WorldWideScience

Sample records for human exposure risk

  1. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  2. Probabilistic integrated risk assessment of human exposure risk to environmental bisphenol A pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-10-01

    Environmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects such as developmental and reproductive issues. However, establishing a clear association between BPA and the likelihood of human health is complex yet fundamentally uncertain. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential exposure risks from environmental BPA among Chinese population based on five human health outcomes, namely immune response, uterotrophic assay, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and behavior change. We addressed these health concerns by using a stochastic integrated risk assessment approach. The BPA dose-dependent likelihood of effects was reconstructed by a series of Hill models based on animal models or epidemiological data. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that allows estimation of urinary BPA concentration from external exposures. Here we showed that the daily average exposure concentrations of BPA and urinary BPA estimates were consistent with the published data. We found that BPA exposures were less likely to pose significant risks for infants (0-1 year) and adults (male and female >20 years) with human long-term BPA susceptibility in relation to multiple exposure pathways, and for informing the public of the negligible magnitude of environmental BPA pollution impacts on human health.

  3. Assessing hazardous risks of human exposure to temple airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kuo-Chih; Chio, Chia-Pin; Chiang, Yu-Hui; Liao, Chung-Min

    2009-07-30

    We proposed an integrated probabilistic risk assessment framework based on reported data to quantify human health risks of temple goers/workers to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from incense burning in typical Taiwanese temples. The framework probabilistically integrates exposure, human respiratory tract, and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) models to quantitatively estimate size-dependent PAHs exposure in human lung regions and cancer risks for temple goers (moderate and high exposures) and temple workers (extreme exposure). Our results show that the ILCRs are greater than the acceptable level of 10(-6) for extreme and high exposure groups through inhalation route. The result also indicates that the higher ILCRs (10(-6) to 10(-4)) are found in ingestion and dermal contact routes for temple goers/workers. For personal extreme exposure to carcinogenic PAH in the temple, 95% probability total ILCR (TILCR) (9.87 x 10(-4) to 1.13 x 10(-3)) is much greater than the range of 10(-6) to 10(-4), indicating high potential health risk to temple workers. For temple goers with high and moderate exposure groups, however, the 95% probability TILCRs were estimated from 6.44 x 10(-5) to 7.50 x 10(-5) and 5.75 x 10(-6) to 6.99 x 10(-6), respectively. This study successfully offers a scientific basis for risk analysis due to incense burning to enhance broad risk management strategies for temple indoor air quality.

  4. Critical elements for human health risk assessment of less than lifetime exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Nijkamp, Monique M; Ter Burg, Wouter

    2016-11-01

    Less than lifetime exposure has confronted risk assessors as to how to interpret the risks for human health in case a chronic health-based limit is exceeded. Intermittent, fluctuating and peak exposures do not match with the basis of the chronic limit values possibly leading to conservative outcomes. This paper presents guidance on how to deal with human risk assessment of less than lifetime exposure. Important steps to be considered are characterization of the human exposure situation, evaluation whether the human less than lifetime exposure scenario corresponds to a non-chronic internal exposure: toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic considerations, and, finally, re-evaluation of the risk assessment. Critical elements for these steps are the mode of action, Haber's rule, and toxicokinetics (ADME) amongst others. Previous work for the endpoints non-genotoxic carcinogenicity and developmental toxicity is included in the guidance. The guidance provides a way to consider the critical elements, without setting default factors to correct for the less than lifetime exposure in risk assessment.

  5. Human health risk assessment from exposure to trihalomethanes in Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Hall, Kevin

    2010-07-01

    Lifetime exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) through ingestion, inhalation and dermal contacts may pose risks to human health. Current approaches may under predict THMs exposure by using THMs in cold water during showering and bathing. Warming of chlorinated water during showering may increase THMs formation through reactions between organics and residual chlorine, which can increase human health risks. In this study, THMs concentrations in shower water were estimated using THMs rate increase model. Using cold water THMs, exposure through ingestion was estimated, while THMs exposure during showering was estimated using THMs in warm water. Human health cancer risks and additional expenses for 20 most populated Canadian cities from exposure to THMs were estimated. Inhalation and dermal contact during showering contributed 30% to 50% of total cancer risks, while risks from inhalation and dermal contacts were comparable for all cities. Overall cancer risks were estimated between 7.2 x 10(-6) and 6.4 x 10(-5) for these cities. Cancer incidents were estimated highest for Montreal (94/year) followed by Toronto (53/year), which may require additional medical expenses of 18.8 and 10.7 million dollars/year for Montreal and Toronto respectively. Cancer risks from exposure to THMs can be controlled by reducing THMs in water supply and varying shower stall volume, shower duration and air exchange rate in shower stall. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human arsenic exposure and risk assessment at the landscape level: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasreen Islam; Owens, Gary; Bruce, David; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater contaminated with arsenic (As), when extensively used for irrigation, causes potentially long term detrimental effects to the landscape. Such contamination can also directly affect human health when irrigated crops are primarily used for human consumption. Therefore, a large number of humans are potentially at risk worldwide due to daily As exposure. Numerous previous studies have been severely limited by small sample sizes which are not reliably extrapolated to large populations or landscapes. Human As exposure and risk assessment are no longer simple assessments limited to a few food samples from a small area. The focus of more recent studies has been to perform risk assessment at the landscape level involving the use of biomarkers to identify and quantify appropriate health problems and large surveys of human dietary patterns, supported by analytical testing of food, to quantify exposure. This approach generates large amounts of data from a wide variety of sources and geographic information system (GIS) techniques have been used widely to integrate the various spatial, demographic, social, field, and laboratory measured datasets. With the current worldwide shift in emphasis from qualitative to quantitative risk assessment, it is likely that future research efforts will be directed towards the integration of GIS, statistics, chemistry, and other dynamic models within a common platform to quantify human health risk at the landscape level. In this paper we review the present and likely future trends of human As exposure and GIS application in risk assessment at the landscape level.

  7. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    OpenAIRE

    Jolyon H Hendry; Simon, Steven L.; Wojcik, Andrzej; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2009-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations li...

  8. International Frameworks Dealing with Human Risk Assessment of Combined Exposure to Multiple Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of harmonised terminology and frameworks for the human risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals (“chemical mixtures” is an important area for EFSA and a number of activities have already been undertaken, i.e. in the fields of pesticides and contaminants. The first step prior to a risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals is problem formulation defining the relevant exposure, hazard and population to be considered. In practice, risk assessment of multiple chemicals is conducted using a tiered approach for exposure assessment, hazard assessment and risk characterisation. Higher tiers require increasing knowledge about the group of chemicals under assessment and the tiers can range from tier 0 (default values, data poor situation to tier 3 (full probabilistic models. This scientific report reviews the terminology, methodologies and frameworks developed by national and international agencies for the human risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals and provides recommendations for future activities at EFSA in this area.

  9. Risk of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanxin; Li, Qi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xilong; Ren, Aiguo; Tao, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause adverse effects on human health. The relative contributions of their two major intake routes (diet and inhalation) to population PAH exposure are still unclear. We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to the overall PAH exposure of the population of Beijing in China, and assessed their human incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) using a Mont Carlo simulation approach. The results showed that diet accounted for about 85% of low-molecular-weight PAH (L-PAH) exposure, while inhalation accounted for approximately 57% of high-molecular-weight PAH (H-PAH) exposure of the Beijing population. Meat and cereals were the main contributors to dietary PAH exposure. Both gaseous- and particulate-phase PAHs contributed to L-PAH exposure through inhalation, whereas exposure to H-PAHs was mostly from the particulate-phase. To reduce the cancer incidence of the Beijing population, more attention should be given to inhaled particulate-phase PAHs with considerable carcinogenic potential.

  10. Assessing human exposure risk to cadmium through inhalation and seafood consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liao, Chung-Min, E-mail: cmliao@ccms.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trophically available fraction in seafood and bioaccessibility is linked. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human health risk to Cd can via inhalation and seafood consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Female had the higher Cd accumulation in urine and blood than male. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoking is a major determinant of human Cd intake. - Abstract: The role of cadmium (Cd) bioaccessibility in risk assessment is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess human health risk to Cd through inhalation and seafood consumption by incorporating bioaccessibility. The relationships between trophically available Cd and bioaccessibility were constructed based on available experimental data. We estimated Cd concentrations in human urine and blood via daily intake from seafood consumption and inhalation based on a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. A Hill-based dose-response model was used to assess human renal dysfunction and peripheral arterial disease risks for long-term Cd exposure. Here we showed that fish had higher bioaccessibility ({approx}83.7%) than that of shellfish ({approx}73.2%) for human ingestion. Our results indicated that glomerular and tubular damage among different genders and smokers ranged from 18.03 to 18.18%. Our analysis showed that nonsmokers had 50% probability of peripheral arterial disease level exceeding from 3.28 to 8.80%. Smoking populations had 2-3 folds higher morbidity risk of peripheral arterial disease than those of nonsmokers. Our study concluded that the adverse effects of Cd exposure are exacerbated when high seafood consumption coincides with cigarette smoking. Our work provides a framework that could more accurately address risk dose dependency of Cd hazard.

  11. Problem formulation for risk assessment of combined exposures to chemicals and other stressors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Wilks, Martin F; Bachman, Ammie; Boobis, Alan; Moretto, Angelo; Pastoor, Timothy P; Phillips, Richard; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-11-01

    When the human health risk assessment/risk management paradigm was developed, it did not explicitly include a "problem formulation" phase. The concept of problem formulation was first introduced in the context of ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the pragmatic reason to constrain and focus ERAs on the key questions. However, this need also exists for human health risk assessment, particularly for cumulative risk assessment (CRA), because of its complexity. CRA encompasses the combined threats to health from exposure via all relevant routes to multiple stressors, including biological, chemical, physical and psychosocial stressors. As part of the HESI Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) Project, a framework for CRA was developed in which problem formulation plays a critical role. The focus of this effort is primarily on a chemical CRA (i.e., two or more chemicals) with subsequent consideration of non-chemical stressors, defined as "modulating factors" (ModFs). Problem formulation is a systematic approach that identifies all factors critical to a specific risk assessment and considers the purpose of the assessment, scope and depth of the necessary analysis, analytical approach, available resources and outcomes, and overall risk management goal. There are numerous considerations that are specific to multiple stressors, and proper problem formulation can help to focus a CRA to the key factors in order to optimize resources. As part of the problem formulation, conceptual models for exposures and responses can be developed that address these factors, such as temporal relationships between stressors and consideration of the appropriate ModFs.

  12. Phthalates in dormitory and house dust of northern Chinese cities: Occurrence, human exposure, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ling; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Jia; Huo, Chun-Yan; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Liu, Li-Yan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-09-15

    Phthalates are widely used chemicals in household products, which severely affect human health. However, there were limited studies emphasized on young adults' exposure to phthalates in dormitories. In this study, seven phthalates were extracted from indoor dust that collected in university dormitories in Harbin, Shenyang, and Baoding, in the north of China. Dust samples were also collected in houses in Harbin for comparison. The total concentrations of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin and Shenyang samples were significantly higher than those in Baoding samples. The total geometric mean concentration of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin was lower than in house dust. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most abundant phthalate in both dormitory and house dust. The daily intakes of the total phthalates, carcinogenic risk (CR) of DEHP, hazard index (HI) of di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and DEHP were estimated, the median values for all students in dormitories were lower than adults who live in the houses. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to predict the human exposure risk of phthalates. HI of DiBP, DBP, and DEHP was predicted according to the reference doses (RfD) provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) and the reference doses for anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) developed by Kortenkamp and Faust. The results indicated that the risks of some students had exceeded the limitation, however, the measured results were not exceeded the limitation. Risk quotients (RQ) of DEHP were predicted based on China specific No Significant Risk Level (NSRL) and Maximum Allowable Dose Level (MADL). The predicted results of CR and RQ of DEHP suggested that DEHP could pose a health risk through intake of indoor dust.

  13. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, Joaquim [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Nadal, Martí [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, José L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10{sup −6}) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10{sup −6}). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes.

  14. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  15. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group.

  16. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Alamdar, Ambreen [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Katsoyiannis, Ioannis [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry, Division of Chemical Technology, Box 116, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Shen, Heqing [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ali, Nadeem [Department of Environmental Sciences, FBAS, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Syeda Maria [Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Bokhari, Habib [Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Schäfer, Ralf B. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah, E-mail: ali_ebl2@yahoo.com [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150–200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. - Highlights: • Predictions of trace metal concentration use geographically weighted regression • Human health risk

  17. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Simon, Steven L [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wojcik, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardis, Elisabeth [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar) and CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica - CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot [Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, Radiological and Human Health Division, Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hayata, Isamu [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: jhendry2002uk@yahoo.com

    2009-06-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  18. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2009-06-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of (222)Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  19. Modelling risk of tick exposure in southern Scandinavia using machine learning techniques, satellite imagery, and human population density maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Lene Jung; Korslund, L.; Kjelland, V.

    Vector-borne diseases such as Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis have become more common in recent decades and present a real health problem in many parts of Europe. Risk assessment, control, and prevention of these diseases require a better understanding of vector abundance as well as risk...... factors determining human exposure to ticks. There is a great need for analyses and models that can predict how vectors and their associated diseases are distributed and how this relates to high risk areas for human exposure.As a part of the ScandTick Innovation project, we surveyed ticks at approximately...... distribution (probability of presence) in southern Scandinavia. Together with the predicted distribution maps, we used human density maps to determine areas with high risk of exposure to ticks. For nymphs, the predicted distribution found corresponded well with known distributions of ticks in Scandinavia...

  20. Risk assessment of human health from exposure to the discharged ballast water after full-scale electrolysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nahui; Wang, Yidan; Xue, Junzeng; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Liu, Liang; Wu, Huixian; Hu, Kefeng

    2016-06-01

    The presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) releasing from ballast water management systems (BWMS) can cause a possible adverse effects on humans. The objectives of this study were to compute the Derived No Effect Levels (DNELs) for different exposure scenarios and to compare these levels with the exposure levels from the measured DBPs in treated ballast water. The risk assessment showed that when using animal toxicity data, all the DNELs values were approximately 10(3)-10(12) times higher than the exposure levels of occupational and general public exposure scenarios, indicating the level of risk was low (risk characterization ratios (RCRs) risk of adverse effects on human were significant. This implies that there are apparent discrepancies between risk characterization from animal and human data, which may affect the overall results. We therefore recommend that when appropriate, human data should be used in risk assessment as much as possible, although human data are very limited. Moreover, more appropriate assessment factors can be considered to be employed in estimating the DNELs for human when the animal data is selected as the dose descriptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Health Risk Evaluations for Ingestion Exposure of Humans to Polonium-210

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Bobby R.

    2007-01-01

    The incident in London during November 2006 involving a lethal intake by Mr. Alexander Litvinenko of the highly-radioactive, alpha-particles-emitting polonium-210 (Po-210) isotope, presumably via ingestion, sparked renewed interest in the area of Po-210 toxicity to humans. This paper is the result of assembling and interpreting existing Po-210 data within the context of what is considered a reliable risk model (hazard-function [HF] model) for characterizing the risk of death from deterministic effects of high alpha radiation doses and dose rates to body organs. The HF model was developed to address radiation exposure scenarios involving combined exposures to alpha, beta, and gamma radiations and can be used in circumstances where only one type of radiation is involved. Under a plausible but not yet validated set of assumptions and using available megabecquerel (Po-210) to gray dose-conversion factors, acute lethality risk vs. dose curves were developed for circumstances of ingestion exposure to Po-210 by humans. Initial risk calculations were carried out for a reference adult male human (a hypothetical 70-kg person). Results were then modified for application to all ages (except the in utero child) via the use of systemic Po-210 burden. Because of the unavailability of acute lethality data derived from human ingestions of high levels of Po-210, plausibility of risk calculations were evaluated based on data from studies of Po-210 injections in animals. The animal data, although limited, were found to be consistent with the theoretical risk calculations. Key findings are as follows: (1) ingestion (or inhalation) of a few tents of a milligram of Po-210 will likely be fatal to all exposed persons. (2) Lethal intakes are expected to involve fatal damage to the bone marrow which is likely to be compounded by damage caused by higher doses to other organs including the kidneys and liver. (3) Lethal intakes are expected to cause severe damage to the kidney, spleen, stomach

  2. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150-200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots.

  3. A Review of Human Health and Ecological Risks due to CO2 Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepple, R. P.; Benson, S. M.

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of the human health and ecological consequences of exposure to elevated levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the context of geologic carbon sequestration. The purpose of this effort is to provide a baseline of information to guide future efforts in risk assessment for CO2 sequestration. Scenarios for hazardous CO2 exposure include surface facility leaks, leaks from abandoned or aging wells, and leakage from geologic CO2 storage structures. Amounts of carbon in various reservoirs, systems, and applications were summarized, and the levels of CO2 encountered in nature and everyday life were compared along with physiologically relevant concentrations. Literature pertaining to CO2 occupational exposure limits, regulations, monitoring, and ecological consequences was reviewed. The OSHA, NIOSH, and ACGIH occupational exposure standards are 0.5% CO2 averaged over a 40 hour week, 3% average for a short-term (15 minute) exposure, and 4% as the maximum instantaneous limit considered immediately dangerous to life and health. All three conditions must be satisfied at all times. Any detrimental effects of low-level CO2 exposure are reversible, including the long-term metabolic compensation required by chronic exposure to 3% CO2. Breathing rate doubles at 3% CO2 and is four times the normal rate at 5% CO2. According to occupational exposure and controlled atmosphere research into CO2 toxicology, CO2 is hazardous via direct toxicity at levels above 5%, concentrations not encountered in nature outside of volcanic settings and water-logged soils. Small leaks do not present any danger to people unless the CO2 does not disperse quickly enough through atmospheric mixing but accumulates instead in depressions and confined spaces. These dangers are the result of CO2 being more dense than air. Carbon dioxide is regulated for diverse purposes but never as a toxic substance. Catastrophic incidents involving large amounts and/or rapid release of CO2 such as Lake

  4. Toxic metals in tissues of fishes from the Black Sea and associated human health risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavan, Gabriel; Jitar, Oana; Teodosiu, Carmen; Nicoara, Mircea; Micu, Dragos; Strungaru, Stefan-Adrian

    2017-03-01

    The anthropogenic activities in the Black Sea area are responsible for toxic metal contamination of sea food products. In this study, several toxic metals: cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium, and copper were quantified in different tissues (digestive tract, muscle, skeleton, skin) of nine fish species (Neogobius melanostomus, Belone belone, Solea solea, Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus, Sardina pilchardus, Engraulis encrasicolus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Sprattus sprattus, Scorpaena porcus) by using atomic absorption spectrometer with a high-resolution continuum source and graphite furnace technique (HR-CS GF-AAS), and the risk of fish meat consumption by the young human population was evaluated. These metals are used in high amounts in industries located near the coastline such as shipyard construction and industrial plants. Toxic metal accumulation depends on fish feeding behavior, abiotic conditions, metal chemistry, and animal physiology. For instance, cadmium was measured in the muscle of the investigated species and average values of 0.0008-0.0338 mg kg(-1) were obtained. The lowest average value of this metal was measured at benthic species N. melanostomus and the highest at the pelagic predator T. mediterraneus ponticus. Generally, the highest metal concentration was measured in the digestive tract that has the role of biofilter for these contaminants. The risk of contamination is significantly reduced by avoiding the consumption of certain fish tissues (digestive tract and skin for copper and skeleton for nickel). An estimation of the dietary metal intake to young consumers was realized for each of the studied species of fish from Romanian, Bulgarian, and Turkish waters, during the period 2001-2014 in order to evaluate the risks of chronic exposure in time due to metal toxicity. This estimation is important for the prevention of chronic exposure due to metal toxicity. Food exposure to studied metals showed a negative trend for Romania, Turkey, and Bulgaria

  5. Additional human exposure information for gasoline substance risk assessment (period 2002-2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomer, R.; Carter, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Mulari, M.; Pizzella, G.; Roth, S.; Van de Sandt, P.

    2009-06-15

    This report provides an update on human exposure information for gasoline-related activities for which previous assessments had suggested that exposure was either elevated or highly variable or available data were considered out-of-date. In addition data are presented for several activities for which no information had been available previously. The occupational exposures activities described in this report include railcar loading, refinery maintenance, laboratory operations, aviation gasoline refuelling, gasoline pump maintenance and repair, gasoline pump calibration, and the operation of gasoline-powered gardening equipment. In addition, general public exposure levels are described, particularly relating to residency near service stations.

  6. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2015-07-01

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for 0.1) for dermal contact with clothes.

  7. A probabilistic modeling approach to assess human inhalation exposure risks to airborne aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    To assess how the human lung exposure to airborne aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1) during on-farm activities including swine feeding, storage bin cleaning, corn harvest, and grain elevator loading/unloading, we present a probabilistic risk model, appraised with empirical data. The model integrates probabilistic exposure profiles from a compartmental lung model with the reconstructed dose-response relationships based on an empirical three-parameter Hill equation model, describing AFB 1 cytotoxicity for inhibition response in human bronchial epithelial cells, to quantitatively estimate the inhalation exposure risks. The risk assessment results implicate that exposure to airborne AFB 1 may pose no significance to corn harvest and grain elevator loading/unloading activities, yet a relatively high risk for swine feeding and storage bin cleaning. Applying a joint probability function method based on exceedence profiles, we estimate that a potential high risk for the bronchial region (inhibition=56.69% with 95% confidence interval (CI): 35.05-72.87%) and bronchiolar region (inhibition=44.93% with 95% CI: 21.61 - 66.78%) is alarming during swine feeding activity. We parameterized the proposed predictive model that should encourage a risk-management framework for discussion of carcinogenic risk in occupational settings where inhalation of AFB 1-contaminated dust occurs.

  8. Health risk characterization for exposure to benzene in service stations and petroleum refineries environments using human adverse response data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Edokpolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Health risk characterization of exposure to benzene in service stations and petroleum refineries has been carried out in previous studies using guideline values set by various agencies. In this work, health risk was characterized with the exposure data as cumulative probability distribution (CPD plots but using human epidemiological data. This was achieved by using lowest observable adverse effects levels (LOAEL data plotted as cumulative probability lowest effects distribution (CPLED. The health risk due to benzene was characterized by using probabilistic methods of hazard quotient (HQ50/50 and HQ95/5, Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS and overall risk probability (ORP. CPD relationships of adverse health effects relationships and exposure data were in terms of average daily dose (ADD and lifetime average daily dose (LADD for benzene. For service station environments HQ50/50 and HQ95/5 were in a range of 0.000071–0.055 and 0.0049–21, respectively. On the other hand, the risk estimated for petroleum refinery environments suggests higher risk with HQ50/50 and HQ95/5 values ranging from 0.0012 to 77 and 0.17 to 560, respectively. The results of Monte-Carlo risk probability (MRP and ORP indicated that workers in petroleum refineries (MRP of 2.9–56% and ORP of 4.6–52% of the affected population were at a higher risk of adverse health effects from exposure to benzene as compared to exposure to benzene in service station environments (MRP of 0.051 –3.4% and ORP of 0.35–2.7% affected population. The adverse effect risk probabilities estimated by using the Monte-Carlo simulation technique and the ORP method were found to be generally consistent.

  9. Environmental exposure to pesticides and cancer risk in multiple human organ systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrón, Tesifón; Requena, Mar; Hernández, Antonio F; Alarcón, Raquel

    2014-10-15

    There is growing evidence on the association between long-term exposure to pesticides in occupational settings and an elevated rate of chronic diseases, including different types of cancer. However, data on non-occupational exposures are scarce to draw any conclusion. The objective of this study was to investigate the putative associations of environmental pesticide exposures in the general population with several cancer sites and to discuss potential carcinogenic mechanisms by which pesticides develop cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted among people residing in 10 Health districts from Andalusia (South Spain) to estimate the risk of cancer at different sites. Health districts were categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on two quantitative criteria: number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. The study population consisted of 34,205 cancer cases and 1,832,969 age and health district matched controls. Data were collected by computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of cancer at most organ sites were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use related to those with lower pesticide use. Conditional logistic regression analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk of cancer at all sites studied (odds ratios between 1.15 and 3.45) with the exception of Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The results of this study support and extend previous evidence from occupational studies indicating that environmental exposure to pesticides may be a risk factor for different types of cancer at the level of the general population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human exposure risk to heavy metals through groundwater used for drinking in an intensively irrigated river delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrimurugan, E.; Brindha, K.; Elango, L.; Ndwandwe, Osman Muzi

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water containing heavy metals above the maximum permissible limits cause potential risk to human health. The aim of this study was to determine the groundwater suitability for drinking use based on heavy metal concentration and the associated human exposure risk in an intensively irrigated part of the Cauvery river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Sixteen heavy metals analysed were in the order of dominance of chromium water quality, and silver, lead and nickel were above limits in all the groundwater samples. In less than 50 % of the groundwater samples, aluminium, boron, cadmium, copper, iron and manganese exceeded their individual permissible limits. Heavy metal pollution index based on 11 heavy metals indicated that groundwater quality of this area is poor-to-unsuitable. Non-carcinogenic risk for humans due to ingestion of groundwater through drinking water pathway was very high for infants, children and adults. Silver, lead, nickel, cadmium and manganese largely contributed to the health hazard. Sources of heavy metals were identified to be geological and from human activities, i.e., application of fertilizers in agricultural fields, seawater intrusion due to intensive pumping for agriculture and wastewater from industries. Groundwater and surface water in this area pose large threat due to high levels of heavy metals, and it is necessary to avoid this water for drinking due to potential risk of health hazard. This study also demonstrated the application of HPI and human exposure hazard index to study the groundwater quality based on heavy metals' concentration.

  11. Gene expression profiling to identify potentially relevant disease outcomes and support human health risk assessment for carbon black nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Julie A; Williams, Andrew; Kuo, Byron; Moffat, Ivy; White, Paul A; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan; Yauk, Carole L

    2013-01-07

    New approaches are urgently needed to evaluate potential hazards posed by exposure to nanomaterials. Gene expression profiling provides information on potential modes of action and human relevance, and tools have recently become available for pathway-based quantitative risk assessment. The objective of this study was to use toxicogenomics in the context of human health risk assessment. We explore the utility of toxicogenomics in risk assessment, using published gene expression data from C57BL/6 mice exposed to 18, 54 and 162 μg Printex 90 carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP). Analysis of CBNP-perturbed pathways, networks and transcription factors revealed concomitant changes in predicted phenotypes (e.g., pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity), that correlated with dose and time. Benchmark doses (BMDs) for apical endpoints were comparable to minimum BMDs for relevant pathway-specific expression changes. Comparison to inflammatory lung disease models (i.e., allergic airway inflammation, bacterial infection and tissue injury and fibrosis) and human disease profiles revealed that induced gene expression changes in Printex 90 exposed mice were similar to those typical for pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Very similar fibrotic pathways were perturbed in CBNP-exposed mice and human fibrosis disease models. Our synthesis demonstrates how toxicogenomic profiles may be used in human health risk assessment of nanoparticles and constitutes an important step forward in the ultimate recognition of toxicogenomic endpoints in human health risk. As our knowledge of molecular pathways, dose-response characteristics and relevance to human disease continues to grow, we anticipate that toxicogenomics will become increasingly useful in assessing chemical toxicities and in human health risk assessment. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental transport and human exposure: A multimedia approach in health-risk policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.

    1992-05-01

    In his treatise Air, Water, and Places, the ancient-Greek physician Hippocrates demonstrated that the appearance of disease in human populations is influenced by the quality of air, water, and food; the topography of the land; and general living habits. This approach is still relevant and, indeed, the conerstone of modem efforts to relate public health to environmental factors. What has changed is the precision with which we can measure and model these long-held relationships. Environmental scientists recognize that plants, animals, and humans encounter environmental contaminants via complex transfers through air, water, and food and use multimedia models to evaluate these transfers. In this report, I explore the use of multimedia models both to examine pollution trends and as a basis for characterizing human health risks and ecological risks. The strengths and weaknesses of the approach are discussed.

  13. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  14. Human health risk assessment of DDTs and HCHs through dietary exposure in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Xia, Zhonghuan; Wu, Minmin; Wang, Liping; Yang, Hao

    2017-06-01

    In a market based study in Nanjing, a typical southeast city in China, the most common consumed 23 kinds of foods from eleven different categories (vegetable, fruit, fish, pork, livestock meat, chicken, egg, milk, oil, rice and flour) were sampled in November 2015. The concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in foods were analyzed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector. The residual amounts of DDTs and HCHs in foods were 0.95-3.53 ng g(-1) and 0.32-1.96 ng g(-1), respectively. The highest residual of ∑10OCPs was 4.75 ng g(-1) in livestock meat and the lowest was 1.31 ng g(-1) in flour. Estimated daily intakes of both DDTs and HCHs for children were higher than other age groups regardless of the gender. With respect to food categories, the consumption of vegetables generated higher dietary exposure of DDTs and HCHs than other food categories for all age categories, which accounted for 20.21%-29.18% of the total. The daily intakes of γ-HCH and DDTs for all population groups were far below the acceptable amounts suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization. Health risk assessment indicated that there was no obvious non-cancer risk for local residents, whereas the cancer risk was estimated to be from 10(-6)∼10(-4), being higher than the acceptable risk level and lower than the priority risk level. Among residents of different gender and age, females showed higher risk than males in all age groups, and children were the most vulnerable age group to health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human exposure to chemical mixtures: Challenges for the integration of toxicology with epidemiology data in risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Antonio F; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the potential adverse effects from longterm exposure to complex mixtures at low doses, close to health-based reference values. Traditional chemical-specific risk assessment based on animal testing may be insufficient and the lack of toxicological studies on chemical mixtures remains a major regulatory challenge. Hence, new methodologies on cumulative risk assessment are being developed but still present major limitations. Evaluation of chemical mixture effects requires an integrated and systematic approach and close collaboration across different scientific fields, particularly toxicology, epidemiology, exposure science, risk assessment and statistics for a proper integration of data from all these disciplines. Well designed and conducted epidemiological studies can take advantage of this new paradigm and can provide insight to support the correlation between humans low-dose exposures and diseases, thus avoiding the uncertainty associated with extrapolation across species. In this regard, human epidemiology studies may play a significant role in the new vision of toxicity testing. However, this type of information has not been fully considered in risk assessment, mainly due to the inherent limitations of epidemiologic studies. An integrated approach of in vivo, in vitro and in silico data, together with systematic reviews or meta-analysis of high quality epidemiological studies will improve the robustness of risk assessment of chemical mixtures and will provide a stronger basis for regulatory decisions. The ultimate goal is that experimental and mechanistic data can lend support and biological plausibility to the human epidemiological observations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A margin of exposure approach to assessment of non-cancerous risk of diethyl phthalate based on human exposure from bottled water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Jeddi, Maryam; Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Daryabeygi, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Phthalates may be present in food due to their widespread presence as environmental contaminants or due to migration from food contact materials. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Therefore, determining the main source of exposure is an important issue. So, the purpose of this study was (1) to measure the release of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in bottled water consumed in common storage conditions specially low temperature and freezing conditions; (2) to evaluate the intake of DEP from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water and health risk assessment; and (3) to assess the contribution of the bottled water to the DEP intake against the tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. DEP migration was investigated in six brands of PET-bottled water under different storage conditions room temperature, refrigerator temperature, freezing conditions (40 °C ,0 °C and -18 °C) and outdoor] at various time intervals by magnetic solid extraction (MSPE) using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Eventually, a health risk assessment was conducted and the margin of exposure (MOE) was calculated. The results indicate that contact time with packaging and storage temperatures caused DEP to be released into water from PET bottles. But, when comprising the DEP concentration with initial level, the results demonstrated that the release of phthalates were not substantial in all storage conditions especially at low temperatures (bottled water was much lower than the reference value. However, the lowest MOE was estimated for high water consumers (preschooler > children > lactating women > teenagers > adults > pregnant women), but in all target groups, the MOE was much higher than 1000, thus, low risk is implied. Consequently, PET-bottled water is not a major source of human exposure to DEP and from this perspective is safe for consumption.

  17. Exposure to toxicants in soil and bottom ash deposits in Agbogbloshie, Ghana: human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, S; Ansa-Asare, O D; Mohammed, S; Darko, H F; Dartey, A G

    2016-10-01

    Recycling of e-waste using informal or crude techniques poses serious health risk not only to the workers but also to the environment as whole. It is against this background that this paper sought to measure health risk faced by informal e-waste workers from exposure to toxicants such as lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, arsenic, tin, zinc and cobalt via oral and dermal contact with bottom ash and soil. Using random sampling techniques, 3 separate sites each (where burning and manual dismantling of e-wastes are usually carried) were identified, and a total of 402 samples were collected. The samples were analysed using standard methods for chemical analysis prescribed by the American Water Works Association (AWWA). Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, Sn, Zn and Co in bottom ash samples from location ASH1 are 5388 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Pb), 2.39 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cd), 42 ± 0.05 mg/kg (Cr), 7940 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cu), 20 ± 0.07 mg/kg (As), 225 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Sn), 276 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Zn) and 123 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Co), while concentrations of the aforementioned toxicants in soil samples at location ASG1 are as follows: 1685 ± 0.14 mg/kg (Pb), 26.89 ± 0.30 mg/kg (Cd), 36.86 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Cr), 1427 ± 0.08 mg/kg (Cu), 1622 ± 0.12 mg/kg (As), 234 ± 0.25 mg/kg (Sn), 783 ± 0.31 mg/kg (Zn) and 135 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Co); used as input parameters in assessing health risk faced by workers. The results of cancer health risk faced by e-waste workers due to accidental ingestion of As in bottom ash at ASH1 is 4.3 × 10(-3) (CTE) and 6.5 × 10(-2) (RME), i.e. approximately 4 out of 1000 e-waste workers are likely to suffer from cancer-related diseases via central tendency exposure (CTE parameters), and 7 out of every 100 e-waste worker is also likely to suffer from cancer cases by reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters, respectively. The cancer health risk results for the other sampling sites were found to have exceeded the acceptable

  18. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury pollution in the Caqueta River, Colombian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Carranza-Lopez, Liliana; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Ripoll-Arboleda, Adriana; Muñoz-Sosa, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant posing severe risks to human health worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair and fish in the Caqueta River, at the Colombian Amazon, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured using a direct mercury analyzer. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the Caqueta River sample (n = 200) was 17.29 ± 0.61 μg/g (1.2 to 47.0 μg/g). Ninety-four percent of the individuals had hair T-Hg concentrations greater than the WHO threshold level (5 μg/g), and 79 % displayed levels higher than 10 μg/g. Average Hg concentrations in fish varied between 0.10-0.15 μg/g and 0.10-1.60 μg/g, for noncarnivorous and carnivorous species, respectively. Based on the maximum allowable fish consumption rate for adults, most carnivorous species should be avoided in the diet, as their target hazard quotient ranged from 2.96 up to 31.05, representing a risk for Hg-related health problems. In the light of existing evidence for elevated Hg levels in the indigenous population of the Colombian Amazon, carnivorous fish should be restricted as part of the diet, and breastfeeding should be reduced to protect children health. Most importantly, gold mining activities directly on rivers demand immediate attention from the national government to avoid extensive damage on the environment and human health.

  19. Meeting report of the EC/US workshop on genetic risk assessment: "human genetic risks from exposure to chemicals, focusing on the feasibility of a parallelogram approach".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, M D; Nolan, C

    1994-05-01

    This workshop was the concept of Professor Frits Sobels who passed away on the 6th of July 1993. The underlying idea of the Sobels' parallelogram approach is that an estimate (corrected by DNA-adduct dosimetry) of the genetic damage in human germ cells can be obtained by measuring a common endpoint in human and mouse somatic cells (such as gene mutation in lymphocytes) and in germ cells of mice, the desired target tissue inaccessible in humans. The main objective of the workshop was to identify the methodology, data requirements and mechanistic research to understand the human health impact of germ-cell mutagens. 4 chemicals were selected for review at the meeting: ethylene oxide, 1,3-butadiene, acrylamide and cyclophosphamide. The first 3 are important industrial chemicals with substantial use worldwide and, therefore, considerable potential human exposure. The 4th, cyclophosphamide, is a commonly used cancer chemotherapeutic agent. This first EC/US workshop on risk assessment was highly focused on the feasibility of the parallelogram concept to estimate potential germ-cell effects in humans. It represented an evaluation of current knowledge and the identification of future research needs for a more precise assessment of human genetic risks from exposure to mutagenic chemicals.

  20. The applied indicators of water quality may underestimate the risk of chemical exposure to human population in reservoirs utilized for human supply-Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Debora Regina; Yamamoto, Flávia Yoshie; Filipak Neto, Francisco; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; Garcia, Juan Esquivel; Costa, Daniele Dietrich Moura; Liebel, Samuel; Campos, Sandro Xavier; Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The knowledge concerning associations between chronic chemical exposure and many disorders with complex etiology involving gene-environment interactions is increasing, and new methods must be developed to improve water quality monitoring. The complexity of chemical mixtures in polluted aquatic environments makes the evaluation of toxic potential in those sites difficult, but the use of biomarkers and bioindicators has been recognized as a reliable tool to assess risk of exposure to biota and also the human population. In order to evaluate the use of fish and biomarkers to assess toxic potential and bioavailability of chemicals in human-related hydric resources, an in situ experiment was accomplished in two water reservoirs designated for human supply, which were previously evaluated by the local environmental regulatory agency through a set of physical, chemical, and classical biological parameters. Molecular, biochemical, and morphological biomarkers were performed in caged Oreochromis niloticus kept for 6 months in the studied reservoirs to assess potentially useful biomarkers to evaluate the quality of water for human supply. Chemical analysis of toxic metals in liver and muscle and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile was considered to assess the bioavailability of pollutants and highlight human activity impact. The reservoir previously classified by a governmental agency as less impacted presented more risk of exposure to biota. These results were supported by chemical analysis, vitellogenin expression, histopathological findings (gonads, liver, and gills), as well as indicators of neurotoxic effects and oxidative stress in liver. The inclusion of some biomarkers as parameters in regulatory monitoring programs in reservoirs designated for human supply is strongly suggested to evaluate the risks of exposure to the human population. Thus, a revision of the traditional biological and physicochemical analysis utilized to establish the conditions of

  1. Toxicogenomic outcomes predictive of forestomach carcinogenesis following exposure to benzo(a)pyrene: Relevance to human cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Sarah, E-mail: Sarah.Labib@hc-sc.gc.ca; Guo, Charles H., E-mail: Charles.Guo@hc-sc.gc.ca; Williams, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.Williams@hc-sc.gc.ca; Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: Carole.Yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca; White, Paul A., E-mail: Paul.White@hc-sc.gc.ca; Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: Sabina.Halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca

    2013-12-01

    Forestomach tumors are observed in mice exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, the relevance of this data to humans is controversial because humans lack a forestomach. We hypothesize that an understanding of early molecular changes after exposure to a carcinogen in the forestomach will provide mode-of-action information to evaluate the applicability of forestomach cancers to human cancer risk assessment. In the present study we exposed mice to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental carcinogen commonly associated with tumors of the rodent forestomach. Toxicogenomic tools were used to profile gene expression response in the forestomach. Adult Muta™Mouse males were orally exposed to 25, 50, and 75 mg BaP/kg-body-weight/day for 28 consecutive days. The forestomach was collected three days post-exposure. DNA microarrays, real-time RT-qPCR arrays, and protein analyses were employed to characterize responses in the forestomach. Microarray results showed altered expression of 414 genes across all treatment groups (± 1.5 fold; false discovery rate adjusted P ≤ 0.05). Significant downregulation of genes associated with phase II xenobiotic metabolism and increased expression of genes implicated in antigen processing and presentation, immune response, chemotaxis, and keratinocyte differentiation were observed in treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. A systematic comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the forestomach from the present study to differentially expressed genes identified in human diseases including human gastrointestinal tract cancers using the NextBio Human Disease Atlas showed significant commonalities between the two models. Our results provide molecular evidence supporting the use of the mouse forestomach model to evaluate chemically-induced gastrointestinal carcinogenesis in humans. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene-mediated transcriptomic response in the forestomach was examined. • The immunoproteosome subunits and MHC class I

  2. Toxicogenomic outcomes predictive of forestomach carcinogenesis following exposure to benzo(a)pyrene: relevance to human cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Sarah; Guo, Charles H; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L; White, Paul A; Halappanavar, Sabina

    2013-12-01

    Forestomach tumors are observed in mice exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, the relevance of this data to humans is controversial because humans lack a forestomach. We hypothesize that an understanding of early molecular changes after exposure to a carcinogen in the forestomach will provide mode-of-action information to evaluate the applicability of forestomach cancers to human cancer risk assessment. In the present study we exposed mice to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental carcinogen commonly associated with tumors of the rodent forestomach. Toxicogenomic tools were used to profile gene expression response in the forestomach. Adult Muta™Mouse males were orally exposed to 25, 50, and 75 mgBaP/kg-body-weight/day for 28 consecutive days. The forestomach was collected three days post-exposure. DNA microarrays, real-time RT-qPCR arrays, and protein analyses were employed to characterize responses in the forestomach. Microarray results showed altered expression of 414 genes across all treatment groups (± 1.5 fold; false discovery rate adjusted P ≤ 0.05). Significant downregulation of genes associated with phase II xenobiotic metabolism and increased expression of genes implicated in antigen processing and presentation, immune response, chemotaxis, and keratinocyte differentiation were observed in treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. A systematic comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the forestomach from the present study to differentially expressed genes identified in human diseases including human gastrointestinal tract cancers using the NextBio Human Disease Atlas showed significant commonalities between the two models. Our results provide molecular evidence supporting the use of the mouse forestomach model to evaluate chemically-induced gastrointestinal carcinogenesis in humans.

  3. Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ping Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic (As exposure continues to be a public health problem of major concern worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people. A long-term groundwater quality survey has revealed that 20% of the groundwater in southern Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain is clearly contaminated with a measured As concentration in excess of the maximum level of 10 µg/L recommended by the World Health Organization. The situation is further complicated by the fact that more than half of the inhabitants in this area continue to use groundwater for drinking. Efforts to assess the health risk associated with the ingestion of As from the contaminated drinking water are required in order to determine the priorities for health risk management. The conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for this purpose, so this study adopts a geostatistical Kriging method to perform a spatial analysis of the health risk associated with ingesting As through drinking groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The health risk is assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ and target cancer risk (TR established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results show that most areas where the HQ exceeds 1 are in the southwestern part of the study area. In addition, the high-population density townships of Daliao, Linyuan, Donggang, Linbian, Jiadong, and Fangliao presently have exceedingly high TR values that are two orders of magnitude higher than the acceptable standard. Thus, the use of groundwater for drinking in these townships should be strictly avoided. A map that delineates areas with high TR values and high population densities is provided. The findings broaden the scope of the spatial analysis of human health risk and provide a basis for improving the decision-making process.

  4. Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Chien, Yi-Chi; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure continues to be a public health problem of major concern worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people. A long-term groundwater quality survey has revealed that 20% of the groundwater in southern Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain is clearly contaminated with a measured As concentration in excess of the maximum level of 10 µg/L recommended by the World Health Organization. The situation is further complicated by the fact that more than half of the inhabitants in this area continue to use groundwater for drinking. Efforts to assess the health risk associated with the ingestion of As from the contaminated drinking water are required in order to determine the priorities for health risk management. The conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for this purpose, so this study adopts a geostatistical Kriging method to perform a spatial analysis of the health risk associated with ingesting As through drinking groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The health risk is assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target cancer risk (TR) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results show that most areas where the HQ exceeds 1 are in the southwestern part of the study area. In addition, the high-population density townships of Daliao, Linyuan, Donggang, Linbian, Jiadong, and Fangliao presently have exceedingly high TR values that are two orders of magnitude higher than the acceptable standard. Thus, the use of groundwater for drinking in these townships should be strictly avoided. A map that delineates areas with high TR values and high population densities is provided. The findings broaden the scope of the spatial analysis of human health risk and provide a basis for improving the decision-making process. PMID:28098817

  5. Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan's Pingtung Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Chien, Yi-Chi; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2017-01-14

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure continues to be a public health problem of major concern worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people. A long-term groundwater quality survey has revealed that 20% of the groundwater in southern Taiwan's Pingtung Plain is clearly contaminated with a measured As concentration in excess of the maximum level of 10 µg/L recommended by the World Health Organization. The situation is further complicated by the fact that more than half of the inhabitants in this area continue to use groundwater for drinking. Efforts to assess the health risk associated with the ingestion of As from the contaminated drinking water are required in order to determine the priorities for health risk management. The conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for this purpose, so this study adopts a geostatistical Kriging method to perform a spatial analysis of the health risk associated with ingesting As through drinking groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The health risk is assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target cancer risk (TR) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results show that most areas where the HQ exceeds 1 are in the southwestern part of the study area. In addition, the high-population density townships of Daliao, Linyuan, Donggang, Linbian, Jiadong, and Fangliao presently have exceedingly high TR values that are two orders of magnitude higher than the acceptable standard. Thus, the use of groundwater for drinking in these townships should be strictly avoided. A map that delineates areas with high TR values and high population densities is provided. The findings broaden the scope of the spatial analysis of human health risk and provide a basis for improving the decision-making process.

  6. Occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Silvia; Miozzi, Edoardo; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; De Luca, Annamaria; Alibrando, Carmela; Polito, Irene; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that pesticides are widely used compounds. In fact, their use in agriculture, forestry, fishery and the food industry has granted a huge improvement in terms of productive efficiency. However, a great number of epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that these toxic compounds can interact and exert negative effects not only with their targets (pests, herbs and fungi), but also with the rest of the environment, including humans. This is particularly relevant in the case of workers involved in the production, transportation, preparation and application of these toxicants. Accordingly, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated the correlation between occupational exposure to pesticides and the development of a wide spectrum of pathologies, ranging from eczema to neurological diseases and cancer. Pesticide exposure is often quite difficult to establish, as many currently used modules do not take into account all of the many variables that can occur in a diverse environment, such as the agricultural sector, and the assessment of the real risk for every single worker is problematic. Indeed, the use of personal protection equipment is necessary while handling these toxic compounds, but education of workers can be even more important: personal contamination with pesticides may occur even in apparently harmless situations. This review summarises the most recent findings describing the association between pesticide occupational exposure and the development of chronic diseases. PMID:27748877

  7. Overview of ozone human exposure and health risk analyses used in the U.S. EPA's review of the ozone air quality standard.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, R. G.

    1999-03-04

    This paper presents an overview of the ozone human exposure and health risk analyses developed under sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These analyses are being used in the current review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The analyses consist of three principal steps: (1) estimating short-term ozone exposure for particular populations (exposure model); (2) estimating population response to exposures or concentrations (exposure-response or concentration-response models); and (3) integrating concentrations or exposure with concentration-response or exposure-response models to produce overall risk estimates (risk model). The exposure model, called the probabilistic NAAQS exposure model for ozone (pNEM/03), incorporates the following factors: hourly ambient ozone concentrations; spatial distribution of concentrations; ventilation state of individuals at time of exposure; and movement of people through various microenvironments (e.g., outdoors, indoors, inside a vehicle) of varying air quality. Exposure estimates are represented by probability distributions. Exposure-response relationships have been developed for several respiratory symptom and lung function health effects, based on the results of controlled human exposure studies. These relationships also are probabilistic and reflect uncertainties associated with sample size and variability of response among subjects. The analyses also provide estimates of excess hospital admissions in the New York City area based on results from an epidemiology study. Overall risk results for selected health endpoints and recently analyzed air quality scenarios associated with alternative 8-hour NAAQS and the current 1-hour standard for outdoor children are used to illustrate application of the methodology.

  8. Endemic fluorosis in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. I. Identification of risk factors associated with human exposure to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldo, M; Borja-Aburto, V H; Ramírez, A L; Ponce, M; Rosas, M; Díaz-Barriga, F

    1995-01-01

    In order to identify risk factors associated with human exposure to fluoride in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico, a biochemical and epidemiological study was carried out in 1992. Results from the analysis of fluoride sources showed that 61% of tap water samples had fluoride levels above the optimal level of 0.7-1.2 ppm. The levels were higher after boiling. In bottled water, fluoride levels ranged from 0.33 to 6.97 ppm. These sources are important since in SLP 82% of the children drink tap water, 31% also drink bottled water, 92% prepare their food with tap water, 44% boiled all the drinking water, and 91% used infant formula reconstituted with boiled water. The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in children (11-13 years old) increased as the concentration of water fluoride increased. At levels of fluoride in water lower than 0.7 ppm a prevalence of 69% was found for total dental fluorosis, whereas at levels of fluoride in water higher than 2.0 ppm a prevalence of 98% was found. In the same children, fluoride levels in urine were quantified. The levels increased as the concentration of water fluoride increased. Regressional analysis showed an increment of 0.54 ppm (P < 0.0001) of fluoride in urine for each ppm of fluoride in water. Fluoride urinary levels were higher in samples collected during the afternoon (1800) when compared with sample collected during the morning (1100). Taking together all these results, three risk factors for human exposure to fluoride in SLP can be identified: ambient temperature, boiled water, and food preparation with boiled water. These factors explain the prevalence of dental fluorosis in SLP.

  9. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  10. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury contamination in artisanal gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, Zuleica; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Cesar, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Villas-Bôas, Roberto; de Jesus, Iracina; Lima, Marcelo; Faial, Kleber; Miranda, Antônio; Brabo, Edilson; Beinhoff, Christian; Santos, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is an issue of concern in the Amazon region due to potential health effects associated with Hg exposure in artisanal gold mining areas. The study presents a human health risk assessment associated with Hg vapor inhalation and MeHg-contaminated fish ingestion, as well as Hg determination in urine, blood, and hair, of human populations (about 325 miners and 321 non-miners) from two gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon (São Chico and Creporizinho, Pará State). In São Chico and Creporizinho, 73 fish specimens of 13 freshwater species, and 161 specimens of 11 species, were collected for total Hg determination, respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is a risk indicator which defines the ratio of the exposure level and the toxicological reference dose and was applied to determine the threat of MeHg exposure. The mean Hg concentrations in fish from São Chico and Creporizinho were 0.83 ± 0.43 and 0.36 ± 0.33 μg/g, respectively. More than 60 and 22 % of fish collected in São Chico and Creporizinho, respectively, were above the Hg limit (0.5 μg/g) recommended by WHO for human consumption. For all sampling sites, HQ resulted from 1.5 to 28.5, except for the reference area. In Creporizinho, the values of HQ are close to 2 for most sites, whereas in São Chico, there is a hot spot of MeHg contamination in fish (A2-São Chico Reservoir) with the highest risk level (HQ = 28) associated with its human consumption. Mean Hg concentrations in urine, blood, and hair samples indicated that the miners group (in São Chico: urine = 17.37 μg/L; blood = 27.74 μg/L; hair = 4.50 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 13.75 μg/L; blood = 25.23 μg/L; hair: 4.58 μg/g) was more exposed to mercury compared to non-miners (in São Chico: urine = 5.73 μg/L; blood = 16.50 μg/L; hair = 3.16 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 3.91 μg/L; blood = 21.04 μg/L, hair = 1.88 μg/g). These high Hg levels (found

  11. Indoor and outdoor dust in Damaturu Nigeria : composition, exposure and risk to human health

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Fatima Sule

    2013-01-01

    Harmattan and Dust (sand) storms together with anthropogenic activities including the use of firewood and kerosene as fuel for cooking, and diesel/petrol generators for electricity generation are potential sources of particulate and gaseous pollutants in homes in Damaturu town, Nigeria. Other activities like the burning of locally produced incense and mosquito coils as well as the use of aerosol sprays are further possible sources of indoor pollution, which may result in exposure of people to...

  12. Balkan Endemic Nephropathy - Still continuing enigma, risk assessment and underestimated hazard of joint mycotoxin exposure of animals or humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoev, Stoycho D

    2017-01-05

    The spreading of mycotoxic nephropathy in animals/humans was studied. The possible etiological causes provoking this nephropathy were carefully reviewed and analyzed. The natural content of the most frequent nephrotoxic mycotoxins in target feedstuffs/foods were investigated, in addition to their significance for development of renal damages in endemic areas. An estimation of the level of exposure of humans to the nephrotoxic mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA), is made. The possible synergism or additive effects between some target mycotoxins in the development of nephropathy is also covered. The significance of joint mycotoxin interaction and masked mycotoxins, in addition to some newly isolated fungal toxic agents in the complicated etiology of mycotoxic nephropathy ranged in Balkan countries is discussed. The importance of some target fungal species which can induce kidney damages was evaluated. The morphological/ultrastructural, functional and toxicological similarities between human and animal nephropathy are studied. The possible hazard of low content of combinations of some target mycotoxins in food or feedstuff ingested by pigs, chickens or humans under natural conditions is evaluated and a risk assessment was made. Some different but more effective manners of prophylaxis and/or prevention against OTA contamination of feedstuffs/foods are suggested. A survey was made in regard to the best possible ways of veterinary hygiene control of OTA-exposed animals at slaughter time for preventing the entrance of OTA in commercial feedstuffs/food channels with a view to reduce the possible health hazard for humans. The economic efficacy and applicability of such preventive measures is additionally discussed and some practical suggestions are made.

  13. Human exposure to dioxins through the diet in Catalonia, Spain: carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, Jose L; Bocio, Ana; Casas, Conrad; Teixidó, Angel; Müller, Lutz

    2003-03-01

    The main objectives of this study were to estimate the dietary intake of dioxins by the population of Catalonia, Spain, to determine which food groups showed the greatest contribution to this intake, and to assess the health risks potentially associated with the dietary dioxin intake. From June to August 2000, food samples were randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia. Dioxin concentrations were determined in 108 samples belonging to the following groups: vegetables, fruits, pulses, cereals, fish and shellfish, meats and meat products, eggs, milk and dairy products, and oils and fats. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. Total dietary intake of dioxins for the general population of Catalonia was estimated to be 95.4 pg WHO-TEQ/day (78.4 pg I-TEQ/day), with fish and shellfish (31%), diary products (25%), cereals (14%) and meat (13%) showing the greatest percentages of contribution to dioxin intake. The contribution of all the rest of food groups to the total dietary intake was under 20%. The non-carcinogenic risk index of dioxin intake through the diet was in the range 0.34-1.36, while the carcinogenic risk level was 1,360 excess cancer over a lifetime of 70 years. Our results corroborate the decreasing tendency in dietary intake of dioxins found in recent studies (2000-2001) from various countries.

  14. Human exposure to toxic metals via contaminated dust: Bio-accumulation trends and their potential risk estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohmand, Jawad; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Fasola, Mauro; Alamdar, Ambreen; Mustafa, Irfan; Ali, Nadeem; Liu, Liangpo; Peng, Siyuan; Shen, Heqing

    2015-08-01

    We assessed the levels of potentially toxic trace metals, Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), and Cadmium (Cd), in dust, hair, nail and serum, sampled in rural, urban and industrial areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Trace metals occurrence in all samples, in descending order, was: Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Cd. The samples from the urban areas showed significantly higher concentration of toxic trace metals (Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Mn, and Cd) than those from industrial (which conversely had higher levels of Pb and Cu), and than samples from rural areas. Bioaccumulation patterns showed that dust exposure is one of the major routes into human body for Cd, Pb, Co, Mn and Cr, while the burden of Zn, Cu, and Ni can be more linked to dietary sources. The concentrations of trace metals in the samples from Punjab were comparable and/or higher than those reported worldwide. In many cases, the levels of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni and Cd in hair and nail were beyond the ATSDR threshold guideline values that may cause some serious health effects. Hazard Index (HI) calculated for trace metal concentrations in the human population of Punjab points particularly to health risks from Cd (for children in urban and industrial areas) and from Pb (for all sub-groups). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human Exposure Database System (HEDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Human Exposure Database System (HEDS) provides public access to data sets, documents, and metadata from EPA on human exposure. It is primarily intended for...

  16. Human Injury From Atomic Particles and Photon Exposure: Fears, Myths, Risks, and Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Energy absorbtion from particles and photons moving at relativistic speeds has been a fundamental part of life on earth and wherever else life might exist. Heat and visible light have deeply influenced the course of human evolution, affecting habitat and nutrition. The photons of ionizing radiation that over time can possibly affect evolution, contribute to the more immediate problem of morbidity and mortality of cancer.

  17. Estimating Risks of Inapparent Avian Exposure for Human Infection: Avian Influenza Virus A (H7N9) in Zhejiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Erjia; Zhang, Renjie; Li, Dengkui; Wei, Xiaolin; Wang, Xiaomeng; Lai, Poh-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Inapparent avian exposure was suspected for the sporadic infection of avian influenza A(H7N9) occurring in China. This type of exposure is usually unnoticed and difficult to model and measure. Infected poultry with avian influenza H7N9 virus typically remains asymptomatic, which may facilitate infection through inapparent poultry/bird exposure, especially in a country with widespread practice of backyard poultry. The present study proposed a novel approach that integrated ecological and case-control methods to quantify the risk of inapparent avian exposure on human H7N9 infection. Significant associations of the infection with chicken and goose densities, but not with duck density, were identified after adjusting for spatial clustering effects of the H7N9 cases across multiple geographic scales of neighborhood, community, district and city levels. These exposure risks varied geographically in association with proximity to rivers and lakes that were also proxies for inapparent exposure to avian-related environment. Males, elderly people, and farmers were high-risk subgroups for the virus infection. These findings enable health officials to target educational programs and awareness training in specific locations to reduce the risks of inapparent exposure. PMID:28054599

  18. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Anisha; Oliver, David M; Gutierrez, Tony; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Marine plastic debris is well characterized in terms of its ability to negatively impact terrestrial and marine environments, endanger coastal wildlife, and interfere with navigation, tourism and commercial fisheries. However, the impacts of potentially harmful microorganisms and pathogens colonising plastic litter are not well understood. The hard surface of plastics provides an ideal environment for opportunistic microbial colonisers to form biofilms and might offer a protective niche capable of supporting a diversity of different microorganisms, known as the "Plastisphere". This biotope could act as an important vector for the persistence and spread of pathogens, faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and harmful algal bloom species (HABs) across beach and bathing environments. This review will focus on the existent knowledge and research gaps, and identify the possible consequences of plastic-associated microbes on human health, the spread of infectious diseases and bathing water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (I: prevalence, risk factors and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery Edith

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ruling parties in Bangladesh have systematically used violence against political opponents and criminals. It is essential to 1 determine the magnitude and burden of organised crime and political violence (OPV and human rights violations in the affected community, and to 2 identify the risk factors and key indicators for developing effective health intervention and prevention measures. Methods The population-based study consisted of two parts: a household survey and OPV screening at mobile clinics (presented in Part II. A cross-sectional, multistage cluster household survey was conducted in the Meherpur district in February-March 2008; 22 clusters with a sample size of 1,101 households (population of 4,870 were selected. Results Around 83% of households reported being exposed to at least two categories of OPV or human rights violations: 29% reported that the family members had been arrested or detained; 31% reported torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Crude mortality rate was 17.9/1,000 and under 5 mortality rate was 75/1,000. The annual injury rate was 36%, lifetime experience of violence-related injury was 50%, and pain experience within 2 weeks was reported by 57%. Over 80% of the population over 35 years old complained of pain. High prevalence of injury, lifetime experience of OPV-related injury and pain complaints are related to the level of exposure to OPV and human rights violations. A financial burden was imposed on families with an injured person. A geographical variation was revealed regarding reports of torture and lifetime experience of violence-related injury. A combination of individual, relational, community and societal factors, including variables such as political party affiliation, conflict with other families, household income and residential area, affected the risk of victimisation in the household. The odds ratio for reporting extrajudicial execution of a family

  20. Using exposure bands for rapid decision making in the RISK21 tiered exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellarco, M; Zaleski, R; Gaborek, B J; Qian, H; Bellin, C A; Egeghy, P; Heard, N; Jolliet, O; Lander, D R; Sunger, N; Stylianou, K S; Tanir, J Y

    2017-04-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Risk Assessment in the Twenty-first Century (RISK21) project was initiated to address and catalyze improvements in human health risk assessment. RISK21 is a problem formulation-based conceptual roadmap and risk matrix visualization tool, facilitating transparent evaluation of both hazard and exposure components. The RISK21 roadmap is exposure-driven, that is, exposure is used as the second step (after problem formulation) to define and focus the assessment. This paper describes the exposure tiers of the RISK21 matrix and the approaches to adapt readily available information to more quickly inform exposure at a screening level. In particular, exposure look-up tables were developed from available exposure tools (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) Targeted Risk Assessment (TRA) for worker exposure, ECETOC TRA, European Solvents Industry Group (ESIG) Generic Exposure Scenario (GES) Risk and Exposure Tool (EGRET) for consumer exposure, and USEtox(®) for indirect exposure to humans via the environment) and were tested in a hypothetical mosquito bed netting case study. A detailed WHO risk assessment for a similar mosquito net use served as a benchmark for the performance of the RISK21 approach. The case study demonstrated that the screening methodologies provided suitable conservative exposure estimates for risk assessment. The results of this effort showed that the RISK21 approach is useful for defining future assessment efforts, focusing assessment activities and visualizing results.

  1. RISK ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TRIHALOMETHANES (THMs IN THE WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OF CLUJ-NAPOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA ROMAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trihalomethanes (THMs, as disinfection by-products resulted from water chlorination, can get into the body through ingestion of beverages, food or drinking water. This paper discusses the relationship between the use of drinking water from the public distribution network of Cluj-Napoca and exposure to trihalomethanes. To better characterize individual water consumption, at home and at work, we applied a questionnaire to a group of 211 subjects from Cluj-Napoca, while assessing their current exposure to THMs by collecting and analyzing water from different points of the distribution network. The data obtained were statistically processed and then used to calculate the exposure dose and cancer risk for both adults and children. The results showed that subjects consumed for drinking both bottled water and water from the distribution network, but for preparing food and beverages (tea, coffee they used only water from the public distribution network. The average daily consumption of drinking water from the distribution network, is 1.4 l/day for adults, including beverages prepared with treated water. The surveyed subjects declared that they consume coffee or tea, in percentage of 88%, 94.4% respectively. The calculation of the exposure dose, daily intake and risk of cancer was achieved by using a model developed by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR from the USA to calculate the dose and assess the risk of cancer. Our study shows that the cancer risk to THMs is increasing related to the higher daily intake of the drinking water, being higher for chloroform compared to dibromochloroform. For the measured concentrations of chloroform and dibromochloroform in drinking water and the average daily consumption of 1.4 l water/day, the probability of new cancers occurrence is at least 2.4 additional cases for 25 years of exposure and maximum 4.61 cases for 35 years of exposure in the existing background of a 1 million people.

  2. Sarcoma risk after radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrington de Gonzalez Amy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas were one of the first solid cancers to be linked to ionizing radiation exposure. We reviewed the current evidence on this relationship, focusing particularly on the studies that had individual estimates of radiation doses. There is clear evidence of an increased risk of both bone and soft tissue sarcomas after high-dose fractionated radiation exposure (10 + Gy in childhood, and the risk increases approximately linearly in dose, at least up to 40 Gy. There are few studies available of sarcoma after radiotherapy in adulthood for cancer, but data from cancer registries and studies of treatment for benign conditions confirm that the risk of sarcoma is also increased in this age-group after fractionated high-dose exposure. New findings from the long-term follow-up of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors suggest, for the first time, that sarcomas can be induced by acute lower-doses of radiation (

  3. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Naomi; Geldenhuys, Sian; Gorman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant burden on global healthcare due to its high prevalence and associations with chronic health conditions. In our animal studies, ongoing exposure to low dose ultraviolet radiation (UVR, found in sunlight) reduced weight gain and the development of signs of cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. These observations suggest that regular exposure to safe levels of sunlight could be an effective means of reducing the burden of obesity. However, there is limited knowledge around the nature of associations between sun exposure and the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction, and we do not know if sun exposure (independent of outdoor activity) affects the metabolic processes that determine obesity in humans. In addition, excessive sun exposure has strong associations with a number of negative health consequences such as skin cancer. This means it is very important to “get the balance right” to ensure that we receive benefits without increasing harm. In this review, we detail the evidence around the cardiometabolic protective effects of UVR and suggest mechanistic pathways through which UVR could be beneficial. PMID:27727191

  4. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Fleury

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant burden on global healthcare due to its high prevalence and associations with chronic health conditions. In our animal studies, ongoing exposure to low dose ultraviolet radiation (UVR, found in sunlight reduced weight gain and the development of signs of cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. These observations suggest that regular exposure to safe levels of sunlight could be an effective means of reducing the burden of obesity. However, there is limited knowledge around the nature of associations between sun exposure and the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction, and we do not know if sun exposure (independent of outdoor activity affects the metabolic processes that determine obesity in humans. In addition, excessive sun exposure has strong associations with a number of negative health consequences such as skin cancer. This means it is very important to “get the balance right” to ensure that we receive benefits without increasing harm. In this review, we detail the evidence around the cardiometabolic protective effects of UVR and suggest mechanistic pathways through which UVR could be beneficial.

  5. Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Espinosa, Tania; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels.

  6. Comparative systems toxicology analysis of cigarette smoke and aerosol from a candidate modified risk tobacco product in organotypic human gingival epithelial cultures: A 3-day repeated exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Filippo; Titz, Bjoern; Sewer, Alain; Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Scotti, Elena; Schlage, Walter K; Mathis, Carole; Leroy, Patrice; Majeed, Shoaib; Torres, Laura Ortega; Keppler, Brian R; Elamin, Ashraf; Trivedi, Keyur; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Smoking is one of the major lifestyle-related risk factors for periodontal diseases. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) offer a promising alternative in the harm reduction strategy for adult smokers unable to quit. Using a systems toxicology approach, we investigated and compared the exposure effects of a reference cigarette (3R4F) and a heat-not-burn technology-based candidate MRTP, the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2. Human gingival epithelial organotypic cultures were repeatedly exposed (3 days) for 28 min at two matching concentrations of cigarette smoke (CS) or THS2.2 aerosol. Results showed only minor histopathological alterations and minimal cytotoxicity upon THS2.2 aerosol exposure compared to CS (1% for THS2.2 aerosol vs. 30% for CS, at the high concentration). Among the 14 proinflammatory mediators analyzed, only 5 exhibited significant alterations with THS2.2 exposure compared with 11 upon CS exposure. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis indicated a general reduction of the impact in THS2.2 aerosol-exposed samples with respect to CS (∼79% lower biological impact for the high THS2.2 aerosol concentration compared to CS, and 13 metabolites significantly perturbed for THS2.2 vs. 181 for CS). This study indicates that exposure to THS2.2 aerosol had a lower impact on the pathophysiology of human gingival organotypic cultures than CS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Human Exposure Risk Assessment Due to Heavy Metals in Groundwater by Pollution Index and Multivariate Statistical Methods: A Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrimurugan Elumalai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in surface and groundwater were analysed and their sources were identified using multivariate statistical tools for two towns in South Africa. Human exposure risk through the drinking water pathway was also assessed. Electrical conductivity values showed that groundwater is desirable to permissible for drinking except for six locations. Concentration of aluminium, lead and nickel were above the permissible limit for drinking at all locations. Boron, cadmium, iron and manganese exceeded the limit at few locations. Heavy metal pollution index based on ten heavy metals indicated that 85% of the area had good quality water, but 15% was unsuitable. Human exposure dose through the drinking water pathway indicated no risk due to boron, nickel and zinc, moderate risk due to cadmium and lithium and high risk due to silver, copper, manganese and lead. Hazard quotients were high in all sampling locations for humans of all age groups, indicating that groundwater is unsuitable for drinking purposes. Highly polluted areas were located near the coast, close to industrial operations and at a landfill site representing human-induced pollution. Factor analysis identified the four major pollution sources as: (1 industries; (2 mining and related activities; (3 mixed sources- geogenic and anthropogenic and (4 fertilizer application.

  8. Arsenic exposure and calpain-10 polymorphisms impair the function of pancreatic beta-cells in humans: a pilot study of risk factors for T2DM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Díaz-Villaseñor

    Full Text Available The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing worldwide and diverse environmental and genetic risk factors are well recognized. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN-10, which encodes a protein involved in the secretion and action of insulin, and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs through drinking water have been independently associated with an increase in the risk for T2DM. In the present work we evaluated if CAPN-10 SNPs and iAs exposure jointly contribute to the outcome of T2DM. Insulin secretion (beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity were evaluated indirectly through validated indexes (HOMA2 in subjects with and without T2DM who have been exposed to a gradient of iAs in their drinking water in northern Mexico. The results were analyzed taking into account the presence of the risk factor SNPs SNP-43 and -44 in CAPN-10. Subjects with T2DM had significantly lower beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. An inverse association was found between beta-cell function and iAs exposure, the association being more pronounced in subjects with T2DM. Subjects without T2DM who were carriers of the at-risk genotype SNP-43 or -44, also had significantly lower beta-cell function. The association of SNP-43 with beta-cell function was dependent on iAs exposure, age, gender and BMI, whereas the association with SNP-44 was independent of all of these factors. Chronic exposure to iAs seems to be a risk factor for T2DM in humans through the reduction of beta-cell function, with an enhanced effect seen in the presence of the at-risk genotype of SNP-43 in CAPN-10. Carriers of CAPN-10 SNP-44 have also shown reduced beta-cell function.

  9. Arsenic Exposure and Calpain-10 Polymorphisms Impair the Function of Pancreatic Beta-Cells in Humans: A Pilot Study of Risk Factors for T2DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Cruz, Laura; Cebrián, Arturo; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U.; Hiriart, Marcia; García-Vargas, Gonzálo; Bassol, Susana; Sordo, Monserrat; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Klimecki, Walter T.; López-Carillo, Lizbeth; Cebrián, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide and diverse environmental and genetic risk factors are well recognized. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN-10), which encodes a protein involved in the secretion and action of insulin, and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water have been independently associated with an increase in the risk for T2DM. In the present work we evaluated if CAPN-10 SNPs and iAs exposure jointly contribute to the outcome of T2DM. Insulin secretion (beta-cell function) and insulin sensitivity were evaluated indirectly through validated indexes (HOMA2) in subjects with and without T2DM who have been exposed to a gradient of iAs in their drinking water in northern Mexico. The results were analyzed taking into account the presence of the risk factor SNPs SNP-43 and -44 in CAPN-10. Subjects with T2DM had significantly lower beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. An inverse association was found between beta-cell function and iAs exposure, the association being more pronounced in subjects with T2DM. Subjects without T2DM who were carriers of the at-risk genotype SNP-43 or -44, also had significantly lower beta-cell function. The association of SNP-43 with beta-cell function was dependent on iAs exposure, age, gender and BMI, whereas the association with SNP-44 was independent of all of these factors. Chronic exposure to iAs seems to be a risk factor for T2DM in humans through the reduction of beta-cell function, with an enhanced effect seen in the presence of the at-risk genotype of SNP-43 in CAPN-10. Carriers of CAPN-10 SNP-44 have also shown reduced beta-cell function. PMID:23349674

  10. Human health risk assessment of lead from mining activities at semi-arid locations in the context of total lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiajia; Huynh, Trang; Gasparon, Massimo; Ng, Jack; Noller, Barry

    2013-12-01

    Lead from historical mining and mineral processing activities may pose potential human health risks if materials with high concentrations of bioavailable lead minerals are released to the environment. Since the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization withdrew the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of lead in 2011, an alternative method was required for lead exposure assessment. This study evaluated the potential lead hazard to young children (0-7 years) from a historical mining location at a semi-arid area using the U.S. EPA Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model, with selected site-specific input data. This study assessed lead exposure via the inhalation pathway for children living in a location affected by lead mining activities and with specific reference to semi-arid conditions and made comparison with the ingestion pathway by using the physiologically based extraction test for gastro-intestinal simulation. Sensitivity analysis for major IEUBK input parameters was conducted. Three groups of input parameters were classified according to the results of predicted blood concentrations. The modelled lead absorption attributed to the inhalation route was lower than 2 % (mean ± SE, 0.9 % ± 0.1 %) of all lead intake routes and was demonstrated as a less significant exposure pathway to children's blood, compared with ingestion. Whilst dermal exposure was negligible, diet and ingestion of soil and dust were the dominant parameters in terms of children's blood lead prediction. The exposure assessment identified the changing role of dietary intake when house lead loadings varied. Recommendations were also made to conduct comprehensive site-specific human health risk assessment in future studies of lead exposure under a semi-arid climate.

  11. Evaluating microcystin exposure risk through fish consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Poste, Amanda E.; Hecky, Robert E.; Guildford, Stephanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Microcystin is a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin that is found worldwide, and poses a serious threat to the ecological communities in which it is found as well as to those who rely on these waters for drinking, sanitation, or as a food source. Microcystin is known to accumulate in fish and other aquatic biota, however the prevalence of microcystin in fish tissue and the human health risks posed by microcystin exposure through fish consumption remain poorly resolved. Here we show that microcystin i...

  12. Cancer risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via indoor and outdoor dust based on probit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan; Shao, Dingding; Li, Ning; Yang, Gelin; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zeng, Lixuan; Luo, Jiwen; Zhong, Wenfeng

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust and outdoor dust including road and window dust around the traffic road in Hunan Province, China, were sampled and detected. The ∑PAHs in indoor dust ranged from 5007-24,236 ng g(-1), with a median of 14,049 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in road dust ranged from 3644-12,875 ng g(-1), with a median of 10,559 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in window dust ranged from 803-12,590 ng g(-1), with a median of 5459 ng g(-1). Similar pattern of PAHs was observed in road and window dust except in H3W and H4W samples, which was dominated by naphthalene (Nap), benzo(b+k)fluoranthene (B(b+k)F), phenanthrene (Phe), and fluorine (Fle). Indoor dust showed slightly different PAHs profiles, which was dominated by Nap, fluoranthene (Fla) and Phe. Risk assessment indicated that dermal contact and dust ingestion exposure pathways were more important than the inhalation pathway. Cancer risk of PAHs via dust varied from 2.73 × 10(-8)-8.04 × 10(-6), with a median of 2.06 × 10(-6) for children, and from 2 × 10(-8)-5.89 × 10(-6), with a median of 1.52 × 10(-6) for adult. Probit model showed that 76 and 71 % of samples in the sampling area would result in the risk of children and adult exposure to PAHs via dust higher than the acceptable level (1 × 10(-6)), respectively.

  13. Exposição humana a substâncias químicas potencialmente tóxicas na dieta e os riscos para saúde Chemical dietary exposure and the risks to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Nunes Oliveira Jardim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are exposed to a variety of chemicals from the consumption of food, including undesirable compounds such as pesticides and mycotoxins. Chemical human risk assessment is a process intended to estimate the risk to a given population from the exposure to a chemical (or to a chemical group having the same mechanism of action. The process consists of four steps, namely hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Chemical dietary risk assessment is an essential procedure to establish safe food standards. In this review the tools and data sources currently used in the risk assessment process will be discussed.

  14. Modeling/GIS, Risk Assessment, Economic Impact: Seasonal Patterns for Entomological Measures of Risk for Exposure to Culex Vectors and West Nile Virus in Relation to Human Disease Cases in Northeastern Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Bolling, Bethany G.; Barker, Christopher M.; Moore, Chester G.; Pape, W. John; Eisen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    We examined seasonal patterns for entomological measures of risk for exposure to Culex vectors and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in relation to human WNV disease cases in a five-county area of northeastern Colorado during 2006–2007. Studies along habitat/elevation gradients in 2006 showed that the seasonal activity period is shortened and peak numbers occur later in the summer for Culex tarsalis Coquillett females in foothills-montane areas >1,600 m compared wit...

  15. Risk factors for human papillomavirus exposure and co-factors for cervical cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Albero, Ginesa; Molano, Mónica; Carcamo, César; García, Patricia J; Pérez, Gonzalo

    2008-08-19

    The incidence of cervical cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is among the highest in the world. Because there are major demographic shifts happening in LAC countries (population growth, urbanization and ageing) cervical cancer incidence and mortality will likely continue to be a significant public health problem. Overall human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in the LAC general population has been found to be 2-fold higher than the average worldwide prevalence. The large HPV and cancer burden may be explained by the highly prevalent HPV variants of HPV types -16 and 18, which have an increased oncogenic potential. Given the major mode of transmission of genital HPV is sexual, certain, patterns of sexual behaviour (early age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners and sexual behaviour of the partner) are associated with an increased risk of HPV genital acquisition. Although HPV infection is necessary for carcinogenesis, certain co-factors (high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives, smoking and co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) help in the progression from infection to cancer. Many studies that have contributed to this evidence have been carried out in LAC and are reviewed and summarised in this article. Since HPV vaccines will likely take years to implement, and many more years to show impact on disease, cervical cancer screening programmes remain as the key intervention to control disease in LAC in the years to come.

  16. Assessment of Human Exposure to ENMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; van Tongeren, Martie

    2017-01-01

    Human exposure assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is hampered, among other factors, by the difficulty to differentiate ENM from other nanomaterials (incidental to processes or naturally occurring) and the lack of a single metric that can be used for health risk assessment. It is important that the exposure assessment is carried out throughout the entire life-cycle as releases can occur at the different stages of the product life-cycle, from the synthesis, manufacture of the nano-enable product (occupational exposure) to the professional and consumer use of nano-enabled product (consumer exposure) and at the end of life.Occupational exposure surveys should follow a tiered approach, increasing in complexity in terms of instruments used and sampling strategy applied with higher tiers in order tailor the exposure assessment to the specific materials used and workplace exposure scenarios and to reduce uncertainty in assessment of exposure. Assessment of consumer exposure and of releases from end-of-life processes currently relies on release testing of nano-enabled products in laboratory settings.

  17. Wage Differentials between Heat-Exposure Risk and No Heat-Exposure Risk Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyun; Lim, Up

    2017-06-24

    The goal of this study is to investigate the wage differential between groups of workers who are exposed to heat and those who are not. Workers in the heat-exposure risk group are defined as workers who work in conditions that cause them to spend more than 25% of their work hours at high temperatures. To analyze the wage differential, the Blinder-Oaxaca and Juhn-Murphy-Pierce methods were applied to Korea Working Condition Survey data. The results show that the no heat-exposure risk group received higher wages. In most cases, this can be interpreted as the endowment effect of human capital. As a price effect that lowers the endowment effect, the compensating differential for the heat-exposure risk group was found to be 1%. Moreover, education level, work experience, and employment status counteracted the compensating differentials for heat-exposure risks. A comparison of data sets from 2011 and 2014 shows that the increasing wage gap between the two groups was not caused by systematic social discrimination factors. This study suggests that wage differential factors can be modified for thermal environmental risks that will change working conditions as the impact of climate change increases.

  18. Wage Differentials between Heat-Exposure Risk and No Heat-Exposure Risk Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the wage differential between groups of workers who are exposed to heat and those who are not. Workers in the heat-exposure risk group are defined as workers who work in conditions that cause them to spend more than 25% of their work hours at high temperatures. To analyze the wage differential, the Blinder-Oaxaca and Juhn-Murphy-Pierce methods were applied to Korea Working Condition Survey data. The results show that the no heat-exposure risk group received higher wages. In most cases, this can be interpreted as the endowment effect of human capital. As a price effect that lowers the endowment effect, the compensating differential for the heat-exposure risk group was found to be 1%. Moreover, education level, work experience, and employment status counteracted the compensating differentials for heat-exposure risks. A comparison of data sets from 2011 and 2014 shows that the increasing wage gap between the two groups was not caused by systematic social discrimination factors. This study suggests that wage differential factors can be modified for thermal environmental risks that will change working conditions as the impact of climate change increases.

  19. Challenging conventional risk assessment with respect to human exposure to multiple food contaminants in food: A case study using maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R; Connolly, L; Frizzell, C; Elliott, C T

    2015-10-01

    Mycotoxins and heavy metals are ubiquitous in the environment and contaminate many foods. The widespread use of pesticides in crop production to control disease contributes further to the chemical contamination of foods. Thus multiple chemical contaminants threaten the safety of many food commodities; hence the present study used maize as a model crop to identify the severity in terms of human exposure when multiple contaminants are present. High Content Analysis (HCA) measuring multiple endpoints was used to determine cytotoxicity of complex mixtures of mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides. Endpoints included nuclear intensity (NI), nuclear area (NA), plasma membrane permeability (PMP), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial mass (MM). At concentrations representing legal limits of each individual contaminant in maize (3ng/ml ochratoxin A (OTA), 1μg/ml fumonisin B1 (FB1), 2ng/ml aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 100ng/ml cadmium (Cd), 150ng/ml arsenic (As), 50ng/ml chlorpyrifos (CP) and 5μg/ml pirimiphos methyl (PM), the mixtures (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As) and (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As/CP/PM) were cytotoxic for NA and MM endpoints with a difference of up to 13.6% (p≤0.0001) and 12% (p≤0.0001) respectively from control values. The most cytotoxic mixture was (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As/CP/PM) across all 4 endpoints (NA, NI, MM and MMP) with increases up to 61.3%, 23.0%, 61.4% and 36.3% (p≤0.0001) respectively. Synergy was evident for two endpoints (NI and MM) at concentrations contaminating maize above legal limits, with differences between expected and measured values of (6.2-12.4% (p≤0.05-p≤0.001) and 4.5-12.3% (p≤0.05-p≤0.001) for NI and MM, respectively. The study introduces for the first time, a holistic approach to identify the impact in terms of toxicity to humans when multiple chemical contaminants are present in foodstuffs. Governmental regulatory bodies must begin to contemplate how to safeguard the population when

  20. NON-CANCER HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FROM EXPOSURE TO HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER IN IGUN IJESHA, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Ayantobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-cancer hazard index for inhabitants exposed to heavy metals in surface and groundwater of the abandoned metal mine in Igun-Ijesha area were evaluated. A total of thirty-eight water samples were collected from surface and ground water sources in the study area between September 2012 and February 2013 and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Non-cancer risk assessments from possible exposure to heavy metals were evaluated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s human health risk assessment guidelines. Simple random sampling was used to administer questionnaires to investigate demographic characteristics and public health status of residents. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics and ANOVA using SPSS for Windows version 16. Results indicated elevated levels of Cadmium (Cd, Chromium (Cr, Copper (Cu, lead (Pb, Manganese (Mn, Nickel (Ni and Zinc (Zn ranging from 0.01-1.20, 0.05-0.52, 0.80-34.80, 0.09-4.30, 0.09-8.30, 0.05-3.94, 0.05-19.60 and 1.80-29.90 mg L-1 respectively which exceeded national recommended limits with few exceptions. Hazard Quotients (HQ and Hazard Index (HI of heavy metals were calculated and results greater than 1 indicate non-carcinogenic adverse health effects of the observed metals. A daily intake of water by the local residents could pose a potential health threat from long-term heavy-metal exposure. The risk assessment provided by this study can be beneficially used and applied for risk communication to avoid negative public health impact. Similarly, Water Safety quality assurance strategic plan should be developed to safeguard source, water and public health within the mining community.

  1. Ionizing Radiation Environments and Exposure Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Space radiation environments for historically large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are simulated to characterize exposures to radio-sensitive organs for missions to low-Earth orbit (LEO), moon, near-Earth asteroid, and Mars. Primary and secondary particles for SPE and GCR are transported through the respective atmospheres of Earth or Mars, space vehicle, and astronaut's body tissues using NASA's HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code. Space radiation protection methods, which are derived largely from ground-based methods recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) or International Commission on Radiological Protections (ICRP), are built on the principles of risk justification, limitation, and ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). However, because of the large uncertainties in high charge and energy (HZE) particle radiobiology and the small population of space crews, NASA develops distinct methods to implement a space radiation protection program. For the fatal cancer risks, which have been considered the dominant risk for GCR, the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model has been developed from recommendations by NCRP; and undergone external review by the National Research Council (NRC), NCRP, and through peer-review publications. The NSCR model uses GCR environmental models, particle transport codes describing the GCR modification by atomic and nuclear interactions in atmospheric shielding coupled with spacecraft and tissue shielding, and NASA-defined quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates for HZE particles. By implementing the NSCR model, the exposure risks from various heliospheric conditions are assessed for the radiation environments for various-class mission types to understand architectures and strategies of human exploration missions and ultimately to contribute to the optimization of radiation safety and well-being of space crewmembers participating in long-term space missions.

  2. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure.

  3. Progress in human exposure assessment for biocidal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    2004-01-01

    An important shortcoming in our present knowledge required for risk assessment of biocidal products is the assessment of human exposure. This knowledge gap has been filled in a preliminary fashion with the TNsG on human exposure to biocidal products (available from the ECB website). Explicit User gu

  4. Eco-toxicity and human estrogenic exposure risks from OH-initiated photochemical transformation of four phthalates in water: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanpeng; An, Taicheng; Ji, Yuemeng; Li, Guiying; Zhao, Cunyuan

    2015-11-01

    Transformation products (TPs) of emerging organic contaminates (EOCs) in water are still rarely considered in environmental risk assessment, although some have been found to be concern. OH is believed as an important reactive species both in indirect phototransformation and advanced oxidation technology. Thus, eco-toxicity and human estrogenic exposure risks of four phthalates and TPs during the OH-initiated photochemical process were investigated using computational approach. Four phthalates can be degraded through OH-addition and H-transfer pathways. The OH-addition TPs were predominant for dimethyl phthalates, while H-transfer TPs were predominant for other three phthalates. Compared with phthalates, OH-addition TPs (o-OH-phthalates) were one level more toxic to aquatic organisms, and m-OH-phthalates exhibit higher estrogenic activity. Although H-transfer TPs were less harmful than OH-addition TPs, some of them still have aquatic toxicity and estrogenic activity. Therefore, more attentions should be paid to photochemical TPs and original EOCs, particularly those exhibiting high estrogenic activity to humans.

  5. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  6. Progress in Assessing Air Pollutant Risks from In Vitro Exposures: Matching Ozone Dose and Effect in Human Air Way Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro exposures to air pollutants could, in theory, facilitate a rapid and detailed assessment of molecular mechanisms of toxicity. However, it is difficult to ensure that the dose of a gaseous pollutant to cells in tissue culture is similar to that of the same cells during in...

  7. Human Exposure Modeling - Databases to Support Exposure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure modeling relates pollutant concentrations in the larger environmental media to pollutant concentrations in the immediate exposure media. The models described here are available on other EPA websites.

  8. Technology of Water Purification With Chlorinated Derivatives and Assessment of Risk Associated With Human Exposure to These Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Khamidullina, Ye A.; Davydkina, O. A.; Lugovtsova, N. Yu

    2016-04-01

    In the given paper the authors consider the technology of water purification with consideration to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), European Union (EU) and standards of developed countries. Carcinogenic Unit Risk (UR) magnitude for people constantly exposed to the analyzed carcinogens in the course of a lifetime is estimated. The authors calculate and evaluate unique carcinogenic risk as a complementary probability of cancer development during the whole life of CR when introducing EU standards into water purification technology.

  9. Knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus post-exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus post-exposure prophylaxis among doctors in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. ... of PEP policy in the hospital. The level of knowledge concerning the high-risk fluid and three drugs used in PEP is high.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVIA ANCA RUSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of human exposure to toluene diisocyanate. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI, an aromatic compound, may be dangerous for human health. Diisocyanates have wide industrial use in the fabrication of flexible and rigid foams, fibers, elastomers, and coatings such as paints and varnishes. Isocyanates are known skin and respiratory sensitizers, and proper engineering controls should be in place to prevent exposure to isocyanate liquid and vapor; exposure to TDI vapors is well documented to increase asthma risk. The study focused on the exposure of workers and nearby populations to toluene diisocyanate in a Polyurethane Foam Factory located in Baia Mare, Romania. Workplace air measurements were performed in different departments of the plant, after sampling either in fixed points or as personal monitoring. Sampling in four different locations of Baia Mare town was carried out, - during and after the foaming process. TDI sampling was performed on silica cartridge followed by GC-MS analysis. TDI concentration at workplace was lower than 0,035 mg/m³, which represents the permissible exposure limit, while in the city the TDI concentration had shown values below 0,20 μg/m³. Health assessment of a group of 49 workers was based on questionnaire interview, determination of TDI antibodies and lung function tests. Data collected until this stage do not show any negative effects of TDI on the employees health. Since this plant had only recently begun operating, continuous workplace and ambient air TDI monitoring, along with workers health surveillance, is deemed necessary.

  11. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out...

  12. Exposure Data for Travel Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O; Koornstra, Matthijs; Broughton, Jeremy;

    1999-01-01

    This report illustrates why risk and exposure data are critical for policymaking at local, national and EU levels.Conclusions are drawn about the evaluation and use of risk information for different modes and estimates are presented for the fatality risk of various travel modes in the EU....

  13. Space Radiation and Human Exposures, A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A

    2016-04-01

    The space radiation environment is a complex field comprised primarily of charged particles spanning energies over many orders of magnitude. The principal sources of these particles are galactic cosmic rays, the Sun and the trapped radiation belts around the earth. Superimposed on a steady influx of cosmic rays and a steady outward flux of low-energy solar wind are short-term ejections of higher energy particles from the Sun and an 11-year variation of solar luminosity that modulates cosmic ray intensity. Human health risks are estimated from models of the radiation environment for various mission scenarios, the shielding of associated vehicles and the human body itself. Transport models are used to propagate the ambient radiation fields through realistic shielding levels and materials to yield radiation field models inside spacecraft. Then, informed by radiobiological experiments and epidemiology studies, estimates are made for various outcome measures associated with impairments of biological processes, losses of function or mortality. Cancer-associated risks have been formulated in a probabilistic model while management of non-cancer risks are based on permissible exposure limits. This article focuses on the various components of the space radiation environment and the human exposures that it creates.

  14. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima

    2014-01-01

    -analysis demonstrates an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners, reported in both cohort and case-control studies, and some evidence for an exposure-response relationship. Although dry cleaners incur mixed exposures, tetrachloroethylene could be responsible for the excess risk of bladder cancer because...... it is the primary solvent used and it is the only chemical commonly used by dry cleaners that is currently identified as a potential bladder carcinogen. Relatively crude approaches in exposure assessment in the studies of "tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers" may have attenuated the relative risks....

  15. Risk assessment of antimicrobial usage in Danish pig production on the human exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria from pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struve, Tina

    to antimicrobials are influenced by the use of antimicrobial agents, and the prudence of antimicrobial use have been emphasized since the Swann report in 1969 recommended that antibiotics used in human medicine should not be used as growth promoters in food-producing animals. In 2007, the World Health Organisation......During the last decades, bacteria with resistance to all commonly used antimicrobial agents have been detected, thereby posing a major threat to public health. In worst case, infections with resistant bacteria can lead to treatment failure and death of humans. The evolution of bacteria resistant...... (WHO) pronounced a list of the antimicrobial classes critically important for the treatment of infectious diseases in humans. On this list occurred among others the third and fourth generation cephalosporins. Cephalosporins have been used increasingly worldwide throughout the recent years to treat...

  16. Human behaviors elevating the risk of exposure to Ixodes ricinus larvae and nymphs in two types of lowland coniferous forests in west-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicka, Anna; Rączka, Grzegorz; Skorupski, Maciej; Michalik, Jerzy; Lane, Robert S

    2016-10-01

    Ixodes ricinus L. is the commonest tick encountered by humans in Central Europe and the most important vector of tick-borne diseases (TBD) in Europe. Foresters represent a group at elevated risk of exposure to I. ricinus throughout Europe. Here, we employed an experimental design similar to one used previously to determine what behavioral factors heighten exposure to questing Ixodes pacificus nymphs in a hardwood forest in the far-western United States. Five activities were evaluated systematically in a coniferous forest and a mixed broadleaved forest in west-central Poland: (i) walking in low-cut running shoes; (ii) sitting atop logs; (iii) sitting on leaf litter; (iv) sitting against tree trunks; and (v) gathering firewood. In total, 540 I. ricinus ticks were collected (198 larvae, 327 nymphs, 15 adults) in spring and late summer. Many more ticks were collected in spring than in late summer, and in the mixed broadleaved forest versus the coniferous forest. The riskiest behavior for acquiring nymphs in both spring and late summer was gathering firewood, though sitting atop logs was nearly as perilous in late summer. In contrast, the riskiest behaviors for encountering larvae in spring and late summer were sitting against trunks and sitting on leaf litter, respectively. Pairwise comparisons revealed only two significant associations among the variables explored for the nymphs: season and human gender, and season and type of forest. For larval ticks, the most significant associations were gender and sitting behaviors and for type of forest and sitting on leaf litter or against tree trunks. The most commonly infested body region was the lower legs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Risks of dietary acrylamide exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Bárbara Pelicioli; Vinhas, Álvaro Marchand; Moreira, Júlia Dubois

    2014-08-15

    Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen found in carbohydrate-rich foods that have been heated to high temperatures. AA dietary exposure has been associated to development of health problems. We perform a systematic review to elucidate the association of dietary AA exposure and human health problems. Articles were screened by reading titles and abstracts before the full text of eligible articles was read (κ=0.824). Data were harvested by two reviewers and checked by a third. Forty-one articles were analyzed and assessment of dietary exposure proved to be far from uniform and suffered from limitations that possibly impact on the validity of outcomes with relation to human health. Risk assessment of dietary acrylamide exposure is in need of high quality methods for evaluating dietary exposure and validated acrylamide content databases.

  18. Cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Jane A; Shafer, Martin M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hampton, John M; Newcomb, Polly A

    2006-06-21

    Cadmium, a highly persistent heavy metal, has been categorized as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. We carried out a population-based case-control study of 246 women, aged 20-69 years, with breast cancer and 254 age-matched control subjects. We measured cadmium levels in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and conducted interviews by telephone to obtain information on known breast cancer risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer by creatinine-adjusted cadmium levels were calculated by multivariable analysis. Statistical tests were two-sided. Women in the highest quartile of creatinine-adjusted cadmium level (> or = 0.58 microg/g) had twice the breast cancer risk of those in the lowest quartile (cadmium level (P(trend) = .01). Based on this study, the absolute risk difference is 45 (95% CI = 0 to 77) per 100,000 given an overall breast cancer rate of 124 per 100,000. Whether increased cadmium is a causal factor for breast cancer or reflects the effects of treatment or disease remains to be determined.

  19. Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide and risk of lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Sibel; Cocco, Pierluigi; Mannetje, Andrea't; Satta, Giannina; D'Andrea, Ileana; Becker, Nikolaus; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Foretova, Lenka; Staines, Anthony; Kleefeld, Silke; Maynadié, Marc; Nieters, Alexandra; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-11-01

    Ethylene oxide, a high-volume commodity, is an established human carcinogen, although the relevant epidemiologic evidence is limited. We explored the association between occupational exposure to ethylene oxide and risk of lymphoma in a case-control study, including 2347 lymphoma cases first diagnosed in 1998-2004 and 2463 controls, from 6 European countries. The diagnosis of lymphoma was based on the 2001 World Health Organization Classification of lymphoma. Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide was retrospectively assessed by industrial hygienists and occupational physicians based on detailed self-reported information. We modeled risk of lymphoma with unconditional logistic regression analysis as a function of various exposure measures, adjusting for age, sex, and participating center. Thirty-one cases and 27 controls (1.2% of the total study population) were defined as ever having been exposed to ethylene oxide (odds ratio = 1.3 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7-2.1]). Lymphoma risk showed a 4.3-fold increase associated with medium-high frequency of exposure to ethylene oxide (95% CI = 1.4-13). Among major subtypes, chronic lymphocytic leukemia was consistently associated with ethylene oxide exposure, related in a dose-response manner to probability, frequency, and duration of exposure, as well as to cumulative exposure and (less definitively) with exposure intensity. Our results add to the evidence that ethylene oxide is a human carcinogen.

  20. Tumorigenic effects in Wistar rats orally administered benzo[a] pyrene for two years (gavage studies). Implications for human cancer risks associated with oral exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese ED; Muller JJA; Mohn GR; Dortant PM; Wester PW; LEO; LPI; CSR

    2002-01-01

    Humans are exposed via the environment and via food to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), mixtures considered carcinogenic by IARC. A quantitative cancer risk assessment for oral exposure is hampered by the absence of adequate data. The need for experimental data is substantiated by the fact th

  1. Real Time Radiation Exposure And Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Barzilla, Janet E.; Semones, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health risks for various exposure scenarios. Time-course profiles of dose rates will be calculated with HZETRN and PDOSE from the energy spectrum and compositions of the particles archived from satellites, and will be validated from recent radiation exposure measurements in space. Real-time estimation of radiation risks will be investigated using ARRBOD. This cross discipline integrated approach can improve risk mitigation by providing critical information for risk assessment and medical guidance to crew during SPEs.

  2. Assessing exposure to phthalates - the human biomonitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittassek, Matthias; Koch, Holger Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Some phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants in animals. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Based on a comprehensive literature research, we present an overview of the sources of human phthalate exposure and results of exposure assessments with special focus on human biomonitoring data. Among the general population, there is widespread exposure to a number of phthalates. Foodstuff is the major source of phthalate exposure, particularly for the long-chain phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. For short-chain phthalates such as di-n-butyl-phthalate, additional pathways are of relevance. In general, children are exposed to higher phthalate doses than adults. Especially, high exposures can occur through some medications or medical devices. By comparing exposure data with existing limit values, one can also assess the risks associated with exposure to phthalates. Within the general population, some individuals exceed tolerable daily intake values for one or more phthalates. In high exposure groups, (intensive medical care, medications) tolerable daily intake transgressions can be substantial. Recent findings from animal studies suggest that a cumulative risk assessment for phthalates is warranted, and a cumulative exposure assessment to phthalates via human biomonitoring is a major step into this direction.

  3. Metal Exposure and Associated Health Risk to Human Beings by Street Dust in a Heavily Industrialized City of Hunan Province, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyi Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five urban street dust samples were collected from Zhuzhou, an industrial city in central China and analyzed for a range of toxic elements. Potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects on children and adults due to exposure to street dust were assessed. Concerning the two subgroups, the child cohort is confronted with considerably greater health risks than adults. According to the Hazard Quotient (HQ method, ingestion of dust particles poses primary risk to children and adults, followed by dermal contact and inhalation for all of the metals investigated except Hg, for which inhalation of its elemental vapor constitute a slightly higher risk than ingestion. For children, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Sb exposure were deemed as the highest contributors to non-cancer health risks, while As and Cr represent an enhanced cancer risk for children. For adults, risk indicator values for both cancer and non-cancer effects obtained were within the safety threshold. In a comparison with other locations within and outside mainland China, exposure to arsenic is prominent for the population of Zhuzhou, indicating more attention and preventive actions should been taken.

  4. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given. (ACR)

  5. Risk assessments of PAHs and Hg exposure via settled house dust and street dust, linking with their correlations in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Fuyong; Zheng, Jinshu; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-12-15

    Domestic energy, chemicals bioaccessibility and particle size were found as three critical factors for risk assessment of PAHs exposure via settled house dust (SHD) and street dust. ∑PAHs and Hg contained in SHD were significantly (p10(-4)) via SHD exposure. The highest accumulation trend of PAHs and Hg were found in PAHs led to a significant decrease on related cancer risks and decreased in the order of 1.9, 1.1, 0.6 and 0.4 μg g(-1) with the increase of particle sizes (PAHs (0.05-0.9 μg g(-1)) and Hg (0.04-1.6 μg g(-1)). Different PAHs profiles were found between PAHs in SHD and those of hair, indicating that exogenous exposure to PAHs adsorbed on dust was not the major source of hair PAHs.

  6. Risk behaviour and noise exposure among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Margareta C; Erlandsson, Soly I

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents in Western society often expose themselves to high levels of sound in gyms, rock concerts, discotheques etc. As these behaviours are as threatening to young people's health as more traditional risk behaviours are, our aim in the present study was to analyze the relationship between self-exposure to noise, risk behaviours and risk judgements among 310 Swedish adolescents aged 15-20 (167 men; 143 women). Adolescents' behaviour in different traditional risk situations correlated with behaviour in noisy environments, while judgements about traditional risks correlated with judgements regarding noise exposure. It is an interesting finding that although young women judge risk situations as generally more dangerous than young men do, they nevertheless behave in the same way. We suggest that this difference is a social and cultural phenomenon which underscores the importance of adopting a gender perspective in the analysis of risk factors. Adolescents reporting permanent tinnitus judged loud music as more risky than adolescents with no symptoms and they did not listen to loud music as often as those with occasional tinnitus. Research on hearing prevention for young people needs to acknowledge and make use of theories on risk behaviour, especially due to the existence of a relationship between adolescents' risk-taking in noisy environments and other types of risk-taking. Similarly, theories on risk behaviour should acknowledge noise as a risk factor.

  7. Parabens as Urinary Biomarkers of Exposure in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Bishop, Amber M.; Reidy, John A; Needham, Larry L.; Calafat, Antonia M

    2006-01-01

    Background Parabens appear frequently as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetic products, in pharmaceuticals, and in food and beverage processing. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed weak estrogenic activity of some parabens. Widespread use has raised concerns about the potential human health risks associated with paraben exposure. Objectives Assessing human exposure to parabens usually involves measuring in urine the conjugated or free species of parabens or their metabolites. In ani...

  8. Dioxin: exposure-response analyses and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenland, Kyle; Deddens, James

    2003-07-01

    Low-levels of dioxin cause cancer in animals. In 1997 dioxin was found to be a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, based largely on four studies of industrial workers exposed to high levels. Recently there has been interest in estimating human cancer risk at low level environmental exposures. Here we review quantitative exposure-response analyses and risk assessment for low environmental levels based on the largest existing cohort of workers exposed to dioxin (the U.S. NIOSH cohort). We estimate that doubling background levels of exposure, which may occur for example by eating a lot of fish which have accumulated dioxin, will increase lifetime risk of cancer death by 0.1 to 1.0%. In the US the background risk of cancer death by age 75 is 12%, so doubling background levels of dioxin exposure would increase this lifetime risk to somewhere between 12.1 and 13.0%. Our results agree broadly with results from a German cohort, which is the only other cohort for which a quantitative risk assessment has been conducted.

  9. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibañez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesús; Alguacil, Juan; de la Hera, Manuela García; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  10. Seasonal patterns for entomological measures of risk for exposure to Culex vectors and West Nile virus in relation to human disease cases in northeastern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Bethany G; Barker, Christopher M; Moore, Chester G; Pape, W John; Eisen, Lars

    2009-11-01

    We examined seasonal patterns for entomological measures of risk for exposure to Culex vectors and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in relation to human WNV disease cases in a five-county area of northeastern Colorado during 2006-2007. Studies along habitat/elevation gradients in 2006 showed that the seasonal activity period is shortened and peak numbers occur later in the summer for Culex tarsalis Coquillett females in foothills-montane areas >1600 m compared with plains areas Studies in the plains of northeastern Colorado in 2007 showed that seasonal patterns of abundance for Cx. tarsalis and Culex pipiens L. females differed in that Cx. tarsalis reached peak abundance in early July (mean of 328.9 females per trap night for 18 plains sites), whereas the peak for Cx. pipiens did not occur until late August (mean of 16.4 females per trap night). During June-September in 2007, which was a year of intense WNV activity in Colorado with 578 reported WNV disease cases, we recorded WNV-infected Cx. tarsalis females from 16 of 18 sites in the plains. WNV infection rates in Cx. tarsalis females increased gradually from late June to peak in mid-August (overall maximum likelihood estimate for WNV infection rate of 8.29 per 1000 females for the plains sites in mid-August). No WNV-infected Culex mosquitoes were recorded from sites >1600 m. The vector index for abundance of WNV-infected Cx. tarsalis females for the plains sites combined exceeded 0.50 from mid-July to mid-August, with at least one site exceeding 1.00 from early July to late August. Finally, we found that abundance of Cx. tarsalis females and the vector index for infected females were strongly associated with weekly numbers of WNV disease cases with onset 4-7 wk later (female abundance) or 1-2 wk later (vector index).

  11. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  12. Neurobehavioral risk is associated with gestational exposure to stress hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2012-07-01

    The developmental origins of disease or fetal programming model predict that early exposures to threat or adverse conditions have lifelong consequences that result in harmful outcomes for health. The maternal endocrine 'fight or flight' system is a source of programming information for the human fetus to detect threats and adjust their developmental trajectory for survival. Fetal exposures to intrauterine conditions including elevated stress hormones increase the risk for a spectrum of health outcomes depending on the timing of exposure, the timetable of organogenesis and the developmental milestones assessed. Recent prospective studies, reviewed here, have documented the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposures to the trajectory of stress hormones over the course of gestation. These studies have shown that fetal exposures to biological markers of adversity have significant and largely negative consequences for fetal, infant and child emotional and cognitive regulation and reduced volume in specific brain structures.

  13. Risk Assessment of Baby Powder Exposure through Inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Min Chaul; Park, Jung Duck; Choi, Byung Soon; Park, So Young; Kim, Dong Won; Chung, Yong Hyun; Hisanaga, Naomi; Yu, Il Je

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the exposure risk through inhalation to baby powder for babies and adults under simulated conditions. Baby powder was applied to a baby doll and the amount of baby powder consumed per application was estimated. The airborne exposure to baby powder during application was then evaluated by sampling the airborne baby powder near the breathing zones of both the baby doll and the person applying the powder (the applicator). The average amount of baby powder consumed was 100 mg/application, and the average exposure concentration of airborne baby powder for the applicator and baby doll was 0.00527 mg/m(3) (range 0.00157~0.01579 mg/m(3)) and 0.02207 mg/m(3) (range 0.00780~ 0.04173 mg/m(3)), respectively. When compared with the Occupational Exposure Limit of 2 mg/m(3) set by the Korean Ministry of Labor and the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 2 mg/m(3) set by the ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists), the exposure concentrations were much lower. Next, the exposure to asbestos-containing baby powder was estimated and the exposure risk was assessed based on the lung asbestos contents in normal humans. As a result, the estimated lung asbestos content resulting from exposure to asbestos-containing baby powder was found to be much lower than that of a normal Korean with no asbestos-related occupational history.

  14. Human health screening level risk assessments of tertiary-butyl acetate (TBAC): calculated acute and chronic reference concentration (RfC) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) values based on toxicity and exposure scenario evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, James S; Banton, Marcy I; Faber, Willem D; Kirman, Christopher R; McGregor, Douglas B; Pourreau, Daniel B

    2015-02-01

    A screening level risk assessment has been performed for tertiary-butyl acetate (TBAC) examining its primary uses as a solvent in industrial and consumer products. Hazard quotients (HQ) were developed by merging TBAC animal toxicity and dose-response data with population-level, occupational and consumer exposure scenarios. TBAC has a low order of toxicity following subchronic inhalation exposure, and neurobehavioral changes (hyperactivity) in mice observed immediately after termination of exposure were used as conservative endpoints for derivation of acute and chronic reference concentration (RfC) values. TBAC is not genotoxic but has not been tested for carcinogenicity. However, TBAC is unlikely to be a human carcinogen in that its non-genotoxic metabolic surrogates tertiary-butanol (TBA) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) produce only male rat α-2u-globulin-mediated kidney cancer and high-dose specific mouse thyroid tumors, both of which have little qualitative or quantitative relevance to humans. Benchmark dose (BMD)-modeling of the neurobehavioral responses yielded acute and chronic RfC values of 1.5 ppm and 0.3 ppm, respectively. After conservative modeling of general population and near-source occupational and consumer product exposure scenarios, almost all HQs were substantially less than 1. HQs exceeding 1 were limited to consumer use of automotive products and paints in a poorly ventilated garage-sized room (HQ = 313) and occupational exposures in small and large brake shops using no personal protective equipment or ventilation controls (HQs = 3.4-126.6). The screening level risk assessments confirm low human health concerns with most uses of TBAC and indicate that further data-informed refinements can address problematic health/exposure scenarios. The assessments also illustrate how tier-based risk assessments using read-across toxicity information to metabolic surrogates reduce the need for comprehensive animal testing.

  15. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  16. Risk preferences and prenatal exposure to sex hormones for ladinos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aycinena

    Full Text Available Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D, which is negatively (positively correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen. We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups.

  17. Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application

  18. Exposure to phthalates in 5-6 years old primary school starters in Germany--a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Holger M; Wittassek, Matthias; Brüning, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Heudorf, Ursel

    2011-06-01

    We determined the internal exposure of 111 German primary school starters by analyzing urinary metabolites of six phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-iso-decylphthalate (DiDP). From the urinary metabolite levels, we calculated daily intakes and related these values to Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. By introducing the concept of a relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum)) value, we tried to account for the cumulative exposure to several of the above-mentioned phthalates. The TDI(cum) was derived as follows: the daily intake (DI) calculated from the metabolite level was divided by the TDI for each phthalate; this ratio was multiplied by 100% indicating the TDI percentage for which the DI accounted. Finally the % TDIs of the different phthalates were totalled to get the TDI(cum). A TDI(cum) above 100% is a potential cause for concern. We confirmed the ubiquitous exposure of the children to all phthalates investigated. Exposures were within range of levels previously reported for GerES, albeit slightly lower. Regarding daily intakes, two children exceeded the TDI for DnBP, whereas one child closely approached the TDI for DEHP. 24% of the children exceeded the TDI(cum) for the three most critical phthalates: DEHP, DnBP and DiBP. Furthermore, 54% of the children had total exposures that used up more than 50% the TDI(cum). Therefore, the overall exposure to a number of phthalates, and the knowledge that these phthalates (and other anti-androgens) act in a dose-additive manner, urgently warrants a cumulative risk assessment approach.

  19. Integrating population dynamics into mapping human exposure to seismic hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Freire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk is not fully characterized without taking into account vulnerability and population exposure. Assessment of earthquake risk in urban areas would benefit from considering the variation of population distribution at more detailed spatial and temporal scales, and from a more explicit integration of this improved demographic data with existing seismic hazard maps. In the present work, "intelligent" dasymetric mapping is used to model population dynamics at high spatial resolution in order to benefit the analysis of spatio-temporal exposure to earthquake hazard in a metropolitan area. These night- and daytime-specific population densities are then classified and combined with seismic intensity levels to derive new spatially-explicit four-class-composite maps of human exposure. The presented approach enables a more thorough assessment of population exposure to earthquake hazard. Results show that there are significantly more people potentially at risk in the daytime period, demonstrating the shifting nature of population exposure in the daily cycle and the need to move beyond conventional residence-based demographic data sources to improve risk analyses. The proposed fine-scale maps of human exposure to seismic intensity are mainly aimed at benefiting visualization and communication of earthquake risk, but can be valuable in all phases of the disaster management process where knowledge of population densities is relevant for decision-making.

  20. Asbestos exposure--quantitative assessment of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.M.; Weill, H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for deriving quantitative estimates of asbestos-associated health risks are reviewed and their numerous assumptions and uncertainties described. These methods involve extrapolation of risks observed at past relatively high asbestos concentration levels down to usually much lower concentration levels of interest today--in some cases, orders of magnitude lower. These models are used to calculate estimates of the potential risk to workers manufacturing asbestos products and to students enrolled in schools containing asbestos products. The potential risk to workers exposed for 40 yr to 0.5 fibers per milliliter (f/ml) of mixed asbestos fiber type (a permissible workplace exposure limit under consideration by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ) are estimated as 82 lifetime excess cancers per 10,000 exposed. The risk to students exposed to an average asbestos concentration of 0.001 f/ml of mixed asbestos fiber types for an average enrollment period of 6 school years is estimated as 5 lifetime excess cancers per one million exposed. If the school exposure is to chrysotile asbestos only, then the estimated risk is 1.5 lifetime excess cancers per million. Risks from other causes are presented for comparison; e.g., annual rates (per million) of 10 deaths from high school football, 14 from bicycling (10-14 yr of age), 5 to 20 for whooping cough vaccination. Decisions concerning asbestos products require participation of all parties involved and should only be made after a scientifically defensible estimate of the associated risk has been obtained. In many cases to date, such decisions have been made without adequate consideration of the level of risk or the cost-effectiveness of attempts to lower the potential risk. 73 references.

  1. Occupational exposures and risk of acoustic neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Michaela; Feychting, Maria; Ahlbom, Anders; Edwards, Colin G; Nise, Gun; Plato, Nils; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Forssén, Ulla M

    2010-11-01

    Acoustic neuroma is a benign tumour accounting for approximately 6-10% of all intracranial tumours and occurs mainly in patients aged ≥50 years. Our aim was to investigate a wide range of occupational exposures, individual occupational titles and socioeconomic status (SES) as potential risk factors for acoustic neuroma. We conducted a population-based case-control study of 793 acoustic neuroma cases identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry and 101,762 randomly selected controls. Information on SES and occupation was obtained from censuses and linked to job-exposure matrices. Logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and calculate 95% CIs. An increased OR was seen for mercury exposure <10 years before the reference year (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.2 to 6.8), and a more modest association for benzene exposure (OR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0 to 3.2) ≥10 years before the reference year. We observed a threefold increased risk for females working as tailors and dressmakers ≥10 years before the reference year, and a more than threefold significantly elevated OR for those working as truck and conveyor operators <10 years before the reference year. We found no convincing evidence that SES is related to disease development. We observed an increased risk of acoustic neuroma associated with occupational exposure to mercury, benzene and textile dust. Men working as truck and conveyor operators <10 years before the reference year had the highest increased risk of acoustic neuroma, but it is unclear what in those occupations might contribute to disease development. Our study also suggested an association between acoustic neuroma and being a class teacher or policeman. However, these findings should be further investigated to exclude the possibility of detection bias.

  2. NASA Human System Risk Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, D.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA utilizes an evidence based system to perform risk assessments for the human system for spaceflight missions. The center of this process is the multi-disciplinary Human System Risk Board (HSRB). The HSRB is chartered from the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) at NASA Headquarters. The HSRB reviews all human system risks via an established comprehensive risk and configuration management plan based on a project management approach. The HSRB facilitates the integration of human research (terrestrial and spaceflight), medical operations, occupational surveillance, systems engineering and many other disciplines in a comprehensive review of human system risks. The HSRB considers all factors that influence human risk. These factors include pre-mission considerations such as screening criteria, training, age, sex, and physiological condition. In mission factors such as available countermeasures, mission duration and location and post mission factors such as time to return to baseline (reconditioning), post mission health screening, and available treatments. All of the factors influence the total risk assessment for each human risk. The HSRB performed a comprehensive review of all potential inflight medical conditions and events and over the course of several reviews consolidated the number of human system risks to 30, where the greatest emphasis is placed for investing program dollars for risk mitigation. The HSRB considers all available evidence from human research and, medical operations and occupational surveillance in assessing the risks for appropriate mitigation and future work. All applicable DRMs (low earth orbit for 6 and 12 months, deep space for 30 days and 1 year, a lunar mission for 1 year, and a planetary mission for 3 years) are considered as human system risks are modified by the hazards associated with space flight such as microgravity, exposure to radiation, distance from the earth, isolation and a closed environment. Each risk has a summary

  3. Exposure to negative acts and risk of turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Jørgen V.; Høgh (Hogh), Annie;

    2016-01-01

    -year (instead of a 1-year) follow-up period the association between bullying and turnover remained statistically significant in office workers even after adjusting for depressive symptoms (OR 2.10, 95 % CI 1.17-3.76). We found no statistically significant associations between threats of violence......PURPOSE: To investigate whether self-reported exposure to negative acts in the workplace (bullying and threats of violence) predicted turnover in three occupational groups (human service and sales workers, office workers and manual workers). METHODS: Survey data on 2766 respondents were combined...... exposure to negative acts (bullying and threats of violence) and risk of turnover. When participants were stratified by occupational group and analyses were adjusted for age, gender, tenure and psychosocial working conditions, we found that exposure to bullying predicted risk of turnover in office workers...

  4. Exposure and risks from wearing asbestos mitts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tindall Matthew

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very high fibre inhalation exposure has been measured while people were wearing personal protective equipment manufactured from chrysotile asbestos. However, there is little data that relates specifically to wearing asbestos gloves or mitts, particularly when used in hot environments such as those found in glass manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the likely personal exposure to asbestos fibres when asbestos mitts were used. Results Three types of work activity were simulated in a small test room with unused mitts and artificially aged mitts. Neither pair of mitts were treated to suppress the dust emission. The measured respirable fibre exposure levels ranged from Conclusion People who wore asbestos mitts were likely to have been exposed to relatively low levels of airborne chrysotile asbestos fibres, certainly much lower than the standards that were accepted in the 1960's and 70's. The cancer risks from this type of use are likely to be very low.

  5. Spatial gradient of human health risk from exposure to trace elements and radioactive pollutants in soils at the Puchuncaví-Ventanas industrial complex, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani-Ghabeshi, S; Palomo-Marín, M R; Bernalte, E; Rueda-Holgado, F; Miró-Rodríguez, C; Cereceda-Balic, F; Fadic, X; Vidal, V; Funes, M; Pinilla-Gil, E

    2016-11-01

    The Punchuncaví Valley in central Chile, heavily affected by a range of anthropogenic emissions from a localized industrial complex, has been studied as a model environment for evaluating the spatial gradient of human health risk, which are mainly caused by trace elemental pollutants in soil. Soil elemental profiles in 121 samples from five selected locations representing different degrees of impact from the industrial source were used for human risk estimation. Distance to source dependent cumulative non-carcinogenic hazard indexes above 1 for children (max 4.4 - min 1.5) were found in the study area, ingestion being the most relevant risk pathway. The significance of health risk differences within the study area was confirmed by statistical analysis (ANOVA and HCA) of individual hazard index values at the five sampling locations. As was the dominant factor causing unacceptable carcinogenic risk levels for children (industrial complex, whereas the risk was just in the tolerable range (10(-6) - 10(-4)) for children and adults in the rest of the sampling locations at the study area. Furthermore, we assessed gamma ray radiation external hazard indexes and annual effective dose rate from the natural radioactivity elements ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) levels in the surface soils of the study area. The highest average values for the specific activity of (232)Th (31 Bq kg(-1)), (40)K (615 Bq kg(- 1)), and (226)Ra (25 Bq kg(-1)) are lower than limit recommended by OECD, so no significant radioactive risk was detected within the study area. In addition, no significant variability of radioactive risk was observed among sampling locations.

  6. Linearity of dose-response relationships for human carcinogenic exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    The shape of dose-response relationships is a critical factor in considering cancer risks for the work place and environmental exposure to carcinogens. Markedly different risk estimates result from assumptions of linearity versus sublinear and threshold assumptions. This paper presents evidence that the relationship between the relative risk of development of cancer and the dose rate to carcinogenic exposures is frequently linear with no evidence for thresholds. Dose-response relationships from four studies of asbestos and lung cancer were examined, all of which were consistent with a linear relationship. Analysis of the relationship between the relative risk of lung cancer and exposure to nickel in a smelter study, selected because of relatively good exposure data, demonstrated a close agreement with a linear relationship. The relationship between the level of arsenic in drinking wter and the prevalence of skin cancer also was linear for males in the highest prevalence age group in Taiwan, although there was some evidence of sublinearity for females and younger persons. Also, the relationships between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the relative risk of lung cancer was very close to linear in many studies. The analysis of these and other studies involving human exposure to carcinogens provides empirical evidence for linearity when the response variable is a rate ratio measure, rather than a risk difference measure. Linearity in dose-response is biologically plausible, without invoking a one-hit model. Except in special circumstances. the epidemiological evidence supports linear extrapolation of cancer relative risks.

  7. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer.

  8. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  9. PARTNERING TO IMPROVE HUMAN EXPOSURE METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods development research is an application-driven scientific area that addresses programmatic needs. The goals are to reduce measurement uncertainties, address data gaps, and improve existing analytical procedures for estimating human exposures. Partnerships have been develop...

  10. The risks and benefits of sun exposure 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, David G.; Berwick, Marianne; de Gruijl, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Public health authorities in the United States are recommending that men, women and children reduce their exposure to sunlight, based on concerns that this exposure will promote skin cancer. On the other hand, data show that increasing numbers of Americans suffer from vitamin D deficiencies and serious health problems caused by insufficient sun exposure. The body of science concerning the benefits of moderate sun exposure is growing rapidly, and is causing a different perception of sun/UV as it relates to human health. Melanoma and its relationship to sun exposure and sunburn is not adequately addressed in most of the scientific literature. Reports of favorable health outcomes related to adequate serum 25(OH)D concentration or vitamin D supplementation have been inappropriately merged, so that benefits of sun exposure other than production of vitamin D are not adequately described. This review of recent studies and their analyses consider the risks and benefits of sun exposure which indicate that insufficient sun exposure is an emerging public health problem. This review considers the studies that have shown a wide range health benefits from sun/UV exposure. These benefits include among others various types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer disease/dementia, myopia and macular degeneration, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. The message of sun avoidance must be changed to acceptance of non-burning sun exposure sufficient to achieve serum 25(OH)D concentration of 30 ng/mL or higher in the sunny season and the general benefits of UV exposure beyond those of vitamin D. PMID:27942349

  11. Technical Overview of Ecological Risk Assessment - Analysis Phase: Exposure Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure Characterization is the second major component of the analysis phase of a risk assessment. For a pesticide risk assessment, the exposure characterization describes the potential or actual contact of a pesticide with a plant, animal, or media.

  12. [Polychlorinated biphenyls in house dust at an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China: sources and human exposure and health risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, She-Jun; Ding, Nan; Wang, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust from an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China. The PCB concentrations in house dust at the e-waste site ranged from 12.4 to 87 765 ng x g(-1), with an average of 10 167 ng x g(-1). There was no significant difference in the PCB concentrations between indoor and outdoor dust. The PCB homologue pattern was dominated by tri-, penta-, hexa-, and tetra-CBs, which was not similar to that in Chinese technical PCB product. There was also no significant difference in the PCB compositions between indoor and outdoor dust. PCB sources in house dust at the e-waste site were apportioned by chemical mass balance (CMB) model. The results showed that the PCBs were derived primarily from Aroclor 1262 (36.7% ), Aroclor 1254 (26.7%), Aroclor 1242 (21.4%), and Aroclor 1248 (18.5%). The daily exposure doses were 42, 17, and 2.9 ng x (kg x d)(-1) for toddlers, children/adolescents, and adults in the e-waste area, respectively. Risk assessment indicated that the hazard quotients were higher than 1 for toddlers and children/adolescents indicating adverse effects for them. The lifetime average excess carcinogenic risk for population in the e-waste area was 4.5 x 10(-5), within the acceptable range of U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The mean concentrations of PCBs in house dust in Guangzhou was 48.7 ng x g(-1). The low PCB level is consistent with the fact that technical PCBs were not widely used in China in the past. The risks of exposure to PCBs via house dust in Guangzhou are very low.

  13. Gestational Exposure as Epigenetic Modifier of Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0470 TITLE: Gestational Exposure as Epigenetic Modifier of Breast Cancer Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Donato F...Gestational Exposure as Epigenetic Modifier of Breast Cancer Risk Ges Gestational Exposure as Epigenetic Modifier of Breast Cancer Risk tational Exposure...as Epigenetic Modifier of Breast Cancer Risk 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0470 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  14. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ingestion of inorganic arsenic from drinking water has emerged as an important public health concern. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices, mainly the mining. The health consequences of chronic arsenic exposure include increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous pathologic effects, such as cutaneous effects (hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal effects, vascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral neuropathy. This way, this study presents through a critical revision of the literature, the more relevant current aspects on the immunological consequences, carcinogenic and resulting genetics of the human intoxication for arsenic. They were identified and analyzed 50 works published on the subject among the years of 1979 and 2008, being used as main sources LILACS-BIREME MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SciELO and PubMed. The specific Arsênio e saúde humana effects of the intoxication for arsenic about the human health are not still completely elucidated. Thus, is possible that this element affects functions still unknown, becoming important the scientificexploration on the subject.

  15. Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  16. The uses of exposure and risk in road safety studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkert, A.S. & Braimaister, L.

    2002-01-01

    This report explores the theoretical possibilities of defining exposure and risk, discusses the problems associated with the use of exposure and risk, and gives examples of various safety studies in which use is made of exposure and risk indicators. The report sets out with a definition of the three

  17. Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David O

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) include everything from cosmic rays through visible light to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electricity. While the high frequency fields have sufficient energy to cause cancer, the question of whether there are human health hazards associated with communication radiofrequency (RF) EMFs and those associated with use of electricity remains controversial. The issue is more important than ever given the rapid increase in the use of cell phones and other wireless devices. This review summarizes the evidence stating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and other sources of electric current increases the risk of development of some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, and that excessive exposure to RF radiation increases risk of cancer, male infertility, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. The relative impact of various sources of exposure, the great range of standards for EMF exposure, and the costs of doing nothing are also discussed.

  18. Modelling Human Exposure to Chemicals in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob W

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to foodborne chemicals is often estimated using the average consumption pattern in the human population. To protect the human population instead of the average individual, however, interindividual variability in consumption behaviour must be taken into account. This report shows how food

  19. Risk for Avian Influenza Virus Exposure at Human–Wildlife Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Siembieda, J; Johnson, CK; Boyce, W; Sandrock, C; Cardona, C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess risk for human exposure to avian influenza viruses (AIV), we sampled California wild birds and marine mammals during October 2005-August 2007and estimated human-wildlife contact. Waterfowl hunters were 8 times more likely to have contact with AIV-infected wildlife than were persons with casual or occupational exposures (p

  20. Risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monchaux, G

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the risk due to inhalation of radon and its decay products using an horizontal approach across a large scale research programme. The central objective was the assessment of human risk which requires combination of several topics involving a multidisciplinary approach. In the Aerosol Studies Group, progress was achieved in improvement, calibration and automation of experimental techniques for continuous and integrated measurements of the unattached fraction f{sub p}- and equilibrium factor F- values. Measurements were performed to determine the variation of size distributions of unattached and aerosol-associated radon decay products under typical living conditions. All aerosol groups performed controlled chamber studies to understand the basic behaviour of airborne activity concentrations. Measurements were performed to determine neutralisation rates of {sup 218}Po, to understand the cluster growth with residence time and to understand the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles. In the Modelling Group, the programme RADEP has been developed to calculate the weighted committed equivalent lung dose per unit exposure of radon progeny (H{sub w}/P{sub p}) which implements the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM). The stochastic deposition model (IDEAL) has been compared with the deposition model used by the HRTM, and the agreement between the two deposition models was excellent. A deterministic radon progeny dosimetry model (RADOS) has been developed. This model includes all bronchial airway generations compared with the HRTM that groups the 16 airway generations into three regions. Initial calculations with RADOS show that the basal and secretory cell doses are slightly smaller compared with that of the HRTM. A sensitivity analysis has been performed that has identified those HRTM model parameters that most affect the Hw/Pp. A stochastic rat deposition model (RALMO) and a clearance model for the rat based on the

  1. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  2. Risk of human exposure to arsenic and other toxic elements from geophagy: trace element analysis of baked clay using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geophagy or earth-eating is common amongst some Bangladeshi women, especially those who are pregnant, both in Bangladesh and in the United Kingdom. A large proportion of the population in Bangladesh is already exposed to high concentrations of arsenic (As and other toxic elements from drinking contaminated groundwater. Additional exposure to As and other toxic elements from non-food sources has not been adequately addressed and here we present the first study to monitor As levels in baked clay (known as sikor. Methods Sikor samples originating from Bangladesh were digested using a microwave digester and analysed for their As, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe and Zn levels using ICP-MS. Detailed As speciation analysis was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. Results Of particular concern were the levels of As (3.8-13.1 mg kg-1, Cd (0.09-0.4 mg kg-1 and Pb (21-26.7 mg kg-1 present in the sikor samples and their possible impact on human health. Speciation analysis revealed that sikor samples contained mainly inorganic As. Modest consumption of 50 g of sikor is equivalent to ingesting 370 μg of As and 1235 μg of Pb per day, based on median concentration values. This level of sikor consumption exceeds the permitted maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI of inorganic As by almost 2-fold. Conclusion We conclude that sikor can be a significant source of As, Cd and Pb exposure for the Bangladeshi population consuming large quantities of this material. Of particular concern in this regard is geophagy practiced by pregnant women concurrently exposed to As contaminated drinking water. Future studies needs to evaluate the bioavailability of As and other elements from sikor and their impact on human health.

  3. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  4. Human exposure to endocrine disruptors and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Maravelias, C; Spiliopoulou, C

    2009-09-01

    Endocrine system is one of the most sensitive communication networks of the human body which influences all aspects of human health and well-being, including reproductive potential, cognitive functions, thyroid and metabolism, digestion and hormonal balance. In recent years basic laboratory research has been focused on the potential relationship between environmental contaminants and cellular endocrine function. Environmental contaminants are ubiquitous in the environment, alter endocrine physiology and produce endocrine disruption without acting as classic toxicants. These endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are lipophilic and stored for long periods of time in the adipose tissue. Maternal exposure to EDCs during pregnancy and lactation has as a result the exposure of the fetus and neonate through placenta and breast milk. It has been recognized that human milk is the best natural food for neonates providing immunologic, developmental and practical advantages throughout childhood. However, contamination of human milk by the presence of environmental toxicants is widespread through the past decades due to inadequately controlled pollution. Persistent pesticides, chemical solvents and others tend to invade slowly the environment, to bioaccumulate in the food chain and to have long half-lives in animals and humans. During the past fifteen years, the scientific interest has been focused on xenoestrogens, i.e.,environmental chemicals with estrogen disrupting activity. Certain adverse health and reproductive outcomes are attributed to these chemicals in wildlife, in laboratory animals, as well as in humans. Although most toxic agents are hazardous in high doses, the human health risks associated with EDCs concern exposure to low doses. The human health risks that may be associated with these low-level but constant exposures are still largely unknown and highly controversial. In this paper, we review available data on environmental chemicals present in breast milk that may

  5. Variation in calculated human exposure. Comparison of calculations with seven European human exposure models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes F; ECO

    2003-01-01

    Twenty scenarios, differing with respect to land use, soil type and contaminant, formed the basis for calculating human exposure from soil contaminants with the use of models contributed by seven European countries (one model per country). Here, the human exposures to children and children

  6. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J.V.; Gardner, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  7. Risks from occupational and dietary exposure to mevinphos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, R C; Formoli, T A; Silva, M H; Kellner, T P; Lewis, C M; Pfeifer, K F

    1996-01-01

    Mevinphos (trade name, Phosdrin), a category 1 organophosphorus insecticide, has been used mainly as a cleanup pesticide for vegetable crops. A risk assessment for occupational and dietary exposure to mevinphos was initiated because of the high acute toxicity of the compound. Repetitive dosing with mevinphos did not cause any discernible histopathological effects in mice or rats, nor was it oncogenic in either species. The principal toxic effects of mevinphos, both short- and long term, were due to inhibition of cholinesterase activity. Consequently, potential adverse effects from short-term exposures were the primary concern. A human no-observed-effect level (0.025 mg/kg) for cholinergic signs was used as the regulatory basis for calculating margins of safety (MOSs) for potential acute dietary and short-term occupational exposures. Estimates of exposure to mixer/loaders, pilots, and flaggers associated with aerial application of mevinphos were based on passive dosimetry. Because no acceptable exposure studies for work tasks associated with ground application of mevinphos were available, surrogate data based on ground application of oxydemeton-methyl were used. Exposure estimates for field workers and harvesters relied on measured dislodgeable foliar residues of mevinphos and transfer factors generated from studies of other active ingredients. MOSs for mean acute occupational exposure of mixer/loader/applicators associated with ground application and of harvesters working in fruit trees were less than the value conventionally recommended to protect people from the toxic effects of mevinphos. MOSs for the 95th percentile of short-term worker exposure for all mixer/loader work categories associated with mevinphos application were also inadequate. Calculated MOSs for potential acute dietary exposure to measured residue levels of mevinphos were adequate for the various population subgroups. However, 25 of the USEPA tolerances for mevinphos on agricultural commodities

  8. European solvent industry group generic exposure scenario risk and exposure tool

    OpenAIRE

    Zaleski, Rosemary T.; Qian, Hua; Zelenka, Michael P; George-Ares, Anita; Money, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The European Solvents Industry Group (ESIG) Generic Exposure Scenario (GES) Risk and Exposure Tool (EGRET) was developed to facilitate the safety evaluation of consumer uses of solvents, as required by the European Union Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) Regulation. This exposure-based risk assessment tool provides estimates of both exposure and risk characterization ratios for consumer uses. It builds upon the consumer portion of the European Center for Ecotoxic...

  9. A risk assessment for exposure to glass wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R; Langer, A M; Nolan, R P

    1999-10-01

    Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) have been widely used as insulation material in places where asbestos was used many years ago and therefore the hazards have been compared. Since the three principal types of asbestos fibers types have caused lung cancer at high exposures, there is a widely held belief that all fibers are carcinogenic if inhaled in large enough doses. Hence, on a morphological basis, SVFs have been studied for their carcinogenic potential. However, there is considerable evidence that differences exist among fibers in their potency to produce a carcinogenic response. In this attempt to carry out a numerical risk assessment for the installers of blown glass wool (fiber) insulation, we start with a characterization of the material; then we review the exposures both in manufacturing and installation. Neither the epidemiological studies of human exposure nor the animal studies have shown a marked hazardous effect from glass wool and we can therefore be sure that any effect that might exist is small. But in this case, as in many other situations where there is a potential hazard, society desires further reassurance and therefore we have made a mechanistic calculation. There are good estimates of the risk associated with exposure to chrysotile asbestos at high exposures and doses. We have therefore taken these numbers and discussed how much less risky an exposure to glass wool fibers might be. We conclude that for a given fiber count, glass wool is five to ten times less risky (and of course the risk might be zero). The risk for a nonsmoking installer of glass wool fiber insulation who wears a respirator is about 6 in a million (and might be zero) per year. This means that out of a million installers there might be six lung cancers from this cause every year or out of 10,000 installers there might be one in 16 years. The low risk of 6 in a million per year of a worker blowing glass wool is consistent with the fact that no one has found any of cancer

  10. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  11. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  12. Occupational exposure and ovarian cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nhu D; Leung, Andy; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Gallagher, Richard P; Swenerton, Kenneth D; Demers, Paul A; Cook, Linda S

    2014-07-01

    Relatively little work has been done concerning occupational risk factors in ovarian cancer. Although studies conducted in occupational settings have reported positive associations, their usefulness is generally limited by the lack of information on important confounders. In a population-based case-control study, we assessed risk for developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) associated with occupational exposure while accounting for important confounders. Participants were identified through provincial population-based registries. Lifetime occupational history and information on potential confounding factors were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression and the likelihood ratio test were used to assess EOC risk with each occupation (or industry), relative to all other occupations (or industries), adjusting for potential confounders including body mass index, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy, parity, age at first childbirth, age at menarche, age at menopause, family history of breast and ovarian cancer in mother and sister(s), tubal ligation, partial oophorectomy, and hysterectomy. Occupations and industries were coded according to the Canadian Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) and Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). Significant excess risk was observed for several groups of teaching occupations, including SOC 27, teaching and related (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.15-2.81) and SOC 279, other teaching and related (adjusted OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.35-8.49). Significant excess was also seen for a four-digit occupational group SOC 4131, bookkeepers and accounting clerks (adjusted OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.30-6.80). Industrial sub-groups showing significant excess risk included SIC 65, other retail stores (adjusted OR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.16-4.38); SIC 85, educational service (adjusted OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00-2.13); and SIC 863, non-institutional health services (adjusted OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.13-6.52). Our study found

  13. Moving Forward in Human Cancer Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Paules, Richard S.; Aubrecht, Jiri; Corvi, Raffaella; Garthoff, Bernward; Kleinjans, Jos C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The current safety paradigm for assessing carcinogenic properties of drugs, cosmetics, industrial chemicals, and environmental exposures relies mainly on in vitro genotoxicity testing followed by 2-year rodent bioassays. This testing battery is extremely sensitive but has low specificity. Furthermore, rodent bioassays are associated with high costs, high animal burden, and limited predictive value for human risks. Objectives We provide a response to a growing appeal for a paradigm ...

  14. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    ) occupational exposure limit value of styrene in ambient air. The consideration of ethical issues in human genetic monitoring is an important but often overlooked aspect. This includes the scientific and preventional relevance of performing a test on individuals, pre- and post study information of donors......Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e...... for and the biomonitoring results should preferentially be linked with accurate ambient air monitoring. In persons occupationally exposed to styrene the endpoints of DNA-damage and DNA-repair in genetic monitoring are methods of choice in exposure situations above the current Danish (25 ppm) or Finnish (20 ppm...

  15. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Watts, Simon J; Hunter, Amanda J; Shah, Anoop S V; Bosson, Jenny A; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E; Mills, Nicholas L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias,

  16. Risk assessment of arsenic and other metals via atmospheric particles, and effects of atmospheric exposure and other demographic factors on their accumulations in human scalp hair in urban area of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minjuan; Chen, Xunwen; Shao, Dingding; Zhao, Yinge; Wang, Wei; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-04-01

    Eighty-eight scalp hair samples were collected from Guangzhou (GZ) urban population (15-65 years) to investigate the accumulation of As and other metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg and Pb). Demographic information, including body weight, height, age, gender, habits of smoking and drinking, types of drinking water, duration of stay in GZ, days of stay in GZ per year (days/year), and hours spent in indoor environment per day (h/day), were also recorded during hair sampling to refine the uncertainty of risk assessment derived from exposures to elements via dust and airborne particles. No significant non-carcinogenic risk was found. However, the cancer risks of Cr and As for both ingestion and inhalation exceeded the most tolerable regulated level (1.0×10(-6)). The environmental exposures to urban dust and airborne particles were observed significantly correlated to accumulations of Cd (R=0.306, p=0.005) and Ni (R=0.333, p=0.002) in scalp hair. Furthermore, the hair burden of elements was also significantly (pfactor influencing As speciation in human scalp hair. However, habits of smoking and alcohol drinking as well as types of drinking water were not identified as the significant influencing factors on any element (p>0.05).

  17. Human convective boundary layer and its impact on personal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan

    People spend most of their time indoors and they are constantly exposed to pollution that affects their health, comfort and productivity. Due to strong economic and environmental pressures to reduce building energy consumption, low air velocity design is gaining popularity; hence buoyancy flows...... differences in pollution concentration mean that personal exposure, rather than average space concentration, determines the risk of elevated exposure. Current room air distribution design practice does not take into account the air movement induced by the thermal flows from occupants, which often results...... in inaccurate exposure prediction. This highlights the importance of a detailed understanding of the complex air movements that take place in the vicinity of the human body and their impact on personal exposure. The two objectives of the present work are: (i) to examine the extent to which the room air...

  18. National Surveillance of Occupational Exposure to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ricketts

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 1985, a prospective study was initiated to monitor the occurrence of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected blood and body fluids in Canada. This program was coordinated by the Federal Centre for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (now the Division of HIV/AIDS Epidemiology at the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. The objective was to determine the risk to workers of acquiring HIV infection as a result of exposure to HIV-infected blood and other body fluids. To be eligible, a worker must have sustained a documented parenteral, mucous membrane or skin contact exposure to blood or body fluids from an HIV-infected person. A baseline specimen was collected within a week of the exposure and then at six weeks, 12 weeks, six months and 12 months. Information concerning the type of exposure, precautions used and post exposure treatment was submitted to the Federal Centre for AIDS on standard data collection forms. All information was anonymous, identified only by a code number. Guidelines for counselling an exposed employee were provided with enrollment material. As of July 29, 1991, 414 employees have been included in the study. Two hundred and thirty-seven of the 414 exposures (57% were needlestick injuries of which 167 (70% were sustained by nurses. Other exposures consisted of open wound contamination, eye splashes, scalpel wounds and skin contact with blood and body fluids. To date, there have been no seroconversions among workers enrolled in the surveillance program.

  19. A translatable predictor of human radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lucas

    Full Text Available Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI. Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay.

  20. Critical factors in assessing risk from exposure to nasal carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanffy, M S; Mathison, B H; Kuykendall, J R; Harman, A E

    1997-10-31

    Anatomical, physiological, biochemical and molecular factors that contribute to chemical-induced nasal carcinogenesis are either largely divergent between test species and humans, or we know very little of them. These factors, let alone the uncertainty associated with our knowledge gap, present a risk assessor with the formidable task of making judgments about risks to human health from exposure to chemicals that have been identified in rodent studies to be nasal carcinogens. This paper summarizes some of the critical attributes of the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of risk assessments for nasal carcinogens that must be accounted for by risk assessors in order to make informed decisions. Data on two example compounds, dimethyl sulfate and hexamethylphosphoramide, are discussed to illustrate the diversity of information that can be used to develop informed hypotheses about mode of action and decisions on appropriate dosimeters for interspecies extrapolation. Default approaches to interspecies dosimetry extrapolation are described briefly and are followed by a discussion of a generalized physiologically based pharmacokinetic model that, unlike default approaches, is flexible and capable of incorporating many of the critical species-specific factors. Recent advancements in interspecies nasal dosimetry modeling are remarkable. However, it is concluded that without the development of research programs aimed at understanding carcinogenic susceptibility factors in human and rodent nasal tissues, development of plausible modes of action will lag behind the advancements made in dosimetry modeling.

  1. Hormonal exposures and the risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Kaerlev, Linda; Cree, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries.......Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries....

  2. Infectious Disease risks associated with exposure to stressful environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Ichard T.; Smith, Morey; Sams, Clarence

    1993-01-01

    Multiple environmental factors asociated with space flight can increase the risk of infectious illness among crewmembers thereby adversely affecting crew health and mission success. Host defences can be impaired by multiple physiological and psychological stressors including: sleep deprivation, disrupted circadian rhythms, separation from family, perceived danger, radiation exposure, and possibly also by the direct and indirect effects of microgravity. Relevant human immunological data from isolated or stressful environments including spaceflight will be reviewed. Long-duration missions should include reliable hardware which supports sophisticated immunodiagnostic capabilities. Future advances in immunology and molecular biology will continue to provide therapeutic agents and biologic response modifiers which should effectively and selectively restore immune function which has been depressed by exposure to environmental stressors.

  3. Human System Risk Management for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    2004 of evaluating the tolerance limits and safe operating bands called for in the Bioastronautics Strategy. Over the next several years, the concept of the "operating bands" were turned into Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS), developed by the technical resources of the SLSD at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). These standards were developed and reviewed at the SLSD and then presented to the OCHMO for acceptance. The first set of standards was published in 2007 as the NASA-STD-3001, Volume 1, Crew Health that elaborated standards for several physiological areas such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, radiation exposure and nutrition. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Human Health was published in 2011, along with development guidance in the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Taken together, the SFHSS Volumes 1 and 2, and the HIDH replaced the NASA-STD-3000 with new standards and revisions of the older document. Three other changes were also taking place that facilitated the development of the human system risk management approach. In 2005, the life sciences research and development portfolio underwent a comprehensive review through the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) that resulted in the reformulation of the Bioastronautics Program into Human Research Program (HRP) that was focused on appropriate mitigation results for high priority human health risks. The baseline HRP budget was established in August 2005. In addition, the OCHMO formulated the Health and Medical Technical Authority (HMTA) in 2006 that established the position of the Chief Medical Officer (CMO) at the NASA JSC along with other key technical disciplines, and the OCHMO became the responsible office for the SFHSS as noted above. The final change was the establishment in 2008 of the Human System Risk Board (HSRB), chaired by the CMO with representation from the HRP, SLSD management and technical experts. The HSRB then began to review all human system risks

  4. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghio Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in

  5. Assessing global exposure and vulnerability towards natural hazards: the Disaster Risk Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peduzzi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of factors influencing levels of human losses from natural hazards at the global scale, for the period 1980–2000. This model was designed for the United Nations Development Programme as a building stone of the Disaster Risk Index (DRI, which aims at monitoring the evolution of risk. Assessing what countries are most at risk requires considering various types of hazards, such as droughts, floods, cyclones and earthquakes. Before assessing risk, these four hazards were modelled using GIS and overlaid with a model of population distribution in order to extract human exposure. Human vulnerability was measured by crossing exposure with selected socio-economic parameters. The model evaluates to what extent observed past losses are related to population exposure and vulnerability. Results reveal that human vulnerability is mostly linked with country development level and environmental quality. A classification of countries is provided, as well as recommendations on data improvement for future use of the model.

  6. Transmission risk of human trichinellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumi, Katsuhisa; Teunis, Peter; Fonville, Manoj; Vallee, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Nöckler, Karsten; van der Giessen, Joke

    2009-02-23

    Trichinella is a food-borne parasitic zoonoses and human cases are still reported in Europe mainly due to the consumption of pig meat originating from small backyard farms. Infections originating from industrialized pig farming have not been reported for decades in Europe, due to control measures to prevent the transmission of Trichinella from wildlife by indoor housing and good management practices. Therefore, risk-based monitoring programs might replace individual carcass control in industrialized pig farming as described in EU legislation SANCO 2075/2005. Transmission of Trichinella species between wildlife and the risk that may pose to humans via consumption of contaminated pork meat has not been studied quantitatively. One pathway by which human trichinellosis can occur is the rat-pig-human route. To evaluate the transmission risk though this pathway the dose responses of rat, pig, and human were studied. Experimental T. spiralis infection was performed in rats with doses of as few as 10 parasites and the data set was analysed using a newly developed dose response model that describes larvae per gram (LPG). Experimental T. spiralis infection in pig was analysed in a similar way. Furthermore nine published outbreaks of human trichinellosis were analysed to determine the dose response in humans. The risk of human trichinellosis via the rat-pig-human transmission was simulated by the Monte Carlo method. A pair of female and male parasites representing the lowest infection pressure from the environment, led to the probability of human trichinellosis by consumption of 100g of raw pork meat equal to 5% via the studied rat-pig-human pathway. In the absence of rodent control near the farm, a low infection pressure from wildlife presents a relatively high risk of human trichinellosis via consumption of uncooked pork meat.

  7. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

  8. Geographical modeling of exposure risk to cyanobacteria for epidemiological purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Tania; Dupas, Rémi; Upegui, Erika; Buscail, Camille; Grimaldi, Catherine; Viel, Jean François

    2015-08-01

    The cyanobacteria-derived neurotoxin β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) represents a plausible environmental trigger for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a debilitating and fatal neuromuscular disease. With the eutrophication of water bodies, cyanobacterial blooms and their toxins are becoming increasingly prevalent in France, especially in the Brittany region. Cyanobacteria are monitored at only a few recreational sites, preventing an estimation of exposure of the human population. By contrast, phosphorus, a limiting nutrient for cyanobacterial growth and thus considered a good proxy for cyanobacteria exposure, is monitored in many but not all surface water bodies. Our goal was to develop a geographic exposure indicator that could be used in epidemiological research. We considered the total phosphorus (TP) concentration (mg/L) of samples collected between October 2007 and September 2012 at 179 monitoring stations distributed throughout the Brittany region. Using readily available spatial data, we computed environmental descriptors at the watershed level with a Geographic Information System. Then, these descriptors were introduced into a backward stepwise linear regression model to predict the median TP concentration in unmonitored surface water bodies. TP concentrations in surface water follow an increasing gradient from West to East and inland to coast. The empirical concentration model included five predictor variables with a fair coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.51). The specific total runoff and the watershed slope correlated negatively with the TP concentrations (p = 0.01 and pcyanobacteria exposure that can be used along with other risk factors in further ALS epidemiologic case-control studies.

  9. Prenatal plus postnatal exposures to phthalates and child health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Latini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a class of chemicals predominantly used as plasticizers in many plastics since the 1930's, in a wide variety of manufacturing applications and consumer products. Given their extensive use and their leakage from plastics, they are ubiquitous environmental contaminants with potential detrimental health effects. Di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP is the most commonly used phthalate plasticizer. There is widespread exposure to phthalates in the general population and therefore it is importat to investigate the toxic potential of these compounds. In particular, phthalate exposure has been shown to cause developmental and reproductive anomalies in animal models, and there is concern that these compounds may be causing adverse effects on human reproductive health. Phthalate effects are suspected to be much more severe after in uterus exposure. Phthalate esters are considered endocrine balance and development of the mammalian testis, thus exerting harmful effects on mammalian reproduction and fertility. Health risk assessments for the phthalate exposure of the general population should be performed and current PVC plasticizers, especially the ones used for infants should be replaces with high quality materials.

  10. Parabens as Urinary Biomarkers of Exposure in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Bishop, Amber M.; Reidy, John A.; Needham, Larry L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Parabens appear frequently as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetic products, in pharmaceuticals, and in food and beverage processing. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed weak estrogenic activity of some parabens. Widespread use has raised concerns about the potential human health risks associated with paraben exposure. Objectives Assessing human exposure to parabens usually involves measuring in urine the conjugated or free species of parabens or their metabolites. In animals, parabens are mostly hydrolyzed to p-hydroxybenzoic acid and excreted in the urine as conjugates. Still, monitoring urinary concentrations of p-hydroxybenzoic acid is not necessarily the best way to assess exposure to parabens. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid is a nonspecific biomarker, and the varying estrogenic bioactivities of parabens require specific biomarkers. Therefore, we evaluated the use of free and conjugated parent parabens as new biomarkers for human exposure to these compounds. Results We measured the urinary concentrations of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, butyl (n- and iso-), and benzyl parabens in a demographically diverse group of 100 anonymous adults. We detected methyl and n-propyl parabens at the highest median concentrations (43.9 ng/mL and 9.05 ng/mL, respectively) in nearly all (> 96%) of the samples. We also detected other parabens in more than half of the samples (ethyl, 58%; butyl, 69%). Most important, however, we found that parabens in urine appear predominantly in their conjugated forms. Conclusions The results, demonstrating the presence of urinary conjugates of parabens in humans, suggest that such conjugated parabens could be used as exposure biomarkers. Additionally, the fact that conjugates appear to be the main urinary products of parabens may be important for risk assessment. PMID:17185273

  11. Risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in fish products: Some general principles, mechanism of infection and the use of performance standards to control human exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notermans, S.; Hoornstra, E.

    2000-01-01

    Risk assessment is increasingly used as a scientific process to assess the potential for adverse health effects to occur and as a basis for management of unacceptable risks. For each risk assessment activity, the purpose of the assessment should be clearly stated. For Listeria monocytogenes, the pur

  12. Health risks associated with low dose diagnostic or therapeutic radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreham, D.R. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The health risks to humans associated with exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation have been extrapolated from effects observed at high doses, dose rates, and mixed radiation qualities using a linear no threshold model. Based on this approach, it has been argued that human exposure to low doses of diagnostics X-rays and gamma-rays increase an individual's risk of developing cancer throughout their life-time. Also, repeated medical diagnostic procedures involving low dose exposures will have an additive effect and consequently further increase health risk. The specific aim of this seminar will be to address the relative risk associated with diagnostic X-rays from CT scans and gamma-rays from positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Objectives of the talk will include: 1) Defining low dose exposures at a cellular level and relate that to diagnostic or therapeutic exposures, 2) Describing modern tools in molecular cytogenetics to estimate radiation exposure and assess radiation risk, 3) Identifying the different cellular mechanisms that influence radiation risk at high and low dose exposures and relate that to individual radiation risk. (author)

  13. Risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monchaux, G

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the risk due to inhalation of radon and its decay products using an horizontal approach across a large scale research programme. The central objective was the assessment of human risk which requires combination of several topics involving a multidisciplinary approach. In the Aerosol Studies Group, progress was achieved in improvement, calibration and automation of experimental techniques for continuous and integrated measurements of the unattached fraction f{sub p}- and equilibrium factor F- values. Measurements were performed to determine the variation of size distributions of unattached and aerosol-associated radon decay products under typical living conditions. All aerosol groups performed controlled chamber studies to understand the basic behaviour of airborne activity concentrations. Measurements were performed to determine neutralisation rates of {sup 218}Po, to understand the cluster growth with residence time and to understand the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles. In the Modelling Group, the programme RADEP has been developed to calculate the weighted committed equivalent lung dose per unit exposure of radon progeny (H{sub w}/P{sub p}) which implements the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM). The stochastic deposition model (IDEAL) has been compared with the deposition model used by the HRTM, and the agreement between the two deposition models was excellent. A deterministic radon progeny dosimetry model (RADOS) has been developed. This model includes all bronchial airway generations compared with the HRTM that groups the 16 airway generations into three regions. Initial calculations with RADOS show that the basal and secretory cell doses are slightly smaller compared with that of the HRTM. A sensitivity analysis has been performed that has identified those HRTM model parameters that most affect the Hw/Pp. A stochastic rat deposition model (RALMO) and a clearance model for the rat based on the

  14. Efficient computation of exposure profiles for counterparty credit risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, C.S.L. de; Feng, Q.; Kandhai, B.D.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Three computational techniques for approximation of counterparty exposure for financial derivatives are presented. The exposure can be used to quantify so-called Credit Valuation Adjustment (CVA) and Potential Future Exposure (PFE), which are of utmost importance for modern risk management in the fi

  15. Efficient Computation of Exposure Profiles for Counterparty Credit Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, C.S.L.; Feng, Q.; Kandhai, D.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Three computational techniques for approximation of counterparty exposure for financial derivatives are presented. The exposure can be used to quantify so-called Credit Valuation Adjustment (CVA) and Potential Future Exposure (PFE), which are of utmost importance for modern risk management in the fi

  16. Efficient Computation of Exposure Profiles for Counterparty Credit Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, C.S.L.; Feng, Q.; Kandhai, D.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Three computational techniques for approximation of counterparty exposure for financial derivatives are presented. The exposure can be used to quantify so-called Credit Valuation Adjustment (CVA) and Potential Future Exposure (PFE), which are of utmost importance for modern risk management in the

  17. Efficient computation of exposure profiles for counterparty credit risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.L. de Graaf (Kees); Q. Feng (Qian); B.D. Kandhai; C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThree computational techniques for approximation of counterparty exposure for financial derivatives are presented. The exposure can be used to quantify so-called Credit Valuation Adjustment (CVA) and Potential Future Exposure (PFE), which are of utmost importance for modern risk

  18. Occupational noise exposure and the risk of hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Zara A; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent L;

    2013-01-01

    Noise may increase the risk of hypertension, but findings are inconsistent with respect to both community and occupational noise exposure. We used a large sample of noise-exposed industrial trades to analyze the association of occupational noise exposure and the risk of hypertension....

  19. Risk of childhood injuries after prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Li, Jiong; Lauritsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life.......The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life....

  20. Moving toward exposure and risk evaluation of nanomaterials: challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Treye; Bahadori, Tina; Savage, Nora; Thomas, Karluss

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the commercial development of engineered nanomaterials, promises breakthrough innovations by enhancing the performance of existing consumer products and enabling development of new devices, architectures, and applications. Although these materials and applications are being developed at an explosive pace, a fundamental understanding of any potential human health and environmental risks resulting from exposure throughout the lifecycle of these materials has not advanced as rapidly. Past experience has demonstrated that successful introduction of a new technology occurs more readily if it is precipitated by a robust appreciation for any inherent risks associated with the technology. Such understanding allows the timely development of occupational and consumer exposure standards that might be needed to protect human health and the environment. Although risk is recognized as the product of hazard and exposure, too often exposure patterns are poorly characterized, and risk is based primarily or exclusively on the hazard characterization. The extent of exposure to nanomaterials in currently available commercial products is relatively unknown. Given the number of commercial products that claim to contain engineered nanomaterials, it is possible that human and environmental exposure to these materials is widespread. This paper is intended to highlight the importance of exposure assessment for determining the potential risks of nanomaterials. In essence, this is a call to action to the community of exposure scientists, toxicologists, and risk assessors to develop, consider, and incorporate requisite exposure information in the risk assessment of nanomaterials. Without an integrated approach, it will be difficult to meaningfully assess the risks of nanomaterials, realize their potential benefits, and foster their sustainable development.

  1. Investigation on possible risks to human health by exposure to the radiation of electromagnetic waves produced by the radio communications; Investigacion sobre posibles riesgos a la salud humana por exposicion a la radiacion de ondas electromagneticas producidas por las radiocomunicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Hernandez, Carlos Felipe; Ibarguengoytia Gonzalez, Pablo Hector; Flores Garcia, Andres; Franco Campos, Laura Elena [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-06-13

    This verification procedure is based on a research work on the possible risks to human health by exposure to the radiation of electromagnetic waves produced by the radio communications, cases of study: cellular telephony, radio digital troncalized and wireless telephony IP of Voice on IP (wireless local area network). The revision of all the international standards and the applicable national standardization was included, as well as the verification of fulfillment. [Spanish] Este procedimiento de verificacion esta basado en un trabajo de investigacion sobre posibles riesgos a la salud humana por exposicion a la radiacion de ondas electromagneticas producidas por la radiocomunicaciones, casos de estudio: telefonia celular, radio troncalizado digital y telefonia IP inalambrica de Voz sobre IP (red de area local inalambrica). Se incluyo la revision de todos los estandares internacionales y de la normatividad nacional aplicable, asi como la verificacion de cumplimiento.

  2. Determinants of Dermal Exposure Relevant for Exposure Modelling in Regulatory Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, J.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Links, I.H.M.; Warren, N.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European

  3. Occupational Sunlight Exposure and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Stewart, Patricia; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hunting, Katherine L.; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Berndt, Sonja I.; Brennan, Paul; Chow, Wong-Ho; Moore, Lee E.; Zaridze, David; Mukeria, Anush; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Navritalova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Gromiec, Jan P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent findings indicate that vitamin D obtained from ultraviolet (UV) exposure may reduce the risk of a number of different cancers. Vitamin D is metabolized to its active form within the kidney, the major organ for vitamin D metabolism and activity. Since both the incidence of renal cell cancer and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency have increased over the past few decades, this study sought to explore whether occupational UV exposure was associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. Methods A hospital-based case-control study of 1,097 RCC cases and 1,476 controls was conducted in four Central and Eastern European countries. Demographic and occupational information was collected to examine the association between occupational UV exposure and RCC risk. Results A significant (24%-38%) reduction in RCC risk was observed with increasing occupational UV exposure among male participants. No association between UV exposure and RCC risk was observed among female participants. When analyses were stratified by latitude as another estimate of sunlight intensity, a stronger (71%-73%) reduction in RCC risk was observed between UV exposure and cancer risk among males residing at the highest latitudes. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that among males there is an inverse association between occupational UV exposure and renal cancer risk. Replication studies are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:20213683

  4. A Systematic Review on Exposure to Toxic and Essential Elements through Black Tea Consumption in Iran: Could It be a Major Risk for Human Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Rezaee

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The hazard of excessive element intake through black tea consumption should be considered as negligible in Iran. However, related risk for manganese appeared to be more than toxic metals.

  5. Exposure knowledge and risk perception of RF EMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik eFreudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented study is part of the EU Project LEXNET (Low EMF Exposure Future Networks, which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF electro-magnetic fields (EMF exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere.We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception. Therefore we evaluated respondents’ risk perceptions of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF risk perception is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features - except distance - do influence people’s general RF EMF risk perceptions. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF risk perception of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher risk perception, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and risk perception. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries.

  6. [Human exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, M Y; Midio, A F

    1999-08-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbon compounds, some of them recognized as carcinogenic to different animal species can be found in drinking water. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform are the most important trihalomethanes found in potable water. They are produced in natural waters during chlorinated desinfection by the halogenation of precursors, specially humic and fulvic compounds. The review, in the MEDLINE covers the period from 1974 to 1998, presents the general aspects of the formation of trihalomethanes, sources of human exposure and their toxicological meaning for exposed organisms: toxicokinetic disposition and spectrum of toxic effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic).

  7. Risk exposure mitigation: Approaches and recognised instruments (6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk management function development in banks, along with the development of tools that banks can use throughout this process, has had the strong support in international standards, not only in the recommended approaches for calculating economic capital requirements, but also in the qualitatively new treatment of risk exposure mitigation instruments (Basel Accord II. The array of eligible instruments for exposure mitigation under the recommended approaches for their treatment becomes the essential element of economic capital requirements calculation, both in relation to certain types of risk, and in relation to aggregate exposure.

  8. Human health risk assessment related to contaminated land: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartjes, F A

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of humans to contaminants from contaminated land may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is generally considered as a major protection target. State-of-the-art possibilities and limitations of human health risk assessment tools are described in this paper. Human health risk assessment includes two different activities, i.e. the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment. The combination of these is called the risk characterization, which results in an appraisal of the contaminated land. Exposure assessment covers a smart combination of calculations, using exposure models, and measurements in contact media and body liquids and tissue (biomonitoring). Regarding the time frame represented by exposure estimates, biomonitoring generally relates to exposure history, measurements in contact media to actual exposures, while exposure calculations enable a focus on exposure in future situations. The hazard assessment, which is different for contaminants with or without a threshold for effects, results in a critical exposure value. Good human health risk assessment practice accounts for tiered approaches and multiple lines of evidence. Specific attention is given here to phenomena such as the time factor in human health risk assessment, suitability for the local situation, background exposure, combined exposure and harmonization of human health risk assessment tools.

  9. Human population density and extinction risk in the world's carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cardillo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding why some species are at high risk of extinction, while others remain relatively safe, is central to the development of a predictive conservation science. Recent studies have shown that a species' extinction risk may be determined by two types of factors: intrinsic biological traits and exposure to external anthropogenic threats. However, little is known about the relative and interacting effects of intrinsic and external variables on extinction risk. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we show that extinction risk in the mammal order Carnivora is predicted more strongly by biology than exposure to high-density human populations. However, biology interacts with human population density to determine extinction risk: biological traits explain 80% of variation in risk for carnivore species with high levels of exposure to human populations, compared to 45% for carnivores generally. The results suggest that biology will become a more critical determinant of risk as human populations expand. We demonstrate how a model predicting extinction risk from biology can be combined with projected human population density to identify species likely to move most rapidly towards extinction by the year 2030. African viverrid species are particularly likely to become threatened, even though most are currently considered relatively safe. We suggest that a preemptive approach to species conservation is needed to identify and protect species that may not be threatened at present but may become so in the near future.

  10. Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti J. Koivisto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers’ risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m−3 (0.08 to 0.74 cm−3. In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m−3, which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers’ calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h dose of submicrometer urban air particles.

  11. Negligible Colon Cancer Risk from Food-Borne Acrylamide Exposure in Male F344 Rats and Nude (nu/nu) Mice-Bearing Human Colon Tumor Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Jayadev; Roberts, Jennifer; Sondagar, Chandni; Kapal, Kamla; Aziz, Syed A.; Caldwell, Don; Mehta, Rekha

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet) reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control) or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM) or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu) mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control) or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a “complete carcinogen”, but acts as a “co-carcinogen” by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters. PMID:24040114

  12. A Course on Multimedia Environmental Transport, Exposure, and Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yoram; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Included are the general guidelines, outline, a summary of major intermedia transport processes, model features, a discussion of multimedia exposure and health risk, and a list of 50 suggested references for this course. (CW)

  13. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD......: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral...... infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated...

  14. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6......). Only 35% adhered to the basic principles of universal precautions (UP) and non-compliance was associated with a considerably increased risk of both MCE and PCE, especially in non-surgical specialties. In conclusion, we found an unacceptably high incidence of occupational blood exposures among Danish...... doctors. Non-compliance with UP was associated with an increased risk of exposure and efforts to improve compliance with UP as well as implementation and evaluation of other preventive measures are needed....

  15. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    : Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral......BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD...... infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated...

  16. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Yeong Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m3, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10−4 (central tendency exposure and 0.56 × 10−4 (reasonable maximum exposure, which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10−4. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed.

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma and the risk of occupational exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla; Malaguarnera, Michele; Ardiri, Annalisa; Proiti, Maria; Rigano, Giuseppe; Frazzetto, Evelise; Ruggeri, Maria Irene; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Bertino, Nicoletta; Malaguarnera, Mariano; Catania, Vito Emanuele; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Toro, Adriana; Bertino, Emanuele; Mangano, Dario; Bertino, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. The main risk factors for HCC are alcoholism, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cirrhosis, aflatoxin, hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease and hemophilia. Occupational exposure to chemicals is another risk factor for HCC. Often the relationship between occupational risk and HCC is unclear and the reports are fragmented and inconsistent. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the association of infective and non-infective occupational risk exposure and HCC in order to encourage further research and draw attention to this global occupational public health problem. PMID:27168870

  18. Health risk assessment for chemical exposures of military interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Polhuijs, M.; Sijbranda, T.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in military operations is accompanied by health hazards resulting from exposure to chemical substances from natural and anthropogenic sources. Historically, focus on toxicological risks has been on the health effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents (CW A). In recent years the aw

  19. Linking Aquatic Exposure and Effects: Risk Assessment of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Alix, A.; Brown, C.D.; Capri, E.; Gottesburen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Time-variable exposure profiles of pesticides are more often the rule than exception in the surface waters of agricultural landscapes. There is, therefore, a need to adequately address the uncertainties arising from time-variable exposure profiles in the aquatic risk assessment procedure for

  20. Transfer of metals and metalloids from soil to shoots in wild rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) growing on a former lead smelter site: human exposure risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affholder, Marie-Cécile; Prudent, Pascale; Masotti, Véronique; Coulomb, Bruno; Rabier, Jacques; Nguyen-The, Bénédicte; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at estimating exposition risks to wild rosemary used as herbs in the contaminated area of the former smelting factory of L'Escalette (South of Marseille, France). Metals and metalloids i.e. Pb, As, Sb, Zn, and Cu concentrations were analyzed in soils and in rosemary aerial parts (stems and leaves) on two sites: one heavily contaminated and the other far away from the pollution source, considered as reference. The metal and metalloid transfer into water during the brewing process of herbal tea was also determined. A mixed contamination by the above-cited contaminants was demonstrated in soils of the factory site, with average concentrations of 9253, 1127, 309, 2698 and 32 mg/kg for Pb, As, Sb, Zn and Cu, respectively. However, metals and metalloids' transfer in rosemary aerial parts was limited, as bioaccumulation factors were under 1. Thus, Pb, As and Cu concentrations in leaves were below international regulation limits concerning ingestion of medicinal herbs (no regulation values available for Sb and Zn). This study highlighted that, if contaminated rosemary leaves were ingested, health risks may be limited since acceptable daily intake (ADI) for Pb, As, Sb and Cu (no ADI value available for Zn) will only be reached if very high quantities are consumed. Furthermore, we aimed to establish if this mixed contamination could alter rosemary's essential oil quality, and thereby the compositions of essential oils obtained from individuals on the heavily contaminated soil were compared to those obtained from the reference population. An increased biosynthesis of antioxidant compounds was favored in essential oils from rosemary individuals growing in contaminated site. Although the health risk of a long-term exposition of low level of the mixed contamination by rosemary ingestion is not easy to elucidate, the use of rosemary essential oils from contaminated site appears as safe.

  1. [Anti-doping control and public health: limits to the exposure of human health to risk in the name of sporting glory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aith, Fernando Mussa Abujamra

    2013-10-01

    Given the current regulatory environment surrounding doping in the world, and in view of the recurring scandals linking leading athletes in a variety of sports with doping, this paper aims to provide some thoughts on the relationship between doping and public health, taking as base reference the risks doping poses to health and considering the regulatory options that have been adopted by the international community and the sports federations to control and supervise this unsporting and risky practice. The text seeks to reflect on the necessary balance between sport and health, as well as on the role of the state in preserving this balance.

  2. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  3. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-09-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms.

  4. Underestimation of risk due to exposure misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels;

    2004-01-01

    hair (sampled at the time of parturition). The laboratory imprecision on both chemical analyses was thought to be below 5% coefficient of variation (CV). As a third exposure parameter, we used the dietary questionnaire response on frequency of whale meat dinners. Factor analysis and structural equation...

  5. Mercury exposure: are we at risk?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is considered one of the major contributors to global Hg emissions into the atmosphere mainly due to coal-based power generation. Exposure to Hg occurs through the inhalation of Hg vapours, or ingestion of Hg-contaminated food or water...

  6. Human exposure to heavy metals and possible public health risks via consumption of wild edible mushrooms from Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árvay, Július; Tomáš, Ján; Hauptvogl, Martin; Massányi, Peter; Harangozo, Ľuboš; Tóth, Tomáš; Stanovič, Radovan; Bryndzová, Štefánia; Bumbalová, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The contamination level of 92 samples (12 species) of wild edible mushrooms and underlying substrates with heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) in the Slovak Paradise National Park that borders with a region of historical mining and processing of polymetallic ores, were determined. The collected samples were analyzed using of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metals were determined separately in hymenophore (H) and rest of fruit bodies (RFB). Bioaccumulation factor as well as ratio of metal content in H and RFB were calculated. Cadmium and lead contents in hymenophore exceeded statutory limits of the EU (Cd: 0.5 mg/kg dry weight (dw), Pb: 1.0 mg/kg dw) for edible mushrooms in 96% and 83% of the samples, respectively. The risk from the consumption of the collected mushroom species was calculated based on the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values, and the highest health risk arising with consumption of particularly Macrolepiota procera, Marasmius oreades and Russula vesca from the observed area was demonstrated. It was shown that average weekly consumption of tested mushrooms species results the threat of exceeding of PTWI limits in the case of cadmium values (by 164%, 86% and 4% of PTWI for M. oreades, R. vesca and R. puellaris, respectively) and of mercury (by 96% of PTWI for M. procera) but not lead.

  7. Aflatoxin M1 in processed milk: Occurrence and seasonal variation with an emphasis on risk assessment of human exposure in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, D.; Spirić, D.; Janković, S.; Velebit, B.; Radičević, T.; Petrović, Z.; Stefanović, S.

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in processed milk and dairy products, and to estimate the mean daily exposure of the adult Serbian population to AFM1 due to milk consumption. A total of 1734 samples, comprising heat treated cow’s milk (n=1233), infant formulae (n=349), milk powder (n=94) and dairy drink (n=58), were analyzed for AFM1 presence using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) commercial kit. Samples were collected from different regions of Serbia during four seasons each year during 2015 and 2016. The incidences of AFM1 contamination were 77.8% with a mean level of 0.027±0.03 μg/L (range of milk samples exceeded the maximum residue limit (0.05 μg/L). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of AFM1 during different seasons of year for males and females was in the range of 0.022-0.330 (mean 0.20) ng/kg/bw/day and 0.022-0.30 (mean 0.18) ng/kg/bw/day, respectively. The calculated EDI indicate a public health concern due to the carcinogenic effects of AFM1.

  8. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Stephanie Reyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective: Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design: A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT, other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods: Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling from 3 plots (A, B, and C in Fort Albany (on the mainland, subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results: The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusions: Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes.

  9. Suicide risk and exposure to mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Innamorati, Marco; De Pisa, Eleonora; Iliceto, Paolo; Puccinno, Marianna; Fiori Nastro, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study suicide risk in subjects exposed to mobbing, that is, systematic psychological harassment in the workplace. Such psychological harassment, unique to the workplace, threatens both the emotional well-being and professional ability of its victims. The items of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) that assess suicide risk were studied in 102 individuals who were exposed to mobbing. The results indicated that individuals exposed to mobbing had clear differences on the MMPI-2 from normative samples. In addition, those who appeared to be at risk for suicide differed in their scores from those not at risk. Implications for psychopathology and suicide preventions are discussed.

  10. Quantitative assessment of the risk of lung cancer associated with occupational exposure to refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolgavkar, S H; Luebeck, E G; Turim, J; Hanna, L

    1999-08-01

    We present the results of a quantitative assessment of the lung cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to refractory ceramic fibers (RCF). The primary sources of data for our risk assessment were two long-term oncogenicity studies in male Fischer rats conducted to assess the potential pathogenic effects associated with prolonged inhalation of RCF. An interesting feature of the data was the availability of the temporal profile of fiber burden in the lungs of experimental animals. Because of this information, we were able to conduct both exposure-response and dose-response analyses. Our risk assessment was conducted within the framework of a biologically based model for carcinogenesis, the two-stage clonal expansion model, which allows for the explicit incorporation of the concepts of initiation and promotion in the analyses. We found that a model positing that RCF was an initiator had the highest likelihood. We proposed an approach based on biological considerations for the extrapolation of risk to humans. This approach requires estimation of human lung burdens for specific exposure scenarios, which we did by using an extension of a model due to Yu. Our approach acknowledges that the risk associated with exposure to RCF depends on exposure to other lung carcinogens. We present estimates of risk in two populations: (1) a population of nonsmokers and (2) an occupational cohort of steelworkers not exposed to coke oven emissions, a mixed population that includes both smokers and nonsmokers.

  11. Childhood poverty and health: cumulative risk exposure and stress dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2007-11-01

    A massive literature documents the inverse association between poverty or low socioeconomic status and health, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this robust relation. We examined longitudinal relations between duration of poverty exposure since birth, cumulative risk exposure, and physiological stress in two hundred seven 13-year-olds. Chronic stress was assessed by basal blood pressure and overnight cortisol levels; stress regulation was assessed by cardiovascular reactivity to a standard acute stressor and recovery after exposure to this stressor. Cumulative risk exposure was measured by multiple physical (e.g., substandard housing) and social (e.g., family turmoil) risk factors. The greater the number of years spent living in poverty, the more elevated was overnight cortisol and the more dysregulated was the cardiovascular response (i.e., muted reactivity). Cardiovascular recovery was not affected by duration of poverty exposure. Unlike the duration of poverty exposure, concurrent poverty (i.e., during adolescence) did not affect these physiological stress outcomes. The effects of childhood poverty on stress dysregulation are largely explained by cumulative risk exposure accompanying childhood poverty.

  12. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-11-01

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  13. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabala, Dana [Railways Medical Clinic Cluj-Napoca, Occupational Medicine Department, 16-20 Bilascu Gheorghe St., 400015 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath St., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  14. Risk Estimation with Epidemiologic Data When Response Attenuates at High-Exposure Levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyle Steenland; Ryan Seals; Mitch Klein; Jennifer Jinot; Henry D. Kahn

    2011-01-01

    Background: In occupational studies, which are commonly used for risk assessment for environmental settings, estimated exposure-response relationships often attenuate at high exposures. Relative risk (RR...

  15. Human exposure to trace metals and possible public health risks via consumption of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Adriatic coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Mihajlo; Stanković, Slavka

    2014-08-01

    Considering the growing concern due to different levels of anthropogenic loadings, the main purpose of this study was to identify the levels of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Cd, Pb and Hg) in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled along the marine coast of Boka Kotorska Bay, Montenegro. In comparison with the permissible limits set by the EU and the US FDA, all trace metal concentrations found in the mussels from the coastal area of Boka Kotorska Bay were lower than the prescribed limits. Generally, the trace metal concentrations found in Montenegrin mussels are within the range of trace metal concentrations determined in low to moderately polluted Adriatic areas. Based on these and other available literature data published by other authors for Adriatic region, the public health risks associated with the consumption of mussels in relation to reported trace metal concentrations were evaluated. In terms of the obtained trace metals concentrations in mussels and the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the JECFA and oral reference doses by the US EPA, the Pb and Cd concentrations and the Co and Cd concentrations were recognized as the limiting factor for the consumption of mussels from some Adriatic areas, respectively.

  16. Occupational noise exposure and risk of acoustic neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Colin G; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Nise, Gun; Forssén, Ulla M; Ahlbom, Anders; Lönn, Stefan; Feychting, Maria

    2007-12-01

    A small number of prior epidemiologic studies of occupational noise exposure based on self-report have suggested an association with acoustic neuroma. The goal of the present study was to further examine the association between noise exposure and acoustic neuroma by using an objective measure of exposure in the form of a job exposure matrix. A total of 793 acoustic neuroma cases aged 21-84 years were identified between 1987 and 1999 from the Swedish Cancer Registry. The 101,756 controls randomly selected from the study base were frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and calendar year of diagnosis. Occupational information, available for 599 of the cases and 73,432 of the controls, was obtained from censuses and was linked to a job exposure matrix based on actual noise measurements. All risk estimates were close to unity, regardless of noise exposure level or parameter. The overall odds ratio for exposure to > or = 85 dB of noise was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.64, 1.23). Contrary to previous study results, the present findings did not demonstrate an increased acoustic neuroma risk related to occupational noise exposure even after allowing for a long latency period. The effect of nondifferential misclassification of exposure must be considered a potential cause of the negative findings.

  17. Risk from exposure to trihalomethanes during shower: probabilistic assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Champagne, Pascale

    2009-02-15

    Exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) through inhalation and dermal contact during showering and bathing may pose risks to human health. During showering and bathing, warm water (35 degrees C-45 degrees C) is generally used. Warming of chlorinated supply water may increase THMs formation through enhanced reactions between organics and residual chlorine. Exposure assessment using THMs concentrations in cold water may under-predict the possible risks to human health. In this study, THMs concentrations in warm water were estimated by developing a THMs formation rate model. Using THMs in warm water, cancer and non-cancer risks to human health were predicted for three major cities in Ontario (Canada). The parameters for risk assessments were characterized by statistical distributions. The total cancer risks from exposure to THMs during showering were predicted to be 7.6x10(-6), 6.3x10(-6) and 4.3x10(-6) for Ottawa, Hamilton and Toronto respectively. The cancer risks exceedance probabilities were estimated to be highest in Ottawa at different risk levels. The risks through inhalation exposure were found to be comparable (2.1x10(-6)-3.7x10(-6)) to those of the dermal contact (2.2x10(-6)-3.9x10(-6)) for the cities. This study predicted 36 cancer incidents from exposure to THMs during showering for these three cities, while Toronto contributed the highest number of possible cancer incidents (22), followed by Ottawa (10) and Hamilton (4). The sensitivity analyses showed that health risks could be controlled by varying shower stall volume and/or shower duration following the power law relationship.

  18. Risks related to exposure to radon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Barros Dios

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available They discuss the different scientific evidence that radon and its short half-life descendants are responsible for the appearance of a considerable number of lung cancers among the exposed population in homes and public buildings (occupational exposure. It also draws a small glimpse at the road traveled by this knowledge and acceptance difficult administrations in many countries and, in particular, of Spain, as well as the various investigations that the team do Galego Radon and Radon Laboratory from Galicia, the area of Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC, are contributing to scientific knowledge. Finally, they appreciate the few legislative initiatives on the problem in Spain.

  19. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. Binder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  20. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-03-25

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  1. European solvent industry group generic exposure scenario risk and exposure tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Rosemary T; Qian, Hua; Zelenka, Michael P; George-Ares, Anita; Money, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The European Solvents Industry Group (ESIG) Generic Exposure Scenario (GES) Risk and Exposure Tool (EGRET) was developed to facilitate the safety evaluation of consumer uses of solvents, as required by the European Union Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) Regulation. This exposure-based risk assessment tool provides estimates of both exposure and risk characterization ratios for consumer uses. It builds upon the consumer portion of the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) Targeted Risk Assessment (TRA) tool by implementing refinements described in ECETOC TR107. Technical enhancements included the use of additional data to refine scenario defaults and the ability to include additional parameters in exposure calculations. Scenarios were also added to cover all frequently encountered consumer uses of solvents. The TRA tool structure was modified to automatically determine conditions necessary for safe use. EGRET reports results using specific standard phrases in a format consistent with REACH exposure scenario guidance, in order that the outputs can be readily assimilated within safety data sheets and similar information technology systems. Evaluation of tool predictions for a range of commonly encountered consumer uses of solvents found it provides reasonable yet still conservative exposure estimates.

  2. Exposure level of ergonomic risk factors in hotel industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Syahir Muhamad Jaffar, Mohd; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Zamani Ngali, Mohd; Pauline, Ong

    2017-08-01

    Ergonomic Risk Factors (ERFs) which contribute to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) among room attendants were considered as a problem or trouble since these ERFs would affect their work performance for hotel industries. The purpose of this study was to examine the exposure level of ERFs among room attendants in hotel industries. 65 of respondents were obtained from selected hotels in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by direct observation via Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment (WERA) and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC). There were 36 males and 29 females room attendants involved throughout the research. Most of room attendants experienced high exposure level for back, leg, forceful and vibration based on the exposure level evaluation through WERA while QEC results showed that all room attendants were found to have moderate exposure level for risk factors including back for movement use, shoulders/arms, wrists/hands and neck. All the results obtained showed that the related ERFs for MSDs were associated and essential ergonomic interventions are needed in order to eliminate risk of exposures to MSDs among room attendants in hotel industries.

  3. Human exposure to acrolein: Time-dependence and individual variation in eye irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Lind, Nina

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the time dependence on sensory irritation detection following exposure to threshold levels of acrolein, in humans. The exposures occurred in an exposure chamber and the subjects were breathing fresh air through a mask that covered the nose and mouth. All participants participated in four exposure conditions, of which three consisted of a mixture of acrolein and heptane and one of only heptane. Exposure to acrolein at a concentration half of the TLV-C lead to sensory irritation. The perceived sensory irritation resulted in both increased detectability and sensory irritation after about 6.8min of exposure in 58% of the participants. The study confirm the previously suggested LOAEL of about 0.34mg/m(3) for eye irritation due to acrolein exposure. The sensory irritation was still significant 10min after exposure. These results have implications for risk assessment and limit setting in occupational hygiene.

  4. Alpha-risk: a European project on the quantification of risks associated with multiple radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurier, D.; Monchaux, G.; Tirmarche, M. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Darby, S. [Cancer Research UK, Oxford (United Kingdom); Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Binks, K. [Westlakes Scientific Consulti ng Ltd, Moor Row (United Kingdom); Hofmann, W. [Salzburg Univ. (Austria); Muirhead, C. [Health Protection Agency, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The Alpha-Risk research project is being conducted within the Sixth European Framework Programme (EC-FP6, 2005 -2008). It aims to improve the quantification of risks associated with multiple exposures, taking into account the contribution of different radionuclides and external exposure using specific organ dose calculations. The Alpha-Risk Consortium involves 18 partners from 9 countries, and is coordinated by the IRSN. Its composition allows a multidisciplinary collaboration between researchers in epidemiology, dosimetry, statistics, modelling and risk assessment. Alpha-Risk brings together major epidemiological studies in Europe, which are able to evaluate long-term health effects of internal exposure from radionuclides. It includes large size cohort and case-control studies, with accurate registration of individual annual exposures: uranium miner studies, studies on lung cancer and indoor radon exposure, and studies of lung cancer and leukaemia among nuclear workers exposed to transuranic nuclides (mainly uranium and plutonium), for whom organ doses will be reconstructed individually. The contribution of experts in dosimetry will allow the calculation of organ doses in presence of multiple exposures (radon decay products, uranium dust and external gamma exposure). Expression of the risk per unit organ dose will make it possible to compare results with those from other populations exposed to external radiation. The multidisciplinary approach of Alpha-Risk promotes the development of coherent and improved methodological approaches regarding risk modelling. A specific work - package is dedicated to the integration of results and their use for risk assessment, especially for radon. Alpha-Risk will contribute to a better understanding of long-term health risks following chronic low doses from internal exposures. The project also has the great potential to help resolve major public health concerns about the effects of low and/or protracted exposures, especially

  5. A Chain Modeling Approach To Estimate the Impact of Soil Cadmium Pollution on Human Dietary Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium in soil poses a risk for human health, due to its accumulation in food and feed crops. The extent of accumulation depends strongly on soil type and the degree of pollution. The objective of the present study was to develop a predictive model to estimate human dietary cadmium exposure from so

  6. Leukemia from dermal exposure to cyclophosphamide among nurses in the Netherlands: Quantitative assessment of the risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Kager, H.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Kromhout, H.; Portengen, L.; Blaauboer, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies showed that oncology nurses are exposed to antineoplastic drugs via the skin during daily activities. Several antineoplastic drugs (including cyclophosphamide) have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. This study aims to assess the leukemia risk of occupational exposure to

  7. Leukemia from dermal exposure to cyclophosphamide among nurses in the Netherlands : Quantitative assessment of the risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, Wouter; Kager, Hans; Meijster, Tim; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans; Portengen, Lützen; Blaauboer, Bas J.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies showed that oncology nurses are exposed to antineoplastic drugs via the skin during daily activities. Several antineoplastic drugs (including cyclophosphamide) have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. This study aims to assess the leukemia risk of occupational exposure to

  8. Risk Factors for Mesh Exposure after Transvaginal Mesh Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Niu; Yong-Xian Lu; Wen-Jie Shen; Ying-Hui Zhang; Wen-Ying Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Mesh exposure after surgery continues to be a clinical challenge for urogynecological surgeons.The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors for polypropylene (PP) mesh exposure after transvaginal mesh (TVM) surgery.Methods:This study included 195 patients with advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP),who underwent TVM from January 2004to December 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital.Clinical data were evaluated including patient's demography,TVM type,concomitant procedures,operation time,blood loss,postoperative morbidity,and mesh exposure.Mesh exposure was identified through postoperative vaginal examination.Statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors for mesh exposure.Results:Two-hundred and nine transvaginal PP meshes were placed,including 194 in the anterior wall and 15 in the posterior wall.Concomitant tension-free vaginal tape was performed in 61 cases.The mean follow-up time was 35.1 ± 23.6 months.PP mesh exposure was identified in 32 cases (16.4%),with 31 in the anterior wall and 1 in the posterior wall.Significant difference was found in operating time and concomitant procedures between exposed and nonexposed groups (F =7.443,P =0.007;F =4.307,P =0.039,respectively).Binary logistic regression revealed that the number of concomitant procedures and operation time were risk factors for mesh exposure (P =0.001,P =0.043).Conclusion:Concomitant procedures and increased operating time increase the risk for postoperative mesh exposure in patients undergoing TVM surgery for POP.

  9. Risk Assessment of Baby Powder Exposure through Inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Min Chaul; Park, Jung Duck; Choi, Byung Soon; Park, So Young; Kim, Dong Won; Chung, Yong Hyun; HISANAGA, Naomi; Yu, Il Je

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the exposure risk through inhalation to baby powder for babies and adults under simulated conditions. Baby powder was applied to a baby doll and the amount of baby powder consumed per application was estimated. The airborne exposure to baby powder during application was then evaluated by sampling the airborne baby powder near the breathing zones of both the baby doll and the person applying the powder (the applicator). The average amount of baby powder consu...

  10. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Stockwell Alannah; Carroll Rebecca; Townsend Simon; Yi Jesse; Ah-Yen Damien; Chakrabarti Anannya; Okawa Ken; Smith Tara; Fry Bridget; Gale Jesse; Sievwright Andrea; Dew Kevin; Thomson George

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New ...

  11. Cancer risks following diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A. [National Institutes of Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, EPS 7044, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The growing use of interventional and fluoroscopic imaging in children represents a tremendous benefit for the diagnosis and treatment of benign conditions. Along with the increasing use and complexity of these procedures comes concern about the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiation exposure to children. Children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation than adults, and children have a longer life expectancy in which to express risk. Numerous epidemiologic cohort studies of childhood exposure to radiation for treatment of benign diseases have demonstrated radiation-related risks of cancer of the thyroid, breast, brain and skin, as well as leukemia. Many fewer studies have evaluated cancer risk following diagnostic radiation exposure in children. Although radiation dose for a single procedure might be low, pediatric patients often receive repeated examinations over time to evaluate their conditions, which could result in relatively high cumulative doses. Several cohort studies of girls and young women subjected to multiple diagnostic radiation exposures have been informative about increased mortality from breast cancer with increasing radiation dose, and case-control studies of childhood leukemia and postnatal diagnostic radiation exposure have suggested increased risks with an increasing number of examinations. Only two long-term follow-up studies of cancer following cardiac catheterization in childhood have been conducted, and neither reported an overall increased risk of cancer. Most cancers can be induced by radiation, and a linear dose-response has been noted for most solid cancers. Risks of radiation-related cancer are greatest for those exposed early in life, and these risks appear to persist throughout life. (orig.)

  12. Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent (2009-10) studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces and soil adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust from nondietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 × 10–4, as determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of 6 × 10–5. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in early childhood (i.e., 0–6 years of age).

  13. Quantification of lung cancer risk after low radon exposure and low exposure rate: synthesis from epidemiological and experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timarche, M

    2004-03-15

    Radon is a radioactive gas produced during the decay of uranium 238 that is present in soil. It was classified as a human lung carcinogen in 1988, based on evidence both from animal studies and from human studies of miners with high levels of radon exposure. Radon is present everywhere; therefore the quantification of the risk associated with exposure to it is a key public health issue. The project aimed to analyse the risk associated with radon inhalation at low doses and at low rates of exposure. It involved researchers from three different fields: epidemiology, animal experiments and mechanistic modelling and provided a unique opportunity to study the influence of dose rate, mainly in the range of low daily exposures over long periods, by analysing in parallel results from both animal and epidemiological studies. The project comprised 6 work packages (W.P.). Firstly, the partners involved in epidemiology and animal experiments worked on the validation and the analysis of the data. Secondly, the data from W.P.1 and W.P.4 were transferred to the partners involved in W.P.5 for the application of mechanistic models. In the final step a synthesis of the results was prepared. (N.C)

  14. Evaluating biomarkers to model cancer risk post cosmic ray exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Deepa M; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Blattnig, Steve R; Costes, Sylvain V; Doetsch, Paul W; Dynan, William S; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Hlatky, Lynn; Kidane, Yared; Kronenberg, Amy; Naidu, Mamta D; Peterson, Leif E; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L; Saha, Janapriya; Snijders, Antoine M; Srinivasan, Kalayarasan; Tang, Jonathan; Werner, Erica; Pluth, Janice M

    2016-06-01

    Robust predictive models are essential to manage the risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Chronic exposure to cosmic rays in the context of the complex deep space environment may place astronauts at high cancer risk. To estimate this risk, it is critical to understand how radiation-induced cellular stress impacts cell fate decisions and how this in turn alters the risk of carcinogenesis. Exposure to the heavy ion component of cosmic rays triggers a multitude of cellular changes, depending on the rate of exposure, the type of damage incurred and individual susceptibility. Heterogeneity in dose, dose rate, radiation quality, energy and particle flux contribute to the complexity of risk assessment. To unravel the impact of each of these factors, it is critical to identify sensitive biomarkers that can serve as inputs for robust modeling of individual risk of cancer or other long-term health consequences of exposure. Limitations in sensitivity of biomarkers to dose and dose rate, and the complexity of longitudinal monitoring, are some of the factors that increase uncertainties in the output from risk prediction models. Here, we critically evaluate candidate early and late biomarkers of radiation exposure and discuss their usefulness in predicting cell fate decisions. Some of the biomarkers we have reviewed include complex clustered DNA damage, persistent DNA repair foci, reactive oxygen species, chromosome aberrations and inflammation. Other biomarkers discussed, often assayed for at longer points post exposure, include mutations, chromosome aberrations, reactive oxygen species and telomere length changes. We discuss the relationship of biomarkers to different potential cell fates, including proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and loss of stemness, which can propagate genomic instability and alter tissue composition and the underlying mRNA signatures that contribute to cell fate decisions. Our goal is to highlight factors that are important in choosing

  15. Evaluating biomarkers to model cancer risk post cosmic ray exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Deepa M.; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Blattnig, Steve R.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Doetsch, Paul W.; Dynan, William S.; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Hlatky, Lynn; Kidane, Yared; Kronenberg, Amy; Naidu, Mamta D.; Peterson, Leif E.; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Saha, Janapriya; Snijders, Antoine M.; Srinivasan, Kalayarasan; Tang, Jonathan; Werner, Erica; Pluth, Janice M.

    2016-06-01

    Robust predictive models are essential to manage the risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Chronic exposure to cosmic rays in the context of the complex deep space environment may place astronauts at high cancer risk. To estimate this risk, it is critical to understand how radiation-induced cellular stress impacts cell fate decisions and how this in turn alters the risk of carcinogenesis. Exposure to the heavy ion component of cosmic rays triggers a multitude of cellular changes, depending on the rate of exposure, the type of damage incurred and individual susceptibility. Heterogeneity in dose, dose rate, radiation quality, energy and particle flux contribute to the complexity of risk assessment. To unravel the impact of each of these factors, it is critical to identify sensitive biomarkers that can serve as inputs for robust modeling of individual risk of cancer or other long-term health consequences of exposure. Limitations in sensitivity of biomarkers to dose and dose rate, and the complexity of longitudinal monitoring, are some of the factors that increase uncertainties in the output from risk prediction models. Here, we critically evaluate candidate early and late biomarkers of radiation exposure and discuss their usefulness in predicting cell fate decisions. Some of the biomarkers we have reviewed include complex clustered DNA damage, persistent DNA repair foci, reactive oxygen species, chromosome aberrations and inflammation. Other biomarkers discussed, often assayed for at longer points post exposure, include mutations, chromosome aberrations, reactive oxygen species and telomere length changes. We discuss the relationship of biomarkers to different potential cell fates, including proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and loss of stemness, which can propagate genomic instability and alter tissue composition and the underlying mRNA signatures that contribute to cell fate decisions. Our goal is to highlight factors that are important in choosing

  16. Organochlorine exposure and breast cancer risk in Colombian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaya-Contreras P.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study was performed in Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, with a total of 306 women enrolled, including 153 incident BC cases and 153 age-matched controls. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between BC risk and serum dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethene (DDE levels. Sociodemographic and reproductive data, diet, and past exposure to pesticides were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Chemical analysis of samples was performed by high resolution gas chromatography-ECD. Likelihood of developing BC by exposure to these substances was evaluated through odds ratios (OR adjusted for: first-child breast-feeding, family BC history, body mass index (BMI, parity, and menopausal status. Data analysis was performed by conditional logistic regression techniques. Adjusted OR for exposure to serum DDE and BC suggests an increase risk of BC in the higher category of DDE exposure (OR = 1.95; CI 1.10-3.52. The test for trend was not statistically significant (p = 0.09. We confirm that serum DDE levels bear a positive association to risk of BC and could support the association between risk of BC and burden of DDE exposure.

  17. Solid fuel smoke exposure and risk of obstructive airways disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qorbani Mostafa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to investigate whether there is an association between Obstructive Airways Disease (OAD and indoor exposure to baking home-made bread smoke (BHBS in ground oven at home. In this hospital-based case–control study, 83 patients with OAD (cases were compared with 72 patients without any known pulmonary diseases from the surgical ward (controls who were frequently matched with cases on age. The interview was performed using the modified questionnaire recommended by the "American Thoracic Society". The questionnaire comprised of demographic information, occupational history, cigarette smoking and indoor exposure to BHBS in ground oven at home. The exposure to BHBS was considered both as a dichotomous and quantitative variable (number of years being exposed to smoke and the population attributable fraction (PAF was estimated due to BHBS exposure. The percentage of indoor exposure to BHBS was measured as 51.8% and 30.6% in the cases and the controls, respectively. The average years of exposure to BHBS was 20.46 years (SD: 11.60 for the cases and 15.38 years (SD: 13.20 for the controls. The univariate analysis comparing the cases and the controls showed that exposure to BHBS (as a binary variable and occupational exposure to dust was significantly associated with OAD. In the multivariate model, only exposure to BHBS was associated with OAD (OR=2.22, 95%CI = 1.14-4.35. Duration of exposure to BHBS (as a quantitative variable was significantly associated with OAD in the univariate model. In the multivariate model, only the duration of exposure to BHBS (years showed a significant association with OAD (OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.08. Population attributable risk due to BHBS exposure was equal to 28.5%.

  18. Solid Fuel Smoke Exposure and Risk of Obstructive Airways Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masud Yunesian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether there is an association between Obstructive Airways Disease (OAD and indoor exposure to baking home-made bread smoke (BHBS in ground oven at home. In this hospital-based case–control study, 83 patients with OAD (caseswere compared with 72 patients without any known pulmonary diseases from the surgical ward (controls who were frequently matched with cases on age. The interview wasperformed using the modified questionnaire recommended by the "American Thoracic Society". The questionnaire comprised of demographic information, occupational history,cigarette smoking and indoor exposure to BHBS in ground oven at home. The exposure toBHBS was considered both as a dichotomous and quantitative variable (number of years being exposed to smoke and the population attributable fraction (PAF was estimated due to BHBS exposure. The percentage of indoor exposure to BHBS was measured as 51.8% and30.6% in the cases and the controls, respectively. The average years of exposure to BHBS was 20.46 years (SD: 11.60 for the cases and 15.38 years (SD: 13.20 for the controls. The univariate analysis comparing the cases and the controls showed that exposure to BHBS (as a binary variable and occupational exposure to dust was significantly associated with OAD. In the multivariate model, only exposure to BHBS was associated with OAD (OR=2.22, 95%CI= 1.14-4.35. Duration of exposure to BHBS (as a quantitative variable was significantly associated with OAD in the univariate model. In the multivariate model, only the duration of exposure to BHBS (years showed a significant association with OAD (OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.08. Population attributable risk due to BHBS exposure was equal to 28.5%.

  19. Human exposure assessment: Approaches for chemicals (REACH) and biocides (BPD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.

    2008-01-01

    The approaches that are indicated in the various guidance documents for the assessment of human exposure for chemicals and biocides are summarised. This reflects the TNsG (Technical notes for Guidance) version 2: human exposure assessment for biocidal products (1) under the BPD (Biocidal Products Di

  20. Exposure Knowledge and Risk Perception of RF EMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Varsier, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    The presented study is part of the EU-Project Low EMF Exposure Future Networks (LEXNET), which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere. We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception (RP). Therefore we evaluated respondents’ RP of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF RP is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features – except distance – do influence people’s general RF EMF RP. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF RP of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher RP, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and RP. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries. PMID:25629026

  1. LENDING STRUCTURE AND MARKET RISK EXPOSURES: THE MALAYSIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Abdul Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the linkages between lending structure and market risk exposure. The influence of lending structure is analysed by four measures: the real estate lending, the specialisation index, the short-term lending stability, and the medium-term lending stability. Our findings show that lending structure to some extent affects the market risk exposure to some extend. At the same time, listed bank holding companies showed higher levels of market risk during and after the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Meanwhile, the desired effect of bank mergers in terms of reducing market risk exposure did not materialise in this study. Thus, the findings of this study posits at least two implications; (1 policy makers should react accordingly in the decision-making process towards achieving the expected result of the monetary policy transmission mechanism, and (2 banks and investors should account the impact of lending structures in addition to the significance effect of loan expansion and management efficiency when determining market risk exposure of bank holding companies.

  2. Exposure-response analysis of risk of respiratory disease associated with occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayner, L; Smith, R; Bailer, J; Gilbert, S; Steenland, K; Dement, J; Brown, D; Lemen, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate alternative models and estimate risk of mortality from lung cancer and asbestosis after occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos. METHODS: Data were used from a recent update of a cohort mortality study of workers in a South Carolina textile factory. Alternative exposure-response models were evaluated with Poisson regression. A model designed to evaluate evidence of a threshold response was also fitted. Lifetime risks of lung cancer and asbestosis were estimated with an actuarial approach that accounts for competing causes of death. RESULTS: A highly significant exposure-response relation was found for both lung cancer and asbestosis. The exposure-response relation for lung cancer seemed to be linear on a multiplicative scale, which is consistent with previous analyses of lung cancer and exposure to asbestos. In contrast, the exposure-response relation for asbestosis seemed to be nonlinear on a multiplicative scale in this analysis. There was no significant evidence for a threshold in models of either the lung cancer or asbestosis. The excess lifetime risk for white men exposed for 45 years at the recently revised OSHA standard of 0.1 fibre/ml was predicted to be about 5/1000 for lung cancer, and 2/1000 for asbestosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the findings from previous investigations of a strong exposure-response relation between exposure to chrysotile asbestos and mortality from lung cancer, and asbestosis. The risk estimates for lung cancer derived from this analysis are higher than those derived from other populations exposed to chrysotile asbestos. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:9423577

  3. [Advances on research of human exposure to triclosan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenye; Chen, Yiming; Zhang, Peiqi; Xiong, Zhezhen; Wang, Caifeng; Tian, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Triclosan, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, was reported to have been widely detected in various human biological samples such as urine, blood and human milk among foreign populations. In China, limited reports have been found on human exposure to triclosan, and the reported urinary triclosan concentrations were significantly lower than that of American populations. Besides, the potential influencing factors still remain unclear regarding human exposure to triclosan, but evidences suggest that those in middle age and with higher household income and higher social class tend to have higher urinary triclosan concentrations. Furthermore, triclosan exposure tend to differ by sex, geography, heredity, metabolism and life style.

  4. Mercury from dental amalgam: exposure and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Stephen M

    2013-02-01

    There has long been an undercurrent within the dental profession of anti-amalgam sentiment, a "mercury-free" movement. To assess whether anything is or is not scientifically wrong with amalgam, one must look to the vast literature on exposure, toxicology, and risk assessment of mercury. The subject of risk assessment goes straight to the heart of the debate over whether a malgam is safe, or not, for unrestricted use in dentistry in the population at large.

  5. Exposure assessment for trihalomethanes in municipal drinking water and risk reduction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat

    2013-10-01

    Lifetime exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in municipal water may pose risks to human health. Current approaches of exposure assessments use DBPs in cold water during showering, while warming of chlorinated water during showering may increase trihalomethane (THM) formation in the presence of free residual chlorine. Further, DBP exposure through dermal contact during showering is estimated using steady-state condition between the DBPs in shower water impacting on human skin and skin exposed to shower water. The lag times to achieve steady-state condition between DBPs in shower water and human skin can vary in the range of 9.8-391.2 min, while shower duration is often less than the lag times. Assessment of exposure without incorporating these factors might have misinterpreted DBP exposure in some previous studies. In this study, exposure to THMs through ingestion was estimated using cold water THMs, while THM exposure through inhalation and dermal contact during showering was estimated using THMs in warm water. Inhalation of THMs was estimated using THM partition into the shower air, while dermal uptake was estimated by incorporating lag times (e.g., unsteady and steady-state phases of exposure) during showering. Probabilistic approach was followed to incorporate uncertainty in the assessment. Inhalation and dermal contact during showering contributed 25-60% of total exposure. Exposure to THMs during showering can be controlled by varying shower stall volume, shower duration and air exchange rate following power law equations. The findings might be useful in understanding exposure to THMs, which can be extended to other volatile compounds in municipal water.

  6. HExpoChem: a systems biology resource to explore human exposure to chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Kalhauge, Christian Gram

    2013-01-01

    of computational biology approaches are needed to assess the health risks of chemical exposure. Here we present HExpoChem, a tool based on environmental chemicals and their bioactivities on human proteins with the objective of aiding the qualitative exploration of human exposure to chemicals. The chemical......Summary: Humans are exposed to diverse hazardous chemicals daily. Although an exposure to these chemicals is suspected to have adverse effects on human health, mechanistic insights into how they interact with the human body are still limited. Therefore, acquisition of curated data and development......–protein interactions have been enriched with a quality-scored human protein–protein interaction network, a protein–protein association network and a chemical–chemical interaction network, thus allowing the study of environmental chemicals through formation of protein complexes and phenotypic outcomes enrichment...

  7. Effects of exposure to oil spills on human health: Updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffon, Blanca; Pásaro, Eduardo; Valdiglesias, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills may involve health risks for people participating in the cleanup operations and coastal inhabitants, given the toxicological properties of the oil components. In spite of this, only after a few major oil spills (crude oil or fuel oil no. 6) have studies on effects of exposure to diverse aspects of human health been performed. Previously, Aguilera et al. (2010) examined all documents published to that date dealing with any type of human health outcome in populations exposed to oil spills. The aim of the present review was to compile all new information available and determine whether evidence reported supports the existence of an association between exposure and adverse human health risks. Studies were classified in three groups according to type of health outcome addressed: (i) effects on mental health, (ii) physical/physiological effects, and (iii) genotoxic, immunotoxic, and endocrine toxicity. New studies published on oil-spill-exposed populations-coastal residents in the vicinity of the spills or participants in cleanup operations-provide additional support to previous evidence on adverse health effects related to exposure regarding different parameters in all three categories considered. Some of the observed effects even indicated that several symptoms may persist for some years after exposure. Hence, (1) health protection in these individuals should be a matter of concern; and (2) health risk assessment needs to be carried out not only at the time of exposure but also for prolong periods following exposure, to enable early detection of any potential exposure-related harmful effects.

  8. Risk assessment of fluoride exposure in drinking water of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guissouma, Wiem; Hakami, Othman; Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    The presence of fluoride in drinking water is known to reduce dental cavities among consumers, but an excessive intake of this anion might leads to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This study reports a complete survey of the fluoridated tap water taken from 100 water consumption points in Tunisia. The fluoride concentrations in tap water were between 0 and 2.4 mg L(-1). Risk assessment of Fluoride exposure was assessed depending on the age of consumers using a four-step method: hazard identification, toxicity reference values selection (TRVs), daily exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Our findings suggest that approximately 75% of the Tunisian population is at risk for dental decay, 25% have a potential dental fluorosis risk, and 20% might have a skeletal fluorosis risk according to the limits of fluoride in drinking water recommended by WHO. More investigations are recommended to assess the exposure risk of fluoride in other sources of drinking water such as bottled water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Steroids in marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China: occurrence, bioconcentration, and human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Sun, Kai-Feng; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence, bioconcentration, and human dietary exposure via seafood consumption of 24 steroids were investigated by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) in six typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China. Ten, 9, 10, 15 of 24 steroids were detected at concentrations ranging from 18 years), respectively. Even though no significant risk from dietary exposure arises from individual steroid, elevated risk to humans can result from the occurrence of multiple steroids in the seafood raised in the aquaculture farms, especially for the sensitive populations, such as pregnant women and children.

  10. Contribution of inorganic arsenic sources to population exposure risk on a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Chun; Chen, Jein-Wen; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-07-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) in the human population is associated with various internal cancers and other adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to estimate a population-scale exposure risk attributable to iAs consumptions by linking a stochastic physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and biomonitoring data of iAs in urine. The urinary As concentrations were obtained from a total of 1,043 subjects living in an industrial area of Taiwan. The results showed that the study subjects had an iAs exposure risk of 27 % (the daily iAs intake for 27 % study subjects exceeded the WHO-recommended value, 2.1 μg iAs day(-1) kg(-1) body weight). Moreover, drinking water and cooked rice contributed to the iAs exposure risk by 10 and 41 %, respectively. The predicted risks in the current study were 4.82, 27.21, 34.69, and 64.17 %, respectively, among the mid-range of Mexico, Taiwan (this study), Korea, and Bangladesh reported in the literature. In conclusion, we developed a population-scale-based risk model that covered the broad range of iAS exposure by integrating stochastic PBPK modeling and reverse dosimetry to generate probabilistic distribution of As intake corresponding to urinary As measured from the cohort study. The model can also be updated as new urinary As information becomes available.

  11. Quantifying Chronic Stress Exposure for Cumulative Risk Assessment: Lessons Learned from a Case Study of Allostatic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although multiple methods of quantifying environmental chemical exposures have been validated for use in human health risk assessment, quantifying chronic stress exposure is more challenging. Stress is a consequence of perceiving an “exposure” (e.g., violence, poverty) as more th...

  12. Human exposure to fipronil from dogs treated with frontline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, K A; Canerdy, T D; Keller, R J; Atieh, B H; Doss, R B; Gupta, R C

    2002-10-01

    This investigation determined fipronil residues on gloves worn while petting dogs after Frontline application. Frontline contains 9.8% fipronil, which controls fleas and ticks on dogs for at least 30 d. Frontline (1.34 ml) was applied topically on adult household dogs and gloves worn for 5 min during pettingwere collected 24 hr and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 w post-Frontline application for fipronil residue determinations using GC/MS. The highest concentration of fipronil (589.3 +/- 205.7ppm) was detected 24 h after Frontline application and was undetectable in the gloves collected at 5w. Repeated exposure to such contamination can pose human health risks.

  13. Sun Exposure and Reduced Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The association between red hair color (RHC melanocortin 1 receptor genotype, past environmental sun exposure, and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS was investigated in a population-based case-control study in Tasmania, Australia, involving 136 cases with MS and 272 controls.

  14. Credit risk exposure with interest and currency swaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, R.C.; Stokking, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    The increased use of financial derivatives like interest rate and currency swap contracts has drawn much attention, as it exposes banks to non-performance by their counterparts. This credit risk exposure is of great concern to monetary authorities, e.g. the Bank for International Settlements. Ln

  15. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.D.; Marquart, H.; Christopher, Y.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of ne

  16. Endogenous estrogen exposure and cardiovascular mortality risk in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Peeters, P.M.; Banga, J.D.; Graaf, Y. van der

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated whether combined information on reproductive factors has additive value to the single reproductive factor age at menopause for assessing endogenous estrogen exposure and cardiovascular mortality risk in postmenopausal women. They conducted a population-based c

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of EndometriosisGermaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza51Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  18. Risk management of exposure to chemicals under operational conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The HFM panel has decided to install an Exploratory Team, ET-078, which should advise whether or not a Technical Group (TG) should be established on the subject of risk management of exposure to chemicals under operational conditions. This paper described the context and approach of ET-078.

  19. Credit risk exposure with interest and currency swaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, R.C.; Stokking, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    The increased use of financial derivatives like interest rate and currency swap contracts has drawn much attention, as it exposes banks to non-performance by their counterparts. This credit risk exposure is of great concern to monetary authorities, e.g. the Bank for International Settlements. Ln thi

  20. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.D.; Marquart, H.; Christopher, Y.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of

  1. Human exposures to parabens in cosmetics - a literature study

    OpenAIRE

    Aarflot, Ragnhild Lønseth

    2013-01-01

    A literature study was performed in order to assess and compare evidence of human exposure to parabens in cosmetics. The focus of the thesis is on human concentrations, the rate of dermal absorption, metabolism and excretion; in order to increase our understanding of human exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals in cosmetics. High detection rates of native and total parabens in blood and urine were identified. GMs of native parabens were lower than total paraben levels in urine as expecte...

  2. Tracking the pathways of human exposure to perfluorocarboxylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergren, Robin; Cousins, Ian T

    2009-08-01

    Recent analyses of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in human blood sera show that the background-exposed population in industrialized countries worldwide exhibits a narrow concentration range; arithmetic means of published studies range between 2 and 8 microg/L PFOA, with the exception of a few outlier studies. The globally comparable human serum concentrations of PFOA and characteristic dominance of PFOA with respect to other perfluorocarboxylate (PFCA) homologues indicate that exposure pathways of humans differ from those of wildlife, where perfluorononanoate (PFNA) is often the dominant homologue. The observed correlations between perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and PFOA in human serum together with a simultaneous downward time trend of these compounds in human blood sera and blood spots from the year 2000 onward indicate a connection between historical perfluorooctanesulfonyl (POSF) production (phased out by the major manufacturer in 2000-2002) and exposure to both PFOS and PFOA. A comparison of estimated daily intakes to humans based on samples from exposure media (collected post 2000) indicates that food intake is the major contemporary exposure pathway for the background population, whereas drinking water exposure is dominant for populations near sources of contaminated drinking water. A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model used to back-calculate daily intakes from serum levels is shown to provide agreement within a factor of 1.5-5.5 of the daily intakes derived from exposure media, which provides further supporting evidence that dietary exposure is a major ongoing exposure pathway of PFOA to the background population.

  3. Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Simon J.; Hunter, Amanda J.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Bosson, Jenny A.; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R.; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in susceptible patient groups. Objectives: We investigated the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during and after controlled exposure to air pollutants in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: We analyzed data from 13 double-blind randomized crossover studies including 282 participants (140 healthy volunteers and 142 patients with stable coronary heart disease) from whom continuous electrocardiograms were available. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was recorded for each exposure and study population. Results: There were no increases in any cardiac arrhythmia during or after exposure to dilute diesel exhaust, wood smoke, ozone, concentrated ambient particles, engineered carbon nanoparticles, or high ambient levels of air pollution in either healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusions: Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health policy decisions. Citation: Langrish JP, Watts SJ, Hunter AJ, Shah AS, Bosson JA, Unosson J, Barath S, Lundbäck M, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE, Mills NL. 2014. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Environ Health Perspect 122:747–753; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307337 PMID:24667535

  4. Risk of Lung Cancer and Indoor Radon Exposure in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysson, H.; Tirmarche, M.; Tymen, G.; Ducloy, F.; Laurier, D.

    2004-07-01

    It is well established that radon exposure increases risks of lung cancer among underground miners. to estimate the lung cancer risk linked to indoor radon exposure, a hospital based case-control study was carried out in France, With a focus on precise reconstruction of past indoor radon exposure over the 30 years preceding the lung cancer diagnosis. The investigation rook place from 1992 to 1998 in four regions of France: Auvergne, Brittany, Languedoc and Limousin. During face-to-face interviews a standardized questionnaire was used to ascertain demographic characteristics, information on active and passive smoking, occupational exposure, medical history as well as extensive details on residential history. Radon concentrations were measured in the dwellings where subjects had lived at least one year during the 5-30 year period before interview. Measurements of radon concentrations were performed during a 6-month period, using two Kodalpha LR 115 detectors, one in the living room and one in the bedroom. The time-weighted average (TWA) radon concentration for a subject during the 5-30 year period before interview was based on radon concentrations over all addresses occupied by the subject weighted by the number of years spent at each address. For the time intervals without available measurements, we imputed the region-specific arithmetic average of radon concentrations for measured addresses of control subjects. Lung cancer risk was examined in relation to indoor radon exposure after adjustment for age, sex, region, cigarette smoking and occupational exposure. The estimated relative a risk per 100 Bq/m''3 was 1.04, at the borderline of statistical significance (95 percent Confidence Interval: 0.99, 1..1). These results are in agreement with results from other indoor radon case-control studies and with extrapolations from underground miners studies. (Author) 31 refs.

  5. Forecasting Value-at-Risk for Crude-Oil Exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben; Tsiaras, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values......-at-Risk are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting out-of-sample forecasts based on the simulations suggests that the GARCH method with implied volatility as explanatory variable captures the risk structure well....

  6. Forecasting Value-at-Risk for Crude-Oil Exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben; Tsiaras, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values......-at-Risk are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting out-of-sample forecasts based on the simulations suggests that the GARCH method with implied volatility as explanatory variable captures the risk structure well....

  7. Occupational noise exposure and the risk of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Zara A; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent L; Hansen, Ase M; Kolstad, Henrik A

    2013-01-01

    Noise may increase the risk of hypertension, but findings are inconsistent with respect to both community and occupational noise exposure. We used a large sample of noise-exposed industrial trades to analyze the association of occupational noise exposure and the risk of hypertension. The 7-year prospective cohort study included 145,190 workers from 625 companies representing 10 industrial trades and 100 companies from the finance sector. They were followed from 2001 to 2007 by record linkage with several Danish national registries. Full-shift noise exposure levels, measured in a random subset of 710 workers at the start and the end of follow-up, ranged from 70 to 86 dB(A); based on this information, historical levels back to the 1960s were estimated. Hypertension (defined by the prescription of antihypertensive medication or a hospital discharge diagnosis of hypertension) was regressed on the trade mean sound levels (LAEq) adjusting for a number of covariates. Women had increased rate ratios for hypertension when comparing blue-collar industrial workers with white-collar financial workers (adjusted rate ratio = 1.17 [95% confidence interval = 1.09-1.26]). For men, the corresponding relative risk value was 1.06 (0.98-1.14). Within blue-collar industrial workers, however, increasing noise exposure level was not associated with an increasing risk of hypertension among either men or women. Our study shows no increased risk of hypertension with exposure to noise in the lower half of the 80-90 dB(A) range.

  8. Exposure assessment and risk of gastrointestinal illness among surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, David L; Harding, Anna K; Hope, Bruce K; Slaughter-Mason, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    Surfing is a unique recreational activity with the possibility of elevated risk for contracting gastrointestinal (GI) illness through ingestion of contaminated water. No prior studies have assessed exposure from ingestion among surfing populations. This study estimated the magnitude and frequency of incidental water ingestion using a Web-based survey and integrated exposure distributions with enterococci distributions to predict the probability of GI illness at six Oregon beaches. The mean exposure magnitude and frequency were 170 ml of water ingested per day and 77 days spent surfing per year, respectively. The mean number of enterococci ingested ranged from approximately 11 to 86 colony-forming units (CFU) per day. Exposure-response analyses were conducted using an ingested dose model and two epidemiological models. Risk was characterized using joint probability curves (JPC). At the most contaminated beach, the annualized ingested dose model estimated a mean 9% probability of a 50% probability of GI illness, similar to the results of the first epidemiological model (mean 6% probability of a 50% probability of GI illness). The second epidemiological model predicted a 23% probability of exceeding an exposure equivalent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum acceptable GI illness rate (19 cases/1000 swimmers). While the annual risk of GI illness for Oregon surfers is not high, data showed that surfers ingest more water compared to swimmers and divers and need to be considered in regulatory and public health efforts, especially in more contaminated waters. Our approach to characterize risk among surfers is novel and informative to officials responsible for advisory programs. It also highlights the need for further research on microbial dose-response relationships to meet the needs of quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRA).

  9. Risk assessment of consuming agricultural products irrigated with reclaimed wastewater: An exposure model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, Meike; Oron, Gideon

    2000-09-01

    This study assesses health risks to consumers due to the use of agricultural products irrigated with reclaimed wastewater. The analysis is based on a definition of an exposure model which takes into account several parameters: (1) the quality of the applied wastewater, (2) the irrigation method, (3) the elapsed times between irrigation, harvest, and product consumption, and (4) the consumers' habits. The exposure model is used for numerical simulation of human consumers' risks using the Monte Carlo simulation method. The results of the numerical simulation show large deviations, probably caused by uncertainty (impreciseness in quality of input data) and variability due to diversity among populations. There is a 10-orders of magnitude difference in the risk of infection between the different exposure scenarios with the same water quality. This variation indicates the need for setting risk-based criteria for wastewater reclamation rather than single water quality guidelines. Extra data are required to decrease uncertainty in the risk assessment. Future research needs to include definition of acceptable risk criteria, more accurate dose-response modeling, information regarding pathogen survival in treated wastewater, additional data related to the passage of pathogens into and in the plants during irrigation, and information regarding the behavior patterns of the community of human consumers.

  10. Human exposure pathways of heavy metals in a lead-zinc mining area, Jiangsu Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Sheng Qu

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution is becoming a serious issue in developing countries such as China, and the public is increasingly aware of its adverse health impacts in recent years. We assessed the potential health risks in a lead-zinc mining area and attempted to identify the key exposure pathways. We evaluated the spatial distributions of personal exposure using indigenous exposure factors and field monitoring results of water, soil, food, and indoor and outdoor air samples. The risks posed by 10 metals and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact pathways to these risks were estimated. Human hair samples were also analyzed to indicate the exposure level in the human body. Our results show that heavy metal pollution may pose high potential health risks to local residents, especially in the village closest to the mine (V1, mainly due to Pb, Cd and Hg. Correspondingly, the residents in V1 had higher Pb (8.14 mg/kg levels in hair than those in the other two villages. Most of the estimated risks came from soil, the intake of self-produced vegetables and indoor air inhalation. This study highlights the importance of site-specific multipathway health risk assessments in studying heavy-metal exposures in China.

  11. Campylobacter fetus infections in humans : exposure and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Blaser, Martin J; Tauxe, Robert V; Newell, Diane G; van Putten, Jos P M

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus can cause intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections. Infections mainly affect persons at higher risk, including elderly and immunocompromised individuals and those with occupational exposure to infected animals. Outbreaks are infrequent but have provided in

  12. Support mechanisms for renewables: How risk exposure influences investment incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Kitzing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital and the Capital Asset Pricing Model as well as through active liquidity management. Applying the model to a specific case, a German offshore wind park, we find that the support levels required to give adequate investment incentives are for a feed-in tariff scheme approximately 4-10% lower than for a feed-in premium scheme. The effect of differences in risk exposure from the support schemes is significant and cannot be neglected in policy making, especially when deciding between support instruments or when determining adequate support levels.

  13. Assessing Human Health Risk from Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  14. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddervold, I S; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Massling, A; Jensen, B; Grønborg, T K; Bossi, R; Forchhammer, L; Kjærgaard, S K; Sigsgaard, T

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3 h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m³ (low) and 400 µg/m³ (high) under controlled environmental conditions. The range for PM₂.₅ load observed for single experiments was 165-303 µg/m³ for the low exposure and 205-662 µg/m³ for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (humans. The knowledge gained in this study on subjective-rated symptoms may be important for understanding human response to wood-smoke exposure.

  15. NEGATIVE CURRENCY-RISK-EXPOSURE FOR TURKISH EQUITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore J. Terregrossa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currency-risk-exposure is an issue for Turkish equities, from two different angles: internationaltrade and foreign-portfolio-investment. The likely effect is positive for the former, and negative for the latter aspect. Consequently, the overall or net effect on equity value depends on which of these aspects of currency-risk-exposure has the greater impact. The present empirical analysis estimates currency risk of Turkish equities within a multi-factor regression setting, utilizing the framework of the Security Market Plane (SMP model. The SMP model embodies a conditional relation among three variables: beta, realized excess market-return, and expected excess portfolio-return. The SMP empirical framework is extended to include a currency-risk-factor in the present analysis. The currency-risk-factor is specified as the excess return to holding foreign currency (€; $, relative to holding domestic currency (Turkish Lira. The SMP-related factor is the cross-product term of beta and realized excess market-return (β it rMt . A regression of realized excess portfolio-returns against the corresponding currency-risk-factor and cross product-term (β it rMt finds that the Turkish stocks represented in the analysis generally have overall negative currency-risk-exposure; suggesting that unexpected currency depreciation generally leads to lower values for Turkish stocks (and portfolios of Turkish stocks. Thus, after accounting for the SMP-related interaction-effect between beta and realized excess marketreturn, currency risk is found to command a premium for the Turkish stocks represented in the analysis.

  16. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk derived from exposure to organic solvents: a review of epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio V. Rêgo

    Full Text Available The rate of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL has increased around the world during the last decades. Apart from the role of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in the development of NHL, exposure to chemical agents like phenoxyacetic pesticides, hair dyes, metal fumes and organic solvents are suspected to be involved. The present review evaluates the results of studies that directly or indirectly searched for an association between solvent exposure and NHL. The selected studies comprised those published from 1979 to 1997, designed to investigate risk factors for NHL, whether specifically looking for solvent exposure or for general risks in which solvent exposure could be included. In 25 of the 45 reviewed studies (55.5%, fifty-four statistically significant associations between NHL and solvent exposure related occupations or industries were reported. Statistical significance was more frequently shown in studies where solvent exposure was more accurately defined. In eighteen of such studies, 13 (72.2% defined or suggested organic solvents as possible risk factors for NHL.

  17. Inhale while Dreaming: Human Exposure to Pollutants while Sleeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsi, Richard; Spilak, Michal; Boor, E., Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Humans spend approximately 1/3 of their total life asleep, typically on a mattress or other bedding. Despite the fact that there is no other location where most of humanity spends more time, this microenvironment has received little attention from the standpoint of human exposure to a wide range ...

  18. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Mølhave, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung...... function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m3 (low) and 400 µg/m3 (high) under controlled environmental conditions.......0007), “irritative body perceptions” (p = 0.0127), “psychological/neurological effects” (p = 0.0075) and “weak inflammatory responses” (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating...

  19. Biomonitoring of the mycotoxin Zearalenone: current state-of-the art and application to human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mally, Angela; Solfrizzo, Michele; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin with high estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, is a widespread food contaminant that is commonly detected in maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, rye and other grains. Human exposure estimates based on analytical data on ZEN occurrence in various food categories and food consumption data suggest that human exposure to ZEN and modified forms of ZEN may be close to or even exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for some consumer groups. Considering the inherent uncertainties in estimating dietary intake of ZEN that may lead to an under- or overestimation of ZEN exposure and consequently human risk and current lack of data on vulnerable consumer groups, there is a clear need for more comprehensive and reliable exposure data to refine ZEN risk assessment. Human biomonitoring (HBM) is increasingly being recognized as an efficient and cost-effective way of assessing human exposure to food contaminants, including mycotoxins. Based on animal and (limited) human data on the toxicokinetics of ZEN, it appears that excretion of ZEN and its major metabolites may present suitable biomarkers of ZEN exposure. In view of the limitations of available dietary exposure data on ZEN and its modified forms, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies utilizing HBM to monitor and assess human exposure to ZEN. Considerations are given to animal and human toxicokinetic data relevant to HBM, analytical methods, and available HBM data on urinary biomarkers of ZEN exposure in different cohorts.

  20. Urbanization and traffic related exposures as risk factors for Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    that traffic related exposures affect schizophrenia risk and that this potential effect is responsible for the urban-rural differences. The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road was used as a proxy variable for traffic related exposures. We used a large population-based sample...... of the Danish population (1.89 million people) including information on all permanent addresses linked with geographical information on all roads and house numbers in Denmark. Schizophrenia in cohort members (10,755 people) was identified by linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. RESULTS...

  1. Mercury Human Exposure in Populations Living Around Lake Tana (Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, G; Abebe, G; Bravo, Andrea G; Ermias, D; Staffan, Ǻ; Bishop, K

    2017-02-01

    A survey carried out in Lake Tana in 2015 found that Hg levels in some fish species exceeded internationally accepted safe levels for fish consumption. The current study assesses human exposure to Hg through fish consumption around the Lake Tana. Of particular interest was that a dietary intake of fishes is currently a health risk for Bihar Dar residents and anglers. Hair samples were collected from three different groups: anglers, college students and teachers, and daily laborers. A questionary includes gender, age, weight, activity. Frequency of fish consumption and origin of the eaten fish were completed by each participant. Mercury concentrations in hair were significantly higher (P value mercury and age associated with mercury concentration in scalp hair. Mercury concentrations in the hair of men were on average twice the value of the women. Also, users of skin lightening soap on a daily basis had 2.5 times greater mercury in scalp hair than non-users. Despite the different sources of mercury exposure mentioned above, the mercury concentrations of the scalp hair of participants of this study were below levels deemed to pose a threat to health.

  2. Hormone Use in Food Animal Production: Assessing Potential Dietary Exposures and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Keeve E; Smith, Tyler J S

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the role of hormones in breast cancer etiology, following reports that heightened levels of endogenous hormones and exposure to exogenous hormones and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals through food and the environment are associated with increased breast cancer risk. Seven hormone drugs (testosterone propionate, trenbolone acetate, estradiol, zeranol, progesterone, melengestrol acetate, and bovine somatotropin) are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food animals. There is concern that these drugs or their biologically active metabolites may accumulate in edible tissues, potentially increasing the risk of exposure for consumers. To date, the potential for human exposure to residues of these compounds in animal products, as well as the risks that may result from this exposure, is poorly understood. In this paper, we discuss the existing scientific evidence examining the toxicological significance of exposure to hormones used in food animal production in relation to breast cancer risk. Through a discussion of U.S. federal regulatory programs and the primary literature, we interpret the state of surveillance for residues of hormone drugs in animal products and discuss trends in meat consumption in relation to the potential for hormone exposure. Given the lack of chronic bioassays of oral toxicity of the seven hormone compounds in the public literature and the limitations of existing residue surveillance programs, it is not currently possible to provide a quantitative characterization of risks that result from the use of hormonal drugs in food animal production, complicating our understanding of the role of dietary hormone exposure in the population burden of breast cancer.

  3. Heavy incense burning in temples promotes exposure risk from airborne PMs and carcinogenic PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kuo-Chih; Liao, Chung-Min

    2006-12-15

    We present the mechanistic-based exposure and risk models, appraised with reported empirical data, to assess how the human exposure to airborne particulate matters (PMs) and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during heavy incense burning episodes in temples. The models integrate size-dependent PM levels inside a temple from a published exploratory study associated with a human expiratory tract (HRT) model taking into account the personal exposure levels and size distributions in the HRT. The probabilistic exposure profiles of total-PAH levels inside a temple and internal PAHs doses are characterized by a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model with the reconstructed dose-response relationships based on an empirical three-parameter Hill equation model, describing PAHs toxicity for DNA adducts formation and lung tumor incidence responses in human white blood cells and lung. Results show that the alveolar-interstitial (AI) region has a lower mass median diameter (0.29 microm) than that in extrathoracic (ET(1), 0.37 microm), brochial (BB, 0.36 microm) and bronchiolar (bb, 0.32 microm) regions. The 50% probability (risk=0.5) of exceeding the DNA adducts frequency (DA(f)) ratio of 1.28 (95% CI: 0.55-2.40) and 1.78 (95% CI: 0.84-2.95) for external exposure of B[a]P and B[a]P(eq), respectively. The 10% (risk=0.1) probability or more of human affected by lung tumor is approximately 7.62x10(-5)% (95% CI: 3.39x10(-5)-1.71x10(-4)%) and 3.87x10(-4)% (95% CI: 1.72x10(-4)-8.69x10(-4)%) for internal exposure of B[a]P and B[a]P(eq), respectively. Our results implicate that exposure to smoke emitted from heavy incense burning may promote lung cancer risk. Our study provides a quantitative basis for objective risk prediction of heavy incense burning exposure in temples and for evaluating the effectiveness of management.

  4. Methods for assessing risks of dermal exposures in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, James N; Boeniger, Mark F

    2002-07-01

    The skin as a route of entry for toxic chemicals has caused increasing concern over the last decade. The assessment of systemic hazards from dermal exposures has evolved over time, often limited by the amount of experimental data available. The result is that there are many methods being used to assess safety of chemicals in the workplace. The process of assessing hazards of skin contact includes estimating the amount of substance that may end up on the skin and estimating the amount that might reach internal organs. Most times, toxicology studies by the dermal route are not available and extrapolations from other exposure routes are necessary. The hazards of particular chemicals can be expressed as "skin notations", actual exposure levels, or safe exposure times. Characterizing the risk of a specific procedure in the workplace involves determining the ratio of exposure standards to an expected exposure. The purpose of this review is to address each of the steps in the process and describe the assumptions that are part of the process. Methods are compared by describing their strengths and weaknesses. Recommendations for research in this area are also included.

  5. A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources.

  6. Genital powder exposure and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Karin A.; Weiss, Noel S.; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Rossing, Mary Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background We conducted a population-based, case–control study to examine the association between the use of genital powder and ovarian cancer risk, including measures of extent and timing of exposure. We also assessed the relationship of powder use with risk of disease subtypes according to histology and degree of malignancy. Methods Information was collected during in-person interviews with 812 women with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed in western Washington State from 2002 to 2005 and 1,313 controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Overall, the perineal use of powder after bathing was associated with a slightly increased ovarian cancer risk (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.97–1.66), which was most evident among women with borderline tumors (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.02–2.37). We noted no clear pattern of risk increase on the basis of the extent of use, assessed as years in which powder was used, or as lifetime number of applications for invasive or borderline tumors, or their histologic subtypes. There was no alteration in the risk of ovarian cancer associated with other types of powder exposure (e.g., on sanitary napkins or diaphragms). Conclusions The International Agency for Research on Cancer has designated perineal exposure to talc (via the application of genital powders) as a possible carcinogen in women. A modest association of ovarian cancer with this exposure was seen in our study and in some previous ones, but that association generally has not been consistent within or among studies. Therefore, no stronger adjective than “possible” appears warranted at this time. PMID:21516319

  7. Risks from accidental exposures to engineered nanoparticles and neurological health effects: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattsson Mats-Olof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are certain concerns regarding the safety for the environment and human health from the use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs which leads to unintended exposures, as opposed to the use of ENPs for medical purposes. This review focuses on the unintended human exposure of ENPs. In particular, possible effects in the brain are discussed and an attempt to assess risks is performed. Animal experiments have shown that investigated ENPs (metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes can translocate to the brain from different entry points (skin, blood, respiratory pathways. After inhalation or instillation into parts of the respiratory tract a very small fraction of the inhaled or instilled ENPs reaches the blood and subsequently secondary organs, including the CNS, at a low translocation rate. Experimental in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that several types of ENPs can have various biological effects in the nervous system. Some of these effects could also imply that ENPs can cause hazards, both acutely and in the long term. The relevance of these data for risk assessment is far from clear. There are at present very few data on exposure of the general public to either acute high dose exposure or on chronic exposure to low levels of air-borne ENPs. It is furthermore unlikely that acute high dose exposures would occur. The risk from such exposures for damaging CNS effects is thus probably very low, irrespective of any biological hazard associated with ENPs. The situation is more complicated regarding chronic exposures, at low doses. The long term accumulation of ENPs can not be excluded. However, we do not have exposure data for the general public regarding ENPs. Although translocation to the brain via respiratory organs and the circulation appears to be very low, there remains a possibility that chronic exposures, and/or biopersistent ENPs, can influence processes within the brain that are triggering or aggravating

  8. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  9. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  10. Harmonization of risk management approaches: radiation and chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiation Safety Systems Div., Mumbai (India)

    2006-07-01

    Assessment of occupational and public risk from the environmental pollutants like chemicals, radiation, etc demands that the effects be considered not only from each individual pollutant, but from the combination of all the pollutants. An integrated risk assessment system needs to be in place to have an overall risk perspective for the benefit of policy makers and decision takers to try to achieve risk reduction in totality. The basis for risk-based radiation dose limits is derived from epidemiological studies, which provide a rich source of data largely unavailable to chemical risk assessors. In addition, use of the principle of optimization as expressed in the ALARA concept has resulted in a safety culture, which is much more than just complying with stipulated limits. The conservative hypothesis of no-threshold dose-effect relation (ICRP) is universally assumed. The end-points and the severity of different classes of pollutants and even different pollutants in a same class vary over a wide range. Hence, it is difficult to arrive at a quantitative value for the net detriment that weighs the various types of end-points and various classes of pollutants. Once the risk due to other pollutants is quantified by some acceptable methodology, it can be expressed in terms of the Risk Equivalent Radiation Dose (R.E.R.D.) for easy comparison with options involving radiation exposure. This paper is an effort to use to quantify and present the risk due to exposure to chemicals and radiation in a common scale for the purpose of easy comparison to facilitate decision taking. (authors)

  11. First trimester nicotine exposure and the risk of infantile colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    Background: Although prenatal exposure to maternal smoking has been associated with infantile colic (IC), to date no published studies have reported on the relationship between the prenatal use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and IC. Aim: We aimed to assess the relationship between fetal...... exposure to nicotine, coming from both cigarette smoking and use of NRT early in pregnancy, and IC. Methods: The study population consisted of 63,883 pregnancies that resulted in live born singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1997 and 2002. Mother’s smoking habits and use of NRT......: The results indicate that prenatal exposure to nicotine from any source during the first trimester of the pregnancy increases the risk of infantile colic....

  12. Exposure to oxidized nitrogen: lipid peroxidation and neonatal health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacova, S; Baird, D D; Balabaeva, L

    1998-01-01

    Pregnant women exposed to extensive environmental contamination by oxidized nitrogen compounds were studied at parturition, their neonatal health status was assessed and the involvement of oxidative stress in pathology was evaluated. Methemoglobin in maternal and cord blood was measured as a biomarker of individual exposure. Blood lipid peroxides and glutathione (reduced and total) were determined as oxidative stress biomarkers. Birthweight, Apgar scores, and clinical diagnosis at birth were used as neonatal health endpoints. Elevated exposure to oxidized nitrogen compounds was associated with increased lipid peroxidation in both maternal and cord blood. Poor birth outcome was associated with high blood lipid peroxides. Controlling for maternal age, parity, and smoking did not affect the relationships materially. The results showed that maternal/fetal exposure to oxidized nitrogen compounds is associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcome and suggest a role of oxidative damage in the pathogenic pathway.

  13. Dietary mutagen exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghui; Day, Rena Sue; Bondy, Melissa L; Sinha, Rashmi; Nguyen, Nga T; Evans, Douglas B; Abbruzzese, James L; Hassan, Manal M

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the association between dietary exposure to food mutagens and risk of pancreatic cancer, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center during June 2002 to May 2006. A total of 626 cases and 530 noncancer controls were frequency matched for race, sex and age (+/-5 years). Dietary exposure information was collected via personal interview using a meat preparation questionnaire. A significantly greater portion of the cases than controls showed a preference to well-done pork, bacon, grilled chicken, and pan-fried chicken, but not to hamburger and steak. Cases had a higher daily intake of food mutagens and mutagenicity activity (revertants per gram of daily meat intake) than controls did. The daily intakes of 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as well as the mutagenic activity, were significant predictors for pancreatic cancer (P = 0.008, 0.031, and 0.029, respectively) with adjustment of other confounders. A significant trend of elevated cancer risk with increasing DiMeIQx intake was observed in quintile analysis (P(trend) = 0.024). A higher intake of dietary mutagens (those in the two top quintiles) was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer among those without a family history of cancer but not among those with a family history of cancer. A possible synergistic effect of dietary mutagen exposure and smoking was observed among individuals with the highest level of exposure (top 10%) to PhIP and BaP, P(interaction) = 0.09 and 0.099, respectively. These data support the hypothesis that dietary mutagen exposure alone and in interaction with other factors contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer.

  14. [Evaluation of human health risk for a population from Cali, Colombia, by exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury, 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid and diuron associated with water and food consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, Ghisliane; Zapata, Andrés Mauricio; Páez, Martha Isabel; Méndez, Fabián; Peña, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to pollutants such as pesticides and heavy metals has been linked to health problems. Several studies have revealed the presence of these contaminants in Cali; however, there is no information available about the main routes of exposure and risk of these contaminants. To estimate the risk associated with the intake of cadmium, lead and mercury, and pesticides 2,4-D and diuron through the consumption of water and food in a population in Cali. Population and environmental data were obtained, and a risk assessment was performed using United States Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The concentrations of the evaluated pollutants were below permissible levels as established by the Colombian Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial (3 µg/L -1 of cadmium; 10 µg/L -1 of lead; 1 µg/L -1 of mercury; 1 µg/L -1 of 2,4 D; 1 µg/L -1 of diuron). Salema butterfish ( Peprilus snyderi ) samples contained levels of cadmium between 20 and 80 µg/kg -1 , which are below the permissible limit set by the World Health Organization (100 µg/kg -1 ). The results of the risk assessment indicated that the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic attributable risk to population health from the intake of food contaminants was below the maximum level permitted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. It is believed that the findings in previous studies on pollutants may have been due to specific contamination events; therefore, monitoring and early warning about water intake is recommended. Furthermore, the report of cadmium being found in fish consumed as food suggests the need for quality control by regulators.

  15. Cancer risks of protracted exposure in the Techa River Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidemueller, Markus; Jacob, Peter [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ostroumova, Evgenia; Krestinina, Ludmila; Akleyev, Alexander [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Vorovsky St. 68-a, Chelyabinsk, 454076 (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    We analyze solid cancer mortality in the Techa River Cohort who received protracted exposure in the 1950s from the release of radioactive material from the Mayak plutonium complex in the Southern Urals. The Extended Techa River Cohort includes 29849 people living along the Techa River between 1950 and 1960 with a total of 1854 solid cancer deaths until December 1999. The analysis is done in the framework of the biologically based two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) model. It is found that about 2.6% of all solid cancer deaths are caused by radiation exposure which corresponds to a significant radiation risk. The cohort shows an unusual pattern of radiation risk with age. Furthermore an analysis of the data with respect to genomic instability is presented.

  16. Palivizumab Exposure and the Risk of Autoimmune Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haerskjold, Ann; Linder, Marie; Stokholm, Lonny Merete;

    2016-01-01

    children known to be immunologically immature. The long-term effect of palivizumab in terms of autoimmune diseases has not yet been investigated. AIM: Our objective was to investigate whether exposure to palivizumab was associated with the development of autoimmune diseases in children. METHODS...... of autoimmune disease were diagnosed among palivizumab-exposed children during the period of observation. Among the children exposed to palivizumab, one child in Denmark developed inflammatory bowel disease; in Sweden, children developed juvenile arthritis (one child), diabetes mellitus (two children), celiac...... disease (four children), and inflammatory bowel disease (one child). The risk of autoimmune disease was not significantly increased after palivizumab exposure (hazard ratio adjusted for age and country: 1.54; 95 % confidence interval 0.80-2.95). CONCLUSION: The risk of autoimmune disease was not increased...

  17. A Review of Health Risks and Pathways for Exposure to Wastewater Use in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickin, Sarah K.; Schuster-Wallace, Corinne J.; Qadir, Manzoor; Pizzacalla, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Wastewater is increasingly being used in the agricultural sector to cope with the depletion of freshwater resources as well as water stress linked to changing climate conditions. As wastewater irrigation expands, research focusing on the human health risks is critical because exposure to a range of contaminants must be weighed with the benefits to food security, nutrition and livelihoods. Objectives: The goal of this paper was to review research examining health risks and exposure pathways associated with wastewater irrigation to identify research trends and gaps. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature and identified a total of 126 studies published from 1995 to 2013. Findings were summarized based on several themes including types of exposure pathways, wastewater contaminants, methodological approaches and the geographical distribution of research. Results: Only 23 studies used epidemiological methods, while most research applied alternative methods to estimate risk, such as quantitative risk assessment models or comparisons of crop contamination to established guidelines for wastewater reuse. A geographic breakdown demonstrated a focus on microbiological contaminants in specific regions such as sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, despite growing chemical risks associated with rapid urbanization and industrialization that may change the types and distribution of wastewater contaminants. Conclusions: To provide a more comprehensive understanding of the health risks of wastewater use in agriculture, future research should consider multiple exposure routes, long-term health implications, and increase the range of contaminants studied, particularly in regions heavily dependent on wastewater irrigation. Citation: Dickin SK, Schuster-Wallace CJ, Qadir M, Pizzacalla K. 2016. A review of health risks and pathways for exposure to wastewater use in agriculture. Environ Health Perspect 124:900–909; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509995 PMID

  18. Risk exposure to vibration and noise in the use of agricultural track-laying tractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Mariangela; Bono, Filippa; Quendler, Elisabeth; Febo, Pierluigi; Catania, Pietro

    2016-12-23

    Human exposure to mechanical vibration may represent a significant risk factor for exposed workers in the agricultural sector. Also, noise in agriculture is one of the risk factors to be taken into account in the evaluation of workers' health and safety. One of the major sources of discomfort for the workers operating a tractors is the noise to which they are exposed during work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of exposure to whole-body vibration for the operator driving track-laying tractors in vineyard orchard and the noise level. The experimental tests were performed with six different track-laying tractors coupled with the same rototilling machine. The results showed that the vibration values of track-laying tractors coupled to rototilling machine, referred to the 8-hour working day, were always higher than 0.5 m s(-2), the daily exposure action value established by Directive 2002/44/EC of the European Parliament. The daily noise exposure levels always exceeded the exposure limit value of 87 dB(A) established by Directive 2003/10/EC of the European Parliament. The ANOVA repeated measures model showed that the factor 'site', namely, the soil characteristics, did not influence the vibration level on the X and Y-axes of the tractors measured, regardless of their age. In the Z-axis, the vibration level was enhanced as the soil structure increased. As tractor age increased, the influence of soil characteristics was less important. In term of the age of the tractor and the number of hours worked, it was possible to identify three risk classes, which were up to 3,000 hours worked and offered a low risk; from 3,000 - 6,000 hours worked with a medium risk, and over 6,000 hours with a high risk level.

  19. Human dermal exposure to galaxolide from personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, P; Cruz, A; Santos, L; Alves, A

    2013-06-01

    Musks are synthetic fragrances applied on personal care and household products as fixatives, by retarding the release of other fragrances with higher volatility. Galaxolide is the most used polycyclic musk since the 90th decade, and it has been detected in several environmental and biological matrices, particularly in human tissues and fluids. For exposure assessment purposes, large-monitoring data need to be obtained and rapid but reliable analytical techniques are requested. The main objective of this study is to develop and validate a new and fast analytical methodology to quantify galaxolide in personal care products and to apply this method to real matrices like skin care products (creams and lotions), shower products (soap bar), hair care products (shampoo and hair conditioner) and oral care products (toothpaste), to evaluate the human dermal exposure risk. A dispersive solid-phase extraction is proposed, using QuEChERS methodology, followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Some extraction parameters were studied, like the ratio of sample/solvent amounts, the homogenization time, the salt addition effect and the used sorbents. The validation parameters of the developed method were the following: a linearity range of 0.005-1.002 mg kg⁻¹ sample, a limit of detection of 0.001 mg kg⁻¹ sample, repeatability between 0.7% and 11.3% (variation coefficient of six standard injections), an intermediate precision of 2.5% (variation coefficient of six independent analysis of the same sample), mean recoveries ranging from 65% (soap bar) to 95% (body cream) and 3% of global uncertainty in most of the working range. The time of analysis, including the extraction steps, is 60 min, allowing a throughput of 4 samples h⁻¹ . Galaxolide was detected in all of the seven analysed products in concentrations ranging from 0.04 ± 0.01 mg kg⁻¹ sample (toothpaste) to 280.78 ± 8.19 mg kg⁻¹ sample (perfumed body cream), which may correspond to a significant estimated

  20. Support Mechanisms for Renewables: How Risk Exposure Influences Investment Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Weber, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    and the Capital Asset Pricing Model as well as through active liquidity management. Applying the model to a specific case, a German offshore wind park, we find that the support levels required to give adequate investment incentives are for a feed-in tariff scheme approximately 4-10% lower than for a feed......We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital...

  1. Support Mechanisms for Renewables: How Risk Exposure Influences Investment Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Weber, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    and the Capital Asset Pricing Model as well as through active liquidity management. Applying the model to a specific case, a German offshore wind park, we find that the support levels required to give adequate investment incentives are for a feed-in tariff scheme approximately 4-10% lower than for a feed......We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital...

  2. Risk analysis using fuzzy set theory of the accidental exposure of medical staff during brachytherapy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, F; Giardina, M; Tomarchio, E

    2010-03-01

    Using fuzzy set theory, this paper presents results from risk analyses that explore potential exposure of medical operators working in a high dose rate brachytherapy irradiation plant. In these analyses, the HEART methodology, a first generation method for human reliability analysis, has been employed to evaluate the probability of human error. This technique has been modified on the basis of fuzzy set concepts to take into account, more directly, the uncertainties of the so-called error-promoting factors on which the method is based. Moreover, with regard to some identified accident scenarios, fuzzy potential dose was also evaluated to estimate the relevant risk. The results also provide some recommendations for procedures and safety equipment to reduce the occurrence of radiological exposure accidents.

  3. Benefits and risks of fish consumption for the human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Fernandes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aimed at identifying and discussing scientific evidences on the benefits and risks of fish consumption the human health. There was a systematic survey for articles published from 2003 and May 2011, at the MedLine, Scopus, SciELO, Lilacs and Google Scholar databases. The key words used were: fish, food intake, omega-3 fatty acids, fatty fish, benefits, risk, and consumption. The search produced 12,632 articles, 25 eligible cohort studies on possible benefits, 61 on risks and 10 studies that assessed the "risk/benefit" relation. Of the 25 works, 14 suggested a preventive effect of fish consumption related to cardiovascular diseases, depression, cataract and some types of cancer. Evidences of a relation between exposure to mercury and an increase in the risk of neurological disorders, but not of cardiovascular diseases, were also found. Given the importance of fish consumption, its possible risks and the lack of Brazilian studies on the topic, it is important to conduct more longitudinal studies that assess both the benefits and risks of fish consumption for the human health. We also emphasize the need for policies to reduce exposure of fish and seafood to mercury and other contaminants.

  4. Chronic boron exposure and human semen parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Wendie A; Xun, Lin; Jia, Juan; Kennedy, Nola; Elashoff, David A; Ping, Liu

    2010-04-01

    Boron found as borates in soil, food, and water has important industrial and medical applications. A panel reviewing NTP reproductive toxicants identified boric acid as high priority for occupational studies to determine safe versus adverse reproductive effects. To address this, we collected boron exposure/dose measures in workplace inhalable dust, dietary food/fluids, blood, semen, and urine from boron workers and two comparison worker groups (n=192) over three months and determined correlations between boron and semen parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DNA breakage, apoptosis and aneuploidy). Blood boron averaged 499.2 ppb for boron workers, 96.1 and 47.9 ppb for workers from high and low environmental boron areas (pBoron concentrated in seminal fluid. No significant correlations were found between blood or urine boron and adverse semen parameters. Exposures did not reach those causing adverse effects published in animal toxicology work but exceeded those previously published for boron occupational groups.

  5. Susceptibility of human populations to environmental exposure to organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undeman, Emma; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; McLachlan, Michael S

    2010-08-15

    Environmental exposure to organic contaminants is a complex function of environmental conditions, food chain characteristics, and chemical properties. In this study the susceptibility of various human populations to environmental exposure to neutral organic contaminants was compared. An environmental fate model and a linked bioaccumulation model were parametrized to describe ecosystems in different climatic regions (temperate, arctic, tropical, and steppe). The human body burden resulting from constant emissions of hypothetical chemicals was estimated for each region. An exposure susceptibility index was defined as the body burden in the region of interest normalized to the burden of the same chemical in a reference human from the temperate region eating an average diet. For most persistent chemicals emitted to air, the Arctic had the highest susceptibility index (max 520). Susceptibility to exposure was largely determined by the food web properties. The properties of the physical environment only had a marked effect when air or water, not food, was the dominant source of human exposure. Shifting the mode of emission markedly changed the relative susceptibility of the ecosystems in some cases. The exposure arising from chemical use clearly varies between ecosystems, which makes an understanding of ecosystem susceptibility to exposure important for chemicals management.

  6. Risk Assessment of Neonatal Exposure to Low Frequency Noise Based on Balance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgami, Nobutaka; Oshino, Reina; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Li, Xiang; Kato, Masashi; Yajima, Ichiro; Kato, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    General electric devices and ventilation systems are known to generate low frequency noise (LFN) with frequencies of risk to be exposed to LFN in the NICU. However, the risk of neonatal exposure to LFN remains unclear in humans and mice. In this study, male ICR mice were exposed to LFN at 100 Hz for 4 weeks after birth and then subjected to rotarod and beam crossing tests in order to assess LFN-mediated risk of imbalance during the neonatal period. Exposure to LFN at 70 dB, but not exposure to LFN up to 60 dB, during the neonatal period significantly decreased performance scores for rotarod and beam crossing tests compared to the scores of the control group. The number of calbindin-positive hair cells in the saccule and utricle was decreased in mice exposed to LFN at 70 dB for 4 weeks in the neonatal phase. Cessation of exposure for 10 weeks did not result in recovery of the decreased performance in rotarod and beam crossing tests. Thus, our results suggest that 70 dB is a possible threshold for exposure to LFN for 4 weeks during the neonatal period causing unrecoverable imbalance in mice. PMID:28275341

  7. Toddler exposure to flame retardant chemicals: Magnitude, health concern and potential risk- or protective factors of exposure: Observational studies summarized in a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Eva J; de Cock, Marijke; Schoonmade, Linda J; van de Bor, Margot

    2017-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting flame retardant (FR) chemicals form a human health concern, that is investigated mostly from the perspective of adult- and early life exposure. No overview of studies on toddler exposure and health effects exist. However, toddlerhood is a critical developmental period and toddlers are at increased risk for exposure because of their age-specific behavior. This systematic review encompasses toddler FR exposure studies in three countries, associated health effects and potential environmental, demographic, or behavioral risk- or protective factors for toddler exposure. A systematic literature search in four databases (PubMed, Embase.com, The Cochrane Library (via Wiley) and Web of Science Core collection) resulted in the identification of ten publications representing seven unique studies that measured brominated and/or phosphorylated FRs in toddlers' (8-24 month-old) serum, urine, hand wipes and feces. This review showed that toddlers are exposed to a range of FRs, that thyroid hormone disruption is associated with FR exposure and that factors in the indoor environment, including products such as plastic toys, might increase FR exposure. Considering the limited amount of studies, and the variety of biological matrices, FRs, and risk- and protective factors, this review did not reveal a uniform pattern of toddler exposure across the different cohorts studied. More evidence is necessary and considering the feasibility of invasive sampling in young children, we suggest to emphasize research on non-invasive matrices. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  9. DNA adducts in human tissues:biomarkers of exposure to carcinogens in tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Tobacco smoking causes millions of cancer deaths annually. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of thousands of chemicals including many known animal carcinogens. Because many carcinogens from DNA adducts in target animal or human tissues, the detection of the formation of adducts using such methods as postlabeling, immunoassay, fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry is a means of monitoring human exposure to tobacco carcinogens. Smokers are at increased risk of cancer in many organs,...

  10. Participatory Risk Mapping of Malaria Vector Exposure in Northern South America using Environmental and Population Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, D O; Troyo, A; Alimi, T O; Beier, J C

    2014-03-01

    Malaria elimination remains a major public health challenge in many tropical regions, including large areas of northern South America. In this study, we present a new high spatial resolution (90 × 90 m) risk map for Colombia and surrounding areas based on environmental and human population data. The map was created through a participatory multi-criteria decision analysis in which expert opinion was solicited to determine key environmental and population risk factors, different fuzzy functions to standardize risk factor inputs, and variable factor weights to combine risk factors in a geographic information system. The new risk map was compared to a map of malaria cases in which cases were aggregated to the municipio (municipality) level. The relationship between mean municipio risk scores and total cases by muncípio showed a weak correlation. However, the relationship between pixel-level risk scores and vector occurrence points for two dominant vector species, Anopheles albimanus and An. darlingi, was significantly different (p < 0.05) from a random point distribution, as was a pooled point distribution for these two vector species and An. nuneztovari. Thus, we conclude that the new risk map derived based on expert opinion provides an accurate spatial representation of risk of potential vector exposure rather than malaria transmission as shown by the pattern of malaria cases, and therefore it may be used to inform public health authorities as to where vector control measures should be prioritized to limit human-vector contact in future malaria outbreaks.

  11. Methyldibromo glutaronitrile: clinical experience and exposure-based risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariae, Claus; Rastogi, Suresh; Devantier, Charlotte; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-03-01

    In the year 2000, the level of methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDGN) allergy in dermatology clinics in Europe exceeded the level of allergies to all other preservatives, with a prevalence of 3.5%. In the present study, cases of primary sensitization and elicitation to MDGN due to cosmetic products were collected over an 8-month period at the Department of Dermatology, Gentofte University Hospital. The aim was to identify the products related to hand eczema, assess exposure to MDGN in these products and relate the findings to results from a newly developed updated risk assessment model for contact allergy. Out of 24 patients with a positive patch test to MDGN, 17 patients with hand eczema were identified. In 11 of these patients, cosmetic products used in relation to the onset of the disease were shown to contain MDGN (65%). In 8 of these 11 cases, primary sensitization was probable, 5 due to hand/body lotions and 3 due to lotions and/or liquid hand soap. Chemical analysis of 12 products showed that lotions contained 149-390 ppm of MDGN, liquid hand soap 144-399 ppm, a rinsing cream 293 ppm and shampoos 78-79 ppm. The shampoo exposure was not of certain relevance to the eczema. Applying the newly developed updated risk assessment model showed that the concentrations of MDGN in lotions of 149-390 ppm exceeded the calculated maximum acceptable exposure level for MDGN, which would be expected to lead to sensitization in consumers using such products, as seen in the current study. The present cases and updated exposure-based risk assessment process add to the evidence and need for re-defining safe-use concentrations of MDGN in cosmetic products.

  12. Impact of occupational mechanical exposures on risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia requiring surgical repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Marie Vestergaard; Frost, Poul; Bay-Nielsen, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    We undertook a register-based cohort study to evaluate exposure-response relations between cumulative occupational mechanical exposures, and risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair.......We undertook a register-based cohort study to evaluate exposure-response relations between cumulative occupational mechanical exposures, and risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair....

  13. Prolonged exposure to acetaminophen reduces testosterone production by the human fetal testis in a xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Driesche, Sander; Macdonald, Joni; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Most common male reproductive disorders are linked to lower testosterone exposure in fetal life, although the factors responsible for suppressing fetal testosterone remain largely unknown. Protracted use of acetaminophen during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons......, but effects on fetal testosterone production have not been demonstrated. We used a validated xenograft model to expose human fetal testes to clinically relevant doses and regimens of acetaminophen. Exposure to a therapeutic dose of acetaminophen for 7 days significantly reduced plasma testosterone (45......% reduction; P = 0.025) and seminal vesicle weight (a biomarker of androgen exposure; 18% reduction; P = 0.005) in castrate host mice bearing human fetal testis xenografts, whereas acetaminophen exposure for just 1 day did not alter either parameter. Plasma acetaminophen concentrations (at 1 hour after...

  14. Sampling strategy for estimating human exposure pathways to consumer chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Papadopoulou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to consumer chemicals has become a worldwide concern. In this work, a comprehensive sampling strategy is presented, to our knowledge being the first to study all relevant exposure pathways in a single cohort using multiple methods for assessment of exposure from each exposure pathway. The selected groups of chemicals to be studied are consumer chemicals whose production and use are currently in a state of transition and are; per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs, traditional and “emerging” brominated flame retardants (BFRs and EBFRs, organophosphate esters (OPEs and phthalate esters (PEs. Information about human exposure to these contaminants is needed due to existing data gaps on human exposure intakes from multiple exposure pathways and relationships between internal and external exposure. Indoor environment, food and biological samples were collected from 61 participants and their households in the Oslo area (Norway on two consecutive days, during winter 2013-14. Air, dust, hand wipes, and duplicate diet (food and drink samples were collected as indicators of external exposure, and blood, urine, blood spots, hair, nails and saliva as indicators of internal exposure. A food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and indoor environment questionnaire were also implemented. Approximately 2000 samples were collected in total and participant views on their experiences of this campaign were collected via questionnaire. While 91% of our participants were positive about future participation in a similar project, some tasks were viewed as problematic. Completing the food diary and collection of duplicate food/drink portions were the tasks most frequent reported as “hard”/”very hard”. Nevertheless, a strong positive correlation between the reported total mass of food/drinks in the food record and the total weight of the food/drinks in the collection bottles was observed, being an indication of accurate performance

  15. What is the risk for exposure to vector-borne pathogens in United States national parks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Wong, David; Shelus, Victoria; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2013-03-01

    United States national parks attract > 275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. We assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal National Park Service documents and organismal databases. We conclude that, because of lack of systematic surveillance for vector-borne pathogens in national parks, the risk of pathogen exposure for staff and visitors is unclear. Existing data for vectors within national parks were not based on systematic collections and rarely include evaluation for pathogen infection. Extrapolation of human-based surveillance data from neighboring communities likely provides inaccurate estimates for national parks because landscape differences impact transmission of vector-borne pathogens and human-vector contact rates likely differ inside versus outside the parks because of differences in activities or behaviors. Vector-based pathogen surveillance holds promise to define when and where within national parks the risk of exposure to infected vectors is elevated. A pilot effort, including 5-10 strategic national parks, would greatly improve our understanding of the scope and magnitude of vector-borne pathogen transmission in these high-use public settings. Such efforts also will support messaging to promote personal protection measures and inform park visitors and staff of their responsibility for personal protection, which the National Park Service preservation mission dictates as the core strategy to reduce exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks.

  16. Isotretinoin exposure and risk of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashtak, Shadi; Khaleghi, Shahryar; Pittelkow, Mark R; Larson, Joseph J; Lahr, Brian D; Murray, Joseph A

    2014-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Isotretinoin is the standard treatment for refractory severe nodulocystic acne.A true association between prior isotretinoin use and development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is uncertain. Addressing the reality of this association is important in decision making for both the clinician and the patient when isotretinoin treatment is indicated.OBJECTIVE To assess the risk of IBD mainly in patients with acne with and without isotretinoin exposure.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this retrospective, single-center study, the electronic medical records of patients who were primarily seeking acne treatment were reviewed for isotretinoin exposure. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes were used to search for IBD diagnosis. participants included 1078 patients from 1995 to 2011,with isotretinoin referenced in their medical records, and who had ongoing local medical care defined as having had a serum sample collected between 2006 to 2011 for any reason while an Olmsted County, Minnesota, resident at the time of serum sample collection.EXPOSURES The exposed group included the patients with confirmed prior isotretinoin exposure (n = 576), and the nonexposed group were defined as patients who never received isotretinoin or received it after the diagnosis of IBD (n = 502).MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Risk of IBD among isotretinoin-exposed vs non exposed patients.RESULTS Both groups were comparable by race, prior systemic antibiotic use, and systemic tetracycline use. Inflammatory bowel disease developed less frequently in the isotretinoin-exposed group vs the nonexposed group (0.9%vs 2.6%; P = .03; unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.33; 95%CI, 0.12-0.93; P = .04). The negative association between isotretinoin exposure and IBD remained after adjusting for sex (OR, 0.28; 95%CI, 0.10-0.80;P = .02) and for sex and non acne indication (OR, 0.28; 95%CI, 0.10-0.79; P = .02).CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our study did not show an increased risk

  17. Integrating Spaceflight Human System Risk Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Anton, Wilma; Havenhill, Maria; Shelhamer, Mark; Canga, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA is working to increase the likelihood of human health and performance success during exploration missions as well as to maintain the subsequent long-term health of the crew. To manage the risks in achieving these goals, a system modelled after a Continuous Risk Management framework is in place. "Human System Risks" (Risks) have been identified, and approximately 30 are being actively addressed by NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). Research plans for each of HRP's Risks have been developed and are being executed. Inter-disciplinary ties between the research efforts supporting each Risk have been identified; however, efforts to identify and benefit from these connections have been mostly ad hoc. There is growing recognition that solutions developed to address the full set of Risks covering medical, physiological, behavioural, vehicle, and organizational aspects of exploration missions must be integrated across Risks and disciplines. This paper discusses how a framework of factors influencing human health and performance in space is being applied as the backbone for bringing together sometimes disparate information relevant to the individual Risks. The resulting interrelated information enables identification and visualization of connections between Risks and research efforts in a systematic and standardized manner. This paper also discusses the applications of the visualizations and insights into research planning, solicitation, and decision-making processes.

  18. Human exposure to piroplasms in Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gabrielli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey has been conducted in Northern and Central Italy to investigate the presence in humans of antibodies against zoonotic Babesia and Theileria species. The study focused on a total of 432 volunteers, of which 290 were persistently exposed to tick bites because of their jobs (forester employees, livestock keepers, veterinary practitioners, farmers and hunters and 142 resident in the same area less frequently exposed. An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT for humans was used to detect antibodies to Babesia microti, IFAT tests for veterinary use were modified to detect reactivity to Babesia bovis, Babesia canis and Theileria equi. A laboratory-derived ELISA was employed to detect antibodies to Babesia divergens. Both reactive and 10 negative sera were analysed against plasmodial antigens to evaluate possible aspecificity. A high reactivity to piroplasm antigens was found, showing significant difference between the sera of the two groups of volunteers (24% vs 7.0%; p<0.001. No cross-reactivity was observed, while each professional group showed reactivity that would fit with the professional risk exposure. In particular, a high reactivity to B. microti and B. divergens antigens was observed in foresters and hunters (32% and 12%, respectively. This is the first report on the human seroreactivity to piroplasms in Italy; it also provides additional epidemiological information on these tick-borne zoonoses in Europe. Our findings suggest the possible occurrence of piroplasm infections in Italy and alert physicians to consider these otherwise neglected parasitic diseases when dealing with any febrile illness, especially in subjects exposed to tick bites.

  19. Characterization and risk of exposure to elements from artisanal gold mining operations in the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavilonis, Brian; Grassman, Jean; Johnson, Glen; Diaz, Yilmael; Caravanos, Jack

    2017-04-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) offers low-skilled workers an opportunity to elevate themselves out of poverty. However, this industry operates with little to no pollution controls and the cost to the environment and human health can be large. The objectives of this study were to measure levels of arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) in the environment and characterize health risks to miners and residents in an area with active ASGM operations. An exposure assessment was conducted at two different mining sites and a nearby village in the Bolivian Anders. The resulting measurements were then used to quantify cancerous and noncancerous health risks to children and adults working at and living near ASGM areas. Soil concentrations of As were well above background levels and showed great variations between the village and mining area. Mercury vapor levels at the two mining sites were approximately 30 times larger than the EPA reference concentration. The risk of developing non-cancerous health effects were primarily due to exposure to As and Hg. The probability of individuals developing cancer was considerably increased with adult miners having a probability of 1.3 out of 100. Cancer potential was driven by exposure to As, with de minimus cancer risk from all other elements. Based on the environmental characterization of elements in soils and Hg vapors, the risk of developing cancerous and non-cancerous health outcomes were above a level of concern based on EPA risk assessment guidance. Personal protective equipment was not worn by workers and Hg amalgam is commonly heated in workers' homes. Better education of the risks of ASGM is needed as well as simple controls to reduce exposure. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Possible health risks from low level exposure to beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, A W; Hilmas, D E; Furman, F J

    1996-07-17

    The first case of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) was diagnosed in a machinist in 1984. Rocky Flats, located 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado, is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex. Research and development operations using beryllium began at Rocky Flats in 1953, and beryllium production operations began in 1957. Exposures could have occurred during foundry operations, casting, shearing, rolling, cutting, welding, machining, sanding, polishing, assembly, and chemical analysis operations. The Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP) was established in June 1991 at Rocky Flats to provide health surveillance for beryllium exposed employees using the Lymphocyte Proliferation Test (LPT) to identify sensitized individuals. Of the 29 cases of CBD and 76 cases of beryllium sensitization identified since 1991, several cases appear to have had only minimal opportunistic exposures to beryllium, since they were employed in administrative functions rather than primary beryllium operations. In conjunction with other health surveillance programs, a questionnaire and interview are administered to obtain detailed work and health histories. These histories, along with other data, are utilized to estimate the extent of an individual's exposure. Additional surveillance is in progress to attempt to characterize the possible risks from intermittent or brief exposures to beryllium in the workplace.

  1. [Risk assessment and risk control for occupational exposure to chemical toxicants from an isophorone nitrile device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dejun; Fu, Xiaokuan; Kong, Fanling; Sui, Shaofeng; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Du, Yinglin; Zhou, Jingyang

    2014-06-01

    Risk assessment and risk control for occupational exposure to chemical toxicants were performed on an isophorone nitrile device with an annual production of 5,000 tons, based on improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method, with consideration of actual situation in China and in the present project. With the use of engineering analysis and identification of occupational hazards in the improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method, hazard rating (HR) and risk assessment were performed on chemical toxicants from an isophorone nitrile device with an annual production of 5,000 tons. The chemical toxicants in the isophorone nitrile device were mainly isophorone, hydrocyanic acid, methanol, phosphoric acid, sodium hydroxide, and sodium cyanide; the HR values were mild hazard (2), extreme hazard (5), mild hazard (2), mild hazard (2), moderate hazard (3), and extreme hazard (5), respectively, and the corresponding exposure rating (ER) values were 2.09, 2.72, 2.76, 1.68, 2.0, and 1.59, respectively. The risk of chemical toxicants in this project was assessed according to the formula Risk = [HR×ER](1/2). Hydrocyanic acid was determined as high risk, sodium hydroxide and sodium cyanide as medium risk, and isophorone, methanol, and phosphoric acid as low risk. Priority in handling of risks was determined by risk rating. The table of risk control measure was established for pre-assessment of occupational hazards. With risk assessment in this study, we concluded that the isophorone nitrile device with 5,000 ton annual production was a high-occupational hazard device. This device is a project of extreme occupational hazard. The improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method is a scientific and applicable method, and is especially suitable for pre-evaluation of on-site project with no analogy.

  2. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.

    1996-01-01

    aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) and mutation frequency was estimated at a number of loci including the hprt gene and genes involving in cancer development. Blood and urine samples from individuals exposed to urban pollution were collected. Populations exposed through occupational or medical......A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological...... for detecting carcinogen-induced damage to DNA and proteins, and subsequent biological effects. These methods were validated with the occupational exposures, which showed evidence of DNA and/or protein and/or chromosome damage in workers in a coke oven plant, garage workers exposed to diesel exhaust and workers...

  3. Human Health and Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    incidence rates (SIRs) for the different forms of leukaemia were significantly elevated at the 5% level for several occupations (Linet and Cartwright ...to electrical and magnetic fields. N. Engl. J. Med., = 1476-1477. Canwright, R A, Darwin , C, McKinney, P A, Roberts, A. Richards, I D G, and Bird, C C...Increased risk of developing acute leukaemia after employment as a painter. Cancer, 6N, 1378-1387. Linet, M S, and Cartwright , R A, 1988. Chronic

  4. Estimated exposure to phthalates in cosmetics and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Lee, Byung Mu

    2004-12-01

    Some phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and their metabolites are suspected of producing teratogenic or endocrine-disrupting effects. To predict possible human exposure to phthalates in cosmetics, the levels of DEHP, diethyl phthalate (DEP), DBP, and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 102 branded hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, and nail polishes. DBP was detected in 19 of the 21 nail polishes and in 11 of the 42 perfumes, and DEP was detected in 24 of the 42 perfumes and 2 of the 8 deodorants. Median exposure levels to phthalates in cosmetics by dermal absorption were estimated to be 0.0006 g/kg body weight (bw)/d for DEHP, 0.6 g/kg bw/d for DEP, and 0.103 g/kg bw/d for DBP. Furthermore, if phthalates in cosmetics were assumed to be absorbed exclusively via 100% inhalation, the median daily exposure levels to phthalates in cosmetics were estimated to be 0.026 g/kg bw/d for DEHP, 81.471 g/kg bw/d for DEP, and 22.917 g/kg bw/d for DBP, which are far lower than the regulation levels set buy the Scientific Committee on Toxicity, Ecotoxicity, and the Environment (CSTEE) (37 g/kg bw/d, DEHP), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (7000 g/kg bw/d, DEP), and International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (66 g/kg bw/d, DBP), respectively. Based on these data, hazard indices (HI, daily exposure level/regulation level) were calculated to be 0.0007 for DEHP, 0.012 for DEP, and 0.347 for DBP. These data suggest that estimated exposure to-phthalates in the cosmetics mentioned are relatively small. However, total exposure levels from several sources may be greater and require further investigation.

  5. Exposure and risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Haruyuki; Mita, Kazuaki; Yoshikado, Hiroshi; Iwata, Mitsuo; Nakanishi, Junko

    2007-03-20

    1,3-Butadiene is on the list of Substances Requiring Priority Action published by the Central Environmental Council of Japan in 1996. Emission of 1,3-butadiene has been controlled by a voluntary reduction program since 1997. Although the industrial emission of 1,3-butadiene in Japan has decreased in recent years, primarily due to a voluntary industrial emissions reduction program, the risks of exposure to it remain largely unknown. We assessed the risks and consequences of exposure to 1,3-butadiene on human health. A remarkable advantage of our risk assessment approach is the detailed assessment of exposure. Previously, we developed two different models that can be applied for the assessment of exposure: the first, the AIST-ADMER model estimates regional concentration distributions, whereas the second, the METI-LIS model estimates concentration distributions in the vicinity of factories. Both models were used for the assessment of exposure to 1,3-butadiene. Using exposure concentration and carcinogenic potency determined and reported by Environment Canada and Health Canada, we evaluated the excess lifetime cancer risk for persons exposed to 1,3-butadiene over the course of a lifetime. The results suggested that the majority of the population in Japan has an excess lifetime cancer risk of less than 10(-5), whereas a small number of people living close to industrial sources had a risk of greater than 10(-5). The results of the present assessment also showed that 1,3-butadiene in the general environment originates primarily from automobile emissions, such that a countermeasure of reducing emissions from cars is expected to be effective at reducing the total cancer risk among Japanese. On the other hand, individual risks among a population living in the vicinity of certain industrial sources were found to be significantly higher than those of the population living elsewhere, such that a reduction in emissions from a small number of specific industrial sources should be

  6. Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Filamentous Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbuta, Mary Augustina; Mwanza, Mulunda

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous fungi occur widely in the environment, contaminating soil, air, food and other substrates. Due to their wide distribution, they have medical and economic implications. Regardless of their use as a source of antibiotics, vitamins and raw materials for various industrially important chemicals, most fungi and filamentous fungi produce metabolites associated with a range of health risks, both in humans and in animals. The association of filamentous fungi and their metabolites to different negative health conditions in humans and animals, has contributed to the importance of investigating different health risks induced by this family of heterotrophs. This review aims to discuss health risks associated with commonly occurring filamentous fungal species which belong to genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, as well as evaluating their pathogenicity and mycotoxic properties. PMID:28677641

  7. Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Filamentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Augustina Egbuta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi occur widely in the environment, contaminating soil, air, food and other substrates. Due to their wide distribution, they have medical and economic implications. Regardless of their use as a source of antibiotics, vitamins and raw materials for various industrially important chemicals, most fungi and filamentous fungi produce metabolites associated with a range of health risks, both in humans and in animals. The association of filamentous fungi and their metabolites to different negative health conditions in humans and animals, has contributed to the importance of investigating different health risks induced by this family of heterotrophs. This review aims to discuss health risks associated with commonly occurring filamentous fungal species which belong to genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, as well as evaluating their pathogenicity and mycotoxic properties.

  8. Residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavanja, M C; Lubin, J H; Mahaffey, J A; Brownson, R C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated residential radon exposure and lung cancer risk, using both standard radon dosimetry and a new radon monitoring technology that, evidence suggests, is a better measure of cumulative radon exposure. METHODS: Missouri women (aged 30 to 84 years) newly diagnosed with primary lung cancer during the period January 1, 1993, to January 31, 1994, were invited to participate in this population-based case-control study. Both indoor air radon detectors and CR-39 alpha-particle detectors (surface monitors) were used. RESULTS: When surface monitors were used, a significant trend in lung cancer odds ratios was observed for 20-year time-weighted-average radon concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: When surface monitors were used, but not when standard radon dosimetry was used, a significant lung cancer risk was found for radon concentrations at and above the action level for mitigation of houses currently used in the United States (148 Bqm-3). The risk was below the action level used in Canada (750 Bqm-3) and many European countries (200-400 Bqm-3). PMID:10394313

  9. Human reproductive system disturbances and pesticide exposure in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Koifman; Rosalina Jorge Koifman; Armando Meyer

    2002-01-01

    The observation of reproductive disturbances in humans and in the wildlife has been reported in the last decade in different countries. Exposure to different chemicals possibly acting in the endocrine system or endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, has been a hypothesis raised to explain the observed changes. This paper aimed to present results of an epidemiological ecologic study carried out to explore population data on pesticides exposure in selected Brazilian states in the eighties ...

  10. Developing human health exposure scenarios for petroleum substances under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.; De Wilde, P.; Maksimainen, K.; Margary, A.; Money, C.; Pizzella, G.; Svanehav, T.; Tsang, W.; Urbanus, J.; Rohde, A.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the approaches that were adopted by CONCAWE to prepare the human exposure estimates in the chemical safety assessments of the REACH registration dossiers for petroleum substances based on all applicable regulatory guidance. Separate exposure estimates were developed for workers and for consumers and included inhalation and dermal routes. The complex nature of petroleum substances required various scientifically justified refinements of the regulatory guidance.

  11. Evidence Report: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposure from the space environment may result in non-cancer or non-CNS degenerative tissue diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and respiratory or digestive diseases. However, the magnitude of influence and mechanisms of action of radiation leading to these diseases are not well characterized. Radiation and synergistic effects of radiation cause DNA damage, persistent oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and accelerated tissue aging and degeneration, which may lead to acute or chronic disease of susceptible organ tissues. In particular, cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis are of major concern following gamma-ray exposure. This provides evidence for possible degenerative tissue effects following exposures to ionizing radiation in the form of the GCR or SPEs expected during long-duration spaceflight. However, the existence of low dose thresholds and dose-rate and radiation quality effects, as well as mechanisms and major risk pathways, are not well-characterized. Degenerative disease risks are difficult to assess because multiple factors, including radiation, are believed to play a role in the etiology of the diseases. As additional evidence is pointing to lower, space-relevant thresholds for these degenerative effects, particularly for cardiovascular disease, additional research with cell and animal studies is required to quantify the magnitude of this risk, understand mechanisms, and determine if additional protection strategies are required.The NASA PEL (Permissive Exposure Limit)s for cataract and cardiovascular risks are based on existing human epidemiology data. Although animal and clinical astronaut data show a significant increase in cataracts following exposure and a reassessment of atomic bomb (A-bomb) data suggests an increase in cardiovascular disease from radiation exposure, additional research is required to fully understand and quantify these adverse outcomes at lower doses (less than 0.5 gray

  12. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    exposed to mixtures of solvents experience an increased frequency of work related irritative and neurological symptoms although the exposure has been far below the occupational exposure limits. A series of controlled human exposure studies was carried out. Different groups of persons were exposed...... to the most frequent solvent, toluene. Toluene in alveolar air and the urinary excretion of the metabolites were measured and the acute effects of toluene were assessed by the performance in a series of test of the perceptual and psychomotor functions as well as a standardized registration of annoyance...

  13. Human exposure to organic arsenic species from seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vivien; Goodale, Britton; Raab, Andrea; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Reimer, Ken; Conklin, Sean; Karagas, Margaret R; Francesconi, Kevin A

    2017-02-15

    Seafood, including finfish, shellfish, and seaweed, is the largest contributor to arsenic (As) exposure in many human populations. In contrast to the predominance of inorganic As in water and many terrestrial foods, As in marine-derived foods is present primarily in the form of organic compounds. To date, human exposure and toxicological assessments have focused on inorganic As, while organic As has generally been considered to be non-toxic. However, the high concentrations of organic As in seafood, as well as the often complex As speciation, can lead to complications in assessing As exposure from diet. In this report, we evaluate the presence and distribution of organic As species in seafood, and combined with consumption data, address the current capabilities and needs for determining human exposure to these compounds. The analytical approaches and shortcomings for assessing these compounds are reviewed, with a focus on the best practices for characterization and quantitation. Metabolic pathways and toxicology of two important classes of organic arsenicals, arsenolipids and arsenosugars, are examined, as well as individual variability in absorption of these compounds. Although determining health outcomes or assessing a need for regulatory policies for organic As exposure is premature, the extensive consumption of seafood globally, along with the preliminary toxicological profiles of these compounds and their confounding effect on assessing exposure to inorganic As, suggests further investigations and process-level studies on organic As are needed to fill the current gaps in knowledge.

  14. Probabilistic modeling of percutaneous absorption for risk-based exposure assessments and transdermal drug delivery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2004-06-01

    Chemical transport through human skin can play a significant role in human exposure to toxic chemicals in the workplace, as well as to chemical/biological warfare agents in the battlefield. The viability of transdermal drug delivery also relies on chemical transport processes through the skin. Models of percutaneous absorption are needed for risk-based exposure assessments and drug-delivery analyses, but previous mechanistic models have been largely deterministic. A probabilistic, transient, three-phase model of percutaneous absorption of chemicals has been developed to assess the relative importance of uncertain parameters and processes that may be important to risk-based assessments. Penetration routes through the skin that were modeled include the following: (1) intercellular diffusion through the multiphase stratum corneum; (2) aqueous-phase diffusion through sweat ducts; and (3) oil-phase diffusion through hair follicles. Uncertainty distributions were developed for the model parameters, and a Monte Carlo analysis was performed to simulate probability distributions of mass fluxes through each of the routes. Sensitivity analyses using stepwise linear regression were also performed to identify model parameters that were most important to the simulated mass fluxes at different times. This probabilistic analysis of percutaneous absorption (PAPA) method has been developed to improve risk-based exposure assessments and transdermal drug-delivery analyses, where parameters and processes can be highly uncertain.

  15. polymorphisms, occupational and environmental exposures and risk of bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pavanello, Sofia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Placidi, Donatella; Campagna, Marcello; Pulliero, Alessandra; Carta, Angela; Arici, Cecilia; Porru, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) is a key enzyme for activation of bladder carcinogens. Polymorphisms in the 5?-noncoding promoter region of CYP1A2 gene [mainly ?2467T/delT(rs35694136) and ?163C/A(rs762551)], are crucial in modifying CYP1A2 activity in smokers. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, we investigated the relationship between CYP1A2 polymorphisms, occupational/environmental exposures and bladder cancer (BC) risk. The study population included...

  16. Human System Risk Management - Tools of our Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2009-01-01

    The risk of infectious disease to select individuals has historically been difficult to predict in either spaceflight or on Earth with health care efforts relying on broad-based prevention and post-infection treatment. Over the past 10 years, quantitative microbial risk assessment evaluations have evolved to formalize the assessment process and quantify the risk. This process of hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization has been applied by the water and food safety industries to address the public health impacts associated with the occurrence of and human exposure to pathogens in water and food for the development of preventive strategies for microbial disease. NASA is currently investigating the feasibility of using these techniques to better understand the risks to astronauts and refine their microbiological requirements. To assess these techniques, NASA began an evaluation of the potable water system on the International Space Station to determine how the microbial risk from water consumption during flight differed from terrestrial sources, such as municipal water systems. The ultimate goal of this work is to optimize microbial requirements which would minimize unnecessary cargo and use of crew time, while still protecting the health of the crew. Successful demonstration of this risk assessment framework with the water system holds the potential to maximize the use of available resources during spaceflight missions and facilitate investigations into the evaluation of other routes of infection, such as through the spaceflight foods system.

  17. Human System Risk Management - Tools of our Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2009-01-01

    The risk of infectious disease to select individuals has historically been difficult to predict in either spaceflight or on Earth with health care efforts relying on broad-based prevention and post-infection treatment. Over the past 10 years, quantitative microbial risk assessment evaluations have evolved to formalize the assessment process and quantify the risk. This process of hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization has been applied by the water and food safety industries to address the public health impacts associated with the occurrence of and human exposure to pathogens in water and food for the development of preventive strategies for microbial disease. NASA is currently investigating the feasibility of using these techniques to better understand the risks to astronauts and refine their microbiological requirements. To assess these techniques, NASA began an evaluation of the potable water system on the International Space Station to determine how the microbial risk from water consumption during flight differed from terrestrial sources, such as municipal water systems. The ultimate goal of this work is to optimize microbial requirements which would minimize unnecessary cargo and use of crew time, while still protecting the health of the crew. Successful demonstration of this risk assessment framework with the water system holds the potential to maximize the use of available resources during spaceflight missions and facilitate investigations into the evaluation of other routes of infection, such as through the spaceflight foods system.

  18. Integrating spaceflight human system risk research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Anton, Wilma; Havenhill, Maria; Shelhamer, Mark; Canga, Michael

    2017-10-01

    NASA is working to increase the likelihood of exploration mission success and to maintain crew health, both during exploration missions and long term after return to Earth. To manage the risks in achieving these goals, a system modelled after a Continuous Risk Management framework is in place. ;Human System Risks; (Risks) have been identified, and 32 are currently being actively addressed by NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). Research plans for each of HRP's Risks have been developed and are being executed. Inter-disciplinary ties between the research efforts supporting each Risk have been identified; however, efforts to identify and benefit from these connections have been mostly ad hoc. There is growing recognition that solutions developed to address the full set of Risks covering medical, physiological, behavioural, vehicle, and organizational aspects of exploration missions must be integrated across Risks and disciplines. This paper discusses how a framework of factors influencing human health and performance in space is being applied as the backbone for bringing together sometimes disparate information relevant to the individual Risks. The resulting interrelated information enables identification and visualization of connections between Risks and research efforts in a systematic and standardized manner. This paper also discusses the applications of the visualizations and insights into research planning, solicitation, and decision-making processes.

  19. Risk of exposure to potential vector mosquitoes for rural workers in Northern Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Anne A Tangena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One major consequence of economic development in South-East Asia has been a rapid expansion of rubber plantations, in which outbreaks of dengue and malaria have occurred. Here we explored the difference in risk of exposure to potential dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE, and malaria vectors between rubber workers and those engaged in traditional forest activities in northern Laos PDR.Adult mosquitoes were collected for nine months in secondary forests, mature and immature rubber plantations, and villages. Human behavior data were collected using rapid participatory rural appraisals and surveys. Exposure risk was assessed by combining vector and human behavior and calculating the basic reproduction number (R0 in different typologies. Compared to those that stayed in the village, the risk of dengue vector exposure was higher for those that visited the secondary forests during the day (odds ratio (OR 36.0, for those living and working in rubber plantations (OR 16.2 and for those that tapped rubber (OR 3.2. Exposure to JE vectors was also higher in the forest (OR 1.4 and, similar when working (OR 1.0 and living in the plantations (OR 0.8. Exposure to malaria vectors was greater in the forest (OR 1.3, similar when working in the plantations (OR 0.9 and lower when living in the plantations (OR 0.6. R0 for dengue was >2.8 for all habitats surveyed, except villages where R0≤0.06. The main malaria vector in all habitats was Anopheles maculatus s.l. in the rainy season and An. minimus s.l. in the dry season.The highest risk of exposure to vector mosquitoes occurred when people visit natural forests. However, since rubber workers spend long periods in the rubber plantations, their risk of exposure is increased greatly compared to those who temporarily enter natural forests or remain in the village. This study highlights the necessity of broadening mosquito control to include rubber plantations.

  20. The potential utility of animal poisoning data to identify human exposure to environmental toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, L L; Trammel, H L; Clark, J M

    1995-04-01

    The database of the National Animal Poison Control Center (NAPCC) was evaluated as a source for animal poison data indicating human health hazards in indoor and outdoor environments. From 14,150 calls in the 1985 database, 259 cases were identified with histories suggesting human exposure. A subgroup of 25 cases with known human exposure was found. Dogs were the most common sentinel animal, but bird cases represented the highest proportional selection from the total 1985 call list. Indoor exposures represented 43.2% of cases; the most common toxicants were insecticides, lead and toxic fumes. Exposures associated with lawns were mainly due to insecticides and herbicides and constituted 25.5% of cases. Other outdoor exposures composed the remaining 31.7% of cases, with insecticides, herbicides and unidentified toxins the leading categories. Many of the specific agents identified, such as organophosphate insecticides, lead, gas and fume toxins, and phenoxy herbicides are also risk factors in human diseases. This study indicates that databases such as NAPCC could serve as sources of sentinel animal intoxications for followup studies to evaluate known and potential human health hazards.

  1. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  2. An Overview of NASA's Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Huff, Janice L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between high doses of radiation exposure and cardiovascular damage is well established. Patients that have undergone radiotherapy for primary cancers of the head and neck and mediastinal regions have shown increased risk of heart and vascular damage and long-term development of radiation-induced heart disease [1]. In addition, recent meta-analyses of epidemiological data from atomic bomb survivors and nuclear industry workers has also shown that acute and chronic radiation exposures is strongly correlated with an increased risk of circulatory disease at doses above 0.5 Sv [2]. However, these analyses are confounded for lower doses by lifestyle factors, such as drinking, smoking, and obesity. The types of radiation found in the space environment are significantly more damaging than those found on Earth and include galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs), and trapped protons and electrons. In addition to the low-LET data, only a few studies have examined the effects of heavy ion radiation on atherosclerosis, and at lower, space-relevant doses, the association between exposure and cardiovascular pathology is more varied and unclear. Understanding the qualitative differences in biological responses produced by GCR compared to Earth-based radiation is a major focus of space radiation research and is imperative for accurate risk assessment for long duration space missions. Other knowledge gaps for the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease include the existence of a dose threshold, low dose rate effects, and potential synergies with other spaceflight stressors. The Space Radiation Program Element within NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is managing the research and risk mitigation strategies for these knowledge gaps. In this presentation, we will review the evidence and present an overview of the HRP Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure.

  3. 75 FR 2545 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR); Availability of the Final Expert Panel Report on Soy... whether exposure to soy infant formula is a hazard to human development. The expert panel also...

  4. Controlling Risk Exposure in Periodic Environments: A Genetic Algorithm Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro, Emeterio

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the performance of different agent's investment strategies in an investment scenario with periodic returns and different types and levels of noise. We consider an investment model, where an agent decides the percentage of budget to risk at each time step. Afterwards, agent's investment is evaluated in the market via a return on investment (RoI), which we assume is a stochastic process with unknown periodicities and different levels of noise. To control the risk exposure, we investigate approaches based on: technical analysis (Moving Least Squares, MLS), and evolutionary computation (Genetic Algorithms, GA). In our comparison, we also consider two reference strategies for zero-knowledge and complete-knowledge behaviors, respectively. In our approach, the performance of a strategy corresponds to the average budget that can be obtained with this strategy over a certain number of time steps. To this end, we perform some computer experiments, where for each strategy the budget obtained af...

  5. Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function: modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Hu; B. Chen; J. Qian; L. Jin; T. Jin; D. Lu [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Department of Occupational and Environmental Health

    2010-03-15

    Occupational coke oven emissions (COEs) have been considered an important health issue. However, there are no conclusive data on human hepatic injury due to COE exposure. The association of COE exposure with liver function was explored and the effects of modification of potential non-occupational factors were assessed. 705 coke oven workers and 247 referents were investigated. Individual cumulative COE exposure was quantitatively estimated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), {gamma}-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were measured. Among those with high COE exposure, the adjusted ORs of abnormal ALT and AST were 5.23 (95% CI 2.66 to 10.27) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.52), respectively. Overweight individuals (body mass index (BMI) {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}) with high COE exposure had elevated risks of abnormal ALT (adjusted OR 23.93, 95% CI 8.73 to 65.62) and AST (adjusted OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.32 to 11.58). Risk of liver damage in hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-positive individuals with COE exposure was also elevated. Long-term exposure to COE increases the risk of liver dysfunction, which is more prominent among those with higher BMI and hepatitis virus infection. The risk assessment of liver damage associated with COE exposure should take BMI and hepatitis virus infection into consideration.

  6. Risk of Children’s Dermal Exposure to Galaxolide through Personal Care Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Correia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Galaxolide is the most used fragrance since the early 1990s, and it has been largely detected in environmental and biological matrices. This polycyclic musk is present in almost all of our daily products, so the risk of human exposure is substantial, as it had been proved by its detection in human tissues and fluids. Due to the lack of information about the concentrations found in consumer products, monitoring data is needed for exposure assessment purposes. Dermal contact, mostly by personal care products, seems to be the major route of human exposure to galaxolide, and, due to the immaturity of young children’s skin, exposure consequences can be worse in this population. The main objective of this study was to evaluate galaxolide levels in personal care products used by children of Oporto (Portugal, aged 0–5 years, and relate it with consumer habits. Consumer patterns were obtained through 250 questionnaires to caregivers of Oporto children. The 79 most used products were extracted by a dispersive solid phase extraction methodology known as QuEChERS and galaxolide was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. The concentrations ranged between 0.001 ± 0.001 mg·kg−1, on a baby wipe, and 300.480 ± 8.819 mg·kg−1, on glycerin soap, which may correspond to an estimated daily dermal exposure of 277.10 ± 0.02 µg·day−1 on the population of Oporto children. This value is in the range of the results observed for adults, although no information of toxicological risk for children is available.

  7. Quantitative assessment of human and pet exposure to Salmonella associated with dry pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Buchanan, Robert L; Narrod, Clare; Ford, Randall M; Baker, Robert C; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-01-04

    Recent Salmonella outbreaks associated with dry pet foods and treats highlight the importance of these foods as previously overlooked exposure vehicles for both pets and humans. In the last decade efforts have been made to raise the safety of this class of products, for instance by upgrading production equipment, cleaning protocols, and finished product testing. However, no comprehensive or quantitative risk profile is available for pet foods, thus limiting the ability to establish safety standards and assess the effectiveness of current and proposed Salmonella control measures. This study sought to develop an ingredients-to-consumer quantitative microbial exposure assessment model to: 1) estimate pet and human exposure to Salmonella via dry pet food, and 2) assess the impact of industry and household-level mitigation strategies on exposure. Data on prevalence and concentration of Salmonella in pet food ingredients, production process parameters, bacterial ecology, and contact transfer in the household were obtained through literature review, industry data, and targeted research. A probabilistic Monte Carlo modeling framework was developed to simulate the production process and basic household exposure routes. Under the range of assumptions adopted in this model, human exposure due to handling pet food is null to minimal if contamination occurs exclusively before extrusion. Exposure increases considerably if recontamination occurs post-extrusion during coating with fat, although mean ingested doses remain modest even at high fat contamination levels, due to the low percent of fat in the finished product. Exposure is highly variable, with the distribution of doses ingested by adult pet owners spanning 3Log CFU per exposure event. Child exposure due to ingestion of 1g of pet food leads to significantly higher doses than adult doses associated with handling the food. Recontamination after extrusion and coating, e.g., via dust or equipment surfaces, may also lead to

  8. Pesticide exposure in farming and forestry and the risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Since pesticides are disputed risk factors for uveal melanoma, we studied the association between occupational pesticide exposure and uveal melanoma risk in a case-control study from nine European countries.......Since pesticides are disputed risk factors for uveal melanoma, we studied the association between occupational pesticide exposure and uveal melanoma risk in a case-control study from nine European countries....

  9. Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls at toxic waste sites: investigations in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehr-Green, P.A.; Welty, E.; Burse, V.W.

    1988-11-01

    Beginning in 1982, environmental and population data were evaluated from waste sites contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Pilot exposure assessment studies were conducted at 12 sites where risks of human exposure were thought to be greatest. Serum PCB levels in persons at highest risk of nonoccupationally related exposures (because of their self-reported frequencies and types of activities in contaminated areas) at 10 sites were within background ranges, even though environmental contamination levels as high as 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) in monitoring well water samples and 330,000 ppb in soil samples were measured. At the 2 remaining sites, elevated serum levels were found in these high-risk persons, which require further evaluation by community surveys. These results illustrate that, despite elevated environmental contaminant levels, unless uptake of chemicals above background exposure levels can be demonstrated, adverse health effects cannot be attributed to waste site chemicals. However, health risks due to background exposure levels, as well as in populations with elevated PCB body burdens need further study.

  10. Interpretation of the margin of exposure for genotoxic carcinogens - elicitation of expert knowledge about the form of the dose response curve at human relevant exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobis, Alan; Flari, Villie; Gosling, John Paul; Hart, Andy; Craig, Peter; Rushton, Lesley; Idahosa-Taylor, Ehi

    2013-07-01

    The general approach to risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens has been to advise reduction of exposure to "as low as reasonably achievable/practicable" (ALARA/P). However, whilst this remains the preferred risk management option, it does not provide guidance on the urgency or extent of risk management actions necessary. To address this, the "Margin of Exposure" (MOE) approach has been proposed. The MOE is the ratio between the point of departure for carcinogenesis and estimated human exposure. However, interpretation of the MOE requires implicit or explicit consideration of the shape of the dose-response curve at human relevant exposures. In a structured elicitation exercise, we captured expert opinion on available scientific evidence for low dose-response relationships for genotoxic carcinogens. This allowed assessment of: available evidence for the nature of dose-response relationships at human relevant exposures; the generality of judgments about such dose-response relationships; uncertainties affecting judgments on the nature of such dose-response relationships; and whether this last should differ for different classes of genotoxic carcinogens. Elicitation results reflected the variability in experts' views on the form of the dose-response curve for low dose exposure and major sources of uncertainty affecting the assumption of a linear relationship.

  11. Spatial and temporal aspects of exposure for insurance risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, A.; Foote, M.; Dykes, J.; Gunasekera, R.; Wood, J.

    2009-04-01

    November to December (summer) at around 1700. This is consistent with Pyle's (2006) analysis of storms, which are caused by the same well-understood physical processes and which are affected by similar factors such as humidity, temperature and topography. Historical records such as these and an understanding of the physical processes involved can be used to create of event sets. In urban areas, damage to motor vehicles can be over 50% of insured losses (Hohl et al, 2002) with the most intense storms damaging vehicle bodywork and windscreens. The amount of damage is dependent on the number and characteristics of vehicles within the hailstorm swath that are unprotected by shelters (Leigh, 1998). Since the majority of hailstorms occur in the late afternoon, it is likely that many vehicles will be on heavily congested roads during the rush hour is high. As such these vehicles will be unprotected by shelters and exposed to the risk. To take into account temporal aspects of exposure a model of the likely whereabouts of vehicles at different times of day is needed. Most transport authorities routinely collect traffic flow data using sensors under the road or at the roadside. These point locations are interpolated onto the road network to produce average traffic flows for road segments by time of day and week. For aggregate modelling, this can be used to redistribute the proportion of vehicular exposure that is likely to be in transit (unprotected by shelters) for each event. For detailed modelling, a sample of vehicles can be tracked using GPS, journeys characterised, clustered and then profiles of vehicle journeys can be made. By correlating journey profiles to other characteristics of the vehicles and of those that drive them, a better understanding of the spatiotemporal aspects of vehicular exposure can be derived. In this paper, we demonstrate how traffic flow data can be used to characterise spatial and temporal aspects of traffic vehicle exposure and the potential

  12. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Long NE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicole E De Long, Alison C Holloway Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate and processing (acrylamide, in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants and drinking water (heavy metals and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity. Keywords: obesity, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, heavy metals, acrylamide, endocrine-disrupting chemicals

  13. Legionellae in engineered systems and use of quantitative microbial risk assessment to predict exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Helen Y; Schoen, Mary E; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2012-03-15

    While it is well-established that Legionella are able to colonize engineered water systems, the number of interacting factors contributing to their occurrence, proliferation, and persistence are unclear. This review summarizes current methods used to detect and quantify legionellae as well as the current knowledge of engineered water system characteristics that both favour and promote legionellae growth. Furthermore, the use of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) models to predict potentially critical human exposures to legionellae are also discussed. Understanding the conditions favouring Legionella occurrence in engineered systems and their overall ecology (growth in these systems/biofilms, biotic interactions and release) will aid in developing new treatment technologies and/or systems that minimize or eliminate human exposure to potentially pathogenic legionellae.

  14. Environmental Exposure to Lead as a Risk for Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the possible role of environmental exposure to lead as a risk factor for prostate pathology in patients suffering from prostate cancer (PCA) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Methods Blood lead (BPb) level was determined in PCA and BPH cases using a graphite furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and compared with those in a control group living in the similar socioeconomic environment. Results BPb was significantly higher in PCA and BPH cases than in normals (P<0.05). Blood levels of zinc and copper were significantly lower in PCA and BPH cases when compared with controls (P<0.05). In all the three groups, a statistically significant positive correlation between lead and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) measured as malondialdehyde, and negative correlation between blood lead and antioxidant GSH level, indicative of possible generation of reactive oxygen species, were also observed after adjusting for age as a possible confounders. However, positive association between blood lead and TBARS was relatively higher in PCA patients (r=0.77, P<0.05) than in BPH (r=0.32, P<0.05) and normal (r=0.30, P<0.05).Conclusion These results with limited power seem to suggest for the first time that environmental exposure of aging males to lead may be a risk factor for prostate cancer and/or benign prostate hyperplasia possibly through generation of reactive oxygen species and/or reducing the level of zinc which acts as a cellular growth protector.

  15. High exposure to inorganic arsenic by food: the need for risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Damm, Georg; Foth, Heidi; Freyberger, Alexius; Gebel, Thomas; Golka, Klaus; Röhl, Claudia; Schupp, Thomas; Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Hengstler, Jan Georg

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen that occurs ubiquitously in soil and water. Based on epidemiological studies, a benchmark dose (lower/higher bound estimate) between 0.3 and 8 μg/kg bw/day was estimated to cause a 1 % increased risk of lung, skin and bladder cancer. A recently published study by EFSA on dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in the European population reported 95th percentiles (lower bound min to upper bound max) for different age groups in the same range as the benchmark dose. For toddlers, a highly exposed group, the highest values ranged between 0.61 and 2.09 µg arsenic/kg bw/day. For all other age classes, the margin of exposure is also small. This scenario calls for regulatory action to reduce arsenic exposure. One priority measure should be to reduce arsenic in food categories that contribute most to exposure. In the EFSA study the food categories 'milk and dairy products,' 'drinking water' and 'food for infants' represent major sources of inorganic arsenic for infants and also rice is an important source. Long-term strategies are required to reduce inorganic arsenic in these food groups. The reduced consumption of rice and rice products which has been recommended may be helpful for a minority of individuals consuming unusually high amounts of rice. However, it is only of limited value for the general European population, because the food categories 'grain-based processed products (non rice-based)' or 'milk and dairy products' contribute more to the exposure with inorganic arsenic than the food category 'rice.' A balanced regulatory activity focusing on the most relevant food categories is required. In conclusion, exposure to inorganic arsenic represents a risk to the health of the European population, particularly to young children. Regulatory measures to reduce exposure are urgently required.

  16. Current issues in human lead exposure and regulation of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Elias, R W; Grant, L D

    1993-01-01

    Concern about lead as a significant public health problem has increased as epidemiological and experimental evidence has mounted regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels of lead exposure. This concern has led to downward revision of criteria for acceptable blood lead concentrations to the 10 micrograms/dL mark now designated by EPA as a target level for regulatory development and enforcement/clean-up purposes. Much progress has been made in reducing lead exposures during the past 10-15 years, with marked declines evident both in air lead and blood lead concentrations in parallel to the phase-down of lead in gasoline and notable decreases in food lead exposure due to elimination of lead soldered cans by U.S. food processors. With the lessening of exposure from these sources, the importance of other components of multimedia exposure pathways has grown and stimulated increasing regulatory attention and abatement efforts to reduce health risks associated with lead exposure from drinking water, from lead-based paint, and from household dust and soil contaminated by deteriorating paint, smelter emissions, or various other sources. Increasing attention is also being accorded to reduction of occupational lead exposures (including those related to lead abatement activities), with particular concern for protection of men and women during their reproductive years.

  17. An agent-based model of exposure to human toxocariasis: a multi-country validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanobana, K; Devleesschauwer, B; Polman, K; Speybroeck, N

    2013-07-01

    Seroprevalence data illustrate that human exposure to Toxocara is frequent. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is assumed to be the best indicator of human exposure, but increased risk of exposure has also been associated with many other factors. Reported associations are inconsistent, however, and there is still ambiguity regarding the factors driving the onset of Toxocara antibody positivity. The objective of this work was to assess the validity of our current conceptual understanding of the key processes driving human exposure to Toxocara. We constructed an agent-based model predicting Toxocara antibody positivity (as a measure of exposure) in children. Exposure was assumed to depend on the joint probability of 3 parameters: (1) environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs, (2) larvation of these eggs and (3) the age-related contact with these eggs. This joint probability was linked to processes of acquired humoral immunity, influencing the rate of antibody seroreversion. The results of the simulation were validated against published data from 5 different geographical settings. Using simple rules and a stochastic approach with parameter estimates derived from the respective contexts, plausible serological patterns emerged from the model in nearly all settings. Our approach leads to novel insights in the transmission dynamics of Toxocara.

  18. Temporal evolution of risk estimates for presumed human teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebert, M K; Haun, J M; Pauli, R M

    1993-01-01

    We present preliminary data assessing a previously untried method of deriving estimates of risk from case reports on presumed human teratogens. We postulated that we could take advantage of biases inherent to case reports in order to generate one or more families of temporal curves that could be used to estimate the "true" risk of teratogenic exposure. Using this method (which we refer to as the "case-cumulative method") we found that two agents (parvovirus B19 and isotretinoin) demonstrated a logarithmic decrease in the estimated risk over time, as intuitively expected, while trimethadione and the coumarin derivatives showed a more complex pattern over time. Analysis of estimated risks quoted by reviews and large studies for these four agents showed large variability from estimate to estimate and no discernible temporal pattern. With further analysis of other agents, the case-cumulative method might eventually prove to be useful in teratogen counseling.

  19. Agricultural exposure and asthma risk in the AGRICAN French cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Isabelle; Robert, Céline; Piantoni, Florence; Tual, Séverine; Bouvier, Ghislaine; Lebailly, Pierre; Raherison, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of respiratory diseases in agricultural population, but a protective "farm-effect" has also been reported for asthma. In the AGRICAN cohort, self-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma was analyzed according to allergy, in relation with history of life-time exposure to 13 crops and 5 livestock, pesticide exposure and early life on a farm, taking into account sex, age, education and body mass index. Among the 1246 asthmatics (8.0%), 505 were allergic (3.3%) and 719 non-allergic (4.6%). In multivariate analysis, a significant excess was observed, only for allergic asthma, in vine-growing (OR=1.43, p=0.002), fruit-growing (OR=1.58, p=0.001), greenhouses (OR=1.66, p=0.02), grasslands (OR=1.35, p=0.009), beets (OR=1.52, p=0.003) and horses (OR=1.35, p=0.04). Pesticide use and history of pesticide poisoning were significantly associated with allergic asthma in grassland, vineyards and fruit-growing and with non-allergic asthma in beets. Living on a farm in the first year of life tended to be protective for childhood allergic asthma in farms with livestock (OR=0.72, p=0.07) but deleterious in farms with vineyards, fruit or vegetables (OR=1.44, p=0.07). In AGRICAN, an increased risk of allergic asthma was observed with crop exposure, pesticide use and early life on a farm, especially in vine-growing, grassland, beets, fruit and vegetable-growing.

  20. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  1. Cancer risk estimation caused by radiation exposure during endovascular procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y. H.; Cho, J. H.; Yun, W. S.; Park, K. H.; Kim, H. G.; Kwon, S. M.

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the radiation exposure dose of patients, as well as staff caused by fluoroscopy for C-arm-assisted vascular surgical operation and to estimate carcinogenic risk due to such exposure dose. The study was conducted in 71 patients (53 men and 18 women) who had undergone vascular surgical intervention at the division of vascular surgery in the University Hospital from November of 2011 to April of 2012. It had used a mobile C-arm device and calculated the radiation exposure dose of patient (dose-area product, DAP). Effective dose was measured by attaching optically stimulated luminescence on the radiation protectors of staff who participates in the surgery to measure the radiation exposure dose of staff during the vascular surgical operation. From the study results, DAP value of patients was 308.7 Gy cm2 in average, and the maximum value was 3085 Gy cm2. When converted to the effective dose, the resulted mean was 6.2 m Gy and the maximum effective dose was 61.7 milliSievert (mSv). The effective dose of staff was 3.85 mSv; while the radiation technician was 1.04 mSv, the nurse was 1.31 mSv. All cancer incidences of operator are corresponding to 2355 persons per 100,000 persons, which deemed 1 of 42 persons is likely to have all cancer incidences. In conclusion, the vascular surgeons should keep the radiation protection for patient, staff, and all participants in the intervention in mind as supervisor of fluoroscopy while trying to understand the effects by radiation by themselves to prevent invisible danger during the intervention and to minimize the harm.

  2. Assessing the Health and Performance Risks of Carbon Dioxide Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Meyers, V. E.; Alexander, D.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an anthropogenic gas that accumulates in spacecraft to much higher levels than earth-normal levels. Controlling concentrations of this gas to acceptable levels to ensure crew health and optimal performance demands major commitment of resources. NASA has many decades of experience monitoring and controlling CO2, yet we are uncertain of the levels at which subtle performance decrements develop. There is limited evidence from ground-based studies that visual disturbances can occur during brief exposures and visual changes have been noted in spaceflight crews. These changes may be due to CO2 alone or in combination with other known spaceflight factors such as increased intracranial pressure due to fluid shifts. Discerning the comparative contribution of each to performance decrements is an urgent issue if we hope to optimize astronaut performance aboard the ISS. Long-term, we must know the appropriate control levels for exploration-class missions to ensure that crewmembers can remain cooperative and productive in a highly stressful environment. Furthermore, we must know the magnitude of interindividual variability in susceptibility to the adverse effects of CO2 so that the most tolerant crewmembers can be identified. Ground-based studies have been conducted for many years to set exposure limits for submariners; however, these studies are typically limited and incompletely reported. Nonetheless, NASA, in cooperation with the National Research Council, has set exposure limits for astronauts using this limited database. These studies do not consider the interactions of spaceflight-induced fluid shifts and CO2 exposures. In an attempt to discern whether CO2 levels affect the incidence of headache and visual disturbances in astronauts we performed a retrospective study comparing average CO2 levels and the prevalence of headache and visual disturbances. Our goal is to narrow gaps in the risk profile for in-flight CO2 exposures. Such studies can

  3. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort.

  4. Wood dust exposure and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, David G; Langley, Mary E; Chia, Kwan Leung; Woodman, Richard J; Shanahan, E Michael

    2015-12-01

    Occupational lung cancers represent a major health burden due to their increasing prevalence and poor long-term outcomes. While wood dust is a confirmed human carcinogen, its association with lung cancer remains unclear due to inconsistent findings in the literature. We aimed to clarify this association using meta-analysis. We performed a search of 10 databases to identify studies published until June 2014. We assessed the lung cancer risk associated with wood dust exposure as the primary outcome and with wood dust-related occupations as a secondary outcome. Random-effects models were used to pool summary risk estimates. 85 publications were included in the meta-analysis. A significantly increased risk for developing lung cancer was observed among studies that directly assessed wood dust exposure (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.39, n=33) and that assessed wood dust-related occupations (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.23, n=59). In contrast, a reduced risk for lung cancer was observed among wood dust (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.99, n=5) and occupation (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.98, n=1) studies originating in Nordic countries, where softwood dust is the primary exposure. These results were independent of the presence of adjustment for smoking and exposure classification methods. Only minor differences in risk between the histological subtypes were identified. This meta-analysis provides strong evidence for an association between wood dust and lung cancer, which is critically influenced by the geographic region of the study. The reasons for this region-specific effect estimates remain to be clarified, but may suggest a differential effect for hardwood and softwood dusts.

  5. Human reproductive system disturbances and pesticide exposure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koifman Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of reproductive disturbances in humans and in the wildlife has been reported in the last decade in different countries. Exposure to different chemicals possibly acting in the endocrine system or endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, has been a hypothesis raised to explain the observed changes. This paper aimed to present results of an epidemiological ecologic study carried out to explore population data on pesticides exposure in selected Brazilian states in the eighties and human reproductive outcomes in the nineties. Pearson correlation coefficients were ascertained between available data pesticides sales in eleven states in Brazil in 1985 and selected further reproductive outcomes or their surrogates. Moderate to high correlations were observed to infertility, testis, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer mortality. Despite the restrains of ecologic studies to establish cause-effect relationships, the observed results are in agreement with evidence supporting a possible association between pesticides exposure and the analyzed reproductive outcomes.

  6. Assessing Sources of Human Methylmercury Exposure Using Stable Mercury Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Miling; Sherman, Laura S; Blum, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption is the primary route of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for most populations. Inherent uncertainties in dietary survey data point to the need for an empirical tool to confirm exposure sources. We therefore explore the utility of Hg stable isotope ratios in human hair as a new...... method for discerning MeHg exposure sources. We characterized Hg isotope fractionation between humans and their diets using hair samples from Faroese whalers exposed to MeHg predominantly from pilot whales. We observed an increase of 1.75‰ in δ(202)Hg values between pilot whale muscle tissue and Faroese...... whalers' hair but no mass-independent fractionation. We found a similar offset in δ(202)Hg between consumed seafood and hair samples from Gulf of Mexico recreational anglers who are exposed to lower levels of MeHg from a variety of seafood sources. An isotope mixing model was used to estimate individual...

  7. Biomonitoring studies should be used by regulatory agencies to assess human exposure levels and safety of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Paumgartten, Francisco J R; Schoenfelder, Gilbert

    2010-08-01

    Within the past 3 years, four major evaluations of bisphenol A (BPA) safety have been undertaken. However, these assessments have arrived at quite different conclusions regarding the safety of BPA at current human exposure levels. We compared the reasons provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) BPA risk assessment panel for their conclusion that human exposures are negligible with the conclusions reached by the other panels, with all panels having the same body of literature at their disposal. The EFSA panel dismissed > or = 80 biomonitoring studies that documented significant levels of BPA exposure in humans, including internal exposures to unconjugated BPA, on the basis that they did not match a model of BPA metabolism. Instead, the EFSA panel relied on two toxicokinetic studies-conducted in 15 adults administered BPA-to draw conclusions about exposure levels in the population, including exposures of neonates. As with all exposure assessments, models should be developed to explain actual data that are collected. In the case of BPA, samples from a large number of human subjects clearly indicate that humans are internally exposed to unconjugated BPA. The dismissal of these biomonitoring studies simply because their results do not conform to a model violates scientific principles. Expert panels should evaluate all data-including human biomonitoring studies-to make informed risk assessments.

  8. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  9. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence, appro

  10. Microbial Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Stormwater in a Water Plaza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Ortells, Helena; Medema, Gertjan

    2015-04-01

    Climate change scenarios predict an increase of intense rainfall events in summer in Western Europe. Current urban drainage systems cannot cope with such intense precipitation events. Cities are constructing local stormwater storage facilities to prevent pluvial flooding. Combining storage with other functions, such as recreation, may lead to exposure to contaminants. This study assessed the microbial quality of rainwater collected in a water plaza in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) and the health risks associated with recreational exposure. The water plaza collects street run-off, diverges first flush to the sewer system and stores the rest of the run-off in the plaza as open water. A rain simulation experiment was conducted using drinking water from fire hydrants. The water flowed over the street pavement into the street gutters and into the square. Samples were collected from the first flush diverted water and from two different levels of the water plaza at different points in time. Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium, and Legionella pneumophila were the pathogens investigated, using quantitative PCR. Escherichia coli was quantified with culture methods to obtain information on faecal contamination. Microbial source tracking tools (human Bacteroides, avian Helicobacter and canine mitochondrial DNA, all analysed with quantitative PCR) were used to determine the origin (human, animal) of the intestinal pathogens. To estimate the health risks for children playing in the water plaza after a rain event, a quantitative microbial risk assessment model was built. The volume of water ingested was obtained from literature on similar locations (flooded streets). Published dose-response models were used to calculate the risk per event. Exposure frequency was estimated using weather data (precipitation events). E. coli concentrations were below the level for excellent bathing water in the EU Bathing Water Directive. Cryptosporidium was not found in any sample. Campylobacter spp

  11. Occupational Exposure During Pregnancy and the Risk of Atopic Dermatitis in the Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Berit Hvass; Schlünssen, Vivi; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    of the maternal exposure groups were associated with a changed risk of AD in the offspring. Conclusions: Our results do not suggest maternal exposure during pregnancy to be a significant risk factor for AD in the offspring. Exposure of pregnant women employed in the healthcare sector to e.g. antibiotics, latex...

  12. Formalized Search Strategies for Human Risk Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Pedersen, O. M.

    For risk management, the results of a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) as well as the underlying assumptions can be used as references in a closed-loop risk control; and the analyses of operational experiences as a means of feedback. In this context, the need for explicit definition and document......For risk management, the results of a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) as well as the underlying assumptions can be used as references in a closed-loop risk control; and the analyses of operational experiences as a means of feedback. In this context, the need for explicit definition...... and documentation of the PRA coverage, including the search strategies applied, is discussed and aids are proposed such as plant description in terms of a formal abstraction hierarchy and use of cause-consequence-charts for the documentation of not only the results of PRA but also of its coverage. Typical human...... risk contributions are described on the basis of general plant design features relevant for risk and accident analysis. With this background, search strategies for human risk contributions are treated: Under the designation "work analysis", procedures for the analysis of familiar, well trained, planned...

  13. Caribbean tsunamis - Regional exposure and local risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimsdal, S.; Harbitz, C. B.; Zamora, N.; Gour, N.; Frauenfelder, R.; Smebye, H. C.; Sverdrup-Thygeson, K.; Lovholt, F.; Bungum, H.

    2009-12-01

    Funded by the Norwegian Government, NGI and the University of the West Indies (UWI) with support from the Coastal Zone Management Unit Barbados (CZMU) have completed a two years capacity building program on natural disasters mitigation in the Caribbean, where the following is undertaken: i) preparation of regional tsunami hazard and exposure maps to identify the region’s natural disaster hot spot areas; and ii) implementation of a tsunami risk assessment demonstration project in close cooperation with the local authorities. The selected site for the demonstration project is Bridgetown, Barbados. Studies of both seismic and non-seismic tsunamigenic sources are included to provide examples of various kinds of sources with a regional distribution. Special attention is paid to the coupling between the numerical models for dispersive wave propagation and run-up models for nonlinear wave inundation. In the tsunami risk assessment demonstration project, local vulnerability and mortality risk maps are produced. The maps are based on evaluations of the tsunami inundation distance and a detailed survey of the populational pattern, buildings, and infrastructure in Bridgetown.

  14. Exposure to phthalates affects calcium handling and intercellular connectivity of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Gillum Posnack

    Full Text Available The pervasive nature of plastics has raised concerns about the impact of continuous exposure to plastic additives on human health. Of particular concern is the use of phthalates in the production of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC products. Di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP is a commonly used phthalate ester plasticizer that imparts flexibility and elasticity to PVC products. Recent epidemiological studies have reported correlations between urinary phthalate concentrations and cardiovascular disease, including an increased risk of high blood pressure and coronary risk. Yet, there is little direct evidence linking phthalate exposure to adverse effects in human cells, including cardiomyocytes.The effect of DEHP on calcium handling was examined using monolayers of gCAMP3 human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, which contain an endogenous calcium sensor. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to DEHP (5 - 50 μg/mL, and calcium transients were recorded using a Zeiss confocal imaging system. DEHP exposure (24 - 72 hr had a negative chronotropic and inotropic effect on cardiomyocytes, increased the minimum threshold voltage required for external pacing, and modified connexin-43 expression. Application of Wy-14,643 (100 μM, an agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, did not replicate DEHP's effects on calcium transient morphology or spontaneous beating rate.Phthalates can affect the normal physiology of human cardiomyocytes, including DEHP elicited perturbations in cardiac calcium handling and intercellular connectivity. Our findings call for additional studies to clarify the extent by which phthalate exposure can alter cardiac function, particularly in vulnerable patient populations who are at risk for high phthalate exposure.

  15. Quantitative risk assessment of human campylobacteriosis associated with thermophilic Campylobacter species in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Nielsen, N. L.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment comprising the elements hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization has been prepared to assess the effect of different mitigation strategies on the number of human cases in Denmark associated with thermophilic...... covers the transfer of Campylobacter during food handling in private kitchens. The age and sex of consumers were included in this module to introduce variable hygiene levels during food preparation and variable sizes and compositions of meals. Finally, the outcome of the exposure assessment modules...... Campylobacter spp. in chickens. To estimate the human exposure to Campylobacter from a chicken meal and the number of human cases associated with this exposure, a mathematical risk model was developed. The model details the spread and transfer of Campylobacter in chickens from slaughter to consumption...

  16. Assessment of human exposure effects of nitrous acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.R.; Kjaergaard, S.K. (University of Aarhus. Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine (Denmark)); Brauer, M. (Harvard School of Public Health. Department of Environmental Health, Exposure Assessment and Engineering Program (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The study aimed at an estimation of the relative contribution of nitrous acid to measurable human exposure effects in relation to indoor environments with unvented gas combustion. Fifteen medically examined totally healthy non-smoker adults aged between 22 and 57 years were exposed in a double-blind, balanced design (3x3 latin square) to clean air and nitrous acid (HONO) concentration in an empty 74 m[sup 3] climate chamber. 3 teams of 5 subjects each were randomly exposed and the latin square was selected at random. Each exposure period was 3.5 hours and preceded by a 1 hour base-line pre-exposure measurement period. After 1 hr 40 minutes the subjects exercised for ten minutes on bicycle ergometers in order to increase the uptake of HONO by increasing ventilatory rate 3-4 fold. Workloads were calculated individually and ranged from 21800-34600 kpm/h. During the 10 minutes the test subjects were mouth-breathing to encourage deeper penetration of nitrous acid in the respiratory system so as to induce a mild cooling which would increase their responsiveness to irritants. The amount of deliverable H[sup +] was estimated at 16.350 nmoles with exposure to 395 ppb HONO with subjects breathing at the rate of 5 L min[sup -1]. It was assumed that HONO is efficiently absorbed into the respiratory system. Details are given of the results. Findings were highly variable, largely negative effects of exposure to nitrous acid which appear similiar to results seen in nitrogen dioxide exposure studies. It is concluded to be unlikely that HONO exposures alone can be responsible for exposure misclassification in NO[sub 2] exposure studies. (AB) (52 refs.).

  17. Assessment of human exposure effects of nitrous acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.R.; Kjaergaard, S.K. [University of Aarhus. Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine (Denmark); Brauer, M. [Harvard School of Public Health. Department of Environmental Health, Exposure Assessment and Engineering Program (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The study aimed at an estimation of the relative contribution of nitrous acid to measurable human exposure effects in relation to indoor environments with unvented gas combustion. Fifteen medically examined totally healthy non-smoker adults aged between 22 and 57 years were exposed in a double-blind, balanced design (3x3 latin square) to clean air and nitrous acid (HONO) concentration in an empty 74 m{sup 3} climate chamber. 3 teams of 5 subjects each were randomly exposed and the latin square was selected at random. Each exposure period was 3.5 hours and preceded by a 1 hour base-line pre-exposure measurement period. After 1 hr 40 minutes the subjects exercised for ten minutes on bicycle ergometers in order to increase the uptake of HONO by increasing ventilatory rate 3-4 fold. Workloads were calculated individually and ranged from 21800-34600 kpm/h. During the 10 minutes the test subjects were mouth-breathing to encourage deeper penetration of nitrous acid in the respiratory system so as to induce a mild cooling which would increase their responsiveness to irritants. The amount of deliverable H{sup +} was estimated at 16.350 nmoles with exposure to 395 ppb HONO with subjects breathing at the rate of 5 L min{sup -1}. It was assumed that HONO is efficiently absorbed into the respiratory system. Details are given of the results. Findings were highly variable, largely negative effects of exposure to nitrous acid which appear similiar to results seen in nitrogen dioxide exposure studies. It is concluded to be unlikely that HONO exposures alone can be responsible for exposure misclassification in NO{sub 2} exposure studies. (AB) (52 refs.).

  18. Risk behaviors in a rural community with a known point-source exposure to chronic wasting disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeks Jennifer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence and continuing spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD in cervids has now reached 14 U.S. states, two Canadian provinces, and South Korea, producing a potential for transmission of CWD prions to humans and other animals globally. In 2005, CWD spread for the first time from the Midwest to more densely populated regions of the East Coast. As a result, a large cohort of individuals attending a wild game feast in upstate New York were exposed to a deer that was subsequently confirmed positive for CWD. Methods Eighty-one participants who ingested or otherwise were exposed to a deer with chronic wasting disease at a local New York State sportsman's feast were recruited for this study. Participants were administered an exposure questionnaire and agreed to follow-up health evaluations longitudinally over the next six years. Results Our results indicate two types of risks for those who attended the feast, a Feast Risk and a General Risk. The larger the number of risk factors, the greater the risk to human health if CWD is transmissible to humans. Long-term surveillance of feast participants exposed to CWD is ongoing. Conclusion The risk data from this study provide a relative scale for cumulative exposure to CWD-infected tissues and surfaces, and those in the upper tiers of cumulative risk may be most at risk if CWD is transmissible to humans.

  19. Lung cancer attributable to indoor radon exposure in France using different risk models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O.C.; Laurier, D.L.; Rogel, A.R.; Billon, S.B.; Tirmarche, M.T. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Hemon, Dh. [INSERM -U170-IFR69, 94 - Villejuif (France); Verger, P.V. [Regional Health Observatory Provence Alpes Cote d' Azur, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Radon exposure is omnipresent for the general public, but at variable levels, because radon mainly comes from granitic and volcanic subs oils as well as from certain construction materials. Inhalation of radon is the main source of exposure to radioactivity in the general population of most countries. In 1988, the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared radon to be carcinogenic for humans (lung cancer): radon is classed in the group 1. The exposure of the overall general population to a carcinogenic component led scientists to assess the lung cancer risk associated to indoor radon. The aim of this work is to provide the first lung cancer risk assessment associated with indoor radon exposure in France, using all available epidemiological results and performing an uncertainty analysis. The number of lung cancer deaths potentially associated with radon in houses is estimated for the year 1999 according to several dose-response relationships which come from either cohorts of miners or joint analysis of residential case-controls studies. The variability of indoor radon exposure in France and uncertainties related to each of the dose-response relationships are considered. The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miners cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interaction between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980's by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the INSERM. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions and b y 96 departments for the year

  20. Assessment of cancer and noncancer health risks from exposure to PAHs in street dust in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Luginaah, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a broader initiative to characterize, quantify and assess the human health risk associated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust along the Trans-ECOWAS highway in West Africa. In the first part, PAHs were characterized and quantified in low- and high-traffic zones. In this study, cancer and noncancer human health risks from exposure to (PAHs) in street dust in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana were assessed in accordance with the USEPA risk assessment guidelines. The results of the study as obtained from inhalation of benzo [a] anthracene (BaA), benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), benzo [k] fluoranthene (BkF) and chrysene via central tendency exposure parameters (CTE) by trespassers (street hawkers including children and adults) in street dust within low traffic zones in the Tamale metropolis are 1.6E-02, 4.7E-02, 1.8E-03, and 1.6E-04 respectively. For reasonable maximum exposure parameters (RME), risk values of 1.2E-01, 3.5E-01, 1.3E-02 and 1.2E-03 respectively were obtained for benzo [a] anthracene, benzo [a] pyrene, benzo [k] fluoranthene and chrysene. Hazard index for acenaphthene, anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorine, naphthalene and pyrene in the CTE and RME scenarios were 2.2, 3.E-01, 2.6, 2.6, 100, 38 and 12, 1.7,15, 14, 550, 210 respectively. Generally, the cancer health risk associated with inhalation of benzo [a] anthracene, benzo [a] pyrene, benzo [k] fluoranthene and chrysene revealed that resident adults and children in the Tamale metropolis are at risk from exposure to these chemicals. The results of this preliminary assessment that quantified PAH related health risks along this part of the Trans-ECOWAS highway revealed that, there is the need for regulatory agencies to put in comprehensive measures to mitigate the risks posed to these categories of human receptors.

  1. Offshore substation workers’ exposure to harmful factors – Actions minimizing risk of hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Janusz Piotrowski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The current development of electric power industry in Poland, especially in the field of renewable energy sources, including wind power, brings about the need to introduce legislation on new work environment. The development of occupational safety and health (OSH regulations that must be met by new workplaces, such as offshore substations becomes necessary in view of the construction of modern offshore wind power plants – offshore wind farms. Staying on offshore substation is associated with an increased exposure to harmful health factors: physical, chemical, biological and psychophysical. The main sources of health risks on offshore substations are: temperature, electromagnetic field, noise from operating wind turbines, direct and alternating current, chemicals, Legionella bacteria and social isolation of people. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the problem of offshore substation workers’ exposure to harmful factors and to present methods of preventing and reducing the risk-related adverse health effects. In this paper, there are identified and described risks occurring on offshore substations (fire, explosion, lightning, accidents at work. Some examples of the means and the methods for reducing the negative impact of exposure on the human health are presented and discussed. The article also highlights the need to develop appropriate laws and health and safety regulations concerning the new working environment at the offshore substations. The review of researches and international standards shows that some of them can be introduced into the Polish labor market. Med Pr 2016;67(1:51–72

  2. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments.

  3. Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Poona Infections Associated with Pet Turtle Exposure--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, Colin; Bottichio, Lyndsay; Higa, Jeffrey; Prado, Belinda; Wong, Michael; Bosch, Stacey

    2015-07-31

    In May 2014, a cluster of human Salmonella Poona infections was identified through PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance. Historically, this rare serotype has been identified in multiple Salmonella outbreaks associated with pet turtle exposure and has posed a particular risk to small children. Although the sale and distribution of small turtles (those with carapace [upper shell] lengths turtles are still available for illegal purchase through transient street vendors, at flea markets, and at fairs.

  4. Risk assessment strategies for nanoscale and fine-sized titanium dioxide particles: Recognizing hazard and exposure issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, David B; Donner, E Maria

    2015-11-01

    The basic tenets for assessing health risks posed by nanoparticles (NP) requires documentation of hazards and the corresponding exposures that may occur. Accordingly, this review describes the range and types of potential human exposures that may result from interactions with titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles or NP - either in the occupational/workplace environment, or in consumer products, including food materials and cosmetics. Each of those applications has a predominant route of exposure. Very little is known about the human impact potential from environmental exposures to NP - thus this particular issue will not be discussed further. In the workplace or occupational setting inhalation exposure predominates. Experimental toxicity studies demonstrate low hazards in particle-exposed rats. Only at chronic overload exposures do rats develop forms of lung pathology. These findings are not supported by multiple epidemiology studies in heavily-exposed TiO2 workers which demonstrate a lack of correlation between chronic particle exposures and adverse health outcomes including lung cancer and noncancerous chronic respiratory effects. Cosmetics and sunscreens represent the major application of dermal exposures to TiO2 particles. Experimental dermal studies indicate a lack of penetration of particles beyond the epidermis with no consequent health risks. Oral exposures to ingested TiO2 particles in food occur via passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with studies indicating negligible uptake of particles into the bloodstream of humans or rats with subsequent excretion through the feces. In addition, standardized guideline-mandated subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats demonstrate very low toxicity effects with NOAELs of >1000 mg/kg bw/day. Additional issues which are summarized in detail in this review are: 1) Methodologies for implementing the Nano Risk Framework - a process for ensuring the responsible development of products containing nanoscale

  5. [Personnel at risk for occupational blood exposure in a university hospital in West Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghdadli, Benali; Ghomari, Omar; Taleb, Mourad; Belhaj, Zora; Belabed, Assia; Kandouci, Del Ab Kader-Baderdine; Fanello, Serge

    2009-01-01

    The accidental occupational exposure of health care workers to blood or other body fluids after skin injury or mucous contact, constitutes a risk for the transmission of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). This paper presents the results of a survey carried out over two years (January 2005 - December 2006) on reported occupational blood exposures (OBE). The study aimed to determine incidence, workers and professional categories at risk, and circumstances of OBE occurrence in order to identify avoidable cases and to orient prevention measures. Personal and professional data, immunization status, circumstances of OBE incidents, preventive measures, workers' behaviour post-exposure, and serology surveillance were collected. 108 exposures were reported by 70 women and 38 men. In total, 44 accidents were reported in 2005, and 64 in 2006. Needle stick injuries represented 81% of cases. Source patient serology was unknown in most of the cases, negative in 9% of cases and positive in 10% of cases. 62% of exposed health workers received immediate serology, follow up and screening as of the first day of exposure, 12% after 3 months and 36% after 6 months. No seroconversion case was noted. Cleaning staff and hygiene workers are at high risk of blood contamination as well as nurses, and more than one-third of injuries occurred because of mismanagement of healthcare waste produced in the hospital environment, where needles were not disposed of appropriately in a hard container. Thus, 41.66% of injuries could be avoided if objects were thrown away correctly in specific containers. It is urgent to raise awareness of health care personnel and strengthen adherence to standard precautions as well as to provide suitable containers for the collection and disposal of needles and sharp objects.

  6. Accidental exposure to UV radiation produced by germicidal lamp: case report and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffina, Salvatore; Camisa, Vincenzo; Lembo, Marco; Vinci, Maria Rosaria; Tucci, Mario Graziano; Borra, Massimo; Napolitano, Antonio; Cannatà, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to cause both benefits and harmful effects on humans. The adverse effects mainly involve two target organs, skin and eye, and can be further divided into short- and long-term effects. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of two health-care workers to ultraviolet radiation produced by a germicidal lamp in a hospital pharmacy. The germicidal lamp presented a spectrum with an intense UV-C component as well as a modest UV-B contribution. Overexposure to UV-C radiation was over 100 times as large as the ICNIRP exposure limits. A few hours after the exposure, the two subjects reported symptoms of acute UV injury and both of them continued having significant clinical signs for over 2 years. In this study, we describe acute and potentially irreversible effects caused by high UV exposure. In addition, we present the results of risk assessment by occupational exposure to germicidal lamps. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  7. Prenatal exposure to antidepressants and risk of epilepsy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Yanyan; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Christensen, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to estimate the association between prenatal exposure to antidepressants and risk of epilepsy in childhood, taking maternal depression into account. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study including all Danish singletons born alive between 1997 and 2008 (n...... = 734 237). Information on antidepressant medication and diagnosis of depression and epilepsy was obtained from Danish National Registers. The exposed group comprised children of mothers who used antidepressants from 30 days before pregnancy until the date of birth. The reference group comprised...... children of mothers who used no antidepressants from 6 months before pregnancy to birth. We estimated the hazard ratios (HR) of epilepsy and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: We identified 12 438 (1.7%) children exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy...

  8. Protecting Critical Infrastructure by Identifying Pathways of Exposure to Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip O’Neill

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, our critical infrastructure is managed and controlled by computers and the information networks that connect them. Cyber-terrorists and other malicious actors understand the economic and social impact that a successful attack on these systems could have. While it is imperative that we defend against such attacks, it is equally imperative that we realize how best to react to them. This article presents the strongest-path method of analyzing all potential pathways of exposure to risk – no matter how indirect or circuitous they may be – in a network model of infrastructure and operations. The method makes direct use of expert knowledge about entities and dependency relationships without the need for any simulation or any other models. By using path analysis in a directed graph model of critical infrastructure, planners can model and assess the effects of a potential attack and develop resilient responses.

  9. Ultraviolet light exposure, skin cancer risk and vitamin D production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Miguel; Rojas, Elisa; Araya, María C; Calaf, Gloria M

    2015-10-01

    The danger of overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation has been widely reviewed since the 1980s due to the depletion of the ozone layer. However, the benefits of mild exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) light have not been widely investigated. Numerous reports have demonstrated that an association exists between low light exposure to the sun, non-melanoma skin cancer and a lack of vitamin D synthesis. As vitamin D synthesis in the body depends on skin exposure to UVB radiation from the sun (wavelength, 290-320 nm), experimental measurements for this type of solar radiation are important. The present study analyzed data obtained from a laboratory investigating UV radiation from the sun at the University of Tarapacá (Arica, Chile), where systematic experimental UVB measurements had been performed using a calibrated biometer instrument since 2006. These data were compared with skin cancer data from the local population. The results demonstrated that the incidence of skin cancer systematically increased from 7.4 to 18.7 in men and from 10.0 to 21.7 in women between 2000 and 2006 in Arica, respectively; this increase may be due to multiple factors, including the lack of adequate levels of vitamin D in risk groups such as post-menopausal women and senior age. This marked increase may also be due to the high levels of UV radiation measured in this region throughout the year. However, it is not certain that the local population has adequate vitamin D levels, nor that their skin has been predominantly exposed to artificial light that does not allow adequate vitamin D synthesis. Thus, the current study presents the association between skin type IV, the time to induce solar erythema and the time required to produce 1,000 international units of vitamin D.

  10. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockwell Alannah

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Results Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents. There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Conclusion Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  11. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George

    2006-10-04

    Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  12. Three dimensional visualisation of human facial exposure to solar ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio

    2007-01-01

    A three dimensional computer model of the human face has been developed to represent solar ultraviolet exposures recorded by dosimeter measurements on a manikin headform under low cloud conditions and various solar zenith angles. Additionally, polysulfone dosimeters have been successfully miniaturised to provide the detailed measurements required across the face. The headform used in this research was scanned at 709 individual locations to make a wireframe mesh consisting of 18 vertical contours and 49 horizontal contours covering half the manikin's frontal facial topography. Additionally, the back of the headform and neck have also been scanned at 576 locations. Each scanned location has been used as a viable dosimeter position on the headform and represents a grid intersection point on the developed computer wireframe. A series of exposures recorded by dosimeters have been translated into three dimensional exposure ratio maps, representing ambient solar ultraviolet exposure. High dosimeter density has allowed for the development of individual topographic contour models which take into account complex variation in the face and improve upon previously employed techniques which utilise fewer dosimeters to interpolate exposure across facial contours. Exposure ratios for solar zenith angle ranges of 0 degrees -30 degrees, 30 degrees -50 degrees, and 50 degrees -80 degrees have been developed.

  13. Asbestos exposure increases human bronchial epithelial cell fibrinolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T J; Cobb, S M; Gruenert, D C; Peterson, M W

    1993-03-01

    Chronic exposure to asbestos fibers results in fibrotic lung disease. The distal pulmonary epithelium is an early target of asbestos-mediated injury. Local plasmin activity may be important in modulating endoluminal inflammatory responses in the lung. We studied the effects of asbestos exposure on cell-mediated plasma clot lysis as a marker of pericellular plasminogen activation. Exposing human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells to 100 micrograms/ml of asbestos fibers for 24 h resulted in increased plasma clot lysis. Fibrinolytic activity was augmented in a dose-dependent fashion, was not due to secreted protease, and occurred only when there was direct contact between the plasma clot and the epithelial monolayer. Further analysis showed that asbestos exposure increased HBE cell-associated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activity in a time-dependent manner. The increased cell-associated PA activity could be removed by acid washing. The increase in PA activity following asbestos exposure required new protein synthesis because it was abrogated by treatment with either cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Therefore, asbestos exposure increases epithelial-mediated fibrinolysis by augmenting expression of uPA activity at the cell surface by mechanisms that require new RNA and protein synthesis. These observations suggest a novel mechanism whereby exposure of the distal epithelium to inhaled particulates may result in a chronic inflammatory response that culminates in the development of fibrotic lung disease.

  14. Evaluating the Control Banding Nanotool: a qualitative risk assessment method for controlling nanoparticle exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalk, D.M.; Paik, S.Y.; Swuste, P.

    2009-01-01

    Control banding (CB) strategies offer simplified processes for controlling worker exposures in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure information. The nanotechnology industry is an excellent candidate for applying such strategies with overwhelming uncertainties of work-related health risks

  15. Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh; Le Vu-Anh; Nguyen Ngoc-Bich; Thomas Tenkate

    2010-01-01

    This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used ...

  16. Lung Cancer Attributable to Indoor Radon Exposure in France: Impact of the Risk Models and Uncertainty Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Catelinois, Olivier; Rogel, Agnès; Laurier, Dominique; Billon, Solenne; Hemon, Denis; VERGER, Pierre; Tirmarche, Margot

    2006-01-01

    Objective The inhalation of radon, a well-established human carcinogen, is the principal—and omnipresent—source of radioactivity exposure for the general population of most countries. Scientists have thus sought to assess the lung cancer risk associated with indoor radon. Our aim here is to assess this risk in France, using all available epidemiologic results and performing an uncertainty analysis. Methods We examined the exposure–response relations derived from cohorts of miners and from joi...

  17. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants as potential risk factors for developing diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants(POPs),such as dioxins,polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) ,and organochlorine pesticides(OCPs),which are synthetic chemicals or by-products with an intrinsic resistance to natural degradation processes,are released into the environment,resulting in the widespread dispersal and accumulation in the environment,as well as in human and ecological food chains.Due to their ubiquity in the environment and lipophilic properties,there is emerging concern over the potential risks of human exposure to POPs.Extensive growing evidence indicated that exposure to POPs might be strongly associated with increased risk of a worldwide epidemic of diabetes,especially type 2 diabetes,suggesting that POPs might play a key role in their pathogenesis.Based on summary of the related studies,this paper reviews the epidemiologic and experimental data that addresses the association between increased risk of diabetes and POP exposure,including dioxins,PCBs,OCPs,polybrominated flame retardants(PBFRs),and some environmental estrogens.The potential mechanisms whereby POPs cause diabetes were discussed,such as alterations in lipid metabolism,in glucose transport,in insulin signaling pathway,in steroid metabolism,and disruption of endocrine system,induction of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) .However,with respect to diabetes,some of the evidence on POPs linked to risk of diabetes was suggestive of a direct or indirect association but was limited or inconclusive.Future research is urgently needed for determining the relative contribution of POPs to diabetes and elucidating the exact mechanisms.

  18. A review of adverse pregnancy outcomes and formaldehyde exposure in human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J J; Ness, R; Tyl, R W; Krivanek, N; Esmen, N A; Hall, T A

    2001-08-01

    We examine the potential for reproductive and developmental effects from formaldehyde exposure. Formaldehyde is unlikely to reach the reproductive system in humans in concentrations sufficient to cause damage since it is rapidly metabolized and detoxified upon contact with the respiratory tract. While there are effects seen in in vitro studies or after injection, there is little evidence of reproductive or developmental toxicity in animal studies under exposure levels and routes relevant to humans. Most of the epidemiology studies examined spontaneous abortion and showed some evidence of increased risk (meta-relative risk=1.4, 95% CI 0.9-2.1). We found evidence of reporting biases and publication biases among the epidemiology studies and when these biases were taken into account, we found no evidence of increased risk of spontaneous abortion among workers exposed to formaldehyde (meta-relative risk=0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.0). The small number of studies on birth defects, low birth weight, and infertility among formaldehyde workers; the limitations in the design of these studies; and the inconsistent findings across these studies make it difficult to draw conclusions from the epidemiology data alone. However, information from experimental studies and studies of metabolism indicate reproductive impacts are unlikely at formaldehyde exposures levels observed in the epidemiology studies.

  19. Modeling human risk: Cell & molecular biology in context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    It is anticipated that early in the next century manned missions into outer space will occur, with a mission to Mars scheduled between 2015 and 2020. However, before such missions can be undertaken, a realistic estimation of the potential risks to the flight crews is required. One of the uncertainties remaining in this risk estimation is that posed by the effects of exposure to the radiation environment of outer space. Although the composition of this environment is fairly well understood, the biological effects arising from exposure to it are not. The reasons for this are three-fold: (1) A small but highly significant component of the radiation spectrum in outer space consists of highly charged, high energy (HZE) particles which are not routinely experienced on earth, and for which there are insufficient data on biological effects; (2) Most studies on the biological effects of radiation to date have been high-dose, high dose-rate, whereas in space, with the exception of solar particle events, radiation exposures will be low-dose, low dose-rate; (3) Although it has been established that the virtual absence of gravity in space has a profound effect on human physiology, it is not clear whether these effects will act synergistically with those of radiation exposure. A select panel will evaluate the utilizing experiments and models to accurately predict the risks associated with exposure to HZE particles. Topics of research include cellular and tissue response, health effects associated with radiation damage, model animal systems, and critical markers of Radiation response.

  20. Risk for borderline ovarian tumours after exposure to fertility drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Sarah Marie; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2015-01-01

    followed for first occurrence of a borderline ovarian tumour from the initial date of infertility evaluation until a date of migration, date of death or 31 December 2006, whichever occurred first. The median length of follow-up was 11.3 years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Included......) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for borderline ovarian tumours, overall and according to histological subtype, associated with the use of any fertility drug or five specific groups of fertility drugs: clomiphene citrate, gonadotrophins (human menopausal gonadotrophins and follicle......-stimulating hormone), gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues, human chorionic gonadotrophins and progesterone. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Analyses within the cohort showed that the overall risk for borderline ovarian tumours was not associated with the use of any fertility drug (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0...

  1. Assessing exposure risks for freshwater tilapia species posed by mercury and methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Lin, Yi-Jun; You, Shu-Han; Yang, Ying-Fei; How, Chun Ming; Tseng, Yi-Ting; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-08-01

    Waterborne and dietborne exposures of freshwater fish to mercury (Hg) in the forms of inorganic (Hg(II)) and organic (methylmercury or MeHg) affect their growth, development, and reproduction. However, an integrated mechanistic risk model framework to predict the impact of Hg(II)/MeHg on freshwater fish is lacking. Here, we integrated biokinetic, physiological and biogeographic data to calibrate and then establish key risk indices-hazardous quotient and exceedance risk-for freshwater tilapia species across geographic ranges of several major rivers in Taiwan. We found that Hg(II) burden was highest in kidney followed by gill, intestine, liver, blood, and muscle. Our results showed that Hg was less likely to pose mortality risk (mortality rate less than 5 %) for freshwater tilapia species. However, Hg is likely to pose the potential hazard to aquatic environments constrained by safety levels for aquatic organisms. Sensitivity analysis showed that amount of Hg accumulated in tilapia was most influenced by sediment uptake rate. Our approach opens up new possibilities for predicting future fish population health with the impacts of continued Hg exposure to provide information on which fish are deemed safe for human consumption.

  2. Addressing Human Variability in Next-Generation Human Health Risk Assessments of Environmental Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Frederic Y.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Hattis, Dale; Rusyn, Ivan; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Characterizing variability in the extent and nature of responses to environmental exposures is a critical aspect of human health risk assessment. Objective: Our goal was to explore how next-generation human health risk assessments may better characterize variability in the context of the conceptual framework for the source-to-outcome continuum. Methods: This review was informed by a National Research Council workshop titled “Biological Factors that Underlie Individual Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors and Their Implications for Decision-Making.” We considered current experimental and in silico approaches, and emerging data streams (such as genetically defined human cells lines, genetically diverse rodent models, human omic profiling, and genome-wide association studies) that are providing new types of information and models relevant for assessing interindividual variability for application to human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. Discussion: One challenge for characterizing variability is the wide range of sources of inherent biological variability (e.g., genetic and epigenetic variants) among individuals. A second challenge is that each particular pair of health outcomes and chemical exposures involves combinations of these sources, which may be further compounded by extrinsic factors (e.g., diet, psychosocial stressors, other exogenous chemical exposures). A third challenge is that different decision contexts present distinct needs regarding the identification—and extent of characterization—of interindividual variability in the human population. Conclusions: Despite these inherent challenges, opportunities exist to incorporate evidence from emerging data streams for addressing interindividual variability in a range of decision-making contexts. PMID:23086705

  3. Risk Estimation with Epidemiologic Data When Response Attenuates at High-Exposure Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Steenland, Kyle; Seals, Ryan; Klein, Mitch; Jinot, Jennifer; Kahn, Henry D.

    2011-01-01

    Background In occupational studies, which are commonly used for risk assessment for environmental settings, estimated exposure–response relationships often attenuate at high exposures. Relative risk (RR) models with transformed (e.g., log- or square root–transformed) exposures can provide a good fit to such data, but resulting exposure–response curves that are supralinear in the low-dose region may overestimate low-dose risks. Conversely, a model of untransformed (linear) exposure may underes...

  4. Concentrations of environmental organic contaminants in meat and meat products and human dietary exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2017-09-01

    Meat and meat products is one of the most relevant food groups in an important number of human diets. Recently, the IARC, based on results of a number of epidemiological studies, classified the consumptions of red meat and processed meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. It was suggested that the substances responsible of the potential carcinogenicity would be mainly generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures. However, the exposure to environmental pollutants through meat consumption was not discussed. The purpose of the present paper was to review recent studies reporting the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PAHs in meat and meat products, as well as the human exposure to these pollutants through the diet. It is concluded that the health risks derived from exposure to carcinogenic environmental contaminants must be considered in the context of each specific diet, which besides meat and meat products, includes other foodstuffs containing also chemical pollutants, some of them with carcinogenic potential. Anyhow, meat and meat products are not the main food group responsible of the dietary exposure to carcinogenic (or probably carcinogenic) environmental organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Climate change, ozone depletion and the impact on ultraviolet exposure of human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diffey, Brian [Regional Medical Physics Department, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle NE4 6BE (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-07

    For 30 years there has been concern that anthropogenic damage to the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer will lead to an increase of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface, with a consequent adverse impact on human health, especially to the skin. More recently, there has been an increased awareness of the interactions between ozone depletion and climate change (global warming), which could also impact on human exposure to terrestrial UV. The most serious effect of changing UV exposure of human skin is the potential rise in incidence of skin cancers. Risk estimates of this disease associated with ozone depletion suggest that an additional peak incidence of 5000 cases of skin cancer per year in the UK would occur around the mid-part of this century. Climate change, which is predicted to lead to an increased frequency of extreme temperature events and high summer temperatures, will become more frequent in the UK. This could impact on human UV exposure by encouraging people to spend more time in the sun. Whilst future social trends remain uncertain, it is likely that over this century behaviour associated with climate change, rather than ozone depletion, will be the largest determinant of sun exposure, and consequent impact on skin cancer, of the UK population. (topical review)

  6. Climate change, ozone depletion and the impact on ultraviolet exposure of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffey, Brian

    2004-01-07

    For 30 years there has been concern that anthropogenic damage to the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer will lead to an increase of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface, with a consequent adverse impact on human health, especially to the skin. More recently, there has been an increased awareness of the interactions between ozone depletion and climate change (global warming), which could also impact on human exposure to terrestrial UV. The most serious effect of changing UV exposure of human skin is the potential rise in incidence of skin cancers. Risk estimates of this disease associated with ozone depletion suggest that an additional peak incidence of 5000 cases of skin cancer per year in the UK would occur around the mid-part of this century. Climate change, which is predicted to lead to an increased frequency of extreme temperature events and high summer temperatures, will become more frequent in the UK. This could impact on human UV exposure by encouraging people to spend more time in the sun. Whilst future social trends remain uncertain, it is likely that over this century behaviour associated with climate change, rather than ozone depletion, will be the largest determinant of sun exposure, and consequent impact on skin cancer, of the UK population.

  7. Risk assessment due to environmental exposures to fibrous particulates associated with taconite ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Richard; McConnell, Ernest E; Ross, M; Axten, Charles W; Nolan, Robert P

    2008-10-01

    In the early 1970s, it became a concern that exposure to the mineral fibers associated taconite ore processed in Silver Bay, Minnesota would cause asbestos-related disease including gastrointestinal cancer. At that time data gaps existed which have now been significantly reduced by further research. To further our understanding of the types of airborne fibers in Silver Bay we undertook a geological survey of their source the Peter Mitchell Pit, and found that there are no primary asbestos minerals at a detectable level. However we identified two non-asbestos types of fibrous minerals in very limited geological locales. Air sampling useful for risk assessment was done to determine the type, concentrations and size distribution of the population of airborne fibers around Silver Bay. Approximately 80% of the airborne fibers have elemental compositions consistent with cummingtonite-grunerite and the remaining 20% have elemental compositions in the tremolite-actinolite series. The mean airborne concentration of both fiber types is less than 0.00014 fibers per milliliter that is within the background level reported by the World Health Organization. We calculate the risk of asbestos-related mesothelioma and lung cancer using a variety of different pessimistic assumptions. (i) that all the non-asbestos fibers are as potent as asbestos fibers used in the EPA-IRIS listing for asbestos; with a calculated risk of asbestos-related cancer for environmental exposure at Silver Bay of 1 excess cancer in 28,500 lifetimes (or 35 excess cancers per 1,000,000 lifetimes) and secondly that taconite associated fibers are as potent as chrysotile the least potent form of asbestos. The calculated risk is less than 0.77 excess cancer case in 1,000,000 lifetimes. Finally, we briefly review the epidemiology studies of grunerite asbestos (amosite) focusing on the exposure conditions associated with increased risk of human mesothelioma.

  8. Impact of fetal and infant exposure to the Chinese Great Famine on the risk of hypertension in adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Xi Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Famine provides quasi-experimental conditions for testing the hypothesis of "programming" health effects by poor nutrition in early life. It remains uncertain whether early life exposure to famine increases the risk of hypertension in adulthood. There is a lack of data on the relative impact of exposure to famine during fetal development versus infancy (<2 years postnatal. We sought to assess the impact of exposure to the 1959-1961 Chinese Great Famine (the largest in human history during fetal development and infancy on the risks of hypertension, short stature and obesity in adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 12,065 adults (46-53 years of age born 1957-1964 in the Zhongshan and Nanhai municipalities of Guangdong province, China. Adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, as compared to subjects who were unexposed to famine, the risk of hypertension was not significantly elevated in subjects exposed to famine during fetal development only overall, but was 1.36-fold higher in those exposed during the first trimester of pregnancy only [adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.36 (95% confidence intervals 1.03-1.79], 1.83-fold higher in those exposed during infancy only [adjusted OR 1.83 (1.61-2.08], and 1.31-fold higher in those exposed during both fetal development and infancy [adjusted OR 1.31 (1.14-1.51]. Exposure to famine during infancy increased the risk of short stature. Early life exposure to famine did not increase the risk of obesity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Exposure to the Chinese Great Famine during the first trimester of pregnancy only, or during infancy only, or during both fetal development and infancy increased the risk of hypertension in adulthood, suggesting an important role of changes in exposure to famine during fetal development and from prenatal to early postnatal life in developmental "programming" cardiovascular disease risk.

  9. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration.

  10. Estimating the risk of rabies transmission to humans in the U.S.: a delphi analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltzer Martin I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, the risk of rabies transmission to humans in most situations of possible exposure is unknown. Controlled studies on rabies are clearly not possible. Thus, the limited data on risk has led to the frequent administration of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, often in inappropriate circumstances. Methods We used the Delphi method to obtain an expert group consensus estimate of the risk of rabies transmission to humans in seven scenarios of potential rabies exposure. We also surveyed and discussed the merits of recommending rabies PEP for each scenario. Results The median risk of rabies transmission without rabies PEP for a bite exposure by a skunk, bat, cat, and dog was estimated to be 0.05, 0.001, 0.001, and 0.00001, respectively. Rabies PEP was unanimously recommended in these scenarios. However, rabies PEP was overwhelmingly not recommended for non-bite exposures (e.g. dog licking hand but unavailable for subsequent testing, estimated to have less than 1 in 1,000,000 (0.000001 risk of transmission. Conclusions Our results suggest that there are many common situations in which the risk of rabies transmission is so low that rabies PEP should not be recommended. These risk estimates also provide a key parameter for cost-effective models of human rabies prevention and can be used to educate health professionals about situation-specific administration of rabies PEP.

  11. 深圳市60份母乳中二噁英负荷水平与影响因素%The levels of dioxin in 60 human breast milk samples and the exposure risk factor analysis in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓波; 张建清; 张立实; 蒋友胜; 周健

    2010-01-01

    鱼的消费量呈现正相关.%Objective To investigate the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD-Fs) in human breast milk of the mothers who lived in non-directly persistent organic pollutants (POPs) polluted area in Shenzhen,and the correlation of exposure risk factor was analyzed.Methods From July to November in 2007,60 primiparas by vaginal delivery after parturition 3 weeks to 2 months were sampled for breast milk who aged from 20-34 years old and has lived in Shenzhen non-directly POPs polluted areas over 5 years.PCDD-Fs were extracted from the frozen-dried samples with accelerated solvent extraction(ASE),cleaned up by fluid management system(FMS)and quantified by high-resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) using isotope dilution methodology.TEQ were calculated.The correlatien relationship among infant's birth weight and length,participator's dietary,age,inhabitation period,environment and the body burden of PCDD-Fs in mother was statistically analyzed by SPSS 13.0.Results The participants aged from 20-34 years old(28 years on average)and lived in Shenzhen for 5-29 years(10 years on average).The concentration of PCDD-Fs in 60 breast milk samples were 26.957 143-669.583 333 pg/g fat(mean:7.224 817 pg/g fat,median:84.176 062 pg/g fat),and TEQ-PCDD-Fs in samples were 2.420 793-29.014 277 pg/g fat(mean:8.645 992 pg/g fat,median:7.751 804 pg/g fat).2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF,1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD ,2,3,7,8-TCDD were the dominant contributors to the total TEQ,which were 3.691 654 pg/g fat(42.689 378%),2.478 315 pg/g fat(28.652 356%),and 0.980 995 pg/g fat(11.343 995%)respectively.Significant positive correlations were found among age(r=0.26,P < 0.05),inhabitation period(r=0.49,P < 0.05),the consumption of fish(r=0.37,P<0.05)and the concentrations of TEQ-PCDD-Fs in the study.Conclusion The levels of dioxin chemicals in the breast milk samples in non-directly POPs polluted areas of Shenzhen are

  12. BIOTOXIN-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY: AN EMERGING RISK FOR HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing incidence of human illness associated with exposure to biotoxins from harmful algal blooms (HABs) in aquatic environments, and fungi and bacteria on land, may indicate an emerging human-health risk. HABs are reported to be increasing worldwide in frequency, duratio...

  13. A probabilistic assessment of health risks associated with short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, R.G; Biller, W.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Keisler, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    The work described in this report is part of a larger risk assessment sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Earlier efforts developed exposure-response relationships for acute health effects among populations engaged in heavy exertion. Those efforts also developed a probabilistic national ambient air quality standards exposure model and a general methodology for integrating probabilistic exposure-response relation- ships and exposure estimates to calculate overall risk results. Recently published data make it possible to model additional health endpoints (for exposure at moderate exertion), including hospital admissions. New air quality and exposure estimates for alternative national ambient air quality standards for ozone are combined with exposure-response models to produce the risk results for hospital admissions and acute health effects. Sample results explain the methodology and introduce risk output formats.

  14. Arsenic Exposure and the Induction of Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor D. Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a metalloid, that is, considered to be a human carcinogen. Millions of individuals worldwide are chronically exposed through drinking water, with consequences ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies, such as skin and lung cancer. Despite well-known arsenic-related health effects, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood; however, the arsenic biotransformation process, which includes methylation changes, is thought to play a key role. This paper explores the relationship of arsenic exposure with cancer development and summarizes current knowledge of the potential mechanisms that may contribute to the neoplastic processes observed in arsenic exposed human populations.

  15. Mobile phone radiofrequency exposure has no effect on DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Elisa; Lippi, Giuseppe; Buonocore, Ruggero; Benati, Marco; Bovo, Chiara; Bonaguri, Chiara; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Brocco, Giorgio; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Montagnana, Martina

    2017-07-01

    The use of mobile phones has been associated with an increased risk of developing certain type of cancer, especially in long term users. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the potential genotoxic effect of mobile phone radiofrequency exposure on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. The study population consisted in 14 healthy volunteers. After collection of two whole blood samples, the former was placed in a plastic rack, 1 cm from the chassis of a commercial mobile phone (900 MHz carrier frequency), which was activated by a 30-min call. The second blood sample was instead maintained far from mobile phones or other RF sources. The influence of mobile phone RF on DNA integrity was assessed by analyzing γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes using immunofluorescence staining kit on AKLIDES. No measure of γ-H2AX foci was significantly influenced by mobile phone RF exposure, nor mobile phone exposure was associated with significant risk of genetic damages in vitro (odds ratio comprised between 0.27 and 1.00). The results of this experimental study demonstrate that exposure of human lymphocytes to a conventional 900 MHz RF emitted by a commercial mobile phone for 30 min does not significantly impact DNA integrity.

  16. Pesticides: an update of human exposure and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity. A huge body of evidence exists on the possible role of pesticide exposures in the elevated incidence of human diseases such as cancers, Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, bronchitis, infertility, birth defects, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, diabetes, and obesity. Most of the disorders are induced by insecticides and herbicides most notably organophosphorus, organochlorines, phenoxyacetic acids, and triazine compounds.

  17. Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert R.; Meyers, Valerie E.

    2015-01-01

    silica (Permissible Exposure Limit [PEL] 0.05 mg/m3) but more toxic than the nuisance dust titanium dioxide (TiO2 [PEL 5.0 mg/m3]). A PEL for episodic exposure to airborne lunar dust during a six-month stay on the lunar surface was established, in consultation with an independent, extramural panel of expert pulmonary toxicologists, at 0.3 mg/m3. The PEL provided for lunar dust is limited to the conditions and exposure specified therefore additional research remains to be accomplished with lunar dust to further address the issues of activation, address other areas of more unique lunar geology (Glotch et al., 2010; Greenhagen et al., 2010), examine potential toxicological effects of inhaled or ingested dust upon other organ systems, such cardiovascular, nervous systems, and examine effects of acute exposure to massive doses of dust such as may occur during off-nominal situations. Work to support the establishment of PELs for Martian dust and dusts of asteroids remains to be accomplished. The literature that describes health effects of exposure to toxic terrestrial dusts provides substantial basis for concern that prolonged exposure to respirable celestial dust could be detrimental to human health. Celestial bodies where a substantial portion of the dust is in the respirable range or where the dusts have large reactive surface areas or contain transition metals or volatile organics, represent greater risks of adverse effects from exposure to the dust. It is possible that in addition to adverse effects to the respiratory system, inhalation and ingestion of celestial dusts could pose risks to other systems

  18. War exposure, 5-HTTLPR genotype and lifetime risk of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artero, Sylvaine; Touchon, Jacques; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Malafosse, Alain; Ritchie, Karen

    2011-07-01

    In 1962 approximately 1.5 million French people living in Algeria were repatriated to France in very poor and often life-threatening conditions. These people constitute a cohort for the study of the long-term impact of gene-environment interaction on depression. To examine the interaction between a highly stressful life event and subsequent depression, and its modulation by a length polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR). A community sample of people aged 65 years and over residing in the Montpellier region of the south of France was randomly recruited from electoral rolls. Genotyping was performed on 248 repatriated persons and 632 controls. Current and lifetime major and minor depressive disorders were assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. A significant relationship was observed between exposure to repatriation and subsequent depression (Peducation, disability, recent life events and cognitive function, the gene-environment interaction (repatriation × 5-HTTLPR) was globally significant (P<0.002; OR = 3.21, 95% CI 2.48-5.12). Individuals carrying the two short (s) alleles of 5-HTTLPR were observed to be at higher risk (P<0.005; OR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.24-4.32), particularly when repatriation occurred before age 35 years (P<0.002; OR = 2.91, 95% CI 1.44-5.88), but this did not reach significance in those who were older at the time of the event (P = 0.067). The association between depression and war repatriation was significantly modulated by 5-HTTLPR genotype but this appeared to occur only in people who were younger at the time of exposure.

  19. Learning and Risk Exposure in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is a gradual process most apparent over long time-scales and large spatial scales, but it is experienced by those affected as changes in local weather. Climate change will gradually push the weather people experience outside the bounds of historic norms, resulting in unprecedented and extreme weather events. However, people do have the ability to learn about and respond to a changing climate. Therefore, connecting the weather people experience with their perceptions of climate change requires understanding how people infer the current state of the climate given their observations of weather. This learning process constitutes a first-order constraint on the rate of adaptation and is an important determinant of the dynamic adjustment costs associated with climate change. In this paper I explore two learning models that describe how local weather observations are translated into perceptions of climate change: an efficient Bayesian learning model and a simpler rolling-mean heuristic. Both have a period during which the learner's beliefs about the state of the climate are different from its true state, meaning the learner is exposed to a different range of extreme weather outcomes then they are prepared for. Using the example of surface temperature trends, I quantify this additional exposure to extreme heat events under both learning models and both RCP 8.5 and 2.6. Risk exposure increases for both learning models, but by substantially more for the rolling-mean learner. Moreover, there is an interaction between the learning model and the rate of climate change: the inefficient rolling-mean learner benefits much more from the slower rates of change under RCP 2.6 then the Bayesian. Finally, I present results from an experiment that suggests people are able to learn about a trending climate in a manner consistent with the Bayesian model.

  20. Occupational health risk assessment and exposure to floor dust PAHs inside an educational building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkidou, Androniki; Arar, Sharif; Al-Hunaiti, Afnan; Ma, Yuning; Harrad, Stuart; Jaghbeir, Omar; Faouri, Dina; Hämeri, Kaarle; Hussein, Tareq

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) settled in floor dust play an important role in human health. Although many studies investigated occupational exposure to PAHs, no attempts have been made to report PAHs concentrations as well as their health risk assessment inside an educational building in Jordan. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to report the PAHs concentrations in floor dust and evaluate their exposure and health risk inside the Department of Physics of the University of Jordan. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 714 to 5246ng/g. The high concentrations were observed inside some offices, where tobacco smoking took place. One of those offices was previously renovated and some petrochemical liquids were used to remove the remaining glue from a previous carpet. Interestingly, the PAHs inside these offices were higher than those reported inside lecture rooms and the workshop area, where extensive activates of heavy machinery and use of petroleum products (such as lubricating oils). This implies that the health effects of exposure to tobacco smoking inside small micro-environmental places that are poorly ventilated can be very harmful. We also made a simple exposure and health risk assessment for the ingested dust (hand-to-mouth) by calculating the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) and benzo(a)pyrene equivalent carcinogenic power (BaPE). The total EDI was less than 3.75ng/kg-bw/day whereas the BaPE was less than 385ng/g. These values are lower than what was reported in some previous studies in Europe and Asia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The associations between the environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk and progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are chlorinated biphenyl compounds with wide applications in the industry.In spite of a ban on their production in the late 1970s,PCBs,as a group of POPs,are still persistent and widely spread in the environment,posing potential threats to human health.The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo,animal and epidemiologic studies.Initial investigations indicated higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera corresponded to the occurrence of breast cancer,but later studies showed no positive association between PCB exposure and breast cancer development.More recent data suggested that the CYP1A1 m2 polymorphisms might add increased risk to the etiology of breast cancer in women with environmental exposure to PCBs.PCBs are implicated in advancing breast cancer progression,and our unpublished data reveals that PCBs activate the ROCK signaling to enhance breast cancer metastasis.Therefore,the correlation between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk warrants further careful investigations.

  2. Q fever through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products - a risk profile and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Kelly, L; Mearns, R; Duggan, J; Snary, E L

    2015-05-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii which is endemic in cattle, sheep and goats in much of the world, including the United Kingdom (UK). There is some epidemiological evidence that a small proportion of cases in the developed world may arise from consumption of unpasteurised milk with less evidence for milk products such as cheese. Long maturation at low pH may give some inactivation in hard cheese, and viable C. burnetii are rarely detected in unpasteurised cheese compared to unpasteurised milk. Simulations presented here predict that the probability of exposure per person to one or more C. burnetii through the daily cumulative consumption of raw milk in the UK is 0·4203. For those positive exposures, the average level of exposure predicted is high at 1266 guinea pig intraperitoneal infectious dose 50% units (GP_IP_ID50 ) per person per day. However, in the absence of human dose-response data, the case is made that the GP_IP_ID50 unit represents a very low risk through the oral route. The available evidence suggests that the risks from C. burnetii through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products (including cheese) are not negligible but they are lower in comparison to transmission via inhalation of aerosols from parturient products and livestock contact.

  3. Wind turbines: is there a human health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jennifer D; Roberts, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    The term "Wind Turbine Syndrome" was coined in a recently self-published book, which hypothesized that a multitude of symptoms such as headache and dizziness resulted from wind turbines generating low frequency sound (LFS). The objective of this article is to provide a summary of the peer-reviewed literature on the research that has examined the relationship between human health effects and exposure to LFS and sound generated from the operation of wind turbines. At present, a specific health condition has not been documented in the peer-reviewed literature that has been classified as a disease caused by exposure to sound levels and frequencies generated by the operation of wind turbines. Communities are experiencing a heightened sense of annoyance and fear from the development and siting of wind turbine farms. High-quality research and effective risk communication can advance this course from one of panic to one of understanding and exemplification for other environmental advancements.

  4. Climate Change Impacts on Environmental and Human Exposure to Mercury in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Jozef M.; Banel, Anna; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Rautio, Arja

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews information from the literature and the EU ArcRisk project to assess whether climate change results in an increase or decrease in exposure to mercury (Hg) in the Arctic, and if this in turn will impact the risks related to its harmful effects. It presents the state-of-the art of knowledge on atmospheric mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources worldwide, the long-range transport to the Arctic, and it discusses the likely environmental fate and exposure effects on population groups in the Arctic under climate change conditions. The paper also includes information about the likely synergy effects (co-benefits) current and new climate change polices and mitigation options might have on mercury emissions reductions in the future. The review concludes that reductions of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources worldwide would need to be introduced as soon as possible in order to assure lowering the adverse impact of climate change on human health. Scientific information currently available, however, is not in the position to clearly answer whether climate change will increase or decrease the risk of exposure to mercury in the Arctic. New research should therefore be undertaken to model the relationships between climate change and mercury exposure. PMID:25837201

  5. Risk estimation with epidemiologic data when response attenuates at high-exposure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenland, Kyle; Seals, Ryan; Klein, Mitch; Jinot, Jennifer; Kahn, Henry D

    2011-06-01

    In occupational studies, which are commonly used for risk assessment for environmental settings, estimated exposure-response relationships often attenuate at high exposures. Relative risk (RR) models with transformed (e.g., log- or square root-transformed) exposures can provide a good fit to such data, but resulting exposure-response curves that are supralinear in the low-dose region may overestimate low-dose risks. Conversely, a model of untransformed (linear) exposure may underestimate risks attributable to exposures in the low-dose region. We examined several models, seeking simple parametric models that fit attenuating exposure-response data well. We have illustrated the use of both log-linear and linear RR models using cohort study data on breast cancer and exposure to ethylene oxide. Linear RR models fit the data better than do corresponding log-linear models. Among linear RR models, linear (untransformed), log-transformed, square root-transformed, linear-exponential, and two-piece linear exposure models all fit the data reasonably well. However, the slopes of the predicted exposure-response relations were very different in the low-exposure range, which resulted in different estimates of the exposure concentration associated with a 1% lifetime excess risk (0.0400, 0.00005, 0.0016, 0.0113, and 0.0100 ppm, respectively). The linear (in exposure) model underestimated the categorical exposure-response in the low-dose region, whereas log-transformed and square root-transformed exposure models overestimated it. Although a number of models may fit attenuating data well, models that assume linear or nearly linear exposure-response relations in the low-dose region of interest may be preferred by risk assessors, because they do not depend on the choice of a point of departure for linear low-dose extrapolation and are relatively easy to interpret.

  6. A quantitative screening-level approach to incorporate chemical exposure and risk/safety into alternative assessment evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Greggs, Bill; Goyak, Katy O; Landenberger, Bryce D; Mason, Ann M; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2017-03-10

    As the general public and retailers ask for disclosure of chemical ingredients in the marketplace, a number of hazard screening tools were developed to evaluate the so called "greenness" of individual chemical ingredients and/or formulations. The majority of these tools focus only on hazard, often using chemical lists, ignoring the other part of the risk equation: exposure. Using a hazard-only focus can result in regrettable substitutions, changing one chemical ingredient for another that turns out to be more hazardous or shifts the toxicity burden to others. To minimize the incidents of regrettable substitutions, BizNGO describes 'Common Principles' to frame a process for informed substitution. Two of the six principles state reduce hazard and minimize exposure. A number of frameworks have emerged to evaluate and assess alternatives. One framework developed by leading experts under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences recommended that hazard and exposure be specifically addressed in the same step when assessing candidate alternatives. For the alternative assessment community, this paper serves as an informational resource for considering exposure in an alternatives assessment using elements of problem formulation; product identity, use, and composition; hazard analysis; exposure analysis; and risk characterization. These conceptual elements build upon practices from government, academia, and industry and are exemplified through two hypothetical case studies demonstrating the questions asked and decisions faced in new product development. These two case studies - inhalation exposure to a generic paint product and environmental exposure to a shampoo rinsed down the drain - demonstrate the criteria, considerations, and methods required to combine exposure models addressing human health and environmental impacts to provide a screening level hazard/exposure (risk) analysis. This paper informs practices for these elements within a comparative risk

  7. [Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food and cancer risk: recent advances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roveda, Anna Maria; Veronesi, Licia; Zoni, Roberta; Colucci, Maria Eugenia; Sansebastiano, Giuliano

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls are synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds whose commercial production started in the thirties and that have been widely used in the electro-technical industry. Although their production was stopped over 25 years ago, the Stockholm Convention included these compounds among the list of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). In fact, humans continue to be exposed to the toxic effects of PCBs because of their resistance to chemical and biological decomposition, their capacity of bio-accumulation and their long half-life. Studies performed so far have pointed out a possible association between exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and increased risk of developing some types of cancer (breast, prostate, testicular, ovarian and uterine cancers); it has also been suggested that these compounds may act as disruptive endocrine and cause infertility as well as other hormone-regulated disorders. PCBs accumulate in organisms through the food chain, and food is therefore the main exposure source for humans: it accounts for over 90% of exposure, the highest concentrations being found in fish (such as salmon and shellfish), dairy products (especially milk and butter) and animal fat. Moreover, waste-heaps, illegal disposal of oil waste and combustion of certain waste products in incineration plants represent sources of environmental pollution. The highest levels of PCBs in the environment were found in the early 1970s; since then concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls have gradually decreased in all environmental components (water, air, earth and sediments), in fish, in other food products and lastly also in humans, thus suggesting that the associated risks have also likewise diminished.

  8. Effect of Exposure to Non-ionizing Radiation (Electromagnetic Fields on Human System: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rubya Souza C and acirc;mara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate presence of radio base stations, which emit non-ionizing radiation (NIR, as well as the frequent use of mobile phones, can cause increased susceptibility of populations to the emergence of diseases such as cancers of the head and neck, biochemical, hematopoietic and hepatic changes, among others. Exposure to physical contamination, including NIR, has been implicated in numerous diseases, raising concerns about the widespread sources of exposure to this type of radiation. This paper reviews studies that have assessed associations between likely exposure to electromagnetic fields, such as radiofrequency transmissions, and many kinds of human diseases including cancer, as well as alerts to the current knowledge on the association between environmental exposure to NIR and the risk of development of adverse human health effects. This way, there appears to be an urgent need to reconsider exposure limits for low frequency and static magnetic fields, based on combined experimental and epidemiological research. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 187-190

  9. Developing and evaluating distributions for probabilistic human exposure assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2002-08-01

    This report describes research carried out at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assist the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in developing a consistent yet flexible approach for evaluating the inputs to probabilistic risk assessments. The U.S. EPA Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) recently released Volume 3 Part A of Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), as an update to the existing two-volume set of RAGS. The update provides policy and technical guidance on performing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consequently, EPA risk managers and decision-makers need to review and evaluate the adequacy of PRAs for supporting regulatory decisions. A critical part of evaluating a PRA is the problem of evaluating or judging the adequacy of input distributions PRA. Although the overarching theme of this report is the need to improve the ease and consistency of the regulatory review process, the specific objectives are presented in two parts. The objective of Part 1 is to develop a consistent yet flexible process for evaluating distributions in a PRA by identifying the critical attributes of an exposure factor distribution and discussing how these attributes relate to the task-specific adequacy of the input. This objective is carried out with emphasis on the perspective of a risk manager or decision-maker. The proposed evaluation procedure provides consistency to the review process without a loss of flexibility. As a result, the approach described in Part 1 provides an opportunity to apply a single review framework for all EPA regions and yet provide the regional risk manager with the flexibility to deal with site- and case-specific issues in the PRA process. However, as the number of inputs to a PRA increases, so does the complexity of the process for calculating, communicating and managing risk. As a result, there is increasing effort required of both the risk professionals performing the analysis and the risk manager

  10. The Increase in Animal Mortality Risk following Exposure to Sparsely Ionizing Radiation Is Not Linear Quadratic with Dose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Haley

    Full Text Available The US government regulates allowable radiation exposures relying, in large part, on the seventh report from the committee to estimate the Biological Effect of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII, which estimated that most contemporary exposures- protracted or low-dose, carry 1.5 fold less risk of carcinogenesis and mortality per Gy than acute exposures of atomic bomb survivors. This correction is known as the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor for the life span study of atomic bomb survivors (DDREFLSS. It was calculated by applying a linear-quadratic dose response model to data from Japanese atomic bomb survivors and a limited number of animal studies.We argue that the linear-quadratic model does not provide appropriate support to estimate the risk of contemporary exposures. In this work, we re-estimated DDREFLSS using 15 animal studies that were not included in BEIR VII's original analysis. Acute exposure data led to a DDREFLSS estimate from 0.9 to 3.0. By contrast, data that included both acute and protracted exposures led to a DDREFLSS estimate from 4.8 to infinity. These two estimates are significantly different, violating the assumptions of the linear-quadratic model, which predicts that DDREFLSS values calculated in either way should be the same.Therefore, we propose that future estimates of the risk of protracted exposures should be based on direct comparisons of data from acute and protracted exposures, rather than from extrapolations from a linear-quadratic model. The risk of low dose exposures may be extrapolated from these protracted estimates, though we encourage ongoing debate as to whether this is the most valid approach. We also encourage efforts to enlarge the datasets used to estimate the risk of protracted exposures by including both human and animal data, carcinogenesis outcomes, a wider range of exposures, and by making more radiobiology data publicly accessible. We believe that these steps will contribute to better estimates

  11. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Human health risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purucker, S.T.; Douthat, D.M.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow- up information to the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that could cause potential human health risk and ecological risk within WAG2 at ORNL. The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the human health risk assessment results based on the data collected for the WAG 2 Phase 1 RI. Estimates of risk are provided based on measured concentrations in the surface water, floodplain soil, and sediment of White Oak Creek, Melton Branch, and their tributaries. The human health risk assessment methodology used in this risk assessment is based on Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). First, the data for the different media are elevated to determine usability for risk assessment. Second, through the process of selecting chemicals of potential concern (COPCs), contaminants to be considered in the risk assessment are identified for each assessment of exposure potential is performed, and exposure pathways are identified. Subsequently, exposure is estimated quantitatively, and the toxicity of each of the COPCs is determined. The results of these analyses are combined and summarized in a risk characterization.

  12. Human Exposure to Herpesvirus B–Seropositive Macaques, Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Gregory A.; Schillaci, Michael A.; Suaryana, Komang Gde; Putra, Artha; Fuentes, Agustin; Henkel, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. However, the threat of herpesvirus B in nonlaboratory settings worldwide remains to be addressed. We investigated the potential for exposure to herpesvirus B in workers at a “monkey forest” (a temple that has become a tourist attraction because of its monkeys) in Bali, Indonesia. In July 2000, 105 workers at the Sangeh Monkey Forest in Central Bali were surveyed about contact with macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nearly half of those interviewed had either been bitten or scratched by a macaque. Prevalence of injury was higher in those who fed macaques. Serum from 31 of 38 Sangeh macaques contained antibodies to herpesvirus B. We conclude that workers coming into contact with macaques at the Sangeh Monkey Forest are at risk for exposure to herpesvirus B. PMID:12141963

  13. Human exposure to herpesvirus B-seropositive macaques, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Gregory A; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Schillaci, Michael A; Suaryana, Komang Gde; Putra, Artha; Fuentes, Agustin; Henkel, Richard

    2002-08-01

    Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. However, the threat of herpesvirus B in nonlaboratory settings worldwide remains to be addressed. We investigated the potential for exposure to herpesvirus B in workers at a "monkey forest" (a temple that has become a tourist attraction because of its monkeys) in Bali, Indonesia. In July 2000, 105 workers at the Sangeh Monkey Forest in Central Bali were surveyed about contact with macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nearly half of those interviewed had either been bitten or scratched by a macaque. Prevalence of injury was higher in those who fed macaques. Serum from 31 of 38 Sangeh macaques contained antibodies to herpesvirus B. We conclude that workers coming into contact with macaques at the Sangeh Monkey Forest are at risk for exposure to herpesvirus B.

  14. International issues on human health effects of exposure to chemical mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Victor J; Cassee, Flemming R; Groten, John P; van Vliet, Petronella W; van Zorge, Job A

    2002-12-01

    In this article, we highlight new developments and recent studies concerning adverse human health effects related to chemical mixtures. One group of activities comprises the development of a new computer program for analyzing mixture studies and a mathematical model as a basis for combination rules that predict the toxicity of mixtures. Other new activities in the area of experimental studies are the application of gene expression technologies in mixture research, and pattern recognition as a tool in safety evaluation of complex mixtures. A "bottom-up" approach for chemosensory detection of mixtures has recently been presented. Other topics include a method for the safety evaluation of natural flavoring complexes, and an evaluation of the possible health effects of the simultaneous intake of food additives. Examples of issues related to mixtures of airborne chemicals are potential interaction of fine particles and gaseous pollutants in ambient air, nasal cancer associated with inhaled chemical mixtures, and the recommendation of a limit value for volatile organic compounds. Topics of a more strategic nature include studies concerning the public health effects of large airports, and the development of criteria for a harmonized classification of chemical mixtures. This overview illustrates that strategies to tackle the safety evaluation of combined exposures and complex mixtures as well as models facilitating the interpretation of findings in the context of risk assessment of mixtures have become increasingly important. It is true that exposure of humans to chemical mixtures is the rule rather than the exception, and therefore health risk assessments should focus on mixtures and not on single chemicals. It is also true, however, that humans have learned to cope with exposure to huge numbers of chemicals simultaneously (food, water, air, soil, and consumer products). Therefore, in view of limited resources for toxicological research, the focus in toxicology should be

  15. Quantitative cancer risk assessment for occupational exposures to asphalt fumes during built-up roofing asphalt (BURA) operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Mayfield, David B; Goodman, Julie E; Butler, Eric L; Nascarella, Marc A; Williams, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer qualitatively characterized occupational exposure to oxidized bitumen emissions during roofing as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). We examine chemistry, exposure, epidemiology and animal toxicity data to explore quantitative risks for roofing workers applying built-up roofing asphalt (BURA). Epidemiology studies do not consistently report elevated risks, and generally do not have sufficient exposure information or adequately control for confounders, precluding their use for dose-response analysis. Dermal carcinogenicity bioassays using mice report increased tumor incidence with single high doses. In order to quantify potential cancer risks, we develop time-to-tumor model methods [consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose-response analysis and mixtures guidelines] using the dose-time-response shape of concurrent exposures to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) as concurrent controls (which had several exposure levels) to infer presumed parallel dose-time-response curves for BURA-fume condensate. We compare EPA relative potency factor approaches, based on observed relative potency of BURA to B[a]P in similar experiments, and direct observation of the inferred BURA dose-time-response (scaled to humans) as means for characterizing a dermal unit risk factor. We apply similar approaches to limited data on asphalt-fume inhalation and respiratory cancers in rats. We also develop a method for adjusting potency estimates for asphalts that vary in composition using measured fluorescence. Overall, the various methods indicate that cancer risks to roofers from both dermal and inhalation exposure to BURA are within a range typically deemed acceptable within regulatory frameworks. The approaches developed may be useful in assessing carcinogenic potency of other complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic compounds.

  16. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures.

  17. Aggregate human health risk assessment from dust of daily life in the urban environment of Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L Y; Shu, X

    2014-04-01

    Because of the high emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the environment by the increasing number of vehicles in Beijing and the absorption of these PAHs onto particulates, the performance of a preliminary health risk assessment of the aggregate exposure to PAHs of urban citizens in daily life is very important. Urban dust can be used to examine the aggregation of atmospheric particulates from local pollution sources over a long time period and the direct exposure of the urban human population. The environment's correlative with clothing, dining, residing, and traveling in urban daily life was assessed using exposure-receptor-oriented analysis. The multipathway exposure model was used to simulate the lifetime exposure of a female citizen to PAHs in dust. All of the PAH concentrations in dust for each behavior and its correlative environment in Beijing were acceptable because all of the carcinogenic risks of PAHs in the dust were approximately 1.0 × 10(-6). The dominant induced carcinogenic risks in the dust were Benzo(a)pyrene and Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene. The main carcinogenic risk routes for humans were dermal contact and oral intake, which contributed on average 99.78% of the risk. Indoor risk is especially important, as the decoration and height within the building were important impact factors for carcinogenic risk induced by indoor PAHs. For people living in an urban area, a healthy lifestyle includes less decoration per room, living on a low floor, wearing a respirator, and reducing exposed skin area when traveling.

  18. Occupational noise exposure and risk of hypertension in an industrial workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Galusha, Deron; Cantley, Linda F; Cullen, Mark R; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Neitzel, Richard L

    2017-09-22

    Community noise exposure has been shown to increase the risk of hypertension; however, the relationship between occupational noise exposure and hypertension is less clear. Using an inception cohort of workers in a specialty metals manufacturing company, we retrospectively assessed occupational noise exposure, hearing acuity, and incident hypertension diagnoses using administrative datasets. Time-weighted average noise exposure levels were assigned to employees based on their job histories. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to determine the association of noise exposure with risk of incident hypertension. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of incident hypertension did not significantly differ between groups by cumulative continuous or categorized noise exposure metric. We found no increased risk of incident hypertension with exposure to occupational noise among workers. Further assessment examining workers' use of hearing protection devices is warranted. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and sex-differential risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries.......The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries....

  20. NASA Space Radiation Protection Strategies: Risk Assessment and Permissible Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) for short-term and career astronaut exposures to space radiation have been set and approved by NASA with the goal of protecting astronauts against health risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Short term PELs are intended to prevent clinically significant deterministic health effects, including performance decrements, which could threaten astronaut health and jeopardize mission success. Career PELs are implemented to control late occurring health effects, including a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) from cancer, and dose limits are used to prevent cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. For radiation protection, meeting the cancer PEL is currently the design driver for galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event shielding, mission duration, and crew certification (e.g., 1-year ISS missions). The risk of cancer development is the largest known long-term health consequence following radiation exposure, and current estimates for long-term health risks due to cardiovascular diseases are approximately 30% to 40% of the cancer risk for exposures above an estimated threshold (Deep Space one-year and Mars missions). Large uncertainties currently exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation exposure. Improved understanding through radiobiology and physics research allows increased accuracy in risk estimation and is essential for ensuring astronaut health as well as for controlling mission costs, optimization of mission operations, vehicle design, and countermeasure assessment. We will review the Space Radiation Program Element's research strategies to increase accuracy in risk models and to inform development and validation of the permissible exposure limits.

  1. Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. & Cardoso, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the

  2. Documents for Recommended Toxicity Equivalency Factors for Human Health Risk Assessments of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA’s) updated approach for evaluating the human health risks from exposures to environmental media containing dioxin-like compounds (DLCs).

  3. Ochratoxin A in Portugal: A Review to Assess Human Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia C. Duarte

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Portugal, the climate, dietary habits, and food contamination levels present the characteristics for higher population susceptibility to ochratoxin A (OTA, one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health and agro-economic importance. In this review, following a brief historical insight on OTA research, a summary of the available data on OTA occurrence in food (cereals, bread, wine, meat and biological fluids (blood, urine is made. With this data, an estimation of intake is made to ascertain and update the risk exposure estimation of the Portuguese population, in comparison to previous studies and other populations.

  4. DUAL ION EXPOSURE VS. SPLIT-DOSE EXPOSURES IN HUMAN CELL NEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENNETT, P.V.; CUTTER, N.C.; SUTHERLAND, B.M.

    2006-06-05

    Since radiation fields of space contain many-fold more protons than high atomic number, high energy (HZE) particles, cells in astronaut crews will experience on average several proton hits before an HZE hit. Thus radiation regimes of proton exposure before HZE particle exposure simulate space radiation exposure, and measurement of the frequency of neoplastic transformation of human primary cells to anchorage-independent growth simulates in initial step in cancer induction. Previously our group found that exposure to 20 cGy 1 GeV/n protons followed within about 1 hr by a HZE ion (20 cGy 1 GeV/n Fe or Ti ions) hit gave about a 3-fold increase in transformation frequency ([1]). To provide insight into the H-HZE induced increased transformation frequencies, we asked if split doses of the same ion gave similar increased transformation frequencies. However, the data show that the split dose of 20 cGy plus 20 cGy of either H or HZE ions gave about the same effect as the 40 cGy uninterrupted dose, quite different from the effect of the mixed ion H + HZE irradiation. We also asked if lower proton doses than 20 cGy followed 15 minutes later by 20 cGy of HZE ions gave greater than additive transformation frequencies. Substantial increases in transformation levels were observed for all proton doses tested, including 1 cGy. These results point to the signal importance of protons in affecting the effect of space radiation on human cells.

  5. Mercury risk assessment combining internal and external exposure methods for a population living near a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chunyan; Xie, Han; Ye, Xuejie; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Maodian; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2016-12-01

    Risk assessments for human health have been conducted for municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in many western countries, whereas only a few risk assessments have been performed for MSWIs in developing countries such as China where the use of waste incineration is increasing rapidly. To assess the mercury exposure risks of a population living near the largest MSWI in South China, we combined internal exposure and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire. The mercury concentrations in air, soil, and locally collected food around the MSWI were assessed. The total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) of 447 blood samples from a control group, residential exposure group, and MSWI workers were measured. The internal and external exposures of the subject population were analyzed. Significant difference in MeHg concentrations was observed between the control group and the exposed group, between the control group and the MSWI workers, and between the exposed group and the MSWI workers (median levels: 0.70 μg/L, 0.81 μg/L, and 1.02 μg/L for the control group, exposed group, and MSWI workers, respectively). The MeHg/T-Hg ratio was 0.51 ± 0.19, 0.59 ± 0.17 and 0.58 ± 0.25, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that MeHg concentrations were positively correlated with the gaseous mercury in the air. Combining internal and external exposure assessment showed that the direct contribution of MSWI emissions was minor compared with the dietary contribution. The external and internal exposures were well matched with each other. This study also suggested that an integrated method combining internal and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire is feasible to assess the risks for a population living near a MSWI.

  6. Workers' exposures and potential health risks to air toxics in a petrochemical complex assessed by improved methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chang-Chuan; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chang, Ta-Yuan; Tsai, Dai-Hua

    2006-02-01

    This study was designed to comprehensively evaluate workers' potential health risks of exposure to 39 air toxics in the Ta-sher Petrochemical Complex. Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) was used to measure concentrations of air toxics. We used the measured worksite concentrations between 1997 and 1999 at 11 companies in the petrochemical complex, employing 3,100 on-site workers. The 39 measured air toxics included 10 chemicals with acute reference exposure levels (RELa), 19 chemicals with chronic reference exposure levels (RELc), and 3 chemicals classified as Class 1 or 2A human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We then used RELa to calculate the hazard index of acute health effects (HI ( A )) for workers in individual plants. We also calculated the hazard index of chronic health effects (HIc) and cancer risks for all workers in the entire petrochemical complex. Workers in five companies had HI ( A ) greater than 1 because of toluene, benzene, methyl ethyl ketone, chloroform and isopropanol exposures. Workers in this petrochemical complex had HIc greater than 1 because of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, hydrogen cyanide, and n,n-dimethylformamide exposures. Risk of hematopoietic system cancer because of benzene and ethylene oxide exposure, and respiratory system cancer because of 1,3-butadiene exposure was estimated to be 3.1-6.1 x 10(-4) and 5.2-7.1 x 10(-4), respectively. Our findings indicated that workers in the petrochemical complex might have excess cancer and noncancer risks due to acute or chronic exposures to air toxics from multiple emission sources.

  7. Breastfeeding and perinatal exposure, and the risk of asthma and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Caroline J; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2016-06-01

    Exposures during the perinatal period, a phase of rapid development, may have a profound and sustained effect on disease risk. In particular, perinatal exposures may influence the development and maturation of the infant immune system and the risk of allergic disease. We aimed to summarize the current literature on perinatal exposures and the risk of asthma and allergic disease Increased risk of offspring wheeze or asthma was found for: maternal obesity and hypertension during pregnancy; febrile illness, gynaecological, and viral respiratory infections in pregnancy; exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates in pregnancy and childhood; exposure to smoking in utero; low birth weight; caesarean section and neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Reduced risk of offspring atopic eczema was found for hookworm infection in pregnancy and reduced risk of offspring wheeze was associated with increased pregnancy dietary intake of vitamin E and zinc. Higher levels of selenium in pregnancy were associated with less risk of asthma in genetically susceptible offspring. Early life pet ownership was associated with a decrease in atopic asthma but an increase in nonatopic asthma risk. A diverse range of exposures were associated with allergic disease risk, highlighting the susceptibility of children during the perinatal period. Clinicians should reinforce public health messages concerning maternal obesity, smoking, and breastfeeding. The infant gut microbiome is emerging as an important hypothesis, which may mediate the relationship between many perinatal exposures and allergic disease.

  8. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety. PMID:23230464

  9. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-09-01

    For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.

  10. Human Plague Risk: Spatial-Temporal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    This chpater reviews the use of spatial-temporal models in identifying potential risks of plague outbreaks into the human population. Using earth observations by satellites remote sensing there has been a systematic analysis and mapping of the close coupling between the vectors of the disease and climate variability. The overall result is that incidence of plague is correlated to positive El Nino/Southem Oscillation (ENSO).

  11. Reevaluation of a Radiation Risk Coefficient Based on a Review of the DDREF of Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urabe, I.

    2004-07-01

    On the basis of the consideration of the dose rate effectiveness of radiation exposure a sigmoid curve was fitted to the solid cancer dose response by A-bomb survivors. Since the variation of the ERR of solid cancer mortality could be represented by the sigmoid function, the DDREF of 10 was obtained by using the ERR per Sv around the weighted dose of 0.9 Sv (inflection point of the sigmoid curve) and 0.1 Sv (dose limit per 5 year or emergency) of the curve fitted. Though this might be large than the present value, the DDREF obtained here could be supported by the results of the studies in experimental human cells and animals conducting over wide dose and dose rate range such as acute, protracted and chronic exposure, which gave dose rate effectiveness factors from about 1 to 10 or more. Furthermore, it was quite possible that the higher DDREF would be explained by the acquirement of abilities of reducing the effects by radiation exposures. Based on these discussion, it has become clear that applying the DDREF of 10 yields a nominal value of 1x 10''-2 Sv for the probability of induced fatal caner in a population. And the annual mortality risk of 1x10''-5/y corresponding to the exposure of 1 mSv/y, which was on the order of the external annual background doses, was considered to be reasonable because it was well known that incidences below the risk of 1x10''-5/y were the events that the people did not show much concern about protective actions for mitigating the detriment in the society. (Author) 15 refs.

  12. Identification of fipronil metabolites in rodents by time-of-flight mass spectrometry for application in a human exposure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide commonly used in residential and agricultural applications. To understand more about the potential risks associated with fipronil, dosed Long Evans rats were evaluated for metabolites to develop a set of biomarkers for use in human exposur...

  13. Metabolomic Response of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Germ-like Cells after Exposure to Steroid Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the potential risks of human exposure to endocrine active compounds (EACs), the mechanisms of toxicity must first be identified and characterized. Currently, there are no robust in vitro models for identifying the mechanisms of toxicity in germ cells resulting from EAC ...

  14. Identification of fipronil metabolites in rodents by time-of-flight mass spectrometry for application in a human exposure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide commonly used in residential and agricultural applications. To understand more about the potential risks associated with fipronil, dosed Long Evans rats were evaluated for metabolites to develop a set of biomarkers for use in human exposur...

  15. Noise and hand-arm vibration exposure in relation to the risk of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Hans; Burström, Lage; Hagberg, Mats; Lundström, Ronnie; Nilsson, Tohr

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible association of combined exposure of noise and hand-arm vibration (HAV) and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Workers in a heavy engineering industry were part of a dynamic cohort. Of these workers, 189 had HAV exposure, and their age and hearing status were recorded in the same year and were, therefore, included in the analysis. Data on HAV duration and acceleration was gathered through questionnaires, observations, and measurements. All available audiograms were categorized into normal and hearing loss. The first exposure variable included the lifetime HAV exposure. The lifetime HAV exposure was multiplied by the acceleration of HAV for the second and third exposure variable. Logistic regression using the Generalized Estimation Equations method was chosen to analyze the data to account for the repeated measurements. The analysis was performed with both continuous exposure variables and with exposure variables grouped into exposure quartiles with hearing loss as an outcome and age as a covariate. With continuous exposure variables, the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for hearing loss was equal to or greater than one for all exposure variables. When the exposure variables were grouped into quartiles, the OR with a 95% CI was greater than one at the third and fourth quartile. The results show that working with vibrating machines in an environment with noise exposure increases the risk of hearing loss, supporting an association between exposure to noise and HAV, and the noise-induced hearing loss.

  16. Acute marijuana effects on human risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Scott D; Cherek, Don R; Tcheremissine, Oleg V; Lieving, Lori M; Pietras, Cythia J

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies have established a relationship between marijuana use and risky behavior in natural settings. A limited number of laboratory investigations of marijuana effects on human risk taking have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the acute effects of smoked marijuana on human risk taking, and to identify behavioral mechanisms that may be involved in drug-induced changes in the probability of risky behavior. Using a laboratory measure of risk taking designed to address acute drug effects, 10 adults were administered placebo cigarettes and three doses of active marijuana cigarettes (half placebo and half 1.77%; 1.77%; and 3.58% Delta9-THC) in a within-subject repeated-measures experimental design. The risk-taking task presented subjects with a choice between two response options operationally defined as risky and nonrisky. Data analyses examined cardiovascular and subjective effects, response rates, distribution of choices between the risky and nonrisky option, and first-order transition probabilities of trial-by-trial data. The 3.58% THC dose increased selection of the risky response option, and uniquely shifted response probabilities following both winning and losing outcomes following selection of the risky option. Acute marijuana administration thereby produced measurable changes in risky decision making under laboratory conditions. Consistent with previous risk-taking studies, shifts in trial-by-trial response probabilities at the highest dose suggested a change in sensitivity to both reinforced and losing risky outcomes. Altered sensitivity to consequences may be a mechanism in drug-induced changes in risk taking. Possible neurobiological sites of action related to THC are discussed.

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  18. Job Exposure Matrix for Electric Shock Risks with Their Uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena P. Vergara; Fischer, Heidi J.; Michael Yost; Michael Silva; Lombardi, David A; Leeka Kheifets

    2015-01-01

    We present an update to an electric shock job exposure matrix (JEM) that assigned ordinal electric shocks exposure for 501 occupational titles based on electric shocks and electrocutions from two available data sources and expert judgment. Using formal expert elicitation and starting with data on electric injury, we arrive at a consensus-based JEM. In our new JEM, we quantify exposures by adding three new dimensions: (1) the elicited median proportion; (2) the elicited 25th percentile; and (3...

  19. [Offshore substation workers' exposure to harmful factors - Actions minimizing risk of hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Paweł Janusz; Robak, Sylwester; Polewaczyk, Mateusz Maksymilian; Raczkowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The current development of electric power industry in Poland, especially in the field of renewable energy sources, including wind power, brings about the need to introduce legislation on new work environment. The development of occupational safety and health (OSH) regulations that must be met by new workplaces, such as offshore substations becomes necessary in view of the construction of modern offshore wind power plants - offshore wind farms. Staying on offshore substation is associated with an increased exposure to harmful health factors: physical, chemical, biological and psychophysical. The main sources of health risks on offshore substations are: temperature, electromagnetic field, noise from operating wind turbines, direct and alternating current, chemicals, Legionella bacteria and social isolation of people. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the problem of offshore substation workers' exposure to harmful factors and to present methods of preventing and reducing the risk-related adverse health effects. In this paper, there are identified and described risks occurring on offshore substations (fire, explosion, lightning, accidents at work). Some examples of the means and the methods for reducing the negative impact of exposure on the human health are presented and discussed. The article also highlights the need to develop appropriate laws and health and safety regulations concerning the new working environment at the offshore substations. The review of researches and international standards shows that some of them can be introduced into the Polish labor market. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Antidepressant exposure in pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen MJ

    2013-11-01

    for autism spectrum disorder in a sibling design. Results: Children exposed prenatally to antidepressants had an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–1.9 for autism spectrum disorder compared with unexposed children. Restricting the analysis to children of women with a diagnosis of affective disorder, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.2 (95% CI 0.7–2.1, and the risk was further reduced when exposed children were compared with their unexposed siblings (adjusted hazard ratio 1.1; 95% CI 0.5–2.3. Conclusion: After controlling for important confounding factors, there was no significant association between prenatal exposure to antidepressant medication and autism spectrum disorders in the offspring. Keywords: antidepressants, depression; autism, autism spectrum disorder, childhood autism, pregnancy