WorldWideScience

Sample records for human exposure monitoring

  1. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e......) occupational exposure limit value of styrene in ambient air. The consideration of ethical issues in human genetic monitoring is an important but often overlooked aspect. This includes the scientific and preventional relevance of performing a test on individuals, pre- and post study information of donors...

  2. EVALUATION OF A PERSONAL NEPHELOMETER FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current particulate matter (PM) exposure studies are using continuous personal nephelometers (pDR-1000, MIE, Inc.) to measure human exposure to PM. The personal nephelometer is a passive sampler which uses light scattering technology to measure particles ranging in size from 0....

  3. Quantifying human exposure to air pollution--moving from static monitoring to spatio-temporally resolved personal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive Eric

    2013-01-15

    Quantifying human exposure to air pollutants is a challenging task. Ambient concentrations of air pollutants at potentially harmful levels are ubiquitous in urban areas and subject to high spatial and temporal variability. At the same time, every individual has unique activity-patterns. Exposure results from multifaceted relationships and interactions between environmental and human systems, adding complexity to the assessment process. Traditionally, approaches to quantify human exposure have relied on pollutant concentrations from fixed air quality network sites and static population distributions. New developments in sensor technology now enable us to monitor personal exposure to air pollutants directly while people are moving through their activity spaces and varying concentration fields. The literature review on which this paper is based on reflects recent developments in the assessment of human exposure to air pollution. This includes the discussion of methodologies and concepts, and the elaboration of approaches and study designs applied in the field. We identify shortcomings of current approaches and discuss future research needs. We close by proposing a novel conceptual model for the integrated assessment of human exposure to air pollutants taking into account latest technological capabilities and contextual information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative analysis of untreated human nails for monitoring human exposure to heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Koichiro; Futatsugawa, Shouji; Murao, Satoshi; Clemente, E.

    2002-01-01

    In order to address global environmental issues, a standard-free method developed by ourselves has been successfully applied to various kinds of bio-samples. Especially, a method for untreated hairs has been applied in many polluted areas to study human exposure to toxic elements. In addition to hair, nail is expected to give us valuable information about human exposure to toxic elements. However, the analysis requires relatively large amounts of samples and laborious sample preparation techniques which necessitate internal standards. In this work, we have developed a quantitative method for untreated human-nail analysis based on the standard-free method. It requires neither large amounts of nails nor complicated target preparation procedure. Furthermore, it is perfectly free from any ambiguity in target preparation such as volatilization of certain elements and contamination of the sample during chemical ashing. The optimum conditions of irradiating nail samples are established, and accuracy and reproducibility of the present method are confirmed. It is found that ultrasonic washing in distilled water is effective for many nail samples preventing the loss of elements from the sample. It is also found that elemental concentration in nails strongly depends on their sampling positions. (author)

  5. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  6. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service

  7. Quantifying human exposure to air pollution - moving from static monitoring to spatio-temporally resolved personal exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E

    2013-01-01

    exposure studies to accurately assess human health risks. ? We discuss potential and shortcomings of methods and tools with a focus on how their development influences study design. ? We propose a novel conceptual model for integrated health impact assessment of human exposure to air pollutants. ? We......Quantifying human exposure to air pollutants is a challenging task. Ambient concentrations of air pollutants at potentially harmful levels are ubiquitous in urban areas and subject to high spatial and temporal variability. At the same time, every individual has unique activity-patterns. Exposure...... results from multifaceted relationships and interactions between environmental and human systems, adding complexity to the assessment process. Traditionally, approaches to quantify human exposure have relied on pollutant concentrations from fixed air quality network sites and static population...

  8. Human biological monitoring for exposure assessment in response to an incident involving hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Paul T J; van Brederode, Nelly E; Bos, Peter M J; Nijhuis, Nicole J; van de Weerdt, Rik H J; van der Woude, Irene; Eggens, Martin L

    2014-12-15

    Biological monitoring in humans (HBM) is widely used in the field of occupational and environmental health. In the situation of an unexpected release of hazardous materials HBM may contribute to the medical support and treatment of exposed individuals from the general population or of emergency responders. Such exposure information may also be used to respond to individual concerns such as questions about a possible relationship between the chemicals released during the incident and health effects. In The Netherlands a guideline was prepared to support early decision-making about the possible use of HBM for exposure assessment during or as soon as possible following a chemical incident. The application of HBM in such an emergency setting is not much different from situations where HBM is normally used but there are some issues that need extra attention such as the choice of the biomarker, the biological media to be sampled, the time point at which biological samples should be collected, the ethics approval and technical implementation of the study protocol and the interpretation and communication of the study results. These issues addressed in the new guideline will support the use of HBM in the management of chemical disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biological monitoring of radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    1998-11-01

    Complementary to physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry systems have been developed and applied which weight the different components of environmental radiation according to their biological efficacy. They generally give a record of the accumulated exposure of individuals with high sensitivity and specificity for the toxic agent under consideration. Basically three different types of biological detecting/monitoring systems are available: (i) intrinsic biological dosimeters that record the individual radiation exposure (humans, plants, animals) in measurable units. For monitoring ionizing radiation exposure, in situ biomarkers for genetic (e.g. chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, germ line minisatellite mutation rates) or metabolic changes in serum, plasma and blood (e.g. serum lipids, lipoproteins, lipid peroxides, melatonin, antibody titer) have been used. (ii) Extrinsic biological dosimeters/indicators that record the accumulated dose in biological model systems. Their application includes long-term monitoring of changes in environmental UV radiation and its biological implications as well as dosimetry of personal UV exposure. (iii) Biological detectors/biosensors for genotoxic substances and agents such as bacterial assays (e.g. Ames test, SOS-type test) that are highly sensitive to genotoxins with high specificity. They may be applicable for different aspects in environmental monitoring including the International Space Station.

  10. Human scalp hair as an epidemiologic monitor of environmental exposure to elemental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.; Sajjad, M.; DeSilva, K.N.; Secord, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of using scalp hair as an epidemiological monitor of environmental exposure is being evaluated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods using short-lived nuclides have been developed for simultaneous multielement determinations in scalp hair. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) method has been used for measuring Pb and Cd. Precision and accuracy of the methods have been evaluated by analyzing standard reference materials and IAEA Intercomparison Hair Sample HH-1. A detailed study on different hair washing methods has been done and reported here. The effect of exogenous contaminants from shampoo on levels of certain elements has been studied. Variation of trace element levels along the longitudinal segments of hair strands has been investigated. The methodologies have been applied to screen population groups exposed to environmental arsenic and to study trichothiodystrophy. (author)

  11. Health risk evaluation associated to Planktothrix rubescens: An integrated approach to design tailored monitoring programs for human exposure to cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganelli, Maura; Scardala, Simona; Stefanelli, Mara; Vichi, Susanna; Mattei, Daniela; Bogialli, Sara; Ceccarelli, Piegiorgio; Corradetti, Ernesto; Petrucci, Ines; Gemma, Simonetta; Testai, Emanuela; Funari, Enzo

    2010-03-01

    Increasing concern for human health related to cyanotoxin exposure imposes the identification of pattern and level of exposure; however, current monitoring programs, based on cyanobacteria cell counts, could be inadequate. An integrated approach has been applied to a small lake in Italy, affected by Planktothrix rubescens blooms, to provide a scientific basis for appropriate monitoring program design. The cyanobacterium dynamic, the lake physicochemical and trophic status, expressed as nutrients concentration and recycling rates due to bacterial activity, the identification/quantification of toxic genotype and cyanotoxin concentration have been studied. Our results indicate that low levels of nutrients are not a marker for low risk of P. rubescens proliferation and confirm that cyanobacterial density solely is not a reliable parameter to assess human exposure. The ratio between toxic/non-toxic cells, and toxin concentrations, which can be better explained by toxic population dynamic, are much more diagnostic, although varying with time and environmental conditions. The toxic fraction within P. rubescens population is generally high (30-100%) and increases with water depth. The ratio toxic/non-toxic cells is lowest during the bloom, suggesting a competitive advantage for non-toxic cells. Therefore, when P. rubescens is the dominant species, it is important to analyze samples below the thermocline, and quantitatively estimate toxic genotype abundance. In addition, the identification of cyanotoxin content and congeners profile, with different toxic potential, are crucial for risk assessment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Neonicotinoids Using Urine Samples, and Neonicotinoid Excretion Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kouji H.; Tanaka, Keiko; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Imanaka, Mie; Niisoe, Tamon; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Inoue, Sumiko; Kusakawa, Koichi; Oshima, Masayo; Watanabe, Kiyohiko; Yasojima, Makoto; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid) microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53–3.66 μg/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 μg/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake. PMID:26731104

  13. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Neonicotinoids Using Urine Samples, and Neonicotinoid Excretion Kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji H Harada

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults.Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53-3.66 μg/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 μg/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake.

  14. Human Exposure and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ROE is divided into 5 themes: Air, Water, Land, Human Exposure and Health and Ecological Condition. From these themes, the report indicators address fundamental questions that the ROE attempts to answer. For human health there are 3 questions.

  15. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  16. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  17. 10 CFR 850.24 - Exposure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exposure monitoring. 850.24 Section 850.24 Energy... Exposure monitoring. (a) General. The responsible employer must ensure that: (1) Exposure monitoring is... activities properly. (b) Initial monitoring. The responsible employer must perform initial monitoring in...

  18. Effect of physical exertion on the biological monitoring of exposure to various solvents following exposure by inhalation in human volunteers: III. Styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchon, Ginette; Brochu, Martin; Tardif, Robert

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different work load intensities on biological indicators of styrene exposure. Four adult Caucasian men, aged 20 to 44 years, were recruited. Groups of 2-4 volunteers were exposed to 20 ppm of styrene in an exposure chamber according to scenarios involving either aerobic, muscular, or both types of physical exercise for 3 or 7 hr. The target intensities for each 30-min exercise period-interspaced with 15 min at rest-were the following: REST, 38 watts AERO (time-weighted average intensity), 34 watts AERO/MUSC, 49 watts AERO/MUSC, and 54 watts AERO for 7 hr and 22 watts MUSC for 3 hr. End-exhaled air samples were collected at 15 time points during and after 7-hr exposures for the determination of styrene concentrations. Urine samples were collected before the start of exposure, after the first 3 hr of exposure, and at the end of exposure for the determination of mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglyoxilic acid (PGA) concentrations. Compared with exposure at rest, styrene in alveolar air increased by a factor up to 1.7, while the sum of urinary MA and PGA increased by a factor ranging from 1.2 to 3.5, depending on the exposure scenario. Concentrations of biological indicators of styrene fluctuated with physical exertion and were correlated with the magnitude of the physical activity and pulmonary ventilation. Despite the physical exertion effect, urinary concentrations of styrene metabolites after a single-day exposure remain below the current biological exposure index value recommended by ACGIH; therefore, no additional health risk is expected. However, results shows that work load intensities must be considered in the interpretation of biological monitoring data and in the evaluation of the health risk associated with styrene exposure.

  19. Monitoring urinary mercapturic acids as biomarkers of human dietary exposure to acrylamide in combination with acrylamide uptake assessment based on duplicate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenz, Meike; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2016-04-01

    The present human intervention study investigated the relation between the intake of acrylamide (AA) in diets with minimized, low, and high AA contents and the levels of urinary exposure biomarkers. As biomarkers, the mercapturic acids, N-acetyl-S-(carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA) were monitored. The study was performed with 14 healthy male volunteers over a period of 9 days, under controlled conditions excluding any inadvertent AA exposure. Dietary exposure to AA was measured by determining AA contents in duplicates of all meals consumed by the volunteers. The study design included an initial washout period of 3 days on AA-minimized diet, resulting in dietary AA exposure not exceeding 41 ng/kg bw/d. Identical washout periods of 2 days each followed the AA exposure days (day 4, low exposure, and day 7, high exposure). At the respective AA intake days, volunteers ingested 0.6-0.8 (low exposure) or 1.3-1.8 (high exposure) μg AA/kg bw/d with their food. Both low and high AA intakes resulted in an AAMA output within 72 h corresponding to 58 % of the respective AA intake. At the end of the initial 3-day washout period, an AAMA baseline level of 93 ± 31 nmol/d was recorded, suggestive for an assumed net AA baseline exposure level of 0.2-0.3 μg AA/kg bw/d.

  20. 30 CFR 57.5071 - Exposure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 57.5071 Section 57.5071... Exposure monitoring. (a) Mine operators must monitor as often as necessary to effectively determine, under... miners and their representatives with an opportunity to observe exposure monitoring required by this...

  1. Immunologic methods for monitoring carcinogen exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Regina M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Zhang, Yu J.; Chen, Chen J.; Young, Tie L.

    1993-03-01

    Immunologic methods have been developed for monitoring human exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens. These methods involve the development of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera which specifically recognize the carcinogens themselves or their DNA or protein adducts. Antisera recognizing the DNA adducts of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides have been used in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to monitor adducts in tissue or blood samples. Elevated levels of DNA adducts have been seen in mononuclear cells of smokers and in total white blood cells of foundry and coke oven workers. Environmental exposure to PAH has been measured in individuals living in a highly polluted region of Poland. Antisera recognizing PAH-DNA adducts have also been used in immunohistochemical studies to monitor adducts in specific cells of biopsy samples. The DNA adducts of aflatoxin B1 have been monitored in liver tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Taiwan. Detectable adducts were seen in 50 - 70% of the patients suggesting that dietary exposure to this carcinogen may be a risk factor for cancer induction. Thus, immunoassays for monitoring exposure to carcinogens are an important tool in epidemiologic studies.

  2. Environmental and human exposure assessment monitoring of communities near an abandoned mercury mine in the Philippines: a toxic legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Nelia P C; Reyes, Jose Paciano; Francisco-Rivera, Ana Trinidad; Panganiban, Lynn Crisanta R; Dioquino, Carissa; Dando, Nerissa; Timbang, Rene; Akagi, Hirokatsu; Castillo, Ma Teresa; Quitoriano, Carmela; Afuang, Maredith; Matsuyama, Akito; Eguchi, Tomomi; Fuchigami, Youko

    2006-10-01

    Abandoned mines are an important global concern and continue to pose real or potential threats to human safety and health including environmental damage/s. Very few countries had government mine regulation and reclamation policies until the latter part of the century where legal, financial and technical procedures were required for existing mining operations. Major reasons for mine closure may be mainly due to poor economies of the commodity making mining unprofitable, technical difficulties and national security. If the mine is abandoned, more often than not it is the government that shoulders the burden of clean-up, monitoring and remediation. The topic of abandoned mines is complex because of the associated financial and legal liability implications. Abandoned mercury mines have been identified as one of the major concerns because of their significant long-term environmental problems. Primary mercury production is still ongoing in Spain, Kyrgzystan, China, Algeria, Russia and Slovakia while world production declined substantially in the late 1980s. In the Philippines, the mercury mine located southeast of Manila was in operation from 1955 to 1976, before ceasing operation because of the decline in world market price for the commodity. During this time, annual production of mercury was estimated to be about 140,000 kg of mercury yearly. Approximately 2,000,000 t of mine-waste calcines (retorted ore) were produced during mining and roughly 1,000,000 t of these calcines were dumped into nearby Honda Bay to construct a jetty to facilitate mine operations where about 2000 people reside in the nearby three barangays. In October, 1994 the Department of Health received a request from the Provincial Health Office for technical assistance relative to the investigation of increasing complaints of unusual symptoms (e.g. miscarriages, tooth loss, muscle weakness, paralysis, anemia, tremors, etc.) among residents of three barangays. Initial health reports revealed significant

  3. Industrial chemical exposure: guidelines for biological monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauwerys, Robert R; Hoet, Perrine

    2001-01-01

    .... With Third Edition of Industrial Chemical Exposure you will understand the objectives of biological monitoring, the types of biological monitoring methods, their advantages and limitations, as well...

  4. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  5. Effect of physical exertion on the biological monitoring of exposure of various solvents following exposure by inhalation in human volunteers: I. Toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Véronique; Truchon, Ginette; Brochu, Martin; Tardif, Robert

    2006-09-01

    Physical exertion (work load) has been recognized as one of several factors that can influence the kinetics of xenobiotics within the human body. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of physical exertion on two exposure indicators of toluene (TOL) in human volunteers exposed under controlled conditions in an inhalation chamber. A group of four volunteers (one woman, three men) were exposed to TOL (50 ppm) according to the following scenarios involving several periods during which volunteers were asked to perform either aerobic (AERO), muscular (MUSC), or both (AERO/MUSC) types of physical exercise (exercise bicycle, treadmills, pulleys). The target intensities (W) for each exercising period of 30 min--interspaced with 15 min at rest--were the following: REST, 50 W AERO (time-weighted average intensity [TWAI]: 46 watts); 50 W AERO/MUSC (TWAI: 38 watts) and 100 W AERO (TWAI: 71 watts) for 7 hours and 50 W MUSC for 3 hours (TWAI: 29 watts). Alveolar air and urine samples were collected at different time intervals before, during, and after exposure for the measurement of unchanged TOL in expired air (TOL-A) and urinary o-cresol (o-CR). Overall, the results showed that TOL-A measured during and after all scenarios involving physical activities were higher (approximately 1.4-2.0 fold) compared with exposures at rest. All scenarios involving physical exertion also resulted in increased end-of-exposure urinary o-CR (mean +/- SD): 0.9 +/- 0.1 mg/L (REST) vs. 2.0 +/- 0.1 mg/L (TWAI 46 watts). However, exposure at a TWAI of 71 watts did not further increase o-CR excretion (1.7 +/- 0.2 mg/L). This study confirms the significant effect of work load on TOL kinetics and showed that o-CR excretion increased proportionally with work load expressed as TWAI or with the estimated mean pulmonary ventilation during the period of exposure. This study also shows that exposure to TOL (50 ppm) involving a work load of around 50 W (light intensity) or lower is likely to produce

  6. Human exposure to nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, P

    1984-01-01

    In order of abundance in the earth's crust, nickel ranks as the 24th element and has been detected in different media in all parts of the biosphere. Thus, humans are constantly exposed to this ubiquitous element, though in variable amounts. Occupational exposures may lead to the retention of 100 micrograms of nickel per day. Environmental nickel levels depend particularly on natural sources, pollution from nickel-manufacturing industries and airborne particles from combustion of fossil fuels. Absorption from atmospheric nickel pollution is of minor concern. Vegetables usually contain more nickel than do other food items. Certain products, such as baking powder and cocoa powder, have been found to contain excessive amounts of nickel, perhaps related to nickel leaching during the manufacturing process. Soft drinking-water and acid beverages may dissolve nickel from pipes and containers. Scattered studies indicate a highly variable dietary intake of nickel, but most averages are about 200-300 micrograms/day. In addition, skin contact to a multitude of metal objects may be of significance to the large number of individuals suffering from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy. Finally, nickel alloys are often used in nails and prostheses for orthopaedic surgery, and various sources may contaminate intravenous fluids. Thus, human nickel exposure originates from a variety of sources and is highly variable. Occupational nickel exposure is of major significance, and leaching of nickel may add to dietary intakes and to cutaneous exposures. 79 references.

  7. Effect of physical exertion on the biological monitoring of exposure to various solvents following exposure by inhalation in human volunteers: II. n-Hexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Robert; Nadeau, Véronique; Truchon, Ginette; Brochu, Martin

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated the impact of physical exertion on two n-hexane (HEX) exposure indicators in human volunteers exposed under controlled conditions in an inhalation chamber. A group of four volunteers (two women, two men) were exposed to HEX (50 ppm; 176 mg/m(3)) according to several scenarios involving several periods when volunteers performed either aerobic (AERO), muscular (MUSC), or both AERO/MUSC types of exercise. The target intensities for 30-min exercise periods separated by 15-min rest periods were the following: REST, 50W AERO [time-weighted average intensity including resting period (TWAI): 38W], 50W AERO/MUSC (TWAI: 34W), 100W AERO/MUSC (TWAI: 63W), and 100W AERO (TWAI: 71W) for 7 hr (two 3-hr exposure periods separated by 1 hr without exposure) and 50W MUSC for 3 hr (TWAI: 31W). Alveolar air and urine samples were collected at different time intervals before, during, and after exposure to measure unchanged HEX in expired air (HEX-A) and urinary 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD). HEX-A levels during exposures involving AERO activities (TWAI: 38W and 71W) were significantly enhanced (approximately +14%) compared with exposure at rest. MUSC or AERO/MUSC exercises were also associated with higher HEX-A levels but only at some sampling times. In contrast, end-of-exposure (7 hr) urinary 2,5-HD (mean +/- SD) was not modified by physical exertion: 4.14 +/- 1.51 micromol/L (REST), 4.02 +/- 1.52 micromol/L (TWAI 34W), 4.25 +/- 1.53 micromol/L (TWAI 38W), 3.73 +/- 2.09 micromol/L (TWAI 63W), 3.6 +/- 1.34 micromol/L (TWAI 71W) even though a downward trend was observed. Overall, this study showed that HEX kinetics is practically insensitive to moderate variations in workload intensity; only HEX-A levels increased slightly, and urinary 2,5-HD levels remained unchanged despite the fact that all types of physical exercise increased the pulmonary ventilation rate.

  8. Trace element content of human hair determined using neutron activation analysis as monitor of exposure effects to environmental metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutkiewicz, T.; Paprotny, W.; Sokolowska, D.; Kulka, E.; Woyciechowska, E.; Dybczynski, R.; Sterlinski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Determination of 17 trace elements, mainly metals, in small hair samples by neutron activation analysis was elaborated. The number of elements determined in one sample made it possible to assess quickly the exposure of human population in a given region. The hair samples after careful washing according to procedure elaborated previously were irradiated in high reactor neutron flux (approximately 10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 ). The activities of samples were measured three times (for different decay times) by means of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometer. A new version of the comparator technique, called a triple-single comparator method, was applied for quantitative analysis. The statistical methods used for planning of sampling and preliminary results on evaluation of analytical data are also described. (author)

  9. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: many monitored persons = high exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural radiation affects the entire population in Germany, and most of Germany's inhabitants are exposed to medical radiation in their lifetime. Occupational radiation exposure, however, is a kind of exposure affecting only a limited and well-defined group of the population, and this radiation exposure has been recorded and monitored as precisely as technically possible ever since the radiation protection laws made occupational radiation exposure monitoring a mandatory obligation. Official personal dosimetry applying passive dosemeters in fact does not offer direct protection against the effects of ionizing radiation, as dosemeter read-out and dose calculation is a post-exposure process. But it nevertheless is a rewarding monitoring duty under radiation protection law, as is shown by the radiation exposure statistics accumulated over decades: in spite of the number of monitored persons having been increasing over the years, the total exposure did not, due to the corresponding improvements in occupational radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  10. 30 CFR 56.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 56.5002 Section 56.5002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Agents Air Quality § 56.5002 Exposure monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as...

  11. Exposure monitoring of graphene nanoplatelets manufacturing workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Jong Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Boowook; Bello, Dhimiter; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Gun Ho; Sohn, Eun Kyung; Lee, Kyungmin; Ahn, Kangho; Faustman, Elaine M; Yu, Il Je

    2016-01-01

    Graphenes have emerged as a highly promising, two-dimensional engineered nanomaterial that can possibly substitute carbon nanotubes. They are being explored in numerous R&D and industrial applications in laboratories across the globe, leading to possible human and environmental exposures to them. Yet, there are no published data on graphene exposures in occupational settings and no readily available methods for their detection and quantitation exist. This study investigates for the first time the potential exposure of workers and research personnel to graphenes in two research facilities and evaluates the status of the control measures. One facility manufactures graphene using graphite exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), while the other facility grows graphene on a copper plate using CVD, which is then transferred to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet. Graphene exposures and process emissions were investigated for three tasks - CVD growth, exfoliation, and transfer - using a multi-metric approach, which utilizes several direct reading instruments, integrated sampling, and chemical and morphological analysis. Real-time instruments included a dust monitor, condensation particle counter (CPC), nanoparticle surface area monitor, scanning mobility particle sizer, and an aethalometer. Morphologically, graphenes and other nanostructures released from the work process were investigated using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Graphenes were quantified in airborne respirable samples as elemental carbon via thermo-optical analysis. The mass concentrations of total suspended particulate at Workplaces A and B were very low, and elemental carbon concentrations were mostly below the detection limit, indicating very low exposure to graphene or any other particles. The real-time monitoring, especially the aethalometer, showed a good response to the released black carbon, providing a signature of the graphene released during the opening of the CVD reactor

  12. Human exposure, health hazards, and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2004-01-01

    United States environmental regulations, intended to protect human health, generally fail to address major sources of pollutants that endanger human health. These sources are surprisingly close to us and within our control, such as consumer products and building materials that we use within our homes, workplaces, schools, and other indoor environments. Even though these indoor sources account for nearly 90% of our pollutant exposure, they are virtually unregulated by existing laws. Even pollutant levels found in typical homes, if found outdoors, would often violate federal environmental standards. This article examines the importance of human exposure as a way to understand and reduce effects of pollutants on human health. Results from exposure studies challenge traditional thinking about pollutant hazards, and reveal deficiencies in our patchwork of laws. And results from epidemiological studies, showing increases in exposure-related diseases, underscore the need for new protections. Because we cannot rely solely on regulations to protect us, and because health effects from exposures can develop insidiously, greater efforts are needed to reduce and prevent significant exposures before they occur. Recommendations include the development and use of safer alternatives to common products, public education on ways to reduce exposure, systematic monitoring of human exposure to pollutants, and a precautionary approach in decision-making

  13. Is plasma β-glucuronidase a novel human biomarker for monitoring anticholinesterase pesticides exposure? A Malaysian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan H.; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Ali, Noor Suhailah; El Sersi, Magdi; Toong, Lee Mun; Zainal, Awang Mat; Hashim, Suhaimi; Ghazali, Mohd Shariman; Saidin, Mohd Nazri; Rahman, Ab Razak Ab; Rafaai, Mohd Jamil Mohd; Omar, Sollahudin; Rapiai, Rafiah; Othman, Radziah; Chan, Lee Tiong; Johari, Amran; Soon, Wong Hing; Salleh, Abdul Rahim; Satoh, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the effects of acute and chronic pesticide exposure on the plasma β-glucuronidase enzyme activity among five patients of acute pesticide poisoning in Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital, Klang, 230 farmers in the MADA area, Kedah and 49 fishermen in Setiu, Terengganu. The duration of pesticide exposure among the patients was unknown, but the plasma samples from patients were collected on day one in the hospital. The duration of pesticide exposure among the farmers was between 1 and 45 years. The β-glucuronidase activity was compared with plasma cholinesterase activity in the same individual. The plasma cholinesterase activity was measured using Cholinesterase (PTC) Reagent set kit (Teco Diagnostics, UK) based on colorimetric method, while the plasma β-glucuronidase activity was measured fluorometrically based on β-glucuronidase assay. The plasma cholinesterase activity was significantly reduced (p 0.05). The plasma β-glucuronidase activity among the farmers was significantly elevated (p 0.05). The plasma cholinesterase activity was positively correlated with the plasma β-glucuronidase activity among the farmers (r = 0.205, p 0.05). Thus, plasma β-glucuronidase enzyme activity can be measured as a biomarker for the chronic exposure of pesticide. However, further studies need to be performed to confirm whether plasma β-glucuronidase can be a sensitive biomarker for anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning

  14. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.B.C. [Radiation Safety Consultancy, Engadine, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives. 8 refs., 9 tabs.

  15. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, J.B.C.

    1997-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives

  16. Video exposure monitoring as part of a strategy to assess exposure to nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens-Comuth, P.A.W.V.; Verbist, K.; Brouwer, D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is a growing awareness of the potential risks for human health of exposure to ultrafine particles or nanoparticles. In that context, workplace air measurements become important, and various strategies have been developed to monitor exposure. In addition, observations and

  17. Human Exposure Assessment for Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Hu, Li-Wen; Bai, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of human exposure to air pollution is a fundamental part of the more general process of health risk assessment. The measurement methods for exposure assessment now include personal exposure monitoring, indoor-outdoor sampling, mobile monitoring, and exposure assessment modeling (such as proximity models, interpolation model, air dispersion models, and land-use regression (LUR) models). Among these methods, personal exposure measurement is considered to be the most accurate method of pollutant exposure assessment until now, since it can better quantify observed differences and better reflect exposure among smaller groups of people at ground level. And since the great differences of geographical environment, source distribution, pollution characteristics, economic conditions, and living habits, there is a wide range of differences between indoor, outdoor, and individual air pollution exposure in different regions of China. In general, the indoor particles in most Chinese families comprise infiltrated outdoor particles, particles generated indoors, and a few secondary organic aerosol particles, and in most cases, outdoor particle pollution concentrations are a major contributor to indoor concentrations in China. Furthermore, since the time, energy, and expense are limited, it is difficult to measure the concentration of pollutants for each individual. In recent years, obtaining the concentration of air pollutants by using a variety of exposure assessment models is becoming a main method which could solve the problem of the increasing number of individuals in epidemiology studies.

  18. 30 CFR 57.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 57.5002 Section 57.5002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as frequently as necessary to determine the...

  19. Autopsy tissues as biological monitors of human exposure to environmental pollutants. A case study: Concentrations of metals and PCDD/Fs in subjects living near a hazardous waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L; García, Francisco; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Human biomonitoring is of tremendous importance to prevent potential adverse effects derived from human exposure to chemicals. Blood and urine are among the biological monitors more frequently used. However, biological matrices such as breast milk, hair, nails, saliva, feces, teeth, and expired air are also often used. In addition, and focused mainly on long-term exposure, adipose tissue and other human tissues like bone, liver, brain or kidney, are also used as biological monitors of certain substances, especially for long-term biomonitoring. However, for this kind of tissues sampling is always a limiting factor. In this paper, we have examined the role of autopsy tissues as biological monitors of human exposure to environmental pollutants. For it, we have used a case study conducted near a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Catalonia (Spain), in which the concentrations of metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), have been periodically determined in autopsy tissues of subjects living in the area under potential influence of the facility. This case study does not show advantages -in comparison to other appropriate biomonitors such as blood- in using autopsy tissues in the monitoring of long-term exposure to metals and PCDD/Fs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimicrobial Exposure Assessment Task Force II (AEATF II) Volume 5: Governing Document for a Multi-Year Antimicrobial Chemical Exposure Monitoring Program (interim draft document with changes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the overall scope of the AEATF II program, demonstrates the need for additional human exposure monitoring data and explains the proposed methodology for the exposure monitoring studies proposed for conduct by the AEATF II.

  1. Antimicrobial Exposure Assessment Task Force II (AEATF II) Volume 5: Governing Document for a Multi-Year Antimicrobial Chemical Exposure Monitoring Program (interim draft document)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the overall scope of the AEATF II program, demonstrates the need for additional human exposure monitoring data and explains the proposed methodology for the exposure monitoring studies proposed for conduct by the AEATF II.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVIA ANCA RUSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of human exposure to toluene diisocyanate. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI, an aromatic compound, may be dangerous for human health. Diisocyanates have wide industrial use in the fabrication of flexible and rigid foams, fibers, elastomers, and coatings such as paints and varnishes. Isocyanates are known skin and respiratory sensitizers, and proper engineering controls should be in place to prevent exposure to isocyanate liquid and vapor; exposure to TDI vapors is well documented to increase asthma risk. The study focused on the exposure of workers and nearby populations to toluene diisocyanate in a Polyurethane Foam Factory located in Baia Mare, Romania. Workplace air measurements were performed in different departments of the plant, after sampling either in fixed points or as personal monitoring. Sampling in four different locations of Baia Mare town was carried out, - during and after the foaming process. TDI sampling was performed on silica cartridge followed by GC-MS analysis. TDI concentration at workplace was lower than 0,035 mg/m³, which represents the permissible exposure limit, while in the city the TDI concentration had shown values below 0,20 μg/m³. Health assessment of a group of 49 workers was based on questionnaire interview, determination of TDI antibodies and lung function tests. Data collected until this stage do not show any negative effects of TDI on the employees health. Since this plant had only recently begun operating, continuous workplace and ambient air TDI monitoring, along with workers health surveillance, is deemed necessary.

  3. Monitoring environmental exposures with semen assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Semen studies in humans and animals have yielded extensive and compelling evidence that sperm can be used to assess reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. More recent studies on mutagens and carcinogens both at this and other laboratories suggest that a combination of mouse and human assays can be an efficient, effective approach to monitoring for reproductive hazards in the environment. We are investigating the potential of using variability in sperm morphology and DNA content to quantify and monitor the effects of environmental agents on the human testes. Here we review the status of human and mouse assays for environmental surveillance, discuss the genetic and fertility implications of chemically induced semen changes, and describe the high-speed flow methods being developed to automate sperm assays

  4. Indirect monitoring of internal exposure for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro G, C.J.; Barreto F, J.; Todo A, A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes No. 2242, Zip code 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The procedure used to the assessment of internal exposure of workers involved with dismantling lightning rods and radioactive smoke detectors is described. Due to the presence of the sources of {sup 241} Am in these devices, a monitoring program to the workers have been implemented. This paper presents an analytical method for the separation and analysis of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) in urine samples using solid-phase extraction chromatography and alpha spectrometry. The mean recovery obtained with this technique is about 80% and the detection limit for 24 h urine sample range between 0.6 mBqL{sup -1} and 1.0 mBqL{sup -1}. The assessment of intakes and internal doses are performed following ICRP Publication 78 recommendations and appropriated biokinetic models (ICRP, 1997). Assumptions have been made for routine monitoring of these workers and it is also discussed the establishment of the internal monitoring program using the results of alpha measurements. (Author)

  5. Indirect monitoring of internal exposure for actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro G, C.J.; Barreto F, J.; Todo A, A.

    2006-01-01

    The procedure used to the assessment of internal exposure of workers involved with dismantling lightning rods and radioactive smoke detectors is described. Due to the presence of the sources of 241 Am in these devices, a monitoring program to the workers have been implemented. This paper presents an analytical method for the separation and analysis of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) in urine samples using solid-phase extraction chromatography and alpha spectrometry. The mean recovery obtained with this technique is about 80% and the detection limit for 24 h urine sample range between 0.6 mBqL -1 and 1.0 mBqL -1 . The assessment of intakes and internal doses are performed following ICRP Publication 78 recommendations and appropriated biokinetic models (ICRP, 1997). Assumptions have been made for routine monitoring of these workers and it is also discussed the establishment of the internal monitoring program using the results of alpha measurements. (Author)

  6. Monitoring programmes for internal exposure: designing criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Ana M.; Gomez Parada, Ines.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to offer guidance for the decision whether a monitoring programme is required and how it should be designed. It can be also used as a tool for making the standing programmes consistent with the most recent publications on internal dosimetry, such as ISO 20553 'Monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to a risk of internal contamination with radioactive material', specific publications of the IAEA and ICRP, and including the conclusions of the OMINEX Project ('Optimisation of Monitoring for Internal Exposures') and IDEAS Project. It is established that the general purpose of the monitoring is verify that each worker is protected adequately against risks from radionuclide intakes and document that the protection complies with legal requirements. The criteria for a particular monitoring programme designing is based on the magnitude of the probable intake and the possibility of detecting a significant event when it occurs. So, the risk assessment for each work process must be evaluated and each worker is classified accordingly. This classification implies the acceptance of reference effective dose values (1 y 6 mSv/y ). (author) [es

  7. Environmental monitoring of secondhand smoke exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Gundel, Lara; Hammond, S Katharine; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hyland, Andrew; Klepeis, Neil E; Madsen, Camille C; Navas-Acien, Ana; Repace, James; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    The complex composition of secondhand smoke (SHS) provides a range of constituents that can be measured in environmental samples (air, dust and on surfaces) and therefore used to assess non-smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke. Monitoring SHS exposure (SHSe) in indoor environments provides useful information on the extent and consequences of SHSe, implementing and evaluating tobacco control programmes and behavioural interventions, and estimating overall burden of disease caused by SHSe. The most widely used markers have been vapour-phase nicotine and respirable particulate matter (PM). Numerous other environmental analytes of SHS have been measured in the air including carbon monoxide, 3-ethenylpyridine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes and volatile organic compounds, as well as nicotine in dust and on surfaces. The measurement of nicotine in the air has the advantage of reflecting the presence of tobacco smoke. While PM measurements are not as specific, they can be taken continuously, allowing for assessment of exposure and its variation over time. In general, when nicotine and PM are measured in the same setting using a common sampling period, an increase in nicotine concentration of 1 μg/m3 corresponds to an average increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM. This topic assessment presents a comprehensive summary of SHSe monitoring approaches using environmental markers and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these methods and approaches. PMID:22949497

  8. Human exposure assessment to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Silva, Manori J; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Needham, Larry L

    2006-02-01

    In modern societies, humans may be exposed to a wide spectrum of environmental chemicals. Although the health significance of this exposure for many chemicals is unknown, studies to investigate the prevalence of exposure are warranted because of the chemicals' potential harmful health effects, as often indicated in animal studies. Three tools have been used to assess exposure: exposure history/questionnaire information, environmental monitoring, and biomonitoring (i.e. measuring concentrations of the chemicals, their metabolites, or their adducts in human specimens). We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure assessment using phthalates, bisphenol A and other environmental phenols, and perfluorinated chemicals as examples. We discuss some factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information. The use of biomonitoring in human risk assessment is not discussed.

  9. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Hong, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance

  10. Diagnosis, monitoring and prevention of exposure-related non-communicable diseases in the living and working environment: DiMoPEx-project is designed to determine the impacts of environmental exposure on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Adam, Balazs; Albin, Maria; Banelli, Barbara; Baur, Xaver; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Bolognesi, Claudia; Broberg, Karin; Gustavsson, Per; Göen, Thomas; Fischer, Axel; Jarosinska, Dorota; Manservisi, Fabiana; O'Kennedy, Richard; Øvrevik, Johan; Paunovic, Elizabet; Ritz, Beate; Scheepers, Paul T J; Schlünssen, Vivi; Schwarzenbach, Heidi; Schwarze, Per E; Sheils, Orla; Sigsgaard, Torben; Van Damme, Karel; Casteleyn, Ludwine

    2018-01-01

    The WHO has ranked environmental hazardous exposures in the living and working environment among the top risk factors for chronic disease mortality. Worldwide, about 40 million people die each year from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular, neurological and lung diseases. The exposure to ambient pollution in the living and working environment is exacerbated by individual susceptibilities and lifestyle-driven factors to produce complex and complicated NCD etiologies. Research addressing the links between environmental exposure and disease prevalence is key for prevention of the pandemic increase in NCD morbidity and mortality. However, the long latency, the chronic course of some diseases and the necessity to address cumulative exposures over very long periods does mean that it is often difficult to identify causal environmental exposures. EU-funded COST Action DiMoPEx is developing new concepts for a better understanding of health-environment (including gene-environment) interactions in the etiology of NCDs. The overarching idea is to teach and train scientists and physicians to learn how to include efficient and valid exposure assessments in their research and in their clinical practice in current and future cooperative projects. DiMoPEx partners have identified some of the emerging research needs, which include the lack of evidence-based exposure data and the need for human-equivalent animal models mirroring human lifespan and low-dose cumulative exposures. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach incorporating seven working groups, DiMoPEx will focus on aspects of air pollution with particulate matter including dust and fibers and on exposure to low doses of solvents and sensitizing agents. Biomarkers of early exposure and their associated effects as indicators of disease-derived information will be tested and standardized within individual projects. Risks arising from some NCDs, like pneumoconioses, cancers and

  11. Protocols of radiocontaminant air monitoring for inhalation exposure estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.H.

    1995-09-01

    Monitoring the plutonium and americium particle emissions from soils contaminated during atmospheric nuclear testing or due to accidental releases is important for several reasons. First, it is important to quantify the extent of potential human exposure from inhalation of alpha-emitting particles, which is the major exposure pathway from transuranic radionuclides. Second, the information provided by resuspension monitoring is the basis of criteria that determine the target soil concentrations for management and cleanup of contaminated soil sites. There are other radioactive aerosols, such as the fission products (cesium and strontium) and neutron-activation products (europium isotopes), which may be resuspended and therefore necessary to monitor as well. This Standard Protocol (SP) provides the method used for radiocontaminant air monitoring by the Health and Ecological Assessment Division (formerly Environmental Sciences Division), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, as developed and tested at Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in the Marshall Islands. The objective of this SP is to document the applications and methods of monitoring of all the relevant variables. This protocol deals only with measuring air concentrations of radionuclides and total suspended particulates (TSP, or open-quotes dustclose quotes). A separate protocol presents the more difficult measurements required to determine transuranic aerosol emission rates, or open-quotes resuspension rateclose quotes

  12. Oxidative metabolism of BDE-47, BDE-99, and HBCDs by cat liver microsomes: Implications of cats as sentinel species to monitor human exposure to environmental pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Erratico, Claudio; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    BDE-99 is different by cat and human liver microsomes. This suggests that cats are not a suitable sentinel to represent internal exposure of PBDEs for humans, but is likely a promising sentinel for internal HBCDs exposure for humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. HUMAN ACTIVITY MONITORING USING SMARTPHONE

    OpenAIRE

    TOKALA, SAI SUJIT; ROKALA, RANADEEP

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the project is to develop an algorithm which will classify the activity performed by a human who is carrying a smart phone. The day to day life made humans very busy at work and during daily activities, mostly elderly people who are at home have an important need to monitor their activity by others when they are alone, if they are inactive for a long time without movement, or in some situations like if they have fallen down, became unconscious for sometime or seized with a car...

  14. Human semen assays for workplace monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Gledhill, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Decades of human semen studies have yielded compelling evidence that sperm can be used to access reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. With these studies as background, the small number of detailed semen studies of men exposed to physical and chemical agents point with optimism to the application of human semen assays as efficient, effective means to monitor for reproductive hazards in the workplace. Sperm are the most accessible of human gonadal tissue and provide a means of monitoring exposure induced changes in the human testes, changes which may result in infertility and increased frequencies of genetically abnormal gametes. The focus on semen has precipitated the development of new sperm bioassays which use older conventional andrological methods (i.e., sperm counts, motility, and morphology) as well as recently developed high speed flow and scanning methods for automated cytological analyses. The status of these sperm assays for workplace surveillance is reviewed, procedures are suggested with examples of use, and their effectiveness is evaluated. The available mouse models of induced semen changes are briefly described and the importance of these models for evaluating the genetic implications of findings in human semen is discussed

  15. Application of maximum radiation exposure values and monitoring of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The guide presents the principles to be applied in calculating the equivalent dose and the effective dose, instructions on application of the maximum values for radiation exposure, and instruction on monitoring of radiation exposure. In addition, the measurable quantities to be used in monitoring the radiation exposure are presented. (2 refs.)

  16. Monitoring of radiation exposure. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, E.

    2001-03-01

    At the end of 2000, there were 1,779 valid safety licenses in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,038 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) listed 13,754 radiation sources and 270 radionuclide laboratories. In the year 2000 360 inspections were made concerning the safety licences and 53 concerning dental x-ray diagnostics. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 175,836 GBq and export to 74,420 GBq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 55,527 GBq. In the year 2000 there were 10,846 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,171 work sites. Of these employees, 27% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The annual effective dose limit was not exceeded. The total dose recorded in the dose registry(sum of the individual dosemeter readings) was 6.5 Sv in 2000

  17. Two-way portable radios: monitoring exposure to EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar Campos, Maria C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Hand-held two-way portable radios, also known as push-to-talk radios (PTT), radiate intense electromagnetic fields (EMF). Increasingly used for communications inside buildings, these devices should not be neglected as EMF sources in workplace environments. In contrast to mobile-phones, push-to-talk radios usually operate in a lower frequency range (450 < f < 470 MHz), where the reference levels, established by ICNIRP for human exposure, are more restrictive. The intrinsic hazard potential associated to these devices has motivated this assessment of occupational exposure to EMF. In spite of relatively low power levels, usually no more than a few watts, and the intermittency of transmissions, push-to-talk radios are operated close to the body, therefore exposure takes place in the near-field region. Measurements of electromagnetic field intensities were carried out for two push-to-talk models, operating at power levels of 2 W and 5 W, with a broad-band field monitor, EMR-300 (W and G), coupled to an E-field triaxial probe (type 8.0). Intensities were measured at various points surrounding the transmitter, to assess exposure levels of other workers sitting nearby during communications. Results show significant electric field intensities at points less than 10 cm away from the source. A personal monitor with triaxial E and H-field shaped probes, RadMan XT (Narda), was used as a dosimeter by workers operating both radio models, during 8 hours. This device measures E and H-field intensities and stores these values as a percentage of ICNIRP occupational limits, in a data logger. Results of both kind of measurements show that intense EMF are emitted during transmissions. Therefore, workers should be informed about possible EMF hazards and trained to properly operate these transmitters, in order to minimize exposure risks. (author)

  18. mSpray: a mobile phone technology to improve malaria control efforts and monitor human exposure to malaria control pesticides in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Lipsitt, Jonah M; Wu, Lemuel D; Kruger, Philip; Ntimbane, Tzundzukani; Nawn, John Burns; Bornman, M S Riana; Seto, Edmund

    2014-07-01

    Recent estimates indicate that malaria has led to over half a million deaths worldwide, mostly to African children. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is one of the primary vector control interventions. However, current reporting systems do not obtain precise location of IRS events in relation to malaria cases, which poses challenges for effective and efficient malaria control. This information is also critical to avoid unnecessary human exposure to IRS insecticides. We developed and piloted a mobile-based application (mSpray) to collect comprehensive information on IRS spray events. We assessed the utility, acceptability and feasibility of using mSpray to gather improved homestead- and chemical-level IRS coverage data. We installed mSpray on 10 cell phones with data bundles, and pilot tested it with 13 users in Limpopo, South Africa. Users completed basic information (number of rooms/shelters sprayed; chemical used, etc.) on spray events. Upon submission, this information as well as geographic positioning system coordinates and time/date stamp were uploaded to a Google Drive Spreadsheet to be viewed in real time. We administered questionnaires, conducted focus groups, and interviewed key informants to evaluate the utility of the app. The low-cost, cell phone-based "mSpray" app was learned quickly by users, well accepted and preferred to the current paper-based method. We recorded 2865 entries (99.1% had a GPS accuracy of 20 m or less) and identified areas of improvement including increased battery life. We also identified a number of logistic and user problems (e.g., cost of cell phones and cellular bundles, battery life, obtaining accurate GPS measures, user errors, etc.) that would need to be overcome before full deployment. Use of cell phone technology could increase the efficiency of IRS malaria control efforts by mapping spray events in relation to malaria cases, resulting in more judicious use of chemicals that are potentially harmful to humans

  19. NAIL KERATIN AS MONITOR-TISSUE FOR SELENIUM EXPOSURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANNOORD, PAH; MAAS, MJ; DEBRUIN, M

    1992-01-01

    Nail clippings might provide a way to monitor exposure to selenium in the recent past of an individual, since a clipping collected from a toe would reflect exposures months before actual clipping date. The relation between levels of exogenous selenium exposure and selenium levels in nail keratin was

  20. Carcinogen biomonitoring in human exposures and laboratory research: validation and application to human occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaska, Glenn; Maier, Andrew; Henn, Scott; Booth-Jones, Angela; Tsuneoka, Yutaka; Vermeulen, Roel; Schumann, Brenda L

    2002-08-05

    A multiple biomarker approach is required to integrate for metabolism, temporal response and exposure-response kinetics, biological relevance, and positive predictive value. Carcinogen DNA adduct analysis can be used in animal and in vitro studies to detect absorption permutations caused by mixture interactions, and to control metabolic variation when specific CYP450 genes (1A1 or 1A2) are knocked out. These enzymes are not critical to the metabolic activation of model Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and aromatic amines, respectively, as suggested by in vitro analysis. Several human studies have been carried out where multiple biomarkers have been measured. In a study of benzidine workers, the similarities in elimination kinetics between urinary metabolites and mutagenicity is likely responsible for a better correlation between these markers than to BZ-DNA adducts in exfoliated cells. In a study of rubber workers, the relationship between specific departments, urinary 1 HP and DNA adducts in exfoliated cells coincided with the historical urinary bladder cancer risk in these departments; the same relationship did not hold for urinary mutagenicity. In a study of automotive mechanics, biomarkers were used to monitor the effectiveness of exposure interventions. These data reinforce the notion that carcinogen biomarkers are useful to monitor exposure, but that a complementary approaches involving effect and perhaps susceptibility biomarkers is necessary to obtain the necessary information.

  1. Monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Marcos, R.; Siffel, C.; Piperakis, S.

    2000-01-01

    Number of pesticides applied is constantly increasing, and although in general they are beneficial they may create a genotoxic hazard to environment and human health too. The aim of study performed in four countries (Greece, Hungary, Poland and Spain) was to assess potential genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to pesticides. Interviews were performed and biological samples were taken from 426 donors, 50% unexposed and 50% donors occupationally exposed to genotoxic agrochemical. In this paper is presented comparison of results from studies on the influence of occupational exposure on individual susceptibility to the induction of the DNA damage by UV and DNA damage repair efficiency. Levels of the DNA damage induced in vivo and by various treatments in vitro were assessed by the use of single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) also known as a Comet assay. Susceptibility to UVC and repair capacities of lymphocytes of all unexposed and exposed to pesticides people from four countries was compared. A Hungarian subgroup of donors consisted of unexposed exposed and highly exposed persons. All groups of donors were at the similar age, sex and occupation. In general, all donors were free of major health problems. Lymphocytes, from collected in various countries whole blood samples were isolated and frozen, and then were transported to Poland in a dry ice for farther DNA damage analysis. In defrosted lymphocytes viability and presence of DNA damage were tested. Lymphocytes from Hungarian group expressed significantly lower viability of lymphocytes and very high damage (∼ 30 times higher than in other groups) detected either in untreated or treated lymphocytes. Results from all other groups of samples except Hungarian group did not show statistically significant differences between levels of DNA damages detected in defrosted lymphocytes from reference and exposed to pesticides subgroups. Statistically significant difference between the whole investigated groups from

  2. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development of pre-Vitamin D, which is an important nutrient in bone health. New research suggest that low vitamin D status may be a causative factor in the development of selective types of cancer and autoimminue diseases, as well as a contributing factor in bone health. The 'health duality' aspect of sunlight exposure is an interesting and controversial topic that is a research focus of Kimlin's research group.

  3. Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals: Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Haruo; Yamada, Kenichi; Hori, Hajime; Kumagai, Shinji; Murata, Masaru; Nagoya, Toshio; Nakahara, Hirohiko; Mochida, Nobuyuki

    2018-01-25

    This Document, "Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals" ("this Guideline"), has been prepared by "The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring" ("the Committee") of the Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, Japan Society for Occupational Health. Considering the background of the growing importance of personal exposure monitoring in risk assessment and the need to prepare for the introduction of monitoring using personal samplers from an administrative perspective in recent years, the Committee was organized in November 2012. The Committee has prepared this Guideline as a "practical guideline" for personal exposure monitoring, so as to offer proposals and recommendations to the members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and to society in general. The scope of this Guideline covers all chemical substances and all related workplaces regarded as targets for general assessment and the management of risk. It thus is not to be considered to comment on legal regulations and methodology. The main text provides the basic methods and concepts of personal exposure monitoring, while 31 "Appendices" are provided in this Guideline throughout the series; technical descriptions, statistical bases, and actual workplace examples are provided in these appendices, to assist better understanding. The personal exposure monitoring described as per this Guideline is equivalent to an "expert-centered basic method to reasonably proceed with the assessment and management of risk at workplaces." It is considered that practicing and expanding on this method will significantly contribute in reforming the overall framework of occupational hygiene management in Japan.

  4. Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals: Part IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Haruo; Yamada, Kenichi; Hori, Hajime; Kumagai, Shinji; Murata, Masaru; Nagoya, Toshio; Nakahara, Hirohiko; Mochida, Nobuyuki

    2018-03-27

    This Document, "Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals" ("this Guideline"), has been prepared by "The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring" ("the Committee") of the Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, Japan Society for Occupational Health. Considering the background of the growing importance of personal exposure monitoring in risk assessment and the need to prepare for the introduction of monitoring using personal samplers from an administrative perspective in recent years, the Committee was organized in November 2012. The Committee has prepared this Guideline as a "practical guideline" for personal exposure monitoring, so as to offer proposals and recommendations to the members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and to society in general. The scope of this Guideline covers all chemical substances and all related workplaces regarded as targets for general assessment and the management of risk. It thus is not to be considered to comment on legal regulations and methodology. The main text provides the basic methods and concepts of personal exposure monitoring, while 31 "Appendices" are provided in this Guideline throughout the series; technical descriptions, statistical bases, and actual workplace examples are provided in these appendices, to assist better understanding. The personal exposure monitoring described as per this Guideline is equivalent to an "expert-centered basic method to reasonably proceed with the assessment and management of risk at workplaces." It is considered that practicing and expanding on this method will significantly contribute in reforming the overall framework of occupational hygiene management in Japan.

  5. Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Haruo; Yamada, Kenichi; Hori, Hajime; Kumagai, Shinji; Murata, Masaru; Nagoya, Toshio; Nakahara, Hirohiko; Mochida, Nobuyuki

    2017-11-25

    This Document, "Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals" ("this Guideline"), has been prepared by "The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring" ("the Committee") of the Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, Japan Society for Occupational Health. Considering the background of the growing importance of personal exposure monitoring in risk assessment and the need to prepare for the introduction of monitoring using personal samplers from an administrative perspective in recent years, the Committee was organized in November 2012. The Committee has prepared this Guideline as a "practical guideline" for personal exposure monitoring, so as to offer proposals and recommendations to the members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and to society in general. The scope of this Guideline covers all chemical substances and all related workplaces regarded as targets for general assessment and the management of risk. It thus is not to be considered to comment on legal regulations and methodology. The main text provides the basic methods and concepts of personal exposure monitoring, while 31 "Appendices" are provided in this Guideline throughout the series; technical descriptions, statistical bases, and actual workplace examples are provided in these appendices, to assist better understanding. The personal exposure monitoring described as per this Guideline is equivalent to an "expert-centered basic method to reasonably proceed with the assessment and management of risk at workplaces." It is considered that practicing and expanding on this method will significantly contribute in reforming the overall framework of occupational hygiene management in Japan.

  6. Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Haruo; Yamada, Kenichi; Hori, Hajime; Kumagai, Shinji; Murata, Masaru; Nagoya, Toshio; Nakahara, Hirohiko; Mochida, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-28

    This Document, "Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals" ("this Guideline"), has been prepared by "The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring" ("the Committee") of the Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, Japan Society for Occupational Health. Considering the background of the growing importance of personal exposure monitoring in risk assessment and the need to prepare for the introduction of monitoring using personal samplers from an administrative perspective in recent years, the Committee was organized in November 2012. The Committee has prepared this Guideline as a "practical guideline" for personal exposure monitoring, so as to offer proposals and recommendations to the members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and to society in general. The scope of this Guideline covers all chemical substances and all related workplaces regarded as targets for general assessment and the management of risk. It thus is not to be considered to comment on legal regulations and methodology. The main text provides the basic methods and concepts of personal exposure monitoring, while 31 "Appendices" are provided later in this Guideline throughout the series; technical descriptions, statistical bases, and actual workplace examples are provided in these appendices, to assist better understanding. The personal exposure monitoring described as per this Guideline is equivalent to an "expert-centered basic method to reasonably proceed with the assessment and management of risk at workplaces." It is considered that practicing and expanding on this method will significantly contribute in reforming the overall framework of occupational hygiene management in Japan.

  7. Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals: Part V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Haruo; Yamada, Kenichi; Hori, Hajime; Kumagai, Shinji; Murata, Masaru; Nagoya, Toshio; Nakahara, Hirohiko; Mochida, Nobuyuki

    2018-05-25

    This Document, "Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals" ("this Guideline"), has been prepared by "The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring" ("the Committee") of the Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, Japan Society for Occupational Health. Considering the background of the growing importance of personal exposure monitoring in risk assessment and the need to prepare for the introduction of monitoring using personal samplers from an administrative perspective in recent years, the Committee was organized in November 2012. The Committee has prepared this Guideline as a "practical guideline" for personal exposure monitoring, so as to offer proposals and recommendations to the members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and to society in general. The scope of this Guideline covers all chemical substances and all related workplaces regarded as targets for general assessment and the management of risk. It thus is not to be considered to comment on legal regulations and methodology. The main text provides the basic methods and concepts of personal exposure monitoring, while 31 "Appendices" are provided in this Guideline throughout the series; technical descriptions, statistical bases, and actual workplace examples are provided in these appendices, to assist better understanding. The personal exposure monitoring described as per this Guideline is equivalent to an "expert-centered basic method to reasonably proceed with the assessment and management of risk at workplaces." It is considered that practicing and expanding on this method will significantly contribute in reforming the overall framework of occupational hygiene management in Japan.

  8. Human exposure to dioxin from combustion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    Because of their extreme toxicity, much concern and debate has arisen about the nature and extent of human exposure to dioxin. Since municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators are known to emit polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polycholorinated dibenzofurnas (PCDFs) many people who live near MSW incinerators fear that they will be exposed to high levels of dioxin and subsequently develop cancer. What is often overlooked in this debate, however, is the fact that the general population is continuously being exposed to trace amounts of dioxin as exemplified by the fact that virtually all human adipose tissue samples contain dioxin at levels of 3 parts per trillion (ppt) or greater. This paper provides a perspective on MSW incineration as a source of human exposure to dioxin by comparing this exposure source with exposure to background environmental contamination and evaluates some of the potential key sources of PCDD/PCDF input into the enviroment. 32 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Monitoring of radiation exposure and registration of doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and working conditions and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently organizing it. In addition, instructions are given for reporting doses to the Dose Register of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Also the procedures are described for situations leading to exceptional exposures. (10 refs., 1 tab.)

  10. Personal exposure versus monitoring station data for respirable particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, K; Fugas, M

    1982-01-01

    Personal exposure to respirable particles of 12 subjects working at the same location, but living in various parts of Zagreb, was monitored for 7 consecutive days and compared with simultaneously obtained data from the outdoor network station nearest to subject's home. Although personal exposure is related to the outdoor pollution, other sources play a considerable role. Indoor exposure takes, on the average, more than 80% of the total time. The ratio between average personal exposure and respirable particle levels in the outdoor air decreases with the increased outdoor concentration (r = -0.93), indicating that this relationship might serve as a basis for a rough estimate of possible personal exposure.

  11. Monitoring of radiation exposure and registration of doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Section 32 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91) defines the requirements to be applied to the monitoring of the radiation exposure and working conditions in Finland. The concepts relevant to the monitoring and guidelines for determining the necessity of the monitoring as well as its organizing are given in the guide. Instructions for reporting doses to the Dose Register of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are given, also procedures for situations leading to exceptional exposures are described. (9 refs.)

  12. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  13. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  14. Assessment of Human Exposure to ENMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; van Tongeren, Martie

    2017-01-01

    Human exposure assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is hampered, among other factors, by the difficulty to differentiate ENM from other nanomaterials (incidental to processes or naturally occurring) and the lack of a single metric that can be used for health risk assessment. It is important that the exposure assessment is carried out throughout the entire life-cycle as releases can occur at the different stages of the product life-cycle, from the synthesis, manufacture of the nano-enable product (occupational exposure) to the professional and consumer use of nano-enabled product (consumer exposure) and at the end of life.Occupational exposure surveys should follow a tiered approach, increasing in complexity in terms of instruments used and sampling strategy applied with higher tiers in order tailor the exposure assessment to the specific materials used and workplace exposure scenarios and to reduce uncertainty in assessment of exposure. Assessment of consumer exposure and of releases from end-of-life processes currently relies on release testing of nano-enabled products in laboratory settings.

  15. Real-time personal exposure and health condition monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitou, Isamu; Kanda, Hiroaki; Asai, Akio; Takeishi, Naoki; Ota, Yoshito [Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd., Measuring Systems Engineering Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Hanawa, Nobuhiro; Ueda, Hisao; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) and HAM (Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd) have proposed novel monitoring system for workers of nuclear facility. In these facilities, exposure management for workers is mainly used access control and personal exposure recordings. This system is currently only for reports management but is not confirmative for surveillance when work in progress. Therefore, JAEA and HAM integrate access control and personal exposure recordings and two real-time monitoring systems which are position sensing and vital sign monitor. Furthermore change personal exposure management to real-time management, this system integration prevents workers from risk of accidents, and makes possible take appropriate action quickly. This novel system is going to start for tentative operation, using position sensing and real-time personal dosimeter with database in Apr. 2012. (author)

  16. Variation in calculated human exposure. Comparison of calculations with seven European human exposure models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes F; ECO

    2003-01-01

    Twenty scenarios, differing with respect to land use, soil type and contaminant, formed the basis for calculating human exposure from soil contaminants with the use of models contributed by seven European countries (one model per country). Here, the human exposures to children and children

  17. Application of maximum radiation exposure values and monitoring of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 32 of the Radiation Act (592/91) the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety gives instructions concerning the monitoring of the radiation exposure and the application of the dose limits in Finland. The principles to be applied to calculating the equivalent and the effective doses are presented in the guide. Also the detailed instructions on the application of the maximum exposure values for the radiation work and for the natural radiation as well as the instructions on the monitoring of the exposures are given. Quantities and units for assessing radiation exposure are presented in the appendix of the guide

  18. Harmonizing human exposure and toxicity characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, O.; McKone, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    The UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative has launched a project to provide global guidance and build consensus on environmental life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indicators. Human health effects from exposure to toxic chemicals was selected as impact category due to high relevance of human toxicity...... and harmonizing human toxicity characterization in LCIA. Building on initial work for the far-field and indoor air environments, and combining it with latest work on near-field consumer and occupational exposure assessment, dose-response and severity data, we aim at providing revised guidance on the development...... and use of impact factors for toxic chemicals. We propose to couple fate processes in consumer and occupational environments with existing environmental compartments and processes via a consistent and mass balance-based set of transfer fractions to quantify overall aggregated exposure to toxic substances...

  19. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphases on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments. 62 references.

  20. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1984-02-15

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphasis on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments.

  1. Realtime radiation exposure monitor and control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to an apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. An exposure measuring apparatus is disclosed which comprises a multilayered detector structure having an external circuit connected to a transparent insulating layer and to a conductive plate a radiation source adapted to irradiate the detector structure with radiation capable of producing electron-hole pairs in a photoconductive layer of the detector wherein the flow of current within the external circuit is measured when the detector is irradiated by the radiation source. (author)

  2. Radiation exposure monitoring: a new IHE profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    A method is described for gathering and distributing radiation exposure data from X-ray-based imaging procedures such as CT, angiography, fluoroscopy, mammography and digital X-ray systems with integrated generators. The data are recorded in a standard format as a DICOM dose object and are managed in a similar fashion to the DICOM images produced by the procedure. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) process for standardizing such methods is presented and applications of such data for activities, such as dose QA and national dose repositories, are also discussed. (orig.)

  3. The problems of individual monitoring for internal exposure of monazite storage facility workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekidin, A.; Kirdin, I.; Yarmoshenko, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2006-01-01

    traditionally two situations of internal inhalation exposure by alpha emitting nuclides are considered in radiological protection: occupational exposure due to inhalation of plutonium aerosols; inhalation exposure by 222 Rn daughters in working places and in home. for these situations the problems of radioactive aerosols intake, nuclide dynamics in human body, internal dosimetry, nuclide excretion, monitoring of internal exposure have been investigated in details especially for plutonium inhalation exposure. The results of these studies are presented in details in ICRP Publications and UNSCEAR reports. However there is very specific case in which the special analysis of internal inhalation exposure is need. it is the working places with anomalous, extremely high concentration of thoron ( 220 Rn) daughters. The problems of internal radiation exposure of workers in such working place are the main topic of this publication. (authors)

  4. National Surveillance of Occupational Exposure to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ricketts

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 1985, a prospective study was initiated to monitor the occurrence of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected blood and body fluids in Canada. This program was coordinated by the Federal Centre for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (now the Division of HIV/AIDS Epidemiology at the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. The objective was to determine the risk to workers of acquiring HIV infection as a result of exposure to HIV-infected blood and other body fluids. To be eligible, a worker must have sustained a documented parenteral, mucous membrane or skin contact exposure to blood or body fluids from an HIV-infected person. A baseline specimen was collected within a week of the exposure and then at six weeks, 12 weeks, six months and 12 months. Information concerning the type of exposure, precautions used and post exposure treatment was submitted to the Federal Centre for AIDS on standard data collection forms. All information was anonymous, identified only by a code number. Guidelines for counselling an exposed employee were provided with enrollment material. As of July 29, 1991, 414 employees have been included in the study. Two hundred and thirty-seven of the 414 exposures (57% were needlestick injuries of which 167 (70% were sustained by nurses. Other exposures consisted of open wound contamination, eye splashes, scalpel wounds and skin contact with blood and body fluids. To date, there have been no seroconversions among workers enrolled in the surveillance program.

  5. Registration and monitoring of radiation exposure from radiological imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, F.; Pinto dos Santos, D.; Hempel, J.; Dueber, C.; Mildenberger, P.

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for reducing radiation exposure are an important part of optimizing medical imaging and therefore a relevant quality factor in radiology. Regarding the medical radiation exposure, computed tomography has a special relevance. The use of the integrating the healthcare enterprise (IHE) radiation exposure monitoring (REM) profile is the upcoming standard for organizing and collecting exposure data in radiology. Currently most installed base devices do not support this profile generating the required digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) dose structured reporting (SR). For this reason different solutions had been developed to register dose exposure measurements without having the dose SR object. Registration and analysis of dose-related parameters is required for constantly optimizing examination protocols, especially computed tomography (CT) examinations based on the latest research results in order to minimize the individual radiation dose exposure from medical imaging according to the principle as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). (orig.) [de

  6. The diesel exhaust in miners study: II. Exposure monitoring surveys and development of exposure groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coble, J.B.; Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.; Yereb, D.; Stanevich, R.; Blair, A.; Silverman, D.T.; Attfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a

  7. Human exposure to low level ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paix, David

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the low-level radiation sources and their effects on human populations, from a global perspective. 'Low-level' means exposures in the range of the natural background to which everybody is exposed. The quoted values are whole-world averages, but individual variations are mentioned in a few cases. (author). 22 refs

  8. Human health and exposure to electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.; Muirhead, C.R.; Ennis, J.R.

    1992-07-01

    This review consists of three main parts. In the first the general features of electromagnetic fields and their interactions with the human body are described. The second part deals with the epidemiological evidence for effects on general health and birth outcome. The third part describes the epidemiological evidence from occupational and residential studies of a possible association between electromagnetic field exposures and cancer. (author)

  9. Post exposure prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the level of awareness, knowledge and practice of human immunodeficiency virus post exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) among paediatricians in Nigeria. Methodology: The study was a cross sectional questionnairebased survey conducted among paediatrcians that attended the Paediatric ...

  10. A translatable predictor of human radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Joseph; Dressman, Holly K; Suchindran, Sunil; Nakamura, Mai; Chao, Nelson J; Himburg, Heather; Minor, Kerry; Phillips, Gary; Ross, Joel; Abedi, Majid; Terbrueggen, Robert; Chute, John P

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB) and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI). Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA) which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay.

  11. A translatable predictor of human radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lucas

    Full Text Available Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI. Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay.

  12. OMINEX: Development of Guidance on Monitoring for Internal Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etherington, G.; Ansoborlo, E.; Berard, P.; Cossonnet, C.; Frank, D.; Genicot, A.; Hodgson, A.; Hurtgen, C.; Jourdain, J. R.; Le Gueen, B.; Rahola, T.; Sovijarvi, J.; Stradling, G. N.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the OMINEX project was to provide advice and guidance on the design and implementation of internal dose monitoring programmes in the workplace in such a way that best use is made of available resources, while minimising costs. Topics addressed include choice of monitoring method(s), (eg excretion monitoring vs. in vivo monitoring), choice of measurement technique (eg alpha spectrometry vs. mass spectrometry), monitoring intervals, measurement frequency, required measurement sensitivity and accuracy, measurement parameters needed to achieve this performance, the resulting uncertainty in assessed intakes and doses, and minimum detectable doses. The underlying approach to optimisation was to consider costs versus benefits, the latter being quantified primarily by assessing the sensitivity or accuracy with which intakes and doses are determined from the results of particular monitoring methods. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the results of the project. Some of the main results of surveys of current internal dose monitoring practice and the costs of monitoring programmes are presented. Recommendations on the optimisation of bioassay and in vivo measurement parameters are discussed. A novel method for the assessment of uncertainty in assessed intakes and doses is described, and the use of information on uncertainties in designing a monitoring programme is discussed using the example of tritium-in-urine monitoring. Recommendations are described for the monitoring of exposures to compounds of uranium, plutonium, thorium and caesium encountered in the nuclear industries. (Author) 15 refs

  13. Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references

  14. We should monitor human fercundity, but how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    1999-01-01

    Human fecundity may be declining, and we may need ways to monitor it. The most simple monitoring is based on measuring waiting time to pregnancy retrospectively among pregnant women. Unfortunately, this design does not provide an estimate of fecundity, because infertile couples are excluded. We...

  15. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Yeong Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m3, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10−4 (central tendency exposure and 0.56 × 10−4 (reasonable maximum exposure, which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10−4. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed.

  16. Exposure monitoring and risk assessment of biphenyl in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-05-13

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m³, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10⁻⁴ (central tendency exposure) and 0.56 × 10⁻⁴ (reasonable maximum exposure), which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10⁻⁴. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed.

  17. Exposure to Hedione Increases Reciprocity in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Berger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1 expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity. Applying behavioral economics paradigms, the present research shows that exposure to the ligand causes differentiated behavioral effects in reciprocal punishments (Study 1 as well as rewards (Study 2, two types of behaviors that are frequently regarded as essential for the development and maintenance of cooperation.

  18. Exposure to Hedione Increases Reciprocity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sebastian; Hatt, Hanns; Ockenfels, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED) as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1) expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity. Applying behavioral economics paradigms, the present research shows that exposure to the ligand causes differentiated behavioral effects in reciprocal punishments (Study 1) as well as rewards (Study 2), two types of behaviors that are frequently regarded as essential for the development and maintenance of cooperation. PMID:28512400

  19. ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO GRASS POLLEN IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Herbert, Rob

    Objectives: Exposure to pollen is typically assessed using data collected at fixed roof-top monitoring stations, which give a general picture of airborne pollen concentrations over a wide region. Actual exposure levels can be obtained through personal exposure monitoring. This is typically done u...

  20. Radiographic apparatus and method for monitoring film exposure time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatne, R.S.; Woodmansee, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    In connection with radiographic inspection of structural and industrial materials, method and apparatus are disclosed for automatically determining and displaying the time required to expose a radiographic film positioned to receive radiation passed by a test specimen, so that the finished film is exposed to an optimum blackening (density) for maximum film contrast. A plot is made of the variations in a total exposure parameter (representing the product of detected radiation rate and time needed to cause optimum film blackening) as a function of the voltage level applied to an X-ray tube. An electronic function generator storing the shape of this plot is incorporated into an exposure monitoring apparatus, such that for a selected tube voltage setting, the function generator produces an electrical analog signal of the corresponding exposure parameter. During the exposure, another signal is produced representing the rate of radiation as monitored by a diode detector positioned so as to receive the same radiation that is incident on the film. The signal representing the detected radiation rate is divided, by an electrical divider circuit into the signal representing total exposure, and the resulting quotient is an electrical signal representing the required exposure time. (author)

  1. Monitor for detecting and assessing exposure to airborne nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, Johan; Voetz, Matthias; Kiesling, Heinz-Juergen

    2010-01-01

    An important safety aspect of the workplace environment concerns the severity of its air pollution with nanoparticles (NP; <100 nm) and ultrafine particles (UFP; <300 nm). Depending on their size and chemical nature, exposure to these particles through inhalation can be hazardous because of their intrinsic ability to deposit in the deep lung regions and the possibility to subsequently pass into the blood stream. Recommended safety measures in the nanomaterials industry are pragmatic, aiming at exposure minimization in general, and advocating continuous control by monitoring both the workplace air pollution level and the personal exposure to airborne NPs. This article describes the design and operation of the Aerasense NP monitor that enables intelligence gathering in particular with respect to airborne particles in the 10-300 nm size range. The NP monitor provides real time information about their number concentration, average size, and surface areas per unit volume of inhaled air that deposit in the various compartments of the respiratory tract. The monitor's functionality relies on electrical charging of airborne particles and subsequent measurements of the total particle charge concentration under various conditions. Information obtained with the NP monitor in a typical workplace environment has been compared with simultaneously recorded data from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) capable of measuring the particle size distribution in the 11-1086 nm size range. When the toxicological properties of the engineered and/or released particles in the workplace are known, personal exposure monitoring allows a risk assessment to be made for a worker during each workday, when the workplace-produced particles can be distinguished from other (ambient) particles.

  2. Monitoring for environmental mutagenesis in wild animals - lessons from human studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawn, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    The increasing realisation that environmental monitoring practices need to demonstrate radiological protection of the whole ecosystem has led to suggestions that genotoxic techniques derived from human monitoring of radiation exposure could be applied to other animal species. Human studies have highlighted the need to establish the relationship between exposure, genetic effect and biological consequence so that different study objectives, e.g. hazard identification, dose estimation, risk evaluation, can be addressed by the application of the most appropriate and informative assay. (author)

  3. White paper on radiological monitoring of workers exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shettle, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This article comments the content of a white paper which aimed at proposing new regulatory bases to update the French Code of Labour and other legal texts related to the radiation protection of workers. The author briefly comments the objectives of this white paper (to put the initial regulatory basis into question again), briefly describes the adopted approach, the new definition of risk related to ionizing radiations within the frame of a global approach to the prevention of occupational risks. She notices and comments the removal of a reference to an exposure limit for the public as input criterion in the system of radiological monitoring of workers exposures. She also comments the introduction of some concepts: the concept of a worker submitted to a risk related to ionizing radiation, and the concept of exposure value entailing a strengthened preventive action. She indicates the different modalities adopted for exposure monitoring (radiological monitoring and dose follow-up), addresses the issue of communication of dosimetry data and the access to all dosimetry information for the person in charge of radiation protection, and finally briefly evokes the idea of publishing guides for each specific sectors

  4. Gene-environment interaction and biological monitoring of occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Ari

    2005-01-01

    Biological monitoring methods and biological limit values applied in occupational and environmental medicine have been traditionally developed on the assumption that individuals do not differ significantly in their biotransformation capacities. It has become clear, however, that this is not the case, but wide inter-individual differences exist in the metabolism of chemicals. Integration of the data on individual metabolic capacity in biological monitoring studies is therefore anticipated to represent a significant refinement of the currently used methods. We have recently conducted several biological monitoring studies on occupationally exposed subjects, which have included the determination of the workers' genotypes for the metabolic genes of potential importance for a given chemical exposure. The exposure levels have been measured by urine metabolites, adducts in blood macromolecules, and cytogenetic alterations in lymphocytes. Our studies indicate that genetic polymorphisms in metabolic genes may indeed be important modifiers of individual biological monitoring results of, e.g., carbon disulphide and styrene. The information is anticipated to be useful in insuring that the workplace is safe for everyone, including the most sensitive individuals. This knowledge could also be useful to occupational physicians, industrial hygienists, and regulatory bodies in charge of defining acceptable exposure limits for environmental and/or occupational pollutants

  5. Individual monitoring program for occupational exposures to radionuclides by inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, J.; Menoux, B.

    1985-01-01

    Individual monitoring of exposure to radioactive products is carried out when there is a risk of significant internal contamination. In its publications 26 and 35 the International Commission on Radiological Protection has given recommendations on the monitoring programs. Besides, the metabolic models developed in publication 30 have allowed to establish retention and excretion functions for some radionuclides after intake by inhalation in the adult man. These have been published in the report CEA-R--5266. Considering these data and taking into account the practical problems that occur in the course of surveillance of workers, programs of individual monitoring for contamination by inhalation are proposed. These programs for routine and special monitoring have been developed for the most common radionuclides involved in the nuclear industry [fr

  6. Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cale, R.; Clark, T.; Dixson, R.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1993-06-01

    The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the revised 10 CFR 20 and in agreement with the guidance contained in R.G. 8.7, Rev. 1, ''Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data.'' REMIT is a personal computer (PC) based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of R. G. 8.7, Rev. 1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5, REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and alerts the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files

  7. Natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure of humans in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2016-12-01

    The contribution on natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure in Germany covers the following issues: (1) natural radiation exposure: external radiation exposure - cosmic and terrestric radiation, internal radiation exposure - primordial and cosmogenic radionuclides; radiation exposure due to sola neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. (2) Anthropogenic radiation exposure: radiation exposure in medicine, radioactivity in industrial products, radiation exposure during flights, radiation exposure due to nuclear facilities, radiation exposure due to fossil energy carriers in power generation, radiation exposure due to nuclear explosions, radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents. (3) Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: radiation monitoring with personal dosimeters in medicine and industry, dose surveillance of the aviation personal, working places with increases radiation exposure by natural radiation sources.

  8. Monitoring Human Activity through Portable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sebestyen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring human activity may be useful for medical supervision and for prophylactic purposes. Mobile devices like intelligent phones or watches have multiple sensors and wireless communication capabilities which can be used for this purpose. This paper presents some integrated solutions for determining and continuous monitoring of a person’s state. Aspects taken into consideration are: activity detection and recognition based on acceleration sensors, wireless communication protocols for data acquisition, web monitoring, alerts generation and statistical processing of multiple sensorial data. As practical implementations two case studies are presented, one using an intelligent phone and another using a mixed signal processor integrated in a watch.

  9. Human response to combined indoor environment exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    Most thermal comfort standards and guidelines presume sedentary, light activity and a neutral overall thermal sensation when predicting local thermal discomfort. In addition, current standards specify criteria for separate aspects of the indoor environment, e.g. thermal climate, air quality...... or noise, with only little consideration of possible interactions between the different types of exposure. The studies summarized in this article found a clear impact of activity and overall thermal sensation on human sensitivity to air movement, whereas no interaction effects of exposure to several local...... thermal discomfort factors were observed. Limited evidence was found of significant interactions between different aspects of the indoor environment. Only for the effect of air temperature and air humidity on sensory air quality were well-estabished relationships available....

  10. The control and monitoring of exposures at AWRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.W.; Taylor, N.A.; Woodville, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    If attempts are to be made to learn about the health effects of low doses of radiation by epidemiological study of ''radiation workers'' it is desirable to understand something of such a population, the conditions under which occupational exposures occur, the statistical distribution of doses and the quality of the recorded dosimetric data. These points are illustrated by reference to the monitored workers at a large nuclear establishment with particular examples from plutonium work. (author)

  11. A radiopharmacological study without human radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, D.; Graul, E.H.; Kunkel, R.

    1984-01-01

    The development, study and control of new drugs today is hardly conceivable without nuclear medicine studies. Nuclear physicians on ethical commissions bear great responsibility in the planning and execution of such studies. In order to protect subjects and patients those nuclear techniques are therefore to be welcome which do not include exposure to radiation. Nuclear techniques used in in-vitro diagnostics (RIA) and the determination of naturally occurring nuclides incorporated in the human body belong to this category. With the aid of a clinico-pharmacological study of a new combination of diuretics it is shown that both methods supply valuable pharmacodynamic evidence. (orig.) [de

  12. Monitoring of low level environmental gamma exposure by the centralized radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Obata, Kazuichi; Kokubu, Morinobu; Itoh, Naoji

    1981-07-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a centralized automatic radiation monitoring system developed 20 years ago has recently been improved to monitor low level gamma radiation more accurately in normal operation of the nuclear facilities and to detect abnormal radioactive releases more effectively. The present state of the system is described. This system puts together environmental monitoring data such as gamma exposure rate (20 points), radioactive concentration in the air (4 points) and in water (2 drains), and meteorological items (14 including wind directions, wind speeds, solar radiation and air temperatures at a observation tower of 40 m height). Environmental monitoring around the JAERI site is carried out effectively using the system. Data processing system consists of a central processing unit, a magnetic disk, a magnetic tape, a line printer and a console typewriter. The data at respective monitoring points are transmitted to the central monitoring room by wireless or telephone line. All data are printed out and field in magnetic disk and magnetic tape every 10 minutes. When the emergency levels are exceeded, however, the data are automatically output on a line printer every 2 minute. This system can distinguish very low gamma exposure due to gaseous effluents, about 1 mR/y, from the background. Even in monthly exposures, calculated values based on the data of release amount and meteorology are in good agreement with the measured ones. (author)

  13. Monitoring of environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srogi, K

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic compounds with two or more fused aromatic rings. They have a relatively low solubility in water, but are highly lipophilic. Most of the PAHs with low vapour pressure in the air are adsorbed on particles. When dissolved in water or adsorbed on particulate matter, PAHs can undergo photodecomposition when exposed to ultraviolet light from solar radiation. In the atmosphere, PAHs can react with pollutants such as ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, yielding diones, nitro- and dinitro-PAHs, and sulfonic acids, respectively. PAHs may also be degraded by some microorganisms in the soil. PAHs are widespread environmental contaminants resulting from incomplete combustion of organic materials. The occurrence is largely a result of anthropogenic emissions such as fossil fuel-burning, motor vehicle, waste incinerator, oil refining, coke and asphalt production, and aluminum production, etc. PAHs have received increased attention in recent years in air pollution studies because some of these compounds are highly carcinogenic or mutagenic. Eight PAHs (Car-PAHs) typically considered as possible carcinogens are: benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene. In particular, benzo(a)pyrene has been identified as being highly carcinogenic. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated 16 unsubstituted PAHs (EPA-PAH) as priority pollutants. Thus, exposure assessments of PAHs in the developing world are important. The scope of this review will be to give an overview of PAH concentrations in various environmental samples and to discuss the advantages and limitations of applying these parameters in the assessment of environmental risks in ecosystems and human health. As it well known, there is an increasing trend to use the behavior of pollutants (i.e. bioaccumulation) as well

  14. Biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure to rice farmers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Hodge, Mary; Patel, Renu; Cheng, Ron; Abeyewardene, Manel; Chu, Cordia

    2012-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos is the most common organophosphate insecticide registered for use in Vietnam and is widely used in agriculture, particularly rice farming. However, chlorpyrifos exposure to and adverse effects on farmers has not been evaluated. In this study, biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure in a group of rice farmers was conducted after a typical application event using back-pack spraying. Urine samples (24 h) were collected from the rice farmers before and post insecticide application. Samples were analysed for 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP), the major urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos, using an enzymatic pre-treatment before extraction followed by HPLC-MS/MS. Absorbed Daily Dose (ADD) of chlorpyrifos for farmers were then estimated from urinary TCP levels, expressed as μg g(-1)creatinine. The analytical method for urinary TCP had a low detection limit (0.6 μg L(-1)), acceptable recovery values (80-114%), and low relative percentage differences in duplicate and repeated samples. Post-application chlorpyrifos ADD of farmers varied from 0.4 to 94.2 μg kg(-1) (body weight) d(-1) with a mean of 19.4 μg kg(-1) d(-1) which was approximately 80-fold higher than the mean baseline exposure level (0.24 μg kg(-1) d(-1)). Hazard Quotients (ratio of the mean ADD for rice farmers to acute oral reference dose) calculated using acute oral reference doses recommended by United States and Australian agencies varied from 2.1 (Australian NRA), 4.2 (US EPA) to 6.9 (ATSDR). Biological monitoring using HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urinary TCP (24 h) was found to be an effective method for measuring chlorpyrifos exposure among farmers. This case study found that Vietnamese rice farmers had relatively high exposures to chlorpyrifos after application, which were likely to have adverse health effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Major national human biomonitoring programs in chemical exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human biomonitoring (HBM programs have been established in several countries around the world in order to monitor the levels of chemical exposures in the general population and qualify health risk assessment of national and international interest. Study design, population, sample collection, and chemical analysis must be considered when comparing and interpreting the results. In this review, the objectives and brief descriptions of the major national HBM programs in North America, Europe, and Asia are provided. Similarities and differences observed from a comparative analysis among these programs, including the stratification of data according to age, sex, socioeconomic background, etc. as well as the identification of chemical exposure associated with food intake, are discussed. Overall, although there are some discrepancies in the study designs among the reviewed national HBM programs, results from the programs can provide useful information such as chemical levels found within the general population of a country that can be compared. Furthermore, the results can be used by regulatory authorities or the government to enforce legislations in order to reduce the exposure of chemicals into the human body.

  16. Sampling strategy for estimating human exposure pathways to consumer chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Padilla-Sanchez, Juan A.; Collins, Chris D.; Cousins, Ian T.; Covaci, Adrian; de Wit, Cynthia A.; Leonards, Pim E.G.; Voorspoels, Stefan; Thomsen, Cathrine; Harrad, Stuart; Haug, Line S.

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to consumer chemicals has become a worldwide concern. In this work, a comprehensive sampling strategy is presented, to our knowledge being the first to study all relevant exposure pathways in a single cohort using multiple methods for assessment of exposure from each exposure pathway.

  17. Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Dussort, P; Günther, Helmut; Hanlon, Paul; Honda, Hiroshi; Mally, Angela; O'Hagan, Sue; Scholz, Gabriele; Seidel, Albrecht; Swenberg, James; Teeguarden, Justin; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile, thus making exposure assessment by analysing contents in food unreliable. New approaches are therefore required to accurately assess consumer exposure and thus better inform the risk assessment. Such novel approaches may include the use of biomarkers, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling-facilitated reverse dosimetry, and/or duplicate diet studies. This review focuses on the state of the art with respect to the use of biomarkers of exposure for the process contaminants acrylamide, 3-MCPD esters, glycidyl esters, furan and acrolein. From the overview presented, it becomes clear that the field of assessing human exposure to process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring is promising and strongly developing. The current state of the art as well as the existing data gaps and challenges for the future were defined. They include (1) using PBK modelling and duplicate diet studies to establish, preferably in humans, correlations between external exposure and biomarkers; (2) elucidation of the possible endogenous formation of the process-related contaminants and the resulting biomarker levels; (3) the influence of inter-individual variations and how to include that in the biomarker-based exposure predictions; (4) the correction for confounding factors; (5) the value of the different biomarkers in relation to exposure scenario's and risk assessment, and (6) the possibilities of novel methodologies. In spite of these challenges it can be concluded that biomarker-based exposure assessment provides a unique opportunity to more accurately assess consumer exposure to process-related contaminants in food and thus to better inform risk assessment.

  18. The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and human exposure to environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Antonia M

    2012-02-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in using human biomonitoring - the measurement of chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in biological specimens/body fluids - for investigating exposure to environmental chemicals. General population human biomonitoring programs are useful for investigating human exposure to environmental chemicals and an important tool for integrating environment and health. One of these programs, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), conducted in the United States is designed to collect data on the health and nutritional status of the noninstitutionalized, civilian U.S. population. NHANES includes a physical examination, collecting a detailed medical history, and collecting biological specimens (i.e., blood and urine). These biological specimens can be used to assess exposure to environmental chemicals. NHANES human biomonitoring data can be used to establish reference ranges for selected chemicals, provide exposure data for risk assessment, and monitor exposure trends. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Quality assurance: using the exposure index and the deviation index to monitor radiation exposure for portable chest radiographs in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Mervyn D.; Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly; Apgar, Bruce K.

    2011-01-01

    Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)

  20. Quality assurance: using the exposure index and the deviation index to monitor radiation exposure for portable chest radiographs in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Mervyn D. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Apgar, Bruce K. [Agfa HealthCare Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)

  1. The implementation of medical monitoring programs following potentially hazardous exposures: a medico-legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearrier, David; Greenberg, Michael I

    2017-11-01

    Clinical toxicologists may be called upon to determine the appropriateness of medical monitoring following documented or purported exposures to toxicants in the occupational, environmental, and medical settings. We searched the MEDLINE database using the Ovid ® search engine for the following terms cross-referenced to the MeSH database: ("occupational exposures" OR "environmental exposures") AND ("physiologic monitoring" OR "population surveillance"). The titles and abstracts of the resulted articles were reviewed for relevance. We expanded our search to include non-peer-reviewed publications and gray literature and resources using the same terms as utilized in the MEDLINE search. There were a total of 48 relevant peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed publications. Publications excluded contained no information relevant to medical monitoring following potentially harmful toxicologic exposures, discussed only worker screening/surveillance and/or population biomonitoring, contained redundant information, or were superseded by more recent information. Approaches to medical monitoring: A consensus exists in the peer-reviewed medical literature, legal literature, and government publications that for medical monitoring to be a beneficial public health activity, careful consideration must be given to potential benefits and harms of the program. Characteristics of the exposure, the adverse human health effect, the screening test, and the natural history of the disease are important in determining whether an exposed population will reap a net benefit or harm from a proposed monitoring program. Broader interpretations of medical monitoring: Some have argued that medical monitoring programs should not be limited to exposure-related outcomes but should duplicate general preventive medicine efforts to improve public health outcomes although an overall reduction of morbidity, mortality and disability by modifying correctable risk factors and disease conditions. This broader

  2. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ingestion of inorganic arsenic from drinking water has emerged as an important public health concern. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices, mainly the mining. The health consequences of chronic arsenic exposure include increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous pathologic effects, such as cutaneous effects (hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal effects, vascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral neuropathy. This way, this study presents through a critical revision of the literature, the more relevant current aspects on the immunological consequences, carcinogenic and resulting genetics of the human intoxication for arsenic. They were identified and analyzed 50 works published on the subject among the years of 1979 and 2008, being used as main sources LILACS-BIREME MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SciELO and PubMed. The specific Arsênio e saúde humana effects of the intoxication for arsenic about the human health are not still completely elucidated. Thus, is possible that this element affects functions still unknown, becoming important the scientificexploration on the subject.

  3. Activity Monitors Help Users Get Optimum Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Goddard scientist Shahid Aslam was investigating alternative methods for measuring extreme ultraviolet radiation on the Solar Dynamics Observatory when he hit upon semiconductors that measured wavelengths pertinent to human health. As a result, he and a partner established College Park, Maryland-based Sensor Sensor LLC and developed UVA+B SunFriend, a wrist monitor that lets people know when they've received their optimal amounts of sunlight for the day.

  4. Interpreting faecal analysis results for monitoring exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, P.; Rongier, E.; Faure, M.L.; Auriol, B.; Estrabaud, M.; Mazeyrat, C.

    1996-01-01

    Radiotoxicological monitoring of workers exposed to non-transferable forms of uranium requires six-monthly examinations. These examinations are prescribed according to the kind of product manipulated and tO the industrial risk attached to the workplace. The range of examinations that are useful for this kind of monitoring includes whole body counting examinations, urine analyses and in-line faecal sampling: whole body examinations, which are fundamental to monitoring, provide a lung retention value. However, the detection limit of lung examinations is not low enough for chronic operational monitoring; urine examinations are extremely sensitive to alpha activity (1 mBq per isotope) but the fraction detected in the urine after incorporation by inhalation is very small; in-line 24-hour faecal sampling allows avoiding any workplace exclusion. The authors intend to present their experience acquired over a six year period in the field of systematic faecal examinations after chronic inhalation of the different uranium compounds. They also present results of a study carried out to determine normal uranium concentrations in the faeces of a non-exposed population, the uranium content in drinking waters and the consequences on faecal excretion. Establishing the isotopic content of uranium in the faeces makes it possible to determine practical investigation levels for occupational monitoring. Even if faecal sampling may be critically perceived by the personnel, the authors' experience highlights the value of this kind of analysis which allows to track down the industrial reality of the exposure. Internal dosimetry calculations cannot, however, be carried out, because the physical parameters of the inhaled aerosols are not always known. (author)

  5. [Monitoring of hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in infectious disease hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Manxia; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Yimei

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the status and risk factors for hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in an infectious disease hospital, and to provide a scientific basis for targeted preventive and control measures. The occupational exposure of 395 medical workers in our hospital was monitored from January 2012 to December 2014, among whom 79 individuals with occupational exposure were subjected to intervention and the risk factors for occupational exposure were analyzed. The high-risk group was mainly the nursing staff (69.6%). The incidence of hematogenous occupational exposure was high in medical personnel with a working age under 3 years, aged under 25 years, and at the infection ward, accounting for 63.3%, 72.1%, and 72.2%, respectively. Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Treponema pallidum, and human immunodeficiency virus were the primary exposure sources. Sharp injury was the major way of injury (91.1%), with needle stick injury accounting for the highest proportion (86.1%). Injury occurred on the hand most frequently (91.1%). The high-risk links were improper disposal during or after pulling the needle, re-capturing the needle, and processing waste, accounting for 46.8%, 17.7%, and 12.7%, respectively. Seventy-nine professionals with occupational exposure were not infected. The main risk factor for hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in the infectious disease hospital is needle stick injury. Strengthening the occupational protection education in medical staff in infectious disease hospital, implementing protective measures, standardizing operating procedures in high-risk links, and enhancing the supervision mechanism can reduce the incidence of occupational exposure and infection after exposure.

  6. [Effects of radiation exposure on human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Sasatani, Megumi

    2012-03-01

    There are two types of radiation health effect; acute disorder and late on-set disorder. Acute disorder is a deterministic effect that the symptoms appear by exposure above a threshold. Tissues and cells that compose the human body have different radiation sensitivity respectively, and the symptoms appear in order, from highly radiosensitive tissues. The clinical symptoms of acute disorder begin with a decrease in lymphocytes, and then the symptoms appear such as alopecia, skin erythema, hematopoietic damage, gastrointestinal damage, central nervous system damage with increasing radiation dose. Regarding the late on-set disorder, a predominant health effect is the cancer among the symptoms of such as cancer, non-cancer disease and genetic effect. Cancer and genetic effect are recognized as stochastic effects without the threshold. When radiation dose is equal to or more than 100 mSv, it is observed that the cancer risk by radiation exposure increases linearly with an increase in dose. On the other hand, the risk of developing cancer through low-dose radiation exposure, less 100 mSv, has not yet been clarified scientifically. Although uncertainty still remains regarding low level risk estimation, ICRP propound LNT model and conduct radiation protection in accordance with LNT model in the low-dose and low-dose rate radiation from a position of radiation protection. Meanwhile, the mechanism of radiation damage has been gradually clarified. The initial event of radiation-induced diseases is thought to be the damage to genome such as radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Recently, it is clarified that our cells could recognize genome damage and induce the diverse cell response to maintain genome integrity. This phenomenon is called DNA damage response which induces the cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis, cell senescence and so on. These responses act in the direction to maintain genome integrity against genome damage, however, the death of large number of

  7. Early androgen exposure and human gender development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  8. REMIT, Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cale, R.; Clark, T.; Dixson, P.; Hagemeyer, D.; Hardwick, C.; Pippen, H.

    1997-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Part 20 and in agreement with the guidance contained in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. REMIT is a personal computer (PC) -based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Form 5s or Form 4s. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Form 5s and 4s in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. 2 - Method of solution: REMIT makes use of the dose conversion factors from EPA Report 11 Limiting Values of Radionuclide Intake and Air Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submission, and Ingestion, to calculate the Committed Dose Equivalent to the maximally exposed organ and the committed Effective Dose Equivalent from intakes measured in micro-curies. REMIT also estimates the amount (in micrograms) of uranium intake from the activity entered in micro-curies. This calculation is based on the specific activities of the uranium isotopes. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: REMIT is a single- user system that only runs on IBM compatible PC systems under DOS and supports only Hewlett

  9. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J V; Gardner, S D

    1986-01-01

    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  10. An introduction to the indirect exposure assessment approach: modeling human exposure using microenvironmental measurements and the recent National Human Activity Pattern Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, N E

    1999-01-01

    Indirect exposure approaches offer a feasible and accurate method for estimating population exposures to indoor pollutants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In an effort to make the indirect exposure assessment approach more accessible to people in the health and risk assessment fields, this paper provides examples using real data from (italic>a(/italic>) a week-long personal carbon monoxide monitoring survey conducted by the author; and (italic>b(/italic>) the 1992 to 1994 National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) for the United States. The indirect approach uses measurements of exposures in specific microenvironments (e.g., homes, bars, offices), validated microenvironmental models (based on the mass balance equation), and human activity pattern data obtained from questionnaires to predict frequency distributions of exposure for entire populations. This approach requires fewer resources than the direct approach to exposure assessment, for which the distribution of monitors to a representative sample of a given population is necessary. In the indirect exposure assessment approach, average microenvironmental concentrations are multiplied by the total time spent in each microenvironment to give total integrated exposure. By assuming that the concentrations encountered in each of 10 location categories are the same for different members of the U.S. population (i.e., the NHAPS respondents), the hypothetical contribution that ETS makes to the average 24-hr respirable suspended particle exposure for Americans working their main job is calculated in this paper to be 18 microg/m3. This article is an illustrative review and does not contain an actual exposure assessment or model validation. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10350522

  11. Monitoring of the radon exposure in workplaces: Regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettenhuber, E.

    2002-01-01

    Germany has a reference level of 2 10 6 Bqh/m 3 for radon in workplaces, corresponding to an annual dose of 6 mSv and a limit of 6 10 6 Bqh/m 3 , corresponding to 10 mSv/y. If the reference level is exceeded remedial action has to be taken and a new radon measurement should be carried out. If it is not possible to reduce the radon concentration below the reference level the competent authority has to be notified and monitoring of the radon concentrations performed. Germany has performed a study to investigate the exposure by natural radionuclides in workplaces in a large number of industrial activities, with a dose assessment of the workers under normal circumstances. They made a categorization of NORM activities in dose ranges of 20 mSv/y. Most of the NORM activities fall in the category <1 mSv/y when normal occupational hygiene measures are taken

  12. Progress in human exposure assessment for biocidal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    2004-01-01

    An important shortcoming in our present knowledge required for risk assessment of biocidal products is the assessment of human exposure. This knowledge gap has been filled in a preliminary fashion with the TNsG on human exposure to biocidal products (available from the ECB website). Explicit User

  13. Human exposure assessment: Approaches for chemicals (REACH) and biocides (BPD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.

    2008-01-01

    The approaches that are indicated in the various guidance documents for the assessment of human exposure for chemicals and biocides are summarised. This reflects the TNsG (Technical notes for Guidance) version 2: human exposure assessment for biocidal products (1) under the BPD (Biocidal Products

  14. Environmental monitoring through the use of exposure panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Exposure panels made of white pine with a transite facing are useful for assessing population and community changes in both polluted and unpolluted waters. Their uniform size and shape and the ease with which they can be handled makes them ideal for sampling a wide variety of sessile plants and animals, and those motile forms usually associated with sessile communities. Data from an ecological study at Millstone Point are used as examples of the kinds of information provided through the use of exposure panels as environmental monitors. Species diversity indexes for both algal and annelid populations as they occurred on panels from 1968 through 1973 were calculated. Regression analyses over time showed increases in diversity indexes since the program began, indicating possible changes in water quality. For the period of October 1971 through September 1972, the number of phyla found on panels exposed at Millstone Point, New Haven Harbor, and Stamford Harbor were not significantly different, but far more species were found on the Millstone Point panels. (U.S.)

  15. Exposing exposure: automated anatomy-specific CT radiation exposure extraction for quality assurance and radiation monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodickson, Aaron; Warden, Graham I; Farkas, Cameron E; Ikuta, Ichiro; Prevedello, Luciano M; Andriole, Katherine P; Khorasani, Ramin

    2012-08-01

    patient- and anatomy-specific radiation exposure monitoring. Large-scale anatomy-specific radiation exposure data repositories can be created with high fidelity from existing digital image archives by using open-source informatics tools.

  16. Bio-monitoring of mycotoxin exposure in Cameroon using a urinary multi-biomarker approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Wilfred A; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Njobeh, Patrick B; Turner, Paul C; Kouanfack, Charles; Eyongetah, Mbu; Dutton, Mike; Moundipa, Paul F

    2013-12-01

    Bio-monitoring of human exposure to mycotoxin has mostly been limited to a few individually measured mycotoxin biomarkers. This study aimed to determine the frequency and level of exposure to multiple mycotoxins in human urine from Cameroonian adults. 175 Urine samples (83% from HIV-positive individuals) and food frequency questionnaire responses were collected from consenting Cameroonians, and analyzed for 15 mycotoxins and relevant metabolites using LC-ESI-MS/MS. In total, eleven analytes were detected individually or in combinations in 110/175 (63%) samples including the biomarkers aflatoxin M1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A and total deoxynivalenol. Additionally, important mycotoxins and metabolites thereof, such as fumonisin B2, nivalenol and zearalenone, were determined, some for the first time in urine following dietary exposures. Multi-mycotoxin contamination was common with one HIV-positive individual exposed to five mycotoxins, a severe case of co-exposure that has never been reported in adults before. For the first time in Africa or elsewhere, this study quantified eleven mycotoxin biomarkers and bio-measures in urine from adults. For several mycotoxins estimates indicate that the tolerable daily intake is being exceeded in this study population. Given that many mycotoxins adversely affect the immune system, future studies will examine whether combinations of mycotoxins negatively impact Cameroonian population particularly immune-suppressed individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Harmonisation (legal, dosimetric, quality aspects) of individual monitoring, and integration of monitoring for external and internal exposures (EURADOS working group)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.A.; Currivan, L.; Falk, R.; Olko, P.; Wernli, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Dijk, J.W.E. van

    2003-01-01

    The EURADOS Working Group II on 'Harmonisation of individual monitoring' consists of experts from almost all EU Member States and Newly Associated States (NAS), involved in tasks related to the assessment of doses for internal and external radiation. The final objective is to achieve harmonisation in individual monitoring for occupational exposures. Sub-group 2 activities are focused on investigating how the results from personal dosemeters for external radiation and workplace monitoring and from monitoring for internal exposure can be combined into a complete and consistent system of individual monitoring. Three questionnaires were prepared, covering Individual monitoring of external radiation (Questionnaire 1), 'Internal exposure' (Questionnaire 2) and 'Natural sources of radiation at workplace' (Questionnaire 3). With the agreement of a 'contact-person' selected in each country, the distribution of the three EURADOS 2002 questionnaires was carried out by e-mail among the dosimetry facilities of 28 European countries. The preliminary results of these actions are presented here. (author)

  18. Monitoring and control of occupational radiation exposure in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, M.

    1997-01-01

    Occupational exposure is the most prominent example for the prolonged exposure to low level ionizing radiation characterized by low doses and dose rates. In this paper the occupational exposure in Switzerland is presented and the regulatory control of this exposure in the framework of the new radiation protection regulations is discussed. (author)

  19. Task-specific monitoring of nuclear medicine technologists' radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that the exposure of nuclear medicine technologists arises primarily from radioactive patients rather than from preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. However, in order to devise strategies to reduce staff exposure, it is necessary to identify the specific tasks within each procedure that result in the highest radiation doses. An ESM Eberline FH41B-10 radiation dosemeter, which records the ambient dose equivalent rate, was used to monitor the radiation exposure of a technologist and to record the dose rate in μSv per hour every 32 s throughout a working day. The technologist recorded the procedures that were being performed so that the procedures that resulted in higher doses could be identified clearly. The measured doses clearly showed that the major contributions to the technologist's dose were the following: (1) transferring incapacitated patients from the imaging table to a hospital trolley; (2) difficult injections without syringe shields; and (3) setting up patients for gated myocardial scans. The average dose to the technologist from transferring patients after a bone scan was 0.54 μSv, 40% of the total dose of 1.3 μSv for the complete bone scan procedure. The average dose received injecting 900 MBq of 99 Tc m -HDP using a tungsten syringe shield was 0.57 μSv, but the highest dose was 1.6 μSv, in a patient in whom the injection was difficult. A 0.5 mm lead apron was found to reduce the dose when setting up a patient for a gated stress 99 Tc m -sestamibi myocardial scan by approximately a factor of 2. The average dose per patient for this task was reduced from 1.1 to 0.6 μSv. It is recommended that staff waiting for assistance with patient transfers stand away from the patient, that tungsten syringe shields be used for all radiopharmaceutical injections and that a 0.5 mm lead apron be worn when attending patients containing high activities of 99 Tc m radiopharmaceuticals, such as those having myocardial imaging. (authors)

  20. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

  1. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Mølhave, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung...... function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m3 (low) and 400 µg/m3 (high) under controlled environmental conditions.......0007), “irritative body perceptions” (p = 0.0127), “psychological/neurological effects” (p = 0.0075) and “weak inflammatory responses” (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating...

  2. Human exposure limits to hypergolic fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H. D.; James, J. T.; Limero, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past four decades, many studies have been conducted on the toxicities of the rocket propellants hydrazine (HZ) and monomethylhydrazine (MH). Numerous technical challenges have made it difficult to unambiguously interpret the results of these studies, and there is considerable divergence between results obtained by different investigators on the inhalation concentrations (MAC's) for each toxic effect inducible by exposure to hypergolic fuels in spacecraft atmospheres, NASA undertook a critical review of published and unpublished investigations on the toxicities of these compounds. The current state of the art practices for similar studies. While many questions remain unanswered, MAC's were determined using the best available data for a variety of toxic endpoints for potential continuous exposure durations ranging from 1 hour to 180 days. Spacecraft MAC's (SMAC's) were set for each compound based on the most sensitive toxic endpoint at each exposure duration.

  3. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  4. Knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus post-exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-21

    May 21, 2011 ... Appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis is an integral part of prevention, control and workplace safety. This study was undertaken to assess the level of knowledge of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among doctors in Federal Medical Centre, Gombe, Nigeria.

  5. Elevated personal exposure to particulate matter from human activities in a residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Andrea R; Kopperud, Royal J; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2004-01-01

    Continuous laser particle counters collocated with time-integrated filter samplers were used to measure personal, indoor, and outdoor particulate matter (PM) concentrations for a variety of prescribed human activities during a 5-day experimental period in a home in Redwood City, CA, USA. The mean daytime personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) during prescribed activities were 6 and 17 times, respectively, as high as the pre-activity indoor background concentration. Activities that resulted in the highest exposures of PM(2.5), PM(5), and PM(10) were those that disturbed dust reservoirs on furniture and textiles, such as dry dusting, folding clothes and blankets, and making a bed. The vigor of activity and type of flooring were also important factors for dust resuspension. Personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) were 1.4 and 1.6 times, respectively, as high as the indoor concentration as measured by a stationary monitor. The ratio of personal exposure to the indoor concentration was a function of both particle size and the distance of the human activity from the stationary indoor monitor. The results demonstrate that a wide variety of indoor human resuspension activities increase human exposure to PM and contribute to the "personal cloud" effect.

  6. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.

    1996-01-01

    for detecting carcinogen-induced damage to DNA and proteins, and subsequent biological effects. These methods were validated with the occupational exposures, which showed evidence of DNA and/or protein and/or chromosome damage in workers in a coke oven plant, garage workers exposed to diesel exhaust and workers...

  7. Indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure monitoring of particulate air pollution: the Baltimore elderly epidemiology-exposure pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ron; Creason, John; Zweidinger, Roy; Watts, Randall; Sheldon, Linda; Shy, Carl

    A 17-day pilot study investigating potential PM exposures of an elderly population was conducted near Baltimore, Maryland. Collection of residential indoor, residential outdoor, and ambient monitoring data associated with the subjects living at a common retirement facility was integrated with results from a paired epidemiological pilot study. This integration was used to investigate the potential pathophysiological health effects resulting from daily changes in estimated PM exposures with results reported elsewhere. Objectives of the exposure study were to determine the feasibility of performing PM exposure assessment upon an elderly population and establishing relationships between the various exposure measures including personal monitoring. PM 2.5 was determined to be the dominant outdoor size fraction (0.83 PM 2.5/PM 10 mass ratio by dichot monitoring). Individual 24-h PM 1.5 personal exposures ranged from 12 to 58 μg m -3. Comparison of data from matched sampling dates resulted in mean daily PM 1.5 personal, PM 2.5 outdoor, and PM 1.5 indoor concentrations of 34, 17, and 17 μg m -3, respectively. Activity patterns of the study population indicated a generally sedentary population spending a mean of 96% of each day indoors. Future studies would benefit from the use of a consistent sampling methodology across a larger number of PM measurement sites relevant to the elderly subjects, as well as a larger personal PM exposure study population to more successfully collect data needed in matched epidemiological-exposure studies.

  8. Human exposure to emissions from building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, S.; Hauschildt, P.; Pejtersen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    found on peak flow, eye foam formation, tear fluid cells, or conjunctival epithelial damage. Among subjective evaluations only sound intensity rating was significant. A correlation was found between acute nose irritation rating and change in nasal volume.Conclusions. The findings indicate physiological......Objectives. Reactions to emissions from building matrials were studied in a climate chamber as part of an intervention study in an office building. New and existing flooring materials were compared with regard to comfort and health.Methods. Twenty subjects were exposed four times for six hours...... respectively to clean air, to emissions from linoleum, from carpet, and from an alternative new vinyl. Measurements of objective and subjective effects were made.Results. Tear film stability decreased after exposure to linoleum. The nasal volume decreased near-significantly for all exposures. No effects were...

  9. Human Health and Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    passed through volunteers from electrodes attached to their heads and bodies while they were subjected to a series of psychological tests (Bonnell et...al, 1985; Stollery, 1986). The pattern of current was equivalent to that produced by exposure to a 36 kV m- 1 field at 50 Hz. The psychological tests ...Silverman, 1977; Lilienfeld et al, 1978; Stopps and Janischewsky, 1979; Knave et al, 1979; Robinette et al, 1980; Marsh et al, 1982; Silverman, 1985

  10. Natural radiation exposure modified by human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1995-01-01

    We are now living in the radiation environment modified by our technology. It is usually called 'Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation' and have been discussed in the UNSCEAR Reports as an important source of exposure. The terrestrial radionuclide concentrations as well as the intensity of cosmic rays are considered to have been constant after our ancestors came down from trees and started walking on their two feet. However, we have been changing our environment to be more comfortable for our life and consequently ambient radiation levels are nomore what used to be. In this paper exposures due to natural radiation modified by our following activities are discussed: housing, balneology, cave excursion, mountain climbing, skiing, swimming, smoking and usage of mineral water, well water, coal, natural gas, phosphate rocks and minerals. In the ICRP Publication No. 39, it is clearly mentioned that even natural radiation should be controlled as far as it is controllable. We have to pay more attention to our activities not to enhance the exposure due to unnecessary, avoidable radiation. (author)

  11. Biomonitoring of the mycotoxin Zearalenone: current state-of-the art and application to human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mally, Angela; Solfrizzo, Michele; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin with high estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, is a widespread food contaminant that is commonly detected in maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, rye and other grains. Human exposure estimates based on analytical data on ZEN occurrence in various food categories and food consumption data suggest that human exposure to ZEN and modified forms of ZEN may be close to or even exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for some consumer groups. Considering the inherent uncertainties in estimating dietary intake of ZEN that may lead to an under- or overestimation of ZEN exposure and consequently human risk and current lack of data on vulnerable consumer groups, there is a clear need for more comprehensive and reliable exposure data to refine ZEN risk assessment. Human biomonitoring (HBM) is increasingly being recognized as an efficient and cost-effective way of assessing human exposure to food contaminants, including mycotoxins. Based on animal and (limited) human data on the toxicokinetics of ZEN, it appears that excretion of ZEN and its major metabolites may present suitable biomarkers of ZEN exposure. In view of the limitations of available dietary exposure data on ZEN and its modified forms, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies utilizing HBM to monitor and assess human exposure to ZEN. Considerations are given to animal and human toxicokinetic data relevant to HBM, analytical methods, and available HBM data on urinary biomarkers of ZEN exposure in different cohorts.

  12. Relative significance of natural irradiation vs all human exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.

    1985-01-01

    A review is made of the fundamentals allowing to quantitatively express the importance of the various sources of human exposure by an individual or collective approach. Following a summary of the components of normal exposure to natural sources, the various human actions at the origin of enhanced exposure are studied: 1) those modifying the relationship between natural sources and man (dwelling conditions, coal burning, geothermal energy production, exploitation of phosphate rock); 2) those creating new artificial sources (nuclear explosions in the atmosphere, nuclear power production, medical use of radiation and radionuclides). The effective dose equivalent commitments for these sources are compared with those necessarily involved by continuous normal exposure to the natural sources of exposure [fr

  13. Development and evaluation of a technique for in vivo monitoring of 60Co in human liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, GH; Silva, MC; Mello, JQ; Dantas, ALA; Dantas, BM

    2018-03-01

    60Co is an artificial radioactive metal produced by activation of iron with neutrons. It decays by beta particles and gamma radiation and represents a risk of internal exposure of workers involved in the maintenance of nuclear power reactors. Intakes can be quantified through in vivo monitoring. This work describes the development of a technique for the quantification of 60Co in human liver. The sensitivity of the method is evaluated based on the minimum detectable effective doses. The results allow to state that the technique is suitable either for monitoring of occupational exposures or evaluation of accidental intakes.

  14. The design of a miniature personal exposure monitor for continuous real-time data acquisition in electromagnetic field exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.H.; Conroy, T.J.; Wilson, B.W.

    1994-06-01

    The design of a small, light-weight personal exposure monitor suitable for use in EMF exposure assessment studies is nearing completion at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The monitor is designed to be non-obtrusive, battery operated, and able to continuously record extremely low-frequency (ELF) (1Ohz--500hz) magnetic-field data. It also captures high-frequency (500hz--1OMhz) transients that exceed a preset threshold, retaining the largest transients in memory. The monitor can record one or more days of data on a single easily replaceable, credit-card-size memory (PCMCIA). A battery charge will last a minimum of one day. Batteries are rechargeable and easily replaced. A data-compression algorithm is under development that will be tailored to the efficient compression of low-frequency EMF signals and will permit data to be logged for at least one day before swapping memory cards. The memory cards are readable by a base- station computer that can perform analysis of the data. The monitor is designed to accommodate four inputs supporting full-field sensors as well as a proposed ocular exposure measurement system. Our design effort has shown that a practical personal exposure monitor for EMF can be built based on current technology, continuous logging of real-time ELF waveforms is both feasible and practical, and such a device is appropriate for proposed EMF exposure studies

  15. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabos, S.

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabos, S. [Alberta Health, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Human population exposure to cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Lowder, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Critical evaluations of existing data on cosmic radiation in the atmosphere and in interplanetary space have been carried out in order to estimate the exposure of the world's population to this important component of natural background radiation. Data on population distribution and mean terrain heights on a 1 x 1 degree grid have been folded in to estimate regional and global dose distributions. The per caput annual dose equivalent at ground altitudes is estimated to be 270 μSv from charged particles and 50 μSv from neutrons. More than 100 million people receive more than 1 mSv in a year, and two million in excess of 5 mSv. Aircraft flight crews and frequent flyers receive an additional annual dose equivalent in the order of 1 mSv, though the global per caput annual dose equivalent from airplane flights is only about 1 μSv. Future space travellers on extended missions are likely to receive dose equivalents in the range 0.11 Sv, with the possibility of higher doses at relatively high dose rates from unusually large solar flares. These results indicate a critical need for a better understanding of the biological significance of chronic neutron and heavy charged particle exposure. (author)

  18. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable ma...

  19. Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) for use in human exposure and health studies and predictive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientists have compiled detailed data on human behavior from 22 separate exposure and time-use studies into CHAD. The database includes more than 54,000 individual study days of detailed human behavior.

  20. Exposure to Human Immunodeficiency Disease. What Precautions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic is more pronounced in sub-Saharan Africa. The ever-increasing prevalence of HIV infection and the continued improvement in clinical management has increased the likelihood of these patients being managed by healthcare workers. The aim of the review ...

  1. Post exposure prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-23

    Nov 23, 2015 ... Abstract: Objective: To deter- mine the level of awareness, knowledge and practice of human immunodeficiency virus post ex- posure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) among paediatricians in Nigeria. Methodology: The study was a cross sectional questionnaire- based survey conducted among paediatrcians that ...

  2. High Throughput Heuristics for Prioritizing Human Exposure to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk posed to human health by any of the thousands of untested anthropogenic chemicals in our environment is a function of both the potential hazard presented by the chemical, and the possibility of being exposed. Without the capacity to make quantitative, albeit uncertain, forecasts of exposure, the putative risk of adverse health effect from a chemical cannot be evaluated. We used Bayesian methodology to infer ranges of exposure intakes that are consistent with biomarkers of chemical exposures identified in urine samples from the U.S. population by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We perform linear regression on inferred exposure for demographic subsets of NHANES demarked by age, gender, and weight using high throughput chemical descriptors gleaned from databases and chemical structure-based calculators. We find that five of these descriptors are capable of explaining roughly 50% of the variability across chemicals for all the demographic groups examined, including children aged 6-11. For the thousands of chemicals with no other source of information, this approach allows rapid and efficient prediction of average exposure intake of environmental chemicals. The methods described by this manuscript provide a highly improved methodology for HTS of human exposure to environmental chemicals. The manuscript includes a ranking of 7785 environmental chemicals with respect to potential human exposure, including most of the Tox21 in vit

  3. Sampling strategy for estimating human exposure pathways to consumer chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Papadopoulou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to consumer chemicals has become a worldwide concern. In this work, a comprehensive sampling strategy is presented, to our knowledge being the first to study all relevant exposure pathways in a single cohort using multiple methods for assessment of exposure from each exposure pathway. The selected groups of chemicals to be studied are consumer chemicals whose production and use are currently in a state of transition and are; per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs, traditional and “emerging” brominated flame retardants (BFRs and EBFRs, organophosphate esters (OPEs and phthalate esters (PEs. Information about human exposure to these contaminants is needed due to existing data gaps on human exposure intakes from multiple exposure pathways and relationships between internal and external exposure. Indoor environment, food and biological samples were collected from 61 participants and their households in the Oslo area (Norway on two consecutive days, during winter 2013-14. Air, dust, hand wipes, and duplicate diet (food and drink samples were collected as indicators of external exposure, and blood, urine, blood spots, hair, nails and saliva as indicators of internal exposure. A food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and indoor environment questionnaire were also implemented. Approximately 2000 samples were collected in total and participant views on their experiences of this campaign were collected via questionnaire. While 91% of our participants were positive about future participation in a similar project, some tasks were viewed as problematic. Completing the food diary and collection of duplicate food/drink portions were the tasks most frequent reported as “hard”/”very hard”. Nevertheless, a strong positive correlation between the reported total mass of food/drinks in the food record and the total weight of the food/drinks in the collection bottles was observed, being an indication of accurate performance

  4. Considerations for the design and technical setup of a human whole-body exposure chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsé, Christian; Sucker, Kirsten; van Thriel, Christoph; Broding, Horst Christoph; Jettkant, Birger; Berresheim, Hans; Wiethege, Thorsten; Käfferlein, Heiko; Merget, Rolf; Bünger, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Exposures to air contaminants, such as chemical vapors and particulate matter, pose important health hazards at workplaces. Short-term experimental exposures to chemical vapors and particles in humans are a promising attempt to investigate acute effects of such hazards. However, a significant challenge in this field is the determination of effects of co-exposures to more than one chemical or mixtures of chemical vapors and/or particles. To overcome such a challenge, studies have to be conducted under standardized exposure characterization and real time measurements, if possible. A new exposure laboratory (ExpoLab) was installed at IPA, combining sophisticated engineering designs with new analytical techniques, to fulfill these requirements. Low-dose as well as high-dose exposure scenarios are achieved by means of a calibration-gas-generator. Exposure monitoring can be carried out with a high performance real time mass spectrometer and other suitable analyzers (e.g. gas chromatograph). Numerous automated security facilities guarantee the physical integrity of the volunteers, and the waste atmosphere is removed using either charcoal filtration or catalytic post-combustion. Measurements of sulfur hexafluoride, carbon dioxide, aniline and carbon black are presented to demonstrate the performance of the exposure unit with respect to the temporal and spatial stability of generated atmospheres. The variations of generated contents in the atmospheres at steady state are slightly higher than the measurement precision of the analyzers (the typical standard deviation of generated atmospheres is standards in validity and reliability of generating and measuring exposure atmospheres.

  5. Worker-specific exposure monitor and method for surveillance of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, M.L.; Peeters, J.P.; Johnson, A.W.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to a person-specific monitor that provides sensor information regarding hazards to which the person is exposed and means to geolocate the person at the time of the exposure. The monitor also includes means to communicate with a remote base station. Information from the monitor can be downloaded at the base station for long term storage and analysis. The base station can also include means to recharge the monitor

  6. Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: Methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Voelkel, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ('environmentally') exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 μg/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 μg per person (< 0.1 μg/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population

  7. Developing human health exposure scenarios for petroleum substances under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.; De Wilde, P.; Maksimainen, K.; Margary, A.; Money, C.; Pizzella, G.; Svanehav, T.; Tsang, W.; Urbanus, J.; Rohde, A.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the approaches that were adopted by CONCAWE to prepare the human exposure estimates in the chemical safety assessments of the REACH registration dossiers for petroleum substances based on all applicable regulatory guidance. Separate exposure estimates were developed for workers and for consumers and included inhalation and dermal routes. The complex nature of petroleum substances required various scientifically justified refinements of the regulatory guidance.

  8. Foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myöhänen, Kirsi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and function. Although human placental perfusion has been used extensively to study the transplacental transfer of drugs, the information on food and environmental carcinogens is much more limited. This review deals with the foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings. In particular, human transplacental transfer of the food carcinogens such as acrylamide, glycidamide and nitrosodimethylamine are in focus. Because these carcinogens are genotoxic, the functional capacity of human placenta to induce DNA adduct formation or metabolize these above mentioned CYP2E1 substrates is of interest in this context. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  9. Monitoring Of Radiation Exposure Source In PPTA Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th, Rina; M, Subiharto

    2000-01-01

    The radiation exposure in the of P PTA Serpone was measured by means of MCA micro nomad. The computer codes NAGABAT was used for analyzing the contribution of natural gamma rays to the exposure rate in the measuring locations. Measurement was taken for 14 locations, under conditions that the nuclear facilities are not in operation. The result showed that the exposure varieties, dependently on potassium, uranium and thorium contents in the environment matrix. The maximum of thorium, uranium and potassium are in amount of 5,269 ppm; 1,650 ppm; and respectively 0,72 %

  10. Inhale while Dreaming: Human Exposure to Pollutants while Sleeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsi, Richard; Spilak, Michal; Boor, E., Brandon

    2012-01-01

    of indoor pollutants, e.g., flame retardants to isocyanates. As such, there is a need for increased dialogue on this subject, end-point relevant research, and action to reduce exposures to high-risk contaminants for most of humanity. This workshop will involve an opening 5–minute presentation related...... discussion related to practical implications of new findings as well as past studies, geographic variations in emissions from mattresses and beddings, methods for reducing population exposures, and suggestions for future research that has practical endpoints and that can lead to reduced exposures....

  11. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  12. Developing a General Population Job-Exposure Matrix in the Absence of Sufficient Exposure Monitoring Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tmannetje, AM; McLean, DJ; Eng, AJ; Kromhout, H; Kauppinen, T; Fevotte, J; Pearce, NE

    2011-01-01

    In New Zealand, there is a need for a comprehensive and accessible database with national occupational exposure information, such as a general population job-exposure matrix (GPJEM). However, few New Zealand-specific exposure data exist that could be used to construct such a GPJEM. Here, we present the methods used to develop a GPJEM for New Zealand (NZJEM), by combining GPJEMs from other countries with New Zealand-specific exposure information, using wood dust as an example to illustrate thi...

  13. Development of a Nitric Oxide Monitor for Early Detection of Pathogenic Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (NO) level in exhaled human breath is a reliable diagnostic of respiratory distress, and in particular whether or not NO measurements can be used as a triage tool to identify human exposure to bio- warfare agents, (ii...

  14. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.; Dranitsaris, P.; Baynes, C.J.

    1984-11-01

    A literature review was conducted of the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF) with emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF. The data and findings of the relevant references were summarized under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure and industrial exposure. These were critically reviewed and then lethal concentration-time relationships were developed for humans, corresponding to LCsub(LO), LCsub(10) and LCsub(50) levels. The effects of age, health and other physiological variables on the sensitivity to HF were discussed, as well as antagonistic and synergistic effects with other substances

  15. Wearable sensors for human health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, H. Harry; Reisner, Andrew

    2006-03-01

    Wearable sensors for continuous monitoring of vital signs for extended periods of weeks or months are expected to revolutionize healthcare services in the home and workplace as well as in hospitals and nursing homes. This invited paper describes recent research progress in wearable health monitoring technology and its clinical applications, with emphasis on blood pressure and circulatory monitoring. First, a finger ring-type wearable blood pressure sensor based on photo plethysmogram is presented. Technical issues, including motion artifact reduction, power saving, and wearability enhancement, will be addressed. Second, sensor fusion and sensor networking for integrating multiple sensors with diverse modalities will be discussed for comprehensive monitoring and diagnosis of health status. Unlike traditional snap-shot measurements, continuous monitoring with wearable sensors opens up the possibility to treat the physiological system as a dynamical process. This allows us to apply powerful system dynamics and control methodologies, such as adaptive filtering, single- and multi-channel system identification, active noise cancellation, and adaptive control, to the monitoring and treatment of highly complex physiological systems. A few clinical trials illustrate the potentials of the wearable sensor technology for future heath care services.

  16. A dermatotoxicokinetic model of human exposures to jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David; Andersen, Melvin E; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2006-09-01

    Workers, both in the military and the commercial airline industry, are exposed to jet fuel by inhalation and dermal contact. We present a dermatotoxicokinetic (DTK) model that quantifies the absorption, distribution, and elimination of aromatic and aliphatic components of jet fuel following dermal exposures in humans. Kinetic data were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers following a single dose of JP-8 to the forearm over a surface area of 20 cm2. Blood samples were taken before exposure (t = 0 h), after exposure (t = 0.5 h), and every 0.5 h for up to 3.5 h postexposure. The DTK model that best fit the data included five compartments: (1) surface, (2) stratum corneum (SC), (3) viable epidermis, (4) blood, and (5) storage. The DTK model was used to predict blood concentrations of the components of JP-8 based on dermal-exposure measurements made in occupational-exposure settings in order to better understand the toxicokinetic behavior of these compounds. Monte Carlo simulations of dermal exposure and cumulative internal dose demonstrated no overlap among the low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups. The DTK model provides a quantitative understanding of the relationship between the mass of JP-8 components in the SC and the concentrations of each component in the systemic circulation. The model may be used for the development of a toxicokinetic modeling strategy for multiroute exposure to jet fuel.

  17. Personnel radiation exposure in the Asse saltmine repository during 1967 to 2008. Health monitoring Asse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    The health monitoring Asse includes the following chapters: Introduction, background information including handling of radioactive materials and radiation protection issues, data on radiation exposure (personnel dosimetry, incorporation surveillance, local dose rate measurements, exhaust monitoring, radioactivity in the salt mine air and in the brine, contamination), concept of the data base, interrogation of the personnel, quantification of the individual radiation doses, results of the radiation exposure quantification; significance of the results and perspectives.

  18. Monitoring of occupational exposure at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The regulations concerning the monitoring of radiation doses of nuclear power plant workers and the reporting of radiation doses to the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are specified in the guide. (10 refs.)

  19. Integrating population dynamics into mapping human exposure to seismic hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Freire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk is not fully characterized without taking into account vulnerability and population exposure. Assessment of earthquake risk in urban areas would benefit from considering the variation of population distribution at more detailed spatial and temporal scales, and from a more explicit integration of this improved demographic data with existing seismic hazard maps. In the present work, "intelligent" dasymetric mapping is used to model population dynamics at high spatial resolution in order to benefit the analysis of spatio-temporal exposure to earthquake hazard in a metropolitan area. These night- and daytime-specific population densities are then classified and combined with seismic intensity levels to derive new spatially-explicit four-class-composite maps of human exposure. The presented approach enables a more thorough assessment of population exposure to earthquake hazard. Results show that there are significantly more people potentially at risk in the daytime period, demonstrating the shifting nature of population exposure in the daily cycle and the need to move beyond conventional residence-based demographic data sources to improve risk analyses. The proposed fine-scale maps of human exposure to seismic intensity are mainly aimed at benefiting visualization and communication of earthquake risk, but can be valuable in all phases of the disaster management process where knowledge of population densities is relevant for decision-making.

  20. Assessment of human dietary exposure to arsenic through rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew A; Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Argos, Maria; Slaughter, Francis; Pendergrast, Claire; Punshon, Tracy; Gossai, Anala; Ahsan, Habibul; Karagas, Margaret R

    2017-05-15

    Rice accumulates 10-fold higher inorganic arsenic (i-As), an established human carcinogen, than other grains. This review summarizes epidemiologic studies that examined the association between rice consumption and biomarkers of arsenic exposure. After reviewing the literature we identified 20 studies, among them included 18 observational and 2 human experimental studies that reported on associations between rice consumption and an arsenic biomarker. Among individuals not exposed to contaminated water, rice is a source of i-As exposure - rice consumption has been consistently related to arsenic biomarkers, and the relationship has been clearly demonstrated in experimental studies. Early-life i-As exposure is of particular concern due to its association with lifelong adverse health outcomes. Maternal rice consumption during pregnancy also has been associated with infant toenail total arsenic concentrations indicating that dietary exposure during pregnancy results in fetal exposure. Thus, the collective evidence indicates that rice is an independent source of arsenic exposure in populations around the world and highlights the importance of investigating its affect on health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Human exposure to cyanotoxins and their effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Simeunović, Jelica; Baltić, Vladimir; Stanić, Dina; Svirčev, Zorica

    2013-06-01

    Cyanotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by cyanobacteria. They pose a threat to human health and the environment. This review summarises the existing data on human exposure to cyanotoxins through drinking water, recreational activities (e.g., swimming, canoeing or bathing), the aquatic food web, terrestrial plants, food supplements, and haemodialysis. Furthermore, it discusses the tolerable daily intake and guideline values for cyanotoxins (especially microcystins) as well as the need to implement risk management measures via national and international legislation.

  2. Human reproductive system disturbances and pesticide exposure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koifman Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of reproductive disturbances in humans and in the wildlife has been reported in the last decade in different countries. Exposure to different chemicals possibly acting in the endocrine system or endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, has been a hypothesis raised to explain the observed changes. This paper aimed to present results of an epidemiological ecologic study carried out to explore population data on pesticides exposure in selected Brazilian states in the eighties and human reproductive outcomes in the nineties. Pearson correlation coefficients were ascertained between available data pesticides sales in eleven states in Brazil in 1985 and selected further reproductive outcomes or their surrogates. Moderate to high correlations were observed to infertility, testis, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer mortality. Despite the restrains of ecologic studies to establish cause-effect relationships, the observed results are in agreement with evidence supporting a possible association between pesticides exposure and the analyzed reproductive outcomes.

  3. Assessing Sources of Human Methylmercury Exposure Using Stable Mercury Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Miling; Sherman, Laura S; Blum, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption is the primary route of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for most populations. Inherent uncertainties in dietary survey data point to the need for an empirical tool to confirm exposure sources. We therefore explore the utility of Hg stable isotope ratios in human hair as a new...... method for discerning MeHg exposure sources. We characterized Hg isotope fractionation between humans and their diets using hair samples from Faroese whalers exposed to MeHg predominantly from pilot whales. We observed an increase of 1.75‰ in δ(202)Hg values between pilot whale muscle tissue and Faroese...... whalers' hair but no mass-independent fractionation. We found a similar offset in δ(202)Hg between consumed seafood and hair samples from Gulf of Mexico recreational anglers who are exposed to lower levels of MeHg from a variety of seafood sources. An isotope mixing model was used to estimate individual...

  4. The causes and consequences of human exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Few phenomena cause as much concern in developed countries as human exposure to artificial sources of radiation, and yet there are more potent threats to health: natural radiation is more pervasive and exposures more substantial; common practices such as smoking and drinking are more detrimental. Developing countries may be more anxious to establish radiological procedures than radiological protection. This paper gives the ranges of exposure to which people are subjected from natural and artificial sources which should help to put all doses in perspective. The relationship between dose and risk is established and used to show that exposures to radiation leak to low levels of risk. Finally, the new recommendations of ICRP for the control of radiation risk are presented. (Author)

  5. Assessment of Nicotine Exposure From Active Human Cigarette Smoking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of a cigarette is a series of consecutive sequences of both passive and active burnings when a smoking cycle is applied to the cigarette. A previous study, using a smoking machine, showed that cigarette nicotine yields are dependent linearly on the difference between the time of smouldering (passive burning and the time of smoking (active burning. It is predicted that the smoker’s nicotine yield increases when the intensity of smoking increases, i.e., when the time to smoke a cigarette (smoking time decreases. Note that observations made on machines might not be comparable to human behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine whether nicotine mouth-level exposure could be predicted through measurement of human smoking time. A smoking behaviour study was conducted to compare human smoking nicotine yields obtained from both filter tip analysis and the cigarette burning time model. Results showed that smokers’ exposure to the smoke depends essentially on the speed at which the cigarette is smoked. An increase in human smoking intensity, resulting in a decrease in smoking time, generates an increase in smoke exposure, whatever the puff number, puff duration, puff volume and filter ventilation (open or blocked. The association of a machine smoking yield with a corresponding smoking time, and the time taken by a consumer to smoke the cigarette would provide information on the exposure to smoke constituents in a simple and effective manner.

  6. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  7. Spatial Analysis of Human Exposure and Vulnerability to Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disasters in coastal cities have shown an ever-increasing frequency of occurrence. Population growth and urbanisation have increased the vulnerability of properties and societies in coastal flood-prone areas. Analysis of human exposure and vulnerability is one of the main strategies used to determine the necessary ...

  8. Radiation exposure and radiation hazards of human population. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1982-01-01

    The present Part I provides a survey on the various sources of natural and artificial radiation exposure of human population. Furthermore, biological radiation effects and radiation damages are surveyed. In an appendix, radiation types, radiation doses, and radiation dose units are explained. (orig./GSCH) [de

  9. Human health risk assessment related to cyanotoxins exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Enzo; Testai, Emanuela

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the risk assessment associated with human exposure to cyanotoxins, secondary metabolites of an ubiquitous group of photosynthetic procariota. Cyanobacteria occur especially in eutrophic inland and coastal surface waters, where under favorable conditions they attain high densities and may form blooms and scums. Cyanotoxins can be grouped according to their biological effects into hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, and toxins with irritating potential, also acting on the gastrointestinal system. The chemical and toxicological properties of the main cyanotoxins, relevant for the evaluation of possible risks for human health, are presented. Humans may be exposed to cyanotoxins via several routes, with the oral one being by far the most important, occurring by ingesting contaminated drinking water, food, some dietary supplements, or water during recreational activities. Acute and short-term toxic effects have been associated in humans with exposure to high levels of cyanotoxins in drinking and bathing waters. However, the chronic exposure to low cyanotoxin levels remains a critical issue. This article identifies the actual risky exposure scenarios, provides toxicologically derived reference values, and discusses open issues and research needs.

  10. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence,

  11. Monitoring of occupational exposure in manufacturing of stainless steel constructions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Bencko, V.; Pápayová, A.; Šaligová, D.; Tejral, J.; Borská, L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2001), s. 171-175 ISSN 1210-7778 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : occupational exposure * stainless steel construction industry * instrumental neutron activation analysis Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines

  12. Human monitoring, smart health and assisted living techniques and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Sauro; Freddi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the three main scientific and technological areas critical for improving people's quality of life - namely human monitoring, smart health and assisted living - from both the research and development points of view.

  13. Dynamics of the transcriptome response of cultured human embryonic stem cells to ionizing radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Mykyta V., E-mail: sokolovm@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Panyutin, Irina V., E-mail: ipanyutinv@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Panyutin, Igor G., E-mail: igorp@helix.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Neumann, Ronald D., E-mail: rneumann@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2011-05-10

    One of the key consequences of exposure of human cells to genotoxic agents is the activation of DNA damage responses (DDR). While the mechanisms underpinning DDR in fully differentiated somatic human cells have been studied extensively, molecular signaling events and pathways involved in DDR in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) remain largely unexplored. We studied changes in the human genome-wide transcriptome of H9 hESC line following exposures to 1 Gy of gamma-radiation at 2 h and 16 h post-irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression data for a subset of genes. In parallel, the cell growth, DDR kinetics, and expression of pluripotency markers in irradiated hESC were monitored. The changes in gene expression in hESC after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) are substantially different from those observed in somatic human cell lines. Gene expression patterns at 2 h post-IR showed almost an exclusively p53-dependent, predominantly pro-apoptotic, signature with a total of only 30 up-regulated genes. In contrast, the gene expression patterns at 16 h post-IR showed 354 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in pro-survival pathways, such as increased expression of metallothioneins, ubiquitin cycle, and general metabolism signaling. Cell growth data paralleled trends in gene expression changes. DDR in hESC followed the kinetics reported for human somatic differentiated cells. The expression of pluripotency markers characteristic of undifferentiated hESC was not affected by exposure to IR during the time course of our analysis. Our data on dynamics of transcriptome response of irradiated hESCs may provide a valuable tool to screen for markers of IR exposure of human cells in their most naive state; thus unmasking the key elements of DDR; at the same time, avoiding the complexity of interpreting distinct cell type-dependent genotoxic stress responses of terminally differentiated cells.

  14. Dynamics of the transcriptome response of cultured human embryonic stem cells to ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Mykyta V.; Panyutin, Irina V.; Panyutin, Igor G.; Neumann, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    One of the key consequences of exposure of human cells to genotoxic agents is the activation of DNA damage responses (DDR). While the mechanisms underpinning DDR in fully differentiated somatic human cells have been studied extensively, molecular signaling events and pathways involved in DDR in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) remain largely unexplored. We studied changes in the human genome-wide transcriptome of H9 hESC line following exposures to 1 Gy of gamma-radiation at 2 h and 16 h post-irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression data for a subset of genes. In parallel, the cell growth, DDR kinetics, and expression of pluripotency markers in irradiated hESC were monitored. The changes in gene expression in hESC after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) are substantially different from those observed in somatic human cell lines. Gene expression patterns at 2 h post-IR showed almost an exclusively p53-dependent, predominantly pro-apoptotic, signature with a total of only 30 up-regulated genes. In contrast, the gene expression patterns at 16 h post-IR showed 354 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in pro-survival pathways, such as increased expression of metallothioneins, ubiquitin cycle, and general metabolism signaling. Cell growth data paralleled trends in gene expression changes. DDR in hESC followed the kinetics reported for human somatic differentiated cells. The expression of pluripotency markers characteristic of undifferentiated hESC was not affected by exposure to IR during the time course of our analysis. Our data on dynamics of transcriptome response of irradiated hESCs may provide a valuable tool to screen for markers of IR exposure of human cells in their most naive state; thus unmasking the key elements of DDR; at the same time, avoiding the complexity of interpreting distinct cell type-dependent genotoxic stress responses of terminally differentiated cells.

  15. Enhancing Human Resilience : monitoring, sensing, and feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsch, O.; Wabeke, T.R.; Koot, G.; Venrooij, W.; Valk, P.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The development of miniaturized monitoring technology represents the greatest opportunity for advancing Resilience and Mental Health in over a century. All experts of the Resilience- and Mental Health domain are contending with a significant mental health burden, e.g. almost half of all work

  16. Combined Toxic Exposures and Human Health: Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Högberg

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Procedures for risk assessment of chemical mixtures, combined and cumulative exposures are under development, but the scientific database needs considerable expansion. In particular, there is a lack of knowledge on how to monitor effects of complex exposures, and there are few reviews on biomonitoring complex exposures. In this review we summarize articles in which biomonitoring techniques have been developed and used. Most examples describe techniques for biomonitoring effects which may detect early changes induced by many chemical stressors and which have the potential to accelerate data gathering. Some emphasis is put on endocrine disrupters acting via epigenetic mechanisms and on carcinogens. Solid evidence shows that these groups of chemicals can interact and even produce synergistic effects. They may act during sensitive time windows and biomonitoring their effects in epidemiological studies is a challenging task.

  17. Personal monitoring in complex geometry of photon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, P.G.; Drexler, G.

    1996-01-01

    The ratio (effective dose, E) / (personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) ) was calculated for some scenarios set in broad parallel photon beams. Worker's irradiation condition are shown in which the number and locations of the individual monitor have to be carefully determined in order to avoid that the value of effective dose is underestimated

  18. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide--the effects of co-exposure to toluene or dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J S; Kim, E A; Lee, M Y; Park, I J; Kang, S K

    2000-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the exposure and intake dose of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and the correlation between them, according to the type of exposure for the workers in the DMF industry. We monitored 345 workers occupationally exposed to DMF, from 15 workshops in the synthetic fiber, fiber coating, synthetic leather and paint manufacturing industries. Ambient monitoring was carried out with personal samplers to monitor the external exposure. Biological monitoring was done to determine the internal dose by analyzing N-methylformamide (NMF) in end-shift urine. Work procedure and exposure type of each DMF workshop was carefully surveyed, to classify workers by exposure type according to work details. Workers were classified into three groups (Group A: continuous and direct exposure through inhalation and skin; Group B: intermittent and short-term exposure through inhalation and skin; Group C: continuous and indirect exposure mostly through inhalation). Geometric mean of DMF concentration in air was 2.62 (GSD 5.30) ppm and that of NMF in urine was 14.50 (GSD 3.89) mg/l. In the case of continuous absorption through inhalation and dermal exposure (Group A), the value of NMF in urine corresponding to 10 ppm of DMF was 45.3 mg/l (r = 0.524, n = 178), 39.1 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.424), while it was 37.7 mg/l (r = 0.788, n = 37), 24.2 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.743) in the case of absorption mostly through inhalation (Group C). Creatinine correction reduced the correlation between two parameters. The NMF in urine corresponding to 10 ppm DMF, of the dermal and inhalation exposure group was 39.1 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.424, n = 178), while that of the inhalation exposure-only group was 24.2 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.743, n = 37). Co-exposure with toluene reduced the NMF excretion in urine.

  19. Human Bisphenol A Exposure and the “Diabesity Phenotype”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Battezzati, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disruptor, is a food contaminant suspected of being a contributing factor to the present-day increase in obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This issue is of increasing interest in the field of diabetes research and has become a matter of concern for regulatory agencies and food industries. Recently, the number of studies involving BPA has increased exponentially, but there are still many gaps in the knowledge of the relationship between actual BPA exposure and cardiometabolic risk and of the modalities of food intake exposure, all of which prevents sound judgments concerning the risks to human health. This review focuses on the association between human exposure to BPA and obesity, thyroid function, diabetes, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and BPA content in food. Many cross-sectional studies support, sometimes contradictorily, an adverse effect of BPA exposure on obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Few prospective studies support an adverse effect of BPA exposure on such pathologies. Moreover, no intervention studies have been conducted to evaluate the causality of such associations. This is mainly due to lack of an appropriate database of BPA content in foods, thus hindering any estimation of the usual dietary BPA intake. PMID:26858585

  20. Individual dose monitoring of occupational exposure in nuclear industry system (1991-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lianzhen; Ma Jizeng; Li Taosheng

    2005-01-01

    The summary and main results of individual dose monitoring (1990-2000) from occupational exposure in China Nuclear Industry System are presented in this paper. During ten years, the external collective effective dose to workers in seven plants (not uranium mines and processing mills) and institutes is 98.48 person ·Sv, the per capita effective dose is 1.97 mSv. The general situation for individual dose monitoring from internal exposure is also introduced. The annual average committed effective dose is less than 5.0 mSv. The individual dose monitoring results (1991-1992) for occupational exposure from Uranium mines and processing mills are depicted. In the end, the individual dose monitoring data in nuclear industry system are preliminarily analysed. (authors)

  1. EVALUATION OF EMF EXPOSURE OF MOBILE PHONES ON HUMAN HEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Vtornikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mobile phones are worldwide spread nowadays. Smartphones penetration is growing year after year. Numerous studies indicate the negative effect of EMF exposure of these devices on humans. Therefore, it is important to study the peculiarities of their influence on the target organ-the brain. It is important for solving this problem to find out the real situation of the distribution of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure near the front panel of the apparatus.The aim of the study is to determine and compare EMF exposure from smartphones and classic mobile phones on human head.Material and methods. The original method patented in the Russian Federation was used in this study. The used original measuring setup is also patented, developed and assembled by the authors of the study. The object of the study was classical mobile phones and smartphones widespread at the time of work.Results. We got the graphic of matrices of distribution of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure in the plane against the front panel of 10 apparatus corresponding to the topography of a human head. The study revealed peculiarities of this distribution in smartphones and the classic mobile phones and got the values of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure in the investigated devices acting primarily on the brain.Conclusions. The design of smartphones and mobile phones determines the overall picture of distribution of EFD of EMF exposure in the plane against the front panel for devices of a particular type. This picture must be taken into account when planning epidemiological and experimental studies to obtain comparable results. Progress in the development of mobile communication technologies has led to an increase in the electromagnetic load on users of modern devices.

  2. Ozone exposure increases respiratory epithelial permeability in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrl, H.R.; Vincent, L.M.; Kowalsky, R.J.; Horstman, D.H.; O'Neil, J.J.; McCartney, W.H.; Bromberg, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ozone is a respiratory irritant that has been shown to cause an increase in the permeability of the respiratory epithelium in animals. We used inhaled aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-labeled diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) to investigate whether human respiratory epithelial permeability is similarly affected by exposure to ozone. In a randomized, crossover double-blinded study, 8 healthy, nonsmoking young men were exposed for 2 h to purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone while performing intermittent high intensity treadmill exercise (minute ventilation = 66.8 L/min). SRaw and FVC were measured before and at the end of exposures. Seventy-five minutes after the exposures, the pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was measured by sequential posterior lung imaging with a computer-assisted gamma camera. Ozone exposure caused respiratory symptoms in all 8 subjects and was associated with a 14 +/- 2.8% (mean +/- SEM) decrement in FVC (p less than 0.001) and a 71 +/- 22% increase in SRaw (p = 0.04). Compared with the air exposure day, 7 of the 8 subjects showed increased /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance after the ozone exposure, with the mean value increasing from 0.59 +/- 0.08 to 1.75 +/- 0.43%/min (p = 0.03). These data show that ozone exposure sufficient to produce decrements in the pulmonary function of human subjects also causes an increase in /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

  3. A national computerized system for monitoring operational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canipelle, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In parallel to the expansion of the number of French nuclear power plant units in operation, maintenance actions have multiplied, which has meant calling upon the services of a growing number of increasingly specialized workers. It has therefore proved necessary to reinforce the radiation dose rate surveillance of these workers. As a result, certain companies decided to set up their own occupational radiation dose monitoring system, in addition to mandatory monitoring by the OPRI, using dosemeters, generally electronic or thermoluminescent film badges, supplied by the subcontractor companies or nuclear facility operators. This enables acquiring fast and accurate knowledge of the radiation doses received by the workers. For this type of surveillance to be fully efficient, a data centralization system was required, able to provide frequent, even daily readings if necessary, of the dose received during the current month or for any period of time, up to the sum of the doses accumulated over five years. (author)

  4. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, J J

    1999-06-30

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence, approaches are presented for the exposure assessment to be used for estimation of risks in authorization procedures under the recently accepted Directive 98/8/EC. Gaps in knowledge are indicated, making it possible to study the issues involved in a comprehensive and cost-effective way. Some recommendations are given on how to best do this. The current project has been detailed in a final report.

  5. ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES: AN IMPORTANT APPLICATION OF THE STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION MODEL (SHEDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurately quantifying human exposures and doses of various populations to environmental pollutants is critical for the Agency to assess and manage human health risks. For example, the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) requires EPA to consider aggregate human exposure ...

  6. Naphthalene distributions and human exposure in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Wu, Jun; Turco, Richard P.; Winer, Arthur M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet; Paulson, Suzanne E.; Lurmann, Fred W.; Miguel, Antonio H.; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu

    The regional distribution of, and human exposure to, naphthalene are investigated for Southern California. A comprehensive approach is taken in which advanced models are linked for the first time to quantify population exposure to the emissions of naphthalene throughout Southern California. Naphthalene is the simplest and most abundant of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in polluted urban environments, and has been detected in both outdoor and indoor air samples. Exposure to high concentrations of naphthalene may have adverse health effects, possibly causing cancer in humans. Among the significant emission sources are volatilization from naphthalene-containing products, petroleum refining, and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. Gasoline and diesel engine exhaust, with related vaporization from fuels, are found to contribute roughly half of the daily total naphthalene burden in Southern California. As part of this study, the emission inventory for naphthalene has been verified against new field measurements of the naphthalene-to-benzene ratio in a busy traffic tunnel in Los Angeles, supporting the modeling work carried out here. The Surface Meteorology and Ozone Generation (SMOG) airshed model is used to compute the spatial and temporal distributions of naphthalene and its photooxidation products in Southern California. The present simulations reveal a high degree of spatial variability in the concentrations of naphthalene-related species, with large diurnal and seasonal variations as well. Peak naphthalene concentrations are estimated to occur in the early morning hours in the winter season. The naphthalene concentration estimates obtained from the SMOG model are employed in the Regional Human Exposure (REHEX) model to calculate population exposure statistics. Results show average hourly naphthalene exposures in Southern California under summer and winter conditions of 270 and 430 ng m -3, respectively. Exposure to significantly higher concentrations

  7. Adequacy of individual monitoring of external exposure at the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, A.

    2006-01-01

    Individual monitoring of workers exposed to external radiations must fulfill technical, regulatory and organizational requirements. The external dosimetry should be adapted to the workplace. The relevant dosimetric techniques have to be chosen upon the workplace study that conditions both the categorization of exposed workers and classification of areas. Solutions exist which are satisfactory for the most situations. However, rational solutions still have to be found for a few specific situations. (author)

  8. Individual Monitoring service for occupational exposure in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, E.E.; Shaddad, I.; Medani, B.E.; Osman, M.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Individual Monitoring Service (IMS) is a dosimetry service provided by Radiation Protection Department (RPD) of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) to monitor about 400 occupational exposed workers all over the country. Measurements were done using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). The calibration of the TLD system was performed on a phantom with application of suitable correction factors in the SSDL using Cs-137 and different qualities of x-ray energies. Personal dose equivalents Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) were evaluated by employing one individual dosimeter to be carried continuously by the occupational exposed person while at work. In this work the dose received by workers in x-ray diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, research and industrial radiography were evaluated. Radiation doses for the years 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 were compared. From the results obtained, it was noticed that individual monitoring service had expanded over the last years. The average individual annual dose in different applications is less than 1 mSv/y except for the workers in industrial radiography, only 12 radiation workers (3.64 %) received doses exceeding 1 mSv and no individual approached the dose limit of 20 mSv recommended by the ICRP and set by Sudan's regulations. (author)

  9. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida

    2014-01-01

    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of 131 I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees 131 I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted

  10. Human Physiological Responses to Acute and Chronic Cold Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Jodie M.; Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Tipton, Michael J.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2001-01-01

    When inadequately protected humans are exposed to acute cold, excessive body heat is lost to the environment and unless heat production is increased and heat loss attenuated, body temperature will decrease. The primary physiological responses to counter the reduction in body temperature include marked cutaneous vasoconstriction and increased metabolism. These responses, and the hazards associated with such exposure, are mediated by a number of factors which contribute to heat production and loss. These include the severity and duration of the cold stimulus; exercise intensity; the magnitude of the metabolic response; and individual characteristics such as body composition, age, and gender. Chronic exposure to a cold environment, both natural and artificial, results in physiological alterations leading to adaptation. Three quite different, but not necessarily exclusive, patterns of human cold adaptation have been reported: metabolic, hypothermic, and insulative. Cold adaptation has also been associated with an habituation response, in which there is a desensitization, or damping, of the normal response to a cold stress. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the human physiological and pathological responses to cold exposure. Particular attention is directed to the factors contributing to heat production and heat loss during acute cold stress, and the ability of humans to adapt to cold environments.

  11. A hybrid modeling with data assimilation to evaluate human exposure level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Y. S.; Cheong, H. K.; Choi, D.; Kim, A. L.; Yun, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Exposure models are designed to better represent human contact with PM (Particulate Matter) and other air pollutants such as CO, SO2, O3, and NO2. The exposure concentrations of the air pollutants to human are determined by global and regional long range transport of global and regional scales from Europe and China as well as local emissions from urban and road vehicle sources. To assess the exposure level in detail, the multiple scale influence from background to local sources should be considered. A hybrid air quality modeling methodology combing a grid-based chemical transport model with a local plume dispersion model was used to provide spatially and temporally resolved air quality concentration for human exposure levels in Korea. In the hybrid modeling approach, concentrations from a grid-based chemical transport model and a local plume dispersion model are added to provide contributions from photochemical interactions, long-range (regional) transport and local-scale dispersion. The CAMx (Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions was used for the background concentrations from anthropogenic and natural emissions in East Asia including Korea while the road dispersion by vehicle emission was calculated by CALPUFF model. The total exposure level of the pollutants was finally assessed by summing the background and road contributions. In the hybrid modeling, the data assimilation method based on the optimal interpolation was applied to overcome the discrepancies between the model predicted concentrations and observations. The air quality data from the air quality monitoring stations in Korea. The spatial resolution of the hybrid model was 50m for the Seoul Metropolitan Ares. This example clearly demonstrates that the exposure level could be estimated to the fine scale for the exposure assessment by using the hybrid modeling approach with data assimilation.

  12. Valdez air health study - Exposure monitoring and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.; Mikkelsen, R.

    1991-01-01

    In Valdez, Alaska there is concern about exposure of the public to benzene and other light hydrocarbons emitted during the loading of tankers from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. As part of an overall risk assessment, the Valdez Air Health Study, a personal, indoor and outdoor air sampling program patterned after EPA's TEMA Study was designed and carried out. A unique feature of the study is that, during sampling periods, SF 6 tracer was released at the terminal site to represent terminal hydrocarbon emissions to provide a basis for directly quantitating any contribution of terminal emissions to personal exposure. Sixty citizens at Valdez were selected to wear vests containing sampling equipment for 24-hour periods summer and winter. At the homes of 30 of the participants simultaneous indoor and outdoor samples for hydrocarbons and tracer were collected during the period that each participant collected personal air samples. The paper reviews the design of the program, details of the procedures used, results of the August, 1990 program and preliminary results from the February-March, 1991 program

  13. Occupational radiation exposure monitoring among radiation workers in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Shrestha, Shanta Lall; Khanal, Tara; Ween, Borgny

    2008-01-01

    Nepal was accepted as a member of the IAEA in 2007. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is defined in Health Level IV. The population counted 26.4 millions in 2007. The health care sector increases with new hospitals and clinics, however, Nepal has no radiation protection authority or radiation protection regulation in the country until now. The radiation producing equipment in the health sector includes conventional X-ray and dental X-ray equipment, fluoroscopes, mammography, CT, catheterization laboratory equipment, nuclear medicine facilities, a few linear accelerators, Co 60 teletherapy and High Dose Rate brachytherapy sources. The situation regarding dosimetry service for radiation workers is unclear. A survey has been carried out to give an overview of the situation. The data collection of the survey was performed by phone call interviews with responsible staff at the different hospitals and clinics. Data about different occupationally exposed staff, use of personal radiation monitoring and type of dosimetry system were collected. In addition, it was asked if dosimetry reports were compiled in files or databases for further follow-up of staff, if needed. The survey shows that less of 25% of the procedures performed on the surveyed hospitals and clinics are performed by staff with personnel radiation monitoring. Radiation monitoring service for exposed staff is not compulsory or standardized, since there is no radiation protection authority. Nepal has taken a step forward regarding radiation protection, with the IAEA membership, although there are still major problems that have to be solved. An evaluation of the existing practice of staff dosimetry can be the first helpful step for further work in building a national radiation protection authority. (author)

  14. Climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollution ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an abstract for a presentations at the Annual Conference of the International Society on Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. This presentation will serve as an introduction to the symposium. As we consider the potential health impacts of a warming planet, the relationships between climate change and air pollutants become increasingly important to understand. These relationships are complex and highly variable, causing a variety of environmental impacts at local, regional and global scales. Human exposures and health impacts for air pollutants have the potential to be altered by changes in climate through multiple factors that drive population exposures to these pollutants. Research on this topic will provide both state and local governments with the tools and scientific knowledge base to undertake any necessary adaptation of the air pollution regulations and/or public health management systems in the face of climate change.

  15. Early diagnosis and monitoring of whole-body accidental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flury-Herard, A.; Jullien, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the handling of accidental, acute or protracted, whole-body overexposures. It is complementary to the report DPS 86/07 SEAPS previously published. The criteria for initial classification, as a function of the mean absorbed dose, the clinical and paraclinical evaluation, the monitoring methods and the treatments to undertake are described successively. The basic components of the therapy are the intensive care of the hematological syndrome with blood products transfusions and anti-infection prophylaxy. The indications and conditions for bone-marrow grafts are also discussed [fr

  16. Assessment of genetic risk for human exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevcenko, V.A.; Rubanovic, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The methodology of assessing the genetic risk of radiation exposure is based on the concept of 'hitting the target' in development of which N.V. Timofeeff-Ressovsky has played and important role. To predict genetic risk posed by irradiation, the U N Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has worked out direct and indirect methods of assessment, extrapolation, integral and palpitation criteria of risk analysis that together permit calculating the risk from human exposure on the basis of data obtained for mice. Based on the reports of UNSCEAR for the period from 1958 to 2001 the paper presents a retrospective analysis of the use of direct methods and the doubling dose method for quantitative determination of the genetic risk of human exposure expressed as different hereditary diseases. As early as 1962 UNSCEAR estimated the doubling dose (a dose causing as many mutations as those occurring spontaneously during one generation) at 1 Gy for cases of exposure to ionizing radiations with low LET at a low dose rate and this value was confirmed in the next UNSCEAR reports up to now. For cases of acute irradiation the doubling dose was estimated at 0,3-0,4 Gy for the period under review. The paper considers the evolution of the concepts of human natural hereditary variability which is a basis for assessing the risk of exposure by the doubling dose method. The level of human natural genetic variability per 1 000 000 newborns is estimated at 738 000 hereditary diseases including mendelian, chromosomal and multifactorial ones. The greatest difficulties in assessing the doubling dose value were found to occur in the case of multifactorial diseases the pheno typical expression of which depends on mutational events in polygenic systems and on numerous environmental factors. The introduction in calculations of the potential recoverability correction factor (RPCF) made it possible to assess the genetic risk taking into account this class of

  17. Human Biological Monitoring of Diisononyl Phthalate and Diisodecyl Phthalate: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusankar Saravanabhavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High molecular-weight phthalates, such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP, and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP, are widely used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of polymers and consumer products. Human biological monitoring studies have employed the metabolites of DINP and DIDP as biomarkers to assess human exposure. In this review, we summarize and analyze publicly available scientific data on chemistry, metabolism, and excretion kinetics, of DINP and DIDP, to identify specific and sensitive metabolites. Human biological monitoring data on DINP and DIDP are scrutinised to assess the suitability of these metabolites as biomarkers of exposure. Results from studies carried out in animals and humans indicate that phthalates are metabolised rapidly and do not bioaccmulate. During Phase-I metabolism, ester hydrolysis of DINP and DIDP leads to the formation of hydrolytic monoesters. These primary metabolites undergo further oxidation reactions to produce secondary metabolites. Hence, the levels of secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP in urine are found to be always higher than the primary metabolites. Results from human biological monitoring studies have shown that the secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP in urine were detected in almost all tested samples, while the primary metabolites were detected in only about 10% of the samples. This indicates that the secondary metabolites are very sensitive biomarkers of DINP/DIDP exposure while primary metabolites are not. The NHANES data indicate that the median concentrations of MCIOP and MCINP (secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP, resp. at a population level are about 5.1 μg/L and 2.7 μg/L, respectively. Moreover, the available biological monitoring data suggest that infants/children are exposed to higher levels of phthalates than adults.

  18. Human Biological Monitoring of Diisononyl Phthalate and Diisodecyl Phthalate: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanabhavan, G.; Murray, J.

    2012-01-01

    High molecular-weight phthalates, such as diisononyl phthalate (Din), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), are widely used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of polymers and consumer products. Human biological monitoring studies have employed the metabolites of DINP and DIDP as bio markers to assess human exposure. In this review, we summarize and analyze publicly available scientific data on chemistry, metabolism, and excretion kinetics, of DINP and DIDP, to identify specific and sensitive metabolites. Human biological monitoring data on DINP and DIDP are scrutinised to assess the suitability of these metabolites as bio markers of exposure. Results from studies carried out in animals and humans indicate that phthalates are metabolised rapidly and do not bio accumulate. During Phase-I metabolism, ester hydrolysis of DINP and DIDP leads to the formation of hydrolytic monoesters. These primary metabolites undergo further oxidation reactions to produce secondary metabolites. Hence, the levels of secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP in urine are found to be always higher than the primary metabolites. Results from human biological monitoring studies have shown that the secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP in urine were detected in almost all tested samples, while the primary metabolites were detected in only about 10% of the samples. This indicates that the secondary metabolites are very sensitive bio markers of DINP/DIDP exposure while primary metabolites are not. The NHANES data indicate that the median concentrations of MCIOP and MCINP (secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP, resp.) at a population level are about 5.1 μg/L and 2.7 μg/L, respectively. Moreover, the available biological monitoring data suggest that infants/children are exposed to higher levels of phthalates than adults.

  19. Radiation exposure of non-monitored hospital personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, L.; Blanchette, J.; Galand, C.

    1993-02-01

    This project investigated the radiological impact of nuclear medicine patients on non-monitored personnel in hospital environments. More than 800 workers and 135 specific areas in three Quebec hospitals were surveyed daily during a six-month period with Geiger counters, TLD badges, and TLD chips. Average dose rates of up to 2.2 μSv/h were measured in some waiting areas. The radiation level of a nursing unit is a direct function of the ambulatory radioactivity carried by nuclear medicine patients. Three percent of the workers surveyed had a work-related dose in excess of 0.3 mSv/6 months (maximum 1.4 mSv/6 months). Over 88 percent were in the range between local background and 0.3 mSv/6 months. Less than 4 percent belong to groups of workers who were exposed to a level indistinguishable from background. Thus many workers surveyed in this study receive a work-related dose similar to those of medical workers monitored by Health and Welfare Canada. The average annual dose for these workers was 104 person-millisieverts. The authors recommend: better management of radioactive patients; the provision of information and education for all hospital workers having regular contact with radioactive patients; and the facilitation of the identification of nuclear medicine patients within the hospital environment. (28 tabs., 23 figs.)

  20. A design condition for incorporating human judgement into monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Klir, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    In safety monitoring, there exists an uncertainty situation in which the sensor cannot detect whether or not the monitored object is in danger. For the uncertainty zone identified by a non-homogeneous safety monitoring system that utilizes two types of sensors with different thresholds, operators or experts are expected to judge whether the real state is safe or dangerous on the basis of additional information from a detailed inspection or other related sensors output. However, the activities for inspection performed by relevant humans may require additional cost and introduce inspection errors. The present article proposes two types of an automatic monitoring system not involving any human inspection or a human-machine (H-M) cooperative monitoring system with inspection. In order to compare the systems, an approach based on the Dempster-Shafer theory is proposed as uncertainty analysis by this theory (it is simpler than by the traditional Bayesian approach). By comparing their expected losses as a result of failed dangerous failures or failed safe failures as well as the inspection errors, the condition is determined under which H-M cooperative systems incorporating human judgements are more effective than automatic monitoring systems

  1. Ecological and human exposure assessment to PBDEs in Adige River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulivo, Monica; Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Eljarrat, Ethel; Gatti, Marina; Capri, Ettore; Barcelo, Damia

    2018-07-01

    The interest for environmental issues and the concern resulting from the potential exposure to contaminants were the starting point to develop methodologies in order to evaluate the consequences that those might have over both the environment and human health. Considering the feature of POPs, including PBDEs, such as bioaccumulation, biomagnification, long-range transport and adverse effects even long time after exposure, risk assessment of POPs requires specific approaches and tools. In this particular context, the MERLIN-Expo tool was used to assess the aquatic environmental exposure of Adige River to PBDEs and the accumulation of PBDEs in humans through the consumption of possible contaminated local aquatic food. The aquatic food web models provided as output of the deterministic simulation the time trend of concentrations for twenty years of BDE-47 and total PBDEs, expressed using the physico-chemical properties of BDE-47, in aquatic organisms of the food web of Adige River. For BDE-47, the highest accumulated concentrations were detected for two benthic species: Thymallus thymallus and Squalius cephalus whereas the lowest concentrations were obtained for the pelagic specie Salmo trutta marmoratus. The trend obtained for the total PBDEs, calculated using the physico-chemical properties of BDE-47, follows the one of BDE-47. For human exposure, different BDE-47 and total PBDEs concentration trends between children, adolescent, adults and elderly were observed, probably correlated with the human intake of fish products in the daily diet and the ability to metabolize these contaminants. In detail, for the adolescents, adults and elderly a continuous accumulation of the target contaminants during the simulation's years was observed, whereas for children a plateau at the end of the simulation period was perceived. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human exposure to static magnetic fields and basic precautions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulevic, B.

    1999-01-01

    The development of new technologies using the static magnetic fields and their application in the last several years has increased the possibility of higher human exposure to such fields what has raised an issue of potential adverse health effects. The object of this work is to point, on the basis of the past knowledge, to the significance of the problem and therefore to contribute to its popularization. (author)

  3. Control of occupational exposure using remote monitoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunn, M. P. [British Energy Generation Ltd. Sizewell B Power Station, Leiston, Suffolk (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Advances in electronic dosimetry, portable radio technology and digital video have enabled the development of Remote Monitoring Systems (RMS) that provide a powerful dose control tool for the Operational Health Physicist. North American utilities have led the implementation of these systems, often with coverage of the entire plant, feeding back to a centralized control room. These large-scale systems typically cost around EURO 500,000. In Europe, and especially the UK, implementation of RMS technology has been slower and on a smaller scale. US utilities have justified the high capital cost of their systems by significantly reducing the number of contract RP technicians required during refuelling outages, saving up to EURO 1,000,000. In the UK, the number of contract RP technicians employed during outages is already minimal, and with the generally low dose rates found on Gas-Cooled Reactors, RP engineers have traditionally considered RMS to be an extravagance. However, the commissioning of the UK's first PWR and a significant increase in the number of AGR Vessel entries, have increased the radiological protection challenges facing the British Health Physicist, thus prompting a re-evaluation of this view. The benefit derived from a system that combines telemetry, video and voice communications is synergistic. We found that the system can be used in a variety of ways to significantly enhance radiological protection control in high radiation areas and to significantly reduce the dose received by RP staff covering such jobs. Indeed, it is estimated that the use of RMS saved at least 10 man.mSv of Radiological Protection dose during RF06 However, it is important to note that RMS is a monitoring tool to support existing monitoring techniques and arrangements. Suitably qualified and experienced staff are required to interpret the data and provide suitable advice to the work party. In addition, detailed training on the limitations of RMS, explicit procedures for

  4. A critical review of biomarkers used for monitoring human exposure to lead: advantages, limitations and future needs Uma avaliação crítica sobre biomarcadores utilizados para o monitoramento biológico de exposição ao chumbo: vantagens, limitações e perspectivas futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Barbosa Jr

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead concentration in whole blood (Blood-Pb is the primary biomarker used to monitor exposure to this metallic element. However, the difficulty in assessing the exact nature of Pb exposure is dependent not so much on problems with current analytical methodologies, but rather on the complex toxicokinetics of Pb within various body compartments. If we are to differentiate more effectively between Pb that is stored in the body for years and Pb from recent exposure, information on other biomarkers of exposure may be needed. None of the current biomarkers of internal Pb dose has yet been accepted by the scientific community as a reliable substitute for a Blood-Pb measurement. This review focuses on the limitations of biomarkers of Pb exposure, and the need to improve the accuracy of their measurement. We present here only the traditional analytical protocols in current use and we attempt to assess the influence of confounding variables on Blood-Pb levels. Finally, we discuss the interpretation of Blood-Pb data with respect to both external and endogenous Pb exposure, past or recent exposure, as well as the significance of lead determinations in human specimens including hair, nails, saliva, bone, blood, urine, feces, and exfoliated teeth.A concentração de chumbo (Pb no sangue total (Pb-B vem sendo comumente utilizada para monitorar a exposição a este elemento químico. Entretanto, a dificuldade em avaliar a natureza exata da exposição ao Pb é dependente não só de problemas inerentes a metodologias analíticas inapropriadas, bem como da toxicocinética complexa do Pb em compartimentos de nosso corpo. Se quisermos diferenciar mais efetivamente entre o Pb que está estocado no corpo por anos daquele proveniente de uma exposição recente, deverão ser obtidas informações pela análise de outros biomarcadores de exposição. Entretanto, nenhum dos biomarcadores de dose interna para Pb é aceito pela comunidade científica como substituto ao Pb

  5. Pharmaceuticals in tap water: human health risk assessment and proposed monitoring framework in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ho Wing; Jin, Ling; Wei, Si; Tsui, Mirabelle Mei Po; Zhou, Bingsheng; Jiao, Liping; Cheung, Pak Chuen; Chun, Yiu Kan; Murphy, Margaret Burkhardt; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing

    2013-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals are known to contaminate tap water worldwide, but the relevant human health risks have not been assessed in China. We monitored 32 pharmaceuticals in Chinese tap water and evaluated the life-long human health risks of exposure in order to provide information for future prioritization and risk management. We analyzed samples (n = 113) from 13 cities and compared detected concentrations with existing or newly-derived safety levels for assessing risk quotients (RQs) at different life stages, excluding the prenatal stage. We detected 17 pharmaceuticals in 89% of samples, with most detectable concentrations (92%) at risk levels, but 4 (i.e., dimetridazole, thiamphenicol, sulfamethazine, and clarithromycin) were found to have at least one life-stage RQ ≥ 0.01, especially for the infant and child life stages, and should be considered of high priority for management. We propose an indicator-based monitoring framework for providing information for source identification, water treatment effectiveness, and water safety management in China. Chinese tap water is an additional route of human exposure to pharmaceuticals, particularly for dimetridazole, although the risk to human health is low based on current toxicity data. Pharmaceutical detection and application of the proposed monitoring framework can be used for water source protection and risk management in China and elsewhere.

  6. Monitoring of increased natural occuring radiation exposure; Arbeitsplatzueberwachung bei erhoehter natuerlicher Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guhr, Andreas [ALTRAC Radon-Messtechnik, Berlin (Germany); Leissring, Nick [Bergtechnisches Ingenieurbuero GEOPRAX, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The radiation exposure due to natural occurring sources is a special challenge for the health and safety protection at workplaces. The monitoring of the radon exposure of employees in mines, radon-spa and in water works is regulated by prescription of radiation protection. The relevant compounds of the radiation exposure are the inhalation of radon and radon daughter products; terrestrial irradiation; ingestion of radioactive contaminated materials and the inhalation of contaminated dust. The monitoring of the radiation workers is realized essentially by measurements by radiation safety officer of the performing company, by an external engineering firm as well as by control measurements of experts of local authorities. The experiences in the practice have shown that in the field of operational radiation protection only a combination of personal- and operational dosimetry is suitable to avoid health hazards by work in fields with increased natural occurring radiation exposures.

  7. Human exposure, biomarkers, and fate of organotins in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Hussein K; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Adekola, Folahan A; Ximba, Bhekumusa J; Snyman, Reinette G; Opeolu, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Organotin compounds result from the addition of organic moieties to inorganic tin.Thus, one or more tin-carbon bonds exist in each organotin molecule. The organo-tin compounds are ubiquitous in the environment. Organotin compounds have many uses, including those as fungicides and stabilizers in plastics, among others in industry. The widespread use of organotins as antifouling agents in boat paints has resulted in pollution of freshwater and marine ecosystems. The presence of organotin compounds in freshwater and marine ecosystems is now understood to be a threat, because of the amounts found in water and the toxicity of some organotin compounds to aquatic organisms, and perhaps to humans as well. Organotin com-pounds are regarded by many to be global pollutants of a stature similar to biphenyl,mercury, and the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. This stature results from the high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and endocrine disruptive features of even very low levels of selected organotin compounds.Efforts by selected governmental agencies and others have been undertaken to find a global solution to organotin pollution. France was the first country to ban the use of the organotins in 1980. This occurred before the international maritime organization (IMO) called for a global treaty to ban the application of tributyltin (TBT)-based paints. In this chapter, we review the organotin compounds with emphasis on the human exposure, fate, and distribution of them in the environment. The widespread use of the organotins and their high stability have led to contamination of some aquatic ecosystems. As a result, residues of the organotins may reach humans via food consumption. Notwithstanding the risk of human exposure, only limited data are available on the levels at which the organotins exist in foodstuffs consumed by humans. Moreover, the response of marine species to the organotins, such as TBT, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, more data on the

  8. The Matthew Effect and widely prescribed pharmaceuticals lacking environmental monitoring: case study of an exposure-assessment vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughton, Christian G

    2014-01-01

    Assessing ambient exposure to chemical stressors often begins with time-consuming and costly monitoring studies to establish environmental occurrence. Both human and ecological toxicology are currently challenged by the unknowns surrounding low-dose exposure/effects, compounded by the reality that exposure undoubtedly involves mixtures of multiple stressors whose identities and levels can vary over time. Long absent from the assessment process, however, is whether the full scope of the identities of the stressors is sufficiently known. The Matthew Effect (a psychosocial phenomenon sometimes informally called the "bandwagon effect" or "iceberg effect," among others) may adversely bias or corrupt the exposure assessment process. The Matthew Effect is evidenced by decisions that base the selection of stressors to target in environmental monitoring surveys on whether they have been identified in prior studies, rather than considering the possibility that additional, but previously unreported, stressors might also play important roles in an exposure scenario. The possibility that the Matthew Effect might influence the scope of environmental stressor research is explored for the first time in a comprehensive case study that examines the preponderance of "absence of data" (in contrast to positive data and "data of absence") for the environmental occurrence of a very large class of potential chemical stressors associated with ubiquitous consumer use - active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Comprehensive examination of the published data for an array of several hundred of the most frequently used drugs for whether their APIs are environmental contaminants provides a prototype example to catalyze discussion among the many disciplines involved with assessing risk. The findings could help guide the selection of those APIs that might merit targeting for environmental monitoring (based on the absence of data for environmental occurrence) as well as the prescribing of those

  9. Internal exposure monitoring of personnel of a nuclear power plant with pressurized-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.W.; Poulheim, K.F.; Rueger, G.; Schreiter, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    In the GDR a programme for monitoring the internal radiation exposure of personnel has been established in the Bruno Leuschner Nuclear Power Plant, Greifswald, which allows one to estimate the effective dose equivalent in the way recommended by the ICRP. The measuring equipment used, and the methods of calibration and of evaluation of results are described. At present about 400 persons are monthly monitored with a thorax monitor in the nuclear power plant. If an investigation level - corresponding to an effective dose equivalent of 0.3mSv/month - is exceeded, a more exact measurement is made in the whole-body counter at the National Board for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR. In addition, a selected group of 50 persons is measured twice yearly in the whole-body counter. The measurements show the high effectiveness of the protective measures against radionuclide intake by workers in the nuclear power plant, resulting in a contribution of less than 1% to the collective dose of the personnel. A correlation has been found between external and internal exposure indicating that, in general, there will be a higher intake only under conditions resulting also in higher external exposures. The highest individual values of internal exposure found are below 0.5mSv/month and thus within the range of the lower detection limit of dosimeter films used for monitoring the external exposure. (author)

  10. Effect of daily noise exposure monitoring on annual rates of hearing loss in industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R; Cullen, Mark R; Slade, Martin D; Dixon-Ernst, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is prevalent, yet evidence on the effectiveness of preventive interventions is lacking. The effectiveness of a new technology allowing workers to monitor daily at-ear noise exposure was analysed. Workers in the hearing conservation program of an aluminium smelter were recruited because of accelerated rates of hearing loss. The intervention consisted of daily monitoring of at-ear noise exposure and regular feedback on exposures from supervisors. The annual rate of change in high frequency hearing average at 2, 3 and 4 KHz before intervention (2000-2004) and 4 years after intervention (2006-2009) was determined. Annual rates of loss were compared between 78 intervention subjects and 234 controls in other company smelters matched for age, gender and high frequency hearing threshold level in 2005. Individuals monitoring daily noise exposure experienced on average no further worsening of high frequency hearing (average rate of hearing change at 2, 3 and 4 KHz = -0.5 dB/year). Matched controls also showed decelerating hearing loss, the difference in rates between the two groups being significant (p hearing loss showed a similar trend but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Monitoring daily occupational noise exposure inside hearing protection with ongoing administrative feedback apparently reduces the risk of occupational NIHL in industrial workers. Longer follow-up of these workers will help determine the significance of the intervention effect. Intervention studies for the prevention of NIHL need to include appropriate control groups.

  11. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Brown, Tyish S.; Collier, Scott R.; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing. PMID:28052867

  12. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O 2 , and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Transition in occupational radiation exposure monitoring methods in diagnostic and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, N.; Hirvonen-Kari, M.; Timonen, M.; Savolainen, S.; Kortesniemi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation exposure monitoring is a traditional keystone of occupational radiation safety measures in medical imaging. The aim of this study was to review the data on occupational exposures in a large central university hospital radiology organisation and propose changes in the radiation worker categories and methods of exposure monitoring. An additional objective was to evaluate the development of electronic personal dosimeters and their potential in the digitised radiology environment. The personal equivalent dose of 267 radiation workers (116 radiologists and 151 radiographers) was monitored using personal dosimeters during the years 2006-2010. Accumulated exposure monitoring results exceeding the registration threshold were observed in the personal dosimeters of 73 workers (59 radiologists' doses ranged from 0.1 to 45.1 mSv; 14 radiographers' doses ranged from 0.1 to 1.3 mSv). The accumulated personal equivalent doses are generally very small, only a few angiography radiologists have doses >10 mSv per 5 y. The typical effective doses are -1 and the highest value was 0.3 mSv (single interventional radiologist). A revised categorisation of radiation workers based on the working profile of the radiologist and observed accumulated doses is justified. Occupational monitoring can be implemented mostly with group dosimeters. An active real-time dosimetry system is warranted to support radiation protection strategy where optimisation aspects, including improving working methods, are essential. (authors)

  14. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures

  15. The Human Exposure Potential from Propylene Releases to the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Morgott

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed literature search was performed to assess the sources, magnitudes and extent of human inhalation exposure to propylene. Exposure evaluations were performed at both the community and occupational levels for those living or working in different environments. The results revealed a multitude of pyrogenic, biogenic and anthropogenic emission sources. Pyrogenic sources, including biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, appear to be the primary contributors to atmospheric propylene. Despite a very short atmospheric lifetime, measurable levels could be detected in highly remote locations as a result of biogenic release. The indoor/outdoor ratio for propylene has been shown to range from about 2 to 3 in non-smoking homes, which indicates that residential sources may be the largest contributor to the overall exposure for those not occupationally exposed. In homes where smoking takes place, the levels may be up to thirty times higher than non-smoking residences. Atmospheric levels in most rural regions are typically below 2 ppbv, whereas the values in urban levels are much more variable ranging as high as 10 ppbv. Somewhat elevated propylene exposures may also occur in the workplace; especially for firefighters or refinery plant operators who may encounter levels up to about 10 ppmv.

  16. Development of human exposure standards for radio frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Historical aspects of the problem of developing human exposure standards for radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields are discussed. It is shown that biological effects and health implications of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields have been a subject of scientific investigation for more than 50 years. It has become a focus of attention because of the expanded use of RF radiation in the frequency range between 300 MHz and 6 GHz for wireless communication over the past decade. Another cause for the attention is the uncertainty of some observed responses and lack of understanding of the mechanism of interaction of RF electromagnetic fields with biological systems. At present, considerable efforts are devoted to developing and revising RF exposure standards. Each of these efforts should aim to make explicit the philosophy and process by which they reason and decide guidelines for deeming exposure as safe. Furthermore, the reconciliation of philosophies of protection will definitely be an asset, in practice, to those interested in international harmonization of RF exposure standards [ru

  17. Human exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin like PCBs in Japan, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mato, Y.; Nakayama, S. [Japan Environmental Sanitation Center, Kawasaki (Japan); Suzuki, N.; Morita, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Kadokami, K. [Kitakyushu City Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Kitakyushu (Japan); Katatani, N. [Univ. of Yamanashi, Kofu (Japan); Nakano, T. [Hyogo Prefectural Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, Kobe (Japan); Matsuoka, T.; Takei, T. [Ministry of the Environment, Tokyo (Japan); Uchiyama, I. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Miyata, H. [Setsunan Univ., Hirakata (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Jissen Women' s Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In our previous study, we have estimated the level of human exposure to dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and Dioxin like PCBs) in Japan based on dioxins monitoring data and results of total diet studies (TDS) in fiscal 2000 (April 2000- March 2001). It has been reported that the national PCDDs/DFs emission in 2001 against the 1997 level has been reduced by approximately 77% In addition, reduction of environmental levels was reported. The enforcement of Japan's Law Concerning Special Measures against Dioxins has significant impact on the reduction of the average dioxins concentrations in the ambient air. Therefore, the transitions of Japanese dioxins exposure levels in recent years are worthy of attention. In order to determine exposure level in fiscal 2001, collection and compilation for surveillance results derived from the regular environmental monitoring under the law as well as other dioxins surveys by national and local governmental bodies were continued, and the data were analyzed. The exposure level in fiscal 2001 was estimated by a ''point'' estimate (i.e., a single value derived from arithmetic means) approach based on the collected data. Because dioxins exposure is not clearly below the level of concern, an emphasis is placed on the importance of quantitatively characterizing the variability in exposure assessments. Therefore, the ''probabilistic'' approach using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted. However, elaboration in curve fitting to the distribution of dioxins intake through diet wasn't completely achieved due to the limitation of TDS data size in fiscal 2000 (n=16) in our previous study. In the present study, the curve fitting to diet were updated and elaborated, based on larger size of TDS data (n=54) by combining all the data in fiscal 1998-2001.

  18. Human biomonitoring after chemical incidents and during short-term maintenance work as a tool for exposure analysis and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, M; Van Weyenbergh, T; Verwerft, E; Van Pul, J; Lang, S; Oberlinner, C

    2014-12-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is frequently used for the analysis and assessment of exposure to chemicals under routine working conditions. In recent years, HBM has also been applied to monitor the exposure of the general population, and of emergency responders in the aftermath of chemical incidents. Two examples of targeted HBM programs in the chemical industry are described and discussed in this paper: (1) analysis and assessment of the exposure of firefighters and chemical workers after the spill of p-chloroaniline from a burning chemical barrel, and (2) biomonitoring of maintenance workers potentially exposed to benzene during regular turnarounds. The results of these investigations underline that human biomonitoring contributes substantially to comprehensive exposure analyses, human health risk assessments and communication. In addition, regular HBM surveillance and feedback can assist in the continuous improvement of workplace safety measures and exposure control. In conclusion, data on accidental or short-term exposure to hazardous chemicals are an important source of information for the further development of limit and assessment values, the validation of biomarkers and of targeted HBM programs for both routine monitoring and disaster management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Human exposure assessment to antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, E; Borrego, C M; Balcázar, J L; Cummins, E

    2018-03-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) are a potential threat to human health through drinking water with strong evidence of ARB presence in post treated tap water around the world. This study examines potential human exposure to antibiotic-resistant (AR) Escherichia coli (E. coli) through drinking water, the effect of different drinking water treatments on AR E. coli and the concentration of AR E. coli required in the source water for the EU Drinking Water Directive (DWD) (Council Directive 98/83/EC, 0CFU/100ml of E. coli in drinking water) to be exceeded. A number of scenarios were evaluated to examine different water treatment combinations and to reflect site specific conditions at a study site in Europe. A literature search was carried out to collate data on the effect of environmental conditions on AR E. coli, the effect of different water treatments on AR E. coli and typical human consumption levels of tap water. A human exposure assessment model was developed with probability distributions used to characterise uncertainty and variability in the input data. Overall results show the mean adult human exposure to AR E. coli from tap water consumption ranged between 3.44×10 -7 and 2.95×10 -1 cfu/day for the scenarios tested and varied depending on the water treatments used. The level of AR E. coli required in the source water pre-treatment to exceed the DWD varied between 1 and 5logcfu/ml, depending on the water treatments used. This can be used to set possible monitoring criteria in pre-treated water for potential ARB exposure in drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relative biological effectiveness if alpha radiation for human lung exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmoshenko, I.; Kirdin, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2006-01-01

    estimates for cases of indoor radon alpha exposure and exposure to implanted plutonium can be seen. Difference in biological effectiveness of inhaled radon and implanted plutonium may appear due to different distribution of short-lived radon progeny and long lived plutonium within lung tissues. Low RBE value for alpha particle exposures of human lung tissues may be a reason of known inconsistency of dose conversion factors for radon estimates based on dosimetric and epidemiologic approaches. (authors)

  1. Human convective boundary layer and its impact on personal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan

    generated by heat sources are gaining more prominent influence in space airflow formation and on the indoor environment overall. In such spaces with low air supply velocity, air mixing is minimized and the pollution emitted from localized indoor sources is non-uniformly distributed. The large spatial......People spend most of their time indoors and they are constantly exposed to pollution that affects their health, comfort and productivity. Due to strong economic and environmental pressures to reduce building energy consumption, low air velocity design is gaining popularity; hence buoyancy flows...... in inaccurate exposure prediction. This highlights the importance of a detailed understanding of the complex air movements that take place in the vicinity of the human body and their impact on personal exposure. The two objectives of the present work are: (i) to examine the extent to which the room air...

  2. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güle ÇINAR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, there were 2.1 million new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV cases reported worldwide in 2015, which shows that siginificant work needs to be done to prevent the transmission of HIV. Research to date has focused mainly on high-risk men who have sex with men, but many women around the world are also at a high risk for HIV transmissions. In studies conducted, the incidence of HIV infection in high-risk individuals decreases over 90% when high-risk individuals use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreP HIV, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC safely. Current data and studies on pre-exposure prophylaxis were discussed in this review.

  3. Dosimetry Methods for Human Exposure to Non-Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poljak, D.; Sarolic, A.; Doric, V.; Peratta, C.; Peratta, A.

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with human exposure to electromagnetic fields from extremely low frequencies (ELF) to GSM frequencies. The problem requires (1) the assessment of external field generated by electromagnetic interference (EMI) source at a given frequency (incident field dosimetry) and then (2) the assessment of corresponding fields induced inside the human body (internal field dosimetry). Several methods used in theoretical and experimental dosimetry are discussed within this work. Theoretical dosimetry models at low frequencies are based on quasistatic approaches, while analyses at higher frequencies use the full-wave models. Experimental techniques involve near and far field measurement. Human exposure to power lines, transformer substations, power line communication (PLC) systems, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) antennas and GSM base station antenna systems is analyzed. The results o are compared to the exposure limits proposed by relevant safety guidelines. Theoretical incident dosimetry used in this paper is based on the set of Pocklington integro-differential equations for the calculation of the current distribution and subsequently radiated field from power lines. Experimental incident dosimetry techniques involve measurement techniques of fields radiated by RFID antennas and GSM base station antennas. First example set of numerical results is related to the internal dosimetry of realistic well-grounded body model exposed to vertical component of the electric field E = 10 kV/m generated by high voltage power line. The results obtained via the HNA model exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for public exposure (2 mA/m 2 ) in knee (8.6 mA/m 2 ) and neck (9.8 mA/m 2 ) and for occupational exposure (10 mA/m 2 ) in ankle (32 mA/m 2 ). In the case of a conceptual model of a realistic human body inside a transformer substation room touching a control panel at the potential φ0 = 400 V and with two scenarios for dry-air between worker's hand and panel, the values

  4. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety. PMID:23230464

  5. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T., E-mail: klimecki@pharmacy.arizona.edu

    2013-08-15

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect.

  6. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect

  7. Mercury Exposure in Ireland: Results of the DEMOCOPHES Human Biomonitoring Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Cullen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monitoring of human exposure to mercury is important due to its adverse health effects. This study aimed to determine the extent of mercury exposure among mothers and their children in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated levels. It formed part of the Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES pilot biomonitoring study. Methods: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. Results: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children’s samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair and children (0.149 µg /g hair did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were significantly higher for those with higher education, and those who consumed more fish. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the benefit of human biomonitoring for assessing and comparing internal exposure levels, both on a population and an individual basis. It enables the potential harmful impact of mercury to be minimised in those highly exposed, and can therefore significantly contribute to population health.

  8. Passive monitoring techniques for evaluating atmospheric ozone and nitrogen exposure and deposition to California ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Susan L. Schilling

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the exposure of ecosystems to ecologically relevant pollutants is needed for evaluating ecosystem effects and to identify regions and resources at risk. In California, ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) pollutants are of greatest concern for ecological effects. "Passive" monitoring methods have been developed to obtain spatially...

  9. The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed in Boris Kidric Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koturovic, A.M.; Sobajic, M.V.; Smelcerovic, M.A.; Damljanovic, D.D.; Drndarevic, V.R.

    1989-01-01

    The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed and produced in Boris Kidric Institute, presented in this paper, are digital survey instruments. The common principle of these instruments is the 'simple precision' concept, i.e. predetermined time pulse counting. This principle is discussed and basic structure of these instruments is shown with their possibilities and features (author)

  10. Exposure to Violence, Parental Monitoring, and Television Viewing as Contributors to Children's Psychological Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Mark I.; Flannery, Daniel J.; Guo, Shenyang; Miller, David; Leibbrandt, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of exposure to violence, parental monitoring, and television viewing habits to children's self-reported symptoms of psychological trauma. Children in grades 3-8 in 11 public schools completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire administered during usual school hours. The final sample was comprised…

  11. Inter-comparison of personal monitors for nanoparticles exposure at workplaces and in the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todea, A.M.; Beckmann, S.; Kaminski, H.; Bard, D.; Bau, S.; Clavaguera, S.; Dahmann, D.; Dozol, H.; Dziurowitz, N.; Elihn, K.; Fierz, M.; Lidén, G.; Meyer-Plath, A.; Monz, C.; Neumann, V.; Pelzer, J.; Simonow, B.K.; Thali, P.; Tuinman, I.; Vleuten, A. van der; Vroomen, H.; Asbach, C.

    2017-01-01

    Personal monitors based on unipolar diffusion charging (miniDiSC/DiSCmini, NanoTracer, Partector) can be used to assess the individual exposure to nanoparticles in different environments. The charge acquired by the aerosol particles is nearly proportional to the particle diameter and, by

  12. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to dust among aluminium foundry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Choupani

    2018-05-01

    Conclusion ― Determination of AL concentration in urine is not enough to serve as a biomarker. Estimation of AL nanoparticles in the air and biomarkers that determine the actual absorption rate seems to be an adequate method for occupational exposure monitoring of AL.

  13. Case definitions for human poisonings postulated to palytoxins exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaro, A; Durando, P; Del Favero, G; Ansaldi, F; Icardi, G; Deeds, J R; Sosa, S

    2011-03-01

    A series of case reports and anecdotal references describe the adverse effects on human health ascribed to the marine toxin palytoxin (PLTX) after different exposure routes. They include poisonings after oral intake of contaminated seafood, but also inhalation and cutaneous/systemic exposures after direct contact with aerosolized seawater during Ostreopsis blooms and/or through maintaining aquaria containing cnidarian zoanthids. The symptoms commonly recorded during PLTX intoxication are general malaise and weakness, associated with myalgia, respiratory effects, impairment of the neuromuscular apparatus and abnormalities in cardiac function. Systemic symptoms are often recorded together with local damages whose intensity varies according to the route and length of exposure. Gastrointestinal malaise or respiratory distress is common for oral and inhalational exposure, respectively. In addition, irritant properties of PLTX probably account for the inflammatory reactions typical of cutaneous and inhalational contact. Unfortunately, the toxin identification and/or quantification are often incomplete or missing and cases of poisoning are indirectly ascribed to PLTXs, according only to symptoms, anamnesis and environmental/epidemiological investigations (i.e. zoanthid handling or ingestion of particular seafood). Based on the available literature, we suggest a "case definition of PLTX poisonings" according to the main exposure routes, and, we propose the main symptoms to be checked, as well as, hemato-clinical analysis to be carried out. We also suggest the performance of specific analyses both on biological specimens of patients, as well as, on the contaminated materials responsible for the poisoning. A standardized protocol for data collection could provide a more rapid and reliable diagnosis of palytoxin-poisoning, but also the collection of necessary data for the risk assessment for this family of toxins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term monitoring of air crew exposure onboard of Czech Airlines aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Ploc, O.

    2007-01-01

    This contribution presents new results related to the aircraft crew exposure onboard aircraft of Czech air companies. First, the results of long term monitoring onboard of an aircraft of Czech Airlines are presented. In the period May-December 2005, 494 individual flights have been followed using MDU-Liulin Si-diode based spectrometer, together with thermoluminescent and track detectors. The results of measurements are analyzed and compared with those of calculation performed with CARI6 and EPCARD3.2 codes. Monitoring period represented about 4.6 times more than usual annual engagement of an aircrew (600 hours). Total effective dose during these 2 755 hours was between Il and 12 mSv, following the considered method of evaluation. Both the measuring and calculation methods correlate well. This fact leads to confirmation of the routine method evaluating the level of aircraft crew exposure using CARI6 code as correct for this purpose. Second, the results of individual monitoring of aircrew members obtained during few last years by this routine method are presented; general tendencies of aircraft crew onboard exposure of Czech air companies are outlined. The contribution of aircrew exposure to total occupational exposure in the Czech Republic represents about 20%. (authors)

  15. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C 21 H 30 O 2 ; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  16. DNA repair and cell cycle biomarkers of radiation exposure and inflammation stress in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Budworth

    Full Text Available DNA damage and repair are hallmarks of cellular responses to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that monitoring the expression of DNA repair-associated genes would enhance the detection of individuals exposed to radiation versus other forms of physiological stress. We employed the human blood ex vivo radiation model to investigate the expression responses of DNA repair genes in repeated blood samples from healthy, non-smoking men and women exposed to 2 Gy of X-rays in the context of inflammation stress mimicked by the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Radiation exposure significantly modulated the transcript expression of 12 genes of 40 tested (2.2E-06human blood ex vivo dataset, and 100% accuracy for discriminating patients who received total body radiation. Three genes of this panel (CDKN1A, FDXR and BBC3 were also highly sensitive to LPS treatment in the absence of radiation exposure, and LPS co-treatment significantly affected their radiation responses. At the protein level, BAX and pCHK2-thr68 were elevated after radiation exposure, but the pCHK2-thr68 response was significantly decreased in the presence of LPS. Our combined panel yields an estimated 4-group accuracy of ∼90% to discriminate between radiation alone, inflammation alone, or combined exposures. Our findings suggest that DNA repair gene expression may be helpful to identify biodosimeters of exposure to radiation, especially within high-complexity exposure scenarios.

  17. Exposure rate measurements on TV monitors LiF:Mg, Cu, P (GR- 200A) chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaye, S.S.; Sadagopan, Geetha; Bhatt, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    For measuring exposure rate on black and white TV monitor screen, LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200A) TLD chips were used. The samples were kept on TV monitor screen and exposed for 560 hrs with TV in 'ON' condition. The exposure rate on TV monitor screen was determined from integrated TL measurements and it varied from 0.081μGy/hr to 0.106 μGy/hr. Thus it was observed that the exposure levels were well below the prescribed limits (i.e. 5 μGy/h at 5 cm from the surface). LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200A) TLD discs were also used to estimate the dose level on the surface of two types of TV monitors. The samples were kept at five different locations on the two (14 C PT AND 20 C PT) models of TV monitors and exposed for 622 hrs. From the measurement of TL, integrated dose on the screen were in the range 3.86 mR to 12.34 mR, the corresponding dose rate being 6.206 mR/hr to 19.839 mR/hr. This ensures that doses were well below the recommended limit of 0.5 mR/hr at 5cm. (author)

  18. Real-time measurement of dust in the workplace using video exposure monitoring: Farming to pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P T; Forth, A R; Clark, R D R; Dowker, K P; Thorpe, A

    2009-01-01

    Real-time, photometric, portable dust monitors have been employed for video exposure monitoring (VEM) to measure and highlight dust levels generated by work activities, illustrate dust control techniques, and demonstrate good practice. Two workplaces, presenting different challenges for measurement, were used to illustrate the capabilities of VEM: (a) poultry farming activities and (b) powder transfer operations in a pharmaceutical company. For the poultry farm work, the real-time monitors were calibrated with respect to the respirable and inhalable dust concentrations using cyclone and IOM reference samplers respectively. Different rankings of exposure for typical activities were found on the small farm studied here compared to previous exposure measurements at larger poultry farms: these were mainly attributed to the different scales of operation. Large variations in the ratios of respirable, inhalable and real-time monitor TWA concentrations of poultry farm dust for various activities were found. This has implications for the calibration of light-scattering dust monitors with respect to inhalable dust concentration. In the pharmaceutical application, the effectiveness of a curtain barrier for dust control when dispensing powder in a downflow booth was rapidly demonstrated.

  19. Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Mielke, H W; Reagan, P L

    1998-01-01

    This review shows the equal or greater importance of leaded gasoline-contaminated dust compared to lead-based paint to the child lead problem, and that soil lead, resulting from leaded gasoline and pulverized lead-based paint, is at least or more important than lead-based paint (intact and not pulverized) as a pathway of human lead exposure. Because lead-based paint is a high-dose source, the biologically relevant dosage is similar to lead in soil. Both lead-based paint and soil lead are asso...

  20. Individual monitoring for internal exposure of workers - regulation and practice in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerekes, A.; Kocsy, G.; Pellet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Decree of Ministry of Health for the enforcement of the Act on Atomic Energy has put special emphasis on the regulation of monitoring for internal exposure in Hungary. The necessarily general prescription of the Decree 'In case of the possibility or suspicion of incorporating open radioactive substances the affected employee shall be subjected to internal contamination monitoring. The obligation of the internal monitoring shall be determined by the Radiation Hygiene Centre of the National Public Health and Medical Officer's Service' called for a guidance to assist the work of the competent authority. The guide was elaborated on the basis of the IAEA Safety Guide No. RS-G-1.2. According to the Safety Guide the decision factor shall first be determined for the potential radionuclides and practice applied. For routine monitoring the required frequency, method and MDA values, moreover for special monitoring the method and MDA values were derived for over 40 radionuclides considering the following two basic assumptions: the activity remaining in or excreted from the body could be determined by the given measurement method, the possible underestimation of intake shall be less than a factor of three within the monitoring interval. The following prescription of the Decree 'The laboratory performing the monitoring of internal exposure shall be accredited' has raised a conflict in practice. To solve the problem the Guide suggests a two-step monitoring process: a screening measurement for the possible internal contamination performed by the Radiation Protection Service of the workplace by any equipment used in daily practice for investigation of patients, radiation protection purposes, etc., if the result of screening indicates an internal contamination the radiation worker shall be monitored by an accredited laboratory. As an ISO Standard in process has several assumptions differing from the IAEA Safety Guide, e.g. the limitation of 'maximum potential

  1. Workshop 3.5: Closing the gap between exposure and effects in monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.

    2003-01-01

    A major challenge to contaminant monitoring programs is the selection of an appropriate suite of measurements for assessing exposure and effects. Early monitoring programs relied solely on residue analysis to detect the organochlorine compounds that were in use at that time. A shift to the use of more transient, less persistent chemicals required that a new set of tools be developed to determine if an organism had been exposed. This led to the development of cellular and biochemical assays that could indicate the presence of these types of chemicals in biota and the environment. However, it was recognized that measures of contaminant presence alone were insufficient to assess the health of biota. As a result, considerable research began to be directed toward development of diagnostic tools for measuring chemical effects in fish and wildlife. Today, contaminant monitoring programs follow a paradigm for study design that emphasizes not only the use of measures of exposure, but also measures of effect. Using data from our monitoring and research studies for hormonally active substances, we discuss a variety of metrics of exposure and effects and their application to specific chemicals, and the current information gaps. We conclude that although several bioindicators of exposure and effect have been promoted and used, to date there continues to be a poor association between cause and effect for endocrine active substances. In part, this is due to the limited number of diagnostic tools that are available and to a lack of basic toxicological information concerning toxicokinetics and mechanisms of action of hormonally active chemicals in fish and wildlife species. In the foreseeable future, both tissue and environmental residue data, despite the many limitations, will continue to be an important component of monitoring programs for hormonally active chemicals as we continue to develop and validate more specific bioindicators of exposure and effects.

  2. Development and evaluation of a technique for in vivo monitoring of {sup 60}Co in human liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Gomes, G.H.; Silva, M.C.; Mello, J.Q., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    {sup 60}Co is an artificial radioactive metal produced by activation of iron with neutrons. It decays by beta particles and gamma radiation and represents a risk of internal exposure of workers involved in the maintenance of nuclear power reactors. Intakes can be quantified through in vivo monitoring. This work describes the development of a technique for the quantification of {sup 60}Co in human liver. The sensitivity of the method is evaluated based on the minimum detectable effective doses. The results allow to state that the technique is suitable either for monitoring of occupational exposures or evaluation of accidental intakes. (author)

  3. Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanoulis, Georgios; Bui, Thuy; Xu, Fuchao; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Padilla-Sanchez, Juan A; Covaci, Adrian; Haug, Line S; Cousins, Anna Palm; Magnér, Jörgen; Cousins, Ian T; de Wit, Cynthia A

    2018-03-01

    Phthalate esters are substances mainly used as plasticizers in various applications. Some have been restricted and phased out due to their adverse health effects and ubiquitous presence, leading to the introduction of alternative plasticizers, such as DINCH. Using a comprehensive dataset from a Norwegian study population, human exposure to DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP, DPHP and DINCH was assessed by measuring their presence in external exposure media, allowing an estimation of the total intake, as well as the relative importance of different uptake pathways. Intake via different uptake routes, in particular inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral uptake was estimated and total intake based on all uptake pathways was compared to the calculated intake from biomonitoring data. Hand wipe results were used to determine dermal uptake and compared to other exposure sources such as air, dust and personal care products. Results showed that the calculated total intakes were similar, but slightly higher than those based on biomonitoring methods by 1.1 to 3 times (median), indicating a good understanding of important uptake pathways. The relative importance of different uptake pathways was comparable to other studies, where inhalation was important for lower molecular weight phthalates, and negligible for the higher molecular weight phthalates and DINCH. Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for all analyzed substances. Dermal uptake based on hand wipes was much lower (median up to 2000 times) than the total dermal uptake via air, dust and personal care products. Still, dermal uptake is not a well-studied exposure pathway and several research gaps (e.g. absorption fractions) remain. Based on calculated intakes, the exposure for the Norwegian participants to the phthalates and DINCH was lower than health based limit values. Nevertheless, exposure to alternative plasticizers, such as DPHP and DINCH, is expected to increase in the future and continuous

  4. Occupational exposure to ultrafine particles among airport employees--combining personal monitoring and global positioning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported...... at several airports, especially on the apron, but knowledge on individual exposure profiles among different occupational groups working at an airport is lacking. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare personal exposure to UFP among five different occupational groups working at Copenhagen Airport (CPH......). METHOD: 30 employees from five different occupational groups (baggage handlers, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside and landside security) at CPH were instructed to wear a personal monitor of particle number concentration in real time and a GPS device. The measurements were carried out on 8 days...

  5. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Stephanie Reyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective: Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design: A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT, other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods: Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling from 3 plots (A, B, and C in Fort Albany (on the mainland, subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results: The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusions: Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes.

  6. Monitoring agricultural rodenticide use and secondary exposure of raptors in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J; Sharp, E; Taylor, M J; Melton, L; Hartley, G

    2013-08-01

    Despite the documented risk of secondary poisoning to non-target species by anticoagulant rodenticides there is no statutory post-approval monitoring of their use in the UK. This paper presents results from two Scottish monitoring schemes for the period 2000-2010; recording rodenticide use on arable farms and the presence of residues in raptor carcasses. More than three quarters of arable farms used anticoagulant rodenticides; predominately the second generation compounds difenacoum and bromadiolone. There was widespread exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides in liver tissues of the raptor species tested and the residues encountered generally reflected agricultural use patterns. As found in other studies, Red Kites (Milvus milvus) appeared to be particularly vulnerable to rodenticide exposure, 70 % of those sampled (n = 114) contained residues and 10 % died as a result of rodenticide ingestion. More unexpectedly, sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), which prey almost exclusively on birds, had similar exposure rates to species which prey on rodents. Although, with the exception of kites, confirmed mortality from rodenticides was low, the widespread exposure recorded is concerning. Particularly when coupled with a lack of data about the sub-lethal effects of these compounds. This raises questions regarding whether statutory monitoring of use is needed; both to address whether there are deficiencies in compliance with approval conditions or whether the recommended risk management procedures are themselves adequate to protect non-target wildlife.

  7. Assessment of human exposure to environmental sources of nickel in Europe: Inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buekers, Jurgen; De Brouwere, Katleen; Lefebvre, Wouter; Willems, Hanny; Vandenbroele, Marleen; Van Sprang, Patrick; Eliat-Eliat, Maxime; Hicks, Keegan; Schlekat, Christian E; Oller, Adriana R

    2015-07-15

    The paper describes the inhalation nickel (Ni) exposure of humans via the environment for the regional scale in the EU, together with a tiered approach for assessing additional local exposure from industrial emissions. The approach was designed, in the context of REACH, for the purpose of assessing and controlling emissions and air quality in the neighbourhood of Ni producers and downstream users. Two Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) values for chronic inhalation exposure to total Ni in PM10 (20 and 60ngNi/m(3)) were considered. The value of 20ngNi/m(3) is the current EU air quality guidance value. The value of 60ngNi/m(3) is derived here based on recently published Ni data (Oller et al., 2014). Both values are protective for respiratory toxicity and carcinogenicity but differ in the application of toxicokinetic adjustments and cancer threshold considerations. Estimates of air Ni concentrations at the European regional scale were derived from the database of the European Environment Agency. The 50th and 90th percentile regional exposures were below both DNEL values. To assess REACH compliance at the local scale, measured ambient air data are preferred but are often unavailable. A tiered approach for the use of modelled ambient air concentrations was developed, starting with the application of the default EUSES model and progressing to more sophisticated models. As an example, the tiered approach was applied to 33 EU Ni sulphate producers' and downstream users' sites. Applying the EUSES model demonstrates compliance with a DNEL of 60ngNi/m(3) for the majority of sites, while the value of the refined modelling is demonstrated when a DNEL of 20ngNi/m(3) is considered. The proposed approach, applicable to metals in general, can be used in the context of REACH, for refining the risk characterisation and guiding the selection of risk management measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation exposure monitoring and control in front-end fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    The front end nuclear fuel cycle facilities presently operational in India are the mining and processing of beach mineral sands along the southern coast of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Orissa, mining and processing of uranium ore in Singhbhum-East in Jharkhand and refining and fuel fabrication at Hyderabad and Trombay. Dedicated Health Physics Units set up at each site regularly carry out in-plant and personnel monitoring to ensure safe working conditions and evaluate radiation exposure of workers and advise appropriate control measures. External gamma radiation, radon, thoron, their progeny and airborne long-lived activity due to radioactive dust are monitored. Personal dosimeters are also issued to workers. The total radiation exposure of workers from external and internal sources is evaluated from the plant and personal monitoring data. Provision of adequate ventilation, control of dust and spillage of active solutions, prompt decontamination, use of personal protective appliances and worker education are the key factors in keeping the doses to the workers well within the regulatory limits. It has been observed that the total radiation dose to workers has been well below 20 mSv.y - 1 at all stages of operations. The monitoring methodologies and summary of radiation exposure data for different facilities during the last few years are presented in the paper. (author)

  9. Assessing isocyanate exposures in polyurethane industry sectors using biological and air monitoring methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creely, K S; Hughson, G W; Cocker, J; Jones, K

    2006-08-01

    Isocyanates, as a chemical group, are considered to be the biggest cause of occupational asthma in the UK. Monitoring of airborne exposures to total isocyanate is costly, requiring considerable expertise, both in terms of sample collection and chemical analysis and cannot be used to assess the effectiveness of protection from wearing respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Biological monitoring by analysis of metabolites in urine can be a relatively simple and inexpensive way to assess exposure to isocyanates. It may also be a useful way to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures in place. In this study biological and inhalation monitoring were undertaken to assess exposure in a variety of workplaces in the non-motor vehicle repair sector. Companies selected to participate in the survey included only those judged to be using good working practices when using isocyanate formulations. This included companies that used isocyanates to produce moulded polyurethane products, insulation material and those involved in industrial painting. Air samples were collected by personal monitoring and were analysed for total isocyanate content. Urine samples were collected soon after exposure and analysed for the metabolites of different isocyanate species, allowing calculation of the total metabolite concentration. Details of the control measures used and observed contamination of exposed skin were also recorded. A total of 21 companies agreed to participate in the study, with exposure measurements being collected from 22 sites. The airborne isocyanate concentrations were generally very low (range 0.0005-0.066 mg m(-3)). A total of 50 of the 70 samples were polyurethane foam insulation (0.023 mg m(-3)). The most commonly detected isocyanate in the urine was hexamethylene diisocyanate, which was detected in 21 instances. The geometric mean total isocyanate metabolite concentration for the dataset was 0.29 micromol mol(-1) creatinine (range 0.05-12.64 micromol mol(-1

  10. A Cell Kinetic Model of Granulocytopoiesis Under Radiation Exposure: Extension from Murines to Canines and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Space radiation poses significant challenges to space travel, and it is essential to understand the possible adverse effects from space radiation exposure to the radiosensitive organ systems that are important for immediate survival of human, e.g., the hematopoietic system. In this presentation a biomathematical model of granulocytopoiesis is described and used to analyze the blood granulocyte changes seen in the blood of mammalians under continuous and acute radiation exposure. This is one of a set of hematopoietic models that have been successfully utilized to simulate and interpret the experimental data of acute and chronic radiation on rodents. We discuss the underlying implicit regulation mechanism and the biological relevance of the kinetic parameters estimation method. Extension of the model to predictions in dogs and humans systems indicates that the modeling results are consistent with the cumulative experimental and empirical data from various sources. This implies the potential to integrate the models into one united system for monitoring the hematopoietic response of various species under irradiation. Based on the evidence of threshold responses of dogs to extended periods of low daily dose exposures, we discuss the potential health risks of the space traveler under chronic stress of low-dose irradiation and the possibly encountered Solar Particle Events.

  11. Human Exposure Model (HEM): A modular, web-based application to characterize near-field chemical exposures and releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s Chemical Safety and Sustainability research program is developing the Human Exposure Model (HEM) to assess near-field exposures to chemicals that occur in various populations over the entire life cycle of a consumer product. The model will be implemented as a...

  12. A Margin-of-Exposure Approach to Assessment of Noncancer Risks of Dioxins Based on Human Exposure and Response Data

    OpenAIRE

    Aylward, Lesa L.; Goodman, Julie E.; Charnley, Gail; Rhomberg, Lorenz R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Risk assessment of human environmental exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) and other dioxin-like compounds is complicated by several factors, including limitations in measuring intakes because of the low concentrations of these compounds in foods and the environment and interspecies differences in pharmacokinetics and responses. Objectives We examined the feasibility of relying directly on human studies of exposure and potential responses to...

  13. Tracking the Evolution of Smartphone Sensing for Monitoring Human Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rosario, Michael B.; Redmond, Stephen J.; Lovell, Nigel H.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in mobile technology have led to the emergence of the “smartphone”, a new class of device with more advanced connectivity features that have quickly made it a constant presence in our lives. Smartphones are equipped with comparatively advanced computing capabilities, a global positioning system (GPS) receivers, and sensing capabilities (i.e., an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and more recently magnetometer and barometer) which can be found in wearable ambulatory monitors (WAMs). As a result, algorithms initially developed for WAMs that “count” steps (i.e., pedometers); gauge physical activity levels; indirectly estimate energy expenditure and monitor human movement can be utilised on the smartphone. These algorithms may enable clinicians to “close the loop” by prescribing timely interventions to improve or maintain wellbeing in populations who are at risk of falling or suffer from a chronic disease whose progression is linked to a reduction in movement and mobility. The ubiquitous nature of smartphone technology makes it the ideal platform from which human movement can be remotely monitored without the expense of purchasing, and inconvenience of using, a dedicated WAM. In this paper, an overview of the sensors that can be found in the smartphone are presented, followed by a summary of the developments in this field with an emphasis on the evolution of algorithms used to classify human movement. The limitations identified in the literature will be discussed, as well as suggestions about future research directions. PMID:26263998

  14. Monitoring method for an ambient Gamma exposure rate and its measurement analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mo Sung [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jong Kwan [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Daily and seasonal variations of the ambient gamma ray exposure rates were measured by using a pressurized ion chamber from January 2003 to December 2005 in the Cheongju Regional Radiation Monitoring Post and the patterns of the distributions were studied. The annual average of the daily variation of the exposure rate was {approx}0.17 {mu}R/h. The exposure rate was found to be maximum during 8:00 am to 9:00 am and minimum during 8:00 pm to 10:00 pm. For the annual data, the exposure rate was the minimum during the month of February. The exposure rate increased from February to mid-October (except during the period from May to July with no change) and decreased from October to February. The seasonal variation was found to be about 1 {mu}R/h. Most of the measured values (96%) of the exposure rates fell under the normal distribution with a deviation of less than 4.8% and the remaining 4% had large fluctuations caused mainly by the rainfalls.

  15. Human exposure to ionizing radiation for medical reasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.; Busick, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    The central issue in this debate is not whether there is a threshold dose below which deleterious effects in humans occur nor whether the dose-effect relationship is linear or curvilinear. The central issue is whether there is merit in a continuing effort to reduce radiation exposures to patients no matter at what level. This should be determined by a careful balancing of potential risks against expected benefits. It is this element of risk-benefit analysis that is absent in Morgan's philosophy. A good example of the changing nature on the risk-benefit balance is that of the use of mass radiography programs to diagnose tuberculosis. Before the Second World War this disease was a terrible scourge of the poor who could ill-afford adequate medical care. The use of mass radiography programs have played a large part in the elimination of this disease

  16. Survival of human lymphocytes after exposure to densely ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhvanath, U.; Raju, M.R.; Kelly, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    Interphase death of human blood lymphocytes cultured in vitro was studied after exposure to 60 Co gamma rays and to accelerated ions of 1 H, 4 He, 7 Li, 11 B, 12 C, 20 Ne, 40 Ar, and π - meson beam under aerobic conditions. Exposures were also conducted under hypoxic conditions with 60 Co gamma rays, 4 He, 7 Li, and 12 C ion beams. Time course of interphase death was followed for 6 days after irradiation. Percent survivals were determined by using the trypan blue exclusion method. Survival curves at 5 days postirradiation were exponential for all radiations studied. These observations indicate that the production of interphase death of lymphocytes by densely ionizing radiations follows a pattern similar to that observed with colony-forming mammalian cells. However, the reproductive capacity of the latter cells is impaired with maximum effectiveness at energy densities associated with 220 keV/μm for the beam conditions used in this investigation. The much lower energy densities required to kill a lymphocyte suggest that a sensitive structure other than DNA may be responsible for the production of lymphocyte death, perhaps the membranes. The calculated inactivation cross sections for high-LET radiations above 650 keV/μm yielded values larger than the actual cell dimensions. It appears that contributions from delta rays become appreciable in this system at these LET's

  17. Potential applications of SIMS technique for environmental monitoring based on exposure of aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, B.N.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The kinds of environmental monitoring applications for which SIMS may be applicable, particularly with aquatic organisms, fall into 2 main categories: a) Undertaking controlled dose experiments with aquatic organisms where the nature of exposure is known together with water concentration, soft tissue and shell concentrations; and b) Using aquatic organisms from historically or currently impacted sites where other data or information may or may not be available to give some insight into the exposure pattern, generally from existing water monitoring data, sediment concentrations and other data such as water release or flow data. The advantage of experiments undertaken under controlled conditions is that they enable modelling to be developed and be applied. Usually the controlled studies with aquatic organisms are undertaken following cases of historical exposure. The usefulness of historical studies is therefore questionable unless a clear link with the organism exposure can be established. Some examples will be given to show how historical data could be used to bridge the information gap

  18. The use of animals as a surveillance tool for monitoring environmental health hazards, human health hazards and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jacqueline Pei Shan; Tan, Boon Huan

    2017-05-01

    This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens. Animals are an excellent channel for monitoring novel and known pathogens with outbreak potential given that more than 60 % of emerging infectious diseases in humans originate as zoonoses. This review attempts to highlight animal illnesses, deaths, biomarkers or sentinel events, to remind human and veterinary public health programs that animal health can be used to discover, monitor or predict environmental health hazards, human health hazards, or bioterrorism. Lastly, we hope that this review will encourage the implementation of animals as a surveillance tool by clinicians, veterinarians, ecosystem health professionals, researchers and governments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Using Information on Exposure to Characterizing Risks to Human Health from Concurrent Exposures to Multiple Chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mr Price, PSP

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the concept of using exposure information to understand, organize, and manage the risks associated with cumulative exposures to chemicals (exposures to multiple chemicals from multiple sources). The issue of cumulative exposures was identified in more than 30 years ago, but in

  20. Measurement of exposures to radioactivity and monitoring of effects on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spira, Alfred; Boutou, Odile

    1999-01-01

    On the request of the French ministries of Health and of the Environment, the author reports thoughts and proposals regarding epidemiological problems related to natural and artificial radioactive emissions. He first reports an analysis of the present context (assessment of health risks, ionizing radiation in France, radiation protection, nuclear operators, relationship between ionizing radiation and health, epidemiology) and knowledge (about nuclear and health, available results, current investigations). He outlines the benefits of an epidemiological monitoring and its requirements, and identifies the various components of this monitoring. While presenting current works, biological and epidemiological studies performed in the northern Cotentin area, he makes some specific proposals for this area and notably for the workers of La Hague. He proposes the implementation of a national arrangement comprising a measurement of exposures, an epidemiological monitoring, and a sociological survey. He discusses the associated administrative organisation and needs

  1. Estimating the human exposure to chemical substances and radiation. Definition report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeire, T.G.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1995-06-01

    This report aims at boosting the human exposure assessment activities of the RIVM with regard to chemical substances and radiation. It is the result of thorough discussions with RIVM-experts. The report starts with an overview of past developments in the area of human exposure assessment at the RIVM and continues describing recent projects. Major developments outside the Institute are also discussed. An attempt is made to harmonize definitions which are relevant for exposure assessment, i.e. definitions on exposure, intake, uptake and dose. Important gaps in the human exposure assessment work at the RIVM are identified, leading to proposals for future work. 2 figs., 31 refs., 3 appendices

  2. The recovery of the human organism after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The repair of radiation damage in the human organism is reviewed. A distinction is made between the single repair steps, first the molecular repair of sublethal damage during the periods of 30 min to 2 h and several days to months, second the substitution of the whole cells during a period of reproduction which is specific for the kind and persistence of the cells. One example is the radiosensitive stem cell with a reproduction rate of 40% and a redoublication time of 10 d at 100 rads and the very low reproduction rate of 1% with redoublication time of 7 d after a dose of 400 rads. 5 rads seems to be acceptable for systems with recovery and repeated exposure, single doses normally should not exceed 25 rads, not 100 rads/d for to save human life, and not a total dose of 500 rads. About 20% of irradiation damage is not repaired and leads to late effects, for example the induction of tumors, the shortening of life span and an increase in embryonic mortality. The author recommends the acceptance of a radiation dose leading to 20 additional cases of leucemia in the whole population of Germany and an increase of tumor frequency of 1%. The shortening of life span should not exceed 0,5%. The equivalent residual dose (ERD) can be calculated by the following equation: ERD = last effective dose minus 5 rads x number of days. (AJ) [de

  3. Computational Strategy for Quantifying Human Pesticide Exposure based upon a Saliva Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eTimchalk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative exposure data is important for evaluating toxicity risk and biomonitoring is a critical tool for evaluating human exposure. Direct personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true dose, and non-invasive methods are advocated for quantifying exposure to xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach. This manuscript reviews the computational modeling approaches that are coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics and provides additional insight on species-dependent differences in partitioning that are of key importance for extrapolation. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva involves paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or trancellular active transport with the majority of xenobiotics transferred by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computationally modeled using compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of the Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases have significant impact on determining partitioning and species dependent differences based upon physiological variance. Future strategies are focused on an in vitro salivary acinar cell based system to experimentally determine and computationally predict salivary gland uptake and clearance for xenobiotics. It is envisioned that a combination of salivary biomonitoring and computational modeling will enable the non-invasive measurement of chemical exposures in human

  4. Flexible and wearable electronic silk fabrics for human physiological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Cuiping; Zhang, Huihui; Lu, Zhisong

    2017-09-01

    The development of textile-based devices for human physiological monitoring has attracted tremendous interest in recent years. However, flexible physiological sensing elements based on silk fabrics have not been realized. In this paper, ZnO nanorod arrays are grown in situ on reduced graphene oxide-coated silk fabrics via a facile electro-deposition method for the fabrication of silk-fabric-based mechanical sensing devices. The data show that well-aligned ZnO nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structures are synthesized on the conductive silk fabric surface. After magnetron sputtering of gold electrodes, silk-fabric-based devices are produced and applied to detect periodic bending and twisting. Based on the electric signals, the deformation and release processes can be easily differentiated. Human arterial pulse and respiration can also be real-time monitored to calculate the pulse rate and respiration frequency, respectively. Throat vibrations during coughing and singing are detected to demonstrate the voice recognition capability. This work may not only help develop silk-fabric-based mechanical sensing elements for potential applications in clinical diagnosis, daily healthcare monitoring and voice recognition, but also provide a versatile method for fabricating textile-based flexible electronic devices.

  5. Human exposure to piroplasms in Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gabrielli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey has been conducted in Northern and Central Italy to investigate the presence in humans of antibodies against zoonotic Babesia and Theileria species. The study focused on a total of 432 volunteers, of which 290 were persistently exposed to tick bites because of their jobs (forester employees, livestock keepers, veterinary practitioners, farmers and hunters and 142 resident in the same area less frequently exposed. An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT for humans was used to detect antibodies to Babesia microti, IFAT tests for veterinary use were modified to detect reactivity to Babesia bovis, Babesia canis and Theileria equi. A laboratory-derived ELISA was employed to detect antibodies to Babesia divergens. Both reactive and 10 negative sera were analysed against plasmodial antigens to evaluate possible aspecificity. A high reactivity to piroplasm antigens was found, showing significant difference between the sera of the two groups of volunteers (24% vs 7.0%; p<0.001. No cross-reactivity was observed, while each professional group showed reactivity that would fit with the professional risk exposure. In particular, a high reactivity to B. microti and B. divergens antigens was observed in foresters and hunters (32% and 12%, respectively. This is the first report on the human seroreactivity to piroplasms in Italy; it also provides additional epidemiological information on these tick-borne zoonoses in Europe. Our findings suggest the possible occurrence of piroplasm infections in Italy and alert physicians to consider these otherwise neglected parasitic diseases when dealing with any febrile illness, especially in subjects exposed to tick bites.

  6. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D; Obeid, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min –1 . A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min –1 , and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn. (note)

  7. Ultra-trace measurement of Dechloranes to investigate food as a route of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Homme, Benjamin; Calaprice, Chiara; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Leardi, Riccardo; Focant, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    Dechloranes, including Dechlorane Plus (syn- and anti-isomers), Dechlorane 602, Dechlorane 603, Dechlorane 604, Chlordene Plus, and Mirex are used as flame-retardants and were recently found in human serum of the European population. In order to investigate if food consumption would possibly be a significant route of exposure, we developed a method for the measurement of Dechloranes in food and feed. We showed that it was possible to extend the scope of the regular polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin like (DL-), and non-dioxin like (NDL-) regulated PCBs clean-up and fractionation procedure to Dechloranes and that no compound degradation occurred during the strong acidic treatments used for lipid digestion. Dechloranes were measured by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQMS/MS). We optimized injection parameters by face centered experimental design (FCD). The electron ionization fragmentation was investigated to set appropriate multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. Instrumental and method limits of quantitation (iLOQs and mLOQs) were determined following EU guidelines for dioxin analyses in food. A total of 88 samples were analyzed to assess the prevalence of this route of exposure to humans. Average levels of the sum of Dechloranes ranged from 10 to 31pg/g fat, with the exception of fish, feed additives, and corn that were reported in pg/g wet weight at average levels of 9, 12, and 2pg/g ww. Based on Belgian food habits, a dietary intake was estimated to be 136pg/day. The relatively low reported levels indicate that other routes of human exposure should be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A fibre optic oxygen sensor for monitoring of human breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Farmery, Andrew D.; Chen, Rui; Hahn, Clive E. W.

    2011-11-01

    A reliable and cost effective fibre optic oxygen sensor for monitoring of human breathing has been developed using a normal 200μm silica core/silica cladding optical fibre and a polymer sensing matrix. The fibre optic oxygen sensor is based on the fluorescence quenching of a fluorophore by oxygen. The sensing matrix, containing immobilized Pt(II) complexes, was coated at the end of the silica core/silica cladding optical fibre. The sensitivity and time response of the sensor were evaluated using the method of luminescence lifetime measurement. The polymer substrate influence on the time response of the sensor was improved by using a fibre taper design, and the response time of the optimized sensor was less than 200ms. This silica fibre based optic oxygen sensor is suitable for monitoring of patient breathing in intensive care unit in terms of safety and low cost.

  9. Wearable Sweat Rate Sensors for Human Thermal Comfort Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2018-01-19

    We propose watch-type sweat rate sensors capable of automatic natural ventilation by integrating miniaturized thermo-pneumatic actuators, and experimentally verify their performances and applicability. Previous sensors using natural ventilation require manual ventilation process or high-power bulky thermo-pneumatic actuators to lift sweat rate detection chambers above skin for continuous measurement. The proposed watch-type sweat rate sensors reduce operation power by minimizing expansion fluid volume to 0.4 ml through heat circuit modeling. The proposed sensors reduce operation power to 12.8% and weight to 47.6% compared to previous portable sensors, operating for 4 hours at 6 V batteries. Human experiment for thermal comfort monitoring is performed by using the proposed sensors having sensitivity of 0.039 (pF/s)/(g/m 2 h) and linearity of 97.9% in human sweat rate range. Average sweat rate difference for each thermal status measured in three subjects shows (32.06 ± 27.19) g/m 2 h in thermal statuses including 'comfortable', 'slightly warm', 'warm', and 'hot'. The proposed sensors thereby can discriminate and compare four stages of thermal status. Sweat rate measurement error of the proposed sensors is less than 10% under air velocity of 1.5 m/s corresponding to human walking speed. The proposed sensors are applicable for wearable and portable use, having potentials for daily thermal comfort monitoring applications.

  10. REMIT5.1, Radiation exposure monitoring and information transmittal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function - The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) is a PC-based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. Additional information is available from the web page www.reirs.com. REMIT system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Parts 20.1001 through 20.2401 as outlined in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. 2 - Methods - REMIT makes use of the dose conversion factors from EPA Report 11 Limiting Values of Radionuclide Intake and Air Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submission, and Ingestion, to calculate the Committed Dose Equivalent to the maximally exposed organ and the Committed Effective Dose Equivalent from intakes measured in microcuries. REMIT also estimates the amount (in micrograms) of uranium intake from the activity entered in microcuries. This calculation is based on the specific activities of the uranium isotopes. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - None noted

  11. A Review of Human Health and Ecological Risks due to CO2 Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepple, R. P.; Benson, S. M.

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of the human health and ecological consequences of exposure to elevated levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the context of geologic carbon sequestration. The purpose of this effort is to provide a baseline of information to guide future efforts in risk assessment for CO2 sequestration. Scenarios for hazardous CO2 exposure include surface facility leaks, leaks from abandoned or aging wells, and leakage from geologic CO2 storage structures. Amounts of carbon in various reservoirs, systems, and applications were summarized, and the levels of CO2 encountered in nature and everyday life were compared along with physiologically relevant concentrations. Literature pertaining to CO2 occupational exposure limits, regulations, monitoring, and ecological consequences was reviewed. The OSHA, NIOSH, and ACGIH occupational exposure standards are 0.5% CO2 averaged over a 40 hour week, 3% average for a short-term (15 minute) exposure, and 4% as the maximum instantaneous limit considered immediately dangerous to life and health. All three conditions must be satisfied at all times. Any detrimental effects of low-level CO2 exposure are reversible, including the long-term metabolic compensation required by chronic exposure to 3% CO2. Breathing rate doubles at 3% CO2 and is four times the normal rate at 5% CO2. According to occupational exposure and controlled atmosphere research into CO2 toxicology, CO2 is hazardous via direct toxicity at levels above 5%, concentrations not encountered in nature outside of volcanic settings and water-logged soils. Small leaks do not present any danger to people unless the CO2 does not disperse quickly enough through atmospheric mixing but accumulates instead in depressions and confined spaces. These dangers are the result of CO2 being more dense than air. Carbon dioxide is regulated for diverse purposes but never as a toxic substance. Catastrophic incidents involving large amounts and/or rapid release of CO2 such as Lake

  12. A cell kinetic model of granulopoiesis under radiation exposure: Extension from rodents to canines and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    As significant ionising radiation exposure will occur during prolonged space travel in future, it is essential to understand their adverse effects on the radiosensitive organ systems that are important for immediate survival of humans, e.g. the haematopoietic system. In this paper, a bio-mathematical model of granulopoiesis is used to analyse the granulocyte changes seen in the blood of mammalians under acute and continuous radiation exposure. This is one of a set of haematopoietic models that have been successfully utilised to simulate and interpret the experimental data of acute and chronic radiation on rodents. Extension to canine and human systems indicates that the results of the model are consistent with the cumulative experimental and empirical data from various sources, implying the potential to integrate them into one united model system to monitor the haematopoietic response of various species under irradiation. The suppression of granulocytes' level of a space traveller under chronic stress of low-dose irradiation as well as the granulopoietic response when encountering a historically large solar particle event is also discussed. (authors)

  13. Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, Hp(d)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantuzzi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA - Bologna has organised a one day-workshop on the subject: Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, H p (d). The aim of the workshop was the discussion of the new implications and modifications to be expected in the routine individual monitoring of external radiation, due to the issue of the Decree 241/00 (G.U. 31/8/2000) in charge since 01/01/2001. The decree set up in Italian law the standards contained in the European Directive EURATOM 96/29-Basic Standards for the Protection of Health of Workers and the General Public against Dangers arising from Ionizing Radiation. Among others, the definition of the operational quantities for external radiation for personal and environmental monitoring, H p (d) e H * (d) respectively as defined by ICRU (International Commission for Radiation Units and Measurements), requires to update the methods of measurements and calibration of the personal dosemeters and environmental monitors. This report collects the papers presented at the workshop dealing with the Personal Dose Equivalent, H p (d), the conversion coefficients, H p (d)/K a e H p (d)/ , obtained through Monte Carlo calculations published by ICRU and ICRP (International Commission for Radiation Protection), the new calibration procedures and the practical implication in the routine of individual monitoring in terms of H p (d). Eventually, in the last chapter, the answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) are briefly reported [it

  14. Accuracy and practicality of a portable ozone monitor for personal exposure estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Jessica A.; Weisel, Clifford P.; Meng, Qingyu

    2018-02-01

    Accurate measurements of personal exposure to atmospheric pollutants such as ozone are important for understanding health risks. We tested a new personal ozone monitor (POM; 2B Technologies) for accuracy, precision, and ease of use. The POM's measurements were compared to simultaneous ozone measurements from a 2B Model 205 monitor and a ThermoScientific 49i monitor, and multiple POMs were placed side-by-side to check precision. Tests were undertaken in a controlled environmental facility, outdoors, and in a private residence. Additionally, ten volunteers wore a POM for five days and answered a questionnaire about its ease of use. The POM measured ozone accurately compared to the 49i ozone monitor, with average relative differences of less than 8%. In the controlled environment tests, the POM's ozone measurements did not change in the presence of additional atmospheric constituents with similar absorption lines to ozone, though there may have been a small decrease in precision and accuracy. Precision between POMs varied by environment (r2 = 0.98 outdoors; r2 = 0.3 to 0.9 in controlled lab conditions). Volunteers reported that the POM was reasonably comfortable to wear, although all reported that they felt that it was too noisy. Overall, the POM is a viable option for personal ozone monitoring.

  15. Professional exposure of medical workers: radiation levels, radiation risk and personal dose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Guang

    2005-01-01

    The application of radiation in the field of medicine is the most active area. Due to the rapid and strong development of intervention radiology at present near 20 years, particularly, the medical workers become a popularize group which most rapid increasing and also receiving the must high of professional exposure dose. Because, inter alias, radiation protection management nag training have not fully follow up, the aware of radioactive protection and appropriate approach have tot fully meet the development and need, the professional exposure dose received by medical workers, especially those being engaged in intervention radiology, are more higher, as well as have not yet fully receiving the complete personal dose monitoring, the medical workers become the population group which should be paid the most attention to. The writer would advice in this paper that all medical workers who being received a professional radiation exposure should pay more attention to the safety and healthy they by is strengthening radiation protection and receiving complete personal dose monitoring. (authors)

  16. Human erythrocyte electrofusion kinetics monitored by aqueous contents mixing.

    OpenAIRE

    Stenger, D A; Hui, S W

    1988-01-01

    The kinetics of electrically induced fusion of human erythrocyte ghosts were monitored by the Tb/DPA and ANTS/DPX fluorescence fusion assays. Ghosts were aligned by dielectrophoresis using a 3-MHz 350-V/cm alternating field and were fused by single 15- or 50-microseconds electric field pulses of amplitude 2.5-5.0 kV/cm. Fusion was detected immediately after the pulse. The peak fluorescence change due to fusion was always obtained within 7 s of pulse application, and was highest for a 5.0 kV/c...

  17. How committed are we to monitoring human impacts in Antarctica?

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Under the Antarctic Treaty System, environmental monitoring is a legal obligation for signatory nations and an essential tool for managers attempting to minimize local human impacts, but is it given the importance it merits? Antarctica is a vast frozen continent with an area around 1.5 times that of Europe (14 000 000 km2), but the majority of its terrestrial life is found on multiple outcrops or 'islands' of ice-free coastal ground, with a combined area of ~6000 km2, equivalent to four t...

  18. Linking high resolution mass spectrometry data with exposure and toxicity forecasts to advance high-throughput environmental monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen environmental media for suspect contaminants. Measurement and...

  19. Insufficient fluconazole exposure in pediatric cancer patients and the need for therapeutic drug monitoring in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, Kim CM; Pereboom, Marieke; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Kosterink, Jos G W; Scholvinck, Elisabeth H.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fluconazole is recommended as first-line treatment in invasive candidiasis in children and infants. Although timely achievement of adequate exposure of fluconazole improves outcome, therapeutic drug monitoring is currently not recommended. Methods. We conducted a retrospective study of

  20. Computational strategy for quantifying human pesticide exposure based upon a saliva measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Charles; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Jordan N.

    2015-05-27

    The National Research Council of the National Academies report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy, highlighted the importance of quantitative exposure data for evaluating human toxicity risk and noted that biomonitoring is a critical tool for quantitatively evaluating exposure from both environmental and occupational settings. Direct measurement of chemical exposures using personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true exposure, and non-invasive methods have also been advocated for quantifying the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of drugs and xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are readily cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach.. The current manuscript describes the use of computational modeling approaches that are closely coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva is thought to involve paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or trancellular active transport with the majority of drugs and xenobiotics cleared from plasma into saliva by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computational modeled using a combination of compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of a modified Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis of key model parameters specifically identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases) had the most significant impact on the determination of partitioning and that there were clear species dependent differences based upon physiological variance between

  1. A changing climate: impacts on human exposures to O3 using an integrated modeling methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predicting the impacts of changing climate on human exposure to air pollution requires future scenarios that account for changes in ambient pollutant concentrations, population sizes and distributions, and housing stocks. An integrated methodology to model changes in human exposu...

  2. Human biological monitoring as demonstrated by means of a heavy-metal polluted abandoned site; Human-Biomonitoring am Beispiel einer Schwermetallaltlast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elison, M; Schulte-Hostede, S [GSF-Forschungzentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    Models for estimating exposure permit to make a rough assessment of the risk emanating from a contaminated area. But it must not be overlooked that such models are fraught with considerable weaknesses.- In studies such as the one described, concerned citizens should additionally be examined in order to obtain supplementary information and to aid interpretation. Such human biological monitoring makes sense only if the persons in question actually live in the contaminated areas, so that a higher exposure may reasonably be expected. Human biological monitoring is to help assess the inner exposure of human beings to pollutants emanating from the contaminated area. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von Modellen zur Expositionsabschaetzung ist man nach den oben dargestellten Vorgehensweisen in der Lage, eine orientierende Bewertung des von einer kontaminierten Flaeche ausgehenden Risikos vorzunehmen. Dabei ist jedoch zu beruecksichtigen, dass solche Modelle mit erheblichen Schwachstellen belastet sind. Zur Ergaenzung und Interpretationshilfe sind bei Untersuchungen wie der hier vorgestellten auch Untersuchungen an den betroffenen Buergen vorzunehmen. Dieses Human-Biomonitoring hat nur dort einen Sinn, wo sichergestellt ist, dass die Menschen dort tatsaechlich auf belasteten Flaechen leben und damit eine erhoehte Belastung der Menschen anzunehmen ist. Das Human-Biomonitoring soll eine Abschaetzung der inneren Belastung des Menschen mit Schadstoffen, die von der kontaminierten Flaeche herruehren, ermoeglichen. (orig./SR)

  3. Human biological monitoring as demonstrated by means of a heavy-metal polluted abandoned site; Human-Biomonitoring am Beispiel einer Schwermetallaltlast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elison, M.; Schulte-Hostede, S. [GSF-Forschungzentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Models for estimating exposure permit to make a rough assessment of the risk emanating from a contaminated area. But it must not be overlooked that such models are fraught with considerable weaknesses.- In studies such as the one described, concerned citizens should additionally be examined in order to obtain supplementary information and to aid interpretation. Such human biological monitoring makes sense only if the persons in question actually live in the contaminated areas, so that a higher exposure may reasonably be expected. Human biological monitoring is to help assess the inner exposure of human beings to pollutants emanating from the contaminated area. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von Modellen zur Expositionsabschaetzung ist man nach den oben dargestellten Vorgehensweisen in der Lage, eine orientierende Bewertung des von einer kontaminierten Flaeche ausgehenden Risikos vorzunehmen. Dabei ist jedoch zu beruecksichtigen, dass solche Modelle mit erheblichen Schwachstellen belastet sind. Zur Ergaenzung und Interpretationshilfe sind bei Untersuchungen wie der hier vorgestellten auch Untersuchungen an den betroffenen Buergen vorzunehmen. Dieses Human-Biomonitoring hat nur dort einen Sinn, wo sichergestellt ist, dass die Menschen dort tatsaechlich auf belasteten Flaechen leben und damit eine erhoehte Belastung der Menschen anzunehmen ist. Das Human-Biomonitoring soll eine Abschaetzung der inneren Belastung des Menschen mit Schadstoffen, die von der kontaminierten Flaeche herruehren, ermoeglichen. (orig./SR)

  4. Contribution of various microenvironments to the daily personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Personal monitoring coupled with GPS tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Olsen, Yulia; Schipperijn, Jasper; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Toftum, Jørn; Loft, Steffen; Clausen, Geo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) may have adverse health effects. Central monitoring stations do not represent the personal exposure to UFP accurately. Few studies have previously focused on personal exposure to UFP. Sixty non-smoking residents living in Copenhagen, Denmark were asked to carry a backpack equipped with a portable monitor, continuously recording particle number concentrations (PN), in order to measure the real-time individual exposure over a period of ˜48 h. A GPS logger was carried along with the particle monitor and allowed us to estimate the contribution of UFP exposure occurring in various microenvironments (residence, during active and passive transport, other indoor and outdoor environments) to the total daily exposure. On average, the fractional contribution of each microenvironment to the daily integrated personal exposure roughly corresponded to the fractions of the day the subjects spent in each microenvironment. The home environment accounted for 50% of the daily personal exposure. Indoor environments other than home or vehicles contributed with ˜40%. The highest median UFP concentration was obtained during passive transport (vehicles). However, being in transit or outdoors contributed 5% or less to the daily exposure. Additionally, the subjects recorded in a diary the periods when they were at home. With this approach, 66% of the total daily exposure was attributable to the home environment. The subjects spent 28% more time at home according to the diary, compared to the GPS. These results may indicate limitations of using diaries, but also possible inaccuracy and miss-classification in the GPS data.

  5. Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers at production area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Yang, Congqiao; Hu, Jicheng; Liu, Weizhi; Cui, Jian

    2010-05-01

    The concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in air and aquatic products in PBDEs production areas which are located at the south coast area of Laizhou Bay, Shandong province, China in this study. Concentrations of SigmaPBDEs in the air ranged from 0.47 ng/m3 to 161 ng/m3. In aquatic products, concentrations of SigmaPBDEs ranged from 2.7 ng/g wet weight to 42 ng/g wet weight. The mean dietary intake of SigmaPBDEs via aquatic products consumption in this study was 218 ng/day. Daily intake of SigmaPBDEs via inhalation in this study was 612 ng for men and 455 ng for women. With a contribution of 80%, BDE-209 was predominant in the total intake. Dietary intake and breathing inhalation contributed 29 and 71%, respectively, to the total PBDEs intake. The results indicate that breathing inhalation also plays a very significant pathway for the population of the PBDEs production area. Compared with similar studies in other countries, human exposure to PBDEs via diet and inhalation in this study was the highest in the world. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  6. Risk Exposure and Net Flow in Investment Funds: Do Shareholders Monitor Asset Allocation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of asset allocation on the net flow of fixed income funds in the Brazilian market, by exploiting the exogenous variation in the risk perception of bank liabilities (CDs caused by the financial turmoil that followed Lehman Brothers’ demise in September 2008. The central hypothesis is that the exposure to assets negatively affected by the crisis impacts negatively the fund’s net flow. We find that, for mutual funds, the larger proportion of assets negatively affected by the crisis the larger the net outflow of resources, indicating that shareholders monitor asset allocation and exert disciplining power on fund managers by withdrawing their resources. In exclusive (fundos exclusivos, i.e., funds with a single shareholder, for which the shareholder is presumed to exert more influence on asset reallocation, we find no significant relationship between the exposure to assets negatively affected by the crisis and net flows.

  7. Individual monitoring of internal exposure to uranium oxides in two fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdeix, F.; Achiary, J.; Berard, P.

    1989-01-01

    Individual monitoring of personal exposure to inhalation of uranium oxides throughout the manufacture of fuel for pressurized water reactor (PWR) includes lung gamma-spectrometry, fecal analysis and urine analysis. Examination of the results shows the following: internal exposure is the consequence of repeated intake incidents as revealed by early peaks of urinary and particularly fecal elimination; a shift is often observed with the results of aerosol concentration measured through air collectors; the measured variations of uranium lung incorporations are relatively fast (apparent mean period 165 d). Correct evaluation of the effective dose equivalent from inhalation requires further information concerning the aerosol size distribution at work stations, the physico-chemical characteristics of the product leading to an estimate of its actual biological solubility, and the measurement of the fraction of aerosol liable to intake with an individual portable collector [fr

  8. Smart sensor systems for human health breath monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G W; Xu, J C; Biaggi-Labiosa, A M; Laskowski, D; Dutta, P K; Mondal, S P; Ward, B J; Makel, D B; Liu, C C; Chang, C W; Dweik, R A

    2011-09-01

    Breath analysis techniques offer a potential revolution in health care diagnostics, especially if these techniques can be brought into standard use in the clinic and at home. The advent of microsensors combined with smart sensor system technology enables a new generation of sensor systems with significantly enhanced capabilities and minimal size, weight and power consumption. This paper discusses the microsensor/smart sensor system approach and provides a summary of efforts to migrate this technology into human health breath monitoring applications. First, the basic capability of this approach to measure exhaled breath associated with exercise physiology is demonstrated. Building from this foundation, the development of a system for a portable asthma home health care system is described. A solid-state nitric oxide (NO) sensor for asthma monitoring has been identified, and efforts are underway to miniaturize this NO sensor technology and integrate it into a smart sensor system. It is concluded that base platform microsensor technology combined with smart sensor systems can address the needs of a range of breath monitoring applications and enable new capabilities for healthcare.

  9. Elemental analysis of lichen bioaccumulators before exposure as transplants in air pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Cercasov, V.

    2003-01-01

    Lichen transplants from relatively unpolluted sites are successfully used as heavy metal bioaccumulators for long-term air pollution monitoring. Significant element accumulations are generally revealed after 6 to 12 months of exposure. The main objective of this interdisciplinary research is to get a low-price survey of the air pollution level in some critical areas of Romania by nuclear and atomic analytical methods, based on the element accumulating property of transplanted lichens. The lichen species Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea collected from the Prealps, northeast Italy, have been selected for this study. Experimental setup for standardized lichen exposure needs special plastic frames ('little traps': 15 · 15 · 1.5 cm, with 1cm 2 mesh) which are fixed horizontally on stainless steel posts at about 1.5 m above the ground. Prior to exposure, the lichen material is cleansed of some vegetal impurities and then shortly washed using de-ionised water. The initial (zero-level) contents of lichens were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRFA) methods. INAA was carried out at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest (IFIN) and while EDXRFA at the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart. The investigated elements were: As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, V and Zn. From among them, Cd, Co and Sb can be determined only by INAA and ICP-MS, Pb only by EDXRFA and PIXE, and S only by EDXRFA. A statistical intercomparison of the results allowed a good quality control of the used analytical methods for these specific matrices. This work was supported in part by European Commission Center of Excellence Project ICA1-CT-2000-70023: IDRANAP (Inter-Disciplinary Research and Applications based on Nuclear and Atomic Physics), Work Package 2 (Air pollution monitoring by sampling airborne particulate matter combined with lichen bioaccumulator exposure

  10. Routine individual monitoring of aircraft crew exposure; Czech experience and results 1998-2008

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malušek, Alexandr; Ploc, Ondřej; Kovář, Ivan; Brabcová, Kateřina; Spurný, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 144, 1-4 (2011), s. 684-687 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0171 Grant - others:Evropské společenství ILSRA(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 $c; JSPS(JP) P09753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : aircraft * crew exposure * monitoring Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.822, year: 2011

  11. Ionizing radiations and health. Exposures, epidemiological surveillance and sociological monitoring measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spira, Alfred; Boutou, Odile

    1999-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the epidemiological effect of natural and artificial ionizing radiation exposures on man. It describes ionizing radiation sources from nuclear facilities and medical establishments. The case here is in the region of La Hague in France where 4800 employees are exposed to ionizing radiations. The topic of leukemia research and thyroid studies for children in the region are discussed. The impact of radiations on fertility, life quality is covered. Finally, national propositions to establish a monitoring measurement system is also discussed including the personnel and the general population exposed

  12. Reference values and their application to the monitoring of occupational exposure to natural uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    Natural uranium compounds, which enter the oxide fuel cycle offer physico-chemical characteristics dependent on their structure and their production process. These characteristics govern their biological behaviour and the degree of their radioactive and chemical toxicity. The monitoring of workers occupationnally exposed to these compounds is carried out by bioassays; in order to get the best interpretation, the resulting data must be compared to reference values. These values must be closely related to the type of contaminant and the real exposure conditions. In this report, the occupational medicine services working group has examined the possibilities of obtaining such reference values and suggests recommendations and operational values covering most situations found in routine monitoring [fr

  13. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J; Hughes, Michael F; O'Lone, Raegan B; Robison, Steven H; Schnatter, A Robert

    2013-02-01

    Abstract A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m(3)), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10(-5) excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m(3)). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

  14. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J.; Hughes, Michael F.; O’Lone, Raegan B.; Robison, Steven H.; Robert Schnatter, A.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of “Common Criteria” (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m3), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10−5 excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m3). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects. PMID:23346981

  15. Porphyrin metabolisms in human skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes bacteria: potential application to monitor human radiation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, M; Kuo, S; Wang, Y; Jiang, Y; Liu, Y-T; Gallo, R L; Huang, C-M

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, is a commensal organism in human skin. Like human cells, the bacteria produce porphyrins, which exhibit fluorescence properties and make bacteria visible with a Wood's lamp. In this review, we compare the porphyrin biosynthesis in humans and P. acnes. Also, since P. acnes living on the surface of skin receive the same radiation exposure as humans, we envision that the changes in porphyrin profiles (the absorption spectra and/or metabolism) of P. acnes by radiation may mirror the response of human cells to radiation. The porphyrin profiles of P. acnes may be a more accurate reflection of radiation risk to the patient than other biodosimeters/biomarkers such as gene up-/down-regulation, which may be non-specific due to patient related factors such as autoimmune diseases. Lastly, we discuss the challenges and possible solutions for using the P. acnes response to predict the radiation risk.

  16. HExpoChem: a systems biology resource to explore human exposure to chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Kalhauge, Christian Gram

    2013-01-01

    of computational biology approaches are needed to assess the health risks of chemical exposure. Here we present HExpoChem, a tool based on environmental chemicals and their bioactivities on human proteins with the objective of aiding the qualitative exploration of human exposure to chemicals. The chemical...

  17. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds and human semen quality in Arctic and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, G; Jönsson, B A G; Lindh, C H

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been suspected to adversely affect human reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between PFC exposure and male semen quality.......Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been suspected to adversely affect human reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between PFC exposure and male semen quality....

  18. Mobile Monitoring of Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure within Five Urban Microenvironments, Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, P. J.; Bennett, B. A.; George, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a hazardous air pollutant linked to mortality and morbidity outcomes including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and adverse respiratory effects. The EPA's Air Toxics Assessment indicated that more than 50% of Oregonians are exposed to 10 times the ambient benchmark concentration (ABC) of 0.1 μgm-3 for DPM. These model estimates have not been verified with measurements, potentially limiting policy action. We developed a mobile monitoring platform to ground-truth model predictions and characterize DPM spatial variation. Using black carbon (BC) as a marker, concentrations within five urban microenvironments (a construction site, an arterial, a bus mall, a city park, and an indoor workspace) were sampled within Portland, OR. The mobile monitoring platform consisted of a bicycle and trailer equipped with an aethalometer measuring BC mass, a Data Ram 4 measuring total PM2.5 mass, and a Q-Starz GPS recording location; each instrument was monitoring in 1 second intervals. Concentrations of BC were used as an indicator of DPM. The construction site had the highest DPM concentration (7 μg m-3). The indoor workspace and the park had the lowest DPM (0.3 μg m-3). Near the construction site, DPM constituted approximately 50% of the total PM2.5. However, at the park, DPM was attributed to only 6% of the total PM2.5, while the indoor space constituted 15%. Concentrations of BC near construction sites were observed to exceed 67 times the state ABC of 0.1 μg m-3 (Figure). These results signify the need to better characterize the urban exposure to DPM, as even the cleanest microenvironments may be 3 times above the ABC. Our mobile monitoring platform will help further elucidate how local-scale sources contribute to the broader distribution of DPM within Portland, while providing a tool for both residents and DEQ to effectively mitigate the health impacts from DPM exposure.

  19. Evaluation of eleven years of area monitoring in ore treatment unit: I external exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S.; Py Junior, D.A.; Oliveira, S.Q. de; Dantas, M.V.A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Pereira, J.R.S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is an uranium mining and milling complex deactivated in 1995 that operated monazite during the years 2004 and 2005 in a plant used especially for that purpose called Chemical Treatment of Monazite (CTM). This study aims to analyze the monitoring of area to exposure rate from 2002 to 2012, comparing periods of suspended operation of OTU and identifying the influences of CTM and of the radioactive waste deposit, from other facilities of OTU. A total of 22,294 samples were analyzed for area dose rates; average values were obtained of 6.74 μSv h{sup -1} with an amplitude from 0 to 420 μSv h{sup -1}. 92% of the monitoring were below the derivative limit for workers, and 1,702 monitoring samples showed values above this limit. Ignoring the monitoring that was realized at CTM and at the deposit of radioactive waste, the number of monitoring samples were reduced to 1,341. In this case, the average reduces to 0.96 μSv h{sup -1}, going from 0 to 25 μSv h{sup -1}, only 15 samples remained above the threshold for workers and 675 samples were below the limit for individual public. It can be concluded that the OTU is an installation with nearly 99% of monitoring area safe for workers and 50% for individual public. The inclusion of new practices (CTM) and the deposit of radioactive waste coming from other facilities alter this picture dramatically, increased the dose rates. (author)

  20. Cytogenetic adaptive response induced by pre-exposure in human lymphocytes and marrow cells of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lianzhen; Deng Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    The cytogenetic adaptive response induced by pre-exposure in human lymphocytes and marrow cells of mice were studied. The results of this study showed that human lymphocytes in vitro and mouse marrow cells in vivo can become adapted to low-level irradiation from 3 H-TdR or exposure to a low dose of X-or γ-irradiation, so that they become less sensitive to the chromosomal damage effects of subsequent exposures. (4 tabs.)

  1. Human Rights Engagement and Exposure: New Scales to Challenge Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jane; Abell, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Advancing human rights is a core competency of U.S. social work education; yet, human rights attitudes and behaviors have never been measured in the social work literature. Thus, this article describes the development and initial validation of two scales, Human Rights Engagement in Social Work (HRESW) and Human Rights Exposure in…

  2. Reconstruction of human exposure to heavy metals using synchrotron radiation microbeams in prehistoric and modern humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Akio; Azechi, Miki; Shirasawa, Koyo

    2009-01-01

    Teeth can serve as records of environmental exposure to heavy metals during their formation. We applied a new technology - synchrotron radiation microbeams (SRXRF) - for analysis of heavy metals in human permanent teeth in modern and historical samples. Each tooth was cut in half. A longitudinal section 200 μm in thickness was subjected to the determination of the heavy metal content by SRXRF or conventional analytical methods (ICP-MS analysis or reduction-aeration atomic absorption spectrometry). The relative concentrations of Pb, Hg, Cu and Zn measured by SRXRF were translated in concentrations (in g of heavy metal/g of enamel) using calibration curves by the two analytical methods. Concentrations in teeth in the modern females (n=5) were 1.2±0.5 μg/g (n=5) for Pb; 1.7±0.2 ng/g for Hg; 0.9±1.1 μg/g for Cu; 150±24.6 μg/g for Zn. The levels of Pb were highest in the teeth samples obtained from the humans of the Edo era (1603-1868 AD) (0.5-4.0 μg/g, n=4). No trend was observed in this study in the Hg content in teeth during 3,000 years. The concentrations of Cu were highest in teeth of two medieval craftsmen (57.0 and 220 μg/g). The levels of Zn were higher in modern subjects (P<0.05) than those in the Jomon (∼1000 BC) to Edo periods [113.2±27.4 (μg/g, n=11)]. Reconstruction of developmental exposure history to lead in a famous court painter of the Edo period (18th century) revealed high levels of Pb (7.1-22.0 μg/g) in his childhood. SRXRF is useful a method for reconstructing human exposures in very long trends. (author)

  3. A margin-of-exposure approach to assessment of noncancer risks of dioxins based on human exposure and response data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Lesa L; Goodman, Julie E; Charnley, Gail; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

    2008-10-01

    Risk assessment of human environmental exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) and other dioxin-like compounds is complicated by several factors, including limitations in measuring intakes because of the low concentrations of these compounds in foods and the environment and interspecies differences in pharmacokinetics and responses. We examined the feasibility of relying directly on human studies of exposure and potential responses to PCDD/PCDFs and related compounds in terms of measured lipid-adjusted concentrations to assess margin of exposure (MOE) in a quantitative, benchmark dose (BMD)-based framework using representative exposure and selected response data sets. We characterize estimated central tendency and upper-bound general U.S. population lipid-adjusted concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs from the 1970s and early 2000s based on available data sets. Estimates of benchmark concentrations for three example responses of interest (induction of cytochrome P4501A2 activity, dental anomalies, and neonatal thyroid hormone alterations) were derived based on selected human studies. The exposure data sets indicate that current serum lipid concentrations in young adults are approximately 6- to 7-fold lower than 1970s-era concentrations. Estimated MOEs for each end point based on current serum lipid concentrations range from 100 for dental anomalies-approximately 6-fold greater than would have existed during the 1970s. Human studies of dioxin exposure and outcomes can be used in a BMD framework for quantitative assessments of MOE. Incomplete exposure characterization can complicate the use of such studies in a BMD framework.

  4. A review of urban air pollution monitoring and exposure assessment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xingzhe; Semanjski, Ivana; Gautama, Sidharta; Tsiligianni, Evaggelia; Deligiannis, Nikos; Rajan, Raj; Pasveer, Frank; Philips, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    The impact of urban air pollution on the environments and human health has drawn increasing concerns from researchers, policymakers and citizens. To reduce the negative health impact, it is of great importance to measure the air pollution at high spatial resolution in a timely manner. Traditionally, air pollution is measured using dedicated instruments at fixed monitoring stations, which are placed sparsely in urban areas. With the development of low-cost micro-scale sensing technology in the...

  5. Comparing personal alpha dosimetry with the conventional area monitoring-time weighting methods of exposure estimation: a Canadian assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, A.B.; Viljoen, J.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental personal alpha dosimetry program for monitoring exposures of uranium mining facility workers in Canada has been completed. All licenced operating mining facilities were participating. Dosimetry techniques, description of dosimeters used by licences, performance and problems associated with the implementation of the programme as well as technical and administrative advantages and difficulties experienced are discussed. Area monitoring-time weighting methods used and results obtained to determine individual radon and thoron daughter exposure and exposure results generated by using dosimeters are assessed and compared

  6. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1: pathways of exposure at the animal-human interface, a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D Van Kerkhove

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threat posed by highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses to humans remains significant, given the continued occurrence of sporadic human cases (499 human cases in 15 countries with a high case fatality rate (approximately 60%, the endemicity in poultry populations in several countries, and the potential for reassortment with the newly emerging 2009 H1N1 pandemic strain. Therefore, we review risk factors for H5N1 infection in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Several epidemiologic studies have evaluated the risk factors associated with increased risk of H5N1 infection among humans who were exposed to H5N1 viruses. Our review shows that most H5N1 cases are attributed to exposure to sick poultry. Most cases are sporadic, while occasional limited human-to-human transmission occurs. The most commonly identified factors associated with H5N1 virus infection included exposure through contact with infected blood or bodily fluids of infected poultry via food preparation practices; touching and caring for infected poultry; [corrected] exposure to H5N1 via swimming or bathing in potentially virus laden ponds; and exposure to H5N1 at live bird markets. CONCLUSIONS: Research has demonstrated that despite frequent and widespread contact with poultry, transmission of the H5N1 virus from poultry to humans is rare. Available research has identified several risk factors that may be associated with infection including close direct contact with poultry and transmission via the environment. However, several important data gaps remain that limit our understanding of the epidemiology of H5N1 in humans. Although infection in humans with H5N1 remains rare, human cases continue to be reported and H5N1 is now considered endemic among poultry in parts of Asia and in Egypt, providing opportunities for additional human infections and for the acquisition of virus mutations that may lead to more efficient spread among humans and other mammalian species

  7. Monitoring human papillomavirus prevalence in urine samples: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enerly E

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Espen Enerly, Cecilia Olofsson, Mari NygårdDepartment of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer, and many countries now offer vaccination against HPV to girls by way of government-funded national immunization programs. Monitoring HPV prevalence in adolescents could offer a near-term biological measure of vaccine impact, and urine sampling may be an attractive large-scale method that could be used for this purpose. Our objective was to provide an overview of the literature on HPV DNA detection in urine samples, with an emphasis on adolescents. We searched the PubMed database using the terms “HPV” and “urine” and identified 21 female and 14 male study populations in which HPV prevalence in urine samples was reported, four of which included only asymptomatic female adolescents. We provide herein an overview of the recruitment setting, age, urine sampling procedure, lesion type, HPV assay, and HPV prevalence in urine samples and other urogenital samples for the studies included in this review. In female study populations, concordance for any HPV type and type-specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples are provided in addition to sensitivity and specificity. We concluded that few studies on HPV prevalence in urine samples have been performed in asymptomatic female adolescent populations but that urine samples may be a useful alternative to cervical samples to monitor changes in HPV prevalence in females in the post-HPV vaccination era. However, care should be taken when extrapolating HPV findings from urine samples to the cervix. In males, urine samples do not seem to be optimal for monitoring HPV prevalence due to a low human genomic DNA content and HPV DNA detection rate compared to other urogenital sites. In each situation the costs and benefits of HPV DNA detection in urine compared to alternative monitoring options should be carefully

  8. Candidate gene biodosimeters of mice and human exposure to ionizing radiation by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Rezaeejam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of cellular responses to ionizing radiation (IR is essential for the development of predictive markers useful for assessing human exposure. Biological markers of exposure to IR in human populations are of great interest for assessing normal tissue injury in radiation oncology and for biodosimetry in nuclear incidents and accidental radiation exposures. Traditional radiation exposure biomarkers based on cytogenetic assays (biodosimetry, are time-consuming and do not provide results fast enough and requires highly trained personnel for scoring. Hence, the development of rapid biodosimetry methods is one of the highest priorities. Exposure of cells to IR activates multiple signal transduction pathways, which result in complex alterations in gene-expression. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR has become the benchmark for the detection and quantification of RNA targets and is being utilized increasingly in monitoring the specific genes with more accurately and sensitively. This review evaluates the RT-qPCR as a biodosimetry method and we investigated the papers from 2000 up to now, which identified the genes-expression related the DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoint, and apoptosis induced by ionization radiation in peripheral blood and determined as biodosimeters. In conclusion, it could be say that RT-qPCR technique for determining the specific genes as biodosimeters could be a fully quantitative reliable and sensitive method. Furthermore, the results of the current review will help the researchers to recognize the most expressed genes induced by ionization radiation.

  9. The use of bio-monitoring to assess exposure in the electroplating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Helen; Keen, Chris; Coldwell, Matthew; Tan, Emma; Morton, Jackie; McAlinden, John; Smith, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Workers in the electroplating industry are potentially exposed to a range of hazardous substances including nickel and hexavalent chromium (chromium VI) compounds. These can cause serious health effects, including cancer, asthma and dermatitis. This research aimed to investigate whether repeat biological monitoring (BM) over time could drive sustainable improvements in exposure control in the industry. BM was performed on multiple occasions over 3 years, at 53 electroplating companies in Great Britain. Surface and dermal contamination was also measured, and controls were assessed. Air monitoring was undertaken on repeat visits where previous BM results were of concern. There were significant reductions in urinary nickel and chromium levels over the lifetime of this work in the subset of companies where initially, control deficiencies were more significant. Increased risk awareness following provision of direct feedback to individual workers and targeted advice to companies is likely to have contributed to these reductions. This study has shown that exposures to chromium VI and nickel in the electroplating industry occur via a combination of inhalation, dermal and ingestion routes. Surface contamination found in areas such as canteens highlights the potential for transferral from work areas, and the importance of a regular cleaning regime.

  10. Radiation protection at workplaces with increased natural radiation exposure in Greece: recording, monitoring and protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiriadis, C.; Koukoliou, V.

    2002-01-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the regulatory, advisory and competent authority on radiation protection matters. It is the authority responsible for the introduction of Radiation Protection regulations and monitoring of their implementation. In 1997, within the frame of its responsibilities the Board of the GAEC appointed a task group of experts to revise and bring the present Radiation Protection Regulations into line with the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) 96/29/Euratom Directive and the 97/43/Euratom Directive (on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure). Concerning the Title 7. of the new European BSS Directive, which refers to the Radiation Protection at work places with increased levels of natural radiation exposure, the Radiation Protection Regulations provides that the authority responsible for recording, monitoring and introducing protection measures at these places is the GAEC. Practices where effective doses to the workers due to increased natural radiation levels, may exceed 1mSv/y, have to be specified and authorised by the GAEC. The identification procedure is ongoing

  11. Physiological responses to exposure to carbon dioxide and human bioeffluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Present paper describes physiological responses as a result of exposures to CO2 (between 500 ppm to 3,000 ppm) with and without bioeffluents. Twenty-five subjects participated. They were exposed in the climate chamber for 255 minutes in groups of five at a time. During exposure, they performed di...

  12. Risk of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanxin; Li, Qi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xilong; Ren, Aiguo; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause adverse effects on human health. The relative contributions of their two major intake routes (diet and inhalation) to population PAH exposure are still unclear. We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to the overall PAH exposure of the population of Beijing in China, and assessed their human incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) using a Mont Carlo simulation approach. The results showed that diet accounted for about 85% of low-molecular-weight PAH (L-PAH) exposure, while inhalation accounted for approximately 57% of high-molecular-weight PAH (H-PAH) exposure of the Beijing population. Meat and cereals were the main contributors to dietary PAH exposure. Both gaseous- and particulate-phase PAHs contributed to L-PAH exposure through inhalation, whereas exposure to H-PAHs was mostly from the particulate-phase. To reduce the cancer incidence of the Beijing population, more attention should be given to inhaled particulate-phase PAHs with considerable carcinogenic potential. - Highlights: • We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to population PAH exposure. • Diet contributed 85% of population exposure to low molecular-weight PAHs. • Inhalation contributed 57% of population exposure to high molecular-weight PAHs. • The PAH exposure level with body-weight adjustment decreased with age increasing. • The population cancer risk of PAH exposure is lower than the serious risk level. - The exposure of the Beijing population to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was mainly from inhaled particulate matter

  13. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150–200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. - Highlights: • Predictions of trace metal concentration use geographically weighted regression • Human health risk

  14. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Alamdar, Ambreen [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Katsoyiannis, Ioannis [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry, Division of Chemical Technology, Box 116, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Shen, Heqing [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ali, Nadeem [Department of Environmental Sciences, FBAS, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Syeda Maria [Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Bokhari, Habib [Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Schäfer, Ralf B. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah, E-mail: ali_ebl2@yahoo.com [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150–200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. - Highlights: • Predictions of trace metal concentration use geographically weighted regression • Human health risk

  15. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, Sahoko [Mie University, Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies (Japan); Li, Weihua [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Omura, Seiichi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Fujitani, Yuji [National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Hiraku, Yusuke [Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine (Japan); Hisanaga, Naomi [Aichi Gakusen University, Faculty of Human Science and Design (Japan); Wakai, Kenji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine (Japan); Ding, Xuncheng [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Kobayashi, Takahiro, E-mail: takakoba@airies.or.jp [Association for International Research Initiatives for Environmental Studies (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku, E-mail: gak@rs.tus.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO{sub 2} particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N–N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/−) or percentage of RR 50+/− that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58–30.8 mg/m{sup 3} during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m{sup 3}). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO{sub 2} particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  16. Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses to Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - Implications for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2018-01-01

    New initiatives to send humans to Mars within the next few decades are illustrative of the resurgence of interest in space travel. However, as with all exploration, there are risks. The Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts.

  17. Oral Fluid vs. Urine Analysis to Monitor Synthetic Cannabinoids and Classic Drugs Recent Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Vincent; Wetzel, Jillian; Kim, Jiyoung; Haxhi, Petrit; Curtis, Richard; Concheiro, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Urine is a common biological sample to monitor recent drug exposure, and oral fluid is an alternative matrix of increasing interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. Limited data are available about oral fluid vs. urine drug disposition, especially for synthetic cannabinoids. To compare urine and oral fluid as biological matrices to monitor recent drug exposure among HIV-infected homeless individuals. Seventy matched urine and oral fluid samples were collected from 13 participants. Cannabis, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine and opiates were analyzed in urine by the enzyme-multipliedimmunoassay- technique and in oral fluid by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Eleven synthetic cannabinoids were analyzed in urine and in oral fluid by LC-MSMS. Five oral fluid samples were positive for AB-FUBINACA. In urine, 4 samples tested positive for synthetic cannabinoids PB-22, 5-Fluoro-PB-22, AB-FUBINACA, and metabolites UR-144 5-pentanoic acid and UR-144 4-hydroxypentyl. In only one case, oral fluid and urine results matched, both specimens being AB-FUBINACA positive. For cannabis, 40 samples tested positive in urine and 30 in oral fluid (85.7% match). For cocaine, 37 urine and 52 oral fluid samples were positive (75.7% match). Twenty-four urine samples were positive for opiates, and 25 in oral fluid (81.4% match). For benzodiazepines, 23 samples were positive in urine and 25 in oral fluid (85.7% match). These results offer new information about drugs disposition between urine and oral fluid. Oral fluid is a good alternative matrix to urine for monitoring cannabis, cocaine, opiates and benzodiazepines recent use; however, synthetic cannabinoids showed mixed results. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Inter-comparison of personal monitors for nanoparticles exposure at workplaces and in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Ana Maria; Beckmann, Stefanie; Kaminski, Heinz; Bard, Delphine; Bau, Sébastien; Clavaguera, Simon; Dahmann, Dirk; Dozol, Hélène; Dziurowitz, Nico; Elihn, Karine; Fierz, Martin; Lidén, Göran; Meyer-Plath, Asmus; Monz, Christian; Neumann, Volker; Pelzer, Johannes; Simonow, Barbara Katrin; Thali, Patrick; Tuinman, Ilse; van der Vleuten, Arjan; Vroomen, Huub; Asbach, Christof

    2017-12-15

    Personal monitors based on unipolar diffusion charging (miniDiSC/DiSCmini, NanoTracer, Partector) can be used to assess the individual exposure to nanoparticles in different environments. The charge acquired by the aerosol particles is nearly proportional to the particle diameter and, by coincidence, also nearly proportional to the alveolar lung-deposited surface area (LDSA), the metric reported by all three instruments. In addition, the miniDiSC/DiSCmini and the NanoTracer report particle number concentration and mean particle size. In view of their use for personal exposure studies, the comparability of these personal monitors was assessed in two measurement campaigns. Altogether 29 different polydisperse test aerosols were generated during the two campaigns, covering a large range of particle sizes, morphologies and concentrations. The data provided by the personal monitors were compared with those obtained from reference instruments: a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for LDSA and mean particle size and a ultrafine particle counter (UCPC) for number concentration. The results indicated that the LDSA concentrations and the mean particle sizes provided by all investigated instruments in this study were in the order of ±30% of the reference value obtained from the SMPS when the particle sizes of the test aerosols generated were within 20-400nm and the instruments were properly calibrated. Particle size, morphology and concentration did not have a major effect within the aforementioned limits. The comparability of the number concentrations was found to be slightly worse and in the range of ±50% of the reference value obtained from the UCPC. In addition, a minor effect of the particle morphology on the number concentration measurements was observed. The presence of particles >400nm can drastically bias the measurement results of all instruments and all metrics determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A flexible matrix-based human exposure assessment framework suitable for LCA and CAA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Ernstoff, Alexi; Huang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    are not applicable to all types of near-field chemical releases from consumer products, e.g. direct dermal application. A consistent near-and far-field framework is needed for life cycle assessment (LCA) and chemical alternative assessment (CAA) to inform mitigation of human exposure to harmful chemicals. To close......Humans can be exposed to chemicals via near-field exposure pathways (e.g. through consumer product use) and far-field exposure pathways (e.g. through environmental emissions along product life cycles). Pathways are often complex where chemicals can transfer directly from products to humans during...... use or exchange between near-and far-field compartments until sub -fractions reach humans via inhalation, ingestion or dermal uptake. Currently, however, multimedia exposure models mainly focus on far-field exposure pathways. Metrics and modeling approaches used in far-field, emission-based models...

  20. Climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an abstract for a presentations at the Annual Conference of the International Society on Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. This presentation will serve as an introduction to the symposium.

  1. Campylobacter fetus infections in humans : exposure and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Blaser, Martin J; Tauxe, Robert V; Newell, Diane G; van Putten, Jos P M

    Campylobacter fetus can cause intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections. Infections mainly affect persons at higher risk, including elderly and immunocompromised individuals and those with occupational exposure to infected animals. Outbreaks are infrequent but have provided

  2. Dosimetric significance of cytogenetic examinations in human accidental over exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doloy-Biola, M.T.; Lego, R.; Ducatez, G.; Lepetit, J.; Bourguignon, M.

    1975-01-01

    The damage to 13 workers following accidental exposures was assessed from lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations, and the results compared with those supplied by physical dosimetry and the clinical syndromes [fr

  3. Human dermal absorption of chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants; implications for human exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Mohamed, E-mail: mae_abdallah@yahoo.co.uk [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut (Egypt); Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-1,3-dichloropropyl phosphate (TDCIPP) are organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) widely applied in a plethora of consumer products despite their carcinogenic potential. Human dermal absorption of these PFRs is investigated for the first time using human ex vivo skin and EPISKIN™ models. Results of human ex vivo skin experiments revealed 28%, 25% and 13% absorption of the applied dose (500 ng/cm{sup 2}, finite dose) of TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP, respectively after 24 h exposure. The EPISKIN™ model showed enhanced permeability values (i.e. weaker barrier), that were respectively 16%, 11% and 9% for TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP compared to human ex vivo skin. However, this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Estimated permeability constants (K{sub p}, cm/h) showed a significant negative correlation with log K{sub ow} for the studied contaminants. The effect of hand-washing on dermal absorption of PFRs was investigated. Washing reduced overall dermal absorption, albeit to varying degrees depending on the physicochemical properties of the target PFRs. Moreover, slight variations of the absorbed dose were observed upon changing the dosing solution from acetone to 20% Tween 80 in water, indicating the potential influence of the dose vehicle on the dermal absorption of PFRs. Finally, estimated dermal uptake of the studied PFRs via contact with indoor dust was higher in UK toddlers (median ΣPFRs = 36 ng/kg bw day) than adults (median ΣPFRs = 4 ng/kg bw day). More research is required to fully elucidate the toxicological implications of such exposure. - Highlights: • Human dermal absorption of PFRs was studied using human ex vivo skin and EPISKIN™. • Absorbed fractions of TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP were 28%, 25% and 13% of applied dose. • Permeability constants showed significant negative correlation to log K{sub ow} of PFRs. • Skin washing reduced the overall dermal

  4. Human dermal absorption of chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants; implications for human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Mohamed; Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-1,3-dichloropropyl phosphate (TDCIPP) are organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) widely applied in a plethora of consumer products despite their carcinogenic potential. Human dermal absorption of these PFRs is investigated for the first time using human ex vivo skin and EPISKIN™ models. Results of human ex vivo skin experiments revealed 28%, 25% and 13% absorption of the applied dose (500 ng/cm 2 , finite dose) of TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP, respectively after 24 h exposure. The EPISKIN™ model showed enhanced permeability values (i.e. weaker barrier), that were respectively 16%, 11% and 9% for TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP compared to human ex vivo skin. However, this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Estimated permeability constants (K p , cm/h) showed a significant negative correlation with log K ow for the studied contaminants. The effect of hand-washing on dermal absorption of PFRs was investigated. Washing reduced overall dermal absorption, albeit to varying degrees depending on the physicochemical properties of the target PFRs. Moreover, slight variations of the absorbed dose were observed upon changing the dosing solution from acetone to 20% Tween 80 in water, indicating the potential influence of the dose vehicle on the dermal absorption of PFRs. Finally, estimated dermal uptake of the studied PFRs via contact with indoor dust was higher in UK toddlers (median ΣPFRs = 36 ng/kg bw day) than adults (median ΣPFRs = 4 ng/kg bw day). More research is required to fully elucidate the toxicological implications of such exposure. - Highlights: • Human dermal absorption of PFRs was studied using human ex vivo skin and EPISKIN™. • Absorbed fractions of TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP were 28%, 25% and 13% of applied dose. • Permeability constants showed significant negative correlation to log K ow of PFRs. • Skin washing reduced the overall dermal absorption of target PFRs

  5. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. Binder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  6. Characterizing the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposures to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Kathie L; Nolte, Christopher G; Spero, Tanya L; Graham, Stephen; Caraway, Nina; Foley, Kristen M; Isaacs, Kristin K

    2017-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human and environmental health is of critical concern. Population exposures to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors are influenced by a wide range of air quality, meteorological, behavioral, and housing-related factors, many of which are also impacted by climate change. An integrated methodology for modeling changes in human exposures to tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) owing to potential future changes in climate and demographics was implemented by linking existing modeling tools for climate, weather, air quality, population distribution, and human exposure. Human exposure results from the Air Pollutants Exposure Model (APEX) for 12 US cities show differences in daily maximum 8-h (DM8H) exposure patterns and levels by sex, age, and city for all scenarios. When climate is held constant and population demographics are varied, minimal difference in O 3 exposures is predicted even with the most extreme demographic change scenario. In contrast, when population is held constant, we see evidence of substantial changes in O 3 exposure for the most extreme change in climate. Similarly, we see increases in the percentage of the population in each city with at least one O 3 exposure exceedance above 60 p.p.b and 70 p.p.b thresholds for future changes in climate. For these climate and population scenarios, the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposure to O 3 are much larger than the impacts of changing demographics. These results indicate the potential for future changes in O 3 exposure as a result of changes in climate that could impact human health.

  7. Mobile phones as monitors of personal exposure to air pollution: Is this the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarku, Mawutorli; Mazaheri, Mandana; Jayaratne, Rohan; Dunbabin, Matthew; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Uhde, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones have a large spectrum of applications, aiding in risk prevention and improving health and wellbeing of their owners. So far, however, they have not been used for direct assessment of personal exposure to air pollution. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the first, and the only available, mobile phone—BROAD Life—equipped with air pollution sensors (PM2.5 and VOC), to answer the question whether this technology is a viable option in the quest of reducing the burden of disease to air pollution. We tested its performance, applicability and suitability for the purpose by subjecting it to varied concentrations of different types of aerosol particles (cigarette smoke, petrol exhaust and concrete dust) and formaldehyde under controlled laboratory conditions, as well as to ambient particles during field measurements. Six reference instruments were used in the study: AEROTRAK Optical Particle Counter (OPC model number 9306), DustTrak, Aerodynamic Particle Counter (APS), Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) and Formaldehyde Analyser. Overall, we found that the phone’s response was linear at higher particle number concentrations in the chamber, above 5 and 10 μg m-3, for combustion and concrete dust particles, respectively, and for higher formaldehyde concentrations, making it potentially suitable for applications in polluted environments. At lower ambient concentrations of particles around 10 ug m-3 and 20 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, the phone’s response was below its noise level, suggesting that it is not suitable for ambient monitoring under relatively clean urban conditions. This mobile phone has a number of limitations that may hinder its use in personal exposure and for continuous monitoring. Despite these limitations, it may be used for comparative assessments, for example when comparing outcomes of intervention measures or local impacts of air pollution sources. It should

  8. Mobile phones as monitors of personal exposure to air pollution: Is this the future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawutorli Nyarku

    Full Text Available Mobile phones have a large spectrum of applications, aiding in risk prevention and improving health and wellbeing of their owners. So far, however, they have not been used for direct assessment of personal exposure to air pollution. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the first, and the only available, mobile phone-BROAD Life-equipped with air pollution sensors (PM2.5 and VOC, to answer the question whether this technology is a viable option in the quest of reducing the burden of disease to air pollution. We tested its performance, applicability and suitability for the purpose by subjecting it to varied concentrations of different types of aerosol particles (cigarette smoke, petrol exhaust and concrete dust and formaldehyde under controlled laboratory conditions, as well as to ambient particles during field measurements. Six reference instruments were used in the study: AEROTRAK Optical Particle Counter (OPC model number 9306, DustTrak, Aerodynamic Particle Counter (APS, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM and Formaldehyde Analyser. Overall, we found that the phone's response was linear at higher particle number concentrations in the chamber, above 5 and 10 μg m-3, for combustion and concrete dust particles, respectively, and for higher formaldehyde concentrations, making it potentially suitable for applications in polluted environments. At lower ambient concentrations of particles around 10 ug m-3 and 20 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, the phone's response was below its noise level, suggesting that it is not suitable for ambient monitoring under relatively clean urban conditions. This mobile phone has a number of limitations that may hinder its use in personal exposure and for continuous monitoring. Despite these limitations, it may be used for comparative assessments, for example when comparing outcomes of intervention measures or local impacts of air pollution sources. It

  9. Mobile phones as monitors of personal exposure to air pollution: Is this the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarku, Mawutorli; Mazaheri, Mandana; Jayaratne, Rohan; Dunbabin, Matthew; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Uhde, Erik; Morawska, Lidia

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones have a large spectrum of applications, aiding in risk prevention and improving health and wellbeing of their owners. So far, however, they have not been used for direct assessment of personal exposure to air pollution. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the first, and the only available, mobile phone-BROAD Life-equipped with air pollution sensors (PM2.5 and VOC), to answer the question whether this technology is a viable option in the quest of reducing the burden of disease to air pollution. We tested its performance, applicability and suitability for the purpose by subjecting it to varied concentrations of different types of aerosol particles (cigarette smoke, petrol exhaust and concrete dust) and formaldehyde under controlled laboratory conditions, as well as to ambient particles during field measurements. Six reference instruments were used in the study: AEROTRAK Optical Particle Counter (OPC model number 9306), DustTrak, Aerodynamic Particle Counter (APS), Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) and Formaldehyde Analyser. Overall, we found that the phone's response was linear at higher particle number concentrations in the chamber, above 5 and 10 μg m-3, for combustion and concrete dust particles, respectively, and for higher formaldehyde concentrations, making it potentially suitable for applications in polluted environments. At lower ambient concentrations of particles around 10 ug m-3 and 20 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, the phone's response was below its noise level, suggesting that it is not suitable for ambient monitoring under relatively clean urban conditions. This mobile phone has a number of limitations that may hinder its use in personal exposure and for continuous monitoring. Despite these limitations, it may be used for comparative assessments, for example when comparing outcomes of intervention measures or local impacts of air pollution sources. It should be kept

  10. Individual monitoring of internal exposure of 131I of workers from the nuclear medicine service FUESMEN, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, G.; Acosta, N.; Venier, V.; Bedoya Toboo, C.

    2013-01-01

    It is presented the FUESMEN experience in routine monitoring of thyroid internal doses due to inhalation of 131 I in workers of the Nuclear Medicine Service in normal operation or accidental exposure. It is used a surface contamination monitor, type Geiger Mueller, calibrated with a acrylic phantom based on specifications of the simulator of thyroid of ICRU 48 with 131 I reference activity. Through the obtained measurements is achieved to validate the use of Portable Monitor to carry out preliminary exploration on the monitoring scenarios of incidental situations

  11. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses − A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.S. (Reina S.); G.S. Freidl (Gudrun); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAssessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal

  12. Suitability of monitoring methods for the optimisation of Radiological Protection in the case of internal exposure through inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrange, J.P.; Gibert, B.; Basire, D.

    2000-01-01

    The radiological protection system recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) for justified practices relied pn the limitation and optimisation principles. The monitoring of internal exposure is most often based on the periodic assessment of individual exposure in order to essentially insure the simple compliance with the annual dose limits. Optimisation of protection implies a realistic, sensitive and analytical assessment of individual and collective exposures in order to allow the indentification of the main sources of exposure (main sources of contamination, most exposed operators, work activities contributing the most to the exposure) and the selection of the optimal protection options. Therefore the monitoring methods must allow the realistic assessment of individual dose levels far lower than annual limits together with measurements as frequent as possible. The aim of this presentation is to discuss the ability of various monitoring methods (collective and individual air sampling, in vivo and in vitro bioassays) to fulfil those needs. This discussion is illustrated by the particular case of the internal exposure to natural uranium compounds through inhalation. Firstly, the sensitivity and the degree to which each monitoring method is realistic are quantified and discussed on the basis of the application of the new ICRP dosimetric model, and their analytical capability for the optimisation of radiological protection is then indicated. Secondly, a case study is presented which shows the capability of individual air sampling techniques to analyse the exposure of the workers and the inadequacy of static air sampling to accurately estimate the exposures when contamination varies significantly over time and space in the workstations. As far as exposure to natural uranium compounds through inhalation is concerned, the study for assessing the sensitivity, analytic ability and accuracy of the different measuring systems shows that

  13. Integrating smart-phone based momentary location tracking with fixed site air quality monitoring for personal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Meng, Ying-Ying; Pickett, Melissa; Ritz, Beate

    2015-02-15

    Epidemiological studies investigating relationships between environmental exposures from air pollution and health typically use residential addresses as a single point for exposure, while environmental exposures in transit, at work, school or other locations are largely ignored. Personal exposure monitors measure individuals' exposures over time; however, current personal monitors are intrusive and cannot be operated at a large scale over an extended period of time (e.g., for a continuous three months) and can be very costly. In addition, spatial locations typically cannot be identified when only personal monitors are used. In this paper, we piloted a study that applied momentary location tracking services supplied by smart phones to identify an individual's location in space-time for three consecutive months (April 28 to July 28, 2013) using available Wi-Fi networks. Individual exposures in space-time to the traffic-related pollutants Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) were estimated by superimposing an annual mean NOX concentration surface modeled using the Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling technique. Individual's exposures were assigned to stationary (including home, work and other stationary locations) and in-transit (including commute and other travel) locations. For the individual, whose home/work addresses were known and the commute route was fixed, it was found that 95.3% of the time, the individual could be accurately identified in space-time. The ambient concentration estimated at the home location was 21.01 ppb. When indoor/outdoor infiltration, indoor sources of air pollution and time spent outdoors were taken into consideration, the individual's cumulative exposures were 28.59 ppb and 96.49 ppb, assuming a respective indoor/outdoor ratio of 1.33 and 5.00. Integrating momentary location tracking services with fixed-site field monitoring, plus indoor-outdoor air exchange calibration, makes exposure assessment of a very large population over an extended time period

  14. Natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure of humans in Germany; Natuerliche und zivilisatorische Strahlenexposition des Menschen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2016-12-15

    The contribution on natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure in Germany covers the following issues: (1) natural radiation exposure: external radiation exposure - cosmic and terrestric radiation, internal radiation exposure - primordial and cosmogenic radionuclides; radiation exposure due to sola neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. (2) Anthropogenic radiation exposure: radiation exposure in medicine, radioactivity in industrial products, radiation exposure during flights, radiation exposure due to nuclear facilities, radiation exposure due to fossil energy carriers in power generation, radiation exposure due to nuclear explosions, radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents. (3) Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: radiation monitoring with personal dosimeters in medicine and industry, dose surveillance of the aviation personal, working places with increases radiation exposure by natural radiation sources.

  15. Human immunotoxicologic markers of chemical exposures: preliminary validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, D; Laskin, D; Kipen, H

    1993-01-01

    The circulating cells of the immune system are sensitive to environmental contaminants, and effects are often manifested as changes in the cell surface differentiation antigens of affected populations of cells, particularly lymphocytes. In this investigation, we explore the likelihood that variation in the expression of the surface markers of immune cells can be used as an index of exposure to toxic chemicals. We recruited 38 healthy New Jersey men to study pesticides effects: 19 orchard farmers (high exposure); 13 berry farmers (low exposure); and 6 hardware store owners (no exposure). Immunophenotyping was performed assaying the following cell surface antigens: CD2, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD20, CD26, CD29, CD45R, CD56, and PMN. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. There were no significant differences among the groups with respect to routine medical histories, physical examinations, or routine laboratory parameters. No striking differences between groups were seen in univariate tests. Multivariate tests suggested some differences among groups and limited ability to correctly classify individuals based on immunophenotyping results. Immunophenotyping represents a fruitful area of research for improved exposure classification. Work is needed both on mechanistic understanding of the patterns observed and on the statistical interpretation of these patterns.

  16. Uveka: a UV exposure monitoring system using autonomous instruments network for Reunion Island citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébastien, Nicolas; Cros, Sylvain; Lallemand, Caroline; Kurzrock, Frederik; Schmutz, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Reunion Island is a French oversea territory located in the Indian Ocean. This tropical Island has about 840,000 inhabitants and is visited every year by more than 400,000 tourists. On average, 340 sunny days occurs on this island in a whole year. Beyond these advantageous conditions, exposure of the population to ultraviolet radiation constitutes a public health issue. The number of hospitalisations for skin cancer increased by 50% between 2005 and 2010. Health insurance reimbursements due to ophthalmic anomalies caused by the sun is about two million Euros. Among the prevention measures recommended by public health policies, access to information on UV radiation is one of the basic needs. Reuniwatt, supported by the Regional Council of La Reunion, is currently developing the project Uveka. Uveka is a solution permitting to provide in real-time and in short-term forecast (several hours), the UV radiation maps of the Reunion Island. Accessible via web interface and smartphone application, Uveka informs the citizens about the UV exposure rate and its risk according to its individual characteristics (skin phototype, past exposure to sun etc.). The present work describes this initiative through the presentation of the UV radiation monitoring system and the data processing chain toward the end-users. The UV radiation monitoring system of Uveka is a network of low cost UV sensors. Each instrument is equipped with a solar panel and a battery. Moreover, the sensor is able to communicate using the 3G telecommunication network. Then, the instrument can be installed without AC power or access to a wired communication network. This feature eliminates a site selection constraint. Indeed, with more than 200 microclimates and a strong cloud cover spatial variability, building a representative measurement site network in this island with a limited number of instruments is a real challenge. In addition to these UV radiation measurements, the mapping of the surface solar radiation

  17. Occupational radiation exposure in Austria - results of personnel monitoring using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Seibersdorf, can look back on more than two years of experience with the automated TLD personnel monitoring system for routine control and dose record keeping of currently about 10.000 persons per month. For more than 100.000 entries on monthly received doses have been stored so far in the Master File of the Institute's computer centre. This paper presents a survey of the statistical dose distribution in the various sectors of employment such as industry, research establishments, medical establishments and nuclear facilities, including data on the mean annual doses and the collective doses for the various sectors; information is also given on the number of cases where a dose has been in excess of the set level, and on the measured data. The data stored in the dose record keeping system allow a detailed assessment to be made of the occupational radiation exposure in Austria. (orig.) [de

  18. Hypoglycemic Exposure and Risk of Asymptomatic Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marie Moth; Andersen, Henrik Ullits; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2018-01-01

    : To explore the association between hypoglycemic exposure and proportion of asymptomatic hypoglycemia and relation to risk of severe hypoglycemia. Design: Prospective observational trial. Setting: Outpatient clinic. Patients: 153 unselected subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Intervention: Six days...... of blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and recording of hypoglycemia symptoms. Main Outcome Measure: Proportion of asymptomatic hypoglycemic events (≤70 mg/dl). Results: Patients were grouped by the number of hypoglycemic events during the recording period (group 1: 1 event, group 2: 2-3 events...... positively associated with risk of severe hypoglycemia (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.5); p=0.003). Group 4 consisted of patients characterized by classical risk factors of severe hypoglycemia (longer duration of diabetes, lower HbA1c and more frequent impaired awareness of hypoglycemia...

  19. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150-200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of portable exposimeters to monitor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure in the everyday environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Sanjay; Struchen, Benjamin; Finta, Viktoria; Eeftens, Marloes; Röösli, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) levels in the environment is highly heterogeneous. It is thus not entirely clear how to monitor spatial variability and temporal trends of RF-EMF exposure levels in the environment in a representative and efficient manner. The aim of this study was to test a monitoring protocol for RF-EMF measurements in public areas using portable devices. Using the ExpoM-RF devices mounted on a backpack, we have conducted RF-EMF measurements by walking through 51 different outdoor microenvironments from 20 different municipalities in Switzerland: 5 different city centers, 5 central residential areas, 5 non-central residential areas, 15 rural residential areas, 15 rural centers and 6 industrial areas. Measurements in public transport (buses, trains, trams) were collected when traveling between the areas. Measurements were conducted between 25th March and 11th July 2014. In order to evaluate spatial representativity within one microenvironment, we measured two crossing paths of about 1km in length in each microenvironment. To evaluate repeatability, measurements in each microenvironment were repeated after two to four months on the same paths. Mean RF-EMF exposure (sum of 15 main frequency bands between 87.5 and 5,875MHz) was 0.53V/m in industrial zones, 0.47V/m in city centers, 0.32V/m in central residential areas, 0.25V/m non-central residential areas, 0.23V/m in rural centers and rural residential areas, 0.69V/m in trams, 0.46V/m in trains and 0.39V/m in buses. Major exposure contribution at outdoor locations was from mobile phone base stations (>80% for all outdoor areas with respect to the power density scale). Temporal correlation between first and second measurement of each area was high: 0.89 for total RF-EMF, 0.90 for all five mobile phone downlink bands combined, 0.51 for all five uplink bands combined and 0.79 for broadcasting. Spearman correlation between arithmetic mean values of the

  1. The monitoring and control of task sequences in human and non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Desrochers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to plan and execute a series of tasks leading to a desired goal requires remarkable coordination between sensory, motor, and decision-related systems. Prefrontal cortex is thought to play a central role in this coordination, especially when actions must be assembled extemporaneously and cannot be programmed as a rote series of movements. A central component of this flexible behavior is the moment-by-moment allocation of working memory and attention. The ubiquity of sequence planning in our everyday lives belies the neural complexity that supports this capacity, and little is known about how frontal cortical regions orchestrate the monitoring and control of sequential behaviors. For example, it remains unclear if and how sensory cortical areas, which provide essential driving inputs for behavior, are modulated by the frontal cortex during these tasks. Here we review what is known about moment-to-moment monitoring as it relates to visually guided, rule-driven behaviors that change over time. We highlight recent human work that shows how the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC participates in monitoring during task sequences. Neurophysiological data from monkeys suggests that monitoring may be accomplished by neurons that respond to items within the sequence and may in turn influence the tuning properties of neurons in posterior sensory areas. Understanding the interplay between proceduralized or habitual acts and supervised control of sequences is key to our understanding of sequential task execution. A crucial bridge will be the use of experimental protocols that allow for the examination of the functional homology between monkeys and humans. We illustrate how task sequences may be parceled into components and examined experimentally, thereby opening future avenues of investigation into the neural basis of sequential monitoring and control.

  2. Biological monitoring the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of coke oven workers in relation to smoking and genetic polymorphisms for GSTM1 and GSTT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joost H.M. van Delft; Marie-Jose S.T. Steenwinkel; Jeff G. van Asten; Nico de Vogel; Truus C.D.M. Bruijntjes-Rozier; Ton Schouten; Patricia Cramers; Lou Maas; Marcel H. van Herwijnen; Frederik-Jan van Schooten; Piet M.J. Hopmans [TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute (Netherlands). Toxicology Division

    2001-07-01

    Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Human exposure is often demonstrated by increased internal levels of PAH metabolites and of markers for early biological effects, like DNA adducts and cytogenetic aberrations. This study aimed to assess whether the current exposure to PAH of coke oven workers in a Dutch plant induced biological effects, and to determine if these effects are influenced by tobacco smoking and by genetic polymorphisms for the glutathione S-transferase genes GSTM1 and GSTT1. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHpyr) levels were used to monitor the internal dose, while the internal effective dose was assessed by monitoring PAH-DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks (Comet assay), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) and cells with a high frequency of SCE (HFC) in lymphocytes together with micronuclei (MN) in exfoliated urothelial cells. Occupational exposure to PAH resulted in statistically significant increased 1-OHpyr levels, but it did not cause a significant induction of SCE, HFC, MN, DNA strand breaks or DNA adducts. Smoking caused a significant increase of 1-OHpyr, SCE, HFC and DNA adducts, but not of MN or DNA strand breaks. Following correction for the smoking-related effects, no occupational induction of the effect biomarkers could be discerned. Multi-variate analysis did not show a significant influence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on any biomarker. Also no significant interactions were observed between the various biomarkers.

  3. 77 FR 52025 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Exposure and Human Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Science Advisory Board; Exposure and Human Health Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Office announces a public teleconference of the SAB Exposure and Human Health Committee to discuss its... hereby given that the SAB Exposure and Human Health Committee (EHHC) will hold a public teleconference to...

  4. Monitoring of perchlorate in diverse foods and its estimated dietary exposure for Korea populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Woo; Oh, Sung-Hee; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2012-12-01

    The perchlorate concentrations in various Korean food samples were monitored, and 663 samples belonging to 39 kinds of food were analyzed. The analysis results revealed that dairy products contain the highest average concentration of 6.34 μg/kg and high detection frequency of over 85%. Fruit and vegetables showed the next highest perchlorate concentration with an average of 6.17 μg/kg. Especially, with its average concentration of 39.9 μg/kg, spinach showed the highest perchlorate level among all target food samples studied. Tomato was followed by spinach, which showed a high perchlorate average concentration of 19.8 μg/kg, and over 7 μg/kg was detected in ham and sausage (avg. 7.31 μg/kg) and in instant noodles (avg. 7.58 μg/kg). Less than 2 μg/kg was detected in fishes, meats and beverages. The exposure dose of perchlorate in Korean by food intake was calculated on the basis of the analyzed perchlorate levels in this study. The daily perchlorate dose to which Korean adults are exposed is 0.04 μg/kg bw/day, which is lower than the RfD (0.7 μg/kg bw/day) value suggested by US NAS. This result indicates that Korean people's current exposure to perchlorate from domestic food consumption is evaluated as safe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Evaluation of an Experimental Production Wireless Dose Monitoring System for Radiation Exposure Management of Medical Staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Murazaki, Hiroo; Kuramoto, Taku; Umedzu, Yoshiyuki; Ishigaki, Yung

    2015-08-01

    Because of the more advanced and more complex procedures in interventional radiology, longer treatment times have become necessary. Therefore, it is important to determine the exposure doses received by operators and patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate an experimental production wireless dose monitoring system for pulse radiation in diagnostic X-ray. The energy, dose rate, and pulse fluoroscopy dependence were evaluated as the basic characteristics of this system for diagnostic X-ray using a fully digital fluoroscopy system. The error of 1 cm dose equivalent rate was less than 15% from 35.1 keV to 43.2 keV with energy correction using metal filter. It was possible to accurately measure the dose rate dependence of this system, which was highly linear until 100 μSv/h. This system showed a constant response to the pulse fluoroscopy. This system will become useful wireless dosimeter for the individual exposure management by improving the high dose rate and the energy characteristics.

  6. An Inexpensive High-Temporal Resolution Electronic Sun Journal for Monitoring Personal Day to Day Sun Exposure Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Downs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to natural sunlight, specifically solar ultraviolet (UV radiation contributes to lifetime risks of skin cancer, eye disease, and diseases associated with vitamin D insufficiency. Improved knowledge of personal sun exposure patterns can inform public health policy; and help target high-risk population groups. Subsequently, an extensive number of studies have been conducted to measure personal solar UV exposure in a variety of settings. Many of these studies, however, use digital or paper-based journals (self-reported volunteer recall, or employ cost prohibitive electronic UV dosimeters (that limit the size of sample populations, to estimate periods of exposure. A cost effective personal electronic sun journal (ESJ built from readily available infrared photodiodes is presented in this research. The ESJ can be used to complement traditional UV dosimeters that measure total biologically effective exposure by providing a time-stamped sun exposure record. The ESJ can be easily attached to clothing and data logged to personal devices (including fitness monitors or smartphones. The ESJ improves upon self-reported exposure recording and is a cost effective high-temporal resolution option for monitoring personal sun exposure behavior in large population studies.

  7. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB

  8. Purification and concentration of lead samples in biological monitoring of occupational exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rahimi-Froushani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims:Lead is an important environmental constituent widely used in industrialprocesses for production of synthetic materials and therefore can be released in the environmentcausing public exposure especially around the industrial residence area. For evaluation of humanexposure to trace toxic metal of Pb (II, environmental and biological monitoring are essentialprocesses, in which, preparation of such samples is one of the most time-consuming and errorproneaspects prior to analysis. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE has grown and is a fertiletechnique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those produced by liquid-liquidextraction (LLE. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing sample pretreatmentfor trace analysis of lead in biological samples for evaluation of occupational exposure.Method :To evaluate factors influencing quantitative analysis scheme of lead, solid phaseextraction using mini columns filled with XAD-4 resin was optimized with regard to sample pH,ligand concentration, loading flow rate, elution solvent, sample volume (up to 500 ml, elutionvolume, amount of resins, and sample matrix interferences.Results :Lead was retained on solid sorbent and eluted followed by simple determination ofanalytes by using flame atomic absorption spectrometery. Obtained recoveries of the metal ionwere more than 92%. The amount of the analyte detected after simultaneous pre-concentrationwas basically in agreement with the added amounts. The optimized procedure was also validatedwith three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over sixconsecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. The developed method promised to beapplicable for evaluation of other metal ions present in different environmental and occupationalsamples as suitable results were obtained for relative standard deviation (less than 10%.Conclusion:This optimized method can be considered to be

  9. The Effect of Realtime Monitoring on Dose Exposure to Staff Within an Interventional Radiology Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Frederic, E-mail: fredericbaumann@hotmail.com; Katzen, Barry T. [Baptist Hospital of Miami, Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (MCVI) (United States); Carelsen, Bart [Philips HealthCare, Clinical Science Interventional X-ray (Netherlands); Diehm, Nicolas [Kantonsspital Aarau, Clinical and Interventional Angiology (Switzerland); Benenati, James F.; Peña, Constantino S. [Baptist Hospital of Miami, Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (MCVI) (United States)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study is to evaluate a new device providing real-time monitoring on radiation exposure during fluoroscopy procedures intending to reduce radiation in an interventional radiology setting.Materials and MethodsIn one interventional suite, a new system providing a real-time radiation dose display and five individual wireless dosimeters were installed. The five dosimeters were worn by the attending, fellow, nurse, technician, and anesthesiologist for every procedure taking place in that suite. During the first 6-week interval the dose display was off (closed phase) and activated thereafter, for a 6-week learning phase (learning phase) and a 10-week open phase (open phase). During these phases, the staff dose and the individual dose for each procedure were recorded from the wireless dosimeter and correlated with the fluoroscopy time. Further subanalysis for dose exposure included diagnostic versus interventional as well as short (<10 min) versus long (>10 min) procedures.ResultsA total of 252 procedures were performed (n = 88 closed phase, n = 50 learning phase, n = 114 open phase). The overall mean staff dose per fluoroscopic minute was 42.79 versus 19.81 µSv/min (p < 0.05) comparing the closed and open phase. Thereby, anesthesiologists were the only individuals attaining a significant dose reduction during open phase 16.9 versus 8.86 µSv/min (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a significant reduction of total staff dose was observed for short 51 % and interventional procedures 45 % (p < 0.05, for both).ConclusionA real-time qualitative display of radiation exposure may reduce team radiation dose. The process may take a few weeks during the learning phase but appears sustained, thereafter.

  10. The Effect of Realtime Monitoring on Dose Exposure to Staff Within an Interventional Radiology Setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Frederic; Katzen, Barry T.; Carelsen, Bart; Diehm, Nicolas; Benenati, James F.; Peña, Constantino S.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this study is to evaluate a new device providing real-time monitoring on radiation exposure during fluoroscopy procedures intending to reduce radiation in an interventional radiology setting.Materials and MethodsIn one interventional suite, a new system providing a real-time radiation dose display and five individual wireless dosimeters were installed. The five dosimeters were worn by the attending, fellow, nurse, technician, and anesthesiologist for every procedure taking place in that suite. During the first 6-week interval the dose display was off (closed phase) and activated thereafter, for a 6-week learning phase (learning phase) and a 10-week open phase (open phase). During these phases, the staff dose and the individual dose for each procedure were recorded from the wireless dosimeter and correlated with the fluoroscopy time. Further subanalysis for dose exposure included diagnostic versus interventional as well as short (<10 min) versus long (>10 min) procedures.ResultsA total of 252 procedures were performed (n = 88 closed phase, n = 50 learning phase, n = 114 open phase). The overall mean staff dose per fluoroscopic minute was 42.79 versus 19.81 µSv/min (p < 0.05) comparing the closed and open phase. Thereby, anesthesiologists were the only individuals attaining a significant dose reduction during open phase 16.9 versus 8.86 µSv/min (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a significant reduction of total staff dose was observed for short 51 % and interventional procedures 45 % (p < 0.05, for both).ConclusionA real-time qualitative display of radiation exposure may reduce team radiation dose. The process may take a few weeks during the learning phase but appears sustained, thereafter

  11. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; You, Qiongzhi; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents. - Highlights: • Rice samples were contaminated by Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing. • CFL manufacturing lead to THg accumulation in human hair. • MeHg in human hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice. • MeHg intake from fish consumption was lower than that from rice consumption. • PDI of MeHg by food consumption was below the guidelines for public health concern. - CFL manufacturing activities result in Hg accumulation in local rice samples and hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by sources of rice

  12. Exposure Setup and Dosimetry for a Study on Effects of Mobile Communication Signals on Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rohland

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the design of an exposure setup used to study possible non-thermal effects due to the exposure of human hematopoietic stem cells to GSM, UMTS and LTE mobile communication signals. The experiments are performed under fully blinded conditions in a TEM waveguide located inside an incubator to achieve defined environmental conditions as required for the living cells. Chamber slides containing the cells in culture medium are placed on the septum of the waveguide. The environmental and exposure parameters such as signal power, temperatures, relative humidity and CO2 content of the surrounding atmosphere are monitored permanently during the exposure experiment. The power of the exposure signals required to achieve specific absorption rates of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 W kg−1 are determined by numerical calculation of the field distribution inside the cell culture medium at 900 MHz (GSM, 1950 MHz (UMTS and 2535 MHz (LTE. The dosimetry is verified both with scattering parameter measurements on the waveguide with and without containers filled with cell culture medium and with temperature measurements with non-metallic probes in separate heating experiments.

  13. Frequency of Extreme Heat Event as a Surrogate Exposure Metric for Examining the Human Health Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Romeo Upperman

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigation of the impact of climate change on human health, particularly chronic diseases, is hindered by the lack of exposure metrics that can be used as a marker of climate change that are compatible with health data. Here, we present a surrogate exposure metric created using a 30-year baseline (1960-1989 that allows users to quantify long-term changes in exposure to frequency of extreme heat events with near unabridged spatial coverage in a scale that is compatible with national/state health outcome data. We evaluate the exposure metric by decade, seasonality, area of the country, and its ability to capture long-term changes in weather (climate, including natural climate modes. Our findings show that this generic exposure metric is potentially useful to monitor trends in the frequency of extreme heat events across varying regions because it captures long-term changes; is sensitive to the natural climate modes (ENSO events; responds well to spatial variability, and; is amenable to spatial/temporal aggregation, making it useful for epidemiological studies.

  14. Hexachlorobenzene sources, levels and human exposure in the environment of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Han, Jingyi; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Wang, T.Y.; Sun, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the published scientific data on sources, levels and human exposure of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in China. Potential sources of unintended HCB emission were assessed by production information, emission factors and environmental policies. HCB was observed in various

  15. In vivo plasma concentration for lindane after 6 hour exposure in human skin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset is a time course description of lindane disappearance in blood plasma after dermal exposure in human volunteers. This dataset is associated with the...

  16. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: What Do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  17. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based human exposure modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER meas...

  18. A Quantitative ADME-base Tool for Exploring Human Exposure to Consumer Product Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to a wide range of chemicals through our daily habits and routines is ubiquitous and largely unavoidable within modern society. The potential for human exposure, however, has not been quantified for the vast majority of chemicals with wide commercial use. Creative advanc...

  19. In Vivo Lipopolysaccharide Exposure of Human Blood Leukocytes Induces Cross-Tolerance to Multiple TLR Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Alex F.; Pater, Jennie M.; van den Pangaart, Petra S.; de Kruif, Martijn D.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2009-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo experiments in mice have shown that exposure of cells to the TLR4 ligand LPS induces tolerance toward a second exposure to LPS and induces cross-tolerance to certain other TLR ligands. Recently, we found that LPS tolerance in experimental human endotoxemia and Gram-negative

  20. The Progression of Circadian Phase during Light Exposure in Animals and Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G. M.; Comas, Marian; Hut, Roelof A.; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.; Rueger, Melanie; Daan, Serge

    Studies in humans and mice revealed that circadian phase shifting effects of light are larger at the beginning of a light exposure interval than during subsequent exposure. Little is known about the dynamics of this response reduction phenomenon. Here the authors propose a method to obtain

  1. Long-term aircrew exposure monitoring by means of a Si-diode spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Dacev, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution we present the results of onboard measurement by means of a Si-diode energy deposition spectrometer, Md-Liulin]. They were accumulated during 2001-2003 years onboard of an A310-300 aircraft of Czech Air lines, during 6 long-term monitoring and about 30 return single flights. Some of results obtained are presented, discussed and analyzed. The semiconductor spectrometer proved the possibility to monitor dosimetric characteristics of radiation fields on aircraft board during about 2 months. It permitted to register onboard a ground level solar event. The results obtained can significantly help to estimate the contribution of solar eruptions to aircrew exposure. Spectrometric properties of it permit to enlarge the interpretation of directly registered data. An additional effort is needed to improve this performance. Further calibration in the CERF fields is needed, important would be to acquire further onboard data in cases when the contribution of the ionizing/neutron part of the field changes. (authors)

  2. Separation of uncertainty and interindividual variability in human exposure modeling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ragas, A.M.J.; Brouwer, F.P.E.; Buchner, F.L.; Hendriks, H.W.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The NORMTOX model predicts the lifetime-averaged exposure to contaminants through multiple environmental media, that is, food, air, soil, drinking and surface water. The model was developed to test the coherence of Dutch environmental quality objectives (EQOs). A set of EQOs is called coherent if

  3. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Winterbottom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  4. Aquatic Sentinels Forecasting Human Exposure To Emerging Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of us have heard the axiom, “canary in the coal mine”. These melodious exposure indicators - a necessity in U.K. mines well into the 20th century - were especially sensitive to methane and carbon monoxide gases, and would cease singing (and oftentimes die) at le...

  5. Strategies for estimating human exposure to mycotoxins via food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, De M.; Mengelers, M.J.B.; Boon, P.E.; Heyndrickx, E.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Lopez, P.; Mol, H.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, five strategies to estimate mycotoxin exposure of a (sub-)population via food, including data collection, are discussed with the aim to identify the added values and limitations of each strategy for risk assessment of these chemicals. The well-established point estimate, observed

  6. Mathematical Models of Human Hematopoiesis Following Acute Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    response of 11 subjects from Chernobyl 1986 . . . . . . 104 B.8 Chernobyl case studies: Platelet data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 B...9 Chernobyl case studies: Granulocyte data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 B.10 Chernobyl case studies: Lymphocyte data...information for use in nuclear disaster preparedness planning. Understanding how biological systems change after radiation exposure provides insight on the

  7. Human health effects of dust exposure in anmial confinement buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iversen, M.; Kirychuk, S.; Drost, H.; Jacobson, L.

    2001-01-01

    Work in swine and poultry units is associated with exposure to significant levels of organic dust and endotoxins with the highest concentrations found in poultry houses, whereas values found in dairy and in cattle farming are much lower. Corresponding to this is an excess of work-related respiratory

  8. Contribution of job-exposure matrices for exposure assessment in occupational safety and health monitoring systems: application from the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentin, Arnaud; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Paris, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    To detect new hazards ("signals"), occupational health monitoring systems mostly rest on the description of exposures in the jobs held and on reports by medical doctors; these are subject to declarative bias. Our study aims to assess whether job-exposure matrices (JEMs) could be useful tools for signal detection by improving exposure reporting. Using the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network (RNV3P) data from 2001 to 2011, we explored the associations between disease and exposure prevalence for 3 well-known pathology/exposure couples and for one debatable couple. We compared the associations measured when using physicians' reports or applying the JEMs, respectively, for these selected diseases and across non-selected RNV3P population or for cases with musculoskeletal disorders, used as two reference groups; the ratio of exposure prevalences according to the two sources of information were computed for each disease category. Our population contained 58,188 subjects referred with pathologies related to work. Mean age at diagnosis was 45.8 years (95% CI 45.7; 45.9), and 57.2% were men. For experts, exposure ratios increase with knowledge on exposure causality. As expected, JEMs retrieved more exposed cases than experts (exposure ratios between 12 and 194), except for the couple silica/silicosis, but not for the MSD control group (ratio between 0.2 and 0.8). JEMs enhanced the number of exposures possibly linked with some conditions, compared to experts' assessment, relative to the whole database or to a reference group; they are less likely to suffer from declarative bias than reports by occupational health professionals.

  9. Modeling human exposure to hazardous-waste sites: a question of completeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.I.; McKone, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    In risk analysis, we use human-exposure assessments to translate contaminant sources into quantitative estimates of the amount of contaminant that comes in contact with human-environment boundaries, that is, the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, and the skin surface of individuals within a specified population. An assessment of intake requires that we determine how much crosses these boundaries. Exposure assessments often rely implicitly in the assumption that exposure can be linked by simple parameters to ambient concentration in air, water, and soil. However, more realistic exposure models require that we abandon such simple assumptions. To link contaminant concentrations in water, air, or soil with potential human intakes, we constrict pathway-exposure factors (PEFs). For each PEF we combine information in environmental partitioning as well as human anatomy, physiology, and patterns into an algebraic term that converts concentrations of contaminants (in mg/L water, mg/m 3 air, and mg/kg soil) into a daily intake per unit body weight in mg/kg-d for a specific rout of exposure such as inhalation, ingestion, or dermal uptake. Using examples involving human exposure to either a radionuclide (tritium, 3 H) or a toxic organic chemical (tetrachloroethylene, PCE) in soil, water, and air, we illustrate the use of PEFs and consider the implications for risk assessment. (au)

  10. Individual monitoring of internal exposure for nuclear medicine workers in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, S.; Stritt, N.; Bochud, F. O.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of internal exposure for nuclear medicine workers requires frequent measurements due to the short physical half lives of most radionuclides used in this field. The aim of this study was to develop screening measurements performed at the workplace by local staff using standard laboratory instrumentation, to detect whether potential intake has occurred. Such measurements do not enable to determine the committed effective dose, but are adequate to verify that a given threshold is not exceeded. For radioiodine, i.e. 123 I, 124 I, 125 I and 131 I, a calibrated surface contamination monitor is placed in front of the thyroid to detect whether the activity threshold has been exceeded. For radionuclides with very short physical half-lives (≤6 h), such as 99m Tc) and those used in positron emission tomography imaging, i.e. 11 C, 15 O, 18 F and 68 Ga, screening procedures consist in performing daily measurements of the ambient dose rate in front of the abdomen. Other gamma emitters used for imaging, i.e. 67 Ga, 111 In and 201 Tl, are measured with a scintillation detector located in front of the thorax. For pure beta emitters, i.e. 90 Y and 169 Er, as well as beta emitters with low-intensity gamma rays, i.e. 153 Sm, 177 Lu, 186 Re and 188 Re, the procedure consists in measuring hand contamination immediately after use. In Switzerland, screening procedures have been adopted by most nuclear medicine services since such measurements enable an acceptable monitoring while taking into account practical and economic considerations. (authors)

  11. Limited infection upon human exposure to a recombinant raccoon pox vaccine vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Dein, F.J.; Fuchsberger, M.; Fox, B.C.; Stinchcomb, D.T.; Osorio, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory accident resulted in human exposure to a recombinant raccoon poxvirus (RCN) developed as a vaccine vector for antigens of Yersinia pestis for protection of wild rodents (and other animals) against plague. Within 9 days, the patient developed a small blister that healed within 4 weeks. Raccoon poxvirus was cultured from the lesion, and the patient developed antibody to plague antigen (F1) and RCN. This is the first documented case of human exposure to RCN.

  12. Limited infection upon human exposure to a recombinant raccoon pox vaccine vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E; Dein, F Joshua; Fuchsberger, Martina; Fox, Barry C; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E

    2004-07-29

    A laboratory accident resulted in human exposure to a recombinant raccoon poxvirus (RCN) developed as a vaccine vector for antigens of Yersinia pestis for protection of wild rodents (and other animals) against plague. Within 9 days, the patient developed a small blister that healed within 4 weeks. Raccoon poxvirus was cultured from the lesion, and the patient developed antibody to plague antigen (F1) and RCN. This is the first documented case of human exposure to RCN.

  13. Florida Red Tide and Human Health: A Pilot Beach Conditions Reporting System to Minimize Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Currier, Robert; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Stumpf, Richard; Fleming, Lora; Kirkpatrick, Gary

    2008-01-01

    With over 50% of the US population living in coastal counties, the ocean and coastal environments have substantial impacts on coastal communities. While may of the impacts are positive, such as tourism and recreation opportunities, there are also negative impacts, such as exposure to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and water borne pathogens. Recent advances in environmental monitoring and weather prediction may allow us to forecast these potential adverse effects and thus mitigate the negative impact from coastal environmental threats. One example of the need to mitigate adverse environmental impacts occurs on Florida’s west coast, which experiences annual blooms, or periods of exuberant growth, of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces a suite of potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins. Wind and wave action can break up the cells, releasing toxin that can then become part of the marine aerosol or sea spray. Brevetoxins in the aerosol cause respiratory irritation in people who inhale it. In addition, asthmatics who inhale the toxins report increase upper and lower airway lower symptoms and experience measurable changes in pulmonary function. Real-time reporting of the presence or absence of these toxic aerosols will allow asthmatics and local coastal residents to make informed decisions about their personal exposures, thus adding to their quality of life. A system to protect public health that combines information collected by an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has been designed and implemented in Sarasota and Manatee Counties, Florida. This system is based on real-time reports from lifeguards at the eight public beaches. The lifeguards provide periodic subjective reports of the amount of dead fish on the beach, apparent level of respiratory irritation among beach-goers, water color, wind direction, surf condition, and the beach warning flag they are flying. A key component in the design of the observing system was an easy reporting

  14. CONTROLLED EXPOSURES OF HUMAN VOLUNTEERS TO DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST: BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE AND HEALTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion of diesel fuel contributes to ambient air pollutant fine particulate matter (PM) and gases. Fine PM exposure has been associated with increased mortality due to adverse cardiac events, and morbidity, such as increased hospitalization for asthma symptoms and lung infect...

  15. Monitoring of volatile and non-volatile urban air genotoxins using bacteria, human cells and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretti, E; Zani, C; Zerbini, I; Viola, G; Moretti, M; Villarini, M; Dominici, L; Monarca, S; Feretti, D

    2015-02-01

    Urban air contains many mutagenic pollutants. This research aimed to investigate the presence of mutagens in the air by short-term mutagenicity tests using bacteria, human cells and plants. Inflorescences of Tradescantia were exposed to air in situ for 6h, once a month from January to May, to monitor volatile compounds and micronuclei frequency was computed. On the same days PM10 was collected continuously for 24h. Half of each filter was extracted with organic solvents and studied by means of the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains, and the comet assay on human leukocytes. A quarter of each filter was extracted with distilled water in which Tradescantia was exposed. PM10 concentration was particularly high in the winter season (> 50 μg/m(3)). In situ exposure of inflorescences to urban air induced a significant increase in micronuclei frequency at all the sites considered, but only in January (p bacteria, human cells and plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Indicative and complementary effects of human biological indicators for heavy metal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ruiya; Li, Yonghua; Zhang, Biao; Li, Hairong; Liao, Xiaoyong

    2017-10-01

    Although human biological indicators have been widely utilized for biomonitoring environmental pollutants in health exposure assessment, the relationship between internal and external exposure has not yet been adequately established. In this study, we collected and analyzed 61 rice, 56 pepper, and 58 soil samples, together with 107 hair, 107 blood, and 107 urine samples from residents living in selected intensive mining areas in China. Concentrations of most of the four elements considered (Pb, Cd, Hg, and Se) exceeded national standards, implying high exposure risk in the study areas. Regression analysis also revealed a correlation (0.33, P human hair (as well as in human blood); to some extent, Pb content in hair and blood could therefore be used to characterize external Pb exposure. The correlation between Hg in rice and in human hair (up to 0.5, P human hair for Hg exposure. A significant correlation was also noted between concentrations of some elements in different human samples, for example, between Hg in hair and blood (0.641, P assessing heavy metal exposure.

  17. Cadmium osteotoxicity in experimental animals: Mechanisms and relationship to human exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Maryka H.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive epidemiological studies have recently demonstrated increased cadmium exposure correlating significantly with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture incidence in humans at lower exposure levels than ever before evaluated. Studies in experimental animals have addressed whether very low concentrations of dietary cadmium can negatively impact the skeleton. This overview evaluates results in experimental animals regarding mechanisms of action on bone and the application of these results to humans. Results demonstrate that long-term dietary exposures in rats, at levels corresponding to environmental exposures in humans, result in increased skeletal fragility and decreased mineral density. Cadmium-induced demineralization begins soon after exposure, within 24 h of an oral dose to mice. In bone culture systems, cadmium at low concentrations acts directly on bone cells to cause both decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, independent of its effects on kidney, intestine, or circulating hormone concentrations. Results from gene expression microarray and gene knock-out mouse models provide insight into mechanisms by which cadmium may affect bone. Application of the results to humans is considered with respect to cigarette smoke exposure pathways and direct vs. indirect effects of cadmium. Clearly, understanding the mechanism(s) by which cadmium causes bone loss in experimental animals will provide insight into its diverse effects in humans. Preventing bone loss is critical to maintaining an active, independent lifestyle, particularly among elderly persons. Identifying environmental factors such as cadmium that contribute to increased fractures in humans is an important undertaking and a first step to prevention.

  18. Assessment of human exposure to fumonisin B1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, M. de; Egmond, H.P. van; Nauta, M.; Rombouts, F.M.; Notermans, S.H.W.

    1998-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 is currently regarded as the most significant mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. It has carcinogenic properties and may play a role in the etiology of human esophageal cancer. The human population is exposed to fumonisin B1 primarily by intake of fumonisin B1-contaminated maize. Maize

  19. A systematic review of the human body burden of e-waste exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingbin; Li, Jinhui

    2014-07-01

    As China is one of the countries facing the most serious pollution and human exposure effects of e-waste in the world, much of the population there is exposed to potentially hazardous substances due to informal e-waste recycling processes. This report reviews recent studies on human exposure to e-waste in China, with particular focus on exposure routes (e.g. dietary intake, inhalation, and soil/dust ingestion) and human body burden markers (e.g. placenta, umbilical cord blood, breast milk, blood, hair, and urine) and assesses the evidence for the association between such e-waste exposure and the human body burden in China. The results suggest that residents in the e-waste exposure areas, located mainly in the three traditional e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, and Qingyuan), are faced with a potential higher daily intake of these pollutants than residents in the control areas, especially via food ingestion. Moreover, pollutants (PBBs, PBDEs, PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and heavy metals) from the e-waste recycling processes were all detectable in the tissue samples at high levels, showing that they had entered residents' bodies through the environment and dietary exposure. Children and neonates are the groups most sensitive to the human body effects of e-waste exposure. We also recorded plausible outcomes associated with exposure to e-waste, including 7 types of human body burden. Although the data suggest that exposure to e-waste is harmful to health, better designed epidemiological investigations in vulnerable populations, especially neonates and children, are needed to confirm these associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of the mortality among Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz-Flamant, C.; Hitz, M.; Samson, E.; Rogel, A.; Telle-Lamberton, M.; Tirmarche, M.; Caer, S.; Quesne, B.

    2006-01-01

    The present study follows 9287 Cogema workers exposed to low level of ionizing radiation from the beginning of employment to the end of 1994. This paper presents analyses of the mortality of Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure and the relation between their mortality and their cumulative external radiation dose. Workers were followed up for an average of 13 years. The percentage of subjects lost to follow up was less than 1%. during the follow-up period, 441 deaths occurred. The mean cumulative dose among the whole cohort was 19.4 mSv. As expected, the mortality of the cohort was lower than that of the French national population. The healthy worker effect is often observed in other nuclear workers studies. Part of the healthy worker effect is explained by a proportion of unemployed persons in general population, with a higher mortality rate. All causes S.M.R. increased with calendar period and duration of employment. this increase was not significant for all cancers S.M.R. by duration of employment. This could illustrate the decrease of the initial selection at employment with time. A significant increase in risk was observed for all cancers excluding leukemia mortality with increase of radiation dose in the 15-country study. Significant excess of leukemia by cumulative radiation exposure was observed in the 3-country study and was borderline significant in the 15-country study and in the UK National register for radiation workers study. A positive trend, not statistically significant, by level of external doses was observed in our study for all cancers and leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia mortality, but the analyses lack of statistical power. A significant trend was observed only for non-Hodgkin lymphoma death, but considering the large number of statistic tests computed, this result must be carefully interpreted. A borderline significant trend was observed for lung cancer death, a significant increase risk of lung cancer death

  1. Monitoring of exposure to selected metals in workers of a ferroalloy production plant using NAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Havranek, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Bencko, V.; Fabianova, E.; Sysalova, J.

    1998-01-01

    Advantages and pitfalls of direct and biological monitoring of occupational exposure are briefly mentioned and a project aimed at evaluating exposure to chromium (and possibly manganese) in workers of a ferro-alloy production plant using both the above approaches is outlined. Facilities for NAA and PIXE at the Nuclear Physics Institute at Rez to be used in the project are described. Results of quality assurance of INAA method for analysis of workplace air born particulate matter and blood sampling are presented. Results from previous work relating to this Co-ordinated Research Programme - studying exposure of workers of a vanadium pentoxide production plant are also briefly reviewed. (author)

  2. Human exposure to herpesvirus B-seropositive macaques, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Gregory A; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Schillaci, Michael A; Suaryana, Komang Gde; Putra, Artha; Fuentes, Agustin; Henkel, Richard

    2002-08-01

    Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. However, the threat of herpesvirus B in nonlaboratory settings worldwide remains to be addressed. We investigated the potential for exposure to herpesvirus B in workers at a "monkey forest" (a temple that has become a tourist attraction because of its monkeys) in Bali, Indonesia. In July 2000, 105 workers at the Sangeh Monkey Forest in Central Bali were surveyed about contact with macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nearly half of those interviewed had either been bitten or scratched by a macaque. Prevalence of injury was higher in those who fed macaques. Serum from 31 of 38 Sangeh macaques contained antibodies to herpesvirus B. We conclude that workers coming into contact with macaques at the Sangeh Monkey Forest are at risk for exposure to herpesvirus B.

  3. Controlled human exposure to indoor air, dust, and ozone; XDOZ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Grethe; Bønløkke, Jakob; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2017-01-01

    . All participants were subjected to four different exposure scenarios in the climate chamber.Exp. 1: Dust (250 – 300 µg/m3)Exp. 2: Ozone (100 ppb)Exp. 3: Dust (250 – 300 µg/m3) + ozone (100 ppb)Exp. 4: Filtered air (<20µg/m3)The exposure time was 5½ hours for each session.The health effects were...... evaluated at baseline and specific follow-up times in relation to selected respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes, such as; nasal volume, exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometry (FEV1 and FVC), exhaled breath condensate (EBC), nasal lavage, blood samples, EndoPat. Questionnaires were used for assessment...

  4. The human placenta--an alternative for studying foetal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myren, Maja; Mose, Tina; Mathiesen, Line

    2007-01-01

    Pregnant women are daily exposed to a wide selection of foreign substances. Sources are as different as lifestyle factors (smoking, daily care products, alcohol consumption, etc.), maternal medication or occupational/environmental exposures. The placenta provides the link between mother and foetus......, and though its main task is to act as a barrier and transport nutrients and oxygen to the foetus, many foreign compounds are transported across the placenta to some degree and may therefore influence the unborn child. Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products may have impact on the growth...... of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of the foetal organs (e.g. methylmercury and thalidomide). The scope of this review is to give insight to the placental anatomy, development and function. Furthermore, the compounds physical properties and the transfer mechanism across the placental barrier...

  5. Human Antibody Response to Aedes aegypti Saliva in an Urban Population in Bolivia: A New Biomarker of Exposure to Dengue Vector Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cournil, Amandine; Le Goff, Gilbert; Cornelie, Sylvie; Roca, Yelin; Giraldez, Mabel Guerra; Simon, Zaira Barja; Loayza, Roxanna; Misse, Dorothée; Flores, Jorge Vargas; Walter, Annie; Rogier, Christophe; Herve, Jean Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes are important vectors of re-emerging diseases in developing countries, and increasing exposure to Aedes in the developed world is currently a source of concern. Given the limitations of current entomologic methods, there is a need for a new effective way for evaluating Aedes exposure. Our objective was to evaluate specific antibody responses to Aedes aegypti saliva as a biomarker for vector exposure in a dengue-endemic urban area. IgG responses to saliva were strong in young children and steadily waned with age. Specific IgG levels were significantly higher in persons living in sites with higher Ae. aegypti density, as measured by using entomologic parameters. Logistic regression showed a significant correlation between IgG to saliva and exposure level, independently of either age or sex. These results suggest that antibody responses to saliva could be used to monitor human exposure to Aedes bites. PMID:22848099

  6. Novel Human Radiation Exposure Biomarker Panel Applicable for Population Triage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, Jose G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Chang, Polly; Balog, Robert; D' Andrea, Annalisa; Shaler, Thomas; Lin, Hua; Lee, Shirley; Harrison, Travis [SRI International, Menlo Park, California (United States); Shura, Lei; Schoen, Lucy; Knox, Susan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Cooper, David E., E-mail: david.cooper@sri.com [SRI International, Menlo Park, California (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To identify a panel of radiation-responsive plasma proteins that could be used in a point-of-care biologic dosimeter to detect clinically significant levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation using radiation therapy (RT) with either total lymphoid irradiation or fractionated total body irradiation were eligible. Plasma was examined from patients with potentially confounding conditions and from normal individuals. Each plasma sample was analyzed for a panel of 17 proteins before RT was begun and at several time points after RT exposure. Paired and unpaired t tests between the dose and control groups were performed. Conditional inference trees were constructed based on panels of proteins to compare the non-RT group with the RT group. Results: A total of 151 patients (62 RT, 41 infection, 48 trauma) were enrolled on the study, and the plasma from an additional 24 healthy control individuals was analyzed. In comparison with to control individuals, tenascin-C was upregulated and clusterin was downregulated in patients receiving RT. Salivary amylase was strongly radiation responsive, with upregulation in total body irradiation patients and slight downregulation in total lymphoid irradiation patients compared with control individuals. A panel consisting of these 3 proteins accurately distinguished between irradiated patients and healthy control individuals within 3 days after exposure: 97% accuracy, 0.5% false negative rate, 2% false positive rate. The accuracy was diminished when patients with trauma, infection, or both were included (accuracy, 74%-84%; false positive rate, 14%-33%, false negative rate: 8%-40%). Conclusions: A panel of 3 proteins accurately distinguishes unirradiated healthy donors from those exposed to RT (0.8-9.6 Gy) within 3 days of exposure. These findings have significant implications in terms of triaging individuals in the case of nuclear or other

  7. Lead Exposure Induces Telomere Instability in Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Pottier

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is an important environmental contaminant due to its widespread use over many centuries. While it affects primarily every organ system of the body, the most pernicious effects of Pb are on the central nervous system leading to cognitive and behavioral modification. Despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for Pb toxicity remain poorly understood. Recent work has suggested that Pb exposure may have consequences on chromosomal integrity as it was shown that Pb exposure leads to the generation of γH2Ax foci, a well-established biomarker for DNA double stranded break (DSB formation. As the chromosomal localization of γH2Ax foci plays an important role in determining the molecular mechanism responsible for their formation, we examined the localization of Pb-induced foci with respect to telomeres. Indeed, short or dysfunctional telomeres (uncapped or damaged telomeres may be recognized as DSB by the DNA repair machinery, leading to "telomere-Induced Foci" (TIFs. In the current study, we show that while Pb exposure did not increase intra-chromosomal foci, it significantly induced TIFs, leading in some cases, to chromosomal abnormalities including telomere loss. The evidence suggests that these chromosomal abnormalities are likely due to perturbation of telomere replication, in particular on the lagging DNA strand. We propose a mechanism by which Pb exposure leads to the loss of telomere maintenance. As numerous studies have demonstrated a role for telomere maintenance in brain development and tissue homeostasis, our results suggest a possible mechanism for lead-induced neurotoxicity.

  8. Acute effects of acrolein in human volunteers during controlled exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Aishwarya M; Johanson, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Johnny C; Palmberg, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Ernstgård, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde mainly formed by combustion. The critical effect is considered to be irritation of the eyes and airways; however, the scarce data available make it difficult to assess effect levels. The aim of the study was to determine thresholds for acute irritation for acrolein. Nine healthy volunteers of each sex were exposed at six occasions for 2 h at rest to: clean air, 15 ppm ethyl acetate (EA), and 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm acrolein with and without EA (15 ppm) to mask the potential influence of odor. Symptoms related to irritation and central nervous system effects were rated on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. The ratings of eye irritation were slightly but significantly increased during exposure to acrolein in a dose-dependent manner (p acrolein alone but not during any of the other five exposure conditions. Based on subjective ratings, the present study showed minor eye irritation by exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein.

  9. Analysis of Cigarette Smoke Deposition Within an In Vitro Exposure System for Simulating Exposure in the Human Respiratory Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Shinkichi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the risk assessment of airborne chemicals, a variety of in vitro direct exposure systems have been developed to replicate airborne chemical exposure in vivo. Since cells at the air-liquid interface are exposed to cigarette smoke as an aerosol in direct exposure systems, it is possible to reproduce the situation of cigarette smoke exposure in the human respiratory system using this device. However it is difficult to know whether the exposed cigarette smoke in this system is consistent with the smoke retained in the human respiratory tract. The purpose of this study is to clarify this point using the CULTEX® RFS module which is a recently developed direct exposure system. For this purpose, solanesol and acetaldehyde were respectively chosen as the particulate and gas/vapor phase representatives of smoke constituents, and their deposition and balance per unit area of cell culture surface of the RFS module were measured (dosimetry. We also conducted human retention studies to compare with the dosimetry data. By comparing inhaled smoke and exhaled smoke under three inhalation conditions, we estimated the regional retention and balance of each representative per unit surface area of the respiratory tract (mouth, bronchi, and alveoli separately. The deposition of solanesol and acetaldehyde per unit area of cell culture surface in the RFS module decreased dependent on the dilution flow rate and ranged from 0.26-0.0076%/cm2 in our experimental conditions. The ratio of deposited acetaldehyde to deposited solanesol ranged from 0.96-1.96 in the RFS module. The retention of solanesol and acetaldehyde per unit surface area in the mouth and the bronchi ranged from 0.095-0.0083%/cm2 in this study. The retention per unit surface area of alveoli was far lower than in the other two regions (0.0000063%/cm2. The ratio of retained acetaldehyde to retained solanesol ranged from 0.54-1.97. From these results, we concluded that the CULTEX® RFS module can simulate

  10. Critical elements for human health risk assessment of less than lifetime exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Nijkamp, Monique M; Ter Burg, Wouter

    2016-11-01

    Less than lifetime exposure has confronted risk assessors as to how to interpret the risks for human health in case a chronic health-based limit is exceeded. Intermittent, fluctuating and peak exposures do not match with the basis of the chronic limit values possibly leading to conservative outcomes. This paper presents guidance on how to deal with human risk assessment of less than lifetime exposure. Important steps to be considered are characterization of the human exposure situation, evaluation whether the human less than lifetime exposure scenario corresponds to a non-chronic internal exposure: toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic considerations, and, finally, re-evaluation of the risk assessment. Critical elements for these steps are the mode of action, Haber's rule, and toxicokinetics (ADME) amongst others. Previous work for the endpoints non-genotoxic carcinogenicity and developmental toxicity is included in the guidance. The guidance provides a way to consider the critical elements, without setting default factors to correct for the less than lifetime exposure in risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Wildfire smoke exposure and human health: Significant gaps in research for a growing public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carolyn; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Bassein, Jed A; Miller, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted areas. However, wildfire smoke composition is complex and dynamic, making characterization and modeling difficult. Furthermore, current efforts to study the effect of wildfire smoke are limited by availability of air quality measures and inconsistent air quality reporting among researchers. To help address these issues, we conducted a substantive review of wildfire smoke effects on population health, wildfire smoke exposure in occupational health, and experimental wood smoke exposure. Our goal was to evaluate the current literature on wildfire smoke and highlight important gaps in research. In particular we emphasize long-term health effects of wildfire smoke, recovery following wildfire smoke exposure, and health consequences of exposure in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Building an industry-wide occupational exposure database for respirable mineral dust - experiences from the IMA dust monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houba, Remko; Jongen, Richard; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Building an industry-wide database with exposure measurements of respirable mineral dust is a challenging operation. The Industrial Minerals Association (IMA-Europe) took the initiative to create an exposure database filled with data from a prospective and ongoing dust monitoring programme that was launched in 2000. More than 20 industrial mineral companies have been collecting exposure data following a common protocol since then. Recently in 2007 ArboUnie and IRAS evaluated the quality of the collected exposure data for data collected up to winter 2005/2006. The data evaluated was collected in 11 sampling campaigns by 24 companies at 84 different worksites and considered about 8,500 respirable dust measurements and 7,500 respirable crystalline silica. In the quality assurance exercise four criteria were used to evaluate the existing measurement data: personal exposure measurements, unique worker identity, sampling duration not longer than one shift and availability of a limit of detection. Review of existing exposure data in the IMA dust monitoring programme database showed that 58% of collected respirable dust measurements and 62% of collected respirable quartz could be regarded as 'good quality data' meeting the four criteria mentioned above. Only one third of the measurement data included repeated measurements (within a sampling campaign) that would allow advanced statistical analysis incorporating estimates of within- and between-worker variability in exposure to respirable mineral dust. This data came from 7 companies comprising measurements from 23 sites. Problematic data was collected in some specific countries and to a large extent this was due to local practices and legislation (e.g. allowing 40-h time weighted averages). It was concluded that the potential of this unique industry-wide exposure database is very high, but that considerable improvements can be made. At the end of 2006 relatively small but essential changes were made in the dust monitoring

  13. Comprehensive Biological Monitoring to Assess Isocyanates and Solvents Exposure in the NSW Australia Motor Vehicle Repair Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jimmy; Cantrell, Phillip; Nand, Aklesh

    2017-10-01

    Urethane products that contain isocyanates are extensively used in the motor vehicle repair (MVR) industry and other industries such as furniture and cabinet-making as two-pack spray paints, clears, and adhesives. Attention has recently been refocussed on isocyanate-containing chemicals, particularly in paints. The spray painters in the MVR industry had a propensity to develop industrial asthma at a rate 80 times higher than the general public, which was previously reported in the UK. To track workers exposure to isocyanates, urine samples were collected from 196 spray painters who worked mainly in 78 MVR shops across 54 New South Wales (NSW) towns and suburbs. The biological monitoring also covered exposure testing to a wide variety of solvents including aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, and alcohols. The main finding of the study was that 2.6% of the spray painters surveyed in the MVR industry in NSW that handled isocyanate-containing paints showed exposure to isocyanates; with 1.0% being moderately exposed, which is more than twice the current UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Biological Monitoring Guidance Value (BMGV) of 1 µmol mol-1 creatinine. Potential exposures to toluene (a solvent often found in paint thinners) was monitored via hippuric acid (HA) urine levels and showed 2.6% of the spray painters surveyed to be over the US' American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Biological Exposure Index (BEI) of 1010 mmol/mole creatinine for HA. The other solvents or their metabolites were all below their respective BEI; these comprised benzene, xylene, ethyl benzene, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, methanol, and ethanol. These findings indicate that isocyanates and certain solvents exposure were occurring in the NSW Australia vehicle repair industry, albeit at lower levels than previous occupational biological monitoring studies that showed higher exposure levels, particularly for isocyanates. One reason for this could be the increasing use

  14. HUMAN EXPOSURE TO THE ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES IN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vukanac

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial radionuclides are product of different human activities and their presence in the environment is negative side effect of civilization progress. They have been spread in the environment by events such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear accidents and by deliberate and negligent discharge of radioactive waste from nuclear and other installation. Once released in to the nature, the artificial radionuclides start to circle in the same manner as naturally occurring ones, and finally they fall out from air and water onto the ground and build into the foodstuff and drinking water resulting in radiation doses to human beings. The short overview of presence of artificial radioactivity in human environment and its impact on human life is presented in this paper.

  15. HUMAN EXPOSURE TO THE ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES IN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vukanac

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial radionuclides are product of different human activities and their presence in the environment is negative side effect of civilization progress. They have been spread in the environment by events such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear accidents and by deliberate and negligent discharge of radioactive waste from nuclear and other installation. Once released in to the nature, the artificial radionuclides start to circle in the same manner as naturally occurring ones, and finally they fall out from air and water onto the ground and build into the foodstuff and drinking water resulting in radiation doses to human beings. The short overview of presence of artificial radioactivity in human environment and its impact on human life is presented in this paper

  16. Investigating Intergenerational Differences in Human PCB Exposure due to Variable Emissions and Reproductive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Cristina L.; Wania, Frank; Czub, Gertje; Breivik, Knut

    2011-01-01

    Background Reproductive behaviors—such as age of childbearing, parity, and breast-feeding prevalence—have changed over the same historical time period as emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and may produce intergenerational differences in human PCB exposure. Objectives Our goal in this study was to estimate prenatal, postnatal, and lifetime PCB exposures for women at different ages according to year of birth, and to evaluate the impact of reproductive characteristics on intergenerational differences in exposure. Methods We used the time-variant mechanistic model CoZMoMAN to calculate human bioaccumulation of PCBs, assuming both hypothetical constant and realistic time-variant emissions. Results Although exposure primarily depends on when an individual was born relative to the emission history of PCBs, reproductive behaviors can have a significant impact. Our model suggests that a mother’s reproductive history has a greater influence on the prenatal and postnatal exposures of her children than it does on her own cumulative lifetime exposure. In particular, a child’s birth order appears to have a strong influence on their prenatal exposure, whereas postnatal exposure is determined by the type of milk (formula or breast milk) fed to the infant. Conclusions Prenatal PCB exposure appears to be delayed relative to the time of PCB emissions, particularly among those born after the PCB production phaseout. Consequently, the health repercussions of environmental PCBs can be expected to persist for several decades, despite bans on their production for > 40 years. PMID:21156396

  17. An approach for assessing human exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Glenn; MacDonell, Margaret; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Teuschler, Linda; Picel, Kurt; Butler, Jim; Chang, Young-Soo; Hartmann, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to multiple chemicals, including incidental exposures to complex chemical mixtures released into the environment and to combinations of chemicals that already co-exist in the environment because of previous releases from various sources. Exposures to chemical mixtures can occur through multiple pathways and across multiple routes. In this paper, we propose an iterative approach for assessing exposures to environmental chemical mixtures; it is similar to single-chemical approaches. Our approach encompasses two elements of the Risk Assessment Paradigm: Problem Formulation and Exposure Assessment. Multiple phases of the assessment occur in each element of the paradigm. During Problem Formulation, analysts identify and characterize the source(s) of the chemical mixture, ensure that dose-response and exposure assessment measures are concordant, and develop a preliminary evaluation of the mixture's fate. During Exposure Assessment, analysts evaluate the fate of the chemicals comprising the mixture using appropriate models and measurement data, characterize the exposure scenario, and estimate human exposure to the mixture. We also describe the utility of grouping the chemicals to be analyzed based on both physical-chemical properties and an understanding of environmental fate. In the article, we also highlight the need for understanding of changes in the mixture composition in the environment due to differential transport, differential degradation, and differential partitioning to other media. The section describes the application of the method to various chemical mixtures, highlighting issues associated with assessing exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment

  18. Vibrational monitor of early demineralization in tooth enamel after in vitro exposure to phosphoridic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Adachi, Tetsuya; Gasparutti, Isabella; Vincini, Giulio; Zhu, Wenliang; Boffelli, Marco; Rondinella, Alfredo; Marin, Elia; Ichioka, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Kanamura, Narisato

    2017-02-01

    The Raman spectroscopic method has been applied to quantitatively assess the in vitro degree of demineralization in healthy human teeth. Based on previous evaluations of Raman selection rules (empowered by an orientation distribution function (ODF) statistical algorithm) and on a newly proposed analysis of phonon density of states (PDOS) for selected vibrational modes of the hexagonal structure of hydroxyapatite, a molecular-scale evaluation of the demineralization process upon in vitro exposure to a highly acidic beverage (i.e., CocaCola™ Classic, pH = 2.5) could be obtained. The Raman method proved quite sensitive and spectroscopic features could be directly related to an increase in off-stoichiometry of the enamel surface structure since the very early stage of the demineralization process (i.e., when yet invisible to other conventional analytical techniques). The proposed Raman spectroscopic algorithm might possess some generality for caries risk assessment, allowing a prompt non-contact diagnostic practice in dentistry.

  19. Multi-scale spatial modeling of human exposure from local sources to global intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wannaz, Cedric; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Exposure studies, used in human health risk and impact assessments of chemicals are largely performed locally or regionally. It is usually not known how global impacts resulting from exposure to point source emissions compare to local impacts. To address this problem, we introduce Pangea......, an innovative multi-scale, spatial multimedia fate and exposure assessment model. We study local to global population exposure associated with emissions from 126 point sources matching locations of waste-to-energy plants across France. Results for three chemicals with distinct physicochemical properties...... occur within a 100 km radius from the source. This suggests that, by neglecting distant low-level exposure, local assessments might only account for fractions of global cumulative intakes. We also study ~10,000 emission locations covering France more densely to determine per chemical and exposure route...

  20. Radiation exposure control by estimation of multiplication factors for online remote radiation monitoring systems at vitrification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deokar, U.V.; Kulkarni, V.V.; Khot, A.R.; Mathew, P.; Kamlesh; Purohit, R.G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Vitrification Plant is commissioned for vitrification of high level liquid waste (HLW) generated in nuclear fuel cycle operations by using Joule Heated Ceramic Melter first time in India. Exposure control is a major concern in operating plant. Therefore in addition to installed monitors, we have developed online remote radiation monitoring system to minimize number of entries in amber areas and to reduce the exposure to the surveyor and operator. This also helped in volume reduction of secondary waste. The reliability and accuracy of the online monitoring system is confirmed with actual measurements and by theoretical shielding calculations. The multiplication factors were estimated for remote on line monitoring of Melter Off Gas (MOG) filter, Hood filter, three exhaust filter banks, and over-pack monitoring. This paper summarizes - how the online remote monitoring system helped in saving of 128.52 person-mSv collective dose (14.28% of budgeted dose). The system also helped in the reduction of 2.6 m 3 of Cat-I waste. Our online remote monitoring system has helped the plant management to plan in advance for replacement of these filters, which resulted in considerable saving in collective dose and secondary waste

  1. Trends in adult exposure to secondhand smoke in vehicles: Findings from the 2009-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2015-10-01

    A growing number of jurisdictions have implemented smoke-free vehicles when children are present due to the substantial health effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). Prior studies on the prevalence of SHS exposure in vehicles have mainly focused on adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of SHS exposure in vehicles among Canadian adults. A repeated cross-sectional data on youth and adult data were drawn from the 2009-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (n=58, 195). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the socio-demographic correlates of exposure to SHS in vehicles. Overall, 19% in 2009 and 18% in 2012 of adults reported SHS exposure in vehicles in the past month. Disparities in the SHS exposure prevalence were observed, with a higher SHS exposure among current smokers, former smokers, males, younger adults, living in a household with smoking-related exposure, and those with less education. The multivariable analyses showed significant associations between socio-demographic characteristics and SHS exposure. Higher odds SHS exposure was found for those younger (aged 20-24, OR=16.27, CI=11.09-23.88; 25-44, OR=6.12, CI=4.14-9.06; 45-64, OR=2.79, CI=1.95-4.02) compared to those aged 65 and over. Likewise, those with less education had greater odds of SHS exposure. Findings suggest that adults SHS exposure is high, especially for young adults and those with less education. Adult passengers may need protection from SHS given that no level of SHS exposure is safe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Parental Monitoring and Exposure to Community Violence on Antisocial Behavior and Anxiety/Depression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from…

  3. Mining the human urine proteome for monitoring renal transplant injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Gao, Yuqian; He, Jintang; Wang, Anyou; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Shi, Tujin; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Salvatierra, Oscar; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2016-06-01

    The human urinary proteome reflects systemic and inherent renal injury perturbations and can be analyzed to harness specific biomarkers for different kidney transplant injury states. 396 unique urine samples were collected contemporaneously with an allograft biopsy from 396 unique kidney transplant recipients. Centralized, blinded histology on the graft was used to classify matched urine samples into categories of acute rejection (AR), chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), BK virus nephritis (BKVN), and stable graft (STA). Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics using iTRAQ based discovery (n=108) and global label-free LC-MS analyses of individual samples (n=137) for quantitative proteome assessment were used in the discovery step. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was applied to identify and validate minimal urine protein/peptide biomarkers to accurately segregate organ injury causation and pathology on unique urine samples (n=151). A total of 958 proteins were initially quantified by iTRAQ, 87% of which were also identified among 1574 urine proteins detected in LC-MS validation. 103 urine proteins were significantly (p<0.05) perturbed in injury and enriched for humoral immunity, complement activation, and lymphocyte trafficking. A set of 131 peptides corresponding to 78 proteins were assessed by SRM for their significance in an independent sample cohort. A minimal set of 35 peptides mapping to 33 proteins, were modeled to segregate different injury groups (AUC =93% for AR, 99% for CAN, 83% for BKVN). Urinary proteome discovery and targeted validation identified urine protein fingerprints for non-invasive differentiation of kidney transplant injuries, thus opening the door for personalized immune risk assessment and therapy.

  4. Human Infection with MERS coronavirus after exposure to infected camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memish, Ziad A.; Cotten, Matthew; Meyer, Benjamin; Watson, Simon J.; Alsahafi, Abdullah J.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Corman, Victor Max; Sieberg, Andrea; Makhdoom, Hatem Q.; Assiri, Abdullah; Al Masri, Malaki; Aldabbagh, Souhaib; Bosch, Berend Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/273306049; Beer, Martin; Müller, Marcel A.; Kellam, Paul; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a case of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) after exposure to infected camels. Analysis of the whole human-derived virus and 15% of the camel-derived virus sequence yielded nucleotide polymorphism signatures suggestive of cross-species

  5. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures

  6. Overnight hypoxic exposure and glucagon-like peptide-1 and leptin levels in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snyder, Eric M; Carr, Richard D; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2008-01-01

    increases with hypoxia; however, the influence of hypoxia on GLP-1 has not been studied in animals or humans to date. We sought to determine the influence of normobaric hypoxia on plasma leptin and GLP-1 levels in 25 healthy humans. Subjects ingested a control meal during normoxia and after 17 h of exposure...

  7. COMPARING THE UTILITY OF MULTIMEDIA MODELS FOR HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL EXPOSURE ANALYSIS: TWO CASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of models are available for exposure assessment; however, few are used as tools for both human and ecosystem risks. This discussion will consider two modeling frameworks that have recently been used to support human and ecological decision making. The study will compare ...

  8. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine fish from Shandong, China, and human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanping; Jiang, Dafeng; Li, Fenghua; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei; Jiao, Yanni; Li, Lu

    2018-05-22

    The occurrence and human dietary exposure of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in 41 marine fish samples from Shandong Province of China were investigated. The DL-PCB congeners were extracted using automated Soxhlet extraction, purified via a composite column cleanup procedure and analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. DL-PCB congeners were found in all analyzed samples, with a mean concentration of 0.887 ng/g ww (wet weight). The TEQ concentrations of DL-PCBs in individual fish samples ranged from 0.011 to 9.214 pg WHO TEQ/g ww. The mean dietary intake for all fish species was 36.5 pg TEQ/kg bw/month, which was lower than the provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ/kg bw/month set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. To monitor the trend of DL-PCBs in fish for food safety control it is necessary to maintain a surveillance program.

  9. Assessment of indirect human exposure to environmental sources of nickel: oral exposure and risk characterization for systemic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brouwere, Katleen; Buekers, Jurgen; Cornelis, Christa; Schlekat, Christian E; Oller, Adriana R

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the indirect human exposure to Ni via the oral route for the regional scale in the EU, together with a method to assess additional local exposure from industrial emissions. The approach fills a gap in the generic REACH guidance which is inadequate for assessing indirect environmental exposure of metals. Estimates of regional scale Ni dietary intake were derived from Ni dietary studies performed in the EU. Typical and Reasonable Worst Case dietary Ni intakes for the general population in the EU were below the oral Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) of Ni sulfate for systemic effects. Estimates for the Ni dietary intake at the local scale take into account the influence of aerial Ni deposition and transfer from soil to crops grown near industrial plants emitting Ni. The additional dietary exposure via this local contribution was small. Despite the use of conservative parameters for these processes, this method may underestimate dietary exposure around older industrial sites because REACH guidance does not account for historical soil contamination. Nevertheless, the method developed here can also be used as a screening tool for community-based risk assessment, as it accounts for historical soil pollution. Nickel exposure via drinking water was derived from databases on Ni tap water quality. A small proportion of the EU population (<5%) is likely to be exposed to tap water exceeding the EU standard (20 μg Ni/l). Taking into account the relative gastrointestinal absorption of Ni from water (30%) versus from solid matrices (5%), water intake constitutes, after dietary intake, the second most important pathway for oral Ni intake. Incidental ingestion of Ni from soil/dust at the regional scale, and also at the local scale, was low in comparison with dietary intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. PRD3000: A novel Personnel Radiation Detector with Radiation Exposure Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Micou, C.; Schulcz, F.; Fellinger, J.

    2015-01-01

    PRD3000 TM is a novel Personal Radiation Detector (PRD) with personnel radiation dose exposure monitoring. It is intended for First Responders, Law Enforcement, Customs Inspectors protecting critical infrastructures for detecting unexpected radioactive sources, who also need real time Hp(10) dose equivalent information. Traditional PRD devices use scintillator materials instrumented through either a photomultiplier tube or a photodiode photodetector. While the former is bulky and sensitive to magnetic fields, the latter has to compromise radiation sensitivity and energy threshold given its current noise per unit of photo-detection surface. Recently, solid state photodetectors (SiPM), based on arrays of Geiger operated diodes, have emerged as a scalable digital photodetector for photon counting. Their strong breakdown voltage temperature dependence (on the order of tens of milli-volts per K) has however limited their use for portable instruments where strong temperature gradients can be experienced, and limited power is available to temperature stabilize. The PRD3000 is based on the industry standard DMC3000 active dosimeter that complies with IEC 61526 Ed. 3 and ANSI 42.20 for direct reading personal dose equivalent meters and active personnel radiation monitors. An extension module is based on a CsI(Tl) scintillator readout by a temperature compensated SiPM. Preliminary nuclear tests combined with a measured continuous operation in excess of 240 hours from a single AAA battery cell indicate that the PRD3000 complies with the IEC 62401 Ed.2 and ANSI 42.32 without sacrificing battery life time. We present a summary of the device test results, starting with performance stability over a temperature range of - 20 deg. C to 50 deg. C, false alarm rates and dynamic response time. (authors)

  11. PRD3000: A novel Personnel Radiation Detector with Radiation Exposure Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Micou, C.; Schulcz, F.; Fellinger, J. [Mirion Technologies - MGPI SA (France)

    2015-07-01

    PRD3000{sup TM} is a novel Personal Radiation Detector (PRD) with personnel radiation dose exposure monitoring. It is intended for First Responders, Law Enforcement, Customs Inspectors protecting critical infrastructures for detecting unexpected radioactive sources, who also need real time Hp(10) dose equivalent information. Traditional PRD devices use scintillator materials instrumented through either a photomultiplier tube or a photodiode photodetector. While the former is bulky and sensitive to magnetic fields, the latter has to compromise radiation sensitivity and energy threshold given its current noise per unit of photo-detection surface. Recently, solid state photodetectors (SiPM), based on arrays of Geiger operated diodes, have emerged as a scalable digital photodetector for photon counting. Their strong breakdown voltage temperature dependence (on the order of tens of milli-volts per K) has however limited their use for portable instruments where strong temperature gradients can be experienced, and limited power is available to temperature stabilize. The PRD3000 is based on the industry standard DMC3000 active dosimeter that complies with IEC 61526 Ed. 3 and ANSI 42.20 for direct reading personal dose equivalent meters and active personnel radiation monitors. An extension module is based on a CsI(Tl) scintillator readout by a temperature compensated SiPM. Preliminary nuclear tests combined with a measured continuous operation in excess of 240 hours from a single AAA battery cell indicate that the PRD3000 complies with the IEC 62401 Ed.2 and ANSI 42.32 without sacrificing battery life time. We present a summary of the device test results, starting with performance stability over a temperature range of - 20 deg. C to 50 deg. C, false alarm rates and dynamic response time. (authors)

  12. Limiting criteria for human exposure to low humidity indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyon, David; Fang, Lei; Meyer, H.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty subjects (17 female) were exposed for 5 hours to clean air at 5%, 15%, 25% and 35% RH at 22 deg.C. Another 30 subjects (15 female) were similarly exposed to air polluted by carpet and linoleum at 18, 22 and 26 deg.C with humidity 2.4 g/kg dry air (=15% RH at 22 deg.C), and at 22 deg.C, 35......% RH. The subjects performed simulated office work throughout each exposure. Building Related Symptom (BRS) intensity was reported on visual-analogue scales. Tests of eye, nose and skin function were applied. In these short exposures subjective discomfort, though significantly increased by low humidity......, was very moderate even at 5% RH. However, tear film quality as indicated by the Mucous Ferning Test deteriorated significantly at RH22 deg.C, significantly more rapid blink rates were observed at 5% than at 35% RH, and skin became significantly more dry at 15% than at 35% RH....

  13. Use of cytogenetic endpoints in human lymphocytes as indicators of exposure to genotoxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The utility of the lymphocyte assay for chemical exposures is discussed, with reference to the underlying mechanisms of induction of chromosome alterations. Possible ways of increasing the sensitivity of the assay in order to make it more useful for population monitoring are also discussed. 28 references

  14. Environmental and human exposure as a result of radioactive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    Nuclear accidents can lead to the discharge of radioactive particulates, gases, and liquid effluents into the environment. Effluents are characterized by their composition, duration and by other characteristics which can influence the dispersion of radioactivity in the environment. Populations can be exposed directly or through the contamination of the terrestrial and aquatic environments. Therefore, it is necessary to take into consideration both the environmental contamination pathways and the human contamination pathways through the environment. This document summarizes these different pathways: contamination by atmospheric discharge (surface contamination, surface waters, terrestrial fauna and flora); contamination by liquid discharge; spreading of contaminated areas; human contamination pathways (external irradiation, internal contamination, skin contamination). (J.S.)

  15. Exposure, uptake, distribution and toxicity of nanomaterials in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, Stephen T

    2010-02-01

    The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented explosion in nanotechnology to take advantage of the unique physicochemical properties that emerge at the nanoscale including quantum effects. However, the excitement generated by new applications of nanotechnology in products has not been matched by a parallel appreciation or understanding of their potential toxic effects in humans and the wider ecology. This review draws some parallels to what we already know about the toxicity of particles in the workplace and in association with air pollution, and then discusses what is known about the toxicology of nanomaterials in mammals including humans. The review identifies substantial gaps in knowledge and makes some recommendations for future research.

  16. Establishing an air pollution monitoring network for intra-urban population exposure assessment : a location-allocation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology; Jerrett, M.; Beckerman, B.; Arain, M.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health; Morrison, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Computer Science; Gilbert, N.L. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Air Health Effects Div; Brook, J.R. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the relation between traffic-generated air pollution and health reactions ranging from childhood asthma to mortality from lung cancer. In particular, it developed a formal method of optimally locating a dense network of air pollution monitoring stations in order to derive an exposure assessment model based on the data obtained from the monitoring stations and related land use, population and biophysical information. The method for determining the locations of 100 nitrogen dioxide monitors in Toronto, Ontario focused on land use, transportation infrastructure and the distribution of at-risk populations. The exposure assessment produced reasonable estimates at the intra-urban scale. This method for locating air pollution monitors effectively maximizes sampling coverage in relation to important socio-demographic characteristics and likely pollution variability. The location-allocation approach integrates many variables into the demand surface to reconfigure a monitoring network and is especially useful for measuring traffic pollutants with fine-scale spatial variability. The method also shows great promise for improving the assessment of exposure to ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Development of a Biomarker for Penconazole: A Human Oral Dosing Study and a Survey of UK Residents’ Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Sams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Penconazole is a widely used fungicide in the UK; however, to date, there have been no peer-reviewed publications reporting human metabolism, excretion or biological monitoring data. The objectives of this study were to i develop a robust analytical method, ii determine biomarker levels in volunteers exposed to penconazole, and, finally, to iii measure the metabolites in samples collected as part of a large investigation of rural residents’ exposure. An LC-MS/MS method was developed for penconazole and two oxidative metabolites. Three volunteers received a single oral dose of 0.03 mg/kg body weight and timed urine samples were collected and analysed. The volunteer study demonstrated that both penconazole-OH and penconazole-COOH are excreted in humans following an oral dose and are viable biomarkers. Excretion is rapid with a half-life of less than four hours. Mean recovery of the administered dose was 47% (range 33%–54% in urine treated with glucuronidase to hydrolyse any conjugates. The results from the residents’ study showed that levels of penconazole-COOH in this population were low with >80% below the limit of detection. Future sampling strategies that include both end of exposure and next day urine samples, as well as contextual data about the route and time of exposure, are recommended.

  18. High Throughput Heuristics for Prioritizing Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk posed to human health by any of the thousands of untested anthropogenic chemicals in our environment is a function of both the potential hazard presented by the chemical, and the possibility of being exposed. Without the capacity to make quantitative, albeit uncertain, f...

  19. Human volunteer study with PGME: Eye irritation during vapour exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated

  20. A changing climate: impacts on human exposures to O3 using ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predicting the impacts of changing climate on human exposure to air pollution requires future scenarios that account for changes in ambient pollutant concentrations, population sizes and distributions, and housing stocks. An integrated methodology to model changes in human exposures due to these impacts was developed by linking climate, air quality, land-use, and human exposure models. This methodology was then applied to characterize changes in predicted human exposures to O3 under multiple future scenarios. Regional climate projections for the U.S. were developed by downscaling global circulation model (GCM) scenarios for three of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC’s) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The regional climate results were in turn used to generate air quality (concentration) projections using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. For each of the climate change scenarios, future U.S. census-tract level population distributions from the Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) model for four future scenarios based on the IPCC’s Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) storylines were used. These climate, air quality, and population projections were used as inputs to EPA’s Air Pollutants Exposure (APEX) model for 12 U.S. cities. Probability density functions show changes in the population distribution of 8 h maximum daily O3 exposur

  1. Probabilistic integrated risk assessment of human exposure risk to environmental bisphenol A pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-10-01

    Environmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects such as developmental and reproductive issues. However, establishing a clear association between BPA and the likelihood of human health is complex yet fundamentally uncertain. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential exposure risks from environmental BPA among Chinese population based on five human health outcomes, namely immune response, uterotrophic assay, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and behavior change. We addressed these health concerns by using a stochastic integrated risk assessment approach. The BPA dose-dependent likelihood of effects was reconstructed by a series of Hill models based on animal models or epidemiological data. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that allows estimation of urinary BPA concentration from external exposures. Here we showed that the daily average exposure concentrations of BPA and urinary BPA estimates were consistent with the published data. We found that BPA exposures were less likely to pose significant risks for infants (0-1 year) and adults (male and female >20 years) with human long-term BPA susceptibility in relation to multiple exposure pathways, and for informing the public of the negligible magnitude of environmental BPA pollution impacts on human health.

  2. Gene expression signatures that predict radiation exposure in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K Dressman

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to assess environmental inputs to biological phenotypes is limited by methods that can accurately and quantitatively measure these contributions. One such example can be seen in the context of exposure to ionizing radiation.We have made use of gene expression analysis of peripheral blood (PB mononuclear cells to develop expression profiles that accurately reflect prior radiation exposure. We demonstrate that expression profiles can be developed that not only predict radiation exposure in mice but also distinguish the level of radiation exposure, ranging from 50 cGy to 1,000 cGy. Likewise, a molecular signature of radiation response developed solely from irradiated human patient samples can predict and distinguish irradiated human PB samples from nonirradiated samples with an accuracy of 90%, sensitivity of 85%, and specificity of 94%. We further demonstrate that a radiation profile developed in the mouse can correctly distinguish PB samples from irradiated and nonirradiated human patients with an accuracy of 77%, sensitivity of 82%, and specificity of 75%. Taken together, these data demonstrate that molecular profiles can be generated that are highly predictive of different levels of radiation exposure in mice and humans.We suggest that this approach, with additional refinement, could provide a method to assess the effects of various environmental inputs into biological phenotypes as well as providing a more practical application of a rapid molecular screening test for the diagnosis of radiation exposure.

  3. Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks : Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Poothong, Somrutai; Koekkoek, Jacco; Lucattini, Luisa; Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Haugen, Margaretha; Herzke, Dorte; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Cousins, Ian T.; Leonards, Pim E.G.; Småstuen Haug, Line

    2017-01-01

    Background Diet is a major source of human exposure to hazardous environmental chemicals, including many perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Several assessment methods of dietary exposure to PFAAs have been used previously, but there is a lack of comparisons between methods. Aim To assess human exposure

  4. Analysis of time series exposure rates obtained at a monitoring station around nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, I.; Ogawa, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Honda, Y.; Nakashima, Y.; Yoshimoto, T.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1991-01-01

    From the investigation on the variation of AAD rates monitored in the natural environment around nuclear power station, it may be concluded; (1) Differences between monthly averaged air absorbed dose rates (AAD rates) given by all data obtained and those obtained in fine weather become larger in winter (from Dec. to Feb.) (2) Cummulative frequency distributions of AAD rates are very different among four seasons. Remarkably high AAD rates are observed by heavy rains in summer and snow falls or rains in winter. (3) Though the hypothesis that the frequency distribution of AAD rates fit to the lognormal distribution can not be accepted by chi-square test, higher part of the frequency distribution of AAD rates agree approximately with the lognormal one. (4) Identification of AAD rates due to plume exposure may be possible by statistical analysis assuming lognormal distribution of AAD rates as well as the discrimination method based on the reference standard using mean values and standard deviations of the data obtained in fine weather. (author)

  5. Developing and evaluating distributions for probabilistic human exposure assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2002-08-01

    This report describes research carried out at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assist the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in developing a consistent yet flexible approach for evaluating the inputs to probabilistic risk assessments. The U.S. EPA Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) recently released Volume 3 Part A of Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), as an update to the existing two-volume set of RAGS. The update provides policy and technical guidance on performing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consequently, EPA risk managers and decision-makers need to review and evaluate the adequacy of PRAs for supporting regulatory decisions. A critical part of evaluating a PRA is the problem of evaluating or judging the adequacy of input distributions PRA. Although the overarching theme of this report is the need to improve the ease and consistency of the regulatory review process, the specific objectives are presented in two parts. The objective of Part 1 is to develop a consistent yet flexible process for evaluating distributions in a PRA by identifying the critical attributes of an exposure factor distribution and discussing how these attributes relate to the task-specific adequacy of the input. This objective is carried out with emphasis on the perspective of a risk manager or decision-maker. The proposed evaluation procedure provides consistency to the review process without a loss of flexibility. As a result, the approach described in Part 1 provides an opportunity to apply a single review framework for all EPA regions and yet provide the regional risk manager with the flexibility to deal with site- and case-specific issues in the PRA process. However, as the number of inputs to a PRA increases, so does the complexity of the process for calculating, communicating and managing risk. As a result, there is increasing effort required of both the risk professionals performing the analysis and the risk manager

  6. Mutagenic potential assessment associated with human exposure to natural radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alexandre Endres; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; Garcia, Anuska Conde Fagundes Soares; do Amaral, Viviane Souza; Petta, Reinaldo Antônio; Campos, Thomas Ferreira da Costa; Panosso, Renata; Quinelato, Antônio Luiz; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo

    2017-01-01

    Lucrécia city, known to harbor a high cancer rate, is located in a semiarid region characterized by the presence of mineral reservoirs, facing a high exposure to metal and natural radioactivity. The present study aimed to assess the environmental scenario at a semiarid region located in Northeastern Brazil. Metal concentration, alpha and beta radiation, and cyanobacteria content in tap water along with indoor radon and gamma emitters (U, K and Th) concentrations were measured. In addition, mutagenic and nuclear instability effects were assessed using buccal micronucleus cytome assay. The study included five samplings corresponding to a period between 2007 and 2009. Drinking water from Lucrécia city presented levels of Mn, Ni and Cr along with cyanobacteria in concentrations one to four times higher than regulatory guidelines considered. Furthermore, high levels of all the tested radionuclides were found. A high percentage of the houses included in this study presented indoor radon concentrations over 100 Bq m -3 . The mean annual effective dose from Lucrécia houses was six times higher than observed in a control region. The levels of exposure in most of the Lucrécia houses were classified as middle to high. A significant mutagenic effect, represented as an increase of micronuclei (MN) frequency and nuclear abnormalities as nuclear buds (NB), binucleated cells (BN), and pyknotic cells (PYC) were found. The results obtained highlight the role of high background radioactivity on the observed mutagenic effect and could help to explain the exacerbated cancer rate reported in this locality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Relationship between vapor intrusion and human exposure to trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Natalie P; Bradford, Carrie M; Villanacci, John F; Crain, Neil E; Corsi, Richard L; Chambers, David M; Burk, Tonia; Blount, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater has the potential to volatilize through soil into indoor air where it can be inhaled. The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals living above TCE-contaminated groundwater are exposed to TCE through vapor intrusion. We examined associations between TCE concentrations in various environmental media and TCE concentrations in residents. For this assessment, indoor air, outdoor air, soil gas, and tap water samples were collected in and around 36 randomly selected homes; blood samples were collected from 63 residents of these homes. Additionally, a completed exposure survey was collected from each participant. Environmental and blood samples were analyzed for TCE. Mixed model multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine associations between TCE in residents' blood and TCE in indoor air, outdoor air, and soil gas. Blood TCE concentrations were above the limit of quantitation (LOQ; ≥ 0.012 µg L(-1)) in 17.5% of the blood samples. Of the 36 homes, 54.3%, 47.2%, and >84% had detectable concentrations of TCE in indoor air, outdoor air, and soil gas, respectively. Both indoor air and soil gas concentrations were statistically significantly positively associated with participants' blood concentrations (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.04, respectively). Geometric mean blood concentrations of residents from homes with indoor air concentrations of >1.6 µg m(-3) were approximately 50 times higher than geometric mean blood TCE concentrations in participants from homes with no detectable TCE in indoor air (P < .0001; 95% CI 10.4-236.4). This study confirms the occurrence of vapor intrusion and demonstrates the magnitude of exposure from vapor intrusion of TCE in a residential setting.

  8. 15 years of monitoring occupational exposure to respirable dust and quartz within the European industrial minerals sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilaout, Hicham; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Houba, Remko; Kromhout, Hans

    2017-07-01

    In 2000, a prospective Dust Monitoring Program (DMP) was started in which measurements of worker's exposure to respirable dust and quartz are collected in member companies from the European Industrial Minerals Association (IMA-Europe). After 15 years, the resulting IMA-DMP database allows a detailed overview of exposure levels of respirable dust and quartz over time within this industrial sector. Our aim is to describe the IMA-DMP and the current state of the corresponding database which due to continuation of the IMA-DMP is still growing. The future use of the database will also be highlighted including its utility for the industrial minerals producing sector. Exposure data are being obtained following a common protocol including a standardized sampling strategy, standardized sampling and analytical methods and a data management system. Following strict quality control procedures, exposure data are consequently added to a central database. The data comprises personal exposure measurements including auxiliary information on work and other conditions during sampling. Currently, the IMA-DMP database consists of almost 28,000 personal measurements which have been performed from 2000 until 2015 representing 29 half-yearly sampling campaigns. The exposure data have been collected from 160 different worksites owned by 35 industrial mineral companies and comes from 23 European countries and approximately 5000 workers. The IMA-DMP database provides the European minerals sector with reliable data regarding worker personal exposures to respirable dust and quartz. The database can be used as a powerful tool to address outstanding scientific issues on long-term exposure trends and exposure variability, and importantly, as a surveillance tool to evaluate exposure control measures. The database will be valuable for future epidemiological studies on respiratory health effects and will allow for estimation of quantitative exposure response relationships. Copyright © 2017 The

  9. New experimental data on the human dermal absorption of Simazine and Carbendazim help to refine the assessment of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányiová, Katarína; Nečasová, Anežka; Kohoutek, Jiří; Justan, Ivan; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-02-01

    Due to their widespread usage, people are exposed to pesticides on a daily basis. Although these compounds may have adverse effects on their health, there is a gap in the data and the methodology needed to reliably quantify the risks of non-occupational human dermal exposure to pesticides. We used Franz cells and human skin in order to measure the dermal absorption kinetics (steady-state flux, lag time and permeability coefficient) of Carbendazim and Simazine. These parameters were then used to refine the dermal exposure model and a probabilistic simulation was used to quantify risks resulting from exposure to pesticide-polluted waters. The experimentally derived permeability coefficient was 0.0034 cm h(-1) for Carbendazim and 0.0047 cm h(-1) for Simazine. Two scenarios (varying exposure duration and concentration, i.e. environmentally relevant and maximum solubility) were used to quantify the human health risks (hazard quotients) for Carbendazim and Simazine. While no risks were determined in the case of either scenario, the permeability coefficient, which is concentration independent and donor, formulation, compound and membrane specific, may be used in other scenarios and exposure models to quantify more precisely the dermally absorbed dose during exposure to polluted water. To the best of our knowledge, the dermal absorption kinetics parameters defined here are being published for the first time. The usage of experimental permeability parameters in combination with probabilistic risk assessment thus provides a new tool for quantifying the risks of human dermal exposure to pesticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling Of In-Vehicle Human Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Frey, H. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A method for estimating in-vehicle PM2.5 exposure as part of a scenario-based population simulation model is developed and assessed. In existing models, such as the Stochastic Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM), in-vehicle exposure is estimated using linear regression based on area-wide ambient PM2.5 concentration. An alternative modeling approach is explored based on estimation of near-road PM2.5 concentration and an in-vehicle mass balance. Near-road PM2.5 concentration is estimated using a dispersion model and fixed site monitor (FSM) data. In-vehicle concentration is estimated based on air exchange rate and filter efficiency. In-vehicle concentration varies with road type, traffic flow, windspeed, stability class, and ventilation. Average in-vehicle exposure is estimated to contribute 10 to 20 percent of average daily exposure. The contribution of in-vehicle exposure to total daily exposure can be higher for some individuals. Recommendations are made for updating exposure models and implementation of the alternative approach. PMID:23101000

  11. Drinking water as a proportion of total human exposure to volatile N-nitrosamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, Steve E; Bull, Richard J; Cotruvo, Joseph A; Paoli, Greg; Wilson, Margaret

    2013-12-01

    Some volatile N-nitrosamines, primarily N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), are recognized as products of drinking water treatment at ng/L levels and as known carcinogens. The U.S. EPA has identified the N-nitrosamines as contaminants being considered for regulation as a group under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Nitrosamines are common dietary components, and a major database (over 18,000 drinking water samples) has recently been created under the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule. A Monte Carlo modeling analysis in 2007 found that drinking water contributed less than 2.8% of ingested NDMA and less than 0.02% of total NDMA exposure when estimated endogenous formation was considered. Our analysis, based upon human blood concentrations, indicates that endogenous NDMA production is larger than expected. The blood-based estimates are within the range that would be calculated from estimates based on daily urinary NDMA excretion and an estimate based on methylated guanine in DNA of lymphocytes from human volunteers. Our analysis of ingested NDMA from food and water based on Monte Carlo modeling with more complete data input shows that drinking water contributes a mean proportion of the lifetime average daily NDMA dose ranging from between 0.0002% and 0.001% for surface water systems using free chlorine or between 0.001% and 0.01% for surface water systems using chloramines. The proportions of average daily dose are higher for infants (zero to six months) than other age cohorts, with the highest mean up to 0.09% (upper 95th percentile of 0.3%). © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, June M.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A.

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males...... and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case–control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; MW: 314.46) and no other hormonal...... preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual...

  13. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  14. Radiation exposure control by estimation of multiplication factors for online remote radiation monitoring systems at Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deokar, Umesh V.; Kukarni, V.V.; Khot, A.R.; Mathew, P.; Kamlesh; Purohit, R.G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Vitrification Plant is commissioned for vitrification of high-level liquid waste generated in Nuclear Fuel Cycle operations by using Joule Heated Ceramic Melter first time in India. Exposure control is a major concern in operating plant. Therefore, in addition to installed monitors, we have developed online remote radiation monitoring system to minimize number of entries in amber areas and to reduce the exposure to the surveyor and operator. This also helped in volume reduction of secondary waste. The reliability and accuracy of the online monitoring system is confirmed with actual measurements and by theoretical shielding calculations. The multiplication factors were estimated for remote online monitoring of Melter off Gas (MOG) filter, Hood filter, three exhaust filter banks, and overpack monitoring. This paper summarizes how the online remote monitoring system had helped in saving of 128.52 Person-mSv collective dose (14.28% of budgeted dose) and also there was 2.6 m 3 reduction in generation of Cat-I waste. (author)

  15. Application of human volunteer studies in setting exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Human volunteer studies can provide many of the quantitative data on human radionuclide biokinetics needed to relate organ doses to intakes. They are best suited to characterising parameters that apply to a wide range of compounds, e.g. particle deposition in the respiratory tract, and the retention and excretion of elements after injection into the blood. Their application to quantifying particle clearance from the respiratory tract is discussed, with particular reference to recent findings and the NRPB's programme of volunteer investigations. Evidence to support the view that particle clearance rates are similar for different materials is summarised. Rates of particle clearance from the human lung to the GI tract are calculated from the results of two recent studies. The fraction of the remaining lung content cleared per day is estimated to decrease from ∼ 3 x 10 -3 d -1 at 25 days to ∼ 5 x 10 -4 d -1 at 350 days. There is a large degree of inter-subject variation, with most results conforming to a log-normal distribution with σ g of 1.6. There remains considerable uncertainty about subsequent clearance, and about sites of long-term lung retention. (author)

  16. Design and application of a web-based real-time personal PM2.5 exposure monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qinghua; Zhuang, Jia; Du, Yanjun; Xu, Dandan; Li, Tiantian

    2018-06-15

    Growing demand from public health research for conduct large-scale epidemiological studies to explore health effect of PM 2.5 was well-documented. To address this need, we design a web-based real-time personal PM 2.5 exposure monitoring system (RPPM2.5 system) which can help researcher to get big data of personal PM 2.5 exposure with low-cost, low labor requirement, and low operating technical requirements. RPPM2.5 system can provide relative accurate real-time personal exposure data for individuals, researches, and decision maker. And this system has been used in a survey of PM 2.5 personal exposure level conducted in 5 cities of China and has provided mass of valuable data for epidemiological research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of chromosome translocations for measuring prior environment exposures in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    Recent advances in cytogenetic methodology are beginning to have a major impact upon our ability to provide assessments of environmental exposure in humans. The advent of fluorescent-based techniques for `painting` whole chromosomes has made the analysis of chromosome translocations rapid, specific, sensitive and routine. Chromosome painting has been used to address a wide variety of scientific questions, resulting in an increased understanding of the biological consequences of adverse environmental exposure. This paper describes the use of chromosome translocations as a biological marker of exposure and effect in humans. The relevance of translocations is discussed, as are the advantages and disadvantages of painting compared to classical cytogenetic methods for translocation evaluation. The factors to consider in the use of translocations as a retrospective indicator of exposure are then described. Several theoretical parameters that are important to the use of translocations are provided, and the paper concludes with a vision for the future of cytogenetic methodology.

  18. Human internal and external exposure to PBDEs--a review of levels and sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature on human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with particular focus on external exposure routes (e.g. dust, diet, and air) and the resulting internal exposure to PBDEs (e.g. breast milk and blood). Being lipophilic and persistent organic...... ingest more dust than adults. Infants are also exposed to PBDEs via breast milk. Internal human exposure has generally been found to be one order of magnitude larger in North America than in Europe and Asia. These differences cannot solely be explained by the dietary intake as meat products are the only...... food group where some differences has been observed. However, indoor air and dust concentrations have been found to be approximately one order of magnitude higher in North America than in Europe, possibly a result of different fire safety standards. Within Europe, higher PBDE concentrations in dust...

  19. Human bromethalin exposures reported to a U.S. Statewide Poison Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Serena; Fenik, Yelena; Vohra, Rais; Geller, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Bromethalin is an increasingly used alternative to long-acting anticoagulant and cholecalciferol rodenticides. There are few reports of human exposures, and no existing professional society guidelines on medical management of bromethalin ingestions. The aim of this retrospective data review is to characterize bromethalin exposures reported to the California Poison Control System (CPCS) between 1997 and 2014. This is an observational retrospective case review of our statewide poison control system's electronic medical records. Following Institutional Board Review and Research Committee approvals, poison center exposures related to bromethalin were extracted using substance code and free text search strategies. Case notes of bromethalin exposures were reviewed for demographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome information; inclusion criteria for the study was single-substance, human exposure to bromethalin. There were 129 calls related to human bromethalin exposures (three cases met exclusion criteria). The age range of cases was 7 months-90 years old, with the majority of exposures (89 cases; 70.6%), occurring in children younger than 5 years of age (median age of 2 years). Most exposures occurred in the pediatric population as a result of exploratory oral exposure. One hundred and thirteen patients (89.7%) had no effects post exposure, while 10 patients (7.9%) had a minor outcome. Adverse effects were minor, self-limited, and mostly gastrointestinal upset. There were no moderate, major, or fatal effects in our study population. The approximate ingested dose, available in six cases, ranged from 0.067 mg/kg to 0.3 mg/kg (milligrams of bromethalin ingested per kilogram of body weight), and no dose-symptom threshold could be established from this series. Exposures were not confirmed through urine or serum laboratory testing. The prognosis for most accidental ingestions appears to be excellent. However, bromethalin exposures may result in a higher number of

  20. Data sources and methods for ascertaining human exposure to drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J K; Kennedy, D L

    Estimates of population exposure based on drug use data are critical elements in the post marketing surveillance of drugs and provide a context for assessing the various risks and benefits associated with drug treatment. Such information is important in predicting morbidity and planning public health protection strategies, indepth studies, and regulatory actions. Knowledge that a population of one thousand instead of one million may potentially be exposed to a drug can help determine how a particular regulatory problem will be handled and would obviously be a major determinant in designing a case-control or cohort study. National estimates of drug use give an overview of the most commonly used drug therapies in current practice. They also furnish valuable comparison data for specific studies of drug use limited to one group of drugs, one geographic region, or one medical care setting. The FDA has access to several different national drug use data bases, each measuring a different point in the drug distribution channels. None covers the entire spectrum of drug exposures. The major "holes" in this patchwork of data bases are the inability to measure OTC drug use with any accuracy and the lack of qualitative information on drug use in hospitals. In addition, there is no patient linkage with the data. The data can only show trends in drug use. They impart no sense of the longitudinal use of drugs for individual patients. There is no direct connection between the different data bases, all of which have their own sampling frames and their own projection methodologies. The market research companies have complete control over these methodologies and they are subject to periodic changes, a situation not entirely satisfactory for epidemiologic research. Sometimes it is a struggle to keep up with these changes. Over the past two years, every one of these data bases has undergone some type of sampling or projection methodology change. One important limitation to the use of all

  1. Electrical Properties of PPy-Coated Conductive Fabrics for Human Joint Motion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyong Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Body motion signals indicate several pathological features of the human body, and a wearable human motion monitoring system can respond to human joint motion signal in real time, thereby enabling the prevention and treatment of some diseases. Because conductive fabrics can be well integrated with the garment, they are ideal as a sensing element of wearable human motion monitoring systems. This study prepared polypyrrole conductive fabric by in situ polymerization, and the anisotropic property of the conductive fabric resistance, resistance–strain relationship, and the relationship between resistance and the human knee and elbow movements are discussed preliminarily.

  2. Using Biomarkers in Sewage to Monitor Community-Wide Human Health: Isoprostances as Conceptual Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timely assessment of the aggregate health of small-area human populations is essential for guiding the optimal investment of resources needed for preventing, avoiding, controlling, or mitigating exposure risks. Seeking those interventions yielding the greatest benefit with respec...

  3. Characterizing areas of potential human exposure to eastern equine encephalitis virus using serological and clinical data from horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, J-P; Arsenault, J; Ogden, N H; Lindsay, L R; Drebot, M; Michel, P

    2017-03-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but severe emerging vector-borne disease affecting human and animal populations in the northeastern United States where it is endemic. Key knowledge gaps remain about the epidemiology of EEE virus (EEEV) in areas where its emergence has more recently been reported. In Eastern Canada, viral activity has been recorded in mosquitoes and horses throughout the 2000s but cases of EEEV in humans have not been reported so far. This study was designed to provide an assessment of possible EEEV human exposure by modelling environmental risk factors for EEEV in horses, identifying high-risk environments and mapping risk in the province of Quebec, Canada. According to logistic models, being located near wooded swamps was a risk factor for seropositivity or disease in horses [odds ratio (OR) 4·15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·16-14·8) whereas being located on agricultural lands was identified as protective (OR 0·75, 95% CI 0·62-0·92). A better understanding of the environmental risk of exposure to EEEV in Canada provides veterinary and public health officials with enhanced means to more effectively monitor the emergence of this public health risk and design targeted surveillance and preventive measures.

  4. Serum metabolome biomarkers associate low-level environmental perfluorinated compound exposure with oxidative /nitrosative stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Liangpo; Zhang, Weibing; Zhang, Jie; Du, Xiaoyan; Huang, Qingyu; Tian, Meiping; Shen, Heqing

    2017-10-01

    Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have linked perfluorinated compound (PFC) exposure with metabolic interruption, but the inter-species difference and high treatment doses usually make the results difficult to be extrapolated to humans directly. The best strategy for identifying the metabolic interruption may be to establish the direct correlations between monitored PFCs data and metabolic data on human samples. In this study, serum metabolome data and PFC concentrations were acquired for a Chinese adult male cohort. The most abundant PFCs are PFOA and PFOS with concentration medians 7.56 and 12.78 nM, respectively; in together they count around 81.6% of the total PFCs. PFC concentration-related serum metabolic profile changes and the related metabolic biomarkers were explored by using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Respectively taking PFOS, PFOA and total PFC as the classifiers, serum metabolome can be differentiated between the lowest dose group (1st quartile PFCs) and the highest PFC dose group (4th quartile PFCs). Ten potential PFC biomarkers were identified, mainly involving in pollutant detoxification, antioxidation and nitric oxide (NO) signal pathways. These suggested that low-level environmental PFC exposure has significantly adverse impacts on glutathione (GSH) cycle, Krebs cycle, nitric oxide (NO) generation and purine oxidation in humans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report investigating the association of environmental PFC exposure with human serum metabolome alteration. Given the important biological functions of the identified biomarkers, we suggest that PFC could increase the metabolism syndromes risk including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plutonium content of human placental tissues after occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.J.; Sikov, M.R.; Kathren, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    The placenta and umbilical cord were obtained following a normal live delivery from a volunteer donor who had received an accidental inhalation intake of plutonium 12 years prior to her pregnancy (Case 0777). Her employer estimated the intake to be about 73 Bq Class W plutonium. Based on bioassay results and clearance models in use at that time, they calculated her body content at the beginning of pregnancy to be about 5.6 Bq with an average concentration of approximately 60 mBq kg -1 . The placenta and cord from this pregnancy, along with the placenta and cord from a donor with no known exposure to plutonium (Case 0835), were divided and assayed for plutonium by ultrasensitive fission track analysis at two collaborating laboratories. Placental 239 Pu concentration values obtained by the two laboratories for Case 0777 agreed within a factor of 2 and were several-fold greater than for the control, Case 0835, as well as values that had been reported by others for unexposed populations. There was no elevated concentration of plutonium in the umbilical cord from the exposed person. The data yielded values of 0.16 and 0.27 for placental to maternal concentrations (C PI :C M ) that were of the same order of magnitude as the value of 0.1 the ICRP calculated for intakes before pregnancy. (author)

  6. Plutonium content of human placental tissues after occupational exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.J.; Sikov, M.R.; Kathren, R.L

    2003-07-01

    The placenta and umbilical cord were obtained following a normal live delivery from a volunteer donor who had received an accidental inhalation intake of plutonium 12 years prior to her pregnancy (Case 0777). Her employer estimated the intake to be about 73 Bq Class W plutonium. Based on bioassay results and clearance models in use at that time, they calculated her body content at the beginning of pregnancy to be about 5.6 Bq with an average concentration of approximately 60 mBq kg{sup -1}. The placenta and cord from this pregnancy, along with the placenta and cord from a donor with no known exposure to plutonium (Case 0835), were divided and assayed for plutonium by ultrasensitive fission track analysis at two collaborating laboratories. Placental {sup 239}Pu concentration values obtained by the two laboratories for Case 0777 agreed within a factor of 2 and were several-fold greater than for the control, Case 0835, as well as values that had been reported by others for unexposed populations. There was no elevated concentration of plutonium in the umbilical cord from the exposed person. The data yielded values of 0.16 and 0.27 for placental to maternal concentrations (C{sub PI}:C{sub M}) that were of the same order of magnitude as the value of 0.1 the ICRP calculated for intakes before pregnancy. (author)

  7. Metabolic profiling detects early effects of environmental and lifestyle exposure to cadmium in a human population

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, James K; Athersuch, Toby J; Thomas, Laura DK; Teichert, Friederike; Pérez-Trujillo, Miriam; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J; Singh, Rajinder; Järup, Lars; Bundy, Jacob G; Keun, Hector C

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ‘exposome’ represents the accumulation of all environmental exposures across a lifetime. Topdown strategies are required to assess something this comprehensive, and could transform our understanding of how environmental factors affect human health. Metabolic profiling (metabonomics/metabolomics) defines an individual’s metabolic phenotype, which is influenced by genotype, diet, lifestyle, health and xenobiotic exposure, and could also reveal intermediate biomarkers...

  8. The evaluation of stack metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators: assessing human exposure through noninhalation pathways.

    OpenAIRE

    Sedman, R M; Polisini, J M; Esparza, J R

    1994-01-01

    Potential public health effects associated with exposure to metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators through noninhalation pathways were evaluated. Instead of relying on modeling the movement of toxicants through various environmental media, an approach based on estimating changes from baseline levels of exposure was employed. Changes in soil and water As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, and Be concentrations that result from incinerator emissions were first determined. Estimates of changes in human...

  9. A four factor model for estimating human radiation exposure to radon daughters in the home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, R.S.; Letourneau, E.G.; Waight, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    This model is intended to represent the exposure received by individuals who spend any part of their day in a private home. Variables are defined to represent (1) different human groups, (2) basement and other levels in a house, (3) the four seasons of the year, and (4) activities within the home. The model is extremely flexible and appears to be applicable to other exposure circumstances. The number and definition of each of the variables can be changed easily. (author)

  10. Naphthalene and Naphthoquinone: Distributions and Human Exposure in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R.; Wu, J.; Turco, R.; Winer, A. M.; Atkinson, R.; Paulson, S.; Arey, J.; Lurmann, F.

    2003-12-01

    Naphthalene is the simplest and most abundant of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Naphthalene is found primarily in the gas-phase and has been detected in both outdoor and indoor samples. Evaporation from naphthalene-containing products (including gasoline), and during refining operations, are important sources of naphthalene in air. Naphthalene is also emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels and wood, and is a component of vehicle exhaust. Exposure to high concentrations of naphthalene can damage or destroy red blood cells, causing hemolytic anemia. If inhaled over a long period of time, naphthalene may cause kidney and liver damage, skin allergy and dermatitis, cataracts and retinal damage, as well as attack the central nervous system. Naphthalene has been found to cause cancer as a result of inhalation in animal tests. Naphthoquinones are photooxidation products of naphthalene and the potential health effects of exposure to these quinones are a current focus of research. We are developing and applying models that can be used to assess human exposure to naphthalene and its photooxidation products in major air basins such as California South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The work utilizes the Surface Meteorology and Ozone Generation (SMOG) airshed model, and the REgional Human EXposure (REHEX) model, including an analysis of individual exposure. We will present and discuss simulations of basin-wide distributions of, and human exposures to, naphthalene and naphthoquinone, with emphasis on the uncertainties in these estimates of atmospheric concentrations and human exposure. Regional modeling of pollutant sources and exposures can lead to cost-effective and optimally health-protective emission control strategies.

  11. [Some aspects of animal-to-human approximation of low frequency electromagnetic field exposure conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasin, A L

    2003-01-01

    Appropriateness of representation of a biological object surface as an equipotential surface has been proved for conditions of a quasistatic exposure to EMF of frequencies lower than 1 MHz. The conditions, at which a self capacitance of a biological object is its basic electrical parameter, have been considered. A factor of animal-to-human approximation of low-frequency EMF exposure conditions was estimated on the basis of equal dose loading in biological objects of different geometric sizes.

  12. Final report on the Project Research 'Assessment of Human Exposure to Environmental Radiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    This is the final report of the Project Research, 'Assessment of Human Exposure to Environmental Radiation', which has been conducted during the period 1983-1988. With the objective of assessing risk of environmental radioactivity to the population, the Project was divided into the following five research groups: (1) research for establishing calculation models and parameters in transfer of radionuclides from crop species through the human body; (2) research for analyzing transfer of radionuclides in the ocean and their contributions to exposure doses in the human body; (3) research for surveying accuracy of exposure models for the external body and respiratory organ and the influential factors; (4) research for determining uptake and biokinetics of radionuclides in the body; and (5) research for estimating and evaluating physical and physiological characteristics of reference Japanese man and the populaltion doses. Effluents from nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants were regarded as radionuclide sources in the water and atmosphere. (N.K.)

  13. A comprehensive assessment of human exposure to phthalates from environmental media and food in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yaqin; Wang, Fumei; Zhang, Leibo; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong; Liu, Lingling; Shen, Boxiong

    2014-08-30

    A total of 448 samples including foodstuffs (rice, steamed bun, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, milk and fruits), ambient PM10, drinking water, soil, indoor PM10 and indoor dust samples from Tianjin were obtained to determine the distribution of six priority phthalates (PAEs) and assess the human exposure to them. The results indicated that DBP and DEHP were the most frequently detected PAEs in these samples. The concentrations of PAEs in environmental media were higher than those in food. We estimated the daily intake (DI) of PAEs via ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption from five sources (food, water, air, dust and soil). Dietary intake was the main exposure source to DEP, BBP, DEHP and DOP, whereas water ingestion/absorption was the major source of exposure to DBP, DEHP and DOP. Although food and water were the overwhelmingly predominant sources of PAEs intake by Tianjin population, contaminated air was another important source of DMP, DEP and DBP contributing to up to 45% of the exposure. The results of this study will help in understanding the major pathways of human exposure to PAEs. These findings also suggest that human exposure to phthalate esters via the environment should not be overlooked. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative assessment of human and pet exposure to Salmonella associated with dry pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Buchanan, Robert L; Narrod, Clare; Ford, Randall M; Baker, Robert C; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-01-04

    Recent Salmonella outbreaks associated with dry pet foods and treats highlight the importance of these foods as previously overlooked exposure vehicles for both pets and humans. In the last decade efforts have been made to raise the safety of this class of products, for instance by upgrading production equipment, cleaning protocols, and finished product testing. However, no comprehensive or quantitative risk profile is available for pet foods, thus limiting the ability to establish safety standards and assess the effectiveness of current and proposed Salmonella control measures. This study sought to develop an ingredients-to-consumer quantitative microbial exposure assessment model to: 1) estimate pet and human exposure to Salmonella via dry pet food, and 2) assess the impact of industry and household-level mitigation strategies on exposure. Data on prevalence and concentration of Salmonella in pet food ingredients, production process parameters, bacterial ecology, and contact transfer in the household were obtained through literature review, industry data, and targeted research. A probabilistic Monte Carlo modeling framework was developed to simulate the production process and basic household exposure routes. Under the range of assumptions adopted in this model, human exposure due to handling pet food is null to minimal if contamination occurs exclusively before extrusion. Exposure increases considerably if recontamination occurs post-extrusion during coating with fat, although mean ingested doses remain modest even at high fat contamination levels, due to the low percent of fat in the finished product. Exposure is highly variable, with the distribution of doses ingested by adult pet owners spanning 3Log CFU per exposure event. Child exposure due to ingestion of 1g of pet food leads to significantly higher doses than adult doses associated with handling the food. Recontamination after extrusion and coating, e.g., via dust or equipment surfaces, may also lead to

  15. Biological effects on human health due to radiofrequency/microwave exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the methods and results of nine cohort studies dealing with the biological effects on human health from exposure to radiofrequencies/microwaves, published between 1980 and 2002. The size of the cohorts varied between 304 (3,362 person years) and nearly 200,000 persons (2.7 million......, however, inconsistent. The most important limitations of the studies were the lack of measurements referring to past and current exposures and, thus, the unknown details on actual exposure, the use of possibly biased data as well as the lack of adjustment for potential confounders and the use of indirect...

  16. Effects of Moxa (Folium Artemisiae argyi Smoke Exposure on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Young Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Human Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxue Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effects of the moxa smoke on human heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV. Methods. Fifty-five healthy young adults were randomly divided into experimental (n=28 and control (n=27 groups. Experimental subjects were exposed to moxa smoke (2.5 ± 0.5 mg/m3 twice for 25 minutes in one week. ECG monitoring was performed before, during, and after exposure. Control subjects were exposed to normal indoor air in a similar environment and similarly monitored. Followup was performed the following week. Short-term (5 min HRV parameters were analyzed with HRV analysis software. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Results. During and after the first exposure, comparison of percentage changes or changes in all parameters between groups showed no significant differences. During the second exposure, percentage decrease in HR, percentage increases in lnTP, lnHF, lnLF, and RMSSD, and increase in PNN50 were significantly greater in the experimental group than in control. Conclusion. No significant adverse HRV effects were associated with this clinically routine 25-minute exposure to moxa smoke, and the data suggests that short-term exposure to moxa smoke might have positive regulating effects on human autonomic function. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  17. Occurrence, sources and human exposure assessment of SCCPs in indoor dust of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Hua; Ma, Wan-Li; Liu, Li-Yan; Huo, Chun-Yan; Li, Wen-Long; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Hai-Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-06-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are widely used chemicals in household products and might cause adverse human health effects. However, limited information is available on the occurrence of SCCPs in indoor environments and their exposure risks on humans. In this study the concentrations, profiles and human exposure of SCCPs in indoor dust from five different indoor environments, including commercial stores, residential apartments, dormitories, offices and laboratories were characterized. The SCCPs levels ranged from 10.1 to 173.0 μg/g, with the median and mean concentration of 47.2 and 53.6 μg/g, respectively. No significant difference was found on concentrations among the five microenvironments. The most abundant compounds in indoor dust samples were homologues of C 13 group, Cl 7 group and N 20 (N is the total number of C and Cl) group. In the five microenvironments, commercial stores were more frequently exposed to shorter carbon chained and higher chlorinated homologues. Three potential sources for SCCPs were identified by the multiple linear regression of factor score model and correspondence analysis. The major sources of SCCPs in indoor dust were technical mixtures of CP-42 (42% chlorine, w/w) and CP-52 b (52% chlorine, w/w). The total daily exposure doses and hazard quotients (HQ) were calculated by the human exposure models, and they were all below the reference doses and threshold values, respectively. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to predict the human exposure risk of SCCPs. Infants and toddlers were at risk of SCCPs based on predicted HQ values, which were exceeded the threshold for neoplastic effects in the worst case. Our results on the occurrences, sources and human exposures of SCCPs will be useful to provide a better understanding of SCCPs behaviors in indoor environment in China, and to support environmental risk evaluation and regulation of SCCPs in the world. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Human exposure to a 60 Hz, 1800 micro tesla magnetic field: a neuro behavioral study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, A.; Corbacio, M.; Prato, F.S.; Thomas, A.W.; Beuter, A.; Goulet, D.; Lambrozo, J.; Souques, M.; Plante, M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of time-varying magnetic fields (MF) on humans have been actively investigated for the past three decades. One important unanswered question that scientists continue to investigate is the potential for MF exposure to have acute effects on human biology. Different strategies have been used to tackle this question using various physiological, neuro-physiological and behavioral indicators. For example, researchers investigating electro-encephalography (EEG) have reported that Extremely Low Frequency (ELF, < 300 Hz) MF can increase the resting occipital alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz) [1, 2]. Interestingly, other studies have demonstrated that human motor behavior can be modulated by ELF MF exposure, reporting that such an exposure can reduce anteroposterior standing balance oscillations [3, 4] or decrease physiological tremor intensity [5]. However, the main limitation in this domain is the difficulty of reproducing the results. A possible reason for this is the large variety of experimental approaches employed. Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the effects of a 60 Hz, 1800 μT MF exposure on physiological (i.e. heart rate and peripheral blood perfusion), neuro-physiological (brain electrical activity), and behavioral (postural oscillations, voluntary motor functions, and physiological tremor) aspects in humans using a single experimental procedure.Though the results from this study suggest a subtle reduction of human standing balance as well as a subtle increase of physiological tremor amplitude with MF exposure, no effect appeared on other investigated parameters, suggesting that one hour of 60 Hz, 1800 μT MF exposure may modulate human involuntary motor control without being detected in the electrical activity of the brain. (authors)

  19. Impact assessment on the human exposure to environmental radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Lee, K.S.; Kim, J.B.; Chun, K.J.; Kim, S.R.; Chung, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    1. The Terrestrial Ecosystem in the Vicinity of Kori Nuclear Power Plant. In order to evaluate the effects of radiation or radionuclides released from the nuclear power plants on human population, field surveys on the terrestrial ecosystem such as the fauna and flora in the vicinity within 15 km from the Kori nuclear power plant were carried out. 2. Level of radionuclides, Metabolism and Chromosome Aberration. The present study was undertaken with the purpose for evaluating 1) the level of Sr-90 in the Korean vertebra, 2) the metabolism of Sr-90 in the rats, 3) the levels of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the pine needles (Pinus densiflora), 4) the level of Sr-90 in the frogs (Rana nigromaculata) and 5) the radiation effects by internal Sr-90 on the bone marrow. (Author)

  20. Blood cholinesterases as human biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, H N; Knaak, J B

    2000-01-01

    The organophosphorus pesticides of this review were discovered in 1936 during the search for a replacement for nicotine for cockroach control. The basic biochemical characteristics of RBC AChE and BChE were determined in the 1940s. The mechanism of inhibition of both enzymes and other serine esterases was known in the 1940s and, in general, defined in the 1950s. In 1949, the death of a parathion mixer-loader dictated blood enzyme monitoring to prevent acute illness from organophosphorus pesticide intoxication. However, many of the chemical and biochemical steps for serine enzyme inhibition by OP compounds remain unknown today. The possible mechanisms of this inhibition are presented kinetically beginning with simple (by comparison) Michaelis-Menten substrate enzyme interaction kinetics. As complicated as the inhibition kinetics appear here, PBPK model kinetics will be more complex. The determination of inter- and intraindividual variation in RBC ChE and BChE was recognized early as critical knowledge for a blood esterase monitoring program. Because of the relatively constant production of RBCs, variation in RBC AChE was determined by about 1970. The source of plasma (or serum) BChE was shown to be the liver in the 1960s with the change in BChE phenotype to the donor in liver transplant patients. BChE activity was more variable than RBC AChE, and only in the 1990s have BChE individual variation questions been answered. We have reviewed the chemistry, metabolism, and toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides along with their inhibitory action toward tissue acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterases. On the basis of the review, a monitoring program for individuals mixing-loading and applying OP pesticides for commercial applicators was recommended. Approximately 41 OPs are currently registered for use by USEPA in the United States. Under agricultural working conditions, OPs primarily are absorbed through the skin. Liver P-450 isozymes catalyze the desulfurization of

  1. The monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure in the environment in Germany- tasks, techniques, realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.

    1998-01-01

    A brief historical account of the development of the monitoring of radioactivity in the environment in Germany is given. The aims of monitoring and the tasks, classified according to the possible sources of release, are presented and the methods required are described. The monitoring systems, set up on the basis of different legal principles, are presented and the technical realization of these including their current state of development, is described. Finally, an account is given of the coordination of the national monitoring systems which is at present in progress, as well as of the integration of these monitoring systems into international monitoring and information networks. (author)

  2. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the LD 50 in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD 50 s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively

  3. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the L 50 in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD 50 s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively

  4. Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide- and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine and hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Mashiko, M.; Yamamura, Y. (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    In an attempt to establish a method for biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure, the chemical species of arsenic were measured in the urine and hair of gallium arsenide (GaAs) plant and copper smelter workers. Determination of urinary inorganic arsenic concentration proved sensitive enough to monitor the low-level inorganic arsenic exposure of the GaAs plant workers. The urinary inorganic arsenic concentration in the copper smelter workers was far higher than that of a control group and was associated with high urinary concentrations of the inorganic arsenic metabolites, methylarsonic acid (MAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). The results established a method for exposure level-dependent biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure. Low-level exposures could be monitored only by determining urinary inorganic arsenic concentration. High-level exposures clearly produced an increased urinary inorganic arsenic concentration, with an increased sum of urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites (inorganic arsenic + MAA + DMAA). The determination of urinary arsenobetaine proved to determine specifically the seafood-derived arsenic, allowing this arsenic to be distinguished clearly from the arsenic from occupational exposure. Monitoring arsenic exposure by determining the arsenic in the hair appeared to be of value only when used for environmental monitoring of arsenic contamination rather than for biological monitoring.

  5. Brief oral stimulation, but especially oral fat exposure, elevates serum triglycerides in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Oral exposure to dietary fat results in an early initial spike, followed by a prolonged elevation, of serum triglycerides in humans. The physiological and pathophysiological implications remain unknown. This study sought to determine the incidence of the effect, the required fat exposure duration, and its reliability. Thirty-four healthy adults participated in four to six response-driven trials held at least a week apart. They reported to the laboratory after an overnight fast, a catheter was placed in an antecubital vein, and a blood sample was obtained. Participants then ingested 50 g of safflower oil in capsules with 500 ml of water within 15 min to mimic a high fat meal but without oral fat exposure. Blood was collected 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 min after capsule ingestion with different forms (full fat, nonfat, none) and durations of oral fat exposures (10 s, 5 min, 20 min, and/or 2 h). A triglyceride response (increase of triglyceride >10 mg/dl within 30 min) was observed in 88.2%, 70.5%, and 50% of participants with full-fat, nonfat, and no oral exposure, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 75% with full-fat exposure but only 45.4% with nonfat exposure. Full-fat and nonfat exposures led to comparable significant elevations of triglyceride over no oral stimulation with 10-s exposures, but full fat led to a greater rise than nonfat with 20 min of exposure. These data indicate that nutritionally relevant oral fat exposures reliably elevate serum triglyceride concentrations in most people. PMID:19074638

  6. Study of spatiotemporal variation of atmospheric mercury and its human exposure around an integrated steel plant, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, S.; Koshle, A.; Pervez, Y.

    2010-06-01

    Mercury release by coal combustion has been significantly increased in India. Mercury content in coal has been analyzed to 0.272 ppm by Central Pollution Control Board. Toxicological effects of elemental Hg (Hg0) exposure include respiratory and renal failures, cardiac arrest, and cerebral oedema, while subclinical exposure may induce kidney, behavioral, and cognitive dysfunctions. The present work is focused on dispersion pattern and inter-phase exchange phenomena of ambient mercury between air-particulate matter evaluations of alongwith dominance of various major routes of human exposure-dose response using regression analysis around an integrated steel plant in central India. Source-downwind type stratified random sampling plan using longitudinal study design has been adopted for