to male ratio of 4:1. Matrimonial conflict related to polygamy was the commonest reason for assault, with females predominating as assailants. The lower lip was the commonest site of injury with 15 cases (75%). Eighteen patients (90.0%) presented at the clinic within 48 hours of injury with only 14 (70.0%) undergoing surgical repair within two to four days. Financial constraints accounted for the time lapse. None of the bite injuries became infected. This was attributed to early local wound care and systemic antibacterial therapy. None of the victims planned to seek legal redress for the bite injuries. This study showed that assaults during matrimonial conflicts led to most human bites to the face. It also showed that the Nigerian female was most often the victim and the assailant in such cases. Financial constraints were identified as the major cause of delay in the treatment of these injuries. However, delay in repair did not adversely affect the outcome of these injuries.

  15. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: I. Snake-species discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of species than adults. Our field study examined age-related differences in the snake-directed antipredator behavior of infant, juvenile, and adult white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in terms of alarm calling, looking behavior, and aggressive behavior. In the first experiment, we exposed infant and juvenile white-faced capuchins to realistic-looking inflatable models of their two snake predators, the boa constrictior (Boa constrictor) and neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) and a white airplane as a novel control. In the second experiment, infants, juveniles, and adults were presented photographic models of a coiled boa constrictor, rattlesnake, indigo snake (Drymarchon corais), a noncapuchin predator, and a white snake-like model. We found that antipredator behavior changed during the immature stage. Infants as young as 4 months old were able to recognize snakes and display antipredator behavior, but engaged in less snake-model discrimination than juveniles. All age classes exhibited a lower response to the white snake-like model, indicating that the absence of color and snake-scale patterns affected snake recognition. Infants also showed a higher level of vigilance after snake-model detection as exhibited by a higher proportion of time spent looking and head cocking at the models. Aggressive antipredator behavior was found in all age classes, but was more prevalent in juveniles and adults than infants. This study adds to the knowledge of development of antipredator behavior in primates by showing that, although alarm calling behavior and predator recognition appear at a very young age in capuchins, snake-species discrimination does not become apparent until the juvenile stage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Quality indicators for palliative care services: mixed-method study testing for face validity, feasibility, discriminative power and usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, Kathleen; Deliens, Luc; Francke, Anneke L; Vander Stichele, Robert; Van den Block, Lieve; Cohen, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of a standardized, comprehensive and valid set of quality indicators for palliative care, we developed one for palliative care services in Belgium. This study evaluates its face validity, feasibility, discriminative power and usefulness. We combined a quantitative analysis evaluating the answers with qualitative interviews with the contact persons of all participating services. The quality indicator set was implemented in nine palliative care services in Belgium involving a measurement procedure with questionnaires to the patients of the services, their professional caregivers, family carers and physicians. The response rate was 56% for patients, 97% for caregivers, 56% for family carers and 65% for physicians, indicating good feasibility of the measurement procedure. During the interviews, caregivers found the indicator scores valid and none was extremely skewed, confirming their discriminative power. Still, 20 of the 80 indicators showed problems of feasibility and 5 of usefulness. One was discarded and the others were improved by changing either the formulation of the indicator or the questions used. Most participants expressed a desire for a smaller but still comprehensive set. Based on the results, minor adjustments were made to individual indicators, to the measurement tools and to the procedure used; the quality indicators are now ready for further evaluation and use across palliative care services in Belgium. As soon as these indicators are being used systematically, it will be possible to demonstrate and compare quality at the national and international levels and to evaluate improvement initiatives. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. The Human Face as a Dynamic Tool for Social Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Rachael E; Schyns, Philippe G

    2015-07-20

    As a highly social species, humans frequently exchange social information to support almost all facets of life. One of the richest and most powerful tools in social communication is the face, from which observers can quickly and easily make a number of inferences - about identity, gender, sex, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, physical health, attractiveness, emotional state, personality traits, pain or physical pleasure, deception, and even social status. With the advent of the digital economy, increasing globalization and cultural integration, understanding precisely which face information supports social communication and which produces misunderstanding is central to the evolving needs of modern society (for example, in the design of socially interactive digital avatars and companion robots). Doing so is challenging, however, because the face can be thought of as comprising a high-dimensional, dynamic information space, and this impacts cognitive science and neuroimaging, and their broader applications in the digital economy. New opportunities to address this challenge are arising from the development of new methods and technologies, coupled with the emergence of a modern scientific culture that embraces cross-disciplinary approaches. Here, we briefly review one such approach that combines state-of-the-art computer graphics, psychophysics and vision science, cultural psychology and social cognition, and highlight the main knowledge advances it has generated. In the light of current developments, we provide a vision of the future directions in the field of human facial communication within and across cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural signatures of conscious and unconscious emotional face processing in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Sarah; Grossmann, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Human adults can process emotional information both with and without conscious awareness, and it has been suggested that the two processes rely on partly distinct brain mechanisms. However, the developmental origins of these brain processes are unknown. In the present event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we examined the brain responses of 7-month-old infants in response to subliminally (50 and 100 msec) and supraliminally (500 msec) presented happy and fearful facial expressions. Our results revealed that infants' brain responses (Pb and Nc) over central electrodes distinguished between emotions irrespective of stimulus duration, whereas the discrimination between emotions at occipital electrodes (N290 and P400) only occurred when faces were presented supraliminally (above threshold). This suggests that early in development the human brain not only discriminates between happy and fearful facial expressions irrespective of conscious perception, but also that, similar to adults, supraliminal and subliminal emotion processing relies on distinct neural processes. Our data further suggest that the processing of emotional facial expressions differs across infants depending on their behaviorally shown perceptual sensitivity. The current ERP findings suggest that distinct brain processes underpinning conscious and unconscious emotion perception emerge early in ontogeny and can therefore be seen as a key feature of human social functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preference for Averageness in Faces Does Not Generalize to Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia B. Tomeo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Facial attractiveness is a long-standing topic of active study in both neuroscience and social science, motivated by its positive social consequences. Over the past few decades, it has been established that averageness is a major factor influencing judgments of facial attractiveness in humans. Non-human primates share similar social behaviors as well as neural mechanisms related to face processing with humans. However, it is unknown whether monkeys, like humans, also find particular faces attractive and, if so, which kind of facial traits they prefer. To address these questions, we investigated the effect of averageness on preferences for faces in monkeys. We tested three adult male rhesus macaques using a visual paired comparison (VPC task, in which they viewed pairs of faces (both individual faces, or one individual face and one average face; viewing time was used as a measure of preference. We did find that monkeys looked longer at certain individual faces than others. However, unlike humans, monkeys did not prefer the average face over individual faces. In fact, the more the individual face differed from the average face, the longer the monkeys looked at it, indicating that the average face likely plays a role in face recognition rather than in judgments of facial attractiveness: in models of face recognition, the average face operates as the norm against which individual faces are compared and recognized. Taken together, our study suggests that the preference for averageness in faces does not generalize to non-human primates.

  20. Only human: hostile human norms can reduce legitimization of intergroup discrimination by perpetrators of historical atrocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Louis, Winnifred R

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the effects of salient shared humanity with a benevolent or hostile human norm on perpetrators of historical atrocities. Our findings suggest that a focus on benevolent superordinate humanity enables perpetrators to legitimize intergroup discrimination and preserve existing negative attitudes towards victims. In Expt 1 (N=135), salient shared humanity with a human norm of benevolence and kindness preserved the perceived legitimacy of intergroup inequality, while exposure to a hostile norm of human nature reduced perceived legitimacy. Expt 2 (N=51) replicated the association between exposure to a hostile human norm and reduced legitimization when perpetrator intentions were unambiguously negative. In contrast, when perpetrator intentions were ambiguous, a hostile human norm had no effect on perceived legitimacy. Our findings qualify previous research, and demonstrate that the effects of emphasizing shared humanity are not equivalent or universally positive for perpetrators and victims.

  1. Faciotopy—A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for “faciotopy”, a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance. PMID:26235800

  2. Faciotopy-A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-11-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for "faciotopy", a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

  4. PET FACE: MECHANISMS UNDERLYING HUMAN-ANIMAL RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eBorgi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating behavioral and neurophysiological studies support the idea of infantile (cute faces as highly biologically relevant stimuli rapidly and unconsciously capturing attention and eliciting positive/affectionate behaviors, including willingness to care. It has been hypothesized that the presence of infantile physical and behavioral features in companion (or pet animals (i.e. dogs and cats might form the basis of our attraction to these species. Preliminary evidence has indeed shown that the human attentional bias toward the baby schema may extend to animal facial configurations. In this review, the role of facial cues, specifically of infantile traits and facial signals (i.e. eyes gaze as emotional and communicative signals is highlighted and discussed as regulating human-animal bond, similarly to what can be observed in the adult-infant interaction context. Particular emphasis is given to the neuroendocrine regulation of social bond between humans and animals through oxytocin secretion. Instead of considering companion animals as mere baby substitutes for their owners, in this review we highlight the central role of cats and dogs in human lives. Specifically, we consider the ability of companion animals to bond with humans as fulfilling the need for attention and emotional intimacy, thus serving similar psychological and adaptive functions as human-human friendships. In this context, facial cuteness is viewed not just as a releaser of care/parental behavior, but more in general as a trait motivating social engagement. To conclude, the impact of this information for applied disciplines is briefly described, particularly in consideration of the increasing evidence of the beneficial effects of contacts with animals for human health and wellbeing.

  5. The fractal based analysis of human face and DNA variations during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Akrami, Amin; Hussaini, Jamal; Silva, Osmar N; Wong, Albert; Kulish, Vladimir V

    2017-01-16

    Human DNA is the main unit that shapes human characteristics and features such as behavior. Thus, it is expected that changes in DNA (DNA mutation) influence human characteristics and features. Face is one of the human features which is unique and also dependent on his gen. In this paper, for the first time we analyze the variations of human DNA and face simultaneously. We do this job by analyzing the fractal dimension of DNA walk and face during human aging. The results of this study show the human DNA and face get more complex by aging. These complexities are mapped on fractal exponents of DNA walk and human face. The method discussed in this paper can be further developed in order to investigate the direct influence of DNA mutation on the face variations during aging, and accordingly making a model between human face fractality and the complexity of DNA walk.

  6. Putting a Face to a Name: Visualising Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Mackie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I focus on a text which attempts to deal with human rights issues in an accessible media format, Kälin, Müller and Wyttenbach’s book, The Face of Human Rights. I am interested in this text as an attempt to translate between different modes of communicating about human rights, which we might call the academic mode, the bureaucratic mode, the activist mode and the popular media mode. There are significant gaps between the academic debates on human rights, the actual language and protocols of the bodies devoted to ensuring the achievement of basic human rights, the language of activists, and the ways in which these issues are discussed in the media. These issues are compounded in a transnational frame where people must find ways of communicating across differences of language and culture. These problems of communicating across difference are inherent to the contemporary machinery of the international human rights system, where global institutions of governance are implicated in the claims of individuals who are located in diverse national contexts. Several commentators have noted the importance of narrative in human rights advocacy, while others have explored the role of art. I am interested in analysing narrative and representational strategies, from a consciousness that texts work not only through vocabulary and propositional content, but also through discursive positioning. It is necessary to look at the structure of texts, the contents of texts, and the narrative strategies and discursive frameworks which inform them. Similar points can be made about photography, which must be analysed in terms of the specific representational possibilities of visual culture.

  7. Can humans discriminate between dogs on the base of the acoustic parameters of barks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Csaba; Pongrácz, Péter; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Adám

    2006-07-01

    In this study we tested the often suggested claim that people are able to recognize their dogs by their barks. Earlier studies in other species indicated that reliable discrimination between individuals cannot be made by listening to chaotically noisy vocalizations. As barking is typically such a chaotic noisy vocalization, we have hypothesized that reliable discrimination between individuals is not possible by listening to barks. In this study, playback experiments were conducted to explore (1) how accurately humans discriminate between dogs by hearing only their barks, (2) the impact of the eliciting context of calls on these discrimination performances, and (3) how much such discrimination depends on acoustic parameters (tonality and frequency of barks, and the intervals between the individual barks). Our findings were consistent with the previous studies: human performances did not pass the empirical threshold of reliable discrimination in most cases. But a significant effect of tonality was found: discrimination between individuals was more successful when listeners were listening to low harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) barks. The contexts in which barks were recorded affected significantly the listeners' performances: if the dog barked at a stranger, listeners were able to discriminate the vocalizations better than if they were listening to sounds recorded when the dog was separated from its owner. It is rendered probable that the bark might be a more efficient communication system between humans and dogs for communicating the motivational state of an animal than for discrimination among strange individuals.

  8. Animal, but Not Human, Faces Engage the Distributed Face Network in Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Elisabeth M.; Behrmann, Marlene; Minshew, Nancy J.; Garcia, Natalie V.; Scherf, K. Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Multiple hypotheses have been offered to explain the impaired face-processing behavior and the accompanying underlying disruptions in neural circuitry among individuals with autism. We explored the specificity of atypical face-processing activation and potential alterations to fusiform gyrus (FG) morphology as potential underlying mechanisms.…

  9. The Way Dogs (Canis familiaris Look at Human Emotional Faces Is Modulated by Oxytocin. An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dogs have been shown to excel in reading human social cues, including facial cues. In the present study we used eye-tracking technology to further study dogs’ face processing abilities. It was found that dogs discriminated between human facial regions in their spontaneous viewing pattern and looked most to the eye region independently of facial expression. Furthermore dogs played most attention to the first two images presented, afterwards their attention dramatically decreases; a finding that has methodological implications. Increasing evidence indicates that the oxytocin system is involved in dogs’ human-directed social competence, thus as a next step we investigated the effects of oxytocin on processing of human facial emotions. It was found that oxytocin decreases dogs’ looking to the human faces expressing angry emotional expression. More interestingly, however, after oxytocin pre-treatment dogs’ preferential gaze toward the eye region when processing happy human facial expressions disappears. These results provide the first evidence that oxytocin is involved in the regulation of human face processing in dogs. The present study is one of the few empirical investigations that explore eye gaze patterns in naïve and untrained pet dogs using a non-invasive eye-tracking technique and thus offers unique but largely untapped method for studying social cognition in dogs.

  10. The role of view in human face detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A Mike; Bindemann, Markus

    2009-07-01

    The ability to detect faces in visual scenes is little understood. Across three experiments we examined whether particular facial views (for example those revealing a pair of eyes) facilitate detection while observers are searching for faces in complex visual scenes. Viewers' performance was equivalent for faces shown in frontal and mid-profile pose, but declined in profile (Experiment 1). These differences persisted when only half the face was shown, so that one eye was visible in frontal and profile view but both eyes were preserved in mid-frontal faces (Experiment 2). The same pattern was found when only the upper region of a face appeared in visual scenes, but the presentation of lower half faces eliminated all differences (Experiment 3). These findings demonstrate that the upper face mediates detection across different views, but 'a pair of eyes' cannot explain differences in detectability.

  11. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponseti, J; Granert, O; van Eimeren, T

    2014-01-01

    . In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (f......MRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more...... than child faces. These brain regions comprised areas known to be implicated in face processing, and sexual processing, including occipital areas, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and, subcortically, the putamen and nucleus caudatus. The same regions were activated in paedophiles...

  12. Short faces, big tongues: developmental origin of the human chin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Coquerelle

    Full Text Available During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor--space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies.

  13. Religious identification and politicization in the face of discrimination: support for political Islam and political action among the Turkish and Moroccan second generation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Fenella; Phalet, Karen; Klein, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    Taking an approach from religion as a social identity and using large-scale comparative surveys in five European cities, we investigate when and how perceived discrimination is associated with religious identification and politicization among the second generation of Turkish and Moroccan Muslims. We distinguish support for political Islam from political action as distinct forms of politicization. In addition, we test the mediating role of religious identification in processes of politicization. Study 1 estimates multi-group structural equation models of support for political Islam in Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden. In line with a social identity model of politicization and across nine inter-group contexts, Muslims who perceived more discrimination identified (even) more strongly as Muslims; and high Muslim identifiers were most ready to support political Islam. In support of a competing social stigma hypothesis, however, negative direct and total effects of perceived discrimination suggest predominant depoliticization. Using separate sub-samples across four inter-group contexts in Belgium, Study 2 adds political action tendencies as a distinct form of politicization. Whereas religious identification positively predicts both forms of politicization, perceived discrimination has differential effects: Muslims who perceived more discrimination were more weary of supporting political Islam, yet more ready to engage in political action to defend Islamic values. Taken together, the studies reveal that some Muslim citizens will politicize and others will depoliticize in the face of discrimination as a function of their religious identification and of prevailing forms of politicization. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Discriminating multiple motor imageries of human hands using EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ran; Liao, Ke; Ding, Lei

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of discriminating four different motor imagery (MI) types from both hands using electroencephalography (EEG) through exploring underlying features related to MIs of thumb and fist from one hand. New spectral and spatial features related to different MIs were extracted using principal component analysis (PCA) and squared cross correlation (R(2)). Extracted features were evaluated using a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier, resulting in an average decoding accuracy about 50%, which is significantly higher than the guess level and the 95% confidence level of guess. The preliminary results demonstrate the great potential of extracting features from different MIs from same hands to generate control signals with more degrees of freedom (DOF) for non-invasive brain-computer interface applications. In addition, for movement related applications, especially for neuroprosthesis, the present study may facilitate the development of a non-invasive BCI, which is highly intuitive and based on users' spontaneous intentions.

  15. Embracing humanity in the face of death: why do existential concerns moderate ingroup humanization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaes, Jeroen; Bain, Paul G; Bastian, Brock

    2014-01-01

    People humanize their ingroup to address existential concerns about their mortality, but the reasons why they do so remain ambiguous. One explanation is that people humanize their ingroup to bolster their social identity in the face of their mortality. Alternatively, people might be motivated to see their ingroup as more uniquely human (UH) to distance themselves from their corporeal "animal" nature. These explanations were tested in Australia, where social identity is tied less to UH and more to human nature (HN) which does not distinguish humans from animals. Australians attributed more HN traits to the ingroup when mortality was salient, while the attribution of UH traits remained unchanged. This indicates that the mortality-buffering function of ingroup humanization lies in reinforcing the humanness of our social identity, rather than just distancing ourselves from our animal nature. Implications for (de)humanization in intergroup relations are discussed.

  16. Serum Metabolomic Profiles for Human Pancreatic Cancer Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Itoi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the clinical use of serum metabolomics to discriminate malignant cancers including pancreatic cancer (PC from malignant diseases, such as biliary tract cancer (BTC, intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (IPMC, and various benign pancreaticobiliary diseases. Capillary electrophoresismass spectrometry was used to analyze charged metabolites. We repeatedly analyzed serum samples (n = 41 of different storage durations to identify metabolites showing high quantitative reproducibility, and subsequently analyzed all samples (n = 140. Overall, 189 metabolites were quantified and 66 metabolites had a 20% coefficient of variation and, of these, 24 metabolites showed significant differences among control, benign, and malignant groups (p < 0.05; Steel–Dwass test. Four multiple logistic regression models (MLR were developed and one MLR model clearly discriminated all disease patients from healthy controls with an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.970 (95% confidential interval (CI, 0.946–0.994, p < 0.0001. Another model to discriminate PC from BTC and IPMC yielded AUC = 0.831 (95% CI, 0.650–1.01, p = 0.0020 with higher accuracy compared with tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, pancreatic cancer-associated antigen (DUPAN2 and s-pancreas-1 antigen (SPAN1. Changes in metabolomic profiles might be used to screen for malignant cancers as well as to differentiate between PC and other malignant diseases.

  17. Reduced anterior temporal and hippocampal functional connectivity during face processing discriminates individuals with social anxiety disorder from healthy controls and panic disorder, and increases following treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazatos, Spiro P; Talati, Ardesheer; Schneier, Franklin R; Hirsch, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Group functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that anxiety disorders are associated with anomalous brain activation and functional connectivity (FC). However, brain-based features sensitive enough to discriminate individual subjects with a specific anxiety disorder and that track symptom severity longitudinally, desirable qualities for putative disorder-specific biomarkers, remain to be identified. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI during emotional face perceptual tasks and a new, large-scale and condition-dependent FC and machine learning approach were used to identify features (pair-wise correlations) that discriminated patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD, N=16) from controls (N=19). We assessed whether these features discriminated SAD from panic disorder (PD, N=16), and SAD from controls in an independent replication sample that performed a similar task at baseline (N: SAD=15, controls=17) and following 8-weeks paroxetine treatment (N: SAD=12, untreated controls=7). High SAD vs HCs discrimination (area under the ROC curve, AUC, arithmetic mean of sensitivity and specificity) was achieved with two FC features during unattended neutral face perception (AUC=0.88, PSAD vs PD (AUC=0.82, P=0.0001) and SAD vs HCs in the independent replication sample (FC during unattended angry face perception, AUC=0.71, P=0.01). The most informative FC was left hippocampus-left temporal pole, which was reduced in both SAD samples (replication sample P=0.027), and this FC increased following the treatment (post>pre, t(11)=2.9, P=0.007). In conclusion, SAD is associated with reduced FC between left temporal pole and left hippocampus during face perception, and results suggest promise for emerging FC-based biomarkers for SAD diagnosis and treatment effects.

  18. From the Form to the Face to Face: IRBs, Ethnographic Researchers, and Human Subjects Translate Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    Based on my fieldwork with Burmese teachers in Thailand, I describe the drawbacks of using IRB-mandated written consent procedures in my cross-cultural collaborative ethnographic research on education. Drawing on theories of intersubjectivity (Mikhail Bakhtin), ethics (Emmanuel Levinas), and translation (Naoki Sakai), I describe face-to-face…

  19. Human face recognition using eigenface in cloud computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, S. T. M.; Syahputra, M. F.; Rahmat, R. F.

    2018-02-01

    Doing a face recognition for one single face does not take a long time to process, but if we implement attendance system or security system on companies that have many faces to be recognized, it will take a long time. Cloud computing is a computing service that is done not on a local device, but on an internet connected to a data center infrastructure. The system of cloud computing also provides a scalability solution where cloud computing can increase the resources needed when doing larger data processing. This research is done by applying eigenface while collecting data as training data is also done by using REST concept to provide resource, then server can process the data according to existing stages. After doing research and development of this application, it can be concluded by implementing Eigenface, recognizing face by applying REST concept as endpoint in giving or receiving related information to be used as a resource in doing model formation to do face recognition.

  20. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B

    2015-09-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.

  1. Artificial faces are harder to remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Pacella, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Observers interact with artificial faces in a range of different settings and in many cases must remember and identify computer-generated faces. In general, however, most adults have heavily biased experience favoring real faces over synthetic faces. It is well known that face recognition abilities are affected by experience such that faces belonging to "out-groups" defined by race or age are more poorly remembered and harder to discriminate from one another than faces belonging to the "in-group." Here, we examine the extent to which artificial faces form an "out-group" in this sense when other perceptual categories are matched. We rendered synthetic faces using photographs of real human faces and compared performance in a memory task and a discrimination task across real and artificial versions of the same faces. We found that real faces were easier to remember, but only slightly more discriminable than artificial faces. Artificial faces were also equally susceptible to the well-known face inversion effect, suggesting that while these patterns are still processed by the human visual system in a face-like manner, artificial appearance does compromise the efficiency of face processing.

  2. Artificial faces are harder to remember

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Pacella, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Observers interact with artificial faces in a range of different settings and in many cases must remember and identify computer-generated faces. In general, however, most adults have heavily biased experience favoring real faces over synthetic faces. It is well known that face recognition abilities are affected by experience such that faces belonging to “out-groups” defined by race or age are more poorly remembered and harder to discriminate from one another than faces belonging to the “in-group.” Here, we examine the extent to which artificial faces form an “out-group” in this sense when other perceptual categories are matched. We rendered synthetic faces using photographs of real human faces and compared performance in a memory task and a discrimination task across real and artificial versions of the same faces. We found that real faces were easier to remember, but only slightly more discriminable than artificial faces. Artificial faces were also equally susceptible to the well-known face inversion effect, suggesting that while these patterns are still processed by the human visual system in a face-like manner, artificial appearance does compromise the efficiency of face processing. PMID:26195852

  3. Rapid discrimination of visual scene content in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Andrey P; Golosheykin, Simon; Sirevaag, Erik; Kristjansson, Sean; Rohrbaugh, John W; Heath, Andrew C

    2006-06-06

    The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neuroelectric responses elicited by complex pictures discriminate between specific, biologically relevant contents of the visual scene and to determine how early in the picture processing this discrimination occurs. Subjects (n = 264) viewed 55 color slides differing in both scene content and emotional significance. No categorical judgments or responses were required. Consistent with previous studies, we found that emotionally arousing pictures, regardless of their content, produce a larger late positive wave than neutral pictures. However, when pictures were further categorized by content, anterior ERP components in a time window between 200 and 600 ms following stimulus onset showed a high selectivity for pictures with erotic content compared to other pictures regardless of their emotional valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) or emotional arousal. The divergence of ERPs elicited by erotic and non-erotic contents started at 185 ms post-stimulus in the fronto-central midline region, with a later onset in parietal regions. This rapid, selective, and content-specific processing of erotic materials and its dissociation from other pictures (including emotionally positive pictures) suggests the existence of a specialized neural network for prioritized processing of a distinct category of biologically relevant stimuli with high adaptive and evolutionary significance.

  4. Human wavelength discrimination of monochromatic light explained by optimal wavelength decoding of light of unknown intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhaoping

    Full Text Available We show that human ability to discriminate the wavelength of monochromatic light can be understood as maximum likelihood decoding of the cone absorptions, with a signal processing efficiency that is independent of the wavelength. This work is built on the framework of ideal observer analysis of visual discrimination used in many previous works. A distinctive aspect of our work is that we highlight a perceptual confound that observers should confuse a change in input light wavelength with a change in input intensity. Hence a simple ideal observer model which assumes that an observer has a full knowledge of input intensity should over-estimate human ability in discriminating wavelengths of two inputs of unequal intensity. This confound also makes it difficult to consistently measure human ability in wavelength discrimination by asking observers to distinguish two input colors while matching their brightness. We argue that the best experimental method for reliable measurement of discrimination thresholds is the one of Pokorny and Smith, in which observers only need to distinguish two inputs, regardless of whether they differ in hue or brightness. We mathematically formulate wavelength discrimination under this wavelength-intensity confound and show a good agreement between our theoretical prediction and the behavioral data. Our analysis explains why the discrimination threshold varies with the input wavelength, and shows how sensitively the threshold depends on the relative densities of the three types of cones in the retina (and in particular predict discriminations in dichromats. Our mathematical formulation and solution can be applied to general problems of sensory discrimination when there is a perceptual confound from other sensory feature dimensions.

  5. Discriminative Vision-Based Recovery and Recognition of Human Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of human motion from images opens up the way for applications in the domains of security and surveillance, human-computer interaction, animation, retrieval and sports motion analysis. In this dissertation, the focus is on robust and fast human pose recovery and action

  6. A New Viewpoint on the Evolution of Sexually Dimorphic Human Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Burke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Human faces show marked sexual shape dimorphism, and this affects their attractiveness. Humans also show marked height dimorphism, which means that men typically view women's faces from slightly above and women typically view men's faces from slightly below. We tested the idea that this perspective difference may be the evolutionary origin of the face shape dimorphism by having males and females rate the masculinity/femininity and attractiveness of male and female faces that had been manipulated in pitch (forward or backward tilt, simulating viewing the face from slightly above or below. As predicted, tilting female faces upwards decreased their perceived femininity and attractiveness, whereas tilting them downwards increased their perceived femininity and attractiveness. Male faces tilted up were judged to be more masculine, and tilted down judged to be less masculine. This suggests that sexual selection may have embodied this viewpoint difference into the actual facial proportions of men and women.

  7. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  8. Two-step calibration method for multi-algorithm score-based face recognition systems by minimizing discrimination loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susyanto, N.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Klaassen, C.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method for combining multi-algorithm score-based face recognition systems, which we call the two-step calibration method. Typically, algorithms for face recognition systems produce dependent scores. The two-step method is based on parametric copulas to handle this dependence. Its

  9. [Mechanisms of face perception in humans: an MEG study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kensaku; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2012-07-01

    In this review article, we summarize our results from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies on face perception. The primary results were as follows: (1) facial (eye and mouth) movements are processed differently from general motion perception, but eye and mouth movements are likely processed in the same manner. (2) In a study investigating the interaction between auditory and visual stimuli relating to vowel sounds in the auditory cortex, vowel sound perception in the auditory cortex, at least in the primary processing stage, was not affected by simultaneously viewing mouth movements. (3) In a study investigating the effects of face contour and features on early occipitotemporal activity when viewing eye movement, there was evidence of specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether the movements appeared with the face contour and/or features. (4) In a study investigating the effects of inverting facial contour (hair and chin) and features (eyes, nose and mouth) on the processing of static and dynamic face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was more affected by the inversion of features, whereas activity in the left fusiform area was more affected by disruption of the spatial relationship between the contour and features in static face perception, and activity in the right occipitotemporal area was most affected by inversion of the facial contour in dynamic face perception. (5) In a study investigating the perception of changes in facial emotion, the areas of the brain involved in perceiving changes in facial emotion were found to have not matured by 14 years of age.

  10. Forensic Face Recognition : From characteristic descriptors to strength of evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, Christopher Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Forensic Face Recognition (FFR) is the use of biometric face recognition for several appli- cations in forensic science. Biometric face recognition uses the face modality as a means to discriminate between human beings; forensic science is the application of science and tech- nology to law

  11. Feeling younger and identifying with older adults: Testing two routes to maintaining well-being in the face of age discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana M Armenta

    Full Text Available Integrating the social identity and aging literatures, this work tested the hypothesis that there are two independent, but simultaneous, responses by which adults transitioning into old age can buffer themselves against age discrimination: an individual response, which entails adopting a younger subjective age when facing discrimination, and a collective response, which involves increasing identification with the group of older adults. In three experimental studies with a total number of 488 older adults (50 to 75 years of age, we manipulated age discrimination in a job application scenario and measured the effects of both responses on perceived health and self-esteem. Statistical analyses include individual study results as well as a meta-analysis on the combined results of the three studies. Findings show consistent evidence only for the individual response, which was in turn associated with well-being. Furthermore, challenging previous research, the two responses (adopting a younger subjective age and increasing group identification were not only theoretically, but also empirically distinct. This research complements prior research by signaling the value of considering both responses to discrimination as complementary rather than mutually exclusive.

  12. Feeling younger and identifying with older adults: Testing two routes to maintaining well-being in the face of age discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Bibiana M; Stroebe, Katherine; Scheibe, Susanne; Postmes, Tom; Van Yperen, Nico W

    2017-01-01

    Integrating the social identity and aging literatures, this work tested the hypothesis that there are two independent, but simultaneous, responses by which adults transitioning into old age can buffer themselves against age discrimination: an individual response, which entails adopting a younger subjective age when facing discrimination, and a collective response, which involves increasing identification with the group of older adults. In three experimental studies with a total number of 488 older adults (50 to 75 years of age), we manipulated age discrimination in a job application scenario and measured the effects of both responses on perceived health and self-esteem. Statistical analyses include individual study results as well as a meta-analysis on the combined results of the three studies. Findings show consistent evidence only for the individual response, which was in turn associated with well-being. Furthermore, challenging previous research, the two responses (adopting a younger subjective age and increasing group identification) were not only theoretically, but also empirically distinct. This research complements prior research by signaling the value of considering both responses to discrimination as complementary rather than mutually exclusive.

  13. Development of Preference for Conspecific Faces in Human Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanefuji, Wakako; Wada, Kazuko; Yamamoto, Tomoka; Mohri, Ikuko; Taniike, Masako

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have proposed that humans may be born with mechanisms that attend to conspecifics. However, as previous studies have relied on stimuli featuring human adults, it remains unclear whether infants attend only to adult humans or to the entire human species. We found that 1-month-old infants (n = 23) were able to differentiate between…

  14. Robust statistical frontalization of human and animal faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagonas, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The unconstrained acquisition of facial data in real-world conditions may result in face images with significant pose variations, illumination changes, and occlusions, affecting the performance of facial landmark localization and recognition methods. In this paper, a novel method, robust to pose,

  15. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-03-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women's empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries' progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic model of the interdependence between human development and gender inequality. We then introduce a biometric indicator, based on the ratio of female to male body mass index, to measure women's empowerment at the country level. Finally, by using the latest available data, we examine the ability of this biometric indicator to capture countries' performance in achieving gender equality. We obtain five main results: 1) we provide a theoretical framework to explain the joint determination of human development and gender inequality; 2) we show how to use this framework to simulate the impact of exogenous shocks or policy changes; 3) we demonstrate that exogenous changes have a direct and a multiplier effect on human development and gender inequality; 4) we find that the distribution of obesity between the female and male populations represents a useful proxy variable for measuring gender equality at the country level; 5) finally, we use these results to integrate and develop existing knowledge on the 'ecological' approach to the overweight and obesity pandemic.

  16. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women’s empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries’ progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic ...

  17. Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy used to discriminate human colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Bianchi, Mariana; de Thomaz, André A.; Baratti, Mariana O.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Casco, Víctor H.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2013-02-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most diffused cancers in the Western World, ranking third worldwide in frequency of incidence after lung and breast cancers. Even if it is curable when detected and treated early, a more accurate premature diagnosis would be a suitable aim for both cancer prognostic and treatment. Combined multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopies, such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG), and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can be used to detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with stroma and epithelial transformation in colon cancer disease. NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns between normal and malignant human colonic mucosa. Using a set of scoring methods significant differences both in the content, distribution and organization of stroma collagen fibrils, and lifetime components of NADH and FAD cofactors of human colon mucosa biopsies were found. Our results provide a framework for using NLO techniques as a clinical diagnostic tool for human colon cancer, and also suggest that the SHG and FLIM metrics could be applied to other intestinal disorders, which are characterized by abnormal cell proliferation and collagen assembly.

  18. A truly human interface: Interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eCorti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots become hybrid agents (echoborgs capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people’s experiences interacting with echoborgs and the extent to which echoborgs pass as autonomous humans. First, participants in a Turing Test spoke with a chat bot via either a text interface or an echoborg. Human shadowing did not improve the chat bot’s chance of passing but did increase interrogators’ ratings of how human-like the chat bot seemed. In our second study, participants had to decide whether their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot or simply pretended to be one. Compared to those who engaged a text interface, participants who engaged an echoborg were more likely to perceive their interlocutor as pretending to be a chat bot. In our third study, participants were naïve to the fact that their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot. Unlike those who engaged a text interface, the vast majority of participants who engaged an echoborg neither sensed nor suspected a robotic interaction. These findings have implications for android science, the Turing Test paradigm, and human-computer interaction. The human body, as the delivery mechanism of communication, fundamentally alters the social psychological dynamics of interactions with machine intelligence.

  19. A truly human interface: interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower) repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots) become hybrid agents ("echoborgs") capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people's experiences interacting with echoborgs and the extent to which echoborgs pass as autonomous humans. First, participants in a Turing Test spoke with a chat bot via either a text interface or an echoborg. Human shadowing did not improve the chat bot's chance of passing but did increase interrogators' ratings of how human-like the chat bot seemed. In our second study, participants had to decide whether their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot or simply pretended to be one. Compared to those who engaged a text interface, participants who engaged an echoborg were more likely to perceive their interlocutor as pretending to be a chat bot. In our third study, participants were naïve to the fact that their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot. Unlike those who engaged a text interface, the vast majority of participants who engaged an echoborg did not sense a robotic interaction. These findings have implications for android science, the Turing Test paradigm, and human-computer interaction. The human body, as the delivery mechanism of communication, fundamentally alters the social psychological dynamics of interactions with machine intelligence.

  20. Task-dependent activations of human auditory cortex during spatial discrimination and spatial memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Teemu; Koistinen, Sonja; Talja, Suvi; Wikman, Patrik; Salonen, Oili

    2012-02-15

    In the present study, we applied high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the human auditory cortex (AC) and adjacent areas to compare activations during spatial discrimination and spatial n-back memory tasks that were varied parametrically in difficulty. We found that activations in the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) were stronger during spatial discrimination than during spatial memory, while spatial memory was associated with stronger activations in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). We also found that wide AC areas were strongly deactivated during the spatial memory tasks. The present AC activation patterns associated with spatial discrimination and spatial memory tasks were highly similar to those obtained in our previous study comparing AC activations during pitch discrimination and pitch memory (Rinne et al., 2009). Together our previous and present results indicate that discrimination and memory tasks activate anterior and posterior AC areas differently and that this anterior-posterior division is present both when these tasks are performed on spatially invariant (pitch discrimination vs. memory) or spatially varying (spatial discrimination vs. memory) sounds. These results also further strengthen the view that activations of human AC cannot be explained only by stimulus-level parameters (e.g., spatial vs. nonspatial stimuli) but that the activations observed with fMRI are strongly dependent on the characteristics of the behavioral task. Thus, our results suggest that in order to understand the functional structure of AC a more systematic investigation of task-related factors affecting AC activations is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two gro...

  2. Discriminative-stimulus effects of zolpidem, triazolam, pentobarbital, and caffeine in zolpidem-trained humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, C R; Baker, R W; Rowlett, J K

    2000-02-01

    Six non-drug-abusing humans were trained to discriminate 15 mg zolpidem in the present experiment. After participants acquired discrimination, a range of doses of zolpidem (2.5-15.0 mg), triazolam (0.0625-0.3750 mg), pentobarbital (25-150 mg), caffeine (100-600 mg), and placebo were tested to determine whether they shared discriminative-stimulus effects with 15 mg zolpidem. The participant-rated and performance-impairing effects of zolpidem, triazolam, pentobarbital, and caffeine were assessed concurrently. Triazolam and pentobarbital dose dependently increased zolpidem-appropriate responding. Caffeine occasioned low levels of zolpidem-appropriate responding. Zolpidem, triazolam, and pentobarbital, but not caffeine, generally produced a similar constellation of participant-rated drug effects (e.g., increased scores for the Pentobarbital, Chlorpromazine, and Alcohol Group subscale on the Addiction Research Center Inventory) and dose dependently impaired performance. These results suggest that humans can reliably discriminate zolpidem. Despite its unique benzodiazepine-receptor binding profile, the discriminative-stimulus, participant-rated, and performance-impairing effects of zolpidem are similar to those of the barbiturates and benzodiazepines.

  3. A truly human interface: interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower) repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots) become hybrid agents (“echoborgs”) capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people’s experiences interacting with echoborgs and the extent to which echoborgs pass as autonomous humans. First, participants in a Turing Test spoke with a chat bot via either a text interface or an echoborg. Human shadowing did not improve the chat bot’s chance of passing but did increase interrogators’ ratings of how human-like the chat bot seemed. In our second study, participants had to decide whether their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot or simply pretended to be one. Compared to those who engaged a text interface, participants who engaged an echoborg were more likely to perceive their interlocutor as pretending to be a chat bot. In our third study, participants were naïve to the fact that their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot. Unlike those who engaged a text interface, the vast majority of participants who engaged an echoborg did not sense a robotic interaction. These findings have implications for android science, the Turing Test paradigm, and human–computer interaction. The human body, as the delivery mechanism of communication, fundamentally alters the social psychological dynamics of interactions with machine intelligence. PMID:26042066

  4. Categorical Discrimination of Human Body Parts by Magnetoencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misaki eNakamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans recognize body parts in categories. Previous studies have shown that responses in the fusiform body area (FBA and extrastriate body area (EBA are evoked by the perception of the human body, when presented either as whole or as isolated parts. These responses occur approximately 190 ms after body images are visualized. The extent to which body-sensitive responses show specificity for different body part categories remains to be largely clarified. We used a decoding method to quantify neural responses associated with the perception of different categories of body parts. Nine subjects underwent measurements of their brain activities by magnetoencephalography (MEG while viewing 14 images of feet, hands, mouths, and objects. We decoded categories of the presented images from the MEG signals using a support vector machine (SVM and calculated their accuracy by 10-fold cross-validation. For each subject, a response that appeared to be a body-sensitive response was observed and the MEG signals corresponding to the three types of body categories were classified based on the signals in the occipitotemporal cortex. The accuracy in decoding body-part categories (with a peak at approximately 48% was above chance (33.3% and significantly higher than that for random categories. According to the time course and location, the responses are suggested to be body-sensitive and to include information regarding the body-part category. Finally, this noninvasive method can decode category information of a visual object with high temporal and spatial resolution and this result may have a significant impact in the field of brain–machine interface research.

  5. Getting to the Bottom of Face Processing. Species-Specific Inversion Effects for Faces and Behinds in Humans and Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska E Kret

    Full Text Available For social species such as primates, the recognition of conspecifics is crucial for their survival. As demonstrated by the 'face inversion effect', humans are experts in recognizing faces and unlike objects, recognize their identity by processing it configurally. The human face, with its distinct features such as eye-whites, eyebrows, red lips and cheeks signals emotions, intentions, health and sexual attraction and, as we will show here, shares important features with the primate behind. Chimpanzee females show a swelling and reddening of the anogenital region around the time of ovulation. This provides an important socio-sexual signal for group members, who can identify individuals by their behinds. We hypothesized that chimpanzees process behinds configurally in a way humans process faces. In four different delayed matching-to-sample tasks with upright and inverted body parts, we show that humans demonstrate a face, but not a behind inversion effect and that chimpanzees show a behind, but no clear face inversion effect. The findings suggest an evolutionary shift in socio-sexual signalling function from behinds to faces, two hairless, symmetrical and attractive body parts, which might have attuned the human brain to process faces, and the human face to become more behind-like.

  6. Getting to the Bottom of Face Processing. Species-Specific Inversion Effects for Faces and Behinds in Humans and Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    For social species such as primates, the recognition of conspecifics is crucial for their survival. As demonstrated by the 'face inversion effect', humans are experts in recognizing faces and unlike objects, recognize their identity by processing it configurally. The human face, with its distinct features such as eye-whites, eyebrows, red lips and cheeks signals emotions, intentions, health and sexual attraction and, as we will show here, shares important features with the primate behind. Chimpanzee females show a swelling and reddening of the anogenital region around the time of ovulation. This provides an important socio-sexual signal for group members, who can identify individuals by their behinds. We hypothesized that chimpanzees process behinds configurally in a way humans process faces. In four different delayed matching-to-sample tasks with upright and inverted body parts, we show that humans demonstrate a face, but not a behind inversion effect and that chimpanzees show a behind, but no clear face inversion effect. The findings suggest an evolutionary shift in socio-sexual signalling function from behinds to faces, two hairless, symmetrical and attractive body parts, which might have attuned the human brain to process faces, and the human face to become more behind-like.

  7. Effects of human distrubance on a red-faced cormorant colony 1/

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Presented at Fifth Annual Meeting of the Pacific Seabird Group, Asilomar, California, December 13-16, 1978. The effects of human disturbance on nesting Red-faced...

  8. Neanderthal paintings? Production of prototypical human (Homo sapiens) faces shows systematic distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Wirth, Benedikt Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    People's sketches of human faces seem to be systematically distorted: the eye position is always higher than in reality. This bias was experimentally analyzed by a series of experiments varying drawing conditions. Participants either drew prototypical faces from memory (studies 1 and 2: free reconstruction; study 3: cued reconstruction) or directly copied average faces (study 4). Participants consistently showed this positioning bias, which is even in accord with facial depictions published in influential research articles by famous face researchers (study 5). We discuss plausible explanations for this reliable and stable bias, which is coincidentally similar to the morphology of Neanderthals.

  9. "Human immunodeficiency virus serostatus disclosure-Rate, reactions, and discrimination": A cross-sectional study at a rural tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh S Joge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: From the moment scientists identified Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS, social responses of fear, denial, stigma, and discrimination have accompanied the epidemic. Aims: To assess the rate of disclosure of HIV serostatus, reactions by the HIV/AIDS patients and their spouse, and discrimination faced by the patients. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted at Antiretroviral Therapy (ART center of a rural tertiary care hospital, situated in Marathawada region of Maharashtra state from November 2008 to October 2010. Totally, 801 HIV-positive patients coming to ART center for treatment were included after ensuring confidentiality and taking informed consent. A preformed questionnaire was used to enquire about reaction after diagnosis, disclosure, and discrimination faced by the patients. The data analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. Results: The most common immediate reaction by the HIV patients after getting diagnosed as seropositive was fear (593, 74.03% followed by depression (385, 48.06% and suicidal thoughts (98, 12.25%. Out of 801 patients, 769 (96% had spouse and of these maximum number of patients (653, 84.92% had disclosed HIV status to their spouses. Most common immediate reaction by spouse after disclosure was crime (324, 42.13% followed by horror (294, 38.23% and anger (237, 36.29%. Maximum number of patients were discriminated by friends (120, 71.01% followed by discrimination at workplace (49, 67.12%, by neighbors (32, 56.14%, and by relatives (53, 43.80%. Conclusion: Male positives were granted greater acceptance, care, and support by their spouses. More percentage of females discriminated by neighbors, relatives, and friends and at workplace which might be due to factors like customs, morals, and taboos.

  10. Application of a computable model of human spatial vision to phase discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K. R. K.; Watson, A. B.; Ahumada, A. J., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A computable model of human spatial vision is used to make predictions for phase-discrimination experiments. This model is being developed to deal with a broad range of problems in vision and was not specifically formulated to deal with phase discrimination. In the model, cross-correlation of the stimuli with an array of sensors produces feature vectors that are operated on by a position-uncertain ideal observer to simulate detection and discrimination experiments. In this report, the stimuli are compound sinusoidal gratings composed of a fundamental and a higher-frequency component added in various phases. Model predictions are compared with three key results from the literature: (1) the effect of the contrast of the fundamental on phase discrimination, (2) threshold phase difference as a function of the fundamental frequency, and (3) the contrast required for phase discrimination as a function of the frequency ratio of the two grating components. In the first two cases, the predictions capture the main features of the data, although quantitative discrepancies remain. In the third case, the model fails, and this failure suggests additional restrictions on the combination of information across sensors.

  11. Charges of human immunodeficiency virus discrimination in the workplace: the Americans with Disabilities Act in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdert, David M

    2002-08-01

    Congress enacted the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to provide persons living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other vulnerable populations with legal means of redress against discrimination, yet virtually nothing is known about how the intended beneficiaries have used these protections. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of ADA charges alleging employment-related discrimination due to HIV and to investigate the charge-filing behavior of workers with HIV. Using a national database of all HIV discrimination charges filed since the inception of the ADA in 1991, the author described respondent employers, issues in dispute, and outcomes of charges. Next, he used multivariate regression analyses to compare the sociodemographic characteristics of charge filers with those of a nationally representative baseline sample of workers with HIV. Of the 3,520 HIV discrimination charges filed through 1999, 18.0% had merit and 14.1% received monetary compensation. Workers who were female (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, p aged less than 25 years (OR = 0.36, p aged 25-34 years (OR = 0.77, p discrimination in the baseline population magnified this "underclaiming" among young workers. The findings should help to target dissemination and support activities, designed to help workers take advantage of antidiscrimination protections, at the subgroups of workers who need them most.

  12. Robust Selectivity for Faces in the Human Amygdala in the Absence of Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Verosky, Sara C.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Todorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    There is a well-established posterior network of cortical regions that plays a central role in face processing and that has been investigated extensively. In contrast, although responsive to faces, the amygdala is not considered a core face-selective region, and its face selectivity has never been a topic of systematic research in human neuroimaging studies. Here, we conducted a large-scale group analysis of fMRI data from 215 participants. We replicated the posterior network observed in prior studies but found equally robust and reliable responses to faces in the amygdala. These responses were detectable in most individual participants, but they were also highly sensitive to the initial statistical threshold and habituated more rapidly than the responses in posterior face-selective regions. A multivariate analysis showed that the pattern of responses to faces across voxels in the amygdala had high reliability over time. Finally, functional connectivity analyses showed stronger coupling between the amygdala and posterior face-selective regions during the perception of faces than during the perception of control visual categories. These findings suggest that the amygdala should be considered a core face-selective region. PMID:23984945

  13. Fearful but not happy expressions boost face detection in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayet, Laurie; Quinn, Paul C; Laboissière, Rafael; Caldara, Roberto; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier

    2017-09-13

    Human adults show an attentional bias towards fearful faces, an adaptive behaviour that relies on amygdala function. This attentional bias emerges in infancy between 5 and 7 months, but the underlying developmental mechanism is unknown. To examine possible precursors, we investigated whether 3.5-, 6- and 12-month-old infants show facilitated detection of fearful faces in noise, compared to happy faces. Happy or fearful faces, mixed with noise, were presented to infants (N = 192), paired with pure noise. We applied multivariate pattern analyses to several measures of infant looking behaviour to derive a criterion-free, continuous measure of face detection evidence in each trial. Analyses of the resulting psychometric curves supported the hypothesis of a detection advantage for fearful faces compared to happy faces, from 3.5 months of age and across all age groups. Overall, our data show a readiness to detect fearful faces (compared to happy faces) in younger infants that developmentally precedes the previously documented attentional bias to fearful faces in older infants and adults. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Songbirds and humans apply different strategies in a sound sequence discrimination task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa eSeki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The abilities of animals and humans to extract rules from sound sequences have previously been compared using observation of spontaneous responses and conditioning techniques. However, the results were inconsistently interpreted across studies possibly due to methodological and/or species differences. Therefore, we examined the strategies for discrimination of sound sequences in Bengalese finches and humans using the same protocol. Birds were trained on a GO/NOGO task to discriminate between two categories of sound stimulus generated based on an AAB or ABB rule. The sound elements used were taken from a variety of male (M and female (F calls, such that the sequences could be represented as MMF and MFF. In test sessions, FFM and FMM sequences, which were never presented in the training sessions but conformed to the rule, were presented as probe stimuli. The results suggested two discriminative strategies were being applied: 1 memorizing sound patterns of either GO or NOGO stimuli and generating the appropriate responses for only those sounds; and 2 using the repeated element as a cue. There was no evidence that the birds successfully extracted the abstract rule (i.e. AAB and ABB; MMF-GO subjects did not produce a GO response for FFM and vice versa. Next we examined whether those strategies were also applicable for human participants on the same task. The results and questionnaires revealed that participants extracted the abstract rule, and most of them employed it to discriminate the sequences. This strategy was never observed in bird subjects, although some participants used strategies similar to the birds when responding to the probe stimuli. Our results showed that the human participants applied the abstract rule in the task even without instruction but Bengalese finches did not, thereby reconfirming that humans have to extract abstract rules from sound sequences that is distinct from non-human animals.

  15. Facing History and Ourselves: Holocaust and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Margot Stern; Parsons, William S.

    This unit for junior and senior high school students presents techniques and materials for studying about the holocaust of World War II. Emphasis in the guide is on human behavior and the role of the individual within society. Among the guide's 18 objectives are for students to examine society's influence on individual behavior, place Hitler's…

  16. Facing Freeze: Social Threat Induces Bodily Freeze in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Hagenaars, M.A.; Stins, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Freezing is a common defensive response in animals threatened by predators. It is characterized by reduced body motion and decreased heart rate (bradycardia). However, despite the relevance of animal defense models in human stress research, studies have not shown whether social threat cues elicit

  17. Diverting attention suppresses human amygdala responses to faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eMorawetz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies disagree as to whether the processing of emotion-laden visual stimuli is dependent upon the availability of attentional resources or entirely capacity-free. Two main factors have been proposed to be responsible for the discrepancies: the differences in the perceptual attentional demands of the tasks used to divert attentional resources from emotional stimuli and the spatial location of the affective stimuli in the visual field. To date, no neuroimaging report addressed these two issues in the same set of subjects. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of high and low attentional load as well as different stimulus locations on face processing in the amygdala using fMRI to provide further evidence for one of the two opposing theories. We were able for the first time to directly test the interaction of attentional load and spatial location. The results revealed a strong attenuation of amygdala activity when the attentional load was high. The eccentricity of the emotional stimuli did not affect responses in the amygdala and no interaction effect between attentional load and spatial location was found. We conclude that the processing of emotional stimuli in the amygdala is strongly dependent on the availability of attentional resources without a preferred processing of stimuli presented in the periphery and provide firm evidence for the concept of the attentional load theory of emotional processing in the amygdala.

  18. Mental health and inequity: a human rights approach to inequality, discrimination, and mental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Mental disability and mental health care have been neglected in the discourse around health, human rights, and equality. This is perplexing as mental disabilities are pervasive, affecting approximately 8% of the world population. Furthermore, the experience of persons with mental disability is one characterized by multiple interlinked levels of inequality and discrimination within society. Efforts directed toward achieving formal equality should not stand alone without similar efforts to achieve substantive equality for persons with mental disabilities. Structural factors such as poverty, inequality, homelessness, and discrimination contribute to risk for mental disability and impact negatively on the course and outcome of such disabilities. A human rights approach to mental disability means affirming the full personhood of those with mental disabilities by respecting their inherent dignity, their individual autonomy and independence, and their freedom to make their own choices. A rights-based approach requires us to examine and transform the language, terminology, and models of mental disability that have previously prevailed especially within health discourse. Such an approach also requires us to examine the multiple ways in which inequality and discrimination characterize the lives of persons with mental disabilities and to formulate a response based on a human rights framework. In this article, I examine issues of terminology, models of understanding mental disability, and the implications of international treaties such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for our response to the inequalities and discrimination that exist within society--both within and outside the health care system. Finally, while acknowledging that health care professionals have a role to play as advocates for equality, non-discrimination, and justice, I argue that it is persons with mental disabilities themselves who have the right to exercise agency

  19. PROCEDURE OF THE INSTITUTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS OMBUDSMAN OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA IN CASES OF DISCRIMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubinko Mitrović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human Rights Ombudspersons or national institutions for the protection of human rights in most of modern countries today are independent institutions established with the aim of promoting good governance and the rule of law, as well as protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Their jurisdiction includes, as a rule, protection and promotion of human rights and freedoms, as well as the functioning of the national preventive mechanisms for the prevention and the prevention of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In addition, the powers of these institutions also cover procedures to be applied in cases involving freedom of access to information, and ministerial, governmental and other appointments. An important segment in functioning of the Ombudsman is the prevention or elimination of discrimination. Discrimination (originating from the Latin word discriminare: separate, distinguish, unwarranted discrimination or unequal treatment, or illegal distinction is a negative and socially dangerous phenomenon which in a nutshell means any unequal or different treatment including every exclusion, restriction or preference based on real or assumed grounds against any person or group of persons, and their blood relatives or otherwise related to them, on the basis of their race, color, language, religion, ethnicity, disability, age, national or social origin, political or other opinion, property, membership in a trade union or any other association, education, social status and sex, sexual expression or sexual orientation, and any other circumstance with a purpose or a consequence to disable or endanger recognition, enjoyment or exercise on an equal basis, rights and freedoms in all spheres of life. The methods applied in operation of the national bodies for the protection of equality, primarily the Institution of Human Rights Ombudsman of Bosnia and Herzegovina in discrimination cases are subject of this paper.

  20. Monkeys and humans share a common computation for face/voice integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli Chandrasekaran

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech production involves the movement of the mouth and other regions of the face resulting in visual motion cues. These visual cues enhance intelligibility and detection of auditory speech. As such, face-to-face speech is fundamentally a multisensory phenomenon. If speech is fundamentally multisensory, it should be reflected in the evolution of vocal communication: similar behavioral effects should be observed in other primates. Old World monkeys share with humans vocal production biomechanics and communicate face-to-face with vocalizations. It is unknown, however, if they, too, combine faces and voices to enhance their perception of vocalizations. We show that they do: monkeys combine faces and voices in noisy environments to enhance their detection of vocalizations. Their behavior parallels that of humans performing an identical task. We explored what common computational mechanism(s could explain the pattern of results we observed across species. Standard explanations or models such as the principle of inverse effectiveness and a "race" model failed to account for their behavior patterns. Conversely, a "superposition model", positing the linear summation of activity patterns in response to visual and auditory components of vocalizations, served as a straightforward but powerful explanatory mechanism for the observed behaviors in both species. As such, it represents a putative homologous mechanism for integrating faces and voices across primates.

  1. Monkeys and Humans Share a Common Computation for Face/Voice Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Lemus, Luis; Trubanova, Andrea; Gondan, Matthias; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2011-01-01

    Speech production involves the movement of the mouth and other regions of the face resulting in visual motion cues. These visual cues enhance intelligibility and detection of auditory speech. As such, face-to-face speech is fundamentally a multisensory phenomenon. If speech is fundamentally multisensory, it should be reflected in the evolution of vocal communication: similar behavioral effects should be observed in other primates. Old World monkeys share with humans vocal production biomechanics and communicate face-to-face with vocalizations. It is unknown, however, if they, too, combine faces and voices to enhance their perception of vocalizations. We show that they do: monkeys combine faces and voices in noisy environments to enhance their detection of vocalizations. Their behavior parallels that of humans performing an identical task. We explored what common computational mechanism(s) could explain the pattern of results we observed across species. Standard explanations or models such as the principle of inverse effectiveness and a “race” model failed to account for their behavior patterns. Conversely, a “superposition model”, positing the linear summation of activity patterns in response to visual and auditory components of vocalizations, served as a straightforward but powerful explanatory mechanism for the observed behaviors in both species. As such, it represents a putative homologous mechanism for integrating faces and voices across primates. PMID:21998576

  2. The Many Faces of Human Leukocyte Antigen-G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mette; Djurisic, Snezana; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2014-01-01

    is the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, a nonclassical HLA protein displaying limited polymorphism, restricted tissue distribution, and a unique alternative splice pattern. HLA-G is primarily expressed in placenta and plays multifaceted roles during pregnancy, both as a soluble and a membrane-bound molecule....... Its immunomodulatory functions involve interactions with different immune cells and possibly regulation of cell migration during placental development. Recent findings include HLA-G contributions from the father and the fetus itself. Much effort has been put into clarifying the role of HLA-G during...

  3. Disability approach in face of expansion of human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyceane Bezerra de Menezes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It analyzes the social model of disability approach that is adopted by the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Unlike the medical model, disability shall be understood as the interaction between the limitation or natural deterrent suffering person in their physical functions, mental and / or intellectual and social barriers. The paper follows qualitative analysis, basing on bibliographical and documentary research that showed the change in paradigm of international documents on human rights, focusing on the inclusion of people with disabilities and mitigation of social barriers to participate in community life, social and politician.

  4. Persons with disabilities in institutions as victims of discrimination and human rights violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janjić Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the position of persons with disabilities in residential institutions in Serbia, with particular focus on the position of women. Our goal is to determine some of the reasons for human rights violations and discrimination against persons with disabilities in institutions through understanding the historical context and attitudes towards them, and to understand the extent to which international human rights framework impacts the improvement of their position. Results of analyses show that adoption of the international and national legal framework grounded in the theory of social model is a necessary but not sufficient condition for de facto equality, because of the rooted negative attitudes towards rights, possibilities, and needs of persons with disabilities that nurture justifications and excuses for multiple deprivations and discrimination. The change of the paradigm and improvement of the position of persons with disabilities requires awareness-raising of the social protection system with the aim of overcoming prejudices and changing practices.

  5. Intraneural stimulation elicits discrimination of textural features by artificial fingertip in intact and amputee humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Calogero Maria; Raspopovic, Stanisa; Artoni, Fiorenzo; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spigler, Giacomo; Petrini, Francesco; Giambattistelli, Federica; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Zollo, Loredana; Di Pino, Giovanni; Camboni, Domenico; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Faraguna, Ugo; Micera, Silvestro

    2016-03-08

    Restoration of touch after hand amputation is a desirable feature of ideal prostheses. Here, we show that texture discrimination can be artificially provided in human subjects by implementing a neuromorphic real-time mechano-neuro-transduction (MNT), which emulates to some extent the firing dynamics of SA1 cutaneous afferents. The MNT process was used to modulate the temporal pattern of electrical spikes delivered to the human median nerve via percutaneous microstimulation in four intact subjects and via implanted intrafascicular stimulation in one transradial amputee. Both approaches allowed the subjects to reliably discriminate spatial coarseness of surfaces as confirmed also by a hybrid neural model of the median nerve. Moreover, MNT-evoked EEG activity showed physiologically plausible responses that were superimposable in time and topography to the ones elicited by a natural mechanical tactile stimulation. These findings can open up novel opportunities for sensory restoration in the next generation of neuro-prosthetic hands.

  6. Neglect in Human Communication: Quantifying the Cost of Cell-Phone Interruptions in Face to Face Dialogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  7. Assessing knowledge of human papillomavirus and collecting data on sexual behavior: computer assisted telephone versus face to face interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland Suzanne

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education campaigns seeking to raise awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV and promoting HPV vaccination depend on accurate surveys of public awareness and knowledge of HPV and related sexual behavior. However, the most recent population-based studies have relied largely on computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI as opposed to face to face interviews (FTFI. It is currently unknown how these survey modes differ, and in particular whether they attract similar demographics and therefore lead to similar overall findings. Methods A comprehensive survey of HPV awareness and knowledge, including sexual behavior, was conducted among 3,045 Singaporean men and women, half of whom participated via CATI, the other half via FTFI. Results Overall levels of awareness and knowledge of HPV differed between CATI and FTFI, attributable in part to demographic variations between these survey modes. Although disclosure of sexual behavior was greater when using CATI, few differences between survey modes were found in the actual information disclosed. Conclusion Although CATI is a cheaper, faster alternative to FTFI and people appear more willing to provide information about sexual behavior when surveyed using CATI, thorough assessments of HPV awareness and knowledge depend on multiple survey modes.

  8. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Lopez-Rosenfeld

    Full Text Available There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone. The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . . and about the virtues of the people around them.

  9. Egg on their faces. The story of human albumin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ian; Bunn, Frances

    2002-03-01

    In 1998, the Cochrane Injuries Group published the results of a systematic review of human albumin administration in critically ill patients. The results showed that the risk of death in patients receiving albumin was 14%, and the risk of death in patients not receiving albumin was 8%, suggesting that for every 17 critically ill patients treated with albumin there is one extra death. The results were widely reported in the television and print media throughout the world and stimulated an immediate response from the drug regulatory agencies, the plasma products industry, and the medical profession. Despite vigorous attempts by the plasma products industry to limit the effect of the systematic review on albumin sales, the use of albumin declined steeply, showing that evidence from systematic reviews can have an important effect on clinical care.

  10. Improved detection of landmarks on 3D human face data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shu; Wu, Jia; Weinberg, Seth M; Shapiro, Linda G

    2013-01-01

    Craniofacial researchers make heavy use of established facial landmarks in their morphometric analyses. For studies on very large facial image datasets, the standard approach of manual landmarking is very labor intensive. With the goal of producing 20 established landmarks, we have developed a geometric methodology that can automatically locate 10 established landmark points and 7 other supporting points on human 3D facial scans. Then, to improve accuracy and produce all 20 landmarks, a deformable matching procedure establishes a dense correspondence from a template 3D mesh with a full set of 20 landmarks to each individual 3D mesh. The 17 geometrically-determined points on the individual 3D mesh are used for the initial correspondence required by the deformable matching. The method is evaluated on 115 3D facial meshes of normal adults, and results are compared to landmarks manually identified by medical experts. Our results show a marked improvement to prior results in the recent literature.

  11. Do Women Really Face Wage Discrimination on the Labour Market? An Analysis Using Intra-household Specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Hedija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the gender pay gap, cleansed at least partially of the effect of intra-household specialization on productivity. The estimate is based on EU-SILC data for 19 member countries of the European Union. We use an estimate of the average treatment effect on the treated, supplemented by a matching procedure to estimate the unexplained part of the gender pay gap and use a subsample of employees earning more than their partners, thus minimizing the impact of child- and family-care on the gender pay gap. We conclude that the unexplained gender pay gap amounts approximately 10 percent working to the disadvantage of women. If we assume that the dominant role in family- and child-care is taken up by the partner earnings a lower wage, then this difference could neither be explained by differences in the observed personal and company characteristics nor by the dominant role of women in care for the household and children and could actually be due to wage discrimination against women.

  12. Discourses of Roma Anti-Discrimination in Reports on Human Rights Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloë Delcour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to understand the paradox between the expansion of inclusion projects for the Roma and their persisting exclusion, this article explores human rights practice in order to grasp the complexity of meanings of inclusion negotiated in this practice. In this way, we scrutinize whether there are limiting factors within the inclusionary discourse itself. Specifically, we analyze the discourse in transnational judicial, political and civil society actors’ reports on violations of human rights against Roma. A strong shared tendency to frame the violations in terms of discrimination can be discerned in the reports, demonstrating a dominant concept in the human rights discourse for Roma. However, a framing analysis of the underlying assumptions of this concept shows that not all three actors offer the same solutions for obtaining non-discrimination, which can partly explain the limited impact of the ostensibly strong and inclusive anti-discrimination discourse. In contrast, the actors do share a negative attribution of responsibility to the nation states, but the effectiveness of this shared discursive claim can be questioned. This article illustrates how inclusion discourses are actually quite complex to grasp and so it substantiates the need for greater critical understanding of such discourses in further research.

  13. Gender differences in response to lorazepam in a human drug discrimination study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Anne; Stephens, David; Duka, Theodora

    2005-11-01

    Gender differences in the discriminative stimulus properties of drugs of abuse have sometimes been reported, although we have previously found no differences in subjective or discriminative responses in human subjects acquiring an alcohol discrimination. The aim of the present work was to determine if there were gender differences in the effects of lorazepam, a benzodiazepine-receptor agonist which substituted for the alcohol stimulus in trained social drinkers. Volunteers who had already acquired an alcohol (0.2g/kg) placebo discrimination were administered (double-blind) either placebo (nine females, nine males) or lorazepam 2mg (six females, six males). They then sampled a series of five drinks and rated each one for likeness to the training stimulus (the generalization response). In addition they completed rating scales for subjective effects and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Lorazepam substituted for the alcohol stimulus equally in both sexes and increased associated scores for lightheadedness. Females however, showed a much greater DSST performance impairment following lorazepam, compared with males. This effect was independent of body weight differences and sedation. These results are discussed in the light of current knowledge of gender differences in response to drugs of abuse and suggest that the stimulus and cognitive effects of benzodiazepine-receptor agonists are modulated by different brain mechanisms.

  14. Heritability maps of human face morphology through large-scale automated three-dimensional phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkrasoulis, Dimosthenis; Hysi, Pirro; Spector, Tim; Montana, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The human face is a complex trait under strong genetic control, as evidenced by the striking visual similarity between twins. Nevertheless, heritability estimates of facial traits have often been surprisingly low or difficult to replicate. Furthermore, the construction of facial phenotypes that correspond to naturally perceived facial features remains largely a mystery. We present here a large-scale heritability study of face geometry that aims to address these issues. High-resolution, three-dimensional facial models have been acquired on a cohort of 952 twins recruited from the TwinsUK registry, and processed through a novel landmarking workflow, GESSA (Geodesic Ensemble Surface Sampling Algorithm). The algorithm places thousands of landmarks throughout the facial surface and automatically establishes point-wise correspondence across faces. These landmarks enabled us to intuitively characterize facial geometry at a fine level of detail through curvature measurements, yielding accurate heritability maps of the human face (www.heritabilitymaps.info).

  15. Face cognition in humans: Psychophysiological, developmental, and cross-cultural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernorizov A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigators are finding increasing evidence for cross-cultural specificity in face cognition along with individual characteristics. The functions on which face cognition is based not only are types of general cognitive functions (perception, memory but are elements of specific mental processes. Face perception, memorization, correct recognition of faces, and understanding the information that faces provide are essential skills for humans as a social species and can be considered as facets of social (cultural intelligence. Face cognition is a difficult, multifaceted set of processes. The systems and processes involved in perceiving and recognizing faces are captured by several models focusing on the pertinent functions or including the presumably underlying neuroanatomical substrates. Thus, the study of face-cognition mechanisms is a cross-disciplinary topic. In Russia, Germany, and China there are plans to organize an interdisciplinary crosscultural study of face cognition. The first step of this scientific interaction is conducting psychological and psychophysiological studies of face cognition in multinational Russia within the frame of a grant supported by the Russian Science Foundation and devoted to “cross-cultural tolerance”. For that reason and in the presence of the huge diversity of data concerning face cognition, we suggest for discussion, specifically within the psychological scientific community, three aspects of face cognition: (1 psychophysiological (quantitative data, (2 developmental (qualitative data from developmental psychology, and (3 cross-cultural (qualitative data from cross-cultural studies. These three aspects reflect the different levels of investigations and constitute a comprehensive, multilateral approach to the problem. Unfortunately, as a rule, neuropsychological and psychological investigations are carried out independently of each other. However, for the purposes of our overview here, we assume that the

  16. Humans but Not Chimpanzees Vary Face-Scanning Patterns Depending on Contexts during Action Observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Myowa-Yamakoshi

    Full Text Available Human and nonhuman primates comprehend the actions of other individuals by detecting social cues, including others' goal-directed motor actions and faces. However, little is known about how this information is integrated with action understanding. Here, we present the ontogenetic and evolutionary foundations of this capacity by comparing face-scanning patterns of chimpanzees and humans as they viewed goal-directed human actions within contexts that differ in whether or not the predicted goal is achieved. Human adults and children attend to the actor's face during action sequences, and this tendency is particularly pronounced in adults when observing that the predicted goal is not achieved. Chimpanzees rarely attend to the actor's face during the goal-directed action, regardless of whether the predicted action goal is achieved or not. These results suggest that in humans, but not chimpanzees, attention to actor's faces conveying referential information toward the target object indicates the process of observers making inferences about the intentionality of an action. Furthermore, this remarkable predisposition to observe others' actions by integrating the prediction of action goals and the actor's intention is developmentally acquired.

  17. Kernel Subclass Support Vector Description for Face and Human Action Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mygdalis, Vasileios; Iosifidis, Alexandros; Tefas, Anastasios; Pitas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Kernel Subclass Support Vector Data Description classifier. We focus on face recognition and human action recognition applications, where we argue that sub-classes are formed within the training class. We modify the standard SVDD optimization problem, so that it exploits subclass information in its optimization process. We extend the proposed method to work in feature spaces of arbitrary dimensionality. We evaluate the proposed method in publicly available face r...

  18. Experience Shapes the Development of Neural Substrates of Face Processing in Human Ventral Temporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golarai, Golijeh; Liberman, Alina; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2017-02-01

    In adult humans, the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) represents faces in a reproducible topology. However, it is unknown what role visual experience plays in the development of this topology. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in children and adults, we found a sequential development, in which the topology of face-selective activations across the VTC was matured by age 7, but the spatial extent and degree of face selectivity continued to develop past age 7 into adulthood. Importantly, own- and other-age faces were differentially represented, both in the distributed multivoxel patterns across the VTC, and also in the magnitude of responses of face-selective regions. These results provide strong evidence that experience shapes cortical representations of faces during development from childhood to adulthood. Our findings have important implications for the role of experience and age in shaping the neural substrates of face processing in the human VTC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Does gender discrimination transformed its face over few generations? exploring gender inequalities among under-6 year children in rural Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvi Selvaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender differences can be in any stage in the life cycle including before birth (feticide/sex selective abortions which have been objectively documented. This study tries to identify the gender differentials among the children which is a basic step in cascade process of female discrimination in the society. Objective: To study the gender differentials among children under 6 years in households of rural Ballabgarh, Haryana in terms of nutrition, health care seeking, social aspects and to see whether they differ by socio economic status. Methods: Two hundred households were selected purposively from four villages (50 households each by multi stage sampling during Mar – June 2010. Pre tested interview schedule was used to assess gender differences in nutrition (breast feeding, 'z' score; in health care seeking and in social aspects (Expenditure on birth related ceremonies and toys and dresses. Differences are measured in means or proportions. Determinants of Gender differentials were identified by logistic regression. Results: Girls were breast fed for five months lesser than boys (P < 0.02. Even though occurrences of common childhood illnesses were equal between the two, expenditures incurred to treat these illnesses were more among the boys (Boys Vs girls: Rs 181.3 Vs Rs 123.9. Proportion of illnesses treated from health facilities located outside the villages was higher among the boys [boys (22.2%, girls (11.4%]. Expenditures incurred during birth related social ceremonies were higher for boys (Rs 20311 and Rs 2487.5 respectively for boys and girls. Conclusion: In this patriarchal society, socio cultural norms have produced the gender gap which can have adverse impact on health of the female children.

  20. The gender of face stimuli is represented in multiple regions in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eKaul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Face perception in humans is mediated by activation in a network of brain areas. Conventionalunivariate fMRI data analysis has not localized differential responses to viewing male ascompared with viewing female faces within this network. We tested whether we could detectneural response patterns specific to viewing male vs. female faces in forty participants.Replicating earlier work, face stimuli evoked activation in the core (inferior occipital gyrus(IOG, fusiform gyrus (FG and superior temporal sulcus (STS, as well as extended(amygdala, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, insula (INS, and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC regionsof the face network. Multivariate pattern classification of activity within these regions revealedsuccessful decoding of gender information, significantly above chance, in the IOG, FG, STS,IFG, INS and OFC, but not in the amygdala. Multiple control regions indicated that this resultmight be restricted to face-responsive regions. Our findings suggest that gender information isdistributed across the face network and is represented in the core regions that process invariantfacial features, as well as the extended regions that process changeable aspects of faces.

  1. Lip colour affects perceived sex typicality and attractiveness of human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D; McKeegan, Angela M

    2010-01-01

    The luminance contrast between facial features and facial skin is greater in women than in men, and women's use of make-up enhances this contrast. In black-and-white photographs, increased luminance contrast enhances femininity and attractiveness in women's faces, but reduces masculinity and attractiveness in men's faces. In Caucasians, much of the contrast between the lips and facial skin is in redness. Red lips have been considered attractive in women in geographically and temporally diverse cultures, possibly because they mimic vasodilation associated with sexual arousal. Here, we investigate the effects of lip luminance and colour contrast on the attractiveness and sex typicality (masculinity/femininity) of human faces. In a Caucasian sample, we allowed participants to manipulate the colour of the lips in colour-calibrated face photographs along CIELab L* (light--dark), a* (red--green), and b* (yellow--blue) axes to enhance apparent attractiveness and sex typicality. Participants increased redness contrast to enhance femininity and attractiveness of female faces, but reduced redness contrast to enhance masculinity of men's faces. Lip blueness was reduced more in female than male faces. Increased lightness contrast enhanced the attractiveness of both sexes, and had little effect on perceptions of sex typicality. The association between lip colour contrast and attractiveness in women's faces may be attributable to its association with oxygenated blood perfusion indicating oestrogen levels, sexual arousal, and cardiac and respiratory health.

  2. Atypical Asymmetry for Processing Human and Robot Faces in Autism Revealed by fNIRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne E Jung

    Full Text Available Deficits in the visual processing of faces in autism spectrum disorder (ASD individuals may be due to atypical brain organization and function. Studies assessing asymmetric brain function in ASD individuals have suggested that facial processing, which is known to be lateralized in neurotypical (NT individuals, may be less lateralized in ASD. Here we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS to first test this theory by comparing patterns of lateralized brain activity in homologous temporal-occipital facial processing regions during observation of faces in an ASD group and an NT group. As expected, the ASD participants showed reduced right hemisphere asymmetry for human faces, compared to the NT participants. Based on recent behavioral reports suggesting that robots can facilitate increased verbal interaction over human counterparts in ASD, we also measured responses to faces of robots to determine if these patterns of activation were lateralized in each group. In this exploratory test, both groups showed similar asymmetry patterns for the robot faces. Our findings confirm existing literature suggesting reduced asymmetry for human faces in ASD and provide a preliminary foundation for future testing of how the use of categorically different social stimuli in the clinical setting may be beneficial in this population.

  3. Legal Provisions, Discrimination and Uncertainty on LGBT community in Albania. Laws on human rights vs exerted rights of LGBT persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana Curi

    2018-03-01

    On March 13, 2010, the Anti-Discrimination Law, one of the essential legal instruments that protects human rights in Albania, and also includes the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, came into force. Albania has already the Commissioner for Protection from Discrimination. Two LGBT organizations have already been established in Albania: the Alliance against Discrimination LGBT and LGBT Pro Albania. They aim to protect the rights of sexual minorities in Albania and promote a national movement of social mobilization to protect and promote the rights of this community in Albania

  4. Activations of human auditory cortex to phonemic and nonphonemic vowels during discrimination and memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinen, Kirsi; Rinne, Teemu

    2013-08-15

    We used fMRI to investigate activations within human auditory cortex (AC) to vowels during vowel discrimination, vowel (categorical n-back) memory, and visual tasks. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesized that the vowel discrimination task would be associated with increased activations in the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG), while the vowel memory task would enhance activations in the posterior STG and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). In particular, we tested the hypothesis that activations in the IPL during vowel memory tasks are associated with categorical processing. Namely, activations due to categorical processing should be higher during tasks performed on nonphonemic (hard to categorize) than on phonemic (easy to categorize) vowels. As expected, we found distinct activation patterns during vowel discrimination and vowel memory tasks. Further, these task-dependent activations were different during tasks performed on phonemic or nonphonemic vowels. However, activations in the IPL associated with the vowel memory task were not stronger during nonphonemic than phonemic vowel blocks. Together these results demonstrate that activations in human AC to vowels depend on both the requirements of the behavioral task and the phonemic status of the vowels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chromatic illumination discrimination ability reveals that human colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight illuminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Bradley; Crichton, Stuart; Mackiewicz, Michal; Finlayson, Graham D; Hurlbert, Anya

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow) and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K), all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed.

  6. The non-linear development of the right hemispheric specialization for human face perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochy, Aliette; de Heering, Adélaïde; Rossion, Bruno

    2017-06-24

    The developmental origins of human adults' right hemispheric specialization for face perception remain unclear. On the one hand, infant studies have shown a right hemispheric advantage for face perception. On the other hand, it has been proposed that the adult right hemispheric lateralization for face perception slowly emerges during childhood due to reading acquisition, which increases left lateralized posterior responses to competing written material (e.g., visual letters and words). Since methodological approaches used in infant and children typically differ when their face capabilities are explored, resolving this issue has been difficult. Here we tested 5-year-old preschoolers varying in their level of visual letter knowledge with the same fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) paradigm leading to strongly right lateralized electrophysiological occipito-temporal face-selective responses in 4- to 6-month-old infants (de Heering and Rossion, 2015). Children's face-selective response was quantitatively larger and differed in scalp topography from infants', but did not differ across hemispheres. There was a small positive correlation between preschoolers' letter knowledge and a non-normalized index of right hemispheric specialization for faces. These observations show that previous discrepant results in the literature reflect a genuine nonlinear development of the neural processes underlying face perception and are not merely due to methodological differences across age groups. We discuss several factors that could contribute to the adult right hemispheric lateralization for faces, such as myelination of the corpus callosum and reading acquisition. Our findings point to the value of FPVS coupled with electroencephalography to assess specialized face perception processes throughout development with the same methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A retrospective look at replacing face-to-face embryology instruction with online lectures in a human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Elmus G; Tarwater, Patrick M; Lee, Vaughan H

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology instruction model with four face-to-face classes that supplemented online recorded lectures was used. One instructor delivered the lectures face-to-face in 2007 and by online videos in 2008-2009, while a second instructor provided the supplemental face-to-face classes in 2008-2009. The same embryology learning objectives and selected examination questions were used for each of the three years. This allowed direct comparison of learning outcomes, as measured by examination performance, for students receiving only face-to-face embryology instruction versus the hybrid approach. Comparison of the face-to-face lectures to the hybrid approach showed no difference in overall class performance on embryology questions that were used all three years. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the delivery method on the examination scores for bottom quartile students. Students completed an end-of-course survey to assess their opinions. They rated the two forms of delivery similarly on a six-point Likert scale and reported that face-to-face lectures have the advantage of allowing them to interact with the instructor, whereas online lectures could be paused, replayed, and viewed at any time. These experiences suggest the need for well-designed prospective studies to determine whether online lectures can be used to enhance the efficacy of embryology instruction. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Fraudulent ID using face morphs: Experiments on human and automatic recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Robertson

    Full Text Available Matching unfamiliar faces is known to be difficult, and this can give an opportunity to those engaged in identity fraud. Here we examine a relatively new form of fraud, the use of photo-ID containing a graphical morph between two faces. Such a document may look sufficiently like two people to serve as ID for both. We present two experiments with human viewers, and a third with a smartphone face recognition system. In Experiment 1, viewers were asked to match pairs of faces, without being warned that one of the pair could be a morph. They very commonly accepted a morphed face as a match. However, in Experiment 2, following very short training on morph detection, their acceptance rate fell considerably. Nevertheless, there remained large individual differences in people's ability to detect a morph. In Experiment 3 we show that a smartphone makes errors at a similar rate to 'trained' human viewers-i.e. accepting a small number of morphs as genuine ID. We discuss these results in reference to the use of face photos for security.

  9. Fraudulent ID using face morphs: Experiments on human and automatic recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David J; Kramer, Robin S S; Burton, A Mike

    2017-01-01

    Matching unfamiliar faces is known to be difficult, and this can give an opportunity to those engaged in identity fraud. Here we examine a relatively new form of fraud, the use of photo-ID containing a graphical morph between two faces. Such a document may look sufficiently like two people to serve as ID for both. We present two experiments with human viewers, and a third with a smartphone face recognition system. In Experiment 1, viewers were asked to match pairs of faces, without being warned that one of the pair could be a morph. They very commonly accepted a morphed face as a match. However, in Experiment 2, following very short training on morph detection, their acceptance rate fell considerably. Nevertheless, there remained large individual differences in people's ability to detect a morph. In Experiment 3 we show that a smartphone makes errors at a similar rate to 'trained' human viewers-i.e. accepting a small number of morphs as genuine ID. We discuss these results in reference to the use of face photos for security.

  10. Structural basis of cargo membrane protein discrimination by the human COPII coat machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancias, Joseph D.; Goldberg, Jonathan (MSKCC)

    2008-11-18

    Genomic analysis shows that the increased complexity of trafficking pathways in mammalian cells involves an expansion of the number of SNARE, Rab and COP proteins. Thus, the human genome encodes four forms of Sec24, the cargo selection subunit of the COPII vesicular coat, and this is proposed to increase the range of cargo accommodated by human COPII-coated vesicles. In this study, we combined X-ray crystallographic and biochemical analysis with functional assays of cargo packaging into COPII vesicles to establish molecular mechanisms for cargo discrimination by human Sec24 subunits. A conserved IxM packaging signal binds in a surface groove of Sec24c and Sec24d, but the groove is occluded in the Sec24a and Sec24b subunits. Conversely, LxxLE class transport signals and the DxE signal of VSV glycoprotein are selectively bound by Sec24a and Sec24b subunits. A comparative analysis of crystal structures of the four human Sec24 isoforms establishes the structural determinants for discrimination among these transport signals, and provides a framework to understand how an expansion of coat subunits extends the range of cargo proteins packaged into COPII-coated vesicles.

  11. 3D quantitative analysis of early decomposition changes of the human face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplova, Zuzana; Gibelli, Daniele Maria; Poppa, Pasquale; Cummaudo, Marco; Obertova, Zuzana; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-07-13

    Decomposition of the human body and human face is influenced, among other things, by environmental conditions. The early decomposition changes that modify the appearance of the face may hamper the recognition and identification of the deceased. Quantitative assessment of those changes may provide important information for forensic identification. This report presents a pilot 3D quantitative approach of tracking early decomposition changes of a single cadaver in controlled environmental conditions by summarizing the change with weekly morphological descriptions. The root mean square (RMS) value was used to evaluate the changes of the face after death. The results showed a high correlation (r = 0.863) between the measured RMS and the time since death. RMS values of each scan are presented, as well as the average weekly RMS values. The quantification of decomposition changes could improve the accuracy of antemortem facial approximation and potentially could allow the direct comparisons of antemortem and postmortem 3D scans.

  12. Discrimination of holograms and real objects by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Claudia; Steurer, Michael M; Aust, Ulrike

    2014-08-01

    The type of stimulus material employed in visual tasks is crucial to all comparative cognition research that involves object recognition. There is considerable controversy about the use of 2-dimensional stimuli and the impact that the lack of the 3rd dimension (i.e., depth) may have on animals' performance in tests for their visual and cognitive abilities. We report evidence of discrimination learning using a completely novel type of stimuli, namely, holograms. Like real objects, holograms provide full 3-dimensional shape information but they also offer many possibilities for systematically modifying the appearance of a stimulus. Hence, they provide a promising means for investigating visual perception and cognition of different species in a comparative way. We trained pigeons and humans to discriminate either between 2 real objects or between holograms of the same 2 objects, and we subsequently tested both species for the transfer of discrimination to the other presentation mode. The lack of any decrements in accuracy suggests that real objects and holograms were perceived as equivalent in both species and shows the general appropriateness of holograms as stimuli in visual tasks. A follow-up experiment involving the presentation of novel views of the training objects and holograms revealed some interspecies differences in rotational invariance, thereby confirming and extending the results of previous studies. Taken together, these results suggest that holograms may not only provide a promising tool for investigating yet unexplored issues, but their use may also lead to novel insights into some crucial aspects of comparative visual perception and categorization.

  13. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Paolo Senese

    Full Text Available Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors.

  14. Lurking on the Internet: A Small-Group Assignment that Puts a Human Face on Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Joseph; Judge, Abigail M.; Wiss, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Lurking on the Internet aims to put a human face on psychopathology for the abnormal psychology course. Student groups are assigned major diagnostic categories and instructed to search the Internet for discussion forums, individual blogs, or YouTube videos where affected individuals discuss their symptoms and lives. After discussing the ethics of…

  15. A study of human bite injuries to the face | Obukwe | Central African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of human bite injuries to the face. O. N. Obukwe. Abstract. (Central African Journal of Medicine: 2002 48 (5-6): 68-71). AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  16. Management of human bites of the face in Enugu, Nigeria | Olaitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human bites of the face present to the surgeon sometimes with a dilemma as to the method and timing of surgery. Often patients present with soft tissue defects as a result of the injury sustained. Reconstruction therefore becomes absolutely necessary to avoid psychosocial complications. Objectives: The aim of ...

  17. Technology with a human face: African and Western profiles | du Toit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We are challenged as created co-creators to give a human face to technology. Africa can be considered relatively free of the influence of high technology. The way technology is imbedded in African metaphysics, myth and worldview is investigated from the perspectives of life force and ubuntu. Although the African example ...

  18. A mismatch in the human realism of face and voice produces an uncanny valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Wade J; Szerszen, Kevin A; Lu, Amy Shirong; Schermerhorn, Paul W; Scheutz, Matthias; MacDorman, Karl F

    2011-01-01

    The uncanny valley has become synonymous with the uneasy feeling of viewing an animated character or robot that looks imperfectly human. Although previous uncanny valley experiments have focused on relations among a character's visual elements, the current experiment examines whether a mismatch in the human realism of a character's face and voice causes it to be evaluated as eerie. The results support this hypothesis. PMID:23145223

  19. Putting the face in context: Body expressions impact facial emotion processing in human infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purva Rajhans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Body expressions exert strong contextual effects on facial emotion perception in adults. Specifically, conflicting body cues hamper the recognition of emotion from faces, as evident on both the behavioral and neural level. We examined the developmental origins of the neural processes involved in emotion perception across body and face in 8-month-old infants by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs. We primed infants with body postures (fearful, happy that were followed by either congruent or incongruent facial expressions. Our results revealed that body expressions impact facial emotion processing and that incongruent body cues impair the neural discrimination of emotional facial expressions. Priming effects were associated with attentional and recognition memory processes, as reflected in a modulation of the Nc and Pc evoked at anterior electrodes. These findings demonstrate that 8-month-old infants possess neural mechanisms that allow for the integration of emotion across body and face, providing evidence for the early developmental emergence of context-sensitive facial emotion perception.

  20. Putting the face in context: Body expressions impact facial emotion processing in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhans, Purva; Jessen, Sarah; Missana, Manuela; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Body expressions exert strong contextual effects on facial emotion perception in adults. Specifically, conflicting body cues hamper the recognition of emotion from faces, as evident on both the behavioral and neural level. We examined the developmental origins of the neural processes involved in emotion perception across body and face in 8-month-old infants by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We primed infants with body postures (fearful, happy) that were followed by either congruent or incongruent facial expressions. Our results revealed that body expressions impact facial emotion processing and that incongruent body cues impair the neural discrimination of emotional facial expressions. Priming effects were associated with attentional and recognition memory processes, as reflected in a modulation of the Nc and Pc evoked at anterior electrodes. These findings demonstrate that 8-month-old infants possess neural mechanisms that allow for the integration of emotion across body and face, providing evidence for the early developmental emergence of context-sensitive facial emotion perception. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. A new measurement method for color discrimination thresholds of human eyes based on PWM light-mixing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiyan; Dong, Jinxin

    2016-09-01

    The color discrimination is a powerful tool for detection of eye diseases, and it is is necessary to produce different kinds of color rapidly and precisely for testing color discrimination thresholds of human eyes. Three channels' pulse-width modulation (PWM) and light-mixing technology is a new way to mixing color, and a new measurement method for color discrimination thresholds of human eyes based on PWM light-mix technology can generate kinds of color stimuli. In this study, 5 youth volunteers were measured via this equipment after the test for the stability of the device's illumination and chrominance. Though the theory of Macadam ellipses and the interleaved staircase method, a psychophysical experiment was made to study the color discrimination threshold of the human eyes around a basic color center. By analyzing the data of the chromatic ellipse and the color discrimination threshold, the result shows that each color is not uniform in a single color region and the color difference threshold of normal human is around the third Macadam ellipses. The experimental results show that the repeatability and accuracy of the observer can meet the accuracy requirements of the relevant experiments, and the data is reliable and effective, which means the measurement method is an effective way to measure the color discrimination thresholds of human visual system.

  2. A Retrospective Look at Replacing Face-to-Face Embryology Instruction with Online Lectures in a Human Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Elmus G.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Lee, Vaughan H.

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology…

  3. Moving human full body and body parts detection, tracking, and applications on human activity estimation, walking pattern and face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new way for detection and tracking of human full-body and body-parts with color (intensity) patch morphological segmentation and adaptive thresholding for security surveillance cameras. An adaptive threshold scheme has been developed for dealing with body size changes, illumination condition changes, and cross camera parameter changes. Tests with the PETS 2009 and 2014 datasets show that we can obtain high probability of detection and low probability of false alarm for full-body. Test results indicate that our human full-body detection method can considerably outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in both detection performance and computational complexity. Furthermore, in this paper, we have developed several methods using color features for detection and tracking of human body-parts (arms, legs, torso, and head, etc.). For example, we have developed a human skin color sub-patch segmentation algorithm by first conducting a RGB to YIQ transformation and then applying a Subtractive I/Q image Fusion with morphological operations. With this method, we can reliably detect and track human skin color related body-parts such as face, neck, arms, and legs. Reliable body-parts (e.g. head) detection allows us to continuously track the individual person even in the case that multiple closely spaced persons are merged. Accordingly, we have developed a new algorithm to split a merged detection blob back to individual detections based on the detected head positions. Detected body-parts also allow us to extract important local constellation features of the body-parts positions and angles related to the full-body. These features are useful for human walking gait pattern recognition and human pose (e.g. standing or falling down) estimation for potential abnormal behavior and accidental event detection, as evidenced with our experimental tests. Furthermore, based on the reliable head (face) tacking, we have applied a super-resolution algorithm to enhance

  4. Intraneural stimulation elicits discrimination of textural features by artificial fingertip in intact and amputee humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Calogero Maria; Raspopovic, Stanisa; Artoni, Fiorenzo; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spigler, Giacomo; Petrini, Francesco; Giambattistelli, Federica; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Zollo, Loredana; Di Pino, Giovanni; Camboni, Domenico; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Faraguna, Ugo; Micera, Silvestro

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of touch after hand amputation is a desirable feature of ideal prostheses. Here, we show that texture discrimination can be artificially provided in human subjects by implementing a neuromorphic real-time mechano-neuro-transduction (MNT), which emulates to some extent the firing dynamics of SA1 cutaneous afferents. The MNT process was used to modulate the temporal pattern of electrical spikes delivered to the human median nerve via percutaneous microstimulation in four intact subjects and via implanted intrafascicular stimulation in one transradial amputee. Both approaches allowed the subjects to reliably discriminate spatial coarseness of surfaces as confirmed also by a hybrid neural model of the median nerve. Moreover, MNT-evoked EEG activity showed physiologically plausible responses that were superimposable in time and topography to the ones elicited by a natural mechanical tactile stimulation. These findings can open up novel opportunities for sensory restoration in the next generation of neuro-prosthetic hands. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09148.001 PMID:26952132

  5. Pitch chroma discrimination, generalization, and transfer tests of octave equivalence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeschele, Marisa; Weisman, Ronald G; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2012-11-01

    Octave equivalence occurs when notes separated by an octave (a doubling in frequency) are judged as being perceptually similar. Considerable evidence points to the importance of the octave in music and speech. Yet, experimental demonstration of octave equivalence has been problematic. Using go/no-go operant discrimination and generalization, we studied octave equivalence in humans. In Experiment 1, we found that a procedure that failed to show octave equivalence in European starlings also failed in humans. In Experiment 2, we modified the procedure to control for the effects of pitch height perception by training participants in Octave 4 and testing in Octave 5. We found that the pattern of responding developed by discrimination training in Octave 4 generalized to Octave 5. We replicated and extended our findings in Experiment 3 by adding a transfer phase: Participants were trained with either the same or a reversed pattern of rewards in Octave 5. Participants transferred easily to the same pattern of reward in Octave 5 but struggled to learn the reversed pattern. We provided minimal instruction, presented no ordered sequences of notes, and used only sine-wave tones, but participants nonetheless constructed pitch chroma information from randomly ordered sequences of notes. Training in music weakly hindered octave generalization but moderately facilitated both positive and negative transfer.

  6. Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using Raman spectroscopy with self-reference algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Haiyi; Wang, Peng; Wang, Jun; Yin, Huancai; Tian, Yubing; Bai, Pengli; Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Ning; Tang, Yuguo; Gao, Jing

    2017-09-01

    We report a self-reference algorithm to discriminate human and nonhuman blood by calculating the ratios of identification Raman peaks to reference Raman peaks and choosing appropriate threshold values. The influence of using different reference peaks and identification peaks was analyzed in detail. The Raman peak at 1003 cm-1 was proved to be a stable reference peak to avoid the influencing factors, such as the incident laser intensity and the amount of sample. The Raman peak at 1341 cm-1 was found to be an efficient identification peak, which indicates that the difference between human and nonhuman blood results from the C-H bend in tryptophan. The comparison between self-reference algorithm and partial least square method was made. It was found that the self-reference algorithm not only obtained the discrimination results with the same accuracy, but also provided information on the difference of chemical composition. In addition, the performance of self-reference algorithm whose true positive rate is 100% is significant for customs inspection to avoid genetic disclosure and forensic science.

  7. Music-Elicited Emotion Identification Using Optical Flow Analysis of Human Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniaz, V. V.; Smirnova, Z. N.

    2015-05-01

    Human emotion identification from image sequences is highly demanded nowadays. The range of possible applications can vary from an automatic smile shutter function of consumer grade digital cameras to Biofied Building technologies, which enables communication between building space and residents. The highly perceptual nature of human emotions leads to the complexity of their classification and identification. The main question arises from the subjective quality of emotional classification of events that elicit human emotions. A variety of methods for formal classification of emotions were developed in musical psychology. This work is focused on identification of human emotions evoked by musical pieces using human face tracking and optical flow analysis. Facial feature tracking algorithm used for facial feature speed and position estimation is presented. Facial features were extracted from each image sequence using human face tracking with local binary patterns (LBP) features. Accurate relative speeds of facial features were estimated using optical flow analysis. Obtained relative positions and speeds were used as the output facial emotion vector. The algorithm was tested using original software and recorded image sequences. The proposed technique proves to give a robust identification of human emotions elicited by musical pieces. The estimated models could be used for human emotion identification from image sequences in such fields as emotion based musical background or mood dependent radio.

  8. Do low spatial frequencies explain the extremely fast saccades towards human faces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyader, Nathalie; Chauvin, Alan; Boucart, Muriel; Peyrin, Carole

    2017-04-01

    The visual perception of human faces by man is fast and efficient compared to that of other categories of objects. Using a saccadic choice task, recent studies showed that participants were able to initiate fast reliable saccades in just 100-110ms toward an image of a human face, when this was presented alongside another image without a face. This extremely fast saccadic reaction time is barely predicted using classical models of visual perception. Thus, the present research investigates whether this result might be explained by the low spatial frequency content of images. Using the same paradigm, with two images simultaneously presented to the left or right visual fields, participants were asked to make a saccade towards a target image. The target was defined as an image belonging to one category: human face, animal or vehicle. The other image corresponded to the distractor and belongs to the other categories. We compared performance to saccade toward one category of target. The two images were displayed either in color, gray-level, low-pass filtered or high-pass filtered. As previous studies, we found that the shortest SRT was observed for saccades towards faces rather than towards animals or vehicles. Analysis of saccadic reaction time distributions showed that, in 130-140ms, participants were able to make more correct than incorrect saccades towards faces for unfiltered (color and gray-level) and low-pass filtered images whereas they needed more time for high-pass filtered images. In contrast, the minimum time participants needed to correctly saccade towards animals and vehicles was longer for low-pass and high-pass filtered than for unfiltered images. The analysis of the image statistics in the Fourier domain revealed that the amplitude spectrum of faces was mainly contained in the low spatial frequencies. Consistent with a coarse-to-fine processing of visual information, our results suggest that extremely fast saccades towards faces could be initiated by low

  9. Bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human taste receptor for the discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Ahn, Sae Ryun; Kim, Daesan; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Un-Kyung; Simons, Christopher T; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2014-10-28

    The sense of taste helps humans to obtain information and form a picture of the world by recognizing chemicals in their environments. Over the past decade, large advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms of taste detection and mimicking its capability using artificial sensor devices. However, the detection capability of previous artificial taste sensors has been far inferior to that of animal tongues, in terms of its sensitivity and selectivity. Herein, we developed a bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human sweet taste receptors for the detection and discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance, where single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors were functionalized with nanovesicles containing human sweet taste receptors and used to detect the binding of sweeteners to the taste receptors. The receptors are heterodimeric G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) composed of human taste receptor type 1 member 2 (hTAS1R2) and human taste receptor type 1 member 3 (hTAS1R3), which have multiple binding sites and allow a human tongue-like broad selectivity for the detection of sweeteners. This nanovesicle-based bioelectronic tongue can be a powerful tool for the detection of sweeteners as an alternative to labor-intensive and time-consuming cell-based assays and the sensory evaluation panels used in the food and beverage industry. Furthermore, this study also allows the artificial sensor to exam the functional activity of dimeric GPCRs.

  10. Variation in the human cannabinoid receptor CNR1 gene modulates gaze duration for happy faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti Bhismadev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From an early age, humans look longer at preferred stimuli and also typically look longer at facial expressions of emotion, particularly happy faces. Atypical gaze patterns towards social stimuli are common in autism spectrum conditions (ASC. However, it is unknown whether gaze fixation patterns have any genetic basis. In this study, we tested whether variations in the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1 gene are associated with gaze duration towards happy faces. This gene was selected because CNR1 is a key component of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in processing reward, and in our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we found that variations in CNR1 modulate the striatal response to happy (but not disgust faces. The striatum is involved in guiding gaze to rewarding aspects of a visual scene. We aimed to validate and extend this result in another sample using a different technique (gaze tracking. Methods A total of 30 volunteers (13 males and 17 females from the general population observed dynamic emotional expressions on a screen while their eye movements were recorded. They were genotyped for the identical four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the CNR1 gene tested in our earlier fMRI study. Results Two SNPs (rs806377 and rs806380 were associated with differential gaze duration for happy (but not disgust faces. Importantly, the allelic groups associated with a greater striatal response to happy faces in the fMRI study were associated with longer gaze duration at happy faces. Conclusions These results suggest that CNR1 variations modulate the striatal function that underlies the perception of signals of social reward, such as happy faces. This suggests that CNR1 is a key element in the molecular architecture of perception of certain basic emotions. This may have implications for understanding neurodevelopmental conditions marked by atypical eye contact and facial emotion processing

  11. Man's other best friend: domestic cats (F. silvestris catus) and their discrimination of human emotion cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Moriah; Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The ability of domestic dogs (C. lupus famaliaris) to follow and attend to human emotion expressions is well documented. It is unknown whether domestic cats (F. silvestris catus) possess similar abilities. Because cats belong to the same order (Carnivora), but did not evolve to live in complex social groups, research with them enables us to tease apart the influence of social structure versus domestication processes on the capacity to recognize human communicative cues, such as emotions. Two experiments were conducted to determine the extent to which domestic cats discriminate between human emotion cues. The first experiment presented cats with facial and postural cues of happiness and anger from both an unfamiliar experimenter and their familiar owner in the absence of vocal cues. The second experiment presented cats with vocal cues of human emotion through a positively or negatively charged conversation between an experimenter and owner. Domestic cats were only modestly sensitive to emotion, particularly when displayed by their owner, suggesting that a history of human interaction alone may not be sufficient to shape such abilities in domestic cats.

  12. The organisational and human resource challenges facing primary care trusts: protocol of a multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Scott J

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study is designed to assess the organisational and human resource challenges faced by Primary Care Trusts (PCTs. Its objectives are to: specify the organisational and human resources challenges faced by PCTs in fulfilling the roles envisaged in government and local policy; examine how PCTs are addressing these challenges, in particular, to describe the organisational forms they have adopted, and the OD/HR strategies and initiatives they have planned or in place; assess how effective these structures, strategies and initiatives have been in enabling the PCTs to meet the organisational and human resources challenges they face; identify the factors, both internal to the PCT and in the wider health community, which have contributed to the success or failure of different structures, strategies and initiatives. Methods The study will be undertaken in three stages. In Stage 1 the key literature on public sector and NHS organisational development and human resources management will be reviewed, and discussions will be held with key researchers and policy makers working in this area. Stage 2 will focus on detailed case studies in six PCTs designed to examine the organisational and human resources challenges they face. Data will be collected using semi-structured interviews, group discussion, site visits, observation of key meetings and examination of local documentation. The findings from the case study PCTs will be cross checked with a Reference Group of up to 20 other PCG/Ts, and key officers working in organisational development or primary care at local, regional and national level. In Stage 3 analysis of findings from the preparatory work, the case studies and the feedback from the Reference Group will be used to identify practical lessons for PCTs, key messages for policy makers, and contributions to further theoretical development.

  13. Common cortical responses evoked by appearance, disappearance and change of the human face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kida Tetsuo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To segregate luminance-related, face-related and non-specific components involved in spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical activations to a face stimulus, we recorded cortical responses to face appearance (Onset, disappearance (Offset, and change (Change using magnetoencephalography. Results Activity in and around the primary visual cortex (V1/V2 showed luminance-dependent behavior. Any of the three events evoked activity in the middle occipital gyrus (MOG at 150 ms and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ at 250 ms after the onset of each event. Onset and Change activated the fusiform gyrus (FG, while Offset did not. This FG activation showed a triphasic waveform, consistent with results of intracranial recordings in humans. Conclusion Analysis employed in this study successfully segregated four different elements involved in the spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical activations in response to a face stimulus. The results show the responses of MOG and TPJ to be associated with non-specific processes, such as the detection of abrupt changes or exogenous attention. Activity in FG corresponds to a face-specific response recorded by intracranial studies, and that in V1/V2 is related to a change in luminance.

  14. Soft-assignment random-forest with an application to discriminative representation of human actions in videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The bag-of-features model is a distinctive and robust approach to detect human actions in videos. The discriminative power of this model relies heavily on the quantization of the video features into visual words. The quantization determines how well the visual words describe the human action. Random

  15. Attention Priority Map of Face Images in Human Early Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce; He, Dongjun; Fang, Fang

    2018-01-03

    Attention priority maps are topographic representations that are used for attention selection and guidance of task-related behavior during visual processing. Previous studies have identified attention priority maps of simple artificial stimuli in multiple cortical and subcortical areas, but investigating neural correlates of priority maps of natural stimuli is complicated by the complexity of their spatial structure and the difficulty of behaviorally characterizing their priority map. To overcome these challenges, we reconstructed the topographic representations of upright/inverted face images from fMRI BOLD signals in human early visual areas primary visual cortex (V1) and the extrastriate cortex (V2 and V3) based on a voxelwise population receptive field model. We characterized the priority map behaviorally as the first saccadic eye movement pattern when subjects performed a face-matching task relative to the condition in which subjects performed a phase-scrambled face-matching task. We found that the differential first saccadic eye movement pattern between upright/inverted and scrambled faces could be predicted from the reconstructed topographic representations in V1-V3 in humans of either sex. The coupling between the reconstructed representation and the eye movement pattern increased from V1 to V2/3 for the upright faces, whereas no such effect was found for the inverted faces. Moreover, face inversion modulated the coupling in V2/3, but not in V1. Our findings provide new evidence for priority maps of natural stimuli in early visual areas and extend traditional attention priority map theories by revealing another critical factor that affects priority maps in extrastriate cortex in addition to physical salience and task goal relevance: image configuration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Prominent theories of attention posit that attention sampling of visual information is mediated by a series of interacting topographic representations of visual space known as

  16. Dietary fat induces sustained reward response in the human brain without primary taste cortex discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène eTzieropoulos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To disentangle taste from reward responses in the human gustatory cortex, we combined high density electro-encephalography with a gustometer delivering tastant puffs to the tip of the tongue. Stimuli were pure tastants (salt solutions at two concentrations, caloric emulsions of identical taste (two milk preparations differing in fat content and a mixture of high fat milk with the lowest salt concentration. Early event-related potentials showed a dose-response effect for increased taste intensity, with higher amplitude and shorter latency for high compared to low salt concentration, but not for increased fat content. However, the amplitude and distribution of late potentials were modulated by fat content independently of reported intensity and discrimination. Neural source estimation revealed a sustained activation of reward areas to the two high-fat stimuli. The results suggest calorie detection through specific sensors on the tongue independent of perceived taste. Finally, amplitude variation of the first peak in the event-related potential to the different stimuli correlated with papilla density, suggesting a higher discrimination power for subjects with more fungiform papillae.

  17. Comparing the effect of humanoid and human face for the spatial orientation of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Okka, Maria M

    2013-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate how the automatic spatial orientation of attention induced by the perception of another agent's orientation of attention is modulated by the social nature of the other agent. Modified versions of the Posner task, using a real or schematic face with eyes or head looking toward the left or the right before a to-be-detected target appears on one side of the screen have been used to demonstrate a reduction of reaction time (RT) for target detection when the gaze is directed toward the target, even though the cue is not informative. We compared the effect of two agents, the humanoid robotic platform Nao and a real human, using head turn to cue the spatial orientation of attention. Our results reproduced the typical Posner effect, with reduced RT to valid compared to invalid spatial cues. RT increased when no spatial information was provided, interpreted as an increased difficulty to disengage from a direct gaze. RT was also increased when the robot was used instead of the human face and when the eyes of the stimuli were blacked out. Both effects were interpreted as resulting from an increased difficulty to disengage attention from the central stimulus because of its novelty. In all experiments, there was no interaction between cue validity and cue agent, implying that the exact nature of the human-like agent didn't have an effect on the automatic spatial orientation of attention. Altogether, our results imply that a humanoid face is as potent as a human face to trigger an automatic orientation of spatial attention.

  18. Comparing the effect of humanoid and human face for the spatial orientation of attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry eChaminade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate how the automatic spatial orientation of attention induced by the perception of another agent’s orientation of attention is modulated by the social nature of the other agent. Modified versions of the Posner task, using a real or schematic face with eyes or head looking towards the left or the right before a to-be-detected target appears on one side of the screen have been used to demonstrate a reduction of reaction time for target detection when the gaze is directed towards the target, even though the cue is not informative. We compared the effect of two agents, the humanoid robotic platform Nao and a real human, using head turn to cue the spatial orientation of attention. Our results reproduced the typical Posner effect, with reduced reaction time to valid compared to invalid spatial cues. Reaction time increased when no spatial information was provided, interpreted as an increased difficulty to disengage from a direct gaze. Reaction time was also increased when the robot was used instead of the human face and when the eyes of the stimuli were blacked out. Both effects were interpreted as resulting from an increased difficulty to disengage attention from the central stimulus because of its novelty. In all experiments, there was no interaction between cue validity and cue agent, implying that the exact nature of the human-like agent didn’t have an effect on the automatic spatial orientation of attention. Altogether, our results imply that a humanoid face is as potent as a human face to trigger an automatic orientation of spatial attention.

  19. The definitions of three-dimensional landmarks on the human face: an interdisciplinary view

    OpenAIRE

    Katina, Stanislav; McNeil, Kathryn; Ayoub, Ashraf; Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khambay, Balvinder; Siebert, Jan; Sukno, Federico; Rojas, Mario; Vittert, Liberty; Waddington, John; Whelan, Paul F.; Bowman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The analysis of shape is a key part of anatomical research and in the large majority of cases landmarks provide a standard starting point. However, while the technology of image capture has developed rapidly and in particular three?dimensional imaging is widely available, the definitions of anatomical landmarks remain rooted in their two?dimensional origins. In the important case of the human face, standard definitions often require careful orientation of the subject. This paper cons...

  20. Syllabic discrimination in premature human infants prior to complete formation of cortical layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Fournier, Marc; Kongolo, Guy; Goudjil, Sabrina; Dubois, Jessica; Grebe, Reinhard; Wallois, Fabrice

    2013-03-19

    The ontogeny of linguistic functions in the human brain remains elusive. Although some auditory capacities are described before term, whether and how such immature cortical circuits might process speech are unknown. Here we used functional optical imaging to evaluate the cerebral responses to syllables at the earliest age at which cortical responses to external stimuli can be recorded in humans (28- to 32-wk gestational age). At this age, the cortical organization in layers is not completed. Many neurons are still located in the subplate and in the process of migrating to their final location. Nevertheless, we observed several points of similarity with the adult linguistic network. First, whereas syllables elicited larger right than left responses, the posterior temporal region escaped this general pattern, showing faster and more sustained responses over the left than over the right hemisphere. Second, discrimination responses to a change of phoneme (ba vs. ga) and a change of human voice (male vs. female) were already present and involved inferior frontal areas, even in the youngest infants (29-wk gestational age). Third, whereas both types of changes elicited responses in the right frontal region, the left frontal region only reacted to a change of phoneme. These results demonstrate a sophisticated organization of perisylvian areas at the very onset of cortical circuitry, 3 mo before term. They emphasize the influence of innate factors on regions involved in linguistic processing and social communication in humans.

  1. Local transform features and hybridization for accurate face and human detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Bongjin; Choi, Inho; Kim, Daijin

    2013-06-01

    We propose two novel local transform features: local gradient patterns (LGP) and binary histograms of oriented gradients (BHOG). LGP assigns one if the neighboring gradient of a given pixel is greater than its average of eight neighboring gradients and zero otherwise, which makes the local intensity variations along the edge components robust. BHOG assigns one if the histogram bin has a higher value than the average value of the total histogram bins, and zero otherwise, which makes the computation time fast due to no further postprocessing and SVM classification. We also propose a hybrid feature that combines several local transform features by means of the AdaBoost method, where the best feature having the lowest classification error is sequentially selected until we obtain the required classification performance. This hybridization makes face and human detection robust to global illumination changes by LBP, local intensity changes by LGP, and local pose changes by BHOG, which considerably improves detection performance. We apply the proposed features to face detection using the MIT+CMU and FDDB databases and human detection using the INRIA and Caltech databases. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed LGP and BHOG feature attain accurate detection performance and fast computation time, respectively, and the hybrid feature improves face and human detection performance considerably.

  2. Discrimination of human bodies from bones and teeth remains by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncayo, S.; Manzoor, S.; Ugidos, T.; Navarro-Villoslada, F.; Caceres, J.O., E-mail: jcaceres@ucm.es

    2014-11-01

    A fast and minimally destructive method based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Neural Networks (NN) has been developed and applied to the classification and discrimination of human bones and teeth fragments. The methodology can be useful in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) tasks. The elemental compositions of bone and teeth samples provided enough information to achieve a correct discrimination and reassembling of different human remains. Individuals were classified with spectral correlation higher than 95%, regardless of the type of bone or tooth sample analyzed. No false positive or false negative was observed, demonstrating the high robustness and accuracy of the proposed methodology. - Highlights: • Classification and discrimination of human remains have been studied. • Remains were analyzed by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). • Neural Networks models (NN) were used. • Individuals were classified with spectral correlation higher than 95 %. • LIBS-NN showed the potential for rapid and cost-effective analysis.

  3. False memory for face in short-term memory and neural activity in human amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2014-12-03

    Human memory is often inaccurate. Similar to words and figures, new faces are often recognized as seen or studied items in long- and short-term memory tests; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this false memory remain elusive. In a previous fMRI study using morphed faces and a standard false memory paradigm, we found that there was a U-shaped response curve of the amygdala to old, new, and lure items. This indicates that the amygdala is more active in response to items that are salient (hit and correct rejection) compared to items that are less salient (false alarm), in terms of memory retrieval. In the present fMRI study, we determined whether the false memory for faces occurs within the short-term memory range (a few seconds), and assessed which neural correlates are involved in veridical and illusory memories. Nineteen healthy participants were scanned by 3T MRI during a short-term memory task using morphed faces. The behavioral results indicated that the occurrence of false memories was within the short-term range. We found that the amygdala displayed a U-shaped response curve to memory items, similar to those observed in our previous study. These results suggest that the amygdala plays a common role in both long- and short-term false memory for faces. We made the following conclusions: First, the amygdala is involved in detecting the saliency of items, in addition to fear, and supports goal-oriented behavior by modulating memory. Second, amygdala activity and response time might be related with a subject's response criterion for similar faces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Domain-specific development of face memory but not face perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Sarah; Koldewyn, Kami; Dilks, Daniel D; Balas, Benjamin; McKone, Elinor; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    How does the remarkable human ability for face recognition arise over development? Competing theories have proposed either late maturity (beyond 10 years) or early maturity (before 5 years), but have not distinguished between perceptual and memory aspects of face recognition. Here, we demonstrate a perception-memory dissociation. We compare rate of development for (adult, human) faces versus other social stimuli (bodies), other discrete objects (cars), and other categories processed in discrete brain regions (scenes, bodies), from 5 years to adulthood. For perceptual discrimination, performance improved with age at the same rate for faces and all other categories, indicating no domain-specific development. In contrast, face memory increased more strongly than non-face memory, indicating domain-specific development. The results imply that each theory is partly true: the late maturity theory holds for face memory, and the early maturity theory for face perception. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. I Reach Faster When I See You Look: Gaze Effects in Human-Human and Human-Robot Face-to-Face Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jean-David; Pattacini, Ugo; Lelong, Amelie; Bailly, Gerrard; Elisei, Frederic; Fagel, Sascha; Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Human-human interaction in natural environments relies on a variety of perceptual cues. Humanoid robots are becoming increasingly refined in their sensorimotor capabilities, and thus should now be able to manipulate and exploit these social cues in cooperation with their human partners. Previous studies have demonstrated that people follow human and robot gaze, and that it can help them to cope with spatially ambiguous language. Our goal is to extend these findings into the domain of action, to determine how human and robot gaze can influence the speed and accuracy of human action. We report on results from a human-human cooperation experiment demonstrating that an agent's vision of her/his partner's gaze can significantly improve that agent's performance in a cooperative task. We then implement a heuristic capability to generate such gaze cues by a humanoid robot that engages in the same cooperative interaction. The subsequent human-robot experiments demonstrate that a human agent can indeed exploit the predictive gaze of their robot partner in a cooperative task. This allows us to render the humanoid robot more human-like in its ability to communicate with humans. The long term objectives of the work are thus to identify social cooperation cues, and to validate their pertinence through implementation in a cooperative robot. The current research provides the robot with the capability to produce appropriate speech and gaze cues in the context of human-robot cooperation tasks. Gaze is manipulated in three conditions: Full gaze (coordinated eye and head), eyes hidden with sunglasses, and head fixed. We demonstrate the pertinence of these cues in terms of statistical measures of action times for humans in the context of a cooperative task, as gaze significantly facilitates cooperation as measured by human response times.

  6. Discrimination of human bodies from bones and teeth remains by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, S.; Manzoor, S.; Ugidos, T.; Navarro-Villoslada, F.; Caceres, J. O.

    2014-11-01

    A fast and minimally destructive method based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Neural Networks (NN) has been developed and applied to the classification and discrimination of human bones and teeth fragments. The methodology can be useful in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) tasks. The elemental compositions of bone and teeth samples provided enough information to achieve a correct discrimination and reassembling of different human remains. Individuals were classified with spectral correlation higher than 95%, regardless of the type of bone or tooth sample analyzed. No false positive or false negative was observed, demonstrating the high robustness and accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  7. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Split-face Clinical Trial Comparing the Efficacy of Two Topical Human Growth Factors for the Rejuvenation of the Aging Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2017-05-01

    Background: Cosmeceutical products represent an increasingly important therapeutic option for anti-aging and rejuvenation, either used alone or in combination with dermatologic surgical procedures. Among this group of products, topical growth factors have demonstrated efficacy in randomized, controlled clinical trials. However, comparisons between different products remain uncommon. Objective: The objective of this randomized, double-blind, split-face clinical trial was to compare two different topical growth factor formulations derived from either human fibroblasts or human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells. Methods: This was an institutional review board-approved, randomized, double-blind, split-face clinical trial involving 20 healthy subjects with moderate-to-severe facial wrinkling secondary to photodamage. One half of the face was randomized to receive topical human fibroblast growth factors and the other topical human mesenchymal stem cell growth factors. Treatment was continued for three months, and evaluations were performed in a double-blind fashion. Results: Both growth factor formulations achieved significant improvement in facial wrinkling. Blinded investigator and subject evaluations did not detect any significant differences between the two formulations in terms of efficacy, safety, or tolerability. Conclusion: Both human fibroblast growth factors and human mesenchymal stem cell growth factors are effective at facial rejuvenation. Topical growth factors represent a useful therapeutic modality.

  8. The Mobility of the Human Face: More than Just the Musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Rogers-Vizena, Carolyn R; Li, Ly; Mendelson, Bryan

    2016-12-01

    The human face has the greatest mobility and facial display repertoire among all primates. However, the variables that account for this are not clear. Humans and other anthropoids have remarkably similar mimetic musculature. This suggests that differences among the mimetic muscles alone may not account for the increased mobility and facial display repertoire seen in humans. Furthermore, anthropoids themselves outpace prosimians in these categories: humans > other anthropoids > prosimians. This study was undertaken to clarify the morphological underpinnings of the increased mobility and display repertoire of the human face by investigating the SMAS (the superficial musculo-aponeurotic system), a connective tissue layer enclosing the mimetic musculature located between the skin and deep fascia/periosteum. Full-thickness samples from the face near the zygoma region from the anthropoids Homo sapiens (humans, N = 3), Pan troglodytes (chimpanzees, N = 3), Hylobates muelleri (gibbons, N = 1), and Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque, N = 3) and the prosimians Tarsius bancanus (tarsiers, N = 1), and Otolemur crassicaudatus (galagos, N = 2) were used. All samples were processed for paraffin-based histology and stained sections were viewed under light microscopy to determine if a SMAS layer could be identified. Results indicate that a SMAS layer was present in all anthropoid species but neither of the prosimian species. This connective tissue layer may be a factor in the increased facial mobility and facial display repertoire present in these species. Anat Rec, 299:1779-1788, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Towards a unified model of face and object recognition in the human visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eWallis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the mechanisms and neural substrates underlying visual recognition in humans has made considerable progress over the past thirty years. During this period a divide has developed between the fields of object and face recognition. In the psychological literature, in particular, there has been a palpable disconnect between the two fields. This paper follows a trend in part of the face-recognition literature to try to reconcile what we know about these two forms of recognition by considering the effects of learning. Taking a widely accepted, self-organizing model of object recognition, this paper explains how such a system is affected by repeated exposure to specific stimulus classes. In so doing, it explains how many aspects of recognition generally regarded as unusual to faces (holistic processing, configural processing, sensitivity to inversion, the other race effect, the prototype effect, etc. are emergent properties of category-specific learning within such a system. Overall, the paper describes how a single model of recognition learning can and does produce the two, apparently very different types of stimulus representation associated with faces and objects.

  10. Discrimination Based on Health Grounds : Case Study: Hepatitis B Virus Discrimination in China Labour Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Che, Qi

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, due to the high prevalence of hepatitis B in China, millions of carriers are faced with discrimination when they come to work, study, health care or even marriage. The same situation also happens to those physically disadvantageous people especially in the access to employment. Employment discrimination detracts from the principle of equality and directly impairs social justice and human dignity. Series of institutional responses are needed to effectively prevent employment discrimi...

  11. Towards building a photo-realistic virtual human face for craniomaxillofacial diagnosis and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, A F; Xiao, Y; Khambay, B; Siebert, J P; Hadley, D

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the feasibility of building a virtual human face digitally by superimposing a photo-realistic three-dimensional (3D) soft-tissue surface on bone in the correct relationship and evaluating the registration errors associated with this method. The 3D soft-tissue surface of the face was captured using a fast stereophotogrammetry method and the underlying bone was recorded using a 3D computed tomography (CT) scanner. Using the Procrustes registration method, the outer surface of the 3D CT scan and the photo-realistic soft-tissue surfaces were merged into a single Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) file and displayed using a standard VRML viewer. Quantitative measurements of registration errors were calculated in the reconstructed human head models using the signed closest point distance from the photo-realistic skin surface to the transformed CT skin surface. The registration errors between most parts of the aligned surfaces were within +/-1.5mm. The errors were relatively large around the eyebrows, eyelids and cheeks. Simultaneous recording of the face and skull may reduce this error.

  12. Do more sociable dogs gaze longer to the human face than less sociable ones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Mustaca, Alba; Bentosela, Mariana

    2012-06-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are especially skillful in communicating with humans, and they rely on special abilities to do that. One of these skills involves gazing at human faces in cases of uncertainty or when seeking for something out of reach. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between dogs' sociability level and the ability to learn to gaze in a situation with food in sight but out of their reach. Thirty-nine adult dogs were tested in two procedures: (1) a sociability test that involved interacting with an unknown person, and (2) a learning task that consisted of training trials in which gazing at the experimenter's face was food reinforced, followed by extinction trials in which gazing was not followed by food. A significant positive correlation was found between the duration of physical contact with the unknown person in the sociability test and gaze duration during extinction. Moreover, high sociability dogs gazed significantly longer at humans during extinction trials. We discuss the possibility that, more sociable animals, such as those who pay more attention to the person in our sociability test, may be more persistent in their communicative attempts because the presence of the human is intrinsically reinforcing to them. Finally, we comment on the importance of these findings for training purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Kennard-Stone combined with least square support vector machine method for noncontact discriminating human blood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Li, Gang; Sun, Meixiu; Li, Hongxiao; Wang, Zhennan; Li, Yingxin; Lin, Ling

    2017-11-01

    Identifying whole bloods to be either human or nonhuman is an important responsibility for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. Analytical methods and DNA testing methods are usually destructive. Previous studies demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method can realize noncontact human and nonhuman blood discrimination. An appropriate method for calibration set selection was very important for a robust quantitative model. In this paper, Random Selection (RS) method and Kennard-Stone (KS) method was applied in selecting samples for calibration set. Moreover, proper stoichiometry method can be greatly beneficial for improving the performance of classification model or quantification model. Partial Least Square Discrimination Analysis (PLSDA) method was commonly used in identification of blood species with spectroscopy methods. Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) was proved to be perfect for discrimination analysis. In this research, PLSDA method and LSSVM method was used for human blood discrimination. Compared with the results of PLSDA method, this method could enhance the performance of identified models. The overall results convinced that LSSVM method was more feasible for identifying human and animal blood species, and sufficiently demonstrated LSSVM method was a reliable and robust method for human blood identification, and can be more effective and accurate.

  14. The classification of 'fear' from faces is associated with face recognition skill in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruth; Elgar, Kate; Kuntsi, Jonna; Akers, Rebecca; Terstegge, Janneke; Coleman, Michael; Skuse, David

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to explore the relationship between the discrimination of the facial expression of 'fear' in faces and facial recognition. On the basis of the reported role of the amygdala in both processes in patients, we hypothesised that the two skills would be correlated in normal adults. In Experiment 1, a series of tests of facial expression categorisation, of face matching and of familiar and unfamiliar face recognition was conducted on normal young women, for whom psychometric scores were also obtained (n=23). Accuracy of categorisation of fear from faces predicted variance in face recognition accuracy-especially in tasks of unfamiliar face recognition (immediate old-new discrimination). No other correlations between face processing and expression classification were significant. Experiment 2 repeated the expression classification tests and an unfamiliar face recognition test on a new sample of men (n=13) and women (n=16). While there were no sex differences in face recognition, the correlation between 'fear' and face recognition was replicated only for women. These data indicate that the amygdala supports both the specific apprehension of fear in faces and face recognition in adult human females, but that the association may not hold for men. Sex differences in the structure of the amygdala-hippocampal complex suggest a likely cortical substrate for the observed differences. We speculate that social learning, which involves identifying the faces of potentially salient others, and also their attitude to the observer, engages the amygdala more readily in women than in men.

  15. Kosovo – UNMIK accountability: Human Rights Advisory Panel Finds Discrimination in Privatization Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Benedek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: The Human Rights Advisory Panel (HRAP established in 2006 to strengthen the accountability of UNMIK in Kosovo so far has dealt mainly with cases regarding property and missing persons. In two recent cases of members of the Egyptian and the Serbian minority (Fillim Guga and Nevenka Ristić it also dealt with privatization of socially - owned enterprises and found discrimination on ethnic grounds by the Special Chamber of the Supreme Court, established by UNMIK for such cases, which raises the accountability of UNMIK. In doing so the panel applied Article 14 of the ECHR on prohibition of discrimination in conjunction with Article 6 ECHR on fair trial in the light of relevant jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. It also pointed out that in these cases the Special Chamber did not recognize a prima facie case of indirect discrimination and did not apply the principle of reversal of proof as required by the Anti - Discrimination Law of Kosovo. On behalf of UNMIK, the Special Representative of the Secretary - General defended the findings of the Special Chamber. The conclusions and recommendations in the Opinion of the Panel hold UNMIK accountable for the violations found and require it to take immediate and effective measures including an apology and adequate compensation for non-pecuniary damage as well as urging EULEX and other competent authorities in Kosovo to reopen the case by the Special Chamber. The work of the HRAP raises wider issues of accountability of international missions like UNMIK, to which it makes an important contribution. DEUTSCH: Das menschenrechtliche Beratungspanel, welches 2006 ins Leben gerufen wurde, um die Verantwortlichkeit von UNMIK im Kosovo zu stärken, hat sich bisher hauptsächlich mit Fällen zum Eigentumsrecht und hinsichtlich verschwundener Personen beschäftigt. In zwei aktuellen Fällen, die Mitglieder der ägyptischen bzw. serbischen Minderheit betrafen (Fillim Guga und Nevenka Risti

  16. Human blood dendritic cell subsets exhibit discriminative pattern recognition receptor profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Kristina; Rydnert, Frida; Greiff, Lennart; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) operate as the link between innate and adaptive immunity. Their expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), enables antigen recognition and mediates appropriate immune responses. Distinct subsets of human DCs have been identified; however their expression of PRRs is not fully clarified. Expressions of CLRs by DC subpopulations, in particular, remain elusive. This study aimed to identify and compare PRR expressions on human blood DC subsets, including CD1c+, CD141+ and CD16+ myeloid DCs and CD123+ plasmacytoid DCs, in order to understand their capacity to recognize different antigens as well as their responsiveness to PRR-directed targeting. Whole blood was obtained from 13 allergic and six non-allergic individuals. Mononuclear cells were purified and multi-colour flow cytometry was used to assess the expression of 10 CLRs and two TLRs on distinct DC subsets. PRR expression levels were shown to differ between DC subsets for each PRR assessed. Furthermore, principal component analysis and random forest test demonstrated that the PRR profiles were discriminative between DC subsets. Interestingly, CLEC9A was expressed at lower levels by CD141+ DCs from allergic compared with non-allergic donors. The subset-specific PRR expression profiles suggests individual responsiveness to PRR-targeting and supports functional specialization. PMID:24444310

  17. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The article presents three contemporary art projects that, in various ways, thematise questions regarding numerical representation of the human face in relation to the identification of faces, for example through the use of biometric video analysis software, or DNA technology. The Dutch...... artist Marnix de Nijs' Physiognomic Scrutinizer is an interactive installation whereby the viewer's face is scanned and identified with historical figures. The American artist Zach Blas' project Fag Face Mask consists of three-dimensional portraits that blend biometric facial data from 30 gay men's faces...

  18. Exploring the spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Xu, Yang; Jew, Carol A; Pyles, John A; Kass, Robert E; Tarr, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Humans are experts at face individuation. Although previous work has identified a network of face-sensitive regions and some of the temporal signatures of face processing, as yet, we do not have a clear understanding of how such face-sensitive regions support learning at different time points. To study the joint spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning, we trained subjects to categorize two groups of novel faces and recorded their neural responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG) throughout learning. A regression analysis of neural responses in face-sensitive regions against behavioral learning curves revealed significant correlations with learning in the majority of the face-sensitive regions in the face network, mostly between 150-250 ms, but also after 300 ms. However, the effect was smaller in nonventral regions (within the superior temporal areas and prefrontal cortex) than that in the ventral regions (within the inferior occipital gyri (IOG), midfusiform gyri (mFUS) and anterior temporal lobes). A multivariate discriminant analysis also revealed that IOG and mFUS, which showed strong correlation effects with learning, exhibited significant discriminability between the two face categories at different time points both between 150-250 ms and after 300 ms. In contrast, the nonventral face-sensitive regions, where correlation effects with learning were smaller, did exhibit some significant discriminability, but mainly after 300 ms. In sum, our findings indicate that early and recurring temporal components arising from ventral face-sensitive regions are critically involved in learning new faces.

  19. A comparison of student performance in human development classes using three different modes of delivery: Online, face-to-face, and combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsow, Susan Christensen

    1999-11-01

    The problem. The dual purposes of this research were to determine if there is a difference in student performance in three Human Development classes when the modes of delivery are different and to analyze student perceptions of using Web-based learning as all or part of their course experience. Procedures. Data for this study were collected from three Human Development courses taught at Drake University. Grades from five essays, projects, and overall grades were used in the three classes and analyzed using a single factor analysis of variance to determine if there was a significant difference. Content analysis was used on the evaluation comments of the participants in the online and combined classes to determine their perceptions of Web-based learning. Findings. The single factor analysis of variance measuring student performance showed no significant difference among the online, face-to-face, and combined scores at the .05 level of significance, however, the difference was significant at the .06. The content analysis of the online and combined course showed the three major strengths of learning totally or partly online to be increased comfort in using the computer, the quality of the overall experience, and convenience in terms of increased access to educational opportunities. The barriers included lack of human interaction and access to the professor. Conclusions. The study indicates that Web-based learning is a viable option for postsecondary educational delivery in terms of student performance and learning. On the average, performance is at least as good as performance in traditional face-to-face classrooms. Improved performance, however, is contingent on adequate access to equipment, faculty skill in teaching using a new mode of delivery, and the personality of the student. The convenient access to educational opportunities and becoming more comfortable with technology are benefits that were important to these two groups. Web-based learning is not for everyone

  20. Microdetermination of chondroitin sulfate in normal human plasma by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca

    2005-06-01

    An inexpensive, simple, sensitive and reproducible analytical method for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from human blood plasma samples by using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) has been developed. After treatment with a nonspecific protease to convert proteins into small peptides, CS from 100 microl of normal human plasma was extracted by using a filter membrane (molecular mass cut-off of 3000 Da) or purification by using an anion-exchange resin. The recovered CS was converted into unsaturated disaccharides through the action of chondroitin ABC lyase, derivatized with 2-aminoacridone by reductive amination in the presence of cyanoborohydride and separated by FACE. The procedure using the purification of plasma CS on the anion-exchange resin produced a cleaner separation and a better resolution of Delta-disaccharides then using microfiltration. The linearity, sensitivity and reproducibility of the method were determined in comparison with HPLC equipped with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection using 2-cyanoacetamide as a fluorogenic reagent. The detection limit was calculated to be 50 ng of CS with a linear response from 50 to 2000 ng. The recovery was found greater than 85% (from 2 to 10 microg CS) with a variation coefficient of approx. 10%. Furthermore, the results obtained from 100 microl plasma were almost identical to those obtained using 20 microl, 50 microl and 200 microl. This method was applied to the characterization of CS in 33 healthy human subjects ageing from 30 to 63 years old.

  1. The Perception of Four Basic Emotions in Human and Nonhuman Faces by Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    Children who experienced autism, mental retardation, and language disorders; and, children in a clinical control group were shown photographs of human female, orangutan, and canine (boxer) faces expressing happiness, sadness, anger, surprise and a neutral expression. For each species of faces, children were asked to identify the happy, sad, angry,…

  2. Education of a Future Human is the Key to Solving the Global Problems Facing Humanity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olga Khrystenko

    2016-01-01

    The present research considers two Global problems of the humanity:intercivilizational contradictions and the pandemic of abortion as serious conflicts, the solution of which depends on the relevant public educational policies...

  3. Face and eye scanning in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), orangutans (Pongo abelii), and humans (Homo sapiens): unique eye-viewing patterns in humans among hominids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Fumihiro; Call, Josep; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2012-11-01

    Because the faces and eyes of primates convey a rich array of social information, the way in which primates view faces and eyes reflects species-specific strategies for facial communication. How are humans and closely related species such as great apes similar and different in their viewing patterns for faces and eyes? Following previous studies comparing chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with humans (Homo sapiens), this study used the eye-tracking method to directly compare the patterns of face and eye scanning by humans, gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo abelii). Human and ape participants freely viewed pictures of whole bodies and full faces of conspecifics and allospecifics under the same experimental conditions. All species were strikingly similar in that they viewed predominantly faces and eyes. No particular difference was identified between gorillas and orangutans, and they also did not differ from the chimpanzees tested in previous studies. However, humans were somewhat different from apes, especially with respect to prolonged eye viewing. We also examined how species-specific facial morphologies, such as the male flange of orangutans and the black-white contrast of human eyes, affected viewing patterns. Whereas the male flange of orangutans affected viewing patterns, the color contrast of human eyes did not. Humans showed prolonged eye viewing independently of the eye color of presented faces, indicating that this pattern is internally driven rather than stimulus dependent. Overall, the results show general similarities among the species and also identify unique eye-viewing patterns in humans.

  4. Increased activation of the human cerebellum during pitch discrimination: a positron emission tomography (PET) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petacchi, Augusto; Kaernbach, Christian; Ratnam, Rama; Bower, James M

    2011-12-01

    Recent years have seen a growing debate concerning the function of the cerebellum. Here we used a pitch discrimination task and PET to test for cerebellar involvement in the active control of sensory data acquisition. Specifically, we predicted greater cerebellar activity during active pitch discrimination compared to passive listening, with the greatest activity when pitch discrimination was most difficult. Ten healthy subjects were trained to discriminate deviant tones presented with a slightly higher pitch than a standard tone, using a Go/No Go paradigm. To ensure that discrimination performance was matched across subjects, individual psychometric curves were assessed beforehand using a two-step psychoacoustic procedure. Subjects were scanned while resting in the absence of any sounds, while passively listening to standard tones, and while detecting deviant tones slightly higher in pitch among these standard tones at four different performance levels. Consistent with our predictions, 1) passive listening alone elicited cerebellar activity (lobule IX), 2) cerebellar activity increased during pitch discrimination as compared to passive listening (crus I and II, lobules VI, VIIB, and VIIIB), and 3) this increase was correlated with the difficulty of the discrimination task (lobules V, VI, and IX). These results complement recent findings showing pitch discrimination deficits in cerebellar patients (Parsons et al., 2009) and further support a role for the cerebellum in sensory data acquisition. The data are discussed in the light of anatomical and physiological evidence functionally connecting auditory system and cerebellum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Baby schema in human and animal faces induces cuteness perception and gaze allocation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eBorgi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The baby schema concept was originally proposed as a set of infantile traits with high appeal for humans, subsequently shown to elicit caretaking behavior and to affect cuteness perception and attentional processes. However, it is unclear whether the response to the baby schema may be extended to the human-animal bond context. Moreover, questions remain as to whether the cute response is constant and persistent or whether it changes with development. In the present study we parametrically manipulated the baby schema in images of humans, dogs and cats. We analyzed responses of 3-6-year-old children, using both explicit (i.e. cuteness ratings and implicit (i.e. eye gaze patterns measures. By means of eye-tracking, we assessed children’s preferential attention to images varying only for the degree of baby schema and explored participants’ fixation patterns during a cuteness task. For comparative purposes, cuteness ratings were also obtained in a sample of adults. Overall our results show that the response to an infantile facial configuration emerges early during development. In children, the baby schema affects both cuteness perception and gaze allocation to infantile stimuli and to specific facial features, an effect not simply limited to human faces. In line with previous research, results confirm human positive appraisal towards animals and inform both educational and therapeutic interventions involving pets, helping to minimize risk factors (e.g. dog bites.

  6. Discrimination of zone-specific spectral signatures in normal human prostate using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Imran I; Martin, Francis L

    2010-12-01

    The prostate gland is the most common site of pathology in human males. Using the urethra as an anatomical reference point, it can be divided into three distinct zones known as the transition zone (TZ), peripheral zone (PZ) and central zone (CZ). The pathological conditions of benign prostatic hypertrophy and/or prostate adenocarcinoma are highly prevalent in this gland. This preliminary study set out to determine whether biochemical intra-individual differences between normal prostate zones could be identified using Raman spectroscopy with subsequent exploratory analyses. A normal (benign) prostate transverse tissue section perpendicular to the rectal surface and above the verumontanum was obtained in a paraffin-embedded block. A 10-µm-thick slice was floated onto a gold substrate, de-waxed and analysed using Raman spectroscopy (200 epithelial-cell and 140 stromal spectra/zone). Raman spectra were subsequently processed in the 1800-367 cm(-1) spectral region employing principal component analysis (PCA) to determine whether wavenumber-intensity relationships expressed as single points in hyperspace might reveal biochemical differences associated with inter-zone pathological susceptibility. Visualisation of PCA scores plots and their corresponding loadings plots highlighted 781 cm(-1) (cytosine/uracil) and 787 cm(-1) (DNA) as the key discriminating factors segregating PZ from less susceptible TZ and CZ epithelia (P prostate zones to specific pathological conditions.

  7. Optical redox imaging indices discriminate human breast cancer from normal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2016-11-01

    Our long-term goal was to investigate the potential of incorporating redox imaging technique as a breast cancer (BC) diagnosis component to increase the positive predictive value of suspicious imaging finding and to reduce unnecessary biopsies and overdiagnosis. We previously found that precancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. We also revealed abnormal mitochondrial redox state in cancerous specimens from three BC patients. Here, we extend our study to include biopsies of 16 patients. Tissue aliquots were collected from both apparently normal and cancerous tissues from the affected cancer-bearing breasts shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen and scanned with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the three-dimensional cryogenic NADH/Fp (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/oxidized flavoproteins) fluorescence imager. We found both Fp and NADH in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled that in the normal tissues (p<0.05). The redox ratio Fp/(NADH + Fp) was ˜27% higher in the cancerous tissues (p<0.05). Additionally, Fp, or NADH, or the redox ratio alone could predict cancer with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Our findings suggest that the optical redox imaging technique can provide parameters independent of clinical factors for discriminating cancer from noncancer breast tissues in human patients.

  8. GENDER AND THE RIGHT TO NON-DISCRIMINATION IN INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra Netkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination against women based on the fact that they are women is a deeply rooted practice in all societies. However, the level of discrimination varies greatly with the level of development of the given society and strongly influences and vice versa it is influenced by the status of women in a given society. Addressing this gender-based discrimination is a difficult task because it is closely linked to the concept of equality, and state’s action and inactions. The article establishes that the States parties’ obligation is to ensure that there is no direct or indirect discrimination against women in their laws, sanctions, and other remedies and those women are protected against discrimination in the public, as well as, in the private spheres.

  9. Covariation between midline cranial base, lateral basicranium, and face in modern humans and chimpanzees: a 3D geometric morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Ducrocq, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies showed that in modern humans the basicranium is formed of two modules: the midline cranial base and the lateral basicranium which are integrated with the face in very different ways. The study of the relationship between these structures is of prime interest in the context of hominids craniofacial evolutionary history. In this study, we aim to test if the relationship between the midline cranial base and the face on one hand and the lateral basicranium and the face on the other hand are qualitatively and quantitatively different in modern humans and chimpanzees: two phylogenetically close but morphologically different hominids. This work is performed using three-dimensional (3D) landmarks to take into account the face and basicranium 3D shape. Modern humans and chimpanzees both exhibit a significant relationship between lateral basicranium and face, and a nonsignificant relationship between midline cranial base and face. However, the patterns of integration are different for the two species. These results underscore the essential role of the lateral basicranial shape in the setting of the facial morphology in modern humans and chimpanzees. The important differences in the patterns of integration may be related to the genetic, developmental, and functional requirements of each taxon, acquired along their respective evolution. From a common, tight, relationship between lateral basicranium, and face, each taxon may develop different patterns of integration in order to adapt to particular functions and morphologies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prolonged Interruption of Cognitive Control of Conflict Processing Over Human Faces by Task-Irrelevant Emotion Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Kang, Min-Suk; Cho, Yang Seok; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2017-01-01

    As documented by Darwin 150 years ago, emotion expressed in human faces readily draws our attention and promotes sympathetic emotional reactions. How do such reactions to the expression of emotion affect our goal-directed actions? Despite the substantial advance made in the neural mechanisms of both cognitive control and emotional processing, it is not yet known well how these two systems interact. Here, we studied how emotion expressed in human faces influences cognitive control of conflict processing, spatial selective attention and inhibitory control in particular, using the Eriksen flanker paradigm. In this task, participants viewed displays of a central target face flanked by peripheral faces and were asked to judge the gender of the target face; task-irrelevant emotion expressions were embedded in the target face, the flanking faces, or both. We also monitored how emotion expression affects gender judgment performance while varying the relative timing between the target and flanker faces. As previously reported, we found robust gender congruency effects, namely slower responses to the target faces whose gender was incongruent with that of the flanker faces, when the flankers preceded the target by 0.1 s. When the flankers further advanced the target by 0.3 s, however, the congruency effect vanished in most of the viewing conditions, except for when emotion was expressed only in the flanking faces or when congruent emotion was expressed in the target and flanking faces. These results suggest that emotional saliency can prolong a substantial degree of conflict by diverting bottom-up attention away from the target, and that inhibitory control on task-irrelevant information from flanking stimuli is deterred by the emotional congruency between target and flanking stimuli. PMID:28676780

  11. Education of a Future Human is the Key to Solving the Global Problems Facing Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khrystenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research considers two Global problems of the humanity:intercivilizational contradictions and the pandemic of abortion as serious conflicts, the solution of which depends on the relevant public educational policies. The tension in the relationship between the Islamic World and the West, caused by the so-called “caricature scandal”, encourages to understanding the conflict and the ways of its solution. There is also the problem of massive numbers of abortions in the world that requires a scientific analysis and relevant conclusions. The research revealed that both sides of intercivilizational conflicts are responsible for it. The freedom of speech as an ingredient of democracy cannot exist only for itself. It should be based on the human values, including respect for other nations, religions, cultures, as well as the protection of human life. The second part of the research concerns the pandemic of abortion. Based on the achievements of modern embryology, sociology and bioethics, four levels of this conflict were defined. The first level is a conflict concerning the life of the unborn child. The second one is a conflict concerning a mother. The third one is a conflict with the nation. The fourth one is a conflict with God. On these issues, the survey was conducted among the first year medical students at Ternopil State Medical University. It was also concluded that it would have been useful to present the model of state policy aimed to prevent conflictsbetween civilizations, aswellasthepandemicofabortiontothestudents. Thispolicy should include: information policy (promotion of the idea that human life is the highest value, and human relationships should be based on the principles of tolerance; education policy (education in today’s youth of the culture of interpersonal relationships based on honesty, responsibility; social policy (creation of the material conditions for young families, single mothers; policy in the health sector

  12. Breed differences in dogs' (Canis familiaris) gaze to the human face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana

    2010-06-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have been submitted to a vast process of artificial selection and to date, there are hundreds of breeds that differ in their physical and behavioral features. In addition, dogs possess important skills to communicate with humans. Previous evidence indicates that those abilities are related to the domestication process and are modulated by instrumental learning processes. Very few studies, however, have evaluated breed differences in the use and learning of interspecific communicative responses. In Study 1 Retrievers, German Shepherds and Poodles were compared in the acquisition and extinction of their gaze toward the human face, in a conflict situation involving food within sight but out of reach. The groups did not differ in the acquisition of the response, but throughout the extinction phase Retrievers gazed to the human significantly more than the other groups. In Study 2, similar results were obtained in a test without any previous explicit training. These results suggest that these three major popular breeds differ in gazing to humans in a communicative situation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dog's discrimination of human selfish and generous attitudes: the role of individual recognition, experience, and experimenters' gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Fabricio; Freidin, Esteban; Putrino, Natalia; Shimabukuro, Carolina; Casanave, Emma; Bentosela, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Discrimination of and memory for others' generous and selfish behaviors could be adaptive abilities in social animals. Dogs have seemingly expressed such skills in both direct and indirect interactions with humans. However, recent studies suggest that their capacity may rely on cues other than people's individual characteristics, such as the place where the person stands. Thus, the conditions under which dogs recognize individual humans when solving cooperative tasks still remains unclear. With the aim of contributing to this problem, we made dogs interact with two human experimenters, one generous (pointed towards the food, gave ostensive cues, and allowed the dog to eat it) and the other selfish (pointed towards the food, but ate it before the dog could have it). Then subjects could choose between them (studies 1-3). In study 1, dogs took several training trials to learn the discrimination between the generous and the selfish experimenters when both were of the same gender. In study 2, the discrimination was learned faster when the experimenters were of different gender as evidenced both by dogs' latencies to approach the bowl in training trials as well as by their choices in preference tests. Nevertheless, dogs did not get confused by gender when the experimenters were changed in between the training and the choice phase in study 3. We conclude that dogs spontaneously used human gender as a cue to discriminate between more and less cooperative experimenters. They also relied on some other personal feature which let them avoid being confused by gender when demonstrators were changed. We discuss these results in terms of dogs' ability to recognize individuals and the potential advantage of this skill for their lives in human environments.

  14. Dog’s Discrimination of Human Selfish and Generous Attitudes: The Role of Individual Recognition, Experience, and Experimenters’ Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Fabricio; Freidin, Esteban; Putrino, Natalia; Shimabukuro, Carolina; Casanave, Emma; Bentosela, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Discrimination of and memory for others’ generous and selfish behaviors could be adaptive abilities in social animals. Dogs have seemingly expressed such skills in both direct and indirect interactions with humans. However, recent studies suggest that their capacity may rely on cues other than people’s individual characteristics, such as the place where the person stands. Thus, the conditions under which dogs recognize individual humans when solving cooperative tasks still remains unclear. With the aim of contributing to this problem, we made dogs interact with two human experimenters, one generous (pointed towards the food, gave ostensive cues, and allowed the dog to eat it) and the other selfish (pointed towards the food, but ate it before the dog could have it). Then subjects could choose between them (studies 1-3). In study 1, dogs took several training trials to learn the discrimination between the generous and the selfish experimenters when both were of the same gender. In study 2, the discrimination was learned faster when the experimenters were of different gender as evidenced both by dogs’ latencies to approach the bowl in training trials as well as by their choices in preference tests. Nevertheless, dogs did not get confused by gender when the experimenters were changed in between the training and the choice phase in study 3. We conclude that dogs spontaneously used human gender as a cue to discriminate between more and less cooperative experimenters. They also relied on some other personal feature which let them avoid being confused by gender when demonstrators were changed. We discuss these results in terms of dogs’ ability to recognize individuals and the potential advantage of this skill for their lives in human environments. PMID:25714915

  15. Dog's discrimination of human selfish and generous attitudes: the role of individual recognition, experience, and experimenters' gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Carballo

    Full Text Available Discrimination of and memory for others' generous and selfish behaviors could be adaptive abilities in social animals. Dogs have seemingly expressed such skills in both direct and indirect interactions with humans. However, recent studies suggest that their capacity may rely on cues other than people's individual characteristics, such as the place where the person stands. Thus, the conditions under which dogs recognize individual humans when solving cooperative tasks still remains unclear. With the aim of contributing to this problem, we made dogs interact with two human experimenters, one generous (pointed towards the food, gave ostensive cues, and allowed the dog to eat it and the other selfish (pointed towards the food, but ate it before the dog could have it. Then subjects could choose between them (studies 1-3. In study 1, dogs took several training trials to learn the discrimination between the generous and the selfish experimenters when both were of the same gender. In study 2, the discrimination was learned faster when the experimenters were of different gender as evidenced both by dogs' latencies to approach the bowl in training trials as well as by their choices in preference tests. Nevertheless, dogs did not get confused by gender when the experimenters were changed in between the training and the choice phase in study 3. We conclude that dogs spontaneously used human gender as a cue to discriminate between more and less cooperative experimenters. They also relied on some other personal feature which let them avoid being confused by gender when demonstrators were changed. We discuss these results in terms of dogs' ability to recognize individuals and the potential advantage of this skill for their lives in human environments.

  16. Modification method to reduce the impact of blood vessel on noncontact discrimination of human blood based on ;M+N; theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Ding, Hongyan; Lin, Ling; Wang, Yimin; Guo, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Noncontact discriminating human blood is significantly crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. We had already demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize noncontact human blood discrimination. However, the circulated blood vessels may be produced with different materials. The use of various kinds of blood tubes may have a negative effect on the discrimination, based on ;M+N; theory (Li et al., 2016). In this research, we explored the impact of different material of blood vessels, such as glass tube and plastic tube, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. Furthermore, we searched for the modification method to reduce the influence from the blood tubes. Our work indicated that generalized diffuse reflectance method can greatly improve the discrimination accuracy. This research can greatly facilitate the application of noncontact discrimination method based on visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

  17. Serial Quantitative PCR Assay for Detection, Species Discrimination, and Quantification of Leishmania spp. in Human Samples▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirather, Jason L.; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Gautam, Shalini; Sundar, Shyam; Kang, Mitchell; Kurtz, Melissa A.; Haque, Rashidul; Schriefer, Albert; Talhari, Sinésio; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Donelson, John E.; Wilson, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    The Leishmania species cause a variety of human disease syndromes. Methods for diagnosis and species differentiation are insensitive and many require invasive sampling. Although quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods are reported for leishmania detection, no systematic method to quantify parasites and determine the species in clinical specimens is established. We developed a serial qPCR strategy to identify and rapidly differentiate Leishmania species and quantify parasites in clinical or environmental specimens. SYBR green qPCR is mainly employed, with corresponding TaqMan assays for validation. The screening primers recognize kinetoplast minicircle DNA of all Leishmania species. Species identification employs further qPCR set(s) individualized for geographic regions, combining species-discriminating probes with melt curve analysis. The assay was sufficient to detect Leishmania parasites, make species determinations, and quantify Leishmania spp. in sera, cutaneous biopsy specimens, or cultured isolates from subjects from Bangladesh or Brazil with different forms of leishmaniasis. The multicopy kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) probes were the most sensitive and useful for quantification based on promastigote standard curves. To test their validity for quantification, kDNA copy numbers were compared between Leishmania species, isolates, and life stages using qPCR. Maxicircle and minicircle copy numbers differed up to 6-fold between Leishmania species, but the differences were smaller between strains of the same species. Amastigote and promastigote leishmania life stages retained similar numbers of kDNA maxi- or minicircles. Thus, serial qPCR is useful for leishmania detection and species determination and for absolute quantification when compared to a standard curve from the same Leishmania species. PMID:22042830

  18. Discovery of molecular markers to discriminate corneal endothelial cells in the human body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Yoshihara

    Full Text Available The corneal endothelium is a monolayer of hexagonal corneal endothelial cells (CECs on the inner surface of the cornea. CECs are critical in maintaining corneal transparency through their barrier and pump functions. CECs in vivo have a limited capacity in proliferation, and loss of a significant number of CECs results in corneal edema called bullous keratopathy which can lead to severe visual loss. Corneal transplantation is the most effective method to treat corneal endothelial dysfunction, where it suffers from donor shortage. Therefore, regeneration of CECs from other cell types attracts increasing interests, and specific markers of CECs are crucial to identify actual CECs. However, the currently used markers are far from satisfactory because of their non-specific expression in other cell types. Here, we explored molecular markers to discriminate CECs from other cell types in the human body by integrating the published RNA-seq data of CECs and the FANTOM5 atlas representing diverse range of cell types based on expression patterns. We identified five genes, CLRN1, MRGPRX3, HTR1D, GRIP1 and ZP4 as novel markers of CECs, and the specificities of these genes were successfully confirmed by independent experiments at both the RNA and protein levels. Notably none of them have been documented in the context of CEC function. These markers could be useful for the purification of actual CECs, and also available for the evaluation of the products derived from other cell types. Our results demonstrate an effective approach to identify molecular markers for CECs and open the door for the regeneration of CECs in vitro.

  19. Discovery of molecular markers to discriminate corneal endothelial cells in the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Masahito; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Hara, Susumu; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Nishida, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    The corneal endothelium is a monolayer of hexagonal corneal endothelial cells (CECs) on the inner surface of the cornea. CECs are critical in maintaining corneal transparency through their barrier and pump functions. CECs in vivo have a limited capacity in proliferation, and loss of a significant number of CECs results in corneal edema called bullous keratopathy which can lead to severe visual loss. Corneal transplantation is the most effective method to treat corneal endothelial dysfunction, where it suffers from donor shortage. Therefore, regeneration of CECs from other cell types attracts increasing interests, and specific markers of CECs are crucial to identify actual CECs. However, the currently used markers are far from satisfactory because of their non-specific expression in other cell types. Here, we explored molecular markers to discriminate CECs from other cell types in the human body by integrating the published RNA-seq data of CECs and the FANTOM5 atlas representing diverse range of cell types based on expression patterns. We identified five genes, CLRN1, MRGPRX3, HTR1D, GRIP1 and ZP4 as novel markers of CECs, and the specificities of these genes were successfully confirmed by independent experiments at both the RNA and protein levels. Notably none of them have been documented in the context of CEC function. These markers could be useful for the purification of actual CECs, and also available for the evaluation of the products derived from other cell types. Our results demonstrate an effective approach to identify molecular markers for CECs and open the door for the regeneration of CECs in vitro.

  20. Feeling younger and identifying with older adults : Testing two routes to maintaining well-being in the face of age discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armenta, Bibiana M.; Stroebe, Katherine; Scheibe, Susanne; Postmes, Tom; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2017-01-01

    Integrating the social identity and aging literatures, this work tested the hypothesis that there are two independent, but simultaneous, responses by which adults transitioning into old age can buffer themselves against age discrimination: an individual response, which entails adopting a younger

  1. High-Frequency EEG Variations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during Human Faces Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina A. Reis Paula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the impairment in the social reciprocity, interaction/language, and behavior, with stereotypes and signs of sensory function deficits. Electroencephalography (EEG is a well-established and noninvasive tool for neurophysiological characterization and monitoring of the brain electrical activity, able to identify abnormalities related to frequency range, connectivity, and lateralization of brain functions. This research aims to evidence quantitative differences in the frequency spectrum pattern between EEG signals of children with and without ASD during visualization of human faces in three different expressions: neutral, happy, and angry. Quantitative clinical evaluations, neuropsychological evaluation, and EEG of children with and without ASD were analyzed paired by age and gender. The results showed stronger activation in higher frequencies (above 30 Hz in frontal, central, parietal, and occipital regions in the ASD group. This pattern of activation may correlate with developmental characteristics in the children with ASD.

  2. High-Frequency EEG Variations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during Human Faces Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Celina A Reis; Reategui, Camille; Costa, Bruna Karen de Sousa; da Fonseca, Caio Queiroz; da Silva, Luana; Morya, Edgard; Brasil, Fabricio Lima

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the impairment in the social reciprocity, interaction/language, and behavior, with stereotypes and signs of sensory function deficits. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a well-established and noninvasive tool for neurophysiological characterization and monitoring of the brain electrical activity, able to identify abnormalities related to frequency range, connectivity, and lateralization of brain functions. This research aims to evidence quantitative differences in the frequency spectrum pattern between EEG signals of children with and without ASD during visualization of human faces in three different expressions: neutral, happy, and angry. Quantitative clinical evaluations, neuropsychological evaluation, and EEG of children with and without ASD were analyzed paired by age and gender. The results showed stronger activation in higher frequencies (above 30 Hz) in frontal, central, parietal, and occipital regions in the ASD group. This pattern of activation may correlate with developmental characteristics in the children with ASD.

  3. CURRENT ISSUES FACING THE INTRODUCTION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS VACCINE IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ching Sam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain human papillomavirus (HPV types are strongly associated with cervical cancer. Recently-described effective vaccines against these HPV types represent a great medical breakthrough in preventing cervical cancer. In Malaysia, the vaccine has just received regulatory approval. We are likely to face similar barriers to implementing HPV vaccination as reported by countries where vaccination has been introduced. Most women have poor understanding of HPV and its link to cervical cancer. Physicians who will be recommending HPV vaccines may not have extensive knowledge or experience with HPV-related disease. Furthermore, a vaccine against a sexually-transmitted infection may elicit negative reactions from potential recipients or their carers, particularly in a conservative society. Given the high cost of the vaccine, reaching the most vulnerable women is a concern. To foster broad acceptance of HPV vaccine, education must be provided to health care providers, parents and young women about the risks of HPV infection and the benefits of vaccination.

  4. Gender differences in human single neuron responses to male emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhoff, Morgan; Treiman, David M; Smith, Kris A; Steinmetz, Peter N

    2015-01-01

    Well-documented differences in the psychology and behavior of men and women have spurred extensive exploration of gender's role within the brain, particularly regarding emotional processing. While neuroanatomical studies clearly show differences between the sexes, the functional effects of these differences are less understood. Neuroimaging studies have shown inconsistent locations and magnitudes of gender differences in brain hemodynamic responses to emotion. To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions. This study included recordings of single-neuron activity of 14 (6 male) epileptic patients in four brain areas: amygdala (236 neurons), hippocampus (n = 270), anterior cingulate cortex (n = 256), and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n = 174). Neural activity was recorded while participants viewed a series of avatar male faces portraying positive, negative or neutral expressions. Significant gender differences were found in the left amygdala, where 23% (n = 15∕66) of neurons in men were significantly affected by facial emotion, vs. 8% (n = 6∕76) of neurons in women. A Fisher's exact test comparing the two ratios found a highly significant difference between the two (p genders at the single-neuron level in the human amygdala. These differences may reflect gender-based distinctions in evolved capacities for emotional processing and also demonstrate the importance of including subject gender as an independent factor in future studies of emotional processing by single neurons in the human amygdala.

  5. Stigma and discrimination associated with HIV/AIDS in health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response to the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic faces many challenges with stigma and discrimination being two of them. The aim of this study is to determine the extent of effects of stigmatization and discrimination against people living with HIV-AIDS, and the influence of the type of hospital structure, in the ...

  6. Can the usage of human growth hormones affect facial appearance and the accuracy of face recognition systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jake; Martin, Michael; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2014-06-01

    In law enforcement and security applications, the acquisition of face images is critical in producing key trace evidence for the successful identification of potential threats. The goal of the study is to demonstrate that steroid usage significantly affects human facial appearance and hence, the performance of commercial and academic face recognition (FR) algorithms. In this work, we evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art FR algorithms on two unique face image datasets of subjects before (gallery set) and after (probe set) steroid (or human growth hormone) usage. For the purpose of this study, datasets of 73 subjects were created from multiple sources found on the Internet, containing images of men and women before and after steroid usage. Next, we geometrically pre-processed all images of both face datasets. Then, we applied image restoration techniques on the same face datasets, and finally, we applied FR algorithms in order to match the pre-processed face images of our probe datasets against the face images of the gallery set. Experimental results demonstrate that only a specific set of FR algorithms obtain the most accurate results (in terms of the rank-1 identification rate). This is because there are several factors that influence the efficiency of face matchers including (i) the time lapse between the before and after image pre-processing and restoration face photos, (ii) the usage of different drugs (e.g. Dianabol, Winstrol, and Decabolan), (iii) the usage of different cameras to capture face images, and finally, (iv) the variability of standoff distance, illumination and other noise factors (e.g. motion noise). All of the previously mentioned complicated scenarios make clear that cross-scenario matching is a very challenging problem and, thus, further investigation is required.

  7. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjacholapunt, Pitch; Ball, Linden J.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants' eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-center horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people's memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localized more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information. PMID:24624104

  8. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: Human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitch eSajjacholapunt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants’ eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-centre horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people’s memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localised more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.

  9. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjacholapunt, Pitch; Ball, Linden J

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants' eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-center horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people's memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localized more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.

  10. Why Some Humanoid Faces Are Perceived More Positively Than Others: Effects of Human-Likeness and Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Akanksha; Rogers, Wendy A

    2015-04-01

    Ample research in social psychology has highlighted the importance of the human face in human-human interactions. However, there is a less clear understanding of how a humanoid robot's face is perceived by humans. One of the primary goals of this study was to investigate how initial perceptions of robots are influenced by the extent of human-likeness of the robot's face, particularly when the robot is intended to provide assistance with tasks in the home that are traditionally carried out by humans. Moreover, although robots have the potential to help both younger and older adults, there is limited knowledge of whether the two age groups' perceptions differ. In this study, younger (N = 32) and older adults (N = 32) imagined interacting with a robot in four different task contexts and rated robot faces of varying levels of human-likeness. Participants were also interviewed to assess their reasons for particular preferences. This multi-method approach identified patterns of perceptions across different appearances as well as reasons that influence the formation of such perceptions. Overall, the results indicated that people's perceptions of robot faces vary as a function of robot human-likeness. People tended to over-generalize their understanding of humans to build expectations about a human-looking robot's behavior and capabilities. Additionally, preferences for humanoid robots depended on the task although younger and older adults differed in their preferences for certain humanoid appearances. The results of this study have implications both for advancing theoretical understanding of robot perceptions and for creating and applying guidelines for the design of robots.

  11. Fixations Gate Species-Specific Responses to Free Viewing of Faces in the Human and Macaque Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minxha, Juri; Mosher, Clayton; Morrow, Jeremiah K; Mamelak, Adam N; Adolphs, Ralph; Gothard, Katalin M; Rutishauser, Ueli

    2017-01-24

    Neurons in the primate amygdala respond prominently to faces. This implicates the amygdala in the processing of socially significant stimuli, yet its contribution to social perception remains poorly understood. We evaluated the representation of faces in the primate amygdala during naturalistic conditions by recording from both human and macaque amygdala neurons during free viewing of identical arrays of images with concurrent eye tracking. Neurons responded to faces only when they were fixated, suggesting that neuronal activity was gated by visual attention. Further experiments in humans utilizing covert attention confirmed this hypothesis. In both species, the majority of face-selective neurons preferred faces of conspecifics, a bias also seen behaviorally in first fixation preferences. Response latencies, relative to fixation onset, were shortest for conspecific-selective neurons and were ∼100 ms shorter in monkeys compared to humans. This argues that attention to faces gates amygdala responses, which in turn prioritize species-typical information for further processing. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An Efficient Feature Extraction Method with Pseudo-Zernike Moment in RBF Neural Network-Based Human Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Majid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel method for the recognition of human faces in digital images using a new feature extraction method that combines the global and local information in frontal view of facial images. Radial basis function (RBF neural network with a hybrid learning algorithm (HLA has been used as a classifier. The proposed feature extraction method includes human face localization derived from the shape information. An efficient distance measure as facial candidate threshold (FCT is defined to distinguish between face and nonface images. Pseudo-Zernike moment invariant (PZMI with an efficient method for selecting moment order has been used. A newly defined parameter named axis correction ratio (ACR of images for disregarding irrelevant information of face images is introduced. In this paper, the effect of these parameters in disregarding irrelevant information in recognition rate improvement is studied. Also we evaluate the effect of orders of PZMI in recognition rate of the proposed technique as well as RBF neural network learning speed. Simulation results on the face database of Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL indicate that the proposed method for human face recognition yielded a recognition rate of 99.3%.

  13. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Zvi N

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream.

  14. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi N Roth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e. discriminative information may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e. relative information. For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action.We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in early visual cortex, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS, but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped.We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model’s receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC.These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representation into relative spatial representation along the visual stream.

  15. Separate and combined effects of the GABAB agonist baclofen and Δ9-THC in humans discriminating Δ9-THC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lile, Joshua A.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Hays, Lon R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Our previous research with the GABA reuptake inhibitor tiagabine suggested the involvement GABA in the interoceptive effects of Δ9-THC. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential involvement of the GABAB receptor subtype by assessing the separate and combined effects of the GABAB-selective agonist baclofen and Δ9-THC using pharmacologically specific drug-discrimination procedures. Methods Eight cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral Δ9-THC from placebo and then received baclofen (25 and 50 mg), Δ9-THC (5, 15 and 30 mg) and placebo, alone and in combination. Self-report, task performance and physiological measures were also collected. Results Δ9-THC functioned as a discriminative stimulus, produced subjective effects typically associated with cannabinoids (e.g., High, Stoned, Like Drug), elevated heart rate and impaired rate and accuracy on a psychomotor performance task. Baclofen alone (50 mg) substituted for the Δ9-THC discriminative stimulus, and both baclofen doses shifted the discriminative-stimulus effects of Δ9-THC leftward/upward. Similar results were observed on other cannabinoid-sensitive outcomes, although baclofen generally did not engender Δ9-THC-like subjective responses when administered alone. Conclusions These results suggest that the GABAB receptor subtype is involved in the abuse-related effects of Δ9-THC, and that GABAB receptors were responsible, at least in part, for the effects of tiagabine-induced elevated GABA on cannabinoid-related behaviors in our previous study. Future research should test GABAergic compounds selective for other GABA receptor subtypes (i.e., GABAA) to determine the contribution of the different GABA receptors in the effects of Δ9-THC, and by extension cannabis, in humans. PMID:22699093

  16. Gender Differences in Human Single Neuron Responses to Male Emotional Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan eNewhoff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Well-documented differences in the psychology and behavior of men and women have spurred extensive exploration of gender's role within the brain, particularly regarding emotional processing. While neuroanatomical studies clearly show differences between the sexes, the functional effects of these differences are less understood. Neuroimaging studies have shown inconsistent locations and magnitudes of gender differences in brain hemodynamic responses to emotion. To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions.This study included recordings of single-neuron activity of 14 (6 male epileptic patients in four brain areas: amygdala (236 neurons, hippocampus (n=270, anterior cingulate cortex (n=256, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n=174. Neural activity was recorded while participants viewed a series of avatar male faces portraying positive, negative or neutral expressions.Significant gender differences were found in the left amygdala, where 23% (n=15/66 of neurons in men were significantly affected by facial emotion, versus 8% (n=6/76 of neurons in women. A Fisher's exact test comparing the two ratios found a highly significant difference between the two (p<0.01. These results show specific differences between genders at the single-neuron level in the human amygdala. These differences may reflect gender-based distinctions in evolved capacities for emotional processing and also demonstrate the importance of including subject gender as an independent factor in future studies of emotional processing by single neurons in the human amygdala.

  17. Do we face a third revolution in human history? If so, how will public health respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Phil; Carlisle, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Background A range of evidence suggests that the dominant culture associated with the economic systems of ‘modern’ societies has become a major source of pressure on global resources and may precipitate a third revolution in human history, with major implications for health and well-being. Objective This paper aims to consider whether there are historical analogies with contemporary circumstances which might help us make connections between past and present predicaments in the human condition; to highlight the underpinnings of such predicaments in the politico-economic and cultural systems found in ‘modern’ societies; to outline questions prompted by this analysis, and stimulate greater debate around the issues raised. Methods We draw on evidence and arguments condensed from complex research and theorizing from multiple disciplines. Results Contemporary evidence suggests that global depletion of a key energy resource (oil), increasing environmental degradation and imminent climate change can be linked to human socio-economic and cultural systems which are now out of balance with their environment. Those systems are associated with Western-type societies, where political philosophies of neo-liberalism, together with cultural values of individualism, materialism and consumerism, support an increasingly globalized capitalist economic system. Evidence points to a decline of psychological and social well-being in such societies. Conclusion We need to work out how to prevent/ameliorate the harms likely to flow from climate change and rising oil costs. Public health professionals face the challenge of preventing adverse health consequences likely to result from continued adherence to the have-it-all mindset prevailing in contemporary Western societies. Equally, we need to seek out the potential health dividends that could be realized in terms of reduced obesity, improved well-being and greater social equity, while not under-estimating the likelihood of profound

  18. Thermal signature analysis of human face during jogging activity using infrared thermography technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarti, Putria W.; Kusumawardhani, Apriani; Setijono, Heru

    2016-11-01

    Thermal imaging has been widely used for many applications. Thermal camera is used to measure object's temperature above absolute temperature of 0 Kelvin using infrared radiation emitted by the object. Thermal imaging is color mapping taken using false color that represents temperature. Human body is one of the objects that emits infrared radiation. Human infrared radiations vary according to the activity that is being done. Physical activities such as jogging is among ones that is commonly done. Therefore this experiment will investigate the thermal signature profile of jogging activity in human body, especially in the face parts. The results show that the significant increase is found in periorbital area that is near eyes and forehand by the number of 7.5%. Graphical temperature distributions show that all region, eyes, nose, cheeks, and chin at the temperature of 28.5 - 30.2°C the pixel area tends to be constant since it is the surrounding temperature. At the temperature of 30.2 - 34.7°C the pixel area tends to increase, while at the temperature of 34.7 - 37.1°C the pixel area tends to decrease because pixels at temperature of 34.7 - 37.1°C after jogging activity change into temperature of 30.2 - 34.7°C so that the pixel area increases. The trendline of jogging activity during 10 minutes period also shows the increasing of temperature. The results of each person also show variations due to physiological nature of each person, such as sweat production during physical activities.

  19. Discrimination learning in humans: Role of number and complexity of rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, J.H.R.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Various types of discrimination learning tasks, such as so-called nonconditional, conditional, and biconditional tasks, are generally held to differ in complexity and to require different amounts of training. However, rather than a difference in rule complexity, between-task performance differences

  20. Revisiting vocal perception in non-human animals: a review of vowel discrimination, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhamas eKriengwatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which human speech perception evolved by taking advantage of predispositions and pre-existing features of vertebrate auditory and cognitive systems remains a central question in the evolution of speech. This paper reviews asymmetries in vowel perception, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization in non-human animals – topics that have not been thoroughly discussed in relation to the abilities of non-human animals, but are nonetheless important aspects of vocal perception. Throughout this paper we demonstrate that addressing these issues in non-human animals is relevant and worthwhile because many non-human animals must deal with similar issues in their natural environment. That is, they must also discriminate between similar-sounding vocalizations, determine signaler identity from vocalizations, and resolve signaler-dependent variation in vocalizations from conspecifics. Overall, we find that, although plausible, the current evidence is insufficiently strong to conclude that directional asymmetries in vowel perception are specific to humans, or that non-human animals can use voice characteristics to recognize human individuals. However, we do find some indication that non-human animals can normalize speaker differences. Accordingly, we identify avenues for future research that would greatly improve and advance our understanding of these topics.

  1. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh eMatsuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, extremely humanlike robots called androids have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  2. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called "androids" have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm-a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android-two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants' looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  3. Ontogenetic and static allometry in the human face: contrasting Khoisan and Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidline, Sarah E; Gunz, Philipp; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2015-09-01

    Regional differences in modern human facial features are present at birth, and ontogenetic allometry contributes to variation in adults. However, details regarding differential rates of growth and timing among regional groups are lacking. We explore ontogenetic and static allometry in a cross-sectional sample spanning Africa, Europe and North America, and evaluate tempo and mode in two regional groups with very different adult facial morphology, the Khoisan and Inuit. Semilandmark geometric morphometric methods, multivariate statistics and growth simulations were used to quantify and compare patterns of facial growth and development. Regional-specific facial morphology develops early in ontogeny. The Inuit has the most distinct morphology and exhibits heterochronic differences in development compared to other regional groups. Allometric patterns differ during early postnatal development, when significant increases in size are coupled with large amounts of shape changes. All regional groups share a common adult static allometric trajectory, which can be attributed to sexual dimorphism, and the corresponding allometric shape changes resemble developmental patterns during later ontogeny. The amount and pattern of growth and development may not be shared between regional groups, indicating that a certain degree of flexibility is allowed for in order to achieve adult size. In early postnatal development the face is less constrained compared to other parts of the cranium allowing for greater evolvability. The early development of region-specific facial features combined with heterochronic differences in timing or rate of growth, reflected in differences in facial size, suggest different patterns of postnatal growth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Quantitatively Plotting the Human Face for Multivariate Data Visualisation Illustrated by Health Assessments Using Laboratory Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe a new data visualisation system by plotting the human face to observe the comprehensive effects of multivariate data. Methods. The Graphics Device Interface (GDI+ in the Visual Studio.NET development platform was used to write a program that enables facial image parameters to be recorded, such as cropping and rotation, and can generate a new facial image according to Z values from sets of normal data (Z>3 was still counted as 3. The measured clinical laboratory parameters related to health status were obtained from senile people, glaucoma patients, and fatty liver patients to illustrate the facial data visualisation system. Results. When the eyes, nose, and mouth were rotated around their own axes at the same angle, the deformation effects were similar. The deformation effects for any abnormality of the eyes, nose, or mouth should be slightly higher than those for simultaneous abnormalities. The facial changes in the populations with different health statuses were significant compared with a control population. Conclusions. The comprehensive effects of multivariate may not equal the sum of each variable. The 3Z facial data visualisation system can effectively distinguish people with poor health status from healthy people.

  5. Quantitatively plotting the human face for multivariate data visualisation illustrated by health assessments using laboratory parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongwei, Wang; Hui, Liu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a new data visualisation system by plotting the human face to observe the comprehensive effects of multivariate data. The Graphics Device Interface (GDI+) in the Visual Studio.NET development platform was used to write a program that enables facial image parameters to be recorded, such as cropping and rotation, and can generate a new facial image according to Z values from sets of normal data (Z > 3 was still counted as 3). The measured clinical laboratory parameters related to health status were obtained from senile people, glaucoma patients, and fatty liver patients to illustrate the facial data visualisation system. When the eyes, nose, and mouth were rotated around their own axes at the same angle, the deformation effects were similar. The deformation effects for any abnormality of the eyes, nose, or mouth should be slightly higher than those for simultaneous abnormalities. The facial changes in the populations with different health statuses were significant compared with a control population. The comprehensive effects of multivariate may not equal the sum of each variable. The 3Z facial data visualisation system can effectively distinguish people with poor health status from healthy people.

  6. The social network of actors influencing age discrimination in the human resources recruiting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian SOFICĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to map the area where the social construction of age discrimination in the recruiting process is perceived as taking place, especially those individuals or organized groups with enough power and interest to influence this unethical reality. The research was carried out in 2010 and 2011 in Cluj-Napoca, Romania; it uses multiple qualitative methods (focus-group and interviews and covers three layers of perception: candidate’s perception, employer’s perception and recruiter’s perception. Usually, the main social actors publically perceived as influencing age discrimination in the recruiting process are the employers (as the main responsible, some public institutions (as guardians and the candidates (as victims. The findings of the paper show that the number of social actors perceived as interested and with power by the main social actors (employers and candidates is much higher than the number classically targeted by researchers, reaching 20 or more

  7. Genetics, data protection and non-discrimination: some reflections from an international human rights law perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A C

    2001-01-01

    As a result of progress in medical research genetic traits can increasingly be used as predictive factors and selection criteria. This calls into question the appropriateness, validity and legitimacy of genetic traits as (co-)determinants in decision-making processes. This paper confines itself to examining the implications of genetics on the right to privacy--notably data protection--and the right not to be discriminated against.

  8. Discrimination of Fearful and Angry Emotional Voices in Sleeping Human Neonates: a Study of the Mismatch Brain Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan eZhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate processing of human voices with different threat-related emotions is of evolutionarily adaptive value for the survival of individuals. Nevertheless, it is still not clear whether the sensitivity to threat-related information is present at birth. Using an oddball paradigm, the current study investigated the neural correlates underlying automatic processing of emotional voices of fear and anger in sleeping neonates. Event-related potential data showed that the frontocentral scalp distribution of the neonatal brain could discriminate fearful voices from angry voices; the mismatch response (MMR was larger in response to the deviant stimuli of anger, compared with the standard stimuli of fear. Furthermore, this fear-anger MMR discrimination was observed only when neonates were in active sleep state. Although the neonates’ sensitivity to threat-related voices is not likely associated with a conceptual understanding of fearful and angry emotions, this special discrimination in early life may provide a foundation for later emotion and social cognition development.

  9. THE OLD AND NEW FACE OF CRANIOFACIAL RESEARCH: How animal models inform human craniofacial genetic and clinical data

    OpenAIRE

    Van Otterloo, Eric; Williams, Trevor; Artinger, Kristin B.

    2016-01-01

    The craniofacial skeletal structures that comprise the human head develop from multiple tissues that converge to form the bones and cartilage of the face. Because of their complex development and morphogenesis, many human birth defects arise due to disruptions in these cellular populations. Thus, determining how these structures normally develop is vital if we are to gain a deeper understanding of craniofacial birth defects and devise treatment and prevention options. In this review, we will ...

  10. Noninvasive discrimination between human normal and cancer cells by analysis of intracellular distribution of phase-shift data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Mutsumi; Tokunaga, Naochika

    2015-08-01

    Aiming to establish a method for the noninvasive discrimination of cancer cells from normal cells in adherent culture, we investigated to employ all phase shift data for all pixels inside a cell. The bird's-eye views of phase shifts of human prostate epithelial cells (PRECs) and human prostatic carcinoma epithelial cell (PC-3) lines acquired by phase-shifting laser microscopy showed tableland and cone shapes, respectively, while treatment of PRECs with cytochalasin D resulted in the cone shape. So, the profile of phase shift in both sections towards the x- and y-axes of the views through the peaks of the phase shifts in PRECs and PC-3 cells were trapezoid-like and triangle-like, respectively. Typical profiles of phase shifts in a section in PRECs or PC-3 cells were calculated by averaging from 10 cells and smoothing. Cancer index is defined as the deduction of sums of the squared difference between a real cell and the typical profiles for a PREC and a PC-3 cell. The cancer indices for PC-3 and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were positive, while those for PRECs and human normal cryopreserved hepatocytes were negative. Cancer indices along the major axis of fibroblast-like cells of normal mesenchymal stem cells and the osteosarcoma cell line were negative and positive, respectively. Consequently, several cancer cells could be noninvasively discriminated from normal cells by calculating the cancer index employing phase shift for all pixels inside the cells.

  11. A New 2.5D and 3D human face reconstruction approach for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cet article présente une nouvelle approche de numérisation tridimensionnelle de visages à base d\\'un capteur stéréoscopique actif. ... Vison active, reconstruction de visages, appariement stéréo, Splines cubiques, reconnaissance faciale.; Active stereo, face modeling, stereo matching, cubic Splines, 3D face recognition.

  12. Microstructural proliferation in human cortex is coupled with the development of face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jesse; Barnett, Michael A; Natu, Vaidehi; Mezer, Aviv; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Weiner, Kevin S; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2017-01-06

    How does cortical tissue change as brain function and behavior improve from childhood to adulthood? By combining quantitative and functional magnetic resonance imaging in children and adults, we find differential development of high-level visual areas that are involved in face and place recognition. Development of face-selective regions, but not place-selective regions, is dominated by microstructural proliferation. This tissue development is correlated with specific increases in functional selectivity to faces, as well as improvements in face recognition, and ultimately leads to differentiated tissue properties between face- and place-selective regions in adulthood, which we validate with postmortem cytoarchitectonic measurements. These data suggest a new model by which emergent brain function and behavior result from cortical tissue proliferation rather than from pruning exclusively. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. The other-race and other-species effects in face perception - a subordinate-level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph David Dahl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of face discrimination is modulated by the frequency of exposure to a category of faces. In other words, lower discrimination performance was measured for infrequently encountered faces as opposed to frequently encountered ones. This phenomenon has been described in the literature: the own-race advantage, a benefit in processing own-race as opposed to the other-race faces, and the own-species advantage, a benefit in processing the conspecific type of faces as opposed to the heterospecific type. So far, the exact parameters that drive either of these two effects are not fully understood. In the following we present a full assessment of data in human participants describing the discrimination performances across two races (Asian and Caucasian as well as a range of non-human primate faces (chimpanzee, Rhesus macaque and marmoset. We measured reaction times of Asian participants performing a delayed matching-to-sample task, and correlated the results with similarity estimates of facial configuration and face parts. We found faster discrimination of own-race above other-race/species faces. Further, we found a strong reliance on configural information in upright own-species/-race faces and on individual face parts in all inverted face classes, supporting the assumption of specialized processing for the face class of most frequent exposure.

  14. Effects of symmetry and familiarity on the attractiveness of human faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentus Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both symmetry (perceptual factor and familiarity (cognitive factor on facial attractiveness were investigated. From the photographs of original slightly asymmetric faces, symmetric left-left (LL and right-right (RR versions were generated. Familiarity was induced in the learning block using the repetitive presentation of original faces. In the test block participants rated the attractiveness of original, previously seen (familiar faces, original, not previously seen faces, and both LL and RR versions of all faces. The analysis of variance showed main effects of symmetry. Post hoc tests revealed that asymmetric original faces were rated as more attractive than both LL and RR symmetric versions. Familiarity doesn’t have a significant main effect, but the symmetry-familiarity interaction was obtained. Additional post hoc tests indicated that facial attractiveness is positively associated with natural slight asymmetry rather than with perfect symmetry. Also, unfamiliar LL symmetric versions were rated as more attractive than familiar LL versions, whereas familiar RR versions were rated as more attractive than RR unfamiliar faces. These results suggested that symmetry (perceptual factor and familiarity (cognitive or memorial factor play differential roles in facial attractiveness, and indicate a relatively stronger effect of the perceptual compared to the cognitive factor. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179018 i br. ON179033

  15. EEG oscillations reflect visual short-term memory processes for the change detection in human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung-Dong; Min, Byoung-Kyong; Lee, Kyoung-Min

    2010-11-01

    People often fail to notice a large change in the visual scene when the change occurs during a brief interruption of the viewing. Since the change is well above perceptual threshold in continuous viewing, the failure (termed change blindness) has been attributed to abnormal visual short-term memory (VSTM). However, it is still unclear where the abnormality lies among the phases in VSTM, namely, encoding, maintenance, and retrieval-comparison. EEG oscillations, especially the gamma activity, have been suggested as neural signatures of VSTM, but have not been examined in the context of change blindness. Thus, we asked in the present study whether change detection or failure is correlated with EEG oscillatory activities and, if so, whether the timing and the spatial distribution of the oscillations could pin-point the abnormal phase of VSTM in change blindness. While on EEG recording, subjects watched morphed pictures of human faces in trials which consisted of a 200-ms initial image display, a 500-ms blank period, and a 200-ms comparison image display. The two images were either the same or clearly different above threshold. Trials with different images were classified as hit or missed, based on subjects' responses, and EEG data were compared between the two types of trials. Enhanced gamma activity was observed in the right temporal-parietal region during all periods in the hit trials compared to the missed ones. Frontal theta activity was increased during initial image encoding, whereas beta activity was decreased during maintenance and retrieval-comparison in the hit trials. These results point to weak encoding of initial images as the culprit for a later failure in change detection, while abnormal processing in subsequent phases of VSTM may result from the weak encoding and also contribute to change blindness. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemical discrimination between selenium and sulfur 1: a single residue provides selenium specificity to human selenocysteine lyase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruairi Collins

    Full Text Available Selenium and sulfur are two closely related basic elements utilized in nature for a vast array of biochemical reactions. While toxic at higher concentrations, selenium is an essential trace element incorporated into selenoproteins as selenocysteine (Sec, the selenium analogue of cysteine (Cys. Sec lyases (SCLs and Cys desulfurases (CDs catalyze the removal of selenium or sulfur from Sec or Cys and generally act on both substrates. In contrast, human SCL (hSCL is specific for Sec although the only difference between Sec and Cys is the identity of a single atom. The chemical basis of this selenium-over-sulfur discrimination is not understood. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure of hSCL and identify Asp146 as the key residue that provides the Sec specificity. A D146K variant resulted in loss of Sec specificity and appearance of CD activity. A dynamic active site segment also provides the structural prerequisites for direct product delivery of selenide produced by Sec cleavage, thus avoiding release of reactive selenide species into the cell. We thus here define a molecular determinant for enzymatic specificity discrimination between a single selenium versus sulfur atom, elements with very similar chemical properties. Our findings thus provide molecular insights into a key level of control in human selenium and selenoprotein turnover and metabolism.

  17. Neural tuning for face wholes and parts in human fusiform gyrus revealed by FMRI adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alison; Aguirre, Geoffrey Karl

    2010-07-01

    Although the right fusiform face area (FFA) is often linked to holistic processing, new data suggest this region also encodes part-based face representations. We examined this question by assessing the metric of neural similarity for faces using a continuous carryover functional MRI (fMRI) design. Using faces varying along dimensions of eye and mouth identity, we tested whether these axes are coded independently by separate part-tuned neural populations or conjointly by a single population of holistically tuned neurons. Consistent with prior results, we found a subadditive adaptation response in the right FFA, as predicted for holistic processing. However, when holistic processing was disrupted by misaligning the halves of the face, the right FFA continued to show significant adaptation, but in an additive pattern indicative of part-based neural tuning. Thus this region seems to contain neural populations capable of representing both individual parts and their integration into a face gestalt. A third experiment, which varied the asymmetry of changes in the eye and mouth identity dimensions, also showed part-based tuning from the right FFA. In contrast to the right FFA, the left FFA consistently showed a part-based pattern of neural tuning across all experiments. Together, these data support the existence of both part-based and holistic neural tuning within the right FFA, further suggesting that such tuning is surprisingly flexible and dynamic.

  18. Are patients with schizophrenia impaired in processing non-emotional features of human faces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley eDarke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that individuals with schizophrenia exhibit signs of impaired face processing, however, the exact perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying these deficits are yet to be elucidated. One possible source of confusion in the current literature is the methodological and conceptual inconsistencies that can arise from the varied treatment of different aspects of face processing relating to emotional and non-emotional aspects of face perception. This review aims to disentangle the literature by focusing on the performance of patients with schizophrenia in a range of tasks that required processing of non-emotional features of face stimuli (e.g. identity or gender. We also consider the performance of patients on non-face stimuli that share common elements such as familiarity (e.g. cars and social relevance (e.g. gait. We conclude by exploring whether observed deficits are best considered as face-specific and note that further investigation is required to properly assess the potential contribution of more generalised attentional or perceptual impairments.

  19. Analysis of Discriminants for Experimental 3-D SAR Imagery of Human Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-10

    the human physique and the geometry of the squint angle. In this case, squint SAR has the same effect as pointing the radar 35 degrees from...for by considering the human physique and the geometry of the squint angle. In the images, the torso and the extended arms of the human are readily

  20. Sparse tensor discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Yang, Jian; Tang, Jinhui; Zhang, David

    2013-10-01

    The classical linear discriminant analysis has undergone great development and has recently been extended to different cases. In this paper, a novel discriminant subspace learning method called sparse tensor discriminant analysis (STDA) is proposed, which further extends the recently presented multilinear discriminant analysis to a sparse case. Through introducing the L1 and L2 norms into the objective function of STDA, we can obtain multiple interrelated sparse discriminant subspaces for feature extraction. As there are no closed-form solutions, k-mode optimization technique and the L1 norm sparse regression are combined to iteratively learn the optimal sparse discriminant subspace along different modes of the tensors. Moreover, each non-zero element in each subspace is selected from the most important variables/factors, and thus STDA has the potential to perform better than other discriminant subspace methods. Extensive experiments on face databases (Yale, FERET, and CMU PIE face databases) and the Weizmann action database show that the proposed STDA algorithm demonstrates the most competitive performance against the compared tensor-based methods, particularly in small sample sizes.

  1. Facial expression of fear in the context of human ethology: Recognition advantage in the perception of male faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Radek; Tavel, Peter; Tavel, Peter; Hasto, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Facial expression is one of the core issues in the ethological approach to the study of human behaviour. This study discusses sex-specific aspects of the recognition of the facial expression of fear using results from our previously published experimental study. We conducted an experiment in which 201 participants judged seven different facial expressions: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise (Trnka et al. 2007). Participants were able to recognize the facial expression of fear significantly better on a male face than on a female face. Females also recognized fear generally better than males. The present study provides a new interpretation of this sex difference in the recognition of fear. We interpret these results within the paradigm of human ethology, taking into account the adaptive function of the facial expression of fear. We argue that better detection of fear might be crucial for females under a situation of serious danger in groups of early hominids. The crucial role of females in nurturing and protecting offspring was fundamental for the reproductive potential of the group. A clear decoding of this alarm signal might thus have enabled the timely preparation of females for escape or defence to protect their health for successful reproduction. Further, it is likely that males played the role of guardians of social groups and that they were responsible for effective warnings of the group under situations of serious danger. This may explain why the facial expression of fear is better recognizable on the male face than on the female face.

  2. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublatzky, Florian; Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T; Alpers, Georg W

    2017-05-01

    The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer-conveyed by facial expression and face direction-amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of the Chemical Sciences (by Mary Ellen Bowden)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, George B.

    1999-02-01

    Chemical Heritage Foundation: Philadelphia, PA, 1997. viii + 180 pp. 21.6 x 27.8 cm. ISBN 0-941901-15-1. Paper. 20.00 (10.00 for high school teachers who provide documentation). At a 1991 summer workshop sponsored by the Chemical Heritage Foundation and taught by Derek A. Davenport and William B. Jensen, high school and college teachers of introductory chemistry requested a source of pictorial material about famous chemical scientists suitable as a classroom aid. CHF responded by publishing this attractive, inexpensive paperback volume, which reflects the considerable research effort needed to locate appropriate images and to write the biographical essays. Printed on heavy, glossy paper and spiral bound to facilitate conversion to overhead transparencies, it contains 157 images from pictorial collections at CHF and many other institutions on two types of achievers: the historical "greats" most often referred to in introductory courses, and scientists who made contributions in areas of the chemical sciences that are of special relevance to modern life and the career choices students will make. The pictures are intended to provide the "human face" of the book's subtitle- "to point to the human beings who had the insights and made the major advances that [teachers] ask students to master." Thus, for example, Boyle's law becomes less cold and abstract if the student can connect it with the two portraits of the Irish scientist even if his face is topped with a wig. Marie Curie can be seen in the role of wife and mother as well as genius scientist in the photographs of her with her two daughters, one of whom also became a Nobel laureate. And students are reminded of the ubiquity of the contribution of the chemical scientists to all aspects of our everyday life by the stories and pictures of Wallace Hume Carothers' path to nylon, Percy Lavon Julian's work on hormones, and Charles F. Chandler and Rachel Carson's efforts to preserve the environment. In addition to portraits

  4. Bioimpedance spectroscopy can precisely discriminate human breast carcinoma from benign tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhenggui; Wan, Hangyu; Chen, Yu; Pu, Yang; Wang, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Intraoperative frozen pathology is critical when a breast tumor is not diagnosed before surgery. However, frozen tumor tissues always present various microscopic morphologies, leading to a high misdiagnose rate from frozen section examination. Thus, we aimed to identify breast tumors using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), a technology that measures the tissues' impedance. We collected and measured 976 specimens from breast patients during surgery, including 581 breast cancers, 190 benign tumors, and 205 normal mammary gland tissues. After measurement, Cole-Cole curves were generated by a bioimpedance analyzer and parameters R0/R∞, fc, and α were calculated from the curve. The Cole-Cole curves showed a trend to differentiate mammary gland, benign tumors, and cancer. However, there were some curves overlapped with other groups, showing that it is not an ideal model. Subsequent univariate analysis of R0/R∞, fc, and α showed significant differences between benign tumor and cancer. However, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated the diagnostic value of fc and R0/R∞ were not superior to frozen sections (area under curve [AUC] = 0.836 and 0.849, respectively), and α was useless in diagnosis (AUC = 0.596). After further research, we found a scatter diagram that showed a synergistic effect of the R0/R∞ and fc, in discriminating cancer from benign tumors. Thus, we used multivariate analysis, which revealed that these two parameters were independent predictors, to combine them. A simplified equation, RF = 0.2fc + 3.6R0/R∞, based on multivariate analysis was developed. The ROC curve for RF' showed an AUC = 0.939, and the sensitivity and specificity were 82.62% and 95.79%, respectively. To match a clinical setting, the diagnostic criteria were set at 6.91 and 12.9 for negative and positive diagnosis, respectively. In conclusion, RF' derived from BIS can discriminate benign tumor and cancers, and integrated criteria were developed for

  5. Successful Decoding of Famous Faces in the Fusiform Face Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Vadim; Yovel, Galit

    2015-01-01

    What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition. PMID:25714434

  6. Face to Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungfalk, Michael; Rossen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    Blended learning in education is the combination of face‐to‐face seminars and on‐line work based on the internet. We have investigated which factors that we found were important in designing and conducting face‐to‐face seminars in order to facilitate learning processes in the periods of on...

  7. Face to Face

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 3. Symmetry and Mathematics: Pioneering Insights into the Structure of Physics. Urjit A Yajnik. Face to Face Volume 20 Issue 3 March 2015 pp 264-276. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Face to Face

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 1. Do We Learn to See? Torsten Wiesel Prasanna Venkhatesh Venkataramani. Face to Face Volume 16 Issue 1 January 2011 pp 88-99. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Face to Face

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Science is Not a Zero-Sum Game. Devendra Mani. Face to Face Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 471-477. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/05/0471-0477. Author Affiliations.

  10. Discrimination against Black Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloud, Ashwaq; Alsulayyim, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a structured way of abusing people based on racial differences, hence barring them from accessing wealth, political participation and engagement in many spheres of human life. Racism and discrimination are inherently rooted in institutions in the society, the problem has spread across many social segments of the society including…

  11. First U.S. near-total human face transplantation: a paradigm shift for massive complex injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemionow, Maria Z; Papay, Frank; Djohan, Risal; Bernard, Steven; Gordon, Chad R; Alam, Daniel; Hendrickson, Mark; Lohman, Robert; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John

    2010-01-01

    Severe complex facial injuries are difficult to reconstruct and require multiple surgical procedures. The potential of performing complex craniofacial reconstruction in one surgical procedure is appealing, and composite face allograft transplantation may be considered an alternative option. The authors describe establishment of the Cleveland Clinic face transplantation program that led them to perform the first U.S. near-total face transplantation. In November of 2004, the authors received the world's first institutional review board approval to perform a face transplant in humans. In December of 2008, after a 22-hour operation, the authors performed the first near-total face transplantation in the United States, replacing 80 percent of the patient's traumatic facial deficit with a composite allograft from a brain-dead donor. This largest, and most complex, face allograft in the world included over 535 cm2 of facial skin; functional units of full nose with nasal lining and bony skeleton; lower eyelids and upper lip; underlying muscles and bones, including orbital floor, zygoma, maxilla, alveolus with teeth, hard palate, and parotid glands; and pertinent nerves, arteries, and veins. Immunosuppressive treatment consisted of thymoglobulin, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. The patient tolerated the procedure and immunosuppression well. At day 47 after transplantation, routine biopsy showed rejection of the graft mucosa without clinical evidence of skin or graft rejection. The patient's physical and psychological recovery went well. The functional outcome has been excellent, including optimal return of breathing through the nose, smelling, tasting, speaking, drinking from a cup, and eating solid foods. The functional outcome thus far at 8 months is rewarding and confirms the feasibility of performing complex reconstruction of severely disfigured patients in a single surgical procedure of facial allotransplantation.

  12. New Technology and the Human Response: The Issues Facing Vocational Education in the 1980's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Michael H.

    Five issues facing vocational education are becoming sufficiently visible to suggest an agenda for community college action. First, the Job Training and Partnership Act, which seeks to address the continued dislocation of the American economy and to rectify problems of structural unemployment, will require greater cooperation and coordination…

  13. Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew T; Garg, Manjree; Yang, Xuebin B; Fisher, Sheila E; Kirkham, Jennifer; Smith, D Alastair; Martin-Hirsch, Dominic P; High, Alec S

    2009-10-28

    Raman spectroscopy could offer non-invasive, rapid and an objective nature to cancer diagnostics. However, much work in this field has focused on resolving differences between cancerous and non-cancerous tissues, and lacks the reproducibility and interpretation to be put into clinical practice. Much work is needed on basic cellular differences between malignancy and normal. This would allow the establishment of a clinically relevant cellular based model to translate to tissue classification. Raman spectroscopy provides a very detailed biochemical analysis of the target material and to 'unlock' this potential requires sophisticated mathematical modelling such as neural networks as an adjunct to data interpretation. Commercially obtained cancerous and non-cancerous cells, cultured in the laboratory were used in Raman spectral measurements. Data trends were visualised through PCA and then subjected to neural network analysis based on self-organising maps; consisting of m maps, where m is the number of classes to be recognised. Each map approximates the statistical distribution of a given class. The neural network analysis provided a 95% accuracy for identification of the cancerous cell line and 92% accuracy for normal cell line. In this preliminary study we have demonstrated th ability to distinguish between "normal" and cancerous commercial cell lines. This encourages future work to establish the reasons underpinning these spectral differences and to move forward to more complex systems involving tissues. We have also shown that the use of sophisticated mathematical modelling allows a high degree of discrimination of 'raw' spectral data.

  14. Facephenes and rainbows: Causal evidence for functional and anatomical specificity of face and color processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Gerwin; Kapeller, Christoph; Guger, Christoph; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Hiroshima, Satoru; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Saygin, Zeynep M; Kamada, Kyousuke; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2017-11-14

    Neuroscientists have long debated whether some regions of the human brain are exclusively engaged in a single specific mental process. Consistent with this view, fMRI has revealed cortical regions that respond selectively to certain stimulus classes such as faces. However, results from multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA) challenge this view by demonstrating that category-selective regions often contain information about "nonpreferred" stimulus dimensions. But is this nonpreferred information causally relevant to behavior? Here we report a rare opportunity to test this question in a neurosurgical patient implanted for clinical reasons with strips of electrodes along his fusiform gyri. Broadband gamma electrocorticographic responses in multiple adjacent electrodes showed strong selectivity for faces in a region corresponding to the fusiform face area (FFA), and preferential responses to color in a nearby site, replicating earlier reports. To test the causal role of these regions in the perception of nonpreferred dimensions, we then electrically stimulated individual sites while the patient viewed various objects. When stimulated in the FFA, the patient reported seeing an illusory face (or "facephene"), independent of the object viewed. Similarly, stimulation of color-preferring sites produced illusory "rainbows." Crucially, the patient reported no change in the object viewed, apart from the facephenes and rainbows apparently superimposed on them. The functional and anatomical specificity of these effects indicate that some cortical regions are exclusively causally engaged in a single specific mental process, and prompt caution about the widespread assumption that any information scientists can decode from the brain is causally relevant to behavior.

  15. Discrimination of timbre in early auditory responses of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeho Seol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issue of how differences in timbre are represented in the neural response still has not been well addressed, particularly with regard to the relevant brain mechanisms. Here we employ phasing and clipping of tones to produce auditory stimuli differing to describe the multidimensional nature of timbre. We investigated the auditory response and sensory gating as well, using by magnetoencephalography (MEG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty-five healthy subjects without hearing deficit participated in the experiments. Two different or same tones in timbre were presented through conditioning (S1-testing (S2 paradigm as a pair with an interval of 500 ms. As a result, the magnitudes of auditory M50 and M100 responses were different with timbre in both hemispheres. This result might support that timbre, at least by phasing and clipping, is discriminated in the auditory early processing. The second response in a pair affected by S1 in the consecutive stimuli occurred in M100 of the left hemisphere, whereas both M50 and M100 responses to S2 only in the right hemisphere reflected whether two stimuli in a pair were the same or not. Both M50 and M100 magnitudes were different with the presenting order (S1 vs. S2 for both same and different conditions in the both hemispheres. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCES: Our results demonstrate that the auditory response depends on timbre characteristics. Moreover, it was revealed that the auditory sensory gating is determined not by the stimulus that directly evokes the response, but rather by whether or not the two stimuli are identical in timbre.

  16. Selective attention modulates early human evoked potentials during emotional face-voice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hao Tam; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-04-01

    Recent findings on multisensory integration suggest that selective attention influences cross-sensory interactions from an early processing stage. Yet, in the field of emotional face-voice integration, the hypothesis prevails that facial and vocal emotional information interacts preattentively. Using ERPs, we investigated the influence of selective attention on the perception of congruent versus incongruent combinations of neutral and angry facial and vocal expressions. Attention was manipulated via four tasks that directed participants to (i) the facial expression, (ii) the vocal expression, (iii) the emotional congruence between the face and the voice, and (iv) the synchrony between lip movement and speech onset. Our results revealed early interactions between facial and vocal emotional expressions, manifested as modulations of the auditory N1 and P2 amplitude by incongruent emotional face-voice combinations. Although audiovisual emotional interactions within the N1 time window were affected by the attentional manipulations, interactions within the P2 modulation showed no such attentional influence. Thus, we propose that the N1 and P2 are functionally dissociated in terms of emotional face-voice processing and discuss evidence in support of the notion that the N1 is associated with cross-sensory prediction, whereas the P2 relates to the derivation of an emotional percept. Essentially, our findings put the integration of facial and vocal emotional expressions into a new perspective-one that regards the integration process as a composite of multiple, possibly independent subprocesses, some of which are susceptible to attentional modulation, whereas others may be influenced by additional factors.

  17. Fear of evaluation in social anxiety: mediation of attentional bias to human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluis, Rachel A; Boschen, Mark J

    2014-12-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a debilitating psychological disorder characterised by excessive fears of one or more social or performance situations, where there is potential for evaluation by others. A recently expanded cognitive-behavioural model of SAD emphasizes that both the fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and the fear of positive evaluation (FPE) contribute to enduring symptoms of SAD. Research also suggests that socially anxious individuals may show biases toward threat relevant stimuli, such as angry faces. The current study utilised a modified version of the pictorial dot-probe task in order to examine whether FNE and FPE mediate the relationship between social anxiety and an attentional bias. A group of 38 participants with moderate to high levels of self-reported social anxiety were tested in groups of two to four people and were advised that they would be required to deliver an impromptu speech. All participants then completed an assessment of attentional bias using angry-neutral, happy-neutral, and angry-happy face pairs. Conditions were satisfied for only one mediation model, indicating that the relationship between social anxiety and attentional avoidance of angry faces was mediated by FPE. These findings have important clinical implications for types of treatment concerning cognitive symptoms of SAD, along with advancing models of social anxiety. Limitations and ideas for future research from the current study were also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Discrimination of human cytotoxic lymphocytes from regulatory and B-lymphocytes by orthogonal light scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; de Grooth, B.G.; ten Napel, C.H.H.; van Berkel, W.; Greve, Jan

    1986-01-01

    Light scattering properties of human lymphocyte subpopulations selected by immunofluorescence were studied with a flow cytometer. Regulatory and B-lymphocytes showed a low orthogonal light scatter signal, whereas cytotoxic lymphocytes identified with leu-7, leu-11 and leu-15 revealed a large

  19. Narrowing down the conditions for extinction of Pavlovian feature-positive discriminations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vooren, P.R.; Franssen, M.; Beckers, T.; Hermans, D.; Baeyens, F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to delineate the minimal conditions for extinction of Pavlovian modulation in humans. Previous experiments at our lab showed that, after X-- A+/A- acquisition training, X- trials did not extinguish differential X-- A+/A- responding, while X-- A- trials did. Additionally,

  20. Transferrin-binding protein B isolated from Neisseria meningitidis discriminates between apo and diferric human transferrin.

    OpenAIRE

    Boulton, I C; Gorringe, A. R.; Allison, N; Robinson, A.; Gorinsky, B; Joannou, C L; Evans, R W

    1998-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis utilization of human serum transferrin (hTF)-bound iron is an important pathogenicity determinant. The efficiency of this system would clearly be increased through preferential binding of diferric hTF over the iron-free form. To characterize this process, functionally active meningococcal transferrin-binding protein A (TbpA) and TbpB have been purified from N. meningitidis using a novel purification procedure. The association of isolated Tbps and Tbps in the presence of...

  1. Attitudes, knowledge and risky practices facing with the human inmunodeficiency virus between the university population of Chontales (Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Noguero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article a study between the university population of Centro Regional Chontales in Universidad Nacional Autónoma of Nicaragua is presented. The attitudes facing with the HIV are analyzed and the knowledge that the lecturers and students have about this topic, also the risky practices that they usually realize.Method:Only one ad hoc questionnaire was used with questions about sexual orientation, sexual habits and birth control, knowledge about HIV, other sexually transmitted diseases, attitudes, perceptions and risky practices. A proportional stratified sampling was used to select the samples. Descriptive analysis (percentage, correlation analysis (correlation coefficient and contrast of the non-parametric hypothesis bymeans of the correlation coefficient test. Results: Fromthe analysis realized we can deduce that there is still a lack of awareness about the transmission routes of the disease (just the 14,57 % of the students and the 8,43 % of the lecturers knows that the spread is possible by blood transfusion in certain conditions. There are problems by means of attitudes and risky practices (almost the 59 % of the students states that they do not use any type of birth control in their sexual relations also the persistency of social discrimination elements (almost the 42%of the students states that theywould not livewith a person with AIDS or they say that they do not know if they would do it or not due to fear of transmission.Conclusions: It has been considered necessary to develop social and educational initiatives of healthy promotion in this environment, a multisectorial questions approach facing with the HIV, where the social and educational has a prevailing place

  2. Legal Policy Of Indonesia's Air Transportations Human Resources Development In Facing ASEAN Economic Society 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Endang Puji

    2016-01-01

    Legal policy of development and the provision of law flight human resources belong to national transportation policy subs-system. Legal policy contained in Act No. 7 of 2007 about RPJP puts the development of air transportation as one of the parts of the national facilities and infrastructure development. In the regime of flight law, human resources management is arranged in separated sections that belong to the national system development. The scope of human resources development and setting...

  3. Gender differences in human single neuron responses to male emotional faces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newhoff, Morgan; Treiman, David M; Smith, Kris A; Steinmetz, Peter N

    2015-01-01

    .... To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions...

  4. Honeybees can discriminate between Monet and Picasso paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Moreno, Antonio M; Tangen, Jason M; Reinhard, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) have remarkable visual learning and discrimination abilities that extend beyond learning simple colours, shapes or patterns. They can discriminate landscape scenes, types of flowers, and even human faces. This suggests that in spite of their small brain, honeybees have a highly developed capacity for processing complex visual information, comparable in many respects to vertebrates. Here, we investigated whether this capacity extends to complex images that humans distinguish on the basis of artistic style: Impressionist paintings by Monet and Cubist paintings by Picasso. We show that honeybees learned to simultaneously discriminate between five different Monet and Picasso paintings, and that they do not rely on luminance, colour, or spatial frequency information for discrimination. When presented with novel paintings of the same style, the bees even demonstrated some ability to generalize. This suggests that honeybees are able to discriminate Monet paintings from Picasso ones by extracting and learning the characteristic visual information inherent in each painting style. Our study further suggests that discrimination of artistic styles is not a higher cognitive function that is unique to humans, but simply due to the capacity of animals-from insects to humans-to extract and categorize the visual characteristics of complex images.

  5. Structural Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    discrimination as two ways of articulating particular, opaque forms of racial discrimination that occur in everyday Danish (and other) contexts, and have therefore become normalized. I present and discuss discrimination as it surfaces in data from my empirical studies of discrimination in Danish contexts......In this article, I discuss structural discrimination, an underrepresented area of study in Danish discrimination and intercultural research. It is defined here as discursive and constitutive, and presented as a central element of my analytical approach. This notion is employed in the with which...... to understand and identify aspects of power and asymmetry in communication and interactions. With this as a defining term, I address how exclusion and discrimination exist, while also being indiscernible, within widely accepted societal norms. I introduce the concepts of microdiscrimination and benevolent...

  6. Effects of visual demonstration, verbal instructions, and prompted verbal descriptions on the performance of human subjects in conditional discriminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes-Iñesta, Emilio; Cepeda, Ma. Luisa; Hickman, Hortencia; Moreno, Diana; Peñalosa, Eduardo

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to confirm prior results concerning the role of prompted verbal descriptions of visually demonstrated stimulus relations in the acquisition and transfer of identity, difference, and similarity-matching relations (Ribes et al., 1988). Four groups of human adults were trained with these three matching relations under four different procedures: (1) visual demonstration without response requirement, (2) verbal instructions, (3) visual demonstration plus prompted verbal description, and (4) visual demonstration plus verbal instructions. These procedures were presented at the beginning of the training period before subjects could respond to the experimental task. Although most subjects in the four groups acquired the conditional discrimination under the three matching relations, only those in the two instruction-related groups showed some intramodal and extramodal transfer in tests with stimuli that had not been used in training. These results suggest the importance of measuring extra-situational and trans-situational generalization, and raise the need to distinguish between formal and functional verbal factors in the regulation of human behavior. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:22477044

  7. Domestic horses send signals to humans when they face with an unsolvable task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringhofer, Monamie; Yamamoto, Shinya

    2017-05-01

    Some domestic animals are thought to be skilled at social communication with humans due to the process of domestication. Horses, being in close relationship with humans, similar to dogs, might be skilled at communication with humans. Previous studies have indicated that they are sensitive to bodily signals and the attentional state of humans; however, there are few studies that investigate communication with humans and responses to the knowledge state of humans. Our first question was whether and how horses send signals to their potentially helpful but ignorant caretakers in a problem-solving situation where a food item was hidden in a bucket that was accessible only to the caretakers. We then examined whether horses alter their behaviours on the basis of the caretakers' knowledge of where the food was hidden. We found that horses communicated to their caretakers using visual and tactile signals. The signalling behaviour of the horses significantly increased in conditions where the caretakers had not seen the hiding of the food. These results suggest that horses alter their communicative behaviour towards humans in accordance with humans' knowledge state.

  8. Second-order relational face processing is applied to faces of different race and photographic contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, H E; Bilsbury, T G; McMullen, P A

    2012-03-01

    A large body of research suggests that faces are processed by a specialized mechanism within the human visual system. This specialized mechanism is made up of subprocesses (Maurer, LeGrand, & Mondloch, 2002). One subprocess, called second- order relational processing, analyzes the metric distances between face parts. Importantly, it is well established that other-race faces and contrast-reversed faces are associated with impaired performance on numerous face processing tasks. Here, we investigated the specificity of second-order relational processing by testing how this process is applied to faces of different race and photographic contrast. Participants completed a feature displacement discrimination task, directly measuring the sensitivity to second-order relations between face parts. Across three experiments we show that, despite absolute differences in sensitivity in some conditions, inversion impaired performance in all conditions. The presence of robust inversion effects for all faces suggests that second-order relational processing can be applied to faces of different race and photographic contrast.

  9. Endometrial stromal cells of women with recurrent miscarriage fail to discriminate between high- and low-quality human embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte H E Weimar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aetiology of recurrent miscarriage (RM remains largely unexplained. Women with RM have a shorter time to pregnancy interval than normally fertile women, which may be due to more frequent implantation of non-viable embryos. We hypothesized that human endometrial stromal cells (H-EnSCs of women with RM discriminate less effectively between high-and low-quality human embryos and migrate more readily towards trophoblast spheroids than H-EnSCs of normally fertile women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Monolayers of decidualized H-EnSCs were generated from endometrial biopsies of 6 women with RM and 6 fertile controls. Cell-free migration zones were created and the effect of the presence of a high-quality (day 5 blastocyst, n = 13, a low-quality (day 5 blastocyst with three pronuclei or underdeveloped embryo, n = 12 or AC-1M88 trophoblast cell line spheroid on H-ESC migratory activity was analyzed after 18 hours. In the absence of a spheroid or embryo, migration of H-EnSCs from fertile or RM women was similar. In the presence of a low-quality embryo in the zone, the migration of H-EnSCs of control women was inhibited compared to the basal migration in the absence of an embryo (P<0.05 and compared to the migration in the presence of high-quality embryo (p<0.01. Interestingly, the migratory response H-EnSCs of women with RM did not differ between high- and low-quality embryos. Furthermore, in the presence of a spheroid their migration was enhanced compared to the H-EnSCs of controls (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: H-EnSCs of fertile women discriminate between high- and low-quality embryos whereas H-EnSCs of women with RM fail to do so. H-EnSCs of RM women have a higher migratory response to trophoblast spheroids. Future studies will focus on the mechanisms by which low-quality embryos inhibit the migration of H-EnSCs and how this is deregulated in women with RM.

  10. Toward Perceiving Robots as Humans: Three Handshake Models Face the Turing-Like Handshake Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, G; Nisky, I; Fernandes, H L; Acuna, D E; Kording, K P; Loeb, G E; Karniel, A

    2012-01-01

    In the Turing test a computer model is deemed to "think intelligently" if it can generate answers that are indistinguishable from those of a human. We developed an analogous Turing-like handshake test to determine if a machine can produce similarly indistinguishable movements. The test is administered through a telerobotic system in which an interrogator holds a robotic stylus and interacts with another party - artificial or human with varying levels of noise. The interrogator is asked which party seems to be more human. Here, we compare the human-likeness levels of three different models for handshake: (1) Tit-for-Tat model, (2) λ model, and (3) Machine Learning model. The Tit-for-Tat and the Machine Learning models generated handshakes that were perceived as the most human-like among the three models that were tested. Combining the best aspects of each of the three models into a single robotic handshake algorithm might allow us to advance our understanding of the way the nervous system controls sensorimotor interactions and further improve the human-likeness of robotic handshakes.

  11. Human dorsal striatal activity during choice discriminates reinforcement learning behavior from the gambler's fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Ryan K; O'Doherty, John P

    2011-04-27

    Reinforcement learning theory has generated substantial interest in neurobiology, particularly because of the resemblance between phasic dopamine and reward prediction errors. Actor-critic theories have been adapted to account for the functions of the striatum, with parts of the dorsal striatum equated to the actor. Here, we specifically test whether the human dorsal striatum--as predicted by an actor-critic instantiation--is used on a trial-to-trial basis at the time of choice to choose in accordance with reinforcement learning theory, as opposed to a competing strategy: the gambler's fallacy. Using a partial-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning protocol focused on the striatum and other ventral brain areas, we found that the dorsal striatum is more active when choosing consistent with reinforcement learning compared with the competing strategy. Moreover, an overlapping area of dorsal striatum along with the ventral striatum was found to be correlated with reward prediction errors at the time of outcome, as predicted by the actor-critic framework. These findings suggest that the same region of dorsal striatum involved in learning stimulus-response associations may contribute to the control of behavior during choice, thereby using those learned associations. Intriguingly, neither reinforcement learning nor the gambler's fallacy conformed to the optimal choice strategy on the specific decision-making task we used. Thus, the dorsal striatum may contribute to the control of behavior according to reinforcement learning even when the prescriptions of such an algorithm are suboptimal in terms of maximizing future rewards.

  12. Captive Bottlenose Dolphins Do Discriminate Human-Made Sounds Both Underwater and in the Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus spontaneously emit individual acoustic signals that identify them to group members. We tested whether these cetaceans could learn artificial individual sound cues played underwater and whether they would generalize this learning to airborne sounds. Dolphins are thought to perceive only underwater sounds and their training depends largely on visual signals. We investigated the behavioral responses of seven dolphins in a group to learned human-made individual sound cues, played underwater and in the air. Dolphins recognized their own sound cue after hearing it underwater as they immediately moved toward the source, whereas when it was airborne they gazed more at the source of their own sound cue but did not approach it. We hypothesize that they perhaps detected modifications of the sound induced by air or were confused by the novelty of the situation, but nevertheless recognized they were being “targeted.” They did not respond when hearing another group member’s cue in either situation. This study provides further evidence that dolphins respond to individual-specific sounds and that these marine mammals possess some capacity for processing airborne acoustic signals.

  13. Captive Bottlenose Dolphins Do Discriminate Human-Made Sounds Both Underwater and in the Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Alice; Sébilleau, Mélissa; Boye, Martin; Durand, Candice; Hausberger, Martine; Lemasson, Alban

    2018-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) spontaneously emit individual acoustic signals that identify them to group members. We tested whether these cetaceans could learn artificial individual sound cues played underwater and whether they would generalize this learning to airborne sounds. Dolphins are thought to perceive only underwater sounds and their training depends largely on visual signals. We investigated the behavioral responses of seven dolphins in a group to learned human-made individual sound cues, played underwater and in the air. Dolphins recognized their own sound cue after hearing it underwater as they immediately moved toward the source, whereas when it was airborne they gazed more at the source of their own sound cue but did not approach it. We hypothesize that they perhaps detected modifications of the sound induced by air or were confused by the novelty of the situation, but nevertheless recognized they were being “targeted.” They did not respond when hearing another group member’s cue in either situation. This study provides further evidence that dolphins respond to individual-specific sounds and that these marine mammals possess some capacity for processing airborne acoustic signals. PMID:29445350

  14. Detecting Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Heckman, James J.

    1998-01-01

    The evidence on discrimination produced from the audit method is examined. Audits survey the average firm and not the marginal firm which determines the level of market discrimination. Taken on its own terms, there is little evidence of labor market discrimination from audit methods. The validity of audit methods is critically dependent on unverified assumptions about equality across race/gender groups of the distributions of unobserved (by audit designers) productivity components acted on by...

  15. Colour detection thresholds in faces and colour patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Wei; Stephen, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    Human facial skin colour reflects individuals' underlying health (Stephen et al 2011 Evolution & Human Behavior 32 216-227); and enhanced facial skin CIELab b* (yellowness), a* (redness), and L* (lightness) are perceived as healthy (also Stephen et al 2009a International Journal of Primatology 30 845-857). Here, we examine Malaysian Chinese participants' detection thresholds for CIELab L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) colour changes in Asian, African, and Caucasian faces and skin coloured patches. Twelve face photos and three skin coloured patches were transformed to produce four pairs of images of each individual face and colour patch with different amounts of red, yellow, or lightness, from very subtle (deltaE = 1.2) to quite large differences (deltaE = 9.6). Participants were asked to decide which of sequentially displayed, paired same-face images or colour patches were lighter, redder, or yellower. Changes in facial redness, followed by changes in yellowness, were more easily discriminated than changes in luminance. However, visual sensitivity was not greater for redness and yellowness in nonface stimuli, suggesting red facial skin colour special salience. Participants were also significantly better at recognizing colour differences in own-race (Asian) and Caucasian faces than in African faces, suggesting the existence of cross-race effect in discriminating facial colours. Humans' colour vision may have been selected for skin colour signalling (Changizi et al 2006 Biology Letters 2 217-221), enabling individuals to perceive subtle changes in skin colour, reflecting health and emotional status.

  16. Learning from video modeling examples : Effects of seeing the human model's face

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Verveer, Ilse; Verveer, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Video modeling examples in which a human(-like) model shows learners how to perform a task are increasingly used in education, as they have become very easy to create and distribute in e-learning environments. However, little is known about design guidelines to optimize learning from video modeling

  17. Separate and combined effects of the GABAA positive allosteric modulator diazepam and Δ9-THC in humans discriminating Δ9-THC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lile, Joshua A.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Hays, Lon R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Our previous research suggested the involvement γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in particular the GABAB receptor subtype, in the interoceptive effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). The aim of the present study was to determine the potential involvement of the GABAA receptor subtype by assessing the separate and combined effects of the GABAA positive allosteric modulator diazepam and Δ9-THC using pharmacologically selective drug-discrimination procedures. Methods Ten cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral Δ9-THC from placebo and then received diazepam (5 and 10 mg), Δ9-THC (5, 15 and 30 mg) and placebo, alone and in combination. Self-report, task performance and physiological measures were also collected. Results Δ9-THC functioned as a discriminative stimulus, produced subjective effects typically associated with cannabinoids (e.g., High, Stoned, Like Drug) and elevated heart rate. Diazepam alone impaired performance on psychomotor performance tasks and increased ratings on a limited number of self-report questionnaire items (e.g., Any Effect, Sedated), but did not substitute for the Δ9-THC discriminative stimulus or alter the Δ9-THC discrimination dose-response function. Similarly, diazepam had limited impact on the other behavioral effects of Δ9-THC. Conclusions These results suggest that the GABAA receptor subtype has minimal involvement in the interoceptive effects of Δ9-THC, and by extension cannabis, in humans. PMID:25124305

  18. Separate and combined effects of the GABAA positive allosteric modulator diazepam and Δ⁹-THC in humans discriminating Δ⁹-THC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lile, Joshua A; Kelly, Thomas H; Hays, Lon R

    2014-10-01

    Our previous research suggested the involvement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in particular the GABAB receptor subtype, in the interoceptive effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). The aim of the present study was to determine the potential involvement of the GABAA receptor subtype by assessing the separate and combined effects of the GABAA positive allosteric modulator diazepam and Δ(9)-THC using pharmacologically selective drug-discrimination procedures. Ten cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral Δ(9)-THC from placebo and then received diazepam (5 and 10mg), Δ(9)-THC (5, 15 and 30 mg) and placebo, alone and in combination. Self-report, task performance and physiological measures were also collected. Δ(9)-THC functioned as a discriminative stimulus, produced subjective effects typically associated with cannabinoids (e.g., High, Stoned, Like Drug) and elevated heart rate. Diazepam alone impaired performance on psychomotor performance tasks and increased ratings on a limited number of self-report questionnaire items (e.g., Any Effect, Sedated), but did not substitute for the Δ(9)-THC discriminative stimulus or alter the Δ(9)-THC discrimination dose-response function. Similarly, diazepam had limited impact on the other behavioral effects of Δ(9)-THC. These results suggest that the GABAA receptor subtype has minimal involvement in the interoceptive effects of Δ(9)-THC, and by extension cannabis, in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between drug discrimination and ratings of subjective effects: implications for assessing and understanding the abuse potential of D-amphetamine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Anna R; Bolin, B Levi; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    2013-09-01

    The discriminative and subjective effects of drugs in humans are related, but the full extent of this relationship remains to be determined. To further explore this relationship, a retrospective analysis was conducted on data from six studies completed in our laboratory that used identical procedures. The relationship between the discriminative and subjective effects of a range of doses of D-amphetamine (i.e. 2.5-15 mg) was examined using correlational analyses. Significant correlations with discrimination performance were observed on 15 of 20 items from the Drug-Effect Questionnaire across a range of qualities [e.g. Pay For (a positive effect indicative of abuse potential) and Active (a stimulant-like effect)], but the magnitude of these relationships was modest (reffects contribute to the discriminative effects of D-amphetamine and indicate that the former are a more practical means to assess the abuse potential of drugs. Although these procedures are fundamentally related in that they rely on the presence of an interoceptive drug state, they differ in the dimension(s) of the interoceptive effects that participants must quantify. The simultaneous use of drug discrimination and subjective effects may, therefore, reveal complimentary aspects of drug effects that underlie their potential for abuse.

  20. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika M. J.; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe

    2013-01-01

    in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember...... the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test......, all minipigs performed 9/12 correct choices or better. Juvenile Gottingen minipigs are able to learn to perform in a spatial hole-board discrimination test as well as in a visual discrimination test, showing an increase in performance over time. Both tests have considerable scope to assess learning...

  1. Face detection by aggregated Bayesian network classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.V.; Worring, M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    A face detection system is presented. A new classification method using forest-structured Bayesian networks is used. The method is used in an aggregated classifier to discriminate face from non-face patterns. The process of generating non-face patterns is integrated with the construction of the

  2. Bones and humanity. On Forensic Anthropology and its constitutive power facing forced disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Huffschmid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forensic anthropologists seek to decipher traces of anonymous dead, to restitute identities of human remains and to provide their families with the possibility to conclude mourning and even of justice. The article explores the contributions and meanings of forensic anthropology as state-independent practice beyond a mereley criminalistic approach, as it was conceptualized by the Argentine pioneers after the last dictatorship in this nation. I conceive this practice as a sort of arqueology of contemporary terror that seeks to confront a specific violence as the forced disappearance of persons and the deshumanization of their dead bodies. The article proposes reading forensic anthropology as a 'situated cience', with its complexities and ambigueties, that operates between nameless bones (the human remains and names without bodies (the so-called disappeared in settings of violent pasts such as Argentina or Guatemala, and especially in Mexico, where mass graves became the new symbol of a horrified present.

  3. Real-time face and gesture analysis for human-robot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhoff, Frank; Rehrl, Tobias; Mayer, Christoph; Radig, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Human communication relies on a large number of different communication mechanisms like spoken language, facial expressions, or gestures. Facial expressions and gestures are one of the main nonverbal communication mechanisms and pass large amounts of information between human dialog partners. Therefore, to allow for intuitive human-machine interaction, a real-time capable processing and recognition of facial expressions, hand and head gestures are of great importance. We present a system that is tackling these challenges. The input features for the dynamic head gestures and facial expressions are obtained from a sophisticated three-dimensional model, which is fitted to the user in a real-time capable manner. Applying this model different kinds of information are extracted from the image data and afterwards handed over to a real-time capable data-transferring framework, the so-called Real-Time DataBase (RTDB). In addition to the head and facial-related features, also low-level image features regarding the human hand - optical flow, Hu-moments are stored into the RTDB for the evaluation process of hand gestures. In general, the input of a single camera is sufficient for the parallel evaluation of the different gestures and facial expressions. The real-time capable recognition of the dynamic hand and head gestures are performed via different Hidden Markov Models, which have proven to be a quick and real-time capable classification method. On the other hand, for the facial expressions classical decision trees or more sophisticated support vector machines are used for the classification process. These obtained results of the classification processes are again handed over to the RTDB, where other processes (like a Dialog Management Unit) can easily access them without any blocking effects. In addition, an adjustable amount of history can be stored by the RTDB buffer unit.

  4. The search for a more human face for Nelson Mandela: An urgent task

    OpenAIRE

    Tinyiko Maluleke

    2015-01-01

    For many reasons, reflecting on the life of Nelson Mandela is a precarious exercise. If Mandela is a symbol of the resilience of the human spirit under trying conditions, he is also a symbol that is appropriated in various ways – helpful and unhelpful – by various people. This article explores some of the unhelpful ways in which the name and person of Nelson Mandela is invoked. In particular, the article looks at the hagiographical orientation of several reflections on Mandela, cautioning ...

  5. Facing the challenge of data transfer from animal models to humans: the case of persistent organohalogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, Alexander; Takser, Larissa

    2008-11-13

    A well-documented fact for a group of persistent, bioaccumulating organohalogens contaminants, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is that appropriate regulation was delayed, on average, up to 50 years. Some of the delay may be attributed to the fact that the science of toxicology was in its infancy when PCBs were introduced in 1920's. Nevertheless, even following the development of modern toxicology this story repeats itself 45 years later with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) another compound of concern for public health. The question is why? One possible explanation may be the low coherence between experimental studies of toxic effects in animal models and human studies. To explore this further, we reviewed a total of 807 PubMed abstracts and full texts reporting studies of toxic effects of PCB and PBDE in animal models. Our analysis documents that human epidemiological studies of PBDE stand to gain little from animal studies due to the following: 1) the significant delay between the commercialisation of a substance and studies with animal models; 2) experimental exposure levels in animals are several orders of magnitude higher than exposures in the general human population; 3) the limited set of evidence-based endocrine endpoints; 4) the traditional testing sequence (adult animals--neonates--foetuses) postpones investigation of the critical developmental stages; 5) limited number of animal species with human-like toxicokinetics, physiology of development and pregnancy; 6) lack of suitable experimental outcomes for the purpose of epidemiological studies. Our comparison of published PCB and PBDE studies underscore an important shortcoming: history has, unfortunately, repeated itself. Broadening the crosstalk between the various branches of toxicology should therefore accelerate accumulation of data to enable timely and appropriate regulatory action.

  6. Facing negative reactions to sexuality education through a Multicultural Human Rights framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vera; Silva, Valeria N

    2015-11-01

    Sexuality education, its protocols and planning are contingent on an ever-changing political environment that characterizes the field of sexuality in most countries. In Brazil, human rights perspectives shaped the country's response to the AIDS epidemic, and indirectly influenced the public acceptability of sexuality education in schools. Since 2011, however, as multiple fundamentalist movements emerged in the region, leading to recurrent waves of backlashes in all matters related to sexuality, both health and educational policies have begun to crawl backwards. This article explores human rights-based approaches to health, focusing on a multicultural rights-based framework and on productive approaches to broadening the dialogue about sustained consent to sexuality education. Multicultural human rights (MHR) approaches are dialogical in two domains: the communication process that guarantees consent and community agreements and the constructionist psychosocial-educational methodologies. In its continuous process of consent, the MHR approach allowed for distinct values translation and diffused the resistance to sexuality education in the participant schools/cities, successfully sustaining notions of equality and protection of the right to a comprehensive sexuality education that does not break group solidarity and guarantees acceptability of differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Discriminating between camouflaged targets by their time of detection by a human-based observer assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selj, G. K.; Søderblom, M.

    2015-10-01

    Detection of a camouflaged object in natural sceneries requires the target to be distinguishable from its local background. The development of any new camouflage pattern therefore has to rely on a well-founded test methodology - which has to be correlated with the final purpose of the pattern - as well as an evaluation procedure, containing the optimal criteria for i) discriminating between the targets and then eventually ii) for a final rank of the targets. In this study we present results from a recent camouflage assessment trial where human observers were used in a search by photo methodology to assess generic test camouflage patterns. We conducted a study to investigate possible improvements in camouflage patterns for battle dress uniforms. The aim was to do a comparative study of potential, and generic patterns intended for use in arid areas (sparsely vegetated, semi desert). We developed a test methodology that was intended to be simple, reliable and realistic with respect to the operational benefit of camouflage. Therefore we chose to conduct a human based observer trial founded on imagery of realistic targets in natural backgrounds. Inspired by a recent and similar trial in the UK, we developed new and purpose-based software to be able to conduct the observer trial. Our preferred assessment methodology - the observer trial - was based on target recordings in 12 different, but operational relevant scenes, collected in a dry and sparsely vegetated area (Rhodes). The scenes were chosen with the intention to span as broadly as possible. The targets were human-shaped mannequins and were situated identically in each of the scenes to allow for a relative comparison of camouflage effectiveness in each scene. Test of significance, among the targets' performance, was carried out by non-parametric tests as the corresponding time of detection distributions in overall were found to be difficult to parameterize. From the trial, containing 12 different scenes from

  8. The virtual human face: superimposing the simultaneously captured 3D photorealistic skin surface of the face on the untextured skin image of the CBCT scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudi, K B; Benramadan, R; Brocklebank, L; Ju, X; Khambay, B; Ayoub, A

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of simultaneous capture of the three-dimensional (3D) surface of the face and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of the skull on the accuracy of their registration and superimposition. 3D facial images were acquired in 14 patients using the Di3d (Dimensional Imaging, UK) imaging system and i-CAT CBCT scanner. One stereophotogrammetry image was captured at the same time as the CBCT and another 1h later. The two stereophotographs were individually superimposed over the CBCT using VRmesh. Seven patches were isolated on the final merged surfaces. For the whole face and each individual patch: maximum and minimum range of deviation between surfaces; absolute average distance between surfaces; and standard deviation for the 90th percentile of the distance errors were calculated. The superimposition errors of the whole face for both captures revealed statistically significant differences (P=0.00081). The absolute average distances in both separate and simultaneous captures were 0.47 and 0.27mm, respectively. The level of superimposition accuracy in patches from separate captures was 0.3-0.9mm, while that of simultaneous captures was 0.4mm. Simultaneous capture of Di3d and CBCT images significantly improved the accuracy of superimposition of these image modalities. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preferences for symmetry in human faces in two cultures: data from the UK and the Hadza, an isolated group of hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Apicella, Coren L; Marlowe, Frank W

    2007-12-22

    Many studies show agreement within and between cultures for general judgements of facial attractiveness. Few studies, however, have examined the attractiveness of specific traits and few have examined preferences in hunter-gatherers. The current study examined preferences for symmetry in both the UK and the Hadza, a hunter-gatherer society of Tanzania. We found that symmetry was more attractive than asymmetry across both the cultures and was more strongly preferred by the Hadza than in the UK. The different ecological conditions may play a role in generating this difference. Such variation in preference may be adaptive if it reflects adaptation to local conditions. Symmetry is thought to indicate genetic quality, which may be more important among the Hadza with much higher mortality rates from birth onwards. Hadza men who were more often named as good hunters placed a greater value on symmetry in female faces. These results suggest that high quality Hadza men are more discriminating in their choice of faces. Hadza women had increased preferences for symmetry in men's faces when they were pregnant or nursing, perhaps due to their increased discrimination and sensitivity to foods and disease harmful to a foetus or nursing infant. These results imply that symmetry is an evolutionarily relevant trait and that variation in symmetry preference appears strategic both between cultures and within individuals of a single culture.

  10. SEM and microCT validation for en face OCT imagistic evaluation of endodontically treated human teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Nica, Luminita; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Ionita, Ciprian; Bradu, Adrian; Petrescu, Emanuela L.; Pop, Daniela M.; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2011-03-01

    Successful root canal treatment is based on diagnosis, treatment planning, knowledge of tooth anatomy, endodontic access cavity design, controlling the infection by thorough cleaning and shaping, methods and materials used in root canal obturation. An endodontic obturation must be a complete, three-dimensional filling of the root canal system, as close as possible to cemento-dentinal junction, without massive overfilling or underfilling. There are several known methods which are used to assess the quality of the endodontic sealing, but most are invasive. These lead to the destruction of the samples and often no conclusion could be drawn in respect to the existence of any microleakage in the investigated areas of interest. Using an time domain en-face OCT system, we have recently demonstrated real time thorough evaluation of quality of root canal fillings. The purpose of this in vitro study was to validate the en face OCT imagistic evaluation of endodontically treated human teeth by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microcomputer tomography (μCT). SEM investigations evidenced the nonlinear aspect of the interface between the endodontic filling material and the root canal walls and materials defects in some samples. The results obtained by μCT revealed also some defects inside the root-canal filling and at the interfaces between the material and the root canal walls. The advantages of the OCT method consist in non-invasiveness and high resolution. In addition, en face OCT investigations permit visualization of the more complex stratified structure at the interface between the filling material and the dental hard tissue.

  11. A New Face of Cardiac Emergencies: Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Cardiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabedze, Nqoba; Vachiat, Ahmed; Zachariah, Don; Manga, Pravin

    2018-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus epidemic is a major health challenge of the twenty-first century as the transition from infectious complications to noncommunicable disease becomes more evident. These patients may present to the emergency department with a variety of cardiovascular diseases, such as acute coronary syndromes, heart failure, pericardial disease, infective endocarditis, venothromboembolism, and other conditions. Increased awareness is needed among health care professionals to enhance adequate identification and promote prompt management of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The dual nature of the human face: There is a little Jekyll and a little Hyde in all of us.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolann eRobinson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fact that a mere glance makes it possible to extract a wealth of information about the person being observed is testament to both the salience of the human face and the brain's high efficiency in processing this information. Prior work has revealed that social judgments of faces are determined by facial features that vary on two orthogonal dimensions: trustworthiness and dominance. We conducted two experiments to investigate the visual information subtending trustworthiness and dominance judgments. In Exp. 1, we used the Bubbles technique to identify the facial areas and the spatial frequencies that modulate these two judgments. Our results show that the eye and mouth areas in high-to-medium spatial frequency bands were positively correlated with judgments of trustworthiness; the eyebrows region in medium-to-low frequency bands was positively correlated with judgments of dominance; and the lower left jawbone in medium-to-low frequency bands was negatively correlated with judgments of dominance. In Exp. 2, we used the results of Exp. 1 to induce subtle variations in the relative contrast of different facial areas, and showed that it is possible to rig social perception using such a manipulation.

  13. Face-selective regions differ in their ability to classify facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Japee, Shruti; Nolan, Rachel; Chu, Carlton; Liu, Ning; Ungerleider, Leslie G

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of facial expressions is crucial for effective social interactions. Yet, the extent to which the various face-selective regions in the human brain classify different facial expressions remains unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and support vector machine pattern classification analysis to determine how well face-selective brain regions are able to decode different categories of facial expression. Subjects participated in a slow event-related fMRI experiment in which they were shown 32 face pictures, portraying four different expressions: neutral, fearful, angry, and happy and belonging to eight different identities. Our results showed that only the amygdala and the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) were able to accurately discriminate between these expressions, albeit in different ways: The amygdala discriminated fearful faces from non-fearful faces, whereas STS discriminated neutral from emotional (fearful, angry and happy) faces. In contrast to these findings on the classification of emotional expression, only the fusiform face area (FFA) and anterior inferior temporal cortex (aIT) could discriminate among the various facial identities. Further, the amygdala and STS were better than FFA and aIT at classifying expression, while FFA and aIT were better than the amygdala and STS at classifying identity. Taken together, our findings indicate that the decoding of facial emotion and facial identity occurs in different neural substrates: the amygdala and STS for the former and FFA and aIT for the latter. PMID:26826513

  14. The search for a more human face for Nelson Mandela: An urgent task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinyiko Maluleke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For many reasons, reflecting on the life of Nelson Mandela is a precarious exercise. If Mandela is a symbol of the resilience of the human spirit under trying conditions, he is also a symbol that is appropriated in various ways – helpful and unhelpful – by various people. This article explores some of the unhelpful ways in which the name and person of Nelson Mandela is invoked. In particular, the article looks at the hagiographical orientation of several reflections on Mandela, cautioning how some of these may have an effect less noble than originally intended. Accordingly, the article asks: How much can the symbol of Mandela bear? How much more can Mandela give? The logic and rationale of Mandela hagiography is explored. Following his death, there has been an explosion of interest in the life and symbol that is Nelson Mandela. Mandela literature, including multi-media, is on the rise. If the symbol of Mandela is in danger of being ‘cannibalised’, there is also a danger of relegating Mandela to an ahistorical mythical figure. The solution lies in at least two area, namely, the increment of alternative Mandela narratives and the introduction of more critical Mandela narratives. In this regard, Mandela’s own self-understanding as captured in his reflections about his life offer several clues which are explored in this article.

  15. The search for a more human face for Nelson Mandela: An urgent task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinyiko Maluleke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For many reasons, reflecting on the life of Nelson Mandela is a precarious exercise. If Mandela is a symbol of the resilience of the human spirit under trying conditions, he is also a symbol that is appropriated in various ways – helpful and unhelpful – by various people. This article explores some of the unhelpful ways in which the name and person of Nelson Mandela is invoked. In particular, the article looks at the hagiographical orientation of several reflections on Mandela, cautioning how some of these may have an effect less noble than originally intended. Accordingly, the article asks: How much can the symbol of Mandela bear? How much more can Mandela give? The logic and rationale of Mandela hagiography is explored. Following his death, there has been an explosion of interest in the life and symbol that is Nelson Mandela. Mandela literature, including multi-media, is on the rise. If the symbol of Mandela is in danger of being ‘cannibalised’, there is also a danger of relegating Mandela to an ahistorical mythical figure. The solution lies in at least two area, namely, the increment of alternative Mandela narratives and the introduction of more critical Mandela narratives. In this regard, Mandela’s own self-understanding as captured in his reflections about his life offer several clues which are explored in this article.

  16. The Changing Face of Human-Computer Interaction in the Age of Ubiquitous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Yvonne

    HCI is reinventing itself. No longer only about being user-centered, it has set its sights on pastures new, embracing a much broader and far-reaching set of interests. From emotional, eco-friendly, embodied experiences to context, constructivism and culture, HCI research is changing apace: from what it looks at, the lenses it uses and what it has to offer. Part of this is as a reaction to what is happening in the world; ubiquitous technologies are proliferating and transforming how we live our lives. We are becoming more connected and more dependent on technology. The home, the crèche, outdoors, public places and even the human body are now being experimented with as potential places to embed computational devices, even to the extent of invading previously private and taboo aspects of our lives. In this paper, I examine the diversity of lifestyle and technological transformations in our midst and outline some 'difficult' questions these raise together with alternative directions for HCI research and practice.

  17. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Genetic Discrimination Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features ...

  18. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training (‘better’ trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics’ everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits. PMID:24691394

  19. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For

  20. Relationship Between Drug Discrimination and Ratings of Subjective Effects: Implications for Assessing and Understanding the Abuse Potential of d-Amphetamine in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Anna R.; Bolin, B. Levi; Stoops, William W.; Rush, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    The discriminative and subjective effects of drugs in humans are related, but the full extent of this relationship remains to be determined. To further explore this relationship, a retrospective analysis was conducted on data from six studies completed in our laboratory that used identical procedures. The relationship between the discriminative and subjective effects of a range of doses of d-amphetamine (i.e., 2.5–15 mg) was examined using correlational analyses. Significant correlations with discrimination performance were observed on 15 of 20 items from the Drug-Effect Questionnaire across a range of qualities (e.g., Pay For [a positive effect indicative of abuse potential] and Active [a stimulant-like effect]), but the magnitude of these relationships was modest (r amphetamine and indicate that the former are a more practical means to assess abuse potential of drugs. Although these procedures are fundamentally related in that they rely on the presence of an interoceptive drug state, they differ in the dimension(s) of the interoceptive effects that participants must quantify. The simultaneous use of drug discrimination and subjective effects may, therefore, reveal complimentary aspects of drug effects that underlie their potential for abuse. PMID:23851485

  1. Face perception is category-specific: evidence from normal body perception in acquired prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Tirta; Yovel, Galit; Barton, Jason J S; Duchaine, Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Does the human visual system contain perceptual mechanisms specialized for particular object categories such as faces? This question lies at the heart of a long-running debate in face perception. The face-specific hypothesis posits that face perception relies on mechanisms dedicated to faces, while the expertise hypothesis proposes that faces are processed by more generic mechanisms that operate on objects we have extended experience with. Previous studies that have addressed this question using acquired prosopagnosia are inconclusive because the non-face categories tested (e.g., cars) were not well-matched to faces in terms of visual exposure and perceptual experience. Here we compare perception of faces and bodies in four acquired prosopagnosics. Critically, we used face and body tasks that generate comparable inversion effects in controls, which indicates that our tasks engage orientation-specific perceptual mechanisms for faces and bodies to a similar extent. Three prosopagnosics were able to discriminate bodies normally despite their impairment in face perception. Moreover, they exhibited normal inversion effects for bodies, suggesting their body perception was carried out by the same mechanisms used by controls. Our findings indicate that the human visual system contains processes specialized for faces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Current challenges facing the translation of brain computer interfaces from preclinical trials to use in human patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell D. Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research in brain computer interface (BCI technology is advancing beyond preclinical studies, with trials beginning in human patients. To date, these trials have been carried out with several different types of recording interfaces. The success of these devices has varied widely, but different factors such as the level of invasiveness, timescale of recorded information, and ability to maintain stable functionality of the device over a long period of time all must be considered in addition to accuracy in decoding intent when assessing the most practical type of device moving forward. Here, we discuss various approaches to BCIs, distinguishing between devices focusing on control of operations extrinsic to the subject (e.g., prosthetic limbs, computer cursors and those focusing on control of operations intrinsic to the brain (e.g. using stimulation or external feedback, including closed-loop or adaptive devices. In this discussion, we consider the current challenges facing the translation of various types of BCI technology to eventual human application.

  3. Individuating Faces and Common Objects Produces Equal Responses in Putative Face Processing Areas in the Ventral Occipitotemporal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Haist

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the proposal that specific human cortical regions in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex, commonly called the fusiform face area (FFA and occipital face area (OFA, are specialized for face processing. Here, we present findings from a fMRI study of identity discrimination of faces and objects that demonstrates the FFA and OFA are equally responsive to processing stimuli at the level of individuals (i.e., individuation, be they human faces or non-face objects. The FFA and OFA were defined via a passive viewing task as regions that produced greater activation to faces relative to non-face stimuli within the middle fusiform gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus. In the individuation task, participants judged whether sequentially presented images of faces, diverse objects, or wristwatches depicted the identical or a different exemplar. All three stimulus types produced equivalent BOLD activation within the FFA and OFA; that is, there was no face-specific or face-preferential processing. Critically, individuation processing did not eliminate an object superiority effect relative to faces within a region more closely linked to object processing in the lateral occipital complex (LOC, suggesting that individuation processes are reasonably specific to the FFA and OFA. Taken together, these findings challenge the prevailing view that the FFA and OFA are face-specific processing regions, demonstrating instead that they function to individuate -- i.e., identify specific individuals -- within a category. These findings have significant implications for understanding the function of a brain region widely believed to play an important role in social cognition.

  4. The feasibility of an automated eye-tracking-modified Fagan test of memory for human faces in younger Ugandan HIV-exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhaya, Ronak; Weiss, Jonathan; Seffren, Victoria; Sikorskii, Alla; Winke, Paula M; Ojuka, Julius C; Boivin, Michael J

    2017-05-22

    The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) uses longer gaze length for unfamiliar versus familiar human faces to gauge visual-spatial encoding, attention, and working memory in infants. Our objective was to establish the feasibility of automated eye tracking with the FTII in HIV-exposed Ugandan infants. The FTII was administered to 31 perinatally HIV-exposed noninfected (HEU) Ugandan children 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M = 0.69 years, SD = 0.14; 19 girls; M = 0.79, SD = 0.15). A series of 10 different faces were presented (familiar face exposure for 25 s followed by a gaze preference trial of 15 s with both the familiar and unfamiliar faces). Tobii X2-30 infrared camera for pupil detection provided automated eye-tracking measures of gaze location and length during presentation of Ugandan faces selected to correspond to the gender, age (adult, child), face expression, and orientation of the original FTII. Eye-tracking gaze length for unfamiliar faces was correlated with performance on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). Infants gazed longer at the novel picture compared to familiar across 10 novelty preference trials. Better MSEL cognitive development was correlated with proportionately longer time spent looking at the novel faces (r(30) = 0.52, p = .004); especially for the Fine Motor Cognitive Sub-scale (r(30) = 0.54, p = .002). Automated eye tracking in a human face recognition test proved feasible and corresponded to the MSEL composite cognitive development in HEU infants in a resource-constrained clinical setting. Eye tracking may be a viable means of enhancing the validity and accuracy of other neurodevelopmental measures in at-risk children in sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Gender Perception From Faces Using Boosted LBPH (Local Binary Patten Histograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. U. Tariq

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Gender classification from faces has several applications such as surveillance, human computer interaction, targeted advertisement etc. Humans can recognize gender from faces quite accurately but for computer vision it is a difficult task. Many studies have targeted this problem but most of these studies used images of faces taken under constrained conditions. Real-world applications however require to process images from real-world, that have significant variation in lighting and pose, which makes the gender classification task very difficult. We have examined the problem of automatic gender classification from faces on real-world images. Using a face detector faces from images are extracted aligned and represented using Local binary pattern histogram. Discriminative features are selected using Adaboost and the boosted LBP features are used to train a support vector machine that provides a recognition rate of 93.29%.

  6. Thesis: Do we face a third revolution in human history? If so, how will public health respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Phil; Carlisle, Sandra

    2008-12-01

    A range of evidence suggests that the dominant culture associated with the economic systems of 'modern' societies has become a major source of pressure on global resources and may precipitate a third revolution in human history, with major implications for health and well-being. This paper aims to consider whether there are historical analogies with contemporary circumstances which might help us make connections between past and present predicaments in the human condition; to highlight the underpinnings of such predicaments in the politico-economic and cultural systems found in 'modern' societies; to outline questions prompted by this analysis, and stimulate greater debate around the issues raised. We draw on evidence and arguments condensed from complex research and theorizing from multiple disciplines. Contemporary evidence suggests that global depletion of a key energy resource (oil), increasing environmental degradation and imminent climate change can be linked to human socio-economic and cultural systems which are now out of balance with their environment. Those systems are associated with Western-type societies, where political philosophies of neo-liberalism, together with cultural values of individualism, materialism and consumerism, support an increasingly globalized capitalist economic system. Evidence points to a decline of psychological and social well-being in such societies. We need to work out how to prevent/ameliorate the harms likely to flow from climate change and rising oil costs. Public health professionals face the challenge of preventing adverse health consequences likely to result from continued adherence to the have-it-all mindset prevailing in contemporary Western societies. Equally, we need to seek out the potential health dividends that could be realized in terms of reduced obesity, improved well-being and greater social equity, while not under-estimating the likelihood of profound resistance, from many sectors of society, to unwanted but

  7. Effects of Human Factors in Engineering and Design for Teaching Mathematics: A Comparison Study of Online and Face-to-Face at a Technical College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mativo, John M.; Hill, Roger B.; Godfrey, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was to examine four characteristics for successful and unsuccessful students enrolled in basic mathematics courses at a technical college. The characteristics, considered to be in part effects of human factors in engineering and design, examined the preferred learning styles, computer information systems competency,…

  8. Non-discrimination and equality of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostland, Rolanda Carina

    2006-01-01

    Non-discrimination is considered to be a cornerstone of the human rights framework of the United Nations. Already in the UN Charter of 1945 it is stated that human rights should be promoted without discrimination as to, amongst other things, sex. This principle of non-discrimination on the ground of

  9. Masked fake face detection using radiance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngshin; Na, Jaekeun; Yoon, Seongbeak; Yi, Juneho

    2009-04-01

    This research presents a novel 2D feature space where real faces and masked fake faces can be effectively discriminated. We exploit the reflectance disparity based on albedo between real faces and fake materials. The feature vector used consists of radiance measurements of the forehead region under 850 and 685 nm illuminations. Facial skin and mask material show linearly separable distributions in the feature space proposed. By simply applying Fisher's linear discriminant, we have achieved 97.78% accuracy in fake face detection. Our method can be easily implemented in commercial face verification systems.

  10. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA reveals abnormal fMRI activity in both the core and extended face network in congenital prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eRivolta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify faces is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions in humans. It is still a matter of debate which regions represent the functional substrate of congenital prosopagnosia (CP, a condition characterized by a lifelong impairment in face recognition, and affecting around 2.5% of the general population. Here, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to measure neural responses to faces, objects, bodies and body-parts in a group of seven CPs and ten healthy control participants. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA of the fMRI data we demonstrate that neural activity within the core (i.e., occipital face area and fusiform face area and extended (i.e., anterior temporal cortex face regions in CPs showed reduced discriminability between faces and objects. Reduced differentiation between faces and objects in CP was also seen in the right parahippocampal cortex. In contrast, discriminability between faces and bodies/body-parts and objects and bodies/body-parts across the ventral visual system was typical in CPs. In addition to MVPA analysis, we also ran traditional mass-univariate analysis, which failed to show any group differences in face and object discriminability. In sum, these findings demonstrate (i face-object representations impairments in CP which encompass both the core and extended face regions, and (ii superior power of MVPA in detecting group differences.

  11. Content and Face Validation of a Curriculum for Ultrasonic Propulsion of Calculi in a Human Renal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmire, Barbrina; Cunitz, Bryan W.; He, Xuemei; Sorensen, Mathew D.; Harper, Jonathan D.; Bailey, Michael R.; Lendvay, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Ultrasonic propulsion to reposition urinary tract calculi requires knowledge about ultrasound image capture, device manipulation, and interpretation. The purpose of this study was to validate a cognitive and technical skills curriculum to teach urologists ultrasonic propulsion to reposition kidney stones in tissue phantoms. Materials and Methods: Ten board-certified urologists recruited from a single institution underwent a didactic session on renal ultrasound imaging. Subjects completed technical skills modules in tissue phantoms, including kidney imaging, pushing a stone through a translucent maze, and repositioning a lower pole calyceal stone. Objective cognitive and technical performance metrics were recorded. Subjects completed a questionnaire to ascertain face and content validity on a five-point Likert scale. Results: Eight urologists (80%) had never attended a previous ultrasound course, and nine (90%) performed renal ultrasounds less frequently than every 6 months. Mean cognitive skills scores improved from 55% to 91% (pultrasound proficiency in stone repositioning technique. Further studies in animate and human models will be required to assess predictive validity. PMID:24228719

  12. Cues to sex- and stress-hormones in the human male face: functions of glucocorticoids in the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F R; Al Dujaili, E A S; Cornwell, R E; Smith, M J Law; Lawson, J F; Sharp, M; Perrett, D I

    2011-08-01

    The stress-linked version of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis has been proposed to account for inconsistencies in relationships between testosterone and immune response. The model has received some support from studies demonstrating roles of stress hormones in relationships between testosterone, immune function and secondary sexual ornamentation. Such work, however, has relied on artificial elevation of testosterone so may not reflect relationships in natural populations. We created human male facial stimuli on the basis of naturally co-occurring levels of salivary testosterone and the stress hormone cortisol. In Study 1 we tested female preferences for male faces with cues to combinations of the hormones across the menstrual cycle, and in Study 2 we tested perceptions of health and dominance in a novel set of facial stimuli. Females preferred cues to low cortisol, a preference that was strongest during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. The effects of cortisol on attractiveness and perceived health and dominance were contingent upon level of testosterone: the effects of the stress hormone were reduced when testosterone was high. We propose explanations for our results, including low cortisol as a cue to a heritable component of health, attractiveness as a predictor of low social-evaluative threat (and, therefore, low baseline cortisol) and testosterone as a proxy of male ability to cope efficiently with stressors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reading faces: differential lateral gaze bias in processing canine and human facial expressions in dogs and 4-year-old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Racca

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to the emotions of others provides clear biological advantages. However, in the case of heterospecific relationships, such as that existing between dogs and humans, there are additional challenges since some elements of the expression of emotions are species-specific. Given that faces provide important visual cues for communicating emotional state in both humans and dogs, and that processing of emotions is subject to brain lateralisation, we investigated lateral gaze bias in adult dogs when presented with pictures of expressive human and dog faces. Our analysis revealed clear differences in laterality of eye movements in dogs towards conspecific faces according to the emotional valence of the expressions. Differences were also found towards human faces, but to a lesser extent. For comparative purpose, a similar experiment was also run with 4-year-old children and it was observed that they showed differential processing of facial expressions compared to dogs, suggesting a species-dependent engagement of the right or left hemisphere in processing emotions.

  14. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, J; Dai, B; Peng, D; Zhu, C; Liu, L; Lu, C

    2012-01-01

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-...

  15. Critical Routes: Women Facing Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Critical Routes International Seminar – Women Facing Violence , which took place in Porto Alegre in 2008. The seminar was promoted by the Graduate Program on Collective Health at Unisinos and by the Public Health School/RS and was supported by outstanding researchers working in the fields of collective health, and social and human sciences. Initially, we discuss some conceptual aspects about gender violence, its dimensions and its consequences for the health and the life quality of the affected women. Our understanding is that violence is one of the most effective methods of controlling women in societies scarred with gender hierarchies. The structure of the seminar focused on three main discussion themes: breaking up with the violence, mechanisms for working with gender and hearing the services. These themes were chosen aiming at looking for ways to help the women and to explore efficient mechanisms to combat, reduce and, if possible, eliminate the violence perpetrated against women. At the end of the seminar, we reiterate the political commitment on the accomplishment of the public policies to face violence and the fight against all inequality, discrimination and violence forms based on gender.

  16. Discrimination problems of retirement age employees

    OpenAIRE

    Krinitsyna, Zoya Vasilievna; Mikhailova, T. R.; German, M. V.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that there is an increasing number of people of retirement age; however, they face great obstacles in the labor market. Different types of age discrimination are named: open and indirect discrimination. The analysis of internal and external factors of integration of retirement age people into the labor market is given. The main causes of discrimination of people of retirement age are shown. The basic problems in the labor market of elderly workers and possible ways of their soluti...

  17. Perceived Discrimination in LGBTIQ Discourse: A Typology of Verbal Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Rojas Lizana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New within the field of Discourse Analysis, Perceived Discrimination (PD is the study of discourse that focuses on the perspective of the victims of discrimination. This article explores the experiences of verbal discrimination as reported by eighteen LGBTIQ participants during semi-structured, co-constructed interviews. Data were classified in order to develop a taxonomy of discrimination based on Mellor’s (2003, 2004. This taxonomy foregrounds two types of discrimination: verbal and behavioural. In this paper, I exemplify the forms of verbal discrimination encountered and offer an analysis of the discourse used in the construction of the experiences and of the effects reported. The results show that verbal discrimination is an overt phenomenon and that participants are stressed by the ever present possibility of facing it. Verbal discrimination is mainly triggered by a perceived transgression to the normalised standards of people’s behaviour, movements and look in a heterosexist society. It presents three subtypes: name calling, abuse and remarks. These subtypes are described through the analysis of keywords, effects and expressions (such as faggot, gay, dyke, queer, the pronoun ‘it’, religious comments and other remarks. The type of discrimination used was associated with the level of acquaintance perpetrators have with the experiencers; that is, name calling was used by people unknown to the victims while abuse and remarks by acquaintances and family members. Participants resorted to several discursive strategies to convey their intentions. They used mitigation strategies when wanting to minimize the experience, hedging and repetition were used for emphasis, and to convey urgency and pervasiveness. Metaphorical expressions related to internal or external injuries were also used to express the powerful effect of verbal discrimination on people.

  18. Uncovering gender discrimination cues in a realistic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis-Roy, Nicolas; Fortin, Isabelle; Fiset, Daniel; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2009-02-10

    Which face cues do we use for gender discrimination? Few studies have tried to answer this question and the few that have tried typically used only a small set of grayscale stimuli, often distorted and presented a large number of times. Here, we reassessed the importance of facial cues for gender discrimination in a more realistic setting. We applied Bubbles-a technique that minimizes bias toward specific facial features and does not necessitate the distortion of stimuli-to a set of 300 color photographs of Caucasian faces, each presented only once to 30 participants. Results show that the region of the eyes and the eyebrows-probably in the light-dark channel-is the most important facial cue for accurate gender discrimination; and that the mouth region is driving fast correct responses (but not fast incorrect responses)-the gender discrimination information in the mouth region is concentrated in the red-green color channel. Together, these results suggest that, when color is informative in the mouth region, humans use it and respond rapidly; and, when it's not informative, they have to rely on the more robust but more sluggish luminance information in the eye-eyebrow region.

  19. Encephalometry on the medial face of the human brain hemisphere: a necropsy study Encefalometria na face medial do hemisfério cerebral humano: estudo em necropsias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J. Ribeiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the dimensions of the human brain, specifically in the frontal cortex, helping the analysis of neuroimaging. A form was made to register and describe encephalic measurements and 81 cerebral hemispheres (CH were analyzed. Male individuals showed larger CH length; wider superior frontal gyrus in the right CH; bigger encephalic weight and corpus callosum (CC width. The proportion of measurement from the frontal pole to the most anterior part of the CC genu, related to the CH length gets smaller with aging, whereas the average distance from the most posterior part of the splenum of the CC to the occipital pole was bigger in both male CHs and there was a tendency of decrease in this difference with aging.Este estudo visa avaliar as dimensões do cérebro humano, particularmente do córtex frontal, podendo colaborar para as análises de neuroimagem. Foi elaborado um formulário para registro e descrição das medidas encefálicas. A amostra foi constituída por 81 hemisférios cerebrais (HC adultos. Os homens apresentaram maior comprimento do HC; giro frontal superior mais largo no HC direito; maior peso encefálico e largura do corpo caloso (CC. A proporção da medida do pólo frontal à parte mais anterior do joelho do CC, em relação ao comprimento do HC diminui com o avanço da idade. Já a da média da distância da parte mais posterior do esplênio do CC ao pólo occipital foi maior em ambos HC dos homens e houve tendência à diminuição desta proporção com o avanço da idade.

  20. Face to Face Communications in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Davon, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that human face-to-face communications in space are compromised by facial edema, variations in the orientations of speakers and listeners, and background noises that are encountered in the shuttle and in space stations. To date, nearly all reports have been anecdotal or subjective, in the form of post-flight interviews or questionnaires; objective and quantitative data are generally lacking. Although it is acknowledged that efficient face-to-face communications are essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, specific ways in which the space environment interferes with non-linguistic communication cues are poorly documented. Because we have only a partial understanding of how non-linguistic communication cues may change with mission duration, it is critically important to obtain objective data, and to evaluate these cues under well-controlled experimental conditions.

  1. The functional organization of human extrastriate cortex: a PET-rCBF study of selective attention to faces and locations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haxby, JV; Horwitz, B; Ungerleider, LG; Maisog, JM; Pietrini, P; Grady, CL

    1994-01-01

    ... in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with positron emission tomography (PET) and H2(15)O. Separate scans were obtained while subjects performed face matching, location matching, or sensorimotor control tasks...

  2. Face recognition: Are viewpoint and identity processed after face detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Charles C-F; Wilson, Hugh R

    2010-07-21

    Previous research has suggested that an object's category is retrieved as soon as it is detected (Grill-Spector & Kanwisher, 2005). Here we examined whether face views and identities are likewise treated as categories. We measured behavioural performance on three tasks: face detection, recognition of face view within identity, and within-view face identification, by using the method of constant stimuli combined with a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) paradigm. Stimulus duration was varied between 13 ms and 133 ms in order to estimate the time required for 75%-correct discrimination in each task. The results showed, respectively, 24- and 31-ms shorter threshold durations for face detection than for viewpoint recognition and face identification, while similar threshold durations for viewpoint recognition and face identification. We demonstrated that face view and identity are retrieved after face detection, and importantly, the view-based categorical analysis takes almost as long as the face identification process. Thus, additional processing is essential for viewpoint and identity extraction as opposed to face detection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals ... by Type Search All Videos Learn More PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals ...

  4. Drugs, discrimination and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Frances

    2009-12-01

    Whether addiction to prohibited drugs should be classified as a disability for the purposes of disability discrimination is a controversial question in Australia. The leading Australian case of Marsden v Human Rights Equal Opportunity Commission & Coffs Harbour & District Ex-Servicemen & Women's Memorial Club Ltd (HREOC, No H98/51, 30 August 1999); [2000] FCA 1619 concerned a disability discrimination complaint brought by Mr Marsden as a result of his treatment by the club. The case was brought as a public interest test case by the New South Wales Legal Aid Commission. Mr Marsden was on a methadone program at the time. The reasoning of the decision at the Federal Court opened the way for a finding that dependence on illegal drugs constituted a disability under disability discrimination legislation. The media reaction to the court's decision led to State and federal governments proposing legislation limiting legal protection from discrimination for people addicted to illegal drugs on the basis of their drug use. While the proposed federal legislation lapsed after objections from a coalition of medical, legal and other advocacy groups, the New South Wales legislation still provides that, in employment matters, it is not unlawful to discriminate against a person on the ground of disability if the disability relates to the person's addiction to a prohibited drug and the person is actually addicted to a prohibited drug at the time of the discrimination. The article details the sequence of events in the Marsden case, reflects on the role of public interest litigation in achieving social justice outcomes and suggests that Australia's recent ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 17 July 2008 should encourage legislators to review legislation which may have a discriminatory effect on people suffering from addictions.

  5. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Dai, Bohan; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2012-11-07

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-face dialog between partners but none during a back-to-back dialog, a face-to-face monologue, or a back-to-back monologue. Moreover, the neural synchronization between partners during the face-to-face dialog resulted primarily from the direct interactions between the partners, including multimodal sensory information integration and turn-taking behavior. The communicating behavior during the face-to-face dialog could be predicted accurately based on the neural synchronization level. These results suggest that face-to-face communication, particularly dialog, has special neural features that other types of communication do not have and that the neural synchronization between partners may underlie successful face-to-face communication.

  6. Face inversion disrupts the perception of vertical relations between features in the right human occipito-temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffaux, Valerie; Rossion, Bruno; Sorger, Bettina; Schiltz, Christine; Goebel, Rainer

    2009-03-01

    The impact of inversion on the extraction of relational and featural face information was investigated in two fMRI experiments. Unlike previous studies, the contribution of horizontal and vertical spatial relations were considered separately since they have been shown to be differentially vulnerable to face inversion (Goffaux & Rossion, 2007). Hence, inversion largely affects the perception of vertical relations (e.g. eye or mouth height) while the processing of features (e.g. eye shape and surface) and of horizontal relations (e.g. inter-ocular distance) is affected to a far lesser extent. Participants viewed pairs of faces that differed either at the level of one local feature (i.e. the eyes) or of the spatial relations of this feature with adjacent features. Changes of spatial relations were divided into two conditions, depending on the vertical or horizontal axis of the modifications. These stimulus conditions were presented in separate blocks in the first (block) experiment while they were presented in a random order in the second event-related (ER) experiment. Face-preferring voxels located in the right-lateralized middle fusiform gyrus (rMFG) largely decreased their activity with inversion. Inversion-related decreases were more moderate in left-lateralized middle fusiform gyrus (lMFG). ER experiment revealed that inversion affected rMFG and lMFG activity in distinct stimulus conditions. Whereas inversion affected lMFG processing only in featural condition, inversion selectively affected the processing of vertical relations in rMFG. Correlation analyses further indicated that the inversion effect (IE) observed in rMFG and right inferior occipital gyrus (rIOG) reliably predicted the large behavioural IE observed for the processing of vertical relations. In contrast, lMFG IE correlated with the weak behavioural IE observed for the processing of horizontal relations. Our findings suggest that face configuration is mostly encoded in rMFG, whereas more local

  7. Quality of life differences in patients with right- versus left-sided facial paralysis: Universal preference of right-sided human face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Nam Gyu; Lim, Byung Woo; Cho, Jae Keun; Kim, Jin

    2016-09-01

    We investigated whether experiencing right- or left-sided facial paralysis would affect an individual's ability to recognize one side of the human face using hybrid hemi-facial photos by preliminary study. Further investigation looked at the relationship between facial recognition ability, stress, and quality of life. To investigate predominance of one side of the human face for face recognition, 100 normal participants (right-handed: n = 97, left-handed: n = 3, right brain dominance: n = 56, left brain dominance: n = 44) answered a questionnaire that included hybrid hemi-facial photos developed to determine decide superiority of one side for human face recognition. To determine differences of stress level and quality of life between individuals experiencing right- and left-sided facial paralysis, 100 patients (right side:50, left side:50, not including traumatic facial nerve paralysis) answered a questionnaire about facial disability index test and quality of life (SF-36 Korean version). Regardless of handedness or hemispheric dominance, the proportion of predominance of the right side in human face recognition was larger than the left side (71% versus 12%, neutral: 17%). Facial distress index of the patients with right-sided facial paralysis was lower than that of left-sided patients (68.8 ± 9.42 versus 76.4 ± 8.28), and the SF-36 scores of right-sided patients were lower than left-sided patients (119.07 ± 15.24 versus 123.25 ± 16.48, total score: 166). Universal preference for the right side in human face recognition showed worse psychological mood and social interaction in patients with right-side facial paralysis than left-sided paralysis. This information is helpful to clinicians in that psychological and social factors should be considered when treating patients with facial-paralysis. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Comparative Study of Human Thermal Face Recognition Based on Haar Wavelet Transform and Local Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debotosh Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared (IR images focus on changes of temperature distribution on facial muscles and blood vessels. These temperature changes can be regarded as texture features of images. A comparative study of face two recognition methods working in thermal spectrum is carried out in this paper. In the first approach, the training images and the test images are processed with Haar wavelet transform and the LL band and the average of LH/HL/HH bands subimages are created for each face image. Then a total confidence matrix is formed for each face image by taking a weighted sum of the corresponding pixel values of the LL band and average band. For LBP feature extraction, each of the face images in training and test datasets is divided into 161 numbers of subimages, each of size 8 × 8 pixels. For each such subimages, LBP features are extracted which are concatenated in manner. PCA is performed separately on the individual feature set for dimensionality reduction. Finally, two different classifiers namely multilayer feed forward neural network and minimum distance classifier are used to classify face images. The experiments have been performed on the database created at our own laboratory and Terravic Facial IR Database.

  9. Challenges Facing the Use of Human Rights to Address Negative Impacts of Development: the Case of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Istiningsih-Hadiprayitno, I.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of human rights in development is gaining prominence. In concrete settings and contexts, however, contesting development practices with human rights normative standards is controversial. The article outlines this controversy and complexity in Indonesia. It highlights tensions in human

  10. Face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Richard J; Aston, Sherrell J; Mendelson, Bryan C

    2011-12-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Identify and describe the anatomy of and changes to the aging face, including changes in bone mass and structure and changes to the skin, tissue, and muscles. 2. Assess each individual's unique anatomy before embarking on face-lift surgery and incorporate various surgical techniques, including fat grafting and other corrective procedures in addition to shifting existing fat to a higher position on the face, into discussions with patients. 3. Identify risk factors and potential complications in prospective patients. 4. Describe the benefits and risks of various techniques. The ability to surgically rejuvenate the aging face has progressed in parallel with plastic surgeons' understanding of facial anatomy. In turn, a more clear explanation now exists for the visible changes seen in the aging face. This article and its associated video content review the current understanding of facial anatomy as it relates to facial aging. The standard face-lift techniques are explained and their various features, both good and bad, are reviewed. The objective is for surgeons to make a better aesthetic diagnosis before embarking on face-lift surgery, and to have the ability to use the appropriate technique depending on the clinical situation.

  11. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients......It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...... perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...

  12. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  13. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  14. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and clinicians share their experiences ...

  15. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos Learn More PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? ... types of therapy that are proven to work. Learn more about Prolonged Exposure (PE) and Cognitive Processing ...

  16. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search ...

  17. An electrochemical biosensor based on human serum albumin/graphene oxide/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified ITO electrode for the enantioselective discrimination of D- and L-tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zor, Erhan; Hatay Patir, Imren; Bingol, Haluk; Ersoz, Mustafa

    2013-04-15

    A new electrochemical biosensor based on the human serum albumin/graphene oxide/3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane modified indium tin oxide electrode (ITO/APTES/GO/HSA) has been developed for the discrimination of tryptophan (Trp) enantiomers.The electrode has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical techniques. The electrochemical behaviors of the enantiomeric pairs (D- and L-Trp) at the ITO/APTES/GO/HSA electrode have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry in the concentration range of 0.10-1.0 mM. A clear separation between the oxidation peak potentials of D- and L-Trp, at 0.86 and 1.26 V, respectively, has suggested that the ITO/APTES/GO/HSA electrode can be used as an electrochemical biosensor for the discrimination of Trp enantiomers. In order to find the percentage of an enantiomeric form of tryptophan in a mixture, the ITO/APTES/GO/HSA electrode is used for the simultaneous detection of D- and L-Trp which showed that the percentage of one enantiomeric form can be easily measured in the presence of the other. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Selected Gray Matter Volumes and Gender but Not Basal Ganglia nor Cerebellum Gyri Discriminate Left Versus Right Cerebral Hemispheres: Multivariate Analyses in human Brains at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Suarez-May, Marcela A; Favila, Rafael; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Rios, Camilo

    2015-07-01

    Interest in the lateralization of the human brain is evident through a multidisciplinary number of scientific studies. Understanding volumetric brain asymmetries allows the distinction between normal development stages and behavior, as well as brain diseases. We aimed to evaluate volumetric asymmetries in order to select the best gyri able to classify right- versus left cerebral hemispheres. A cross-sectional study performed in 47 right-handed young-adults healthy volunteers. SPM-based software performed brain segmentation, automatic labeling and volumetric analyses for 54 regions involving the cerebral lobes, basal ganglia and cerebellum from each cerebral hemisphere. Multivariate discriminant analysis (DA) allowed the assembling of a predictive model. DA revealed one discriminant function that significantly differentiated left vs. right cerebral hemispheres: Wilks' λ = 0.008, χ(2) (9) = 238.837, P brain gyri are able to accurately classify left vs. right cerebral hemispheres by using a multivariate approach; the selected regions correspond to key brain areas involved in attention, internal thought, vision and language; our findings favored the concept that lateralization has been evolutionary favored by mental processes increasing cognitive efficiency and brain capacity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Anodal-tDCS over the human right occipital cortex enhances the perception and memory of both faces and objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Marica; Negrini, Marcello; Nitsche, Michael A; Rivolta, Davide

    2016-01-29

    Accurate face processing skills are pivotal for typical social cognition, and impairments in this ability characterise various clinical conditions (e.g., prosopagnosia). No study to date has investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can causally enhance face processing. In addition, the category- and the process-specificity of tDCS effects, as well as the role of the timing of neuromodulation with respect to the execution of cognitive tasks are still unknown. In this single-blind, sham-controlled study, we examined whether the administration of anodal-tDCS (a-tDCS) over the right occipital cortex of healthy volunteers (N=64) enhances performance on perceptual and memory tasks involving both face and object stimuli. Neuromodulation was delivered in two conditions: online (a-tDCS during task execution) and offline (a-tDCS before task execution). The results demonstrate that offline a-tDCS enhances the perception and memory performance of both faces and objects. There was no effect of online a-tDCS on behaviour. Furthermore, the offline effect was site-specific since a-tDCS over the sensory-motor cortex did not lead to behavioural changes. Our results add relevant information about the breadth of cognitive processes and visual stimuli that can be modulated by tDCS, and about the design of effective neuromodulation protocols, which have implications for advancing theories in cognitive neuroscience and clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Application of the discriminant analysis for the assessment of human somatotype using the long bones of extremities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, M A

    2004-01-01

    Measurements were made on the basis of the osteological collection of the chair for anthropology, Moscow State University (70 cases), and on the basis of a series of skeletons (10 cases) from among burial places of the Novospassk Monastery (males aged above 18-20). Eleven sizes of Martin program (length, diaphysis circumference and epiphysis width) were fixed onto the humerus, radial, femoral and shin bones. Simultaneously, the development of the osseous relief elements in the above bones (a total of 18 signs in each skeleton) was evaluated by Fedosova program. The data was processed by SPSS. Discriminative analysis was used as a basis to work out a diagnostic model that can be used to determine a somatotype by the humerus, radial and femoral bones. The classification accuracy is 75%. The method should be applied in those cases, when the appropriate bones are available. If the available combination of bones is different from the above, the routine method is recommended for use, i.e. determination of a somatotype by the skeleton massiveness.

  1. N170 face specificity and face memory depend on hometown size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Saville, Alyson

    2015-03-01

    Face recognition depends on visual experience in a number of different ways. Infrequent exposure to faces belonging to categories defined by species, age, or race can lead to diminished memory for and discrimination between members of those categories relative to faces belonging to categories that dominate an observer's environment. Early visual impairment can also have long-lasting and broad effects on face discrimination - just a few months of visual impairment due to congenital cataracts can lead to diminished discrimination between faces that differ in their configuration, for example (Le Grand et al., 2001). Presently, we consider a novel aspect of visual experience that may impact face recognition: The approximate amount of different faces observers encountered during their childhood. We recruited undergraduate observers from small (500-1000 individuals) and large communities (30,000-100,000 individuals) and asked them to complete a standard face memory test and a basic ERP paradigm designed to elicit a robust N170 response, including the classic face inversion effect. We predicted that growing up in a small community might lead to diminished face memory and an N170 response that was less specific to faces. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that the sheer number of faces one can interact with during their upbringing shapes their behavioral abilities and the functional architecture of face processing in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Training with Own-Race Faces Can Improve Processing of Other-Race Faces: Evidence from Developmental Prosopagnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; DeNicola, Cristopher; Zink, Tyler; McGlinchey, Regina; Milberg, William

    2011-01-01

    Faces of one's own race are discriminated and recognized more accurately than faces of an other race (other-race effect--ORE). Studies have employed several methods to enhance individuation and recognition of other-race faces and reduce the ORE, including intensive perceptual training with other-race faces and explicitly instructing participants…

  3. Did transmission of Helicobacter pylori from humans cause a disease outbreak in a colony of Stripe-faced Dunnarts (Sminthopsis macroura?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Every Alison L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the discovery that Helicobacter pylori causes a range of pathologies in the stomachs of infected humans, it has become apparent that Helicobacters are found in a diverse range of animal species where they are frequently associated with disease. In 2003 and 2004, there were two outbreaks of increased mortality associated with gastric bleeding and weight-loss in a captive colony of the Australian marsupial, the Stripe-faced Dunnart (Sminthopsis macroura. The presence of gastric pathology led to an investigation of potential Helicobacter pathogenesis in these animals. Histological examination revealed the presence of gastritis, and PCR analysis confirmed the presence of Helicobacter infection in the stomachs of these marsupials. Surprisingly, sequencing of 16S rRNA from these bacteria identified the species as H. pylori and PCR confirmed the strain to be positive for the important pathogenesis factor, cagA. We therefore describe, for the first time, an apparent reverse zoonotic infection of Stripe-faced Dunnarts with H. pylori. Already prone to pathological effects of stress (as experienced during breeding season, concomitant H. pylori infection appears to be a possible essential but not sufficient co-factor in prototypic gastric bleeding and weight loss in these marsupials. The Stripe-faced Dunnart could represent a new model for investigating Helicobacter-driven gastric pathology. Infections from their human handlers, specifically of H. pylori, may be a potential risk to captive colonies of marsupials.

  4. Did transmission of Helicobacter pylori from humans cause a disease outbreak in a colony of Stripe-faced Dunnarts (Sminthopsis macroura)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery that Helicobacter pylori causes a range of pathologies in the stomachs of infected humans, it has become apparent that Helicobacters are found in a diverse range of animal species where they are frequently associated with disease. In 2003 and 2004, there were two outbreaks of increased mortality associated with gastric bleeding and weight-loss in a captive colony of the Australian marsupial, the Stripe-faced Dunnart (Sminthopsis macroura). The presence of gastric pathology led to an investigation of potential Helicobacter pathogenesis in these animals. Histological examination revealed the presence of gastritis, and PCR analysis confirmed the presence of Helicobacter infection in the stomachs of these marsupials. Surprisingly, sequencing of 16S rRNA from these bacteria identified the species as H. pylori and PCR confirmed the strain to be positive for the important pathogenesis factor, cagA. We therefore describe, for the first time, an apparent reverse zoonotic infection of Stripe-faced Dunnarts with H. pylori. Already prone to pathological effects of stress (as experienced during breeding season), concomitant H. pylori infection appears to be a possible essential but not sufficient co-factor in prototypic gastric bleeding and weight loss in these marsupials. The Stripe-faced Dunnart could represent a new model for investigating Helicobacter-driven gastric pathology. Infections from their human handlers, specifically of H. pylori, may be a potential risk to captive colonies of marsupials. PMID:21314909

  5. The Challenges faced by NAPTIP Officials in the Control of Child Labour and Human Trafficking in Lagos State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafi, Zubair Oba

    2014-01-01

    This thesis work is designed to specifically bring to the fore the various forms of challenges that are being experienced or faced by the staff of NAPTIP at combating child trafficking and child labour in Lagos, Nigeria. This is idea is borne out the desire to contribute to the striking upsurge around the world against child labour with reference to Lagos, Nigeria. The study used a qualitative research approach; structured interviews to collect data. The respondents’ for this research were se...

  6. Perceptual learning of motion direction discrimination with suppressed and unsuppressed MT in humans: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thompson

    Full Text Available The middle temporal area of the extrastriate visual cortex (area MT is integral to motion perception and is thought to play a key role in the perceptual learning of motion tasks. We have previously found, however, that perceptual learning of a motion discrimination task is possible even when the training stimulus contains locally balanced, motion opponent signals that putatively suppress the response of MT. Assuming at least partial suppression of MT, possible explanations for this learning are that 1 training made MT more responsive by reducing motion opponency, 2 MT remained suppressed and alternative visual areas such as V1 enabled learning and/or 3 suppression of MT increased with training, possibly to reduce noise. Here we used fMRI to test these possibilities. We first confirmed that the motion opponent stimulus did indeed suppress the BOLD response within hMT+ compared to an almost identical stimulus without locally balanced motion signals. We then trained participants on motion opponent or non-opponent stimuli. Training with the motion opponent stimulus reduced the BOLD response within hMT+ and greater reductions in BOLD response were correlated with greater amounts of learning. The opposite relationship between BOLD and behaviour was found at V1 for the group trained on the motion-opponent stimulus and at both V1 and hMT+ for the group trained on the non-opponent motion stimulus. As the average response of many cells within MT to motion opponent stimuli is the same as their response to non-directional flickering noise, the reduced activation of hMT+ after training may reflect noise reduction.

  7. Perceptual discrimination difficulty and familiarity in the Uncanny Valley: more like a "Happy Valley".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jancke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH) predicts that greater difficulty perceptually discriminating between categorically ambiguous human and humanlike characters (e.g., highly realistic robot) evokes negatively valenced (i.e., uncanny) affect. An ABX perceptual discrimination task and signal detection analysis was used to examine the profile of perceptual discrimination (PD) difficulty along the UVH' dimension of human likeness (DHL). This was represented using avatar-to-human morph continua. Rejecting the implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty underlying the UVH' prediction, Experiment 1 showed that PD difficulty was reduced for categorically ambiguous faces but, notably, enhanced for human faces. Rejecting the UVH' predicted relationship between PD difficulty and negative affect (assessed in terms of the UVH' familiarity dimension), Experiment 2 demonstrated that greater PD difficulty correlates with more positively valenced affect. Critically, this effect was strongest for the ambiguous faces, suggesting a correlative relationship between PD difficulty and feelings of familiarity more consistent with the metaphor happy valley. This relationship is also consistent with a fluency amplification instead of the hitherto proposed hedonic fluency account of affect along the DHL. Experiment 3 found no evidence that the asymmetry in the profile of PD along the DHL is attributable to a differential processing bias (cf. other-race effect), i.e., processing avatars at a category level but human faces at an individual level. In conclusion, the present data for static faces show clear effects that, however, strongly challenge the UVH' implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty along the DHL and the predicted relationship between this and feelings of familiarity.

  8. The persistence of distraction: a study of attentional biases by fear, faces, and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Emily L; Kim, So-Yeon; Hopfinger, Joseph B

    2014-12-01

    Efficient processing of the visual world requires that distracting items be avoided, or at least rapidly disengaged from. The mechanisms by which highly salient, yet irrelevant, stimuli lead to distraction, however, are not well understood. Here, we utilized a particularly strong type of distractor--images of human faces--to investigate the mechanisms of distraction and the involuntarily biasing of attention. Across three experiments using a novel discrimination task, we provided new evidence that the robust distraction triggered by faces may not reflect enhanced attraction but, instead, may reflect an extended holding of attention. Specifically, the onset of a task-irrelevant distractor initially impaired target performance regardless of the identity of that distractor (fearful faces, neutral faces, or places). In contrast, an extended period of distraction was observed only when the distractor was a face. Our results thus demonstrate two distinct mechanisms contributing to distraction: an initial involuntary capture to any sudden event and a subsequent holding of attention to a potentially meaningful, yet task-irrelevant stimulus-in this case, a human face. Critically, the latter holding of attention by faces was not unique to fearful faces but also occurred for neutral faces. The present results dissociate attentional capture from hold in another way as well, since the capture occurred regardless of the nature of the distractors, but the extended holding of attention was dependent upon the ongoing distractor context.

  9. Pointy Face

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'minimalist' public police in the face of the incipient 'remilitarisation' of the SAPS in their. South African policing at a crossroads.51. CONCLUSION. What does South African criminology need to do in response to this explanatory crisis? What needs to happen if we are to develop a fuller understanding of men like 'Pointy ...

  10. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search All Videos Learn More PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic event — like combat, an assault, or a disaster — it's normal to feel scared, keyed up, or sad at first. But if ...

  11. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it's normal to feel scared, keyed up, or sad at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these ...

  12. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic event — ... you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is ...

  13. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos ...

  14. Effects of visual demonstration, verbal instructions, and prompted verbal descriptions on the performance of human subjects in conditional discriminations

    OpenAIRE

    Ribes-Iñesta, Emilio; Cepeda, Ma. Luisa; Hickman, Hortencia; Moreno, Diana; Peñalosa, Eduardo

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to confirm prior results concerning the role of prompted verbal descriptions of visually demonstrated stimulus relations in the acquisition and transfer of identity, difference, and similarity-matching relations (Ribes et al., 1988). Four groups of human adults were trained with these three matching relations under four different procedures: (1) visual demonstration without response requirement, (2) verbal instructions, (3) visual demonstration plus prompted verbal descr...

  15. Prosody discrimination by songbirds (Padda oryzivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoi, Nozomi; Watanabe, Shigeru; Maekawa, Kikuo; Hibiya, Junko

    2012-01-01

    In human verbal communication, not only lexical information, but also paralinguistic information plays an important role in transmitting the speakers' mental state. Paralinguistic information is conveyed mainly through acoustic features like pitch, rhythm, tempo and so on. These acoustic features are generally known as prosody. It is known that some species of birds can discriminate certain aspects of human speech. However, there have not been any studies on the discrimination of prosody in human language which convey different paralinguistic meanings by birds. In the present study, we have shown that the Java sparrow (Padda oryzivora) can discriminate different prosodic patterns of Japanese sentences. These birds could generalize prosodic discrimination to novel sentences, but could not generalize sentence discrimination to those with novel prosody. Moreover, unlike Japanese speakers, Java sparrows used the first part of the utterance as the discrimination cue.

  16. Prosody discrimination by songbirds (Padda oryzivora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Naoi

    Full Text Available In human verbal communication, not only lexical information, but also paralinguistic information plays an important role in transmitting the speakers' mental state. Paralinguistic information is conveyed mainly through acoustic features like pitch, rhythm, tempo and so on. These acoustic features are generally known as prosody. It is known that some species of birds can discriminate certain aspects of human speech. However, there have not been any studies on the discrimination of prosody in human language which convey different paralinguistic meanings by birds. In the present study, we have shown that the Java sparrow (Padda oryzivora can discriminate different prosodic patterns of Japanese sentences. These birds could generalize prosodic discrimination to novel sentences, but could not generalize sentence discrimination to those with novel prosody. Moreover, unlike Japanese speakers, Java sparrows used the first part of the utterance as the discrimination cue.

  17. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  18. A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Baker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris, for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (C. latrans. Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical less/more discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family—one domesticated, and one wild—make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition.Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given 9 trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker and colleagues (2011.The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar nonverbal quantitative abilities across

  19. A Shared System of Representation Governing Quantity Discrimination in Canids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph M.; Morath, Justice; Rodzon, Katrina S.; Jordan, Kerry E.

    2012-01-01

    One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (Canis latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical “less/more” discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family – one domesticated, and one wild – make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition. Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given nine trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker et al. (2011). The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar non-verbal quantitative abilities across multiple

  20. A study on the discrimination of human skeletons using X-ray fluorescence and chemometric tools in chemical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J; Fowler, G

    2013-09-10

    Forensic anthropological investigations are often restricted in their outcomes by the resources allocated to them, especially in terms of positively identifying the victims exhumed from commingled mass graves. Commingled mass graves can be defined as those graves that contain a number of disarticulated human remains from different individuals that have been mixed by either natural processes or human interventions. The research developed aimed to apply the technique of non-destructive XRF analysis to test whether there is substantial differentiation within the trace elemental composition and their ratios of individuals to separate them using chemometric analysis. The results of the different atomic spectroscopic analyses combined with the use of multivariate analysis on a set of 5 skeletons produced a series of plots using Principal Component Analysis that helped to separate them with a high percentage of accuracy when two, three or four skeletons needed to be separated. Also, two new elemental ratios, Zn/Fe related to metabolic activities and K/Fe related to blood flow into the bone, have been defined for their use in forensic anthropology for the first time to aid in the separation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Additional Evidence That Transaldolase Exchange, Isotope Discrimination During the Triose-Isomerase Reaction, or Both Occur in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Rita; Chandramouli, Visvanthan; Schumann, William; Basu, Ananda; Landau, Bernard R.; Rizza, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether deuterium enrichment on carbons 5 and 3 (C5/C3) in plasma glucose is influenced by processes other than gluconeogenesis and, if so, whether these processes are altered by type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this study, 10 obese diabetic and 10 obese nondiabetic subjects were infused intravenously with [3,5-2H2] galactose enriched at a C5-to-C3 ratio of 1.0 as well as the enrichment of deuterium on C5 and C3 of plasma glucose, measured with nuclear magnetic resonance using the acetaminophen glucuronide method. RESULTS The ratio of deuterium enrichment on C5 and C3 of glucose was deuterium at the level of the triose-isomerase reaction, or both occur in humans. This also indicates that the net effect of these processes on the C5-to-C3 ratio is the same in people with and without type 2 diabetes. The possible effects of transaldolase exchange or selective retention of deuterium (or tritium) at the level of the triose-isomerase reaction on tracee labeling and tracer metabolism should be considered when the deuterated water method is used to measure gluconeogenesis or [3-3H] glucose is used to measure glucose turnover in humans. PMID:19366865

  2. The human brain and face: mechanisms of cranial, neurological and facial development revealed through malformations of holoprosencephaly, cyclopia and aberrations in chromosome 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C; Gboluaje, Temitayo; Reid, Shaina N; Lin, Stephen; Wang, Paul; Green, William; Diogo, Rui; Fidélia-Lambert, Marie N; Herman, Mary M

    2015-09-01

    The study of inborn genetic errors can lend insight into mechanisms of normal human development and congenital malformations. Here, we present the first detailed comparison of cranial and neuro pathology in two exceedingly rare human individuals with cyclopia and alobar holoprosencephaly (HPE) in the presence and absence of aberrant chromosome 18 (aCh18). The aCh18 fetus contained one normal Ch18 and one with a pseudo-isodicentric duplication of chromosome 18q and partial deletion of 18p from 18p11.31 where the HPE gene, TGIF, resides, to the p terminus. In addition to synophthalmia, the aCh18 cyclopic malformations included a failure of induction of most of the telencephalon - closely approximating anencephaly, unchecked development of brain stem structures, near absence of the sphenoid bone and a malformed neurocranium and viscerocranium that constitute the median face. Although there was complete erasure of the olfactory and superior nasal structures, rudiments of nasal structures derived from the maxillary bone were evident, but with absent pharyngeal structures. The second non-aCh18 cyclopic fetus was initially classified as a true Cyclops, as it appeared to have a proboscis and one median eye with a single iris, but further analysis revealed two eye globes as expected for synophthalmic cyclopia. Furthermore, the proboscis was associated with the medial ethmoid ridge, consistent with an incomplete induction of these nasal structures, even as the nasal septum and paranasal sinuses were apparently developed. An important conclusion of this study is that it is the brain that predicts the overall configuration of the face, due to its influence on the development of surrounding skeletal structures. The present data using a combination of macroscopic, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide an unparalleled analysis on the extent of the effects of median defects, and insight into normal development and patterning of the brain

  3. Penalized linear discriminant analysis and Discrete AdaBoost to distinguish human hair metal profiles: The case of adolescents residing near Mt. Etna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbruzzo, A; Tamburo, E; Varrica, D; Dongarrà, G; Mineo, A

    2016-06-01

    The research focus of the present paper was twofold. First, we tried to document that human intake of trace elements is influenced by geological factors of the place of residence. Second, we showed that the elemental composition of human hair is a useful screening tool for assessing people's exposure to potentially toxic substances. For this purpose, we used samples of human hair from adolescents and applied two robust statistical approaches. Samples from two distinct geological and environmental sites were collected: the first one was characterized by the presence of the active volcano Mt. Etna (ETNA group) and the second one lithologically made up of sedimentary rocks (SIC group). Chemical data were statistically processed by Penalized Linear Discriminant Analysis (pLDA) and Discrete AdaBoost (DAB). The separation between the two groups turned out well, with few overlaps accounting for less than 5%. The chemical variables that better distinguished ETNA group from SIC group were As, Cd, Co, Li, Mo, Rb, Sr, U and V. Both pLDA and DAB allowed us to characterize the elements most closely related to the volcanic contribution (As, U and V) and those (Cd, Co, Li, Mo, Rb and Sr) prevalently influenced by the geology of the area where SIC samples were collected. We conclude that the geological characteristics of the area of residence constitute a key factor in influencing the potential exposure to trace elements. Hair analysis coupled with robust statistical methods can be effectively used as a screening procedure to identify areas at great environmental risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Women & Housing: A Report on Sex Discrimination in Five American Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Negro Women, New York, NY.

    Public hearings and workshops were held in five metropolitan areas to gather data about the problems women in American cities face when they try to acquire and maintain a place to live. The chief findings were: (1) women have faced and continue to face discrimination in marketing, lending, and shelter-related services; (2) discrimination against…

  5. Fine pathogen discrimination within the APL1 gene family protects Anopheles gambiae against human and rodent malaria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mitri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetically controlled resistance of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to Plasmodium falciparum is a common trait in the natural population, and a cluster of natural resistance loci were mapped to the Plasmodium-Resistance Island (PRI of the A. gambiae genome. The APL1 family of leucine-rich repeat (LRR proteins was highlighted by candidate gene studies in the PRI, and is comprised of paralogs APL1A, APL1B and APL1C that share > or =50% amino acid identity. Here, we present a functional analysis of the joint response of APL1 family members during mosquito infection with human and rodent Plasmodium species. Only paralog APL1A protected A. gambiae against infection with the human malaria parasite P. falciparum from both the field population and in vitro culture. In contrast, only paralog APL1C protected against the rodent malaria parasites P. berghei and P. yoelii. We show that anti-P. falciparum protection is mediated by the Imd/Rel2 pathway, while protection against P. berghei infection was shown to require Toll/Rel1 signaling. Further, only the short Rel2-S isoform and not the long Rel2-F isoform of Rel2 confers protection against P. falciparum. Protection correlates with the transcriptional regulation of APL1A by Rel2-S but not Rel2-F, suggesting that the Rel2-S anti-parasite phenotype results at least in part from its transcriptional control over APL1A. These results indicate that distinct members of the APL1 gene family display a mutually exclusive protective effect against different classes of Plasmodium parasites. It appears that a gene-for-pathogen-class system orients the appropriate host defenses against distinct categories of similar pathogens. It is known that insect innate immune pathways can distinguish between grossly different microbes such as Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, or fungi, but the function of the APL1 paralogs reveals that mosquito innate immunity possesses a more fine-grained capacity to distinguish between

  6. Reactive oxygen species modify human DNA, eliciting a more discriminating antigen for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, S; Griffiths, H; Emery, P; Lunec, J

    1990-09-01

    During the development of an ELISA to measure anti-DNA antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sera, native dsDNA was found not to be the most appropriate antigen to use in ELISA assays for differentiating between SLE patients and those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a disease also associated with circulating serum anti-DNA antibodies. By modifying the ELISA technique to incorporate human DNA, denatured by reactive oxygen species, to detect anti-DNA antibodies in SLE sera, results consistently showed an increase in antibody binding when compared with the native antigen; no such trend was observed in the comparable group of RA patients. Using this assay serum anti-dsDNA antibody levels were measured in a group of 20 controls, 20 RA patients (10 seropositive and 10 seronegative) and 30 SLE patients (15 with clinically active disease, 15 with inactive disease). A comparison with the standard radioimmunoassay used to measure anti-DNA antibodies for the diagnosis of SLE showed that the ELISA assay using modified DNA performed better than the standard radioimmunoassay offering an improvement in both clinical specificity and sensitivity. The improved method particularly reduced the problem of false-negative results for SLE patients shown clinically to be either mildly active or inactive.

  7. Conscious awareness is required for holistic face processing

    OpenAIRE

    Axelrod, Vadim; Overgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the limits of unconscious processing is essential to understand the function of consciousness. Here, we explored whether holistic face processing, a mechanism believed to be important for face processing in general, can be accomplished unconsciously. Using a novel "eyes-face" stimulus we tested whether discrimination of pairs of eyes was influenced by the surrounding face context. While the eyes were fully visible, the faces that provided context could be rendered invisible thro...

  8. Discrimination problems of retirement age employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krinitcyna Z.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that there is an increasing number of people of retirement age; however, they face great obstacles in the labor market. Different types of age discrimination are named: open and indirect discrimination. The analysis of internal and external factors of integration of retirement age people into the labor market is given. The main causes of discrimination of people of retirement age are shown. The basic problems in the labor market of elderly workers and possible ways of their solutions are given.

  9. Human rights, dual loyalties, and clinical independence : challenges facing mental health professionals working in Australia's immigration detention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Ryan

    2014-03-01

    Although Australia has comparatively few individuals seeking asylum, it has had a mandatory detention policy in place since 1992. This policy has been maintained by successive governments despite the overwhelmingly negative impact mandatory detention has on mental health. For mental health professionals working in this environment, a number of moral, ethical, and human rights issues are raised. These issues are discussed here, with a focus on dual loyalty conflicts and drawing on personal experience, the bioethics and human rights literature, and recent parliamentary inquiries. For those who continue to work in this environment, future directions are also discussed.

  10. Racial discrimination: experiences of black medical school alumni at the University of Cape Town, 1945 - 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, A M; Ahmed, N; London, L

    2012-05-23

    Reflecting on its role during apartheid, the University of Cape Town (UCT) Faculty of Health Sciences undertook a study to explore the experiences of black alumni who trained in the period 1945 - 1994. Seventy-five black alumni were selected through purposive and snowball recruitment, resulting in 52 face-to-face and 23 telephonic or postal interviews. Experiences of racial discrimination were widely reported and respondents believed the quality of their training was adversely affected. Until 1985, black students were required to sign a declaration agreeing to excuse themselves from classes where white patients were present. Black students were denied access to white patients in wards, and the university admitted that it could not guarantee their clinical training. Tutorial groups were racially segregated. Black students were also excluded from university facilities, events and extramural activities. Themes that emerged were: lack of social contact with white staff and students during training, belief that white staff members actively or tacitly upheld discriminatory regulations, and resistance by black students. Efforts of some white staff to resist discrimination were acknowledged. Racism was entrenched explicitly and implicitly. Perceptions of the attitudes of white staff to apartheid legislation on the part of black alumni were diverse, ranging from claims of active support for racial discrimination to recognition of attempts to resist racist rules. These findings provided the basis for faculty transformation initiatives based on human rights, respect for human dignity and non-discrimination.

  11. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    The most blatant forms of discrimination are morally outrageous and very obviously so; but the nature and boundaries of discrimination are more controversial, and it is not clear whether all forms of discrimination are morally bad; nor is it clear why objectionable cases of discrimination are bad...

  12. Illumination robust face recognition using spatial adaptive shadow compensation based on face intensity prior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Ta; Huang, Kae-Horng; Lee, Chang-Hsing; Han, Chin-Chuan; Fan, Kuo-Chin

    2017-12-01

    Robust face recognition under illumination variations is an important and challenging task in a face recognition system, particularly for face recognition in the wild. In this paper, a face image preprocessing approach, called spatial adaptive shadow compensation (SASC), is proposed to eliminate shadows in the face image due to different lighting directions. First, spatial adaptive histogram equalization (SAHE), which uses face intensity prior model, is proposed to enhance the contrast of each local face region without generating visible noises in smooth face areas. Adaptive shadow compensation (ASC), which performs shadow compensation in each local image block, is then used to produce a wellcompensated face image appropriate for face feature extraction and recognition. Finally, null-space linear discriminant analysis (NLDA) is employed to extract discriminant features from SASC compensated images. Experiments performed on the Yale B, Yale B extended, and CMU PIE face databases have shown that the proposed SASC always yields the best face recognition accuracy. That is, SASC is more robust to face recognition under illumination variations than other shadow compensation approaches.

  13. Specific impairment of face-processing abilities in children with autism spectrum disorder using the Let's Face It! skills battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Julie M; Tanaka, James W; Klaiman, Cheryl; Cockburn, Jeff; Herlihy, Lauren; Brown, Carla; South, Mikle; McPartland, James; Kaiser, Martha D; Phillips, Rebecca; Schultz, Robert T

    2008-12-01

    Although it has been well established that individuals with autism exhibit difficulties in their face recognition abilities, it has been debated whether this deficit reflects a category-specific impairment of faces or a general perceptual bias toward the local-level information in a stimulus. In this study, the Let's Face It! Skills Battery [Tanaka & Schultz, 2008] of developmental face- and object-processing measures was administered to a large sample of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children. The main finding was that when matched for age and IQ, individuals with ASD were selectively impaired in their ability to recognize faces across changes in orientation, expression and featural information. In a face discrimination task, ASD participants showed a preserved ability to discriminate featural and configural information in the mouth region of a face, but were compromised in their ability to discriminate featural and configural information in the eyes. On object-processing tasks, ASD participants demonstrated a normal ability to recognize automobiles across changes in orientation and a superior ability to discriminate featural and configural information in houses. These findings indicate that the face-processing deficits in ASD are not due to a local-processing bias, but reflect a category-specific impairment of faces characterized by a failure to form view-invariant face representations and discriminate information in the eye region of the face.

  14. Individual and Social Function of Education in View of the Changing Face of Human Nature and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Humanity passes through a period of time in which economic facts are not only determining factors on almost all activities from the behavior of partner selection to that of voting but also one of the ways to rationalize daily life. This period is a period in which the nature of materialistic world of today in parallel with the spiritual nature of…

  15. Human rights and the right to health in Latin America: the Two Faces of One Powerful Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Ines Stolkiner

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade the discussion of human rights has reappeared in the field of health, replacing the technocratic approaches of the previous period which had centered on cost-effectiveness. The focus on rights in public policies, with its emphasis on international norms for social rights, has influenced primary health care (PHC strategy and fostered the return of PHC to its original role as guarantor of the right to health.3 As human rights became increasingly global, they once again occupied a central place in World Health Organization (WHO documents and in government attitudes. The revival of human rights discourse occurred at a time when neoliberalism was being discredited intellectually. It coincided with the appearance of governments critical of the hegemonic model of the 1990s, the restructuring of geopolitical alliances, and a crisis of world capitalism affecting its central core. Various trends have co-existed within this process; the attempt to establish more just societies runs parallel to the search for a new way to legitimize power, given the loss of consensus over the neoliberal model. This dual aspect of the inclusion of human rights in the political arena demands a careful analysis of the various discourses and the proposals with which they are associated.

  16. Holistic Processing of Static and Moving Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Humans' face ability develops and matures with extensive experience in perceiving, recognizing, and interacting with faces that move most of the time. However, how facial movements affect 1 core aspect of face ability--holistic face processing--remains unclear. Here we investigated the influence of rigid facial motion on holistic and part-based…

  17. Face and emotion expression processing and the serotonin transporter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR/rs22531.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A; Kiy, A; Reuter, M; Sommer, W; Wilhelm, O

    2016-06-01

    Face cognition, including face identity and facial expression processing, is a crucial component of socio-emotional abilities, characterizing humans as highest developed social beings. However, for these trait domains molecular genetic studies investigating gene-behavior associations based on well-founded phenotype definitions are still rare. We examined the relationship between 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphisms - related to serotonin-reuptake - and the ability to perceive and recognize faces and emotional expressions in human faces. For this aim we conducted structural equation modeling on data from 230 young adults, obtained by using a comprehensive, multivariate task battery with maximal effort tasks. By additionally modeling fluid intelligence and immediate and delayed memory factors, we aimed to address the discriminant relationships of the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphisms with socio-emotional abilities. We found a robust association between the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism and facial emotion perception. Carriers of two long (L) alleles outperformed carriers of one or two S alleles. Weaker associations were present for face identity perception and memory for emotional facial expressions. There was no association between the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism and non-social abilities, demonstrating discriminant validity of the relationships. We discuss the implications and possible neural mechanisms underlying these novel findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. Concentration profiling of minerals in iliac crest bone tissue of opium addicted humans using inductively coupled plasma and discriminant analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Jamshidi, Mahbobeh; Yeganeh, Ali; Mahmoudi, Mani

    2016-02-20

    Opium addiction is one of the main health problems in developing countries and induces serious defects on the human body. In this work, the concentrations of 32 minerals including alkaline, heavy and toxic metals have been determined in the iliac crest bone tissue of 22 opium addicted individuals using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The bone tissues of 30 humans with no physiological and metabolomic diseases were used as the control group. For subsequent analyses, the linear and quadratic discriminant analysis techniques have been used for classification of the data into "addicted" and "non-addicted" groups. Moreover, the counter-propagation artificial neural network (CPANN) has been used for clustering of the data. The results revealed that the CPANN is a robust model and thoroughly classifies the data. The area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve for this model was more than 0.91. Investigation of the results revealed that the opium consumption causes a deficiency in the level of Calcium, Phosphate, Potassium and Sodium in iliac crest bone tissue. Moreover, this type of addiction induces an increment in the level of toxic and heavy metals such as Co, Cr, Mo and Ni in iliac crest tissue. The correlation analysis revealed that there were no significant dependencies between the age of the samples and the mineral content of their iliac crest, in this study. The results of this work suggest that the opium addicted individuals need thorough and restricted dietary and medical care programs after recovery phases, in order to have healthy bones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Feature Extraction for Facial Expression Recognition based on Hybrid Face Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAJEVARDI, S.M.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition has numerous applications, including psychological research, improved human computer interaction, and sign language translation. A novel facial expression recognition system based on hybrid face regions (HFR is investigated. The expression recognition system is fully automatic, and consists of the following modules: face detection, facial detection, feature extraction, optimal features selection, and classification. The features are extracted from both whole face image and face regions (eyes and mouth using log Gabor filters. Then, the most discriminate features are selected based on mutual information criteria. The system can automatically recognize six expressions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise. The selected features are classified using the Naive Bayesian (NB classifier. The proposed method has been extensively assessed using Cohn-Kanade database and JAFFE database. The experiments have highlighted the efficiency of the proposed HFR method in enhancing the classification rate.

  20. Caregiving Experience and Its Relation to Perceptual Narrowing of Face Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Juvrud, Joshua; Kayl, Andrea J.; Asperholm, Martin; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Herlitz, Agneta

    2017-01-01

    This research examined whether infants tested longitudinally at 10, 14, and 16 months of age (N = 58) showed evidence of perceptual narrowing based on face gender (better discrimination of female than male faces) and whether changes in caregiving experience longitudinally predicted changes in infants' discrimination of male faces. To test face…

  1. Face adaptation: Changing stable representations of familiar faces within minutes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Christian Carbon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments are reported showing that the perception and the assessment of veridicality of familiar faces are highly adaptive to new visual information. Subjects were asked to discriminate between real photographs and altered versions of celebrities. Exposing participants to extremely deviated versions changed the usually stable representations of the famous faces within a very short time. In Experiment 1, exposure to an extreme face version resulted in identity decisions shifted towards the exposed one. Experiment 2 revealed that the effects are not short lasting. In Experiment 3, we showed that the effect also generalizes to different pictures of the same famous person. Together the experiments seem to indicate that the brain permanently adapts to new perceptual information and integrates new data within already elaborated representations in a fast way.

  2. The Human Face of Digital Preservation: Organizational and Staff Challenges, and Initiatives at the Bibliothèque nationale de France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Bermès

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of setting up a digital preservation repository in compliance with the OAIS model is not only a technical challenge: libraries also need to develop and maintain appropriate skills and organizations. Digital activities, including digital preservation, are nowadays moving into the mainstream activity of the Library and are integrated in its workflows.The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF has been working on the definition of digital preservation activities since 2003. This paper aims at presenting the organizational and human resources challenges that have been faced by the library in this context, and those that are still awaiting us.The library has been facing these challenges through a variety of actions at different levels: organizational changes, training sessions, dedicated working group and task forces, analysis of skills and processes, etc. The results of these actions provide insights on how a national library is going digital, and what is needed to reach this longstanding goal.

  3. Low-level laser therapy: Effects on human face aged skin and cell viability of HeLa cells exposed to UV radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezghani Sana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic and excessive exposure to UV radiation leads to photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Adequate protection of the skin against the deleterious effects of UV irradiation is essential. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is a light source in the red to near-infrared range that has been accepted in a variety of medical applications. In this study, we explored the effect of LLLT in human face aged skin and the cell viability of HeLa cells exposed to UV radiation. We found that LLLT significantly reduced visible wrinkles and the loss of firmness of facial skin in aging subjects. Additionally, treatment of cultured HeLa cells with LLLT prior to or post UVA or UVB exposure significantly protected cells from UV-mediated cell death. All results showed the beneficial effects of LLLT on relieving signs of skin aging and its prevention and protection of the cell viability against UV-induced damage.

  4. Unbiased simulations reveal the inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter and Na+ ion release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koldsø, Heidi; Noer, Pernille Rimmer; Grouleff, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Monoamine transporters are responsible for termination of synaptic signaling and are involved in depression, control of appetite, and anxiety amongst other neurological processes. Despite extensive efforts, the structures of the monoamine transporters and the transport mechanism of ions and subst......Monoamine transporters are responsible for termination of synaptic signaling and are involved in depression, control of appetite, and anxiety amongst other neurological processes. Despite extensive efforts, the structures of the monoamine transporters and the transport mechanism of ions...... and substrates are still largely unknown. Structural knowledge of the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) is much awaited for understanding the mechanistic details of substrate translocation and binding of antidepressants and drugs of abuse. The publication of the crystal structure of the homologous leucine...

  5. Face Recognition using Approximate Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marso, Karol

    Face recognition is image processing technique which aims to identify human faces and found its use in various different fields for example in security. Throughout the years this field evolved and there are many approaches and many different algorithms which aim to make the face recognition as effective...... processing applications the results do not need to be completely precise and use of the approximate arithmetic can lead to reduction in terms of delay, space and power consumption. In this paper we examine possible use of approximate arithmetic in face recognition using Eigenfaces algorithm....

  6. Task effects, performance levels, features, configurations, and holistic face processing: a reply to Rossion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesenhuber, Maximilian; Wolff, Brian S

    2009-11-01

    A recent article in Acta Psychologica ("Picture-plane inversion leads to qualitative changes of face perception" by Rossion [Rossion, B. (2008). Picture-plane inversion leads to qualitative changes of face perception. Acta Psychologica (Amst), 128(2), 274-289]) criticized several aspects of an earlier paper of ours [Riesenhuber, M., Jarudi, I., Gilad, S., & Sinha, P. (2004). Face processing in humans is compatible with a simple shape-based model of vision. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B (Supplements), 271, S448-S450]. We here address Rossion's criticisms and correct some misunderstandings. To frame the discussion, we first review our previously presented computational model of face recognition in cortex [Jiang, X., Rosen, E., Zeffiro, T., Vanmeter, J., Blanz, V., & Riesenhuber, M. (2006). Evaluation of a shape-based model of human face discrimination using FMRI and behavioral techniques. Neuron, 50(1), 159-172] that provides a concrete biologically plausible computational substrate for holistic coding, namely a neural representation learned for upright faces, in the spirit of the original simple-to-complex hierarchical model of vision by Hubel and Wiesel. We show that Rossion's and others' data support the model, and that there is actually a convergence of views on the mechanisms underlying face recognition, in particular regarding holistic processing.

  7. Manifestations and reduction strategies of stigma discrimination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    against stigma and discrimination facing people living with HIV/AIDS. Key words: ... of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). ... fuelling HIV infection. In health care settings, stigma is the result of inability of health workers to understand and manage HIV/AIDS. They see no remedy or solution to the disease and feel that, they ...

  8. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  9. The aging face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Audrey C; Korn, Bobby S; Kikkawa, Don O

    Advancements in technology and medicine have led to a greater life expectancy and a corresponding increased interest in the mechanisms and prevention of aging. Because of its central role in human perception of age and emotion, the aging face generates a high demand for understanding the etiology of senescence-related changes. There are effective nonsurgical and surgical methods available for those seeking functional or cosmetic facial rejuvenation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The association between dental wear and reduced vertical dimension of the face: a morphologic study on human skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levartovsky, S; Matalon, S; Sarig, R; Baruch, O; Winocur, E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between dental wear and facial morphology, with particular reference to the occlusal vertical dimension, in modern human skulls. One hundred and three skulls (52 men and 51 women) between the ages of 20 and 50+ years old were studied. The selected skulls were from a modern period (the 17th and the 18th centuries) and included at least one entire condyle and had at least 3 posterior teeth (premolar or molar) in each quadrant to allow for dental articulation. Occlusal wear was evaluated using ordinal scale (0-4) and vertical occlusal dimension was evaluated by measuring upper facial height (UFH), lower facial height (LFH), LFH-to-UFH ratio (L-U-R) and dental wear. Based on the occlusal wear score, two groups were defined: with and without significant wear. Significant relation was observed between age and dental wear (Pdimension of occlusion. Our assumption is that the dento-facial complex fully compensates for the dental effects of wear throughout life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  12. A Novel Face Segmentation Algorithm from a Video Sequence for Real-Time Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhaker Samuel RD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first step in an automatic face recognition system is to localize the face region in a cluttered background and carefully segment the face from each frame of a video sequence. In this paper, we propose a fast and efficient algorithm for segmenting a face suitable for recognition from a video sequence. The cluttered background is first subtracted from each frame, in the foreground regions, a coarse face region is found using skin colour. Then using a dynamic template matching approach the face is efficiently segmented. The proposed algorithm is fast and suitable for real-time video sequence. The algorithm is invariant to large scale and pose variation. The segmented face is then handed over to a recognition algorithm based on principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. The online face detection, segmentation, and recognition algorithms take an average of 0.06 second on a 3.2 GHz P4 machine.

  13. Caste Discrimination, Land Reforms and Land Market Performance in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Jeetendra P.; Holden, Stein T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of caste discrimination and past land reforms on the land rental market performance, land productivity and land use intensity in Nepal. The most severely discriminated group in the caste system is the Dalits, the so-called “untouchables”. Dalits faced religious, occupational and even, territorial discrimination. The study uses data from western Nepal. The low-caste households remain poorer than other households, have significantly smaller land endowments, ...

  14. Individual differences in detecting rapidly presented fearful faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Zhang

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of evolutionarily relevant threats (e.g., fearful faces is important for human survival. The ability to rapidly detect fearful faces exhibits high variability across individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between behavioral detection ability and brain activity, using both event-related potential (ERP and event-related oscillation (ERO measurements. Faces with fearful or neutral facial expressions were presented for 17 ms or 200 ms in a backward masking paradigm. Forty-two participants were required to discriminate facial expressions of the masked faces. The behavioral sensitivity index d' showed that the detection ability to rapidly presented and masked fearful faces varied across participants. The ANOVA analyses showed that the facial expression, hemisphere, and presentation duration affected the grand-mean ERP (N1, P1, and N170 and ERO (below 20 Hz and lasted from 100 ms to 250 ms post-stimulus, mainly in theta band brain activity. More importantly, the overall detection ability of 42 subjects was significantly correlated with the emotion effect (i.e., fearful vs. neutral on ERP (r = 0.403 and ERO (r = 0.552 measurements. A higher d' value was corresponding to a larger size of the emotional effect (i.e., fearful--neutral of N170 amplitude and a larger size of the emotional effect of the specific ERO spectral power at the right hemisphere. The present results suggested a close link between behavioral detection ability and the N170 amplitude as well as the ERO spectral power below 20 Hz in individuals. The emotional effect size between fearful and neutral faces in brain activity may reflect the level of conscious awareness of fearful faces.

  15. The specter of discrimination: Fear of interpersonal racial discrimination among adolescents in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This analysis examines fear of interpersonal racial discrimination among Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents. The extent and correlates of these concerns are examined using survey data from the Project for Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Borrowing from the fear-of-crime literature, the contact hypothesis, and group threat theory, several hypotheses are developed linking discrimination fear to direct personal experience with discrimination, indirect or vicarious experience, and environmental signals of discrimination. Results show that about half of Blacks and Hispanics have feared discrimination in the past year. Multivariate results indicate that fear is most likely if one has experienced victimization first-hand and when one's parent is affected by discrimination. Further, a larger presence neighborhood outgroups produces greater fear. Overall, discrimination fear constitutes an additional obstacle for minority adolescents as they transition to adulthood. The phenomenon warrants increased scholarly attention and represents a fruitful avenue for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reliable face recognition methods: system design, implementation and evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wechsler, Harry

    2007-01-01

    ... ,.,,,.,.,,, , . , . , , , , , , .. , , .. "", .. " , ,, "" , , .. , ", , , .. , , .. , , , , , , ,... ",.. ,,, ",.. , 1 4 7 8 13 2 The Human Face ... ", ... """.".,." 2.1 Cognitive Neurosciences .. , . , 2.2 Psychophysics 2,3 The Social Face, . , . , , . , , .. , , , , , 2.4...

  17. Face Recognition Is Shaped by the Use of Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Chloé; Palluel-Germain, Richard; Caldara, Roberto; Lao, Junpeng; Dye, Matthew W. G.; Aptel, Florent; Pascalis, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that early deaf signers differ in face processing. Which aspects of face processing are changed and the role that sign language may have played in that change are however unclear. Here, we compared face categorization (human/non-human) and human face recognition performance in early profoundly deaf signers, hearing…

  18. Learning optimal eye movements to unusual faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Matthew F; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2014-06-01

    Eye movements, which guide the fovea's high resolution and computational power to relevant areas of the visual scene, are integral to efficient, successful completion of many visual tasks. How humans modify their eye movements through experience with their perceptual environments, and its functional role in learning new tasks, has not been fully investigated. Here, we used a face identification task where only the mouth discriminated exemplars to assess if, how, and when eye movement modulation may mediate learning. By interleaving trials of unconstrained eye movements with trials of forced fixation, we attempted to separate the contributions of eye movements and covert mechanisms to performance improvements. Without instruction, a majority of observers substantially increased accuracy and learned to direct their initial eye movements towards the optimal fixation point. The proximity of an observer's default face identification eye movement behavior to the new optimal fixation point and the observer's peripheral processing ability were predictive of performance gains and eye movement learning. After practice in a subsequent condition in which observers were directed to fixate different locations along the face, including the relevant mouth region, all observers learned to make eye movements to the optimal fixation point. In this fully learned state, augmented fixation strategy accounted for 43% of total efficiency improvements while covert mechanisms accounted for the remaining 57%. The findings suggest a critical role for eye movement planning to perceptual learning, and elucidate factors that can predict when and how well an observer can learn a new task with unusual exemplars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Feature Selection Using Adaboost for Face Expression Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silapachote, Piyanuch; Karuppiah, Deepak R; Hanson, Allen R

    2005-01-01

    We propose a classification technique for face expression recognition using AdaBoost that learns by selecting the relevant global and local appearance features with the most discriminating information...

  20. LABOR DISCRIMINATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyara Slavyanska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor discrimination is a phenomenon with very serious social and economic consequences, which has increased actuality and importance in Bulgaria nowadays. Because of the high price of discrimination, building effective anti-discrimination legislation occupies a special place in the policy of the European Union. Despite the European directives, the presence of anti-discrimination legislation and the broadly declared anti-discrimination inclinations in our country, these are absolutely not enough for providing environment of equality, with a climate of respect and tolerance to the differences. It turns out that certain groups are definitely victims of labor discrimination. In this connection the present article consecutively identifies these groups, as well as the reasons for their discrimination, underlining the necessity and benefits of the integration of the different.

  1. Prosopagnosia when all faces look the same

    CERN Document Server

    Rivolta, Davide

    2014-01-01

    This book provides readers with a simplified and comprehensive account of the cognitive and neural bases of face perception in humans. Faces are ubiquitous in our environment and we rely on them during social interactions. The human face processing system allows us to extract information about the identity, gender, age, mood, race, attractiveness and approachability of other people in about a fraction of a second, just by glancing at their faces.  By introducing readers to the most relevant research on face recognition, this book seeks to answer the questions: “Why are humans so fast at recognizing faces?”, “Why are humans so efficient at recognizing faces?”, “Do faces represent a particular category for the human visual system?”, What makes face perception in humans so special?, “Can our face recognition system fail”?  This book presents the author’s findings on face perception during his research studies on both normal subjects and subjects with prosopagnosia, a neurological disorder cha...

  2. Increased Stability and DNA Site Discrimination of Single Chain Variants of the Dimeric beta-Barrel DNA Binding Domain of the Human Papillomavirus E2 Transcriptional Regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellarole,M.; Sanchez, I.; Freire, E.; de Prat-Gay, G.

    2007-01-01

    Human papillomavirus infects millions of people worldwide and is a causal agent of cervical cancer in women. The HPV E2 protein controls the expression of all viral genes through binding of its dimeric C-terminal domain (E2C) to its target DNA site. We engineered monomeric versions of the HPV16 E2C, in order to probe the link of the dimeric {beta}-barrel fold to stability, dimerization, and DNA binding. Two single-chain variants, with 6 and 12 residue linkers (scE2C-6 and scE2C-12), were purified and characterized. Spectroscopy and crystallography show that the native structure is unperturbed in scE2C-12. The single chain variants are stabilized with respect to E2C, with effective concentrations of 0.6 to 6 mM. The early folding events of the E2C dimer and scE2C-12 are very similar and include formation of a compact species in the submillisecond time scale and a non-native monomeric intermediate with a half-life of 25 ms. However, monomerization changes the unfolding mechanism of the linked species from two-state to three-state, with a high-energy intermediate. Binding to the specific target site is up to 5-fold tighter in the single chain variants. Nonspecific DNA binding is up to 7-fold weaker in the single chain variants, leading to an overall 10-fold increased site discrimination capacity, the largest described so far for linked DNA binding domains. Titration calorimetric binding analysis, however, shows almost identical behavior for dimer and single-chain species, suggesting very subtle changes behind the increased specificity. Global analysis of the mechanisms probed suggests that the dynamics of the E2C domain, rather than the structure, are responsible for the differential properties. Thus, the plastic and dimeric nature of the domain did not evolve for a maximum affinity, specificity, and stability of the quaternary structure, likely because of regulatory reasons and for roles other than DNA binding played by partly folded dimeric or monomeric conformers.

  3. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on-site and on-time. At this point, the use of smart cameras – of which the popularity has been increasing – is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image-processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high-bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general-purpose processors. In smart cameras – which are real-life applications of such methods – the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola-Jones face detection method – which was reported to run faster on PCs – was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub-region and mask-based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed-point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub-regions and from each sub-region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements – like face expression, illumination, etc. – were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for recognition. Thanks to its

  4. Discrimination of locomotion direction in impoverished displays of walkers by macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeneugden, Joris; Vancleef, Kathleen; Jaeggli, Tobias; VanGool, Luc; Vogels, Rufin

    2009-04-28

    A vast literature exists on human biological motion perception in impoverished displays, e.g., point-light walkers. Less is known about the perception of impoverished biological motion displays in macaques. We trained 3 macaques in the discrimination of facing direction (left versus right) and forward versus backward walking using motion-capture-based locomotion displays (treadmill walking) in which the body features were represented by cylinder-like primitives. The displays did not contain translatory motion. Discriminating forward versus backward locomotion requires motion information while the facing-direction/view task can be solved using motion and/or form. All monkeys required lengthy training to learn the forward-backward task, while the view task was learned more quickly. Once acquired, the discriminations were specific to walking and stimulus format but generalized across actors. Although the view task could be solved using form cues, there was a small impact of motion. Performance in the forward-backward task was highly susceptible to degradations of spatiotemporal stimulus coherence and motion information. These results indicate that rhesus monkeys require extensive training in order to use the intrinsic motion cues related to forward versus backward locomotion and imply that extrapolation of observations concerning human perception of impoverished biological motion displays onto monkey perception needs to be made cautiously.

  5. Human bites of the face

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Zimbabwe, with other similar studies in respect of reasons for the assaults, age and sex of the patients, timespan between injury and treatment, surgical management and incidence of infection. Design. Prospective study. Setting. Department ...

  6. The Human Face of Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says.…

  7. Lean With a Human Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2008-01-01

    The consequences for quality of work of lean manufacturing is discussed in the international litterature, and several authors suggest increased work speed, stress, and muscoskeletal diseases as a consequence of lean. The Danish experience with lean has been studied through interviews with managers...... and employees, and it is a somewhat different experience. This tra-dition for collaboration has been the framework for the development of lean into a form which is different from the descriptions found in the mainly Anglo-Saxon literature. Many Danish both private and public organizations have experience...... with a version of lean which is based on employee participation and with quality of work as a goal equal to the traditional productivity goals. This experience seems to indicate that a local approach based on social capital with employee participation but still with strong management support gives better...

  8. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  9. Robust Face Recognition Based on Texture Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanun Srisuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new framework for face recognition with varying illumination based on DCT total variation minimization (DTV, a Gabor filter, a sub-micro-pattern analysis (SMP and discriminated accumulative feature transform (DAFT. We first suppress the illumination effect by using the DCT with the help of TV as a tool for face normalization. The DTV image is then emphasized by the Gabor filter. The facial features are encoded by our proposed method - the SMP. The SMP image is then transformed to the 2D histogram using DAFT. Our system is verified with experiments on the AR and the Yale face database B.

  10. DeitY-TU face database: its design, multiple camera capturing, characteristics, and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Saha, Kankan; Saha, Priya; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh

    2014-10-01

    The development of the latest face databases is providing researchers different and realistic problems that play an important role in the development of efficient algorithms for solving the difficulties during automatic recognition of human faces. This paper presents the creation of a new visual face database, named the Department of Electronics and Information Technology-Tripura University (DeitY-TU) face database. It contains face images of 524 persons belonging to different nontribes and Mongolian tribes of north-east India, with their anthropometric measurements for identification. Database images are captured within a room with controlled variations in illumination, expression, and pose along with variability in age, gender, accessories, make-up, and partial occlusion. Each image contains the combined primary challenges of face recognition, i.e., illumination, expression, and pose. This database also represents some new features: soft biometric traits such as mole, freckle, scar, etc., and facial anthropometric variations that may be helpful for researchers for biometric recognition. It also gives an equivalent study of the existing two-dimensional face image databases. The database has been tested using two baseline algorithms: linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis, which may be used by other researchers as the control algorithm performance score.

  11. Cases of Discrimination against Native People and Settlements of These Cases: From the Files of the Ontario Human Rights Commission, 1978-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Journal of Native Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    In connection with Ontario Ministry of Education high school curriculum guidelines on teaching about Native peoples, eight case studies of discrimination against Canada Natives, and court settlements of these cases, can be used with nine suggested learning activities to help students recognize the effects of prejudice, stereotyping, and…

  12. Discrimination of Facial Expression by 5-Month-Old Infants of Nondepressed and Clinically Depressed Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Arterberry, Martha; Mash, Clay; Manian, Nanmathi

    2010-01-01

    Five-month-old infants of nondepressed and clinically depressed mothers were habituated to either a face with a neutral expression or the same face with a smile. Infants of nondepressed mothers subsequently discriminated between neutral and smiling facial expressions, whereas infants of clinically depressed mothers failed to make the same discrimination.

  13. Whole person-evoked fMRI activity patterns in human fusiform gyrus are accurately modeled by a linear combination of face- and body-evoked activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Daniel; Strnad, Lukas; Seidl, Katharina N; Kastner, Sabine; Peelen, Marius V

    2014-01-01

    Visual cues from the face and the body provide information about another's identity, emotional state, and intentions. Previous neuroimaging studies that investigated neural responses to (bodiless) faces and (headless) bodies have reported overlapping face- and body-selective brain regions in right fusiform gyrus (FG). In daily life, however, faces and bodies are typically perceived together and are effortlessly integrated into the percept of a whole person, raising the possibility that neural responses to whole persons are qualitatively different than responses to isolated faces and bodies. The present study used fMRI to examine how FG activity in response to a whole person relates to activity in response to the same face and body but presented in isolation. Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we modeled person-evoked response patterns in right FG through a linear combination of face- and body-evoked response patterns. We found that these synthetic patterns were able to accurately approximate the response patterns to whole persons, with face and body patterns each adding unique information to the response patterns evoked by whole person stimuli. These results suggest that whole person responses in FG primarily arise from the coactivation of independent face- and body-selective neural populations.

  14. A Classroom Labor Market Game Illustrating the Existence, and Implications of, Statistical Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Many undergraduate students report a lack of concern about facing labor market discrimination throughout their careers. However, there is ample evidence that discrimination based on race, gender, and age still persists within the labor market. The author outlines a classroom experiment demonstrating the existence of discrimination, even when the…

  15. Measuring Discriminations : an Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    DUGUET Emmanuel; Yannick L'Horty; Meurs, Dominique; Pascale PETIT

    2010-01-01

    The articles published here were all presented at the international conference on the measurement of discriminations held at the University of Evry Val d'Essonne on 13 and 14 December 2007, under the auspices of the TEPP research federation (FR n° 3126 of the CNRS). Over these two days, about sixty participants discussed the problems of defining and measuring discrimination, including work on economics, sociology and law; on discriminations in hiring, training, unemployment, promotion, career...

  16. Face the voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    will be based on a reception aesthetic and phenomenological approach, the latter as presented by Don Ihde in his book Listening and Voice. Phenomenologies of Sound , and my analytical sketches will be related to theoretical statements concerning the understanding of voice and media (Cavarero, Dolar, La......Belle, Neumark). Finally, the article will discuss the specific artistic combination and our auditory experience of mediated human voices and sculpturally projected faces in an art museum context under the general conditions of the societal panophonia of disembodied and mediated voices, as promoted by Steven...

  17. Combining features from ERP components in single-trial EEG for discriminating four-category visual objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changming; Xiong, Shi; Hu, Xiaoping; Yao, Li; Zhang, Jiacai

    2012-10-01

    Categorization of images containing visual objects can be successfully recognized using single-trial electroencephalograph (EEG) measured when subjects view images. Previous studies have shown that task-related information contained in event-related potential (ERP) components could discriminate two or three categories of object images. In this study, we investigated whether four categories of objects (human faces, buildings, cats and cars) could be mutually discriminated using single-trial EEG data. Here, the EEG waveforms acquired while subjects were viewing four categories of object images were segmented into several ERP components (P1, N1, P2a and P2b), and then Fisher linear discriminant analysis (Fisher-LDA) was used to classify EEG features extracted from ERP components. Firstly, we compared the classification results using features from single ERP components, and identified that the N1 component achieved the highest classification accuracies. Secondly, we discriminated four categories of objects using combining features from multiple ERP components, and showed that combination of ERP components improved four-category classification accuracies by utilizing the complementarity of discriminative information in ERP components. These findings confirmed that four categories of object images could be discriminated with single-trial EEG and could direct us to select effective EEG features for classifying visual objects.

  18. The shape of the face template: geometric distortions of faces and their detection in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongakkasira, Kaewmart; Bindemann, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Human