WorldWideScience

Sample records for human exploration solar

  1. Human Exploration of the Solar System by 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ronald J.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that the U.S., in concert with private entities and international partners, set itself on a course to accomplish human exploration of the solar system by the end of this century. This is a strikingly bold vision intended to revitalize the aspirations of HSF in service to the security, economic, and scientific interests of the nation. Solar system distance and time scales impose severe requirements on crewed space transportation systems, however, and fully realizing all objectives in support of this goal will require a multi-decade commitment employing radically advanced technologies - most prominently, space habitats capable of sustaining and protecting life in harsh radiation environments under zero gravity conditions and in-space propulsion technologies capable of rapid deep space transits with earth return, the subject of this paper. While near term mission destinations such as the moon and Mars can be accomplished with chemical propulsion and/or high power SEP, fundamental capability constraints render these traditional systems ineffective for solar system wide exploration. Nuclear based propulsion and alternative energetic methods, on the other hand, represent potential avenues, perhaps the only viable avenues, to high specific power space transport evincing reduced trip time, reduced IMLEO, and expanded deep space reach. Here, very long term HSF objectives for solar system wide exploration are examined in relation to the advanced propulsion technology solution landscape including foundational science, technical/engineering challenges, and developmental prospects.

  2. Solar Power System Evaluated for the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2000-01-01

    The electric power system is a crucial element of any mission for the human exploration of the Martian surface. The bulk of the power generated will be delivered to crew life support systems, extravehicular activity suits, robotic vehicles, and predeployed in situ resource utilization (ISRU) equipment. In one mission scenario, before the crew departs for Mars, the ISRU plant operates for 435 days producing liquefied methane and oxygen for ascent-stage propellants and water for crew life support. About 200 days after ISRU production is completed, the crew arrives for a 500-day surface stay. In this scenario, the power system must operate for a total of 1130 days (equivalent to 1100 Martian "sols"), providing 400 MW-hr of energy to the ISRU plant and up to 18 kW of daytime user power. A photovoltaic power-generation system with regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage has been under study at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The conceptual power system is dominated by the 4000- m2 class photovoltaic array that is deployed orthogonally as four tent structures, each approximately 5 m on a side and 100-m long. The structures are composed of composite members deployed by an articulating mast, an inflatable boom, or rover vehicles, and are subsequently anchored to the ground. Array panels consist of thin polymer membranes with thin-film solar cells. The array is divided into eight independent electrical sections with solar cell strings operating at 600 V. Energy storage is provided by regenerative fuel cells based on hydrogen-oxygen proton exchange membrane technology. Hydrogen and oxygen reactants are stored in gaseous form at 3000 psi, and the water produced is stored at 14.7 psi. The fuel cell operating temperature is maintained by a 40-m2 deployable pumped-fluid loop radiator that uses water as the working fluid. The power management and distribution (PMAD) architecture features eight independent, regulated 600-Vdc channels. Power management and

  3. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Mercury and Saturn Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed. Unique elements of the local planetary environments are discussed and included in the analyses and assessments. Using historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many way. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed.

  4. Exploring the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The exploration of our solar system is one of humanity's greatest scientific achievements. The last fifty years in particular have seen huge steps forward in our understanding of the planets, the sun, and other objects in the solar system. Whilst planetary science is now a mature discipline - involving geoscientists, astronomers, physicists, and others - many profound mysteries remain, and there is indeed still the tantalizing possibility that we may find evidence of life on another planet in our system.Drawing upon the latest results from the second golden age of Solar System exploration, aut

  5. Human Outer Solar System Exploration via Q-Thruster Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. Kent; White, Harold G.

    2014-01-01

    Propulsion technology development efforts at the NASA Johnson Space Center continue to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QThruster), a form of electric propulsion. Through the use of electric and magnetic fields, a Q-thruster pushes quantum particles (electrons/positrons) in one direction, while the Qthruster recoils to conserve momentum. This principle is similar to how a submarine uses its propeller to push water in one direction, while the submarine recoils to conserve momentum. Based on laboratory results, it appears that continuous specific thrust levels of 0.4 - 4.0 N/kWe are achievable with essentially no onboard propellant consumption. To evaluate the potential of this technology, a mission analysis tool was developed utilizing the Generalized Reduced Gradient non-linear parameter optimization engine contained in the Microsoft Excel® platform. This tool allowed very rapid assessments of "Q-Ship" minimum time transfers from earth to the outer planets and back utilizing parametric variations in thrust acceleration while enforcing constraints on planetary phase angles and minimum heliocentric distances. A conservative Q-Thruster specific thrust assumption (0.4 N/kWe) combined with "moderate" levels of space nuclear power (1 - 2 MWe) and vehicle specific mass (45 - 55 kg/kWe) results in continuous milli-g thrust acceleration, opening up realms of human spaceflight performance completely unattainable by any current systems or near-term proposed technologies. Minimum flight times to Mars are predicted to be as low as 75 days, but perhaps more importantly new "retro-phase" and "gravity-augmented" trajectory shaping techniques were revealed which overcome adverse planetary phasing and allow virtually unrestricted departure and return opportunities. Even more impressively, the Jovian and Saturnian systems would be opened up to human exploration with round-trip times of 21 and 32 months respectively including 6 to 12 months of

  6. The roles of humans and robots in exploring the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, W. W.

    2004-07-01

    Historically, advocates of solar system exploration have disagreed over whether program goals could be entirely satisfied by robotic missions. Scientists tend to argue that robotic exploration is most cost-effective. However, the human space program has a great deal of support in the general public, thereby enabling the scientific element of exploration to be larger than it might be as a stand-alone activity. A comprehensive strategy of exploration needs a strong robotic component complementing and supporting human missions. Robots are needed for precursor missions, for crew support on planetary surfaces, and for probing dangerous environments. Robotic field assistants can provide mobility, access to scientific sites, data acquisition, visualization of the environment, precision operations, sample acquisition and analysis, and expertise to human explorers. As long as space exploration depends on public funds, space exploration must include an appropriate mix of human and robotic activity.

  7. Exploring the Solar System with a Human Orrery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Peter

    2010-01-01

    One of the fundamental learning goals of introductory astronomy is for the students to gain some perspective on the scale and structure of the solar system. Many astronomy teachers have laid out the planets along a long strip of paper or across a school grounds or campus. Other activities that investigate the motion of the planets are often…

  8. Exploring the Solar System with a Human Orrery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Peter

    2010-01-01

    One of the fundamental learning goals of introductory astronomy is for the students to gain some perspective on the scale and structure of the solar system. Many astronomy teachers have laid out the planets along a long strip of paper or across a school grounds or campus. Other activities that investigate the motion of the planets are often…

  9. The Role of Lunar Development in Human Exploration of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1999-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system can be said to have begun with the Apollo landings on the Moon. The Apollo Project was publicly funded with the narrow technical objective of landing human beings on the Moon. The transportation and life support systems were specialized technical designs, developed in a project management environment tailored to that objective. Most scenarios for future human exploration assume a similar long-term commitment of public funds to a narrowly focused project managed by a large, monolithic organization. Advocates of human exploration of space have not yet been successful in generating the political momentum required to initiate such a project to go to the Moon or to Mars. Alternative scenarios of exploration may relax some or all of the parameters of organizational complexity, great expense, narrow technical focus, required public funding, and control by a single organization. Development of the Moon using private investment is quite possibly a necessary condition for alternative scenarios to succeed.

  10. NASA'S Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: An international approach toward bringing science and human exploration together for mutual benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and explora-tion, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and community development. The institute is a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdis-ciplinary, research-focused collaborations. Its relative-ly large domestic teams work together along with in-ternational partners in both traditional and virtual set-tings to bring disparate approaches together for mutual benefit. This talk will describe the research efforts of the nine domestic teams that constitute the U.S. com-plement of the Institute and how it is engaging the in-ternational science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships. The Institute is centered on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars. It focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science cen-tered around all airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study reported here will represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Mar-tian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environ-ments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. The technical focus ranges from investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies. SSERVI enhances the widening knowledgebase of planetary research by acting as a bridge between several differ-ent groups and bringing together researchers from the scientific and exploration communities, multiple disci-plines across the full range of planetary sciences, and domestic and

  11. Lunar Solar Power System Driven Human Development of the Moon and Resource-Rich Exploration of the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The people of Earth require, by the middle of the 21st century, a new source of commercial power that is sustainable, clean, reliable, low in cost ( 2 kWe/person or > 20 TWe) than now (1, 2). The Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System appears to be the only reasonable option (2, 3). The Moon dependably receives 13,000 TWs of solar power. The LSP System consists of pairs of power bases located on opposite limbs of the Moon as seen from Earth. The power bases collect the solar energy and convert it to beams of microwaves. The microwaves are delivered directly to moonward-facing receivers on Earth or indirectly through relay satellites in orbit about Earth. To achieve low cost, the power bases are made primarily of local lunar materials by machines, facilities, and people deployed from Earth. Hundreds to thousands of people will be required on the Moon, in cis-lunar space, and operating tele-robotically from Earth to construct the full scale LSP System. Models indicate that power sales on Earth can easily support the required people, their regular transport between the Earth and Moon, and provide the required return on investment to develop the LSP System (4, 5). Construction of the LSP System, even at an early stage, creates fundamentally new wealth and capabilities supportive of rapid growth of human activities within the inner solar system. A factor of ten increase in global Earth-to-orbit transport will be required in the demonstration phase. Launch cost of 5,000 /kg is acceptable. Lower cost transport decreases the upfront cost of the LSP System but is not critical to the cost of energy from the mature LSP. Logistic and assembly facilities in orbit about the Earth and Moon will be required that are at least a factor of ten large than planned for the full scale International Space Station. Transport must be provided between the Earth and the Moon of hundreds, possibly thousands, of workers. Production machinery will be available that can build fundamentally new

  12. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  13. Options for the human exploration of Mars using Solar Electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefert, Leon P.; Hack, Kurt J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1999-01-01

    Solar Electric propulsion (SEP) is examined as a candidate transportation option for human missions to Mars. Focus is given to an Earth-escape staging concept. This concept uses a SEP system to transfer from low earth orbit (LEO) to a high-energy elliptical parking orbit (HEEPO) and a chemical propulsion system to transfer from the HEEPO to a hyperbolic escape trajectory. LEO to Earth escape performance of these combined transportation systems is comparable to that of a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). As a result, a mass efficient non-nuclear transportation architecture with fast, 180 day, Earth-to-Mars piloted transit times is enabled.

  14. An alternative approach to solar system exploration providing safety of human mission to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, J I; Bartsev, S I; Mezhevikin, V V; Okhonin, V A

    2003-01-01

    For systematic human Mars exploration, meeting crew safety requirements, it seems perspective to assemble into a spacecraft: an electrical rocket, a well-shielded long-term life support system, and a manipulator-robots operating in combined "presence effect" and "master-slave" mode. The electrical spacecraft would carry humans to the orbit of Mars, providing short distance (and low signal time delay) between operator and robot-manipulators, which are landed on the surface of the planet. Long-term hybrid biological and physical/chemical LSS could provide environment supporting human health and well being. Robot-manipulators operating in "presence effect" and "master-slave" mode exclude necessity of human landing on Martian surface decreasing the level of risk for crew. Since crewmen would not have direct contact with the Martian environment then the problem of mutual biological protection is essentially reduced. Lightweight robot-manipulators, without heavy life support systems and without the necessity of returning to the mother vessel, could be sent as scouts to different places on the planet surface, scanning the most interesting for exobiological research site. Some approximate estimations of electric spacecraft, long-term hybrid LSS, radiation protection and mission parameters are conducted and discussed. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Planetary Base Issues for Mercury and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In references 1 through 9, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. Figures 1 depicts program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system which included lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon. Figures 2 and 3 present the results for human Mercury missions, including LEO departure masses and round trip Mercury lander masses. Using in-situ resources, the missions become less burdensome to the LEO launch infrastructure. In one example using Mercury derived hydrogen, the LEO mass of the human Mercury missions can be reduced from 2,800 MT to 1,140 MT (Ref. 15). Additional analyses of staging options for human Mercury missions will be presented. Figures 4 shows an option for thermal control for long term in-space cryogenic storage and Figure 5 depicts the potentially deleterious elements emanating from Mercury that must be addressed, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented will be presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Human bases at Mercury may have to be resupplied from resources from regolith and water resources in permanently shadowed craters at its northern pole.

  16. Robots and Humans: Synergy in Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    How will humans and robots cooperate in future planetary exploration? Are humans and robots fundamentally separate modes of exploration, or can humans and robots work together to synergistically explore the solar system? It is proposed that humans and robots can work together in exploring the planets by use of telerobotic operation to expand the function and usefulness of human explorers, and to extend the range of human exploration to hostile environments.

  17. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Planetary Base Issues for Mercury and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed with a range of propulsion options. Historical studies of space exploration, planetary spacecraft, and astronomy, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many ways. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions are presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Saturn moon exploration with chemical propulsion and nuclear electric propulsion options are discussed. Issues with using in-situ resource utilization on Mercury missions are discussed. At Saturn, the best locations for exploration and the use of the moons Titan and Enceladus as central locations for Saturn moon exploration is assessed.

  18. Exploration of the Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Arthur, Jr., Ed.; Grey, Jerry, Ed.

    This review is one of a series of assessments and reviews prepared in the public interest by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The purpose of this review is to outline the potential achievements of solar system exploration and suggest a course of action which will maximize the rewards to mankind. A secondary purpose is…

  19. A High Power Solar Electric Propulsion - Chemical Mission for Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura M.; Martini, Michael C.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) as a main propulsion system has been investigated as an option to support manned space missions to near-Earth destinations for the NASA Gateway spacecraft. High efficiency SEP systems are able to reduce the amount of propellant long duration chemical missions require, ultimately reducing the required mass delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by a launch vehicle. However, for long duration interplanetary Mars missions, using SEP as the sole propulsion source alone may not be feasible due to the long trip times to reach and insert into the destination orbit. By combining an SEP propulsion system with a chemical propulsion system the mission is able to utilize the high-efficiency SEP for sustained vehicle acceleration and deceleration in heliocentric space and the chemical system for orbit insertion maneuvers and trans-earth injection, eliminating the need for long duration spirals. By capturing chemically instead of with low-thrust SEP, Mars stay time increases by nearly 200 days. Additionally, the size the of chemical propulsion system can be significantly reduced from that of a standard Mars mission because the SEP system greatly decreases the Mars arrival and departure hyperbolic excess velocities (V(sub infinity)).

  20. An exploration of the effectiveness of artificial mini-magnetospheres as a potential Solar Storm shelter for long term human space missions

    CERN Document Server

    Bamford, Ruth; Bradford, John; Todd, Tom N; Stafford-Allen, Robin; Alves, E Paulo; Silva, Luis; Collingwood, Cheryl; Crawford, Ian A; Bingham, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the effectiveness of an artificial mini-magnetosphere as a potential radiation shelter for long term human space missions. Our study includes the differences that the plasma environment makes to the efficiency of the shielding from the high energy charged particle component of solar and cosmic rays, which radically alters the power requirements. The incoming electrostatic charges are shielded by fields supported by the self captured environmental plasma of the solar wind, potentially augmented with additional density. The artificial magnetic field generated on board acts as the means of confinement and control. Evidence for similar behaviour of electromagnetic fields and ionised particles in interplanetary space can be gained by the example of the enhanced shielding effectiveness of naturally occurring "mini-magnetospheres" on the moon. The shielding effect of surface magnetic fields of the order of ~100s nanoTesla is sufficient to provide effective shielding from solar proton bombard...

  1. Solar System Exploration with LUVOIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Walter M.; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Schmidt, Britney E.

    2016-10-01

    The Large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor is one of four mission concepts under study as a next-generation space observatory in the post Webb Telescope era. LUVOIR is envisioned as a large, 10 m class, remotely serviceable observatory with a suite of advanced-technology instruments designed to leap beyond the current generation of space-based telescopes to explore fundamental astrophysical phenomena on all scales. A 24-member science and technology definition team (STDT) represents all sectors of the astronomy and technologist communities, and it is charged with identifying the observational challenges best addressed with LUVOIR and the instrumental innovations that are required to achieve them.This presentation describes the developing science case for LUVOIR as a Solar System observatory for the study of Sun-planet interactions, thick and sublimation based atmospheres, the small body populations in the inner and outer solar system, surface volatility, and planet/satellite surfaces. We will provide an overview of several key science and technical drivers for each scientific target and how they can be addressed with a LUVOIR facility. We also solicit community input to refine these individual programs and to identify additional areas of emphasis in the development of a final report to NASA.

  2. The Solar Spectroscopy Explorer Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Bookbinder, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Spectroscopy Explorer (SSE) concept is conceived as a scalable mission, with two to four instruments and a strong focus on coronal spectroscopy. In its core configuration it is a small strategic mission ($250-500M) built around a microcalorimeter (an imaging X-ray spectrometer) and a high spatial resolution (0.2 arcsec) EUV imager. SSE puts a strong focus on the plasma spectroscopy, balanced with high resolution imaging - providing for break-through imaging science as well as providing the necessary context for the spectroscopy suite. Even in its smallest configuration SSE provides observatory class science, with significant science contributions ranging from basic plasma and radiative processes to the onset of space weather events. The basic configuration can carry an expanded instrument suite with the addition of a hard X-ray imaging spectrometer and/or a high spectral resolution EUV instrument - significantly expanding the science capabilities. In this configuration, it will fall at the small end...

  3. Human assisted robotic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, B. T.; Canady, J.; Warnell, G.; Stump, E.; Nothwang, W. D.; Marathe, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    In support of achieving better performance on autonomous mapping and exploration tasks by incorporating human input, we seek here to first characterize humans' ability to recognize locations from limited visual information. Such a characterization is critical to the design of a human-in-the-loop system faced with deciding whether and when human input is useful. In this work, we develop a novel and practical place-recognition task that presents humans with video clips captured by a navigating ground robot. Using this task, we find experimentally that human performance does not seem to depend on factors such as clip length or familiarity with the scene and also that there is significant variability across subjects. Moreover, we find that humans significantly outperform a state-of-the-art computational solution to this problem, suggesting the utility of incorporating human input in autonomous mapping and exploration techniques.

  4. Robotics for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  5. International ultraviolet explorer solar array power degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristic electrical performance of each International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) solar array panel is evaluated as a function of several prevailing variables (namely, solar illumination, array temperature and solar cell radiation damage). Based on degradation in the current-voltage characteristics of the array due to solar cell damage accumulated over time by space charged particle radiations, the available IUE solar array power is determined for life goals up to 10 years. Best and worst case calculations are normalized to actual IUE flight data (available solar array power versus observatory position) to accurately predict the future IUE solar array output. It is shown that the IUE solar array can continue to produce more power than is required at most observatory positions for at least 5 more years.

  6. Fast Solar Sailing for Solar System Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Practical spinning solar sail architectures will be needed to meet low areal densities and large areas required for the most challenging science and exploration...

  7. Overview of NASA Finesse (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D.S.S.; Hughes, S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, B.; Sears, D.; Neish, C.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Downs, M.; Busto, J.; Cohen, B.; Caldwell, B.; Jones, A. J. P.; Johnson, S.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint Institute supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD). As such, FINESSE is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our Moon, Mars moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. FINESSE embodies the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science".

  8. Robotic exploration of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ulivi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Presents a history of unmanned missions of exploration of our Solar System. This book provides technical descriptions of the spacecraft, of their mission designs and of instrumentations. It discusses scientific results together with details of mission management. It covers missions from the 1950s and some of the other missions and their results.

  9. PHOBOS Exploration using Two Small Solar Electric Propulsion Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jared J.; Baker, John D.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Piacentine, Jamie S.; Snyder, J. Steve

    2012-01-01

    Primitive bodies are exciting targets for exploration as they provide clues to the early Solar system conditions and dynamical evolution. The two moons of Mars are particularly interesting because of their proximity to an astrobiological target. However, after four decades of Mars exploration, their origin and nature remain enigmatic. In addition, when considering the long-term objectives of the flexible path for the potential human exploration to Mars, Phobos and Deimos present exciting intermediate opportunities without the complication and expense of landing and ascending from the surface. As interest in these targets for the next frontier of human exploration grows, characterization missions designed specifically to examine surface properties, landing environments, and surface mapping prior to human exploration are becoming increasingly important. A precursor mission concept of this sort has been developed using two identical spacecraft designed from low cost, flight proven and certified off-the-shelf component and utilizing Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to orbit both targets as secondary payloads launched aboard any NASA or GTO launch. This precursor mission has the potential to address both precursor measurements that are strategic knowledge gaps and decadal science, including soil physical properties at the global and local (human) scale and the search for in situ resources.

  10. Deployable Propulsion and Power Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout reconnaissance mission will demonstrate solar sail propulsion on a 6U CubeSat interplanetary spacecraft and lay the groundwork for their future use in deep space science and exploration missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high delta V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) is a launch stowed, orbit deployed array on which thin-film photovoltaic and antenna elements are embedded. Inherently, small satellites are limited in surface area, volume, and mass allocation; driving competition between power, communications, and GN&C (guidance navigation and control) subsystems. This restricts payload capability and limits the value of these low-cost satellites. LISA-T is addressing this issue, deploying large-area arrays from a reduced volume and mass envelope - greatly enhancing power generation and communications capabilities of small spacecraft. The NEA Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the solar sail as its primary propulsion system, allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 sq m solar sail and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. NEA Scout will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. Similar in concept

  11. MUSE: the Multi-Slit Solar Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; De Pontieu, Bart

    2017-08-01

    The Multi-Slit Solar Explorer is a proposed Small Explorer mission for studying the dynamics of the corona and transition region using both conventional and novel spectral imaging techniques. The physical processes that heat the multi-million degree solar corona, accelerate the solar wind and drive solar activity (CMEs and flares) remain poorly known. A breakthrough in these areas can only come from radically innovative instrumentation and state-of-the-art numerical modeling and will lead to better understanding of space weather origins. MUSE’s multi-slit coronal spectroscopy will use a 100x improvement in spectral raster cadence to fill a crucial gap in our knowledge of Sun-Earth connections; it will reveal temperatures, velocities and non-thermal processes over a wide temperature range to diagnose physical processes that remain invisible to current or planned instruments. MUSE will contain two instruments: an EUV spectrograph (SG) and EUV context imager (CI). Both have similar spatial resolution and leverage extensive heritage from previous high-resolution instruments such as IRIS and the HiC rocket payload. The MUSE investigation will build on the success of IRIS by combining numerical modeling with a uniquely capable observatory: MUSE will obtain EUV spectra and images with the highest resolution in space (1/3 arcsec) and time (1-4 s) ever achieved for the transition region and corona, along 35 slits and a large context FOV simultaneously. The MUSE consortium includes LMSAL, SAO, Stanford, ARC, HAO, GSFC, MSFC, MSU, ITA Oslo and other institutions.

  12. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-18

    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  13. Robotic exploration of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ulivi, Paolo

    In Robotic Exploration of the Solar System, Paolo Ulivi and David Harland provide a comprehensive account of the design and managment of deep-space missions, the spacecraft involved - some flown, others not - their instruments, and their scientific results. This third volume in the series covers launches in the period 1997 to 2003 and features: - a chapter entirely devoted to the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn; - coverage of planetary missions of the period, including the Deep Space 1 mission and the Stardust and Hayabusa sample returns from comets and asteroids; - extensive coverage of Mars exploration, the failed 1999 missions, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity. The story will continue in Part 4.

  14. Human Power Empirically Explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Harvesting energy from the users’ muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are conven

  15. Astrobiological benefits of human space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian A

    2010-01-01

    An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered.

  16. Human-Robot Planetary Exploration Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    The EVA Robotic Assistant (ERA) project at NASA Johnson Space Center studies human-robot interaction and robotic assistance for future human planetary exploration. Over the past four years, the ERA project has been performing field tests with one or more four-wheeled robotic platforms and one or more space-suited humans. These tests have provided experience in how robots can assist humans, how robots and humans can communicate in remote environments, and what combination of humans and robots works best for different scenarios. The most efficient way to understand what tasks human explorers will actually perform, and how robots can best assist them, is to have human explorers and scientists go and explore in an outdoor, planetary-relevant environment, with robots to demonstrate what they are capable of, and roboticists to observe the results. It can be difficult to have a human expert itemize all the needed tasks required for exploration while sitting in a lab: humans do not always remember all the details, and experts in one arena may not even recognize that the lower level tasks they take for granted may be essential for a roboticist to know about. Field tests thus create conditions that more accurately reveal missing components and invalid assumptions, as well as allow tests and comparisons of new approaches and demonstrations of working systems. We have performed field tests in our local rock yard, in several locations in the Arizona desert, and in the Utah desert. We have tested multiple exploration scenarios, such as geological traverses, cable or solar panel deployments, and science instrument deployments. The configuration of our robot can be changed, based on what equipment is needed for a given scenario, and the sensor mast can even be placed on one of two robot bases, each with different motion capabilities. The software architecture of our robot is also designed to be as modular as possible, to allow for hardware and configuration changes. Two focus

  17. Exploring the Solar Window Film: the Making of Landscape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the Solar Window Film: the Making of Landscape Compositions. ... This paper will address exploring an alternative material as a medium in executing artistic expressions in 2D. ... A composition shall be referred as case study.

  18. Mission to the Solar System: Exploration and Discovery. A Mission and Technology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S. (Editor); Stetson, D. S. (Editor); Stofan, E. R. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Solar System exploration addresses some of humanity's most fundamental questions: How and when did life form on Earth? Does life exist elsewhere in the Solar System or in the Universe? - How did the Solar System form and evolve in time? - What can the other planets teach us about the Earth? This document describes a Mission and Technology Roadmap for addressing these and other fundamental Solar System Questions. A Roadmap Development Team of scientists, engineers, educators, and technologists worked to define the next evolutionary steps in in situ exploration, sample return, and completion of the overall Solar System survey. Guidelines were to "develop aa visionary, but affordable, mission and technology development Roadmap for the exploration of the Solar System in the 2000 to 2012 timeframe." The Roadmap provides a catalog of potential flight missions. (Supporting research and technology, ground-based observations, and laboratory research, which are no less important than flight missions, are not included in this Roadmap.)

  19. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Science and Technology for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Greg; Bailey, Brad; Gibbs, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and exploration, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and development and support of the international community. As part of its mission, SSERVI acts as a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdisciplinary, research-focused collaborations. The nine domestic SSERVI teams that comprise the U.S. complement of the Institute engage with the international science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships. SSERVI represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration enabling a deeper, integrated understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies as human exploration moves beyond low Earth orbit. SSERVI centers on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars, with additional aspects of related technology development, including a major focus on human exploration-enabling efforts such as resolving Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs). The Institute focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science focused on airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. This research profile integrates investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies. New opportunities for both domestic and international partnerships are continually generated through these research and

  20. Solar lens mission concept for interstellar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Turyshev, Slava; Shao, Michael; Zhang, Qicheng

    2015-09-01

    The long standing approach to space travel has been to incorporate massive on-board electronics, probes and propellants to achieve space exploration. This approach has led to many great achievements in science, but will never help to explore the interstellar medium. Fortunately, a paradigm shift is upon us in how a spacecraft is constructed and propelled. This paper describes a mission concept to get to our Sun's Gravity Lens at 550AU in less than 10 years. It will be done by using DE-STAR, a scalable solar-powered phased-array laser in Earth Orbit, as a directed energy photon drive of low-mass wafersats. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] With recent technologies a complete mission can be placed on a wafer including, power from an embedded radio nuclear thermal generator (RTG), PV, laser communications, imaging, photon thrusters for attitude control and other sensors. As one example, a futuristic 200 MW laser array consisting of 1 - 10 kw meter scale sub elements with a 100m baseline can propel a 10 gram wafer scale spacecraft with a 3m laser sail to 60AU/Year. Directed energy propulsion of low-mass spacecraft gives us an opportunity to capture images of Alpha Centauri and its planets, detailed imaging of the cosmic microwave background, set up interstellar communications by using gravity lenses around nearby stars to boost signals from interstellar probes, and much more. This system offers a very large range of missions allowing hundreds of wafer scale payload launches per day to reach this cosmological data reservoir. Directed Energy Propulsion is the only current technology that can provide a near-term path to utilize our Sun's Gravity Lens.

  1. New Thematic Solar System Exploration Products for Scientists and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Lesile; Wessen, Alice; Davis, Phil; Lindstrom, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    The next several years are an exciting time in the exploration of the solar system. NASA and its international partners have a veritable armada of spaceships heading out to the far reaches of the solar system. We'll send the first spacecraft beyond our solar system into interstellar space. We'll launch our first mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt and just our second to Mercury (the first in 30 years). We'll continue our intensive exploration of Mars and begin our detailed study of Saturn and its moons. We'll visit asteroids and comets and bring home pieces of the Sun and a comet. This is truly an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery! To facilitate access to information and to provide the thematic context for these missions NASA s Solar System Exploration Program and Solar System Exploration Education Forum have developed several products.

  2. New Thematic Solar System Exploration Products for Scientists and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Lesile; Wessen, Alice; Davis, Phil; Lindstrom, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    The next several years are an exciting time in the exploration of the solar system. NASA and its international partners have a veritable armada of spaceships heading out to the far reaches of the solar system. We'll send the first spacecraft beyond our solar system into interstellar space. We'll launch our first mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt and just our second to Mercury (the first in 30 years). We'll continue our intensive exploration of Mars and begin our detailed study of Saturn and its moons. We'll visit asteroids and comets and bring home pieces of the Sun and a comet. This is truly an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery! To facilitate access to information and to provide the thematic context for these missions NASA s Solar System Exploration Program and Solar System Exploration Education Forum have developed several products.

  3. Cryogenics and the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current plans within NASA involve extending the human exploration of space from low earth orbit into the solar system, with the first human exploration of Mars presently planned in 2011. Integral to all hum Mars mission phases is cryogenic fluid management. Cryogenic fluids will be required both as propellant and for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Without safe and efficient cryogen storage human Mars missions will not be possible. Effective control and handling of cryogenic fluids is the key to affordable Mars missions, and advancing active thermal control technology is synergistic with all of NASA's exploration initiatives and with existing and future instrument cooling programs, including MTPE and Origins. Present mission scenarios for human exploration require cryogenic propellant storage for up to 1700 days and for up to 60 metric tons. These requirements represent increases of an order of magnitude over previous storage masses and lifetimes. The key cryogenic terminology areas to be addressed in human Mars missions are long-term propellant storage, cryogenic refrigeration, cryogenic liquefaction, and zero gravity fluid management. Long-term storage for the thermal control of cryogenic propellants is best accomplished with a mix of passive and active technologies. Passive technologies such as advanced multilayer insulation (MLI) concepts will be combined with the development of active coolers (cryogenic refrigerators). Candidates for long-life active cooling applications include Reverse Turbo-Brayton, Stirling, and Pulse-Tube coolers. The integration of passive and active technologies will form a hybrid system optimized to minimize the launch mass while preserving the cryogenic propellants. Since cryogenic propellants are the largest mass that Mars missions must launch from earth, even a modest reduction in the percentage of propellant carried results in a significant weight saving. This paper will present a brief overview of cryogenic fluid management

  4. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  5. Living among giants exploring and settling the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The outer Solar System is rich in resources and may be the best region in which to search for life beyond Earth. In fact, it may ultimately be the best place for Earthlings to set up permanent abodes. This book surveys the feasibility of that prospect, covering the fascinating history of exploration that kicks off our adventure into the outer Solar System.   Although other books provide surveys of the outer planets, Carroll approaches it from the perspective of potential future human exploration, exploitation and settlement, using insights from today’s leading scientists in the field. These experts take us to targets such as the moons Titan, Triton, Enceladus, Iapetus and Europa, and within the atmospheres of the gas and ice giants. In these pages you will experience the thrill of discovery awaiting those who journey through the giant worlds and their moons.   All the latest research is included, as are numerous illustrations, among them original paintings by the author, a renowned prize-winning space art...

  6. Exploring Demand Charge Savings from Commercial Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Commercial retail electricity rates commonly include a demand charge component, based on some measure of the customer’s peak demand. Customer-sited solar PV can potentially reduce demand charges, but the magnitude of these savings can be difficult to predict, given variations in demand charge designs, customer loads, and PV generation profiles. Moreover, depending on the circumstances, demand charges from solar may or may not align well with associated utility cost savings. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are collaborating in a series of studies to understand how solar PV can reduce demand charge levels for a variety of customer types and demand charges designs. Previous work focused on residential customs with solar. This study, instead, focuses on commercial customers and seeks to understand the extent and conditions under which rooftop can solar reduce commercial demand charges. To answer these questions, we simulate demand charge savings for a broad range of commercial customer types, demand charge designs, locations, and PV system characteristics. This particular analysis does not include storage, but a subsequent analysis in this series will evaluate demand charge savings for commercial customers with solar and storage.

  7. Solar Magnetism eXplorer (Solme X)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Hardi; Abbo, L.; Andretta, V.; Auchere, F.; Bemporad, A.; Berrilli, F.; Bommier, V.; Cassini, R.; Curdt, W.; Davila, J.; Fineschi, S.; Fludra, A; Gandorfer, A.; Griffin, D.; Inhester, B.; Lagg, A.; Landi Degl’Innocenti, E.; Sainz, R. Manso; Pillet, V. Martinez; Matthews, S.; Moses, D.; Parenti, S.; Pietarila, A.; Raouafi, N.-E.; Raymond, J.

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic field plays a pivotal role in many fields of Astrophysics. This is especially true for the physics of the solar atmosphere. Measuring the magnetic field in the upper solar atmosphere is crucial to understand the nature of the underlying physical processes that drive the violent dynamics of the solar corona-that can also affect life on Earth. SolmeX, a fully equipped solar space observatory for remote-sensing observations, will provide the first comprehensive measurements of the strength and direction of the magnetic field in the upper solar atmosphere. The mission consists of two spacecraft, one carrying the instruments, and another one in formation flight at a distance of about 200 m carrying the occulter to provide an artificial total solar eclipse. This will ensure high-quality coronagraphic observations above the solar limb. SolmeX integrates two spectro-polarimetric coronagraphs for off-limb observations, one in the EUV and one in the IR, and three instruments for observations on the disk. The latter comprises one imaging polarimeter in the EUV for coronal studies, a spectro-polarimeter in the EUV to investigate the low corona, and an imaging spectro-polarimeter in the UV for chromospheric studies. SOHO and other existing missions have investigated the emission of the upper atmosphere in detail (not considering polarization), and as this will be the case also for missions planned for the near future. Therefore it is timely that SolmeX provides the final piece of the observational quest by measuring the magnetic field in the upper atmosphere through polarimetric observations

  8. Solar radiation and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Kristin; Moan, Johan [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, N-0310 Oslo (Norway); Brekke, Paal [Norwegian Space Centre, PO Box 113, Skoeyen, N-0212 Oslo (Norway); Dahlback, Arne [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Andersson-Engels, Stefan [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Reichrath, Joerg [Klinik fuer Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany); Holick, Michael F [Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, 85 E. Newton St., M-1013, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Grant, William B, E-mail: asta.juzeniene@rr-research.no, E-mail: kmoan@hotmail.com, E-mail: paal.brekke@spacecentre.no, E-mail: arne.dahlback@fys.uio.no, E-mail: j.e.moan@fys.uio.no, E-mail: stefan.andersson-engels@fysik.lth.se, E-mail: joerg.reichrath@uks.eu, E-mail: mfholick@bu.edu, E-mail: wbgrant@infionline.net [Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center (SUNARC), PO Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  9. Solar radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Brekke, Pål; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Jörg; Moan, Kristin; Holick, Michael F.; Grant, William B.; Moan, Johan

    2011-06-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  10. Robotic Recon for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Matthew; Fong, Terry; Ford, Ken; Heldmann, Jennifer; Helper, Mark; Hodges, Kip; Landis, Rob; Lee, Pascal; Schaber, Gerald; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    2009-01-01

    Robotic reconnaissance has the potential to significantly improve scientific and technical return from lunar surface exploration. In particular, robotic recon may increase crew productivity and reduce operational risk for exploration. However, additional research, development and field-testing is needed to mature robot and ground control systems, refine operational protocols, and specify detailed requirements. When the new lunar surface campaign begins around 2020, and before permanent outposts are established, humans will initially be on the Moon less than 10% of the time. During the 90% of time between crew visits, robots will be available to perform surface operations under ground control. Understanding how robotic systems can best address surface science needs, therefore, becomes a central issue Prior to surface missions, lunar orbiters (LRO, Kaguya, Chandrayyan-1, etc.) will map the Moon. These orbital missions will provide numerous types of maps: visible photography, topographic, mineralogical and geochemical distributions, etc. However, remote sensing data will not be of sufficient resolution, lighting, nor view angle, to fully optimize pre-human exploration planning, e.g., crew traverses for field geology and geophysics. Thus, it is important to acquire supplemental and complementary surface data. Robotic recon can obtain such data, using robot-mounted instruments to scout the surface and subsurface at resolutions and at viewpoints not achievable from orbit. This data can then be used to select locations for detailed field activity and prioritize targets to improve crew productivity. Surface data can also help identify and assess terrain hazards, and evaluate alternate routes to reduce operational risk. Robotic recon could be done months in advance, or be part of a continuing planning process during human missions.

  11. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.

    2015-11-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration, and was created to enable a deeper understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies. SSERVI is supported jointly by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The institute currently focuses on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars, but the institute goals may expand, depending on NASA's needs, in the future. The 9 initial teams, selected in late 2013 and funded from 2014-2019, have expertise across the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences. Their research includes various aspects of the surface, interior, exosphere, near-space environments, and dynamics of these bodies.NASA anticipates a small number of additional teams to be selected within the next two years, with a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) likely to be released in 2016. Calls for proposals are issued every 2-3 years to allow overlap between generations of institute teams, but the intent for each team is to provide a stable base of funding for a five year period. SSERVI's mission includes acting as a bridge between several groups, joining together researchers from: 1) scientific and exploration communities, 2) multiple disciplines across a wide range of planetary sciences, and 3) domestic and international communities and partnerships.The SSERVI central office is located at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. The administrative staff at the central office forms the organizational hub for the domestic and international teams and enables the virtual collaborative environment. Interactions with geographically dispersed teams across the U.S., and global partners, occur easily and frequently in a collaborative virtual environment. This poster will provide an overview of the 9 current US teams and

  12. In-Situ Production of Solar Power Systems for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Criswell, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Current proposals for developing an extended human presence, beyond space stations, on the Moon and Mars increasingly consider the processing of non-terrestrial materials essential for keeping the Earth launch burden reasonable. Utilization of in-situ resources for construction of lunar and Mars bases will initially require assessment of resource availability followed by the development of economically acceptable and technically feasible extractive processes. In regard to materials processing and fabrication the lower gravity level on the Moon (0.125 g) and Mars (0.367 g) will dramatically change the presently accepted hierarchy of materials in terms of specific properties, a factor which must be understood and exploited. Furthermore, significant changes are expected in the behavior of liquid materials during processing. In casting, for example, mold filling and associated solidification processes have to be reevaluated. Finally microstructural development and therefore material properties, presently being documented through on-going research in microgravity science and applications, needs to be understood and scaled to the reduced gravity environments. One of the most important elements of a human planetary base is power production. Lunar samples and geophysical measurements returned by the Apollo missions provide detailed data on the composition and physical characteristics of the lunar materials and environment. Based on this knowledge and extrapolations of terrestrial industrial experience it is clear that several types of solar-to-electric converters can be manufactured on the Moon. It is conceivable that well over 90% of a solar-to- electric power system could be made from lunar materials. Production and utilization of photovoltaic devices for solar energy production on Earth is primarily driven by the market economy. On Earth a production plant for photovoltaic devices is intimately linked to the planets massive industrial base. A selection of off the shelf

  13. Lunar Solar Power System and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    Five of the six billion people on Earth produce less than 2,500 per year per person of Gross World Product (GWP). GWP growth is severely limited by the high cost, low availability and reliability, environmental damages, and political uncertainties of conventional fossil, nuclear, and terrestrial renewable power systems. In 2000 the World Energy Council challenged all decision makers to enable the equivalent of 6.7 kWt per person of thermal power within two generations. This implies 67 TWt, or approx.20 to 30 TWe, of sustainable electric power by 2050. Twenty-five power systems were reviewed to select which could: (1) sustainably provide 20 TWe to consumers; (2) profitably sell electricity for less than 0.01 per kWe-h; (3) be environmentally neutral, even nurturing; and (4) use understood technologies. The analyses indicated that only the Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System could meet these requirements within the 21st Century.

  14. Solar Mesosphere Explorer optical-mechanical systems engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, K. A.; Stuart, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Mission overview of the Solar Mesosphere Explorer is presented along with design analysis and summaries of results. The Solar Mesosphere Explorer is a spin stabilized satellite carrying a complement of four Ebert-Fastie spectrometers and a four-channel Mersenne radiometer. Description of the spectrometer is given including a telescope and its aberrations. The radiometer is also described with consideration given to isothermal and thermal design, a Winston paraboloid, and optical tolerances. These five instruments are for measuring the earth's ozone density and distribution and providing quantitative data about those processes which govern the formation and destruction of ozone.

  15. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Merging Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Schmidt, G. K.; Bailey, B. E.; Minafra, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration, and was created to enable a deeper understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies. SSERVI is supported jointly by NASA's Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The institute currently focuses on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars, but the institute goals may expand, depending on NASA's needs, in the future. The 9 initial teams, selected in late 2013 and funded from 2014-2019, have expertise across the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences. Their research includes various aspects of the surface, interior, exosphere, near-space environments, and dynamics of these bodies. NASA anticipates a small number of additional teams to be selected within the next two years, with a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) likely to be released in 2016. Calls for proposals are issued every 2-3 years to allow overlap between generations of institute teams, but the intent for each team is to provide a stable base of funding for a five year period. SSERVI's mission includes acting as a bridge between several groups, joining together researchers from: 1) scientific and exploration communities, 2) multiple disciplines across a wide range of planetary sciences, and 3) domestic and international communities and partnerships. The SSERVI central office is located at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. The administrative staff at the central office forms the organizational hub for the domestic and international teams and enables the virtual collaborative environment. Interactions with geographically dispersed teams across the U.S., and global partners, occur easily and frequently in a collaborative virtual environment. This poster will provide an overview of the 9 current US teams and

  16. Exploring the Inner Solar System During IPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, H. M.; Stockman, S. A.; Carter, B. L.; Bleacher, L. V.

    2008-12-01

    During 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, both the MESSENGER mission to Mercury and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to orbit the Moon will use key mission milestones to engage the public. For the MESSENGER mission key millstones will be the release to the public of data from the Oct 6th 2008, flyby and the Sept 29th 2009 third and last Mercury flyby before MESSENGER orbits Mercury in 2011. IYA activities will include participating in 365 Days of Astronomy podcasts, making the second flyby data publicly available and exciting the public with images from the third flyby. The data from the first flyby can be seen in a variety of locations across the country on Science on a Sphere. During IYA, the MESSENGER mission will also be reaching a wide variety of audiences through social media networking such as Facebook and Twitter. Informal education communities will be able to include Mercury data in their IYA programming through the distribution of MESSENGER data through the NASA Museum Alliance. The LRO mission will return the public's attention to our nearest neighbor, the Moon, in 2009. As a result, the public will see high resolution images of the Moon never seen before. LRO will also engage the public in the lunar observation program. Starting in early 2009, LRO and Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) will be launched, and will continue their science missions throughout IYA. The public will be encouraged to make observations of the Moon during critical maneuvers for the LRO and LCROSS missions, including the LCROSS encounter, impacting the Moon which will occur in 2009. These events will help shift the public's attention to the Moon, and highlight the role our nearest neighbor plays in helping scientists learn about the early history of our Solar System. In addition to viewing LRO images and observing the Moon, the public can learn about the Moon, LRO, LCROSS, and past lunar missions virtually via the "Return to the Moon Hall

  17. Overview of NASA FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Hughes, S.; Kobs, S.; Garry, B.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our moon, Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. Scientific study focuses on planetary volcanism (e.g., the formation of volcanoes, evolution of magma chambers and the formation of multiple lava flow types, as well as the evolution and entrapment of volatile chemicals) and impact cratering (impact rock modification, cratering mechanics, and the chronologic record). FINESSE conducts multiple terrestrial field campaigns (Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho for volcanics, and West Clearwater Impact Structure in Canada for impact studies) to study such features as analogs relevant to our moon, Phobos, Deimos, and asteroids. Here we present the science and exploration results from two deployments to Idaho (2014, 2015) and our first deployment to Canada (2014). FINESSE was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint effort by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  18. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Merging Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.

    2016-10-01

    Established in 2013, through joint funding from the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on science at the intersection of these two enterprises. Addressing questions of value to the human exploration program that also represent important research relevant to planetary science, SSERVI creates a bridge between HEOMD and SMD. The virtual institute model reduces travel costs, but its primary virtue is the ability to join together colleagues who bring the right expertise, techniques and tools, regardless of their physical location, to address multi-faceted problems, at a deeper level than could be achieved through the typical period of smaller research grants. In addition, collaboration across team lines and international borders fosters the creation of new knowledge, especially at the intersections of disciplines that might not otherwise overlap.SSERVI teams investigate the Moon, Near-Earth Asteroids, and the moons of Mars, addressing questions fundamental to these target bodies and their near space environments. The institute is currently composed of nine U.S. teams of 30-50 members each, distributed geographically across the United States, ten international partners, and a Central Office located at NASA Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley, CA. U.S. teams are competitively selected through peer-reviewed proposals submitted to NASA every 2-3 years, in response to a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN). The current teams were selected under CAN-1, with funding for five years (2014-2019). A smaller, overlapping set of teams are expected to be added in 2017 in response to CAN-2, thereby providing continuity and a firm foundation for any directional changes NASA requires as the CAN-1 teams end their term. This poster describes the research areas and composition of the institute to introduce SSERVI to the broader planetary

  19. FINESSE: Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Lim, Darlene; Colaprete, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Phobos and Deimos. We follow the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." 1) FINESSE Science: Understand the effects of volcanism and impacts as dominant planetary processes on the Moon, NEAs, and Phobos & Deimos. 2) FINESSE Exploration: Understand which exploration concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities enable and enhance scientific return. To accomplish these objectives, we are conducting an integrated research program focused on scientifically-driven field exploration at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho and at the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure in northern Canada. Field deployments aimed at reconnaissance geology and data acquisition were conducted in 2014 at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. Targets for data acquisition included selected sites at Kings Bowl eruptive fissure, lava field and blowout crater, Inferno Chasm vent and outflow channel, North Crater lava flow and Highway lava flow. Field investigation included (1) differential GPS (dGPS) measurements of lava flows, channels (and ejecta block at Kings Bowl); (2) LiDAR imaging of lava flow margins, surfaces and other selected features; (3) digital photographic documentation; (4) sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis; (5) UAV aerial imagery of Kings Bowl and Inferno Chasm features; and (6) geologic assessment of targets and potential new targets. Over the course of the 5-week field FINESSE campaign to the West Clearwater Impact Structure (WCIS) in 2014, the team focused on several WCIS research topics, including impactites, central uplift formation, the impact-generated hydrothermal system, multichronometer

  20. Social Foundations of Human Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Dator, James A

    2012-01-01

    Social Foundations of Human Space Exploration presents a uniquely human perspective on the quest to explore space and to understand the universe through the lens of the arts, humanities, and social sciences. It considers early stories about the universe in various cultures; recent space fiction; the origins and cultural rationale for the space age; experiences of humans in space and their emerging interactions with robots and artificial intelligence; how humans should treat environments and alien life; and the alternative futures of space exploration and settlement.

  1. SMILE: A new way to explore solar-terrestrial relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Wang, Chi; Sembay, Steven; Dai, Lei; Li, Lei; Donovan, Eric; Read, Andy; Spanswick, Emma; Sibeck, David; Escoubet, Philippe; Rebuffat, Denis; Raab, Walfried; Zheng, Jianhua

    2016-10-01

    SMILE (Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer) will investigate the dynamic response of the Earth's magnetosphere to the impact of the solar wind in a unique and global manner, never attempted before. From a highly elliptical Earth orbit, SMILE will combine soft X-ray imaging of the Earth's magnetic boundaries and polar cusps with simultaneous UV imaging of the Northern aurora, while self-sufficiently measuring solar wind/magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field conditions in situ. X-ray imaging of the dayside magnetosheath and cusps is an innovative technique made possible by the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-ray emission, first observed at comets, and subsequently found to occur in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere.For the first time we will be able to trace and link the processes of solar wind injection in the magnetosphere with those acting on the charged particles precipitating into the cusps and eventually the aurora. While the basic theory of magnetospheric circulation is well known and the microscale has been explored by many in situ measurements, the reality of how this complex interaction takes place on a global scale, and how it evolves, is still not understood. SMILE will answer questions such as: What are the fundamental modes of the dayside solar wind/magnetosphere interaction and the large-scale structure of the interaction region? What defines the substorm cycle? How do CME-driven storms arise and how do they relate to substorms?SMILE is a joint space mission between ESA and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This presentation will cover the science that will be delivered by SMILE and its impact on our understanding of the way the solar wind interacts with the Earth's environment, and will give an overview of its payload and of the mission's development.

  2. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communications Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Carr, J.; Boyd, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication.

  3. Benefits of Microalgae for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrecchia, Angelique; Bebout, Brad M.; Murphy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Algae have long been known to offer a number of benefits to support long duration human space exploration. Algae contain proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, and lipids needed for human consumption, and can be produced using waste streams, while consuming carbon dioxide, and producing oxygen. In comparison with higher plants, algae have higher growth rates, fewer environmental requirements, produce far less "waste" tissue, and are resistant to digestion and/or biodegradation. As an additional benefit, algae produce many components (fatty acids, H2, etc.) which are useful as biofuels. On Earth, micro-algae survive in many harsh environments including low humidity, extremes in temperature, pH, and as well as high salinity and solar radiation. Algae have been shown to survive inmicro-gravity, and can adapt to high and low light intensity while retaining their ability to perform nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis. Studies have demonstrated that some algae are resistant to the space radiation environment, including solar ultraviolet radiation. It remains to be experimentally demonstrated, however, that an algal-based system could fulfil the requirements for a space-based Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) under comparable spaceflight power, mass, and environmental constraints. Two specific challenges facing algae cultivation in space are that (i) conventional growth platforms require large masses of water, which in turn require a large amount of propulsion fuel, and (ii) most nutrient delivery mechanisms (predominantly bubbling) are dependent on gravity. To address these challenges, we have constructed a low water biofilm based bioreactor whose operation is enabled by capillary forces. Preliminary characterization of this Surface Adhering BioReactor (SABR) suggests that it can serve as a platform for cultivating algae in space which requires about 10 times less mass than conventional reactors without sacrificing growth rate. Further work is necessary to

  4. SMILE: A new approach to exploring solar-terrestrial relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Wang, Chi; Steven, Sembay; Dai, Lei; Li, Lei; Donovan, Eric; Sun, Tianran; Kataria, Dhiren; Yang, Huigen; Read, Andrew; Whittaker, Ian; Spanswick, Emma; Sibeck, David; Kuntz, Kip; Escoubet, Philippe; Agnolon, David; Raab, Walfried; Zheng, Janhua

    2017-04-01

    SMILE (Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer) aims to investigate the coupling of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere, and the geospace dynamics that ensue, in a novel and global manner never tried so far. From a highly elliptical and highly inclined polar orbit, SMILE will simultaneously image the soft X-rays produced by solar wind charge exchange to delineate the Earth's magnetic boundaries and polar cusps, image the northern auroral oval in ultraviolet emissions, and measure the solar wind/magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field input. SMILE measurements will inform the science underpinning our still limited understanding of solar-terrestrial relationships and of their fundamental drivers, and will validate both global empirical and first-principle models. For the first time we will be able to trace and link the processes governing magnetopause interactions to those causing charged particle precipitation into the cusps and the remainder of the auroral oval, mapping aspects of the global interaction including the evolution of energy and mass transport. SMILE is a joint space mission between the European Space Agency and the Chinese Academy of Sciences due for launch at the end of 2021. This presentation will cover the science that will be delivered by SMILE and will provide an overview of SMILE's payload and mission development, demonstrating the scientific potential of SMILE through simulations of the data that it will return.

  5. Applied Nanotechnology for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowell, Leonard L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanotechnology for human space exploration is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA's Strategic Vision; 2) Exploration Architecture; 3) Future Exploration Mission Requirements Cannot be met with Conventional Materials; 4) Nanomaterials: Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes; 5) Applied Nanotechnology at JSC: Fundamentals to Applications; 6) Technology Readiness Levels (TRL); 7) Growth, Modeling, Diagnostics and Production; 8) Characterization: Purity, Dispersion and Consistency; 9) Processing; 10) Nanoelectronics: Enabling Technologies; 11) Applications for Human Space Exploration; 12) Exploration Life Support: Atmosphere Revitalization System; 13) Advanced and Exploration Life Support: Regenerable CO2 Removal; 14) Exploration Life Support: Water Recovery; 15) Advanced Life Support: Water Disinfection/Recovery; 16) Power and Energy: Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells; 17) Nanomaterials for EMI Shielding; 18) Active Radiation Dosimeter; 19) Advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) Repair; 20) Thermal Radiation and Impact Protection (TRIPS); 21) Nanotechnology: Astronaut Health Management; 22) JSC Nanomaterials Group Collaborations.

  6. Human exploration of space and power development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron

    The possible role of Solar Power Satellites (SPS) in advancing the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative is considered. Three approaches are examined: (1) the use of lunar raw materials to construct a large SPS in GEO, (2) the construction of a similar system on the lunar surface, and (3) a combination of (1) and (2). Emphasis is given to the mining of He-3 from the moon and its use by the SPS.

  7. Human space exploration the next fifty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Turnock, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration.

  8. Astrobiology and the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Garvin, James B.; Drake, B. G.; Beaty, David

    2010-01-01

    In March 2007, the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) chartered the Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG), co-chaired by J. B. Garvin and J. S. Levine and consisting of about 30 Mars scientists from the U.S. and Europe. HEM-SAG was one of a half dozen teams charted by NASA to consider the human exploration of Mars. Other teams included: Mars Entry, Descent and Landing, Human Health and Performance, Flight and Surface Systems, and Heliospheric/Astrophysics. The results of these Mars teams and the development of an architecture for the human exploration of Mars were summarized in two recent publications: Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, NASA Special Publication-2009-566 (B. G. Drake, Editor), 100 pages, July 2009 and Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, NASA Special Publication-2009-566 Addendum (B. G. Drake, Editor), 406 pages, July 2009. This presentation summarizes the HEM-SAG conclusions on astrobiology and the search for life on Mars by humans.

  9. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communication Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.; Boyd, Darren

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication. Like their name implies, solar sails 'sail' by reflecting sunlight from a large, lightweight reflective material that resembles the sails of 17th and 18th century ships and modern sloops. Instead of wind, the sail and the ship derive their thrust by reflecting solar photons. Solar sail technology has been discussed in the literature for quite some time, but it is only since 2010 that sails have been proven to work in space. Thin-film photovoltaics are revolutionizing the terrestrial power generation market and have been found to be suitable for medium-term use in the space environment. When mounted on the thin-film substrate, these photovoltaics can be packaged into very small volumes and used to generate significant power for small spacecraft. Finally, embedded antennas are being developed that can be adhered to thin-film substrates to provide lightweight, omnidirectional UHF and X-band coverage, increasing bandwidth or effective communication ranges for small spacecraft. Taken together, they may enable a host of new deep space destinations to be reached by a generation of spacecraft smaller and more capable than ever before.

  10. Humanity in God's Image: An Interdisciplinary Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia

    How can we, in our times, understand the biblical concept that human beings have been created in the image of an invisible God? This is a perennial but increasingly pressing question that lies at the heart of theological anthropology. Humanity in God's Image: An Interdisciplinary Exploration....... Claudia Welz offers an interdisciplinary exploration of theological and ethical 'visions' of the invisible. By analysing poetry and art, Welz exemplifies human self-understanding in the interface between the visual and the linguistic. The content of the imago Dei cannot be defined apart from the image...

  11. Robotic Follow-Up for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Deans, Matthew C.; Adams, Byron; Allan, Mark; Altobelli, Martha; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Cohen, Tamar; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Garber, Joshua; Palmer, Elizabeth; Heggy, Essam; Jurgens, Frank; Kennedy, Tim; Kobayashi, Linda; Lee, Pascal; Lee, Susan Y.; Lees, David; Lundy, Mike; Park, Eric; Pedersen, Liam; Smith, Trey; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Wheeler, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    We are studying how "robotic follow-up" can improve future planetary exploration. Robotic follow-up, which we define as augmenting human field work with subsequent robot activity, is a field exploration technique designed to increase human productivity and science return. To better understand the benefits, requirements, limitations and risks associated with this technique, we are conducting analog field tests with human and robot teams at the Haughton Crater impact structure on Devon Island, Canada. In this paper, we discuss the motivation for robotic follow-up, describe the scientific context and system design for our work, and present results and lessons learned from field testing.

  12. Solar System Exploration Augmented by Lunar and Outer Planet Resource Utilization: Historical Perspectives and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In the historical work, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. These studies depict program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system, lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented are presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal propulsion, nuclear surface power, as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Robotic and human outer planet exploration options are described in many detailed and extensive studies. Nuclear propulsion options for fast trips to the outer planets are discussed. To refuel such vehicles, atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has also been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen (H2) can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and H2 (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses have investigated resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional

  13. Lunar Exploration: Opening a Window into the History and Evolution of the Inner Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    The lunar geological record contains a rich archive of the history of the inner Solar System, including information relevant to understanding the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and our local cosmic environment. This paper provides a brief review of lunar exploration to-date, and describes how future exploration initiatives will further advance our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon, the Earth-Moon system, and of the Solar System more generally. It is concluded that further advances will require the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the lunar surface. Some of these scientific objectives can be achieved robotically, for example by in situ geochemical and geophysical measurements and through carefully targeted sample return missions. However, in the longer term, we argue that lunar science would greatly benefit from renewed human operations on the surface of the Moon, such as would be ...

  14. Graphical Visualization of Human Exploration Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Erica M.; Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Simon, Matthew A.; Williams, Phillip A.; Barsoum, Christopher; Cowan, Tyler; Larman, Kevin T.; Hay, Jason; Burg, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NASA's pioneering space strategy will require advanced capabilities to expand the boundaries of human exploration on the Journey to Mars (J2M). The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) architecture serves as a framework to identify critical capabilities that need to be developed and tested in order to enable a range of human exploration destinations and missions. Agency-wide System Maturation Teams (SMT) are responsible for the maturation of these critical exploration capabilities and help formulate, guide and resolve performance gaps associated with the EMC-identified capabilities. Systems Capability Organization Reporting Engine boards (SCOREboards) were developed to integrate the SMT data sets into cohesive human exploration capability stories that can be used to promote dialog and communicate NASA's exploration investments. Each SCOREboard provides a graphical visualization of SMT capability development needs that enable exploration missions, and presents a comprehensive overview of data that outlines a roadmap of system maturation needs critical for the J2M. SCOREboards are generated by a computer program that extracts data from a main repository, sorts the data based on a tiered data reduction structure, and then plots the data according to specified user inputs. The ability to sort and plot varying data categories provides the flexibility to present specific SCOREboard capability roadmaps based on customer requests. This paper presents the development of the SCOREboard computer program and shows multiple complementary, yet different datasets through a unified format designed to facilitate comparison between datasets. Example SCOREboard capability roadmaps are presented followed by a discussion of how the roadmaps are used to: 1) communicate capability developments and readiness of systems for future missions, and 2) influence the definition of NASA's human exploration investment portfolio through capability-driven processes. The paper concludes with a description

  15. Connecting Robots and Humans in Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Louis

    2000-07-01

    Mars exploration is a very special public interest. It's preeminence in the national space policy calling for "sustained robotic presence on the surface," international space policy (witness the now aborted international plan for sample return, and also aborted Russian "national Mars program") and the media attention to Mars exploration are two manifestations of that interest. Among a large segment of the public there is an implicit (mis)understanding that we are sending humans to Mars. Even among those who know that isn't already a national or international policy, many think it is the next human exploration goal. At the same time the resources for Mars exploration in the U.S. and other country's space programs are a very small part of space budgets. Very little is being applied to direct preparations for human flight. This was true before the 1999 mission losses in the United States, and it is more true today. The author's thesis is that the public interest and the space program response to Mars exploration are inconsistent. This inconsistency probably results from an explicit space policy contradiction: Mars exploration is popular because of the implicit pull of Mars as the target for human exploration, but no synergy is permitted between the human and robotic programs to carry out the program. It is not permitted because of narrow, political thinking. In this paper we try to lay out the case for overcoming that thinking, even while not committing to any premature political initiative. This paper sets out a rationale for Mars exploration and uses it to then define recommended elements of the programs: missions, science objectives, technology. That consideration is broader than the immediate issue of recovering from the failures of Mars Climate OrbIter, Mars Polar Lander and the Deep Space 2 microprobes in late 1999. But we cannot ignore those failures. They are causing a slow down Mars exploration. Not only were the three missions lost, with their planned

  16. Academic Training - Exploring Planets and Moons in our Solar System

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 6, 7, 8, 9 June 11:00-12:00. On the 8 June from 10:00 to 12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Exploring Planets and Moons in our Solar System H.O. RUCKER / Space Research Institut, Graz The lecture series comprises 5 lectures starting with the interplanetary medium, the solar wind and its interaction with magnetized planets. Knowledge on the magnetically dominated 'spheres'around the Giant Planets have been obtained by the Grand Tour of both Voyager spacecraft to Jupiter, Saturn, with the continuation of Voyager 2 to Uranus, and Neptune, in the late seventies and eighties of last century. These findings are now extensively supported and complemented by Cassini/Huygens to the Saturnian system. This will be discussed in detail in lecture 2. Specific aspects of magnetospheric physics, in particular radio emissions from the planets, observed in-situ and by remote sensing techniques, will be addressed in the following lecture 3. Of high importance are also the rec...

  17. Solar Power Satellites for Space Exploration and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougnet, C.; Sein, E.; Celeste, A.; Summerer, L.

    2004-12-01

    Power generation is one of the crucial elements of space vehicles and of future infrastructures on planets and moons. The increased demand for power faces many constraints, in particular the sizing of the power generation system also driven by eclipse periods and the solar intensity at the operational spot. In the medium term, Earth orbiting platforms will require higher power levels. Interplanetary exploration vehicles face the problem of distance to the Sun, especially when large amount of power may be needed. Large infrastructures on Moon and planets, like Mars, are constrained by environment attenuation, long eclipse or distance to the Sun. New systems and technologies have to be found, which go beyond simple improvements of the current technologies. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) systems, based on wireless power transmission, are attractive candidate solutions to provide power to space vehicles or to elements on planet surface. Studies have been carried out for many years on the problem of providing renewable electrical energy from space to Earth with SPS. This paper reviews the main results of an ESA funded study, led by EADS Astrium with the support of the Université of La Réunion, which assessed the utilisation of SPS concepts for space-to-space and space-to-planet applications.

  18. Human Exploration Science Office (KX) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Tracy A.

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office supports human spaceflight, conducts research, and develops technology in the areas of space orbital debris, hypervelocity impact technology, image science and analysis, remote sensing, imagery integration, and human and robotic exploration science. NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) resides in the Human Exploration Science Office. ODPO provides leadership in orbital debris research and the development of national and international space policy on orbital debris. The office is recognized internationally for its measurement and modeling of the debris environment. It takes the lead in developing technical consensus across U.S. agencies and other space agencies on debris mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. The Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) project evaluates the risks to spacecraft posed by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD). HVIT facilities at JSC and White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) use light gas guns, diagnostic tools, and high-speed imagery to quantify the response of spacecraft materials to MMOD impacts. Impact tests, with debris environment data provided by ODPO, are used by HVIT to predict risks to NASA and commercial spacecraft. HVIT directly serves NASA crew safety with MMOD risk assessments for each crewed mission and research into advanced shielding design for future missions. The Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) supports the International Space Station (ISS) and commercial spaceflight through the design of imagery acquisition schemes (ground- and vehicle-based) and imagery analyses for vehicle performance assessments and mission anomaly resolution. ISAG assists the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in the development of camera systems for the Orion spacecraft that will serve as data sources for flight test objectives that lead to crewed missions. The multi-center Imagery Integration Team is led by the Human Exploration Science Office and provides

  19. Polarimetric Exploration of Solar System Small Bodies: Search for Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.

    2015-08-01

    The overarching goals for the remote sensing and robotic exploration of our solar system and exoplanetary systems are: (1) understanding the formation of planetary systems and their diversity; and (2) search for habitability. These goals can be realized with the inclusion of spectrophotopolarimetry as a complementary approach to standard techniques of imaging and spectroscopy. Since all objects have unique polarimetric signatures, like fingerprints, much can be learned about the scattering object. Although polarization, in general, is elliptical by nature, special cases such as linear and circular polarimetric signatures provide insight into the various types of scattering media and are valuable tools to be developed. Additionally, spectral dependence of polarization is important to separate the macroscopic (bulk) properties of the scattering medium from the microscopic (particulate) properties of the scattering medium. The search for habitability can benefit from spectrophotopolarimetry. While linear polarization of reflected light by solar system objects (planetary atmospheres, satellites, rings systems, comets, asteroids, dust, etc.) provides insight into the scattering characteristics of aerosols and hazes in atmospheres and surficial properties of atmosphereless objects, circular polarization and related chirality) or handedness, a property of molecules that exhibit mirror-image symmetry, similar to right and left hands) can serve as diagnostic of biological activity. All known life forms on earth are chiral and pre-dominantly left-handed. However, many of these applications suffer from lack of detailed observations, instrumentation, dedicated missions and numerical/retrieval methods. I will present a review of the field, with advances made in instrumentation, measurements and applications to prospective missions.

  20. Mission interplanetary: Using radioisotope power to explore the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Gary L., E-mail: UserSg4282@aol.com

    2008-03-15

    The exploration of space both by humans and robots has been greatly enhanced and, in many cases, enabled by the use of radioisotope power sources (RPSs) to power and/or heat scientific instruments. Radioisotope power sources have enabled such breakthrough missions as the Pioneer flights to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond; the Voyager flights to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and beyond; the Apollo lunar surface experiments; the Viking Lander studies of Mars; the Galileo spacecraft that orbited Jupiter; the Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the Sun; the Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn; and the recently launched New Horizons spacecraft to Pluto. Radioisotope heater units have enhanced or enabled the Apollo Early Scientific Experiment Package and the Mars exploration rover missions (Sojourner, Spirit and Opportunity). Since 1961, the United States has successfully flown 41 radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to provide electrical power for 23 space missions.

  1. Future Visions for Scientific Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, James

    2005-01-01

    Today, humans explore deep-space locations such as Mars, asteroids, and beyond, vicariously here on Earth, with noteworthy success. However, to achieve the revolutionary breakthroughs that have punctuated the history of science since the dawn of the Space Age has always required humans as "the discoverers," as Daniel Boorstin contends in this book of the same name. During Apollo 17, human explorers on the lunar surface discovered the "genesis rock," orange glass, and humans in space revamped the optically crippled Hubble Space Telescope to enable some of the greatest astronomical discoveries of all time. Science-driven human exploration is about developing the opportunities for such events, perhaps associated with challenging problems such as whether we can identify life beyond Earth within the universe. At issue, however, is how to safely insert humans and the spaceflight systems required to allow humans to operate as they do best in the hostile environment of deep space. The first issue is minimizing the problems associated with human adaptation to the most challenging aspects of deep space space radiation and microgravity (or non-Earth gravity). One solution path is to develop technologies that allow for minimization of the exposure time of people to deep space, as was accomplished in Apollo. For a mission to the planet Mars, this might entail new technological solutions for in-space propulsion that would make possible time-minimized transfers to and from Mars. The problem of rapid, reliable in-space transportation is challenged by the celestial mechanics of moving in space and the so-called "rocket equation." To travel to Mars from Earth in less than the time fuel-minimizing trajectories allow (i.e., Hohmann transfers) requires an exponential increase in the amount of fuel. Thus, month-long transits would require a mass of fuel as large as the dry mass of the ISS, assuming the existence of continuous acceleration engines. This raises the largest technological

  2. Lunar exploration: opening a window into the history and evolution of the inner Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian A; Joy, Katherine H

    2014-09-13

    The lunar geological record contains a rich archive of the history of the inner Solar System, including information relevant to understanding the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and our local cosmic environment. This paper provides a brief review of lunar exploration to-date and describes how future exploration initiatives will further advance our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon, the Earth-Moon system and of the Solar System more generally. It is concluded that further advances will require the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the lunar surface. Some of these scientific objectives can be achieved robotically, for example by in situ geochemical and geophysical measurements and through carefully targeted sample return missions. However, in the longer term, we argue that lunar science would greatly benefit from renewed human operations on the surface of the Moon, such as would be facilitated by implementing the recently proposed Global Exploration Roadmap.

  3. Research on Human-Robot Joint System for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei

    The lunar exploration in China is in progress. In order to reduce human workload and costs, and conduct researches more effectively and efficiently, human-robot joint systems are necessary for lunar exploration. The concept of human-robot joint system for lunar exploration is studied in this paper. The possible collaborative ways between human and robots and the collaborative activities which can be conducted for lunar exploration are discussed. Moreover, the preliminary configuration of a human-robot joint system is presented.

  4. Exploring the Origin and Dynamics of Solar Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hazra, Soumitra

    2016-01-01

    The Sun is a magnetically active star and is the source of the solar wind, electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles which affect the heliosphere and the Earths atmosphere. The magnetic field of the Sun is responsible for most of the dynamic activity of the Sun. This thesis research seeks to understand solar magnetic field generation and the role that magnetic fields play in the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Specifically, this thesis focuses on two themes: in the first part, we study the origin and behaviour of solar magnetic fields using magnetohydrodynamic dynamo theory and modelling, and in the second part, utilizing observations and data analysis we study two major problems in solar physics, namely, the coronal heating problem and initiation mechanisms of solar flares.

  5. Exploring Human Capital and Hybrid Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyver, Kim; Lomberg, Carina; Steffens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    An individual’s human capital affects their choice to become and entrepreneur and also their likely success as a nascent entrepreneur. This paper explores how hybrid employment—entrepreneur opportunities impact these dynamics. Drawing on insights from decision theory, we argue that an individual...... longitudinal dataset of individuals facing career transition as nascent entrepreneurs, job seekers or both, we find that while hybrid nascent entrepreneurship (trying to start a business while being employed) has a positive influence on outcomes, hybrid search (concurrent job search while trying to start...

  6. Strategies For Human Exploration Leading To Human Colonization of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Everett, Harmon

    2009-01-01

    Enabling the commercial development of space is key to the future colonization of space and key to a viable space exploration program. Without commercial development following in the footsteps of exploration it is difficult to justify and maintain public interest in the efforts. NASA's exploration program has suffered from the lack of a good commercial economic strategy for decades. Only small advances in commercial space have moved forward, and only up to Earth orbit with the commercial satellite industry. A way to move beyond this phase is to begin the establishment of human commercial activities in space in partnership with the human exploration program. In 2007 and 2008, the authors researched scenarios to make space exploration and commercial space development more feasible as part of their graduate work in the Space Architecture Program at the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture at the University of Houston, Houston, Texas. Through this research it became apparent that the problems facing future colonization are much larger than the technology being developed or the international missions that our space agencies are pursuing. These issues are addressed in this paper with recommendations for space exploration, commercial development, and space policy that are needed to form a strategic plan for human expansion into space. In conclusion, the authors found that the current direction in space as carried out by our space agencies around the world is definitely needed, but is inadequate and incapable of resolving all of the issues that inhibit commercial space development. A bolder vision with strategic planning designed to grow infrastructures and set up a legal framework for commercial markets will go a long way toward enabling the future colonization of space.

  7. Spacecraft/rover hybrids for the exploration of small Solar System bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, M.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Nesnas, I. A. D.; Hoffman, J. A.; Strange, N. J.

    In this paper we present a mission architecture for the systematic and affordable in-situ exploration of small Solar System bodies (such as asteroids, comets, and Martian moons). At a general level, a mother spacecraft would deploy on the surface of a small body one, or several, spacecraft/rover hybrids, which are small (robots enclosing three mutually orthogonal flywheels and surrounded by external spikes (in particular, there is no external propulsion). By accelerating/decelerating the flywheels and by exploiting the low gravity environment, the hybrids would be capable of performing both long excursions (by hopping) and short traverses to specific locations (through a sequence of controlled “ tumbles” ). Their control would rely on synergistic operations with the mother spacecraft (where most of hybrids perception and localization functionalities would be hosted), which would make the platforms minimalistic and in turn the entire mission architecture affordable. Specifically, in the first part of the paper we present preliminary models and laboratory experiments for the hybrids, first-order estimates for critical subsystems, and a preliminary study for synergistic mission operations. In the second part, we tailor our mission architecture to the exploration of Mars' moon Phobos. The mission aims at exploring Phobos' Stickney crater, whose spectral similarities with C-type asteroids and variety of terrain properties make it a particularly interesting exploration target to address both high-priority science for the Martian system and strategic knowledge gaps for the future human exploration of Mars.

  8. Retrospect to Human Deep Space Exploration History and Its Prospect in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Peijian; Peng Jing

    2006-01-01

    The definition, goal and impacts of deep space exploration are summarized. After a retrospect to past deep exploration activities of human being to date, both recent deep space missions and future missions in 5 years are also listed. There are also brief introductions about the future strategic plans of NASA, ESA,RAKA, JAXA and ISRO. Then authors analyze some important features of global deep space exploration scheme. Key technologies of deep space exploration are also determined. The status of China deep exploration plan is introduced including CE-1 lunar orbiter, the subsequent China Lunar Exploration Program, especially proposal for the second stage of China Lunar Exploration Program, Mars exploration program of China with Russia Kuafu mission, Hard X-Ray Modulated Telescope, Space Solar Telescope. At the end, some suggestions for China future deep space exploration are made.

  9. Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation being developed in this program is a Mg Hall Effect Thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization based solar system...

  10. Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to prove the feasibility of a Mg Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) based solar system...

  11. Electric propulsion - A high energy capability for solar system exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1976-01-01

    The principles of spacecraft electric (ion thruster) propulsion are briefly reviewed. Attention is given to the inner and outer planet applications of electric (and solar electric) propulsion. Electric propulsion is considered as a stepping stone to nuclear electric propulsion.

  12. Simple Photovoltaic Cells for Exploring Solar Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2006-01-01

    Low-efficiency solar cells for educational purposes can be simply made in school or home environments using wet-chemistry techniques and readily available chemicals of generally low toxicity. Instructions are given for making solar cells based on the heterojunctions Cu/Cu[subscript 2]O, Cu[subscript 2]O/ZnO and Cu[subscript 2]S/ZnO, together with…

  13. Understanding Predictability and Exploration in Human Mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Cuttone, Andrea; González, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Predictive models for human mobility have important applications in many fields such as traffic control, ubiquitous computing and contextual advertisement. The predictive performance of models in literature varies quite broadly, from as high as 93% to as low as under 40%. In this work we investigate which factors influence the accuracy of next-place prediction, using a high-precision location dataset of more than 400 users for periods between 3 months and one year. We show that it is easier to achieve high accuracy when predicting the time-bin location than when predicting the next place. Moreover we demonstrate how the temporal and spatial resolution of the data can have strong influence on the accuracy of prediction. Finally we uncover that the exploration of new locations is an important factor in human mobility, and we measure that on average 20-25% of transitions are to new places, and approx. 70% of locations are visited only once. We discuss how these mechanisms are important factors limiting our abili...

  14. On the Modern History of Passive Solar Architecture: Exploring the Paradox of Nordic Environmental Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the paradox of passive solar architecture within the Nordic context of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Regulative developments to reduce space heating demand since the 1970s oil crisis are explored, highlighting architectural responses and the rise in prom-inence of passive solar...

  15. Advanced Space Robotics and Solar Electric Propulsion: Enabling Technologies for Future Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M.; Tadros, A.

    2017-02-01

    Obtaining answers to questions posed by planetary scientists over the next several decades will require the ability to travel further while exploring and gathering data in more remote locations of our solar system. Timely investments need to be made in developing and demonstrating solar electric propulsion and advanced space robotics technologies.

  16. Future Mercury Exploration: Unique Science Opportunities from Our Solar System's Innermost Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, N. L.; McNutt, R. L.; Blewett, D. T.; Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Mazarico, E.; Jozwiak, L. M.

    2017-02-01

    Mercury is one of only five inner solar system terrestrial bodies, each of which is unique. What properties and processes made these bodies so diverse? Future planetary exploration must include Mercury to make advances on this fundamental question.

  17. A Monolithic, Non-Field-Widened Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer for Solar System Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to produce a monolithic Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (a Fourier Transform Interferometer) for use in Solar System exploration. In...

  18. Spacecraft/Rover Hybrids for the Exploration of Small Solar System Bodies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this effort is to develop a mission architecture that allows the systematic and affordable in situ exploration of small Solar System bodies (such...

  19. Robots and Humans in Planetary Exploration: Working Together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Today's approach to human-robotic cooperation in planetary exploration focuses on using robotic probes as precursors to human exploration. A large portion of current NASA planetary surface exploration is focussed on Mars, and robotic probes are seen as precursors to human exploration in: Learning about operation and mobility on Mars; Learning about the environment of Mars; Mapping the planet and selecting landing sites for human mission; Demonstration of critical technology; Manufacture fuel before human presence, and emplace elements of human-support infrastructure

  20. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved

  1. Human Space Exploration: The Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission in ways that promote leadership in space and economic expansion on the new frontier. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed, to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. The Vision commits NASA and the nation to an agenda of exploration that also includes robotic exploration and technology development, while building on lessons learned over 50 years of hard-won experience. Why the Moon? Many questions about the Moon's potential resources and how its history is linked to that of Earth were spurred by the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment for extended expeditions. The Moon also will serve as a training ground before embarking on the longer, more difficult trip to Mars. NASA plans to build a lunar outpost at one of the lunar poles, learn to live off the land, and reduce dePendence on Earth for longer missions. America needs to extend its ability to survive in hostile environments close to our home planet before astronauts will reach Mars, a planet very much like Earth. NASA has worked with scientists to define lunar exploration goals and is addressing the opportunities for a range of scientific study on Mars. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on common hardware, shared knowledge, and unique experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I

  2. Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Allen, Jaclyn; Tobola, Kay; Klug, Sheri; Harmon, Art

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Program is entering an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery. Its goal is to understand the origin and evolution of the solar system and life within it. SSE missions are operating or in development to study the far reaches of our solar system and beyond. These missions proceed in sequence for each body from reconnaissance flybys through orbiters and landers or rovers to sample returns. SSE research programs develop new instruments, analyze mission data or returned samples, and provide experimental or theoretical models to aid in interpretation.

  3. The contamination impact of human exploration to a subterranean environment and the implications for further crewed space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuko, Stefan; Rettberg, Petra; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Laura; Koskinen, Kaisa

    2016-07-01

    The quest of exploring and looking for life in new places is a human desire since centuries. Nowadays, we are not only looking on planet Earth any more, but our endeavours focus on nearby planets in our solar system. It is therefore of great importance to preserve the extra-terrestrial environment and not to contaminate it with terrestrial / human associated bacteria. At this point in time we are not able to send crewed missions to other planets; however, analysing the impact of human exploration on environments is of great planetary protection concern. This can be achieved by obtaining samples from a subterranean environment, where only expert speleologists have access and the human impact is considered very low. For this study, astronauts participating in the 2014 ESA CAVES (Cooperative Adventure for Valuing and Exercising human behaviour and performance Skills) training course, obtained samples from deep within a subterranean environment and returned them to the laboratory for molecular microbial analysis. The diversity of the returned soil samples was analysed by molecular means such as clone library and next-generation sequencing (NGS). It was found that humans have an immense impact on the microbial diversity in the environment. Although the cave system is sparsely entered by humans, a high relative abundance of Staphylococcus spp. and Propionibacteria spp., organisms that are characteristic for human skin, have been recovered. Some samples even showed the presence of human gut associated methanogenic archaea, Methanomassiliicoccus spp. The obtained data from this investigation indicate that human exploration is strongly polluting an environment and may lead to false-positive sign of life on other planets. It is therefore imperative to increase our awareness to this problem as well as work towards new protocols to protect a pristine extraterrestrial environment during exploration.

  4. Exploring the Solar System? Let the Math Teachers Help!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Karen; Canales, J. D.; Smith, Angela; Zimmerman, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Scale measurement and ratio and proportion are topics that fall clearly in the middle-grades mathematics curriculum in Texas. So does the solar system. In their experience, the authors have found that students have trouble manipulating, much less comprehending, very large numbers and very small numbers. These concepts can be brought into students'…

  5. Exploring the Solar System? Let the Math Teachers Help!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Karen; Canales, J. D.; Smith, Angela; Zimmerman, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Scale measurement and ratio and proportion are topics that fall clearly in the middle-grades mathematics curriculum in Texas. So does the solar system. In their experience, the authors have found that students have trouble manipulating, much less comprehending, very large numbers and very small numbers. These concepts can be brought into students'…

  6. INTEGRITY -- Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, D.; Tri, T.; Daues, K.

    It is proposed to develop a high -fidelity ground facil ity to carry out long-duration human exploration mission simulations. These would not be merely computer simulations - they would in fact comprise a series of actual missions that just happen to stay on earth. These missions would include all elements of an actual mission, using actual technologies that would be used for the real mission. These missions would also include such elements as extravehicular activities, robotic systems, telepresence and teleoperation, surface drilling technology--all using a simulated planetary landscape. A sequence of missions would be defined that get progressively longer and more robust, perhaps a series of five or six missions over a span of 10 to 15 years ranging in durat ion from 180 days up to 1000 days. This high-fidelity ground facility would operate hand-in-hand with a host of other terrestrial analog sites such as the Antarctic, Haughton Crater, and the Arizona desert. Of course, all of these analog mission simulations will be conducted here on earth in 1-g, and NASA will still need the Shuttle and ISS to carry out all the microgravity and hypogravity science experiments and technology validations. The proposed missions would have sufficient definition such that definitive requirements could be derived from them to serve as direction for all the program elements of the mission. Additionally, specific milestones would be established for the "launch" date of each mission so that R&D programs would have both good requirements and solid milestones from which to build their implementation plans. Mission aspects that could not be directly incorporated into the ground facility would be simulated via software. New management techniques would be developed for evaluation in this ground test facility program. These new techniques would have embedded metrics which would allow them to be continuously evaluated and adjusted so that by the time the sequence of missions is completed

  7. Exploring the Outer Solar System with the ESSENCE Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, A.C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Arraki, K.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Kaib, N.A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Aguilera, C.; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Blackman, J.W.; /Australian Natl. U., Canberra; Blondin, S.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Challis, P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Clocchiatti, A.; /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol.; Covarrubias, R.; /Kyushu Sangyo U.; Damke, G.; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Davis, T.M.; /Bohr Inst. /Queensland U.; Filippenko, A.V.; /UC, Berkeley; Foley, R.J.; /UC, Berkeley; Garg, A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Garnavich, P.M.; /Notre Dame U.; Hicken, M.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Jha, S.; /Harvard U. /SLAC; Kirshner, R.P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Krisciunas, K.; /Notre Dame U. /Texas A-M; Leibundgut, B.; /Munich, Tech. U. /UC, Berkeley /NOAO, Tucson /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Fermilab /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Chile U., Santiago /Ohio State U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Harvard U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Munich, Tech. U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Texas A-M /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.

    2011-11-10

    We report the discovery and orbital determination of 14 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the ESSENCE Supernova Survey difference imaging data set. Two additional objects discovered in a similar search of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey database were recovered in this effort. ESSENCE repeatedly observed fields far from the solar system ecliptic (-21{sup o} < {beta} < -5{sup o}), reaching limiting magnitudes per observation of I {approx} 23.1 and R {approx} 23.7. We examine several of the newly detected objects in detail, including 2003 UC{sub 414}, which orbits entirely between Uranus and Neptune and lies very close to a dynamical region that would make it stable for the lifetime of the solar system. 2003 SS{sub 422} and 2007 TA{sub 418} have high eccentricities and large perihelia, making them candidate members of an outer class of TNOs. We also report a new member of the 'extended' or 'detached' scattered disk, 2004 VN{sub 112}, and verify the stability of its orbit using numerical simulations. This object would have been visible to ESSENCE for only {approx}2% of its orbit, suggesting a vast number of similar objects across the sky. We emphasize that off-ecliptic surveys are optimal for uncovering the diversity of such objects, which in turn will constrain the history of gravitational influences that shaped our early solar system.

  8. Dust Accumulation and Solar Panel Array Performance on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgay, Eren H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most fundamental design considerations for any space vehicle is its power supply system. Many options exist, including batteries, fuel cells, nuclear reactors, radioisotopic thermal generators (RTGs), and solar panel arrays. Solar arrays have many advantages over other types of power generation. They are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, allowing more mass and funding to be allocated for other important devices, such as scientific instruments. For Mars applications, solar power is an excellent option, especially for long missions. One might think that dust storms would be a problem; however, while dust blocks some solar energy, it also scatters it, making it diffuse rather than beamed. Solar cells are still able to capture this diffuse energy and convert it into substantial electrical power. For these reasons, solar power was chosen to be used on the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission. The success of this mission set a precedent, as NASA engineers have selected solar power as the energy system of choice for all future Mars missions, including the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project. Solar sells have their drawbacks, however. They are difficult to manufacture and are relatively fragile. In addition, solar cells are highly sensitive to different parts of the solar spectrum, and finding the correct balance is crucial to the success of space missions. Another drawback is that the power generated is not a constant with respect to time, but rather changes with the relative angle to the sun. On Mars, dust accumulation also becomes a factor. Over time, dust settles out of the atmosphere and onto solar panels. This dust blocks and shifts the frequency of the incoming light, degrading solar cell performance. My goal is to analyze solar panel telemetry data from the two MERs (Spirit and Opportunity) in an effort to accurately model the effect of dust accumulation on solar panels. This is no easy process due to the large number of factors involved. Changing solar

  9. Dust Accumulation and Solar Panel Array Performance on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgay, Eren H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most fundamental design considerations for any space vehicle is its power supply system. Many options exist, including batteries, fuel cells, nuclear reactors, radioisotopic thermal generators (RTGs), and solar panel arrays. Solar arrays have many advantages over other types of power generation. They are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, allowing more mass and funding to be allocated for other important devices, such as scientific instruments. For Mars applications, solar power is an excellent option, especially for long missions. One might think that dust storms would be a problem; however, while dust blocks some solar energy, it also scatters it, making it diffuse rather than beamed. Solar cells are still able to capture this diffuse energy and convert it into substantial electrical power. For these reasons, solar power was chosen to be used on the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission. The success of this mission set a precedent, as NASA engineers have selected solar power as the energy system of choice for all future Mars missions, including the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project. Solar sells have their drawbacks, however. They are difficult to manufacture and are relatively fragile. In addition, solar cells are highly sensitive to different parts of the solar spectrum, and finding the correct balance is crucial to the success of space missions. Another drawback is that the power generated is not a constant with respect to time, but rather changes with the relative angle to the sun. On Mars, dust accumulation also becomes a factor. Over time, dust settles out of the atmosphere and onto solar panels. This dust blocks and shifts the frequency of the incoming light, degrading solar cell performance. My goal is to analyze solar panel telemetry data from the two MERs (Spirit and Opportunity) in an effort to accurately model the effect of dust accumulation on solar panels. This is no easy process due to the large number of factors involved. Changing solar

  10. Innovative Technologies for Human Exploration: Opportunities for Partnerships and Leveraging Novel Technologies External to NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jason; Mullins, Carie; Graham, Rachael; Williams-Byrd, Julie; Reeves, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Human spaceflight organizations have ambitious goals for expanding human presence throughout the solar system. To meet these goals, spaceflight organizations have to overcome complex technical challenges for human missions to Mars, Near Earth Asteroids, and other distant celestial bodies. Resolving these challenges requires considerable resources and technological innovations, such as advancements in human health and countermeasures for space environments; self-sustaining habitats; advanced power and propulsion systems; and information technologies. Today, government space agencies seek cooperative endeavors to reduce cost burdens, improve human exploration capabilities, and foster knowledge sharing among human spaceflight organizations. This paper looks at potential opportunities for partnerships and spin-ins from economic sectors outside the space industry. It highlights innovative technologies and breakthrough concepts that could have significant impacts on space exploration and identifies organizations throughout the broader economy that specialize in these technologies.

  11. Solar discrepancies: Mars exploration and the curious problem of inter-planetary time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmalek, Zara Lenora

    The inter-planetary work system for the NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission entailed coordinating work between two corporally diverse workgroups, human beings and solar-powered robots, and between two planets with asynchronous axial rotations. The rotation of Mars takes approximately 24 hours and 40 minutes while for Earth the duration is 24 hours, a differential that was synchronized on Earth by setting a clock forward forty minutes every day. The hours of the day during which the solar-powered rovers were operational constituted the central consideration in the relationship between time and work around which the schedule of MER science operations were organized. And, the operational hours for the rovers were precarious for at least two reasons: on the one hand, the possibility of a sudden and inexplicable malfunction was always present; on the other, the rovers were powered by solar-charged batteries that could simply (and would eventually) fail. Thus, the timetable for the inter-planetary work system was scheduled according to the daily cycle of the sun on Mars and a version of clock time called Mars time was used to keep track of the movement of the sun on Mars. While the MER mission was a success, it does not necessarily follow that all aspects of mission operations were successful. One of the central problems that plagued the organization of mission operations was precisely this construct called "Mars time" even while it appeared that the use of Mars time was unproblematic and central to the success of the mission. In this dissertation, Zara Mirmalek looks at the construction of Mars time as a tool and as a social process. Of particular interest are the consequences of certain (ostensibly foundational) assumptions about the relationship between clock time and the conduct of work that contributed to making the relationship between Mars time and work on Earth appear operational. Drawing on specific examples of breakdowns of Mars time as a support

  12. Morpheus: Advancing Technologies for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olansen, Jon B.; Munday, Stephen R.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Baine, Michael

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing. Designed to serve as a vertical testbed (VTB) for advanced spacecraft technologies, the vehicle provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. This allows individual technologies to mature into capabilities that can be incorporated into human exploration missions. The Morpheus vehicle is propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a payload of 1100 lb to the lunar surface. In addition to VTB vehicles, the Project s major elements include ground support systems and an operations facility. Initial testing will demonstrate technologies used to perform autonomous hazard avoidance and precision landing on a lunar or other planetary surface. The Morpheus vehicle successfully performed a set of integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire and tethered hover tests, leading up to un-tethered free-flights. The initial phase of this development and testing campaign is being conducted on-site at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), with the first fully integrated vehicle firing its engine less than one year after project initiation. Designed, developed, manufactured and operated in-house by engineers at JSC, the Morpheus Project represents an unprecedented departure from recent NASA programs that traditionally require longer, more expensive development lifecycles and testing at remote, dedicated testing facilities. Morpheus testing includes three major types of integrated tests. A hot-fire (HF) is a static vehicle test of the LOX/Methane propulsion system. Tether tests (TT) have the vehicle suspended above the ground using a crane, which allows testing of the propulsion and integrated Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) in hovering flight without the risk of a vehicle departure or crash. Morpheus free-flights (FF) test the complete Morpheus system without the additional

  13. Exploring the Origins of Deuterium Enrichments in Solar Nebular Organics

    CERN Document Server

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Alexander, Conel M O'D; Du, Fujun; Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I; Harries, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    Deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) enrichments in molecular species provide clues about their original formation environment. The organic materials in primitive solar system bodies have generally higher D/H ratios and show greater D/H variation when compared to D/H in solar system water. We propose this difference arises at least in part due to 1) the availability of additional chemical fractionation pathways for organics beyond that for water, and 2) the higher volatility of key carbon reservoirs compared to oxygen. We test this hypothesis using detailed disk models, including a sophisticated, new disk ionization treatment with a low cosmic ray ionization rate, and find that disk chemistry leads to higher deuterium enrichment in organics compared to water, helped especially by fractionation via the precursors CH$_2$D$^+$/CH$_3^+$. We also find that the D/H ratio in individual species varies significantly depending on their particular formation pathways. For example, from $\\sim20-40$ AU, CH$_4$ can reach $\\rm{D/H\\si...

  14. Rotating models of young solar-type stars : Exploring braking laws and angular momentum transport processes

    CERN Document Server

    Amard, Louis; Charbonnel, Corinne; Gallet, Florian; Bouvier, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    We study the predicted rotational evolution of solar-type stars from the pre-main sequence to the solar age with 1D rotating evolutionary models including physical ingredients. We computed rotating evolution models of solar-type stars including an external stellar wind torque and internal transport of angular momentum following the method of Maeder and Zahn with the code STAREVOL. We explored different formalisms and prescriptions available from the literature. We tested the predictions of the models against recent rotational period data from extensive photometric surveys, lithium abundances of solar-mass stars in young clusters, and the helioseismic rotation profile of the Sun. We find a best-matching combination of prescriptions for both internal transport and surface extraction of angular momentum. This combination provides a very good fit to the observed evolution of rotational periods for solar-type stars from early evolution to the age of the Sun. Additionally, we show that fast rotators experience a st...

  15. Semiconductor Nanowires: A Platform for Exploring Limits and Concepts for Nano-Enabled Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kempa, Thomas Jan; Day, Robert Watson; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Park, Hong-Gyu; Lieber, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade extensive studies of single semiconductor nanowire and nanowire array photovoltaic devices have explored the potential of these materials as platforms for a new generation of efficient and cost-effective solar cells. This feature review discusses strategies for implementation of semiconductor nanowires in solar energy applications, including advances in complex nanowire synthesis and characterization, fundamental insights from characterization of devices, utilization and ...

  16. Recent gravity-assist trajectories for interplanetary and solar exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, David W; Farquhar, Robert W; McAdams, James V

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes how lunar and planetary gravity assists have been used to design trajectories that have enabled challenging missions, currently flying or in development, at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of Johns Hopkins University, to explore the Sun, and the planets closest to and farthest from it. This is a continuation of a paper presented at the first New Trends in Astrodynamics and Applications conference, January 2003. That paper concentrated on the Third International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE-3) halo orbit mission, later known as the International Cometary Explorer, or ICE, and the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission of APL, and the ground-breaking orbits that those spacecraft used to accomplish their ambitious goals. This paper gives much more information about current APL missions, MESSENGER, STEREO, and New Horizons, which were only briefly described in the previous paper.

  17. Exploring planets and moons in our Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The lecture series comprises 5 lectures starting with the interplanetary medium, the solar wind and its interaction with magnetized planets. Knowledge on the magnetically dominated ‘spheres’ around the Giant Planets have been obtained by the Grand Tour of both Voyager spacecraft to Jupiter, Saturn, with the continuation of Voyager 2 to Uranus, and Neptune, in the late seventies and eighties of last century. These findings are now extensively supported and complemented by Cassini/Huygens to the Saturnian system. This will be discussed in detail in lecture 2. Specific aspects of magnetospheric physics, in particular radio emissions from the planets, observed in-situ and by remote sensing techniques, will be addressed in the following lecture 3. Of high importance are also the recent scientific results on planetary satellites, specifically those comprising active phenomena like volcanoes and geysirs, (as on Io, Enceladus, and Triton), with the explanation of some ring phenomena, to be addressed in lecture 4....

  18. Relational and Transcendental Humanism: Exploring the Consequences of a Thoroughly Pragmatic Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2007-01-01

    The relational and transcendental elements of humanism are considered. Although the relational component of humanism is extraordinarily valuable, the author argues that the transcendental portion of humanism should be abandoned. The implications of a thoroughly pragmatic humanism are explored.

  19. Relational and Transcendental Humanism: Exploring the Consequences of a Thoroughly Pragmatic Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2007-01-01

    The relational and transcendental elements of humanism are considered. Although the relational component of humanism is extraordinarily valuable, the author argues that the transcendental portion of humanism should be abandoned. The implications of a thoroughly pragmatic humanism are explored.

  20. Exploring care for human service profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2015-01-01

    maintain their dignity, it is important to explore, how dignity is maintained in such situations. Views of dignity and factors influencing dignity have been studied from both the nursing homes residents´ and the care providers´ perspective. However, little is known about how the residents’ experience...

  1. NASA Planetary Science Division Vision 2050 Through Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, P. Y.

    2017-02-01

    Next 34 years PSD should play the role of the 21st century-version Lewis and Clark expedition to gather critical information about carefully chosen target celestial bodies in our solar system. PSD missions and human missions will benefit each other.

  2. Environmental effects of human exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell

    Aerospace engineers use the term Environment to designate a set of externally imposed bound-ary conditions under which a device must operate. Although the parameters may be time-varying, the engineer thinks of the operating environment as being fixed. Any effect the device might have on the environment generally is neglected. In the case where the device is intended to measure the environment, its effect on the measured quantities must be considered. For example, a magnetometer aboard a spacecraft must be extended on a boom to minimize the disturbing influence of the spacecraft on the magnetic field, particularly if the field is weak. In contrast, Environment has taken on political and even ethical connotations in modern Western society, referring to human-induced alterations to those aspects of the terrestrial environment that are required for a healthy and productive life. The so-called Green Movement takes preservation of the environment as its mantra. Scientists are at the center of the debate on environmental issues. However, the concern of scientists over irreversible consequences of hu-man activity extend beyond ecology to preservation of cultural artifacts and to effects that alter the ability to conduct investigations such as light pollution in astronomy. The policy of Planetary Protection applied to science and exploration missions to other bodies in the solar system arises from the concern for deleterious effects in terrestrial ecology from hypothetical extraterrestrial life forms as well as overprints of extraterrestrial environments by terrestrial biology. Some in the scientific community are advocating extension of the planetary protection concept beyond exobiology to include fragile planetary environments by might be permanently altered by human activity e.g., the lunar exosphere. Beyond the scientific community, some environmentalists argue against any changes to the Moon at all, including formation of new craters or the alteration of the natural

  3. Exploration of Jovian Magnetosphere and Trojan Asteroids by a Solar Power Sail Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Fujimoto, M.; Kasaba, Y.; Kawaguchi, J.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Mori, O.; Takashima, T.; Tsuda, Y.; Yano, H.; Jupiter Exploration Working Group

    2009-04-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) is a proposed international mission to explore Jupiter, Jovian satellites and environment. EJSM consists of (1) The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) by NASA, (2) the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) by ESA, (3) the Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO) studied by JAXA. (4) The Europa lander is also studied by Roscosmos. Together with plasma instruments on board JEO and JGO, JMO will investigate the fast and huge rotating magnetosphere to clarify the energy procurement from Jovian rotation to the magnetosphere, to clarify the interaction between the solar wind the magnetosphere. JMO will clarify the characteristics of the strongest accelerator in the solar system. JMO will investigate the role of Io as a source of heavy ions in the magnetosphere. Proposed instruments on board JMO are magnetometers, low-energy plasma spectrometers, medium energy particle detectors, energetic particle detectors, electric field / plasma wave instruments, a dust detector, an ENA imager, and EUV spectrometer. JAXA is studying solar power sail for deep space explorations following the successful ion engine mission Hayabusa. This is not only solar sail (photon propulsion) but also include very efficient ion engines where electric power is produced solar panels within the sail. Currently we are studying a mission to Jupiter and one (or two) of Trojan asteroids, which are primitive bodies with information of the early solar system as well as raw solid materials of Jovian system. As the main spacecraft flies by Jupiter heading for an asteroid, it will deploy JMO spinner around Jupiter.

  4. The rapid bi-level exploration on the evolution of regional solar energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qing; An, Haizhong; Li, Huajiao; Hao, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    As one of the renewable energy, solar energy is experiencing increased but exploratory development worldwide. The positive or negative influences of regional characteristics, like economy, production capacity and allowance policies, make them have uneven solar energy development. In this paper, we aim at quickly exploring the features of provincial solar energy development, and their concerns about solar energy. We take China as a typical case, and combine text mining and two-actor networks. We find that the classification of levels based on certain nodes and the amount of degree avoids missing meaningful information that may be ignored by global level results. Moreover, eastern provinces are hot focus for the media, western countries are key to bridge the networks and special administrative region has local development features; third, most focus points are more about the application than the improvement of material. The exploration of news provides practical information to adjust researches and development strategies of solar energy. Moreover, the bi-level exploration, which can also be expanded to multi-level, is helpful for governments or researchers to grasp more targeted and precise knowledge.

  5. Exploring Data in Human Resources Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela BARA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, social networks and informatics technologies and infrastructures are constantly developing and affect each other. In this context, the HR recruitment process became complex and many multinational organizations have encountered selection issues. The objective of the paper is to develop a prototype system for assisting the selection of candidates for an intelligent management of human resources. Such a system can be a starting point for the efficient organization of semi-structured and unstructured data on recruitment activities. The article extends the research presented at the 14th International Conference on Informatics in Economy (IE 2015 in the scientific paper "Big Data challenges for human resources management".

  6. Interaction Challenges in Human-Robot Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, NASA established a new, long-term exploration program to fulfill the President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration. The primary goal of this program is to establish a sustained human presence in space, beginning with robotic missions to the Moon in 2008, followed by extended human expeditions to the Moon as early as 2015. In addition, the program places significant emphasis on the development of joint human-robot systems. A key difference from previous exploration efforts is that future space exploration activities must be sustainable over the long-term. Experience with the space station has shown that cost pressures will keep astronaut teams small. Consequently, care must be taken to extend the effectiveness of these astronauts well beyond their individual human capacity. Thus, in order to reduce human workload, costs, and fatigue-driven error and risk, intelligent robots will have to be an integral part of mission design.

  7. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  8. ATHLETE: A Cargo-Handling Vehicle for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. Each vehicle is based on six wheels at the ends of six multi-degree-of-freedom limbs. Because each limb has enough degrees of freedom for use as a general-purpose leg, the wheels can be locked and used as feet to walk out of excessively soft or other extreme terrain. Since the vehicle has this alternative mode of traversing through or at least out of extreme terrain, the wheels and wheel actuators can be sized for nominal terrain. There are substantial mass savings in the wheel and wheel actuators associated with designing for nominal instead of extreme terrain. These mass savings are comparable-to or larger-than the extra mass associated with the articulated limbs. As a result, the entire mobility system, including wheels and limbs, can be about 25% lighter than a conventional mobility chassis. A side benefit of this approach is that each limb has sufficient degrees-of-freedom to use as a general-purpose manipulator (hence the name "limb" instead of "leg"). Our prototype ATHLETE vehicles have quick-disconnect tool adapters on the limbs that allow tools to be drawn out of a "tool belt" and maneuvered by the limb. A power-take-off from the wheel actuates the tools, so that they can take advantage of the 1+ horsepower motor in each wheel to enable drilling, gripping or other power-tool functions. Architectural studies have indicated that one useful role for ATHLETE in planetary (moon or Mars) exploration is to "walk" cargo off the payload deck of a lander and transport it across the surface. Recent architectural approaches are focused on the concept that the lander descent stage will use liquid hydrogen as a propellant. This is the highest performance chemical fuel, but it requires very large tanks. A natural geometry for the lander is to have a single throttleable rocket engine on

  9. Revised planetary protection policy for solar system exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVincenzi, D L; Stabekis, P D

    1984-01-01

    In order to control contamination of planets by terrestrial microorganisms and organic constituents, U.S. planetary missions have been governed by a planetary protection (or planetary quarantine) policy which has changed little since 1972. This policy has recently been reviewed in light of new information obtained from planetary exploration during the past decade and because of changes to, or uncertainties in, some parameters used in the existing quantitative approach. On the basis of this analysis, a revised planetary protection policy with the following key features is proposed: deemphasizing the use of mathematical models and quantitative analyses; establishing requirements for target planet/mission type (i.e., orbiter, lander, etc.) combinations; considering sample return missions a separate category; simplifying documentation; and imposing implementing procedures (i.e., trajectory biasing, cleanroom assembly, spacecraft sterilization, etc.) by exception, i.e., only if the planet/mission combination warrants such controls.

  10. Planetary rovers robotic exploration of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ellery, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of terrain mobility – planetary rovers – for the investigation of planetary surfaces emphasises their central importance in space exploration. This imposes a completely new set of technologies and methodologies to the design of such spacecraft – and planetary rovers are indeed, first and foremost, spacecraft. This introduces vehicle engineering, mechatronics, robotics, artificial intelligence and associated technologies to the spacecraft engineer’s repertoire of skills. Planetary Rovers is the only book that comprehensively covers these aspects of planetary rover engineering and more. The book: • discusses relevant planetary environments to rover missions, stressing the Moon and Mars; • includes a brief survey of previous rover missions; • covers rover mobility, traction and control systems; • stresses the importance of robotic vision in rovers for both navigation and science; • comprehensively covers autonomous navigation, path planning and multi-rover formations on ...

  11. Impact of solar system exploration on theories of chemical evolution and the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devincenzi, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The impact of solar system exploration on theories regarding chemical evolution and the origin of life is examined in detail. Major findings from missions to Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan are reviewed and implications for prebiotic chemistry are discussed. Among the major conclusions are: prebiotic chemistry is widespread throughout the solar system and universe; chemical evolution and the origin of life are intimately associated with the origin and evolution of the solar system; the rate, direction, and extent of prebiotic chemistry is highly dependent upon planetary characteristics; and continued exploration will increase understanding of how life originated on earth and allow better estimates of the likelihood of similar processes occurring elsewhere.

  12. Impact of solar system exploration on theories of chemical evolution and the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devincenzi, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The impact of solar system exploration on theories regarding chemical evolution and the origin of life is examined in detail. Major findings from missions to Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan are reviewed and implications for prebiotic chemistry are discussed. Among the major conclusions are: prebiotic chemistry is widespread throughout the solar system and universe; chemical evolution and the origin of life are intimately associated with the origin and evolution of the solar system; the rate, direction, and extent of prebiotic chemistry is highly dependent upon planetary characteristics; and continued exploration will increase understanding of how life originated on earth and allow better estimates of the likelihood of similar processes occurring elsewhere.

  13. Space Resource Utilization: Near-Term Missions and Long-Term Plans for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of all major space faring nations is to explore space: from the Earth with telescopes, with robotic probes and space telescopes, and with humans. For the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this pursuit is captured in three important strategic goals: 1. Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for life elsewhere, 2. Extend and sustain human activities across the solar system (especially the surface of Mars), and 3. Create innovative new space technologies for exploration, science, and economic future. While specific missions and destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative for NASA that it foster the development and implementation of new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) is the development of technologies and systems to identify, extract, and use resources in space instead of bringing everything from Earth. To reduce the development and implementation costs for space resource utilization, often called In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), it is imperative to work with terrestrial mining companies to spin-in/spin-off technologies and capabilities, and space mining companies to expand our economy beyond Earth orbit. In the last two years, NASA has focused on developing and implementing a sustainable human space exploration program with the ultimate goal of exploring the surface of Mars with humans. The plan involves developing technology and capability building blocks critical for sustained exploration starting with the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion crew spacecraft and utilizing the International Space Station as a springboard into the solar system. The evolvable plan develops and expands human exploration in phases starting with missions that are reliant on Earth, to performing ever more challenging and

  14. Solar system exploration - Some thoughts on techniques and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Some techniques and technologies for proposed interplanetary missions are described. Methods for reducing the effect of zero gravity on humans during missions to Mars and the moon, and the need for launch vehicles with increased lift capability are discussed. The use of nuclear power, liquid oxygen from the moon, and helium 3 as propellants for spacecraft is examined. The development and capabilities of the Shuttle Z vehicle are considered. Attention is given to the Space Station Freedom and Energia. A launch vehicle concept which utilizes the Shuttle Z for a mission to Mars is presented.

  15. Robotic exploration of the solar system part I : the golden age 1957-1982

    CERN Document Server

    Ulivi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    This fascinating book is a detailed history of unmanned missions that have explored our solar system. The subject is treated wherever possible from an engineering and scientific standpoint and includes technical descriptions of the spacecraft, their mission designs and their instrumentations.

  16. High-Efficiency Nested Hall Thrusters for Robotic Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the scaling and design attributes of Nested Hall Thrusters (NHT) with extremely large operational envelopes, including a wide range of throttleability in power and specific impulse at high efficiency (>50%). NHTs have the potential to provide the game changing performance, powerprocessing capabilities, and cost effectiveness required to enable missions that cannot otherwise be accomplished. NHTs were first identified in the electric propulsion community as a path to 100- kW class thrusters for human missions. This study aimed to identify the performance capabilities NHTs can provide for NASA robotic and human missions, with an emphasis on 10-kW class thrusters well-suited for robotic exploration. A key outcome of this work has been the identification of NHTs as nearly constant-efficiency devices over large power throttling ratios, especially in direct-drive power systems. NHT systems sized for robotic solar system exploration are predicted to be capable of high-efficiency operation over nearly their entire power throttling range. A traditional Annular Hall Thruster (AHT) consists of a single annular discharge chamber where the propellant is ionized and accelerated. In an NHT, multiple annular channels are concentrically stacked. The channels can be operated in unison or individually depending on the available power or required performance. When throttling an AHT, performance must be sacrificed since a single channel cannot satisfy the diverse design attributes needed to maintain high thrust efficiency. NHTs can satisfy these requirements by varying which channels are operated and thereby offer significant benefits in terms of thruster performance, especially under deep power throttling conditions where the efficiency of an AHT suffers since a single channel can only operate efficiently (>50%) over a narrow power throttling ratio (3:1). Designs for 10-kW class NHTs were developed and compared with AHT systems. Power processing systems were

  17. Exploring Data in Human Resources Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Adela BARA; Iuliana BOTHA; Anda BELCIU (VELICANU); Bogdan NEDELCU

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, social networks and informatics technologies and infrastructures are constantly developing and affect each other. In this context, the HR recruitment process became complex and many multinational organizations have encountered selection issues. The objective of the paper is to develop a prototype system for assisting the selection of candidates for an intelligent management of human resources. Such a system can be a starting point for the efficient organization of semi-structured an...

  18. Space Exploration as a Human Enterprise: The Scientific Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl

    1973-01-01

    Presents examples which illustrate the importance of space exploration in diverse aspects of scientific knowledge. Indicates that human beings are today not wise enough to anticipate the practical benefits of planetary studies. (CC)

  19. Discovering the 50 Years of Solar System Exploration: Sharing Your Science with the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; Shupla, C.; Halligan, E.; Boonstra, D.; Wessen, A.; Baerg, G.; Davis, P.; Burdick, A.; Zimmerman Brachman, R.

    2012-10-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) offers ways for scientists to bring NASA’s science discoveries to their audiences! YSS and the continuing salute to the 50-year history of solar system exploration provide an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system for educators and the general public. During the last five decades, NASA has launched a variety of robotic spacecraft to study our solar system. Over that time, our understanding of planets has been revolutionized, as has the technology that has made these discoveries possible.Looking forward, the numerous ongoing and future robotic missions are returning new discoveries of our solar system at an unprecedented rate. YSS combines the discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of the ongoing missions and connects them to related topics based on the big questions of planetary science, including solar system formation, volcanism, ice, and possible life elsewhere. Planetary scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS in a variety of ways: - Give a talk at a local museum, planetarium, library, or school to share YSS and your research - Partner with a local educational institution to organize a night sky viewing or mission milestone community event - Work with a classroom teacher to explore one of the topics with students - Connect with a planetary science E/PO professional to identify ways to participate, like creating podcasts,vodcasts, or contributing to monthly topics - Share your ideas for events and activities with the planetaryE/PO community to identify partners and pathways for distribution - And more! Promotional and educational materials, updates, a calendar of activities, and a space to share experiences are available at NASA’s Solar System website: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. This is an exciting time in planetary sciences as we learn about New Worlds and make New Discoveries!

  20. Exploring Our Solar System with CubeSats and NanoSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Norton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is NASA's lead center for robotic exploration of our solar system. We are known for our large, flagship missions, such as Voyager, which gave humanity its first close look at Jupiter and Saturn; and the Mars Rovers, which have excited millions worldwide with their daring landing exploits. Less familiar to those outside NASA may be our role in developing the Kepler mission, which has discovered more than 2000 planets around other stars; or the recently launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, one of many JPL Earth Science missions. A recent JPL initiative has emphasized low cost missions that use rapidly evolving technology developed for CubeSats and NanoSat s to explore our solar system. Costs are significantly lower (by one or two orders of magnitude) than for conventional JPL missions, and development time is also significantly shorter. At present 21 such CubeSat flight projects are under way at the laboratory with various partners : some in flight, some in development, some in advanced formulation. Four are planned as deep space missions. To succeed in exploring deep space CubeSat/NanoSat missions have to address several challenges: the more severe radiation environment, communications and navigation at a distance, propulsion, and packaging of instruments that can return valuable science into a compact volume/mass envelope. Instrument technologies, including cameras, magnetometers, spectrometers, radiometers, and even radars are undergoing miniaturization to fit on these smaller platforms. Other key technologies are being matured for smallsats and NanoSats in deep space, including micro -electric propulsion, compact radio (and optical) communications, and onboard data reduction. This paper will describe missions that utilize these developments including the first two deep space CubeSats (INSPIRE), planned for launch in 2017; the first pair of CubeSats to be sent to another planet (MARCO), manifested with the In

  1. Monte Carlo exploration of Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solutions to the solar neutrino problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Schramm, D. N.; Bahcall, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    The paper explores the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) solution by calculating the allowed MSW solutions for 1000 different solar models with a Monte Carlo selection of solar model input parameters, assuming a full three-family MSW mixing. Applications are made to the chlorine, gallium, Kamiokande, and Borexino experiments. The initial GALLEX result limits the mixing parameters to the upper diagonal and the vertical regions of the MSW triangle. The expected event rates in the Borexino experiment are also calculated, assuming the MSW solutions implied by GALLEX.

  2. New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In FY 2001, NASA will undertake a new research and technology program supporting the goals of human exploration: the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative (HTCI). The HTCI represents a new strategic approach to exploration technology, in which an emphasis will be placed on identifying and developing technologies for systems and infrastructures that may be common among exploration and commercial development of space objectives. A family of preliminary strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps have been formulated that address "technology for human exploration and development of space (THREADS). These road maps frame and bound the likely content of the HTCL Notional technology themes for the initiative include: (1) space resources development, (2) space utilities and power, (3) habitation and bioastronautics, (4) space assembly, inspection and maintenance, (5) exploration and expeditions, and (6) space transportation. This paper will summarize the results of the THREADS road mapping process and describe the current status and content of the HTCI within that framework. The paper will highlight the space resources development theme within the Initiative and will summarize plans for the coming year.

  3. New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In FY 2001, NASA will undertake a new research and technology program supporting the goals of human exploration: the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative (HTCI). The HTCI represents a new strategic approach to exploration technology, in which an emphasis will be placed on identifying and developing technologies for systems and infrastructures that may be common among exploration and commercial development of space objectives. A family of preliminary strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps have been formulated that address "technology for human exploration and development of space (THREADS). These road maps frame and bound the likely content of the HTCL Notional technology themes for the initiative include: (1) space resources development, (2) space utilities and power, (3) habitation and bioastronautics, (4) space assembly, inspection and maintenance, (5) exploration and expeditions, and (6) space transportation. This paper will summarize the results of the THREADS road mapping process and describe the current status and content of the HTCI within that framework. The paper will highlight the space resources development theme within the Initiative and will summarize plans for the coming year.

  4. Has solar variability caused climate change that affected human culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feynman, Joan

    If solar variability affects human culture it most likely does so by changing the climate in which the culture operates. Variations in the solar radiative input to the Earth's atmosphere have often been suggested as a cause of such climate change on time scales from decades to tens of millennia. In the last 20 years there has been enormous progress in our knowledge of the many fields of research that impinge on this problem; the history of the solar output, the effect of solar variability on the Earth's mean climate and its regional patterns, the history of the Earth's climate and the history of mankind and human culture. This new knowledge encourages revisiting the question asked in the title of this talk. Several important historical events have been reliably related to climate change including the Little Ice Age in northern Europe and the collapse of the Classical Mayan civilization in the 9th century AD. In the first section of this paper we discus these historical events and review the evidence that they were caused by changes in the solar output. Perhaps the most important event in the history of mankind was the development of agricultural societies. This began to occur almost 12,000 years ago when the climate changed from the Pleistocene to the modern climate of the Holocene. In the second section of the paper we will discuss the suggestion ( Feynman and Ruzmaikin, 2007) that climate variability was the reason agriculture developed when it did and not before.

  5. New vision solar system exploration missions study: Analysis of the use of biomodal space nuclear power systems to support outer solar system exploration missions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-08

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter mission s to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of a NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. Concepts for microspacecraft capable of probing Jupiter`s atmosphere and exploring Titan were also developed. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive option for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination.

  6. Attitude determination of planetary exploration rovers using solar panels characteristics and accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takayuki; Takahashi, Masaki

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we propose a new attitude determination system, which we call Irradiance-based Attitude Determination (IRAD). IRAD employs the characteristics and geometry of solar panels. First, the sun vector is estimated using data from solar panels including current, voltage, temperature, and the normal vectors of each solar panel. Because these values are obtained using internal sensors, it is easy for rovers to provide redundancy for IRAD. The normal vectors are used to apply to various shapes of rovers. Second, using the gravity vector obtained from an accelerometer, the attitude of a rover is estimated using a three-axis attitude determination method. The effectiveness of IRAD is verified through numerical simulations and experiments that show IRAD can estimate all the attitude angles (roll, pitch, and yaw) within a few degrees of accuracy, which is adequate for planetary explorations.

  7. Human life support for advanced space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, S H

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  8. Human exploration and settlement of Mars - The roles of humans and robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    The scientific objectives and strategies for human settlement on Mars are examined in the context of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integrated strategy for humans and robots in the exploration and settlement of Mars is examined. Such an effort would feature robotic, telerobotic, and human-supervised robotic phases.

  9. Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Mount, Frances; Carreon, Patricia; Torney, Susan E.

    2001-01-01

    The Engineering and Mission Operations Directorates at NASA Johnson Space Center are combining laboratories and expertise to establish the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations. This is a testbed for human centered design, development and evaluation of intelligent autonomous and assistant systems that will be needed for human exploration and development of space. This project will improve human-centered analysis, design and evaluation methods for developing intelligent software. This software will support human-machine cognitive and collaborative activities in future interplanetary work environments where distributed computer and human agents cooperate. We are developing and evaluating prototype intelligent systems for distributed multi-agent mixed-initiative operations. The primary target domain is control of life support systems in a planetary base. Technical approaches will be evaluated for use during extended manned tests in the target domain, the Bioregenerative Advanced Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex). A spinoff target domain is the International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC). Prodl}cts of this project include human-centered intelligent software technology, innovative human interface designs, and human-centered software development processes, methods and products. The testbed uses adjustable autonomy software and life support systems simulation models from the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed, to represent operations on the remote planet. Ground operations prototypes and concepts will be evaluated in the Exploration Planning and Operations Center (ExPOC) and Jupiter Facility.

  10. United States Human Access to Space, Exploration of the Moon and Preparation for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    In the past, men like Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne imagined the future and envisioned fantastic inventions such as winged flying machines, submarines, and parachutes, and posited human adventures like transoceanic flight and journeys to the Moon. Today, many of their ideas are reality and form the basis for our modern world. While individual visionaries like da Vinci and Verne are remembered for the accuracy of their predictions, today entire nations are involved in the process of envisioning and defining the future development of mankind, both on and beyond the Earth itself. Recently, Russian, European, and Chinese teams have all announced plans for developing their own next generation human space vehicles. The Chinese have announced their intention to conduct human lunar exploration, and have flown three crewed space missions since 2003, including a flight with three crew members to test their extravehicular (spacewalking) capabilities in September 2008. Very soon, the prestige, economic development, scientific discovery, and strategic security advantage historically associated with leadership in space exploration and exploitation may no longer be the undisputed province of the United States. Much like the sponsors of the seafaring explorers of da Vinci's age, we are motivated by the opportunity to obtain new knowledge and new resources for the growth and development of our own civilization. NASA's new Constellation Program, established in 2005, is tasked with maintaining the United States leadership in space, exploring the Moon, creating a sustained human lunar presence, and eventually extending human operations to Mars and beyond. Through 2008, the Constellation Program developed a full set of detailed program requirements and is now completing the preliminary design phase for the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, and the associated infrastructure necessary for humans to explore the Moon. Component testing is well

  11. Solar variability and its implications for the human environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, G.C. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    Solar variability can affect human activities in a variety of ways, from changing our climate to disrupting power distribution facilities and shortening the orbital lifetime of satellites. This tutorial paper will be concerned only with effects on the surface environment that can have a direct impact on our everyday life, such as variations in the stratospheric ozone layer that shields us from harmful ultraviolet radiation, and changes in global climate that can hinder or delay the detection of climate changes that might result from our own technological activities. The emphasis is on potential mechanisms, rather than on reported correlations between solar and terrestrial parameters, but reference to certain observations will be made. Realization of a potential impact of solar variability on our local environment has progressed a long way in the last few decades, from denial to partial acceptance, but a complete assessment of its reality and magnitude remains a distant goal. (author)

  12. Robot and Human Surface Operations on Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. The topics include: 1) Long Range Vision of Surface Scenarios; 2) Human and Robots Complement Each Other; 3) Respective Human and Robot Strengths; 4) Need More In-Depth Quantitative Analysis; 5) Projected Study Objectives; 6) Analysis Process Summary; 7) Mission Scenarios Decompose into Primitive Tasks; 7) Features of the Projected Analysis Approach; and 8) The "Getting There Effect" is a Major Consideration. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  13. Exploring the Physics of the Corona with Total Solar Eclipse Observations

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This white paper is a call for a concerted effort to support total solar eclipse observations over the next decade, in particular for the 21 August 2017 eclipse which will traverse the US continent. With the recent advances in image processing techniques and detector technology, the time is ripe to capitalize on the unique diagnostic tools available in the visible and near infrared wavelength range to explore the physics of the corona. The advantage of coronal emission lines in this wavelengt...

  14. Space Resources Development: The Link Between Human Exploration and the Long-Term Commercialization of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2000-01-01

    In a letter to the NASA Administrator, Dan Goldin, in January of 1999, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) stated the following . OMB recommends that NASA consider commercialization in a broader context than the more focused efforts to date on space station and space shuttle commercialization. We suggest that NASA examine architectures that take advantage of a potentially robust future commercial infrastructure that could dramatically lower the cost of future human exploration." In response to this letter, the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise launched the BEDS Technology & Commercialization Initiative (HTCI) to link technology and system development for human exploration with the commercial development of space to emphasize the "D" (Development) in BEDS. The development of technologies and capabilities to utilize space resources is the first of six primary focus areas in this program. It is clear that Space Resources Development (SRD) is key for both long-term human exploration of our solar system and to the long-term commercialization of space since: a) it provides the technologies, products, and raw materials to support efficient space transportation and in-space construction and manufacturing, and b) it provides the capabilities and infrastructure to allow outpost growth, self-sufficiency, and commercial space service and utility industry activities.

  15. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2009-01-01

    This document reviews the Design Reference Architecture (DRA) for human exploration of Mars. The DRA represents the current best strategy for human missions. The DRA is not a formal plan, but provides a vision and context to tie current systems and technology developments to potential missions to Mars, and it also serves as a benchmark against which alternative architectures can be measured. The document also reviews the objectives and products of the 2007 study that was to update NASA's human Mars mission reference architecture, assess strategic linkages between lunar and Mars strategies, develop an understanding of methods for reducing cost/risk of human missions through investment in research, technology development and synergy with other exploration plans. There is also a review of the process by which the DRA will continue to be refined. The unique capacities of human exploration is reviewed. The possible goals and objectives of the first three human missions are presented, along with the recommendation that the mission involve a long stay visiting multiple sites.The deployment strategy is outlined and diagrammed including the pre-deployment of the many of the material requirements, and a six crew travel to Mars on a six month trajectory. The predeployment and the Orion crew vehicle are shown. The ground operations requirements are also explained. Also the use of resources found on the surface of Mars is postulated. The Mars surface exploration strategy is reviewed, including the planetary protection processes that are planned. Finally a listing of the key decisions and tenets is posed.

  16. A Novel Concept to Explore the Coupling of the Solar-Terrestrial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James

    2014-01-01

    A revolutionary opportunity to explore the consequences of reconnection in the ionosphere as never before will be presented. It is a revolutionary opportunity to explore key Aeronomy emissions on a global scale with spatial and temporal resolution not possible today. For example, observations of the signature of dayside merging and nightside reconnection that are reflected in the auroral oval evolution during disturbed periods and quiet times, will be described; observations that will open a window of discovery for coupling phenomena within Geospace and with the solar wind. The description of this new concept will be presented, and its impact and contribution to understanding magnetic merging will be discussed.

  17. SMILE: A Novel and Global Way to Explore Solar-Terrestrial Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Wang, C.; Sembay, S.; Dai, L.; Li, L.; Donovan, E.; Sun, T.; Kataria, D. O.; Eastwood, J. P.; Yang, H.; Read, A.; Whittaker, I. C.; Spanswick, E.; Sibeck, D. G.; Kuntz, K. D.; Escoubet, C. P.; Rebuffat, D.; Raab, W.; Zheng, J.

    2016-12-01

    SMILE (Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer) aims to investigate the dynamic coupling of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere in a novel and global manner, never tried so far. From a highly elliptical Earth orbit, SMILE will combine soft X-ray imaging of the Earth's magnetic boundaries and polar cusps with simultaneous UV imaging of the northern aurora, while self-sufficiently measuring solar wind/magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field conditions in situ. X-ray imaging of the dayside magnetosheath and cusps is an innovative technique arising from the discovery of solar wind charge exchange X-ray emission, first observed at comets, and subsequently found to occur in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere. SMILE is a scientific precursor of space weather operational satellites which are expected to forecast the arrival and impact of solar storms on the terrestrial environment in the future. SMILE does not provide such forecasting capabilities, rather its measurements will inform the science underpinning our still limited understanding of space weather and of its fundamental drivers. For the first time we will be able to trace and link the processes of solar wind injection in the magnetosphere with those acting on the charged particles precipitating into the cusps and eventually the aurora. While the basic theory of magnetospheric circulation is well known and the microscale has been explored by many in situ measurements, the reality of how this complex interaction takes place on a global scale, and how it evolves, is still poorly understood. SMILE will answer scientific questions such as: What are the large-scale structure and fundamental modes of the dayside solar wind/magnetosphere interaction? What defines the substorm cycle? How do CME-driven storms arise and how do they relate to substorms? SMILE is a joint space mission between the European Space Ageny and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, due for launch at the end of 2021. This

  18. Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. c2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Role of Fundamental Physics in Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyshev, Slava

    2004-01-01

    This talk will discuss the critical role that fundamental physics research plays for the human space exploration. In particular, the currently available technologies can already provide significant radiation reduction, minimize bone loss, increase crew productivity and, thus, uniquely contribute to overall mission success. I will discuss how fundamental physics research and emerging technologies may not only further reduce the risks of space travel, but also increase the crew mobility, enhance safety and increase the value of space exploration in the near future.

  20. Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Wireless Technologies and Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.; Lansdowne, Chatwin

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionics architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. The AAE project team includes members from most NASA centers and from industry. This paper provides an overview of recent AAE efforts, with particular emphasis on the wireless technologies being evaluated under AES to support human spaceflight.

  1. Targeting Cislunar Near Rectilinear Halo Orbits for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob; Lee, David E.; Whitley, Ryan J.; Bokelmann, Kevin A.; Davis, Diane C.; Berry, Christopher F.

    2017-01-01

    Part of the challenge of charting a human exploration space architecture is finding locations to stage missions to multiple destinations. To that end, a specific subset of Earth-Moon halo orbits, known as Near Rectilinear Halo Orbits (NRHOs) are evaluated. In this paper, a systematic process for generating full ephemeris based ballistic NRHOs is outlined, different size NRHOs are examined for their favorability to avoid eclipses, the performance requirements for missions to and from NRHOs are calculated, and disposal options are evaluated. Combined, these studies confirm the feasibility of cislunar NRHOs to enable human exploration in the cislunar proving ground.

  2. Potential Applications for Radioisotope Power Systems in Support of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) for space applications have powered over 27 U.S. space systems, starting with Transit 4A and 4B in 1961, and more recently with the successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in August 2012. RPS enable missions with destinations far from the Sun with faint solar flux, on planetary surfaces with dense or dusty atmospheres, and at places with long eclipse periods where solar array sizes and energy storage mass become impractical. RPS could also provide an enabling capability in support of human exploration activities. It is envisioned that with the higher power needs of most human mission concepts, a high efficiency thermal-to-electric technology would be required such as the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ASRG). The ASRG should be capable of a four-fold improvement in efficiency over traditional thermoelectric RPS. While it may be impractical to use RPS as a main power source, many other applications could be considered, such as crewed pressurized rovers, in-situ resource production of propellants, back-up habitat power, drilling, any mobile or remote activity from the main base habitat, etc. This paper will identify potential applications and provide concepts that could be a practical extension of the current ASRG design in providing for robust and flexible use of RPS on human exploration missions.

  3. DDESC: Dragon database for exploration of sodium channels in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanovic Aleksandar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium channels are heteromultimeric, integral membrane proteins that belong to a superfamily of ion channels. The mutations in genes encoding for sodium channel proteins have been linked with several inherited genetic disorders such as febrile epilepsy, Brugada syndrome, ventricular fibrillation, long QT syndrome, or channelopathy associated insensitivity to pain. In spite of these significant effects that sodium channel proteins/genes could have on human health, there is no publicly available resource focused on sodium channels that would support exploration of the sodium channel related information. Results We report here Dragon Database for Exploration of Sodium Channels in Human (DDESC, which provides comprehensive information related to sodium channels regarding different entities, such as "genes and proteins", "metabolites and enzymes", "toxins", "chemicals with pharmacological effects", "disease concepts", "human anatomy", "pathways and pathway reactions" and their potential links. DDESC is compiled based on text- and data-mining. It allows users to explore potential associations between different entities related to sodium channels in human, as well as to automatically generate novel hypotheses. Conclusion DDESC is first publicly available resource where the information related to sodium channels in human can be explored at different levels. This database is freely accessible for academic and non-profit users via the worldwide web http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/ddesc.

  4. A statistical study on the correlations between plasma sheet and solar wind based on DSP explorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Yan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available By using the data of two spacecraft, TC-1 and ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer, a statistical study on the correlations between plasma sheet and solar wind has been carried out. The results obtained show that the plasma sheet at geocentric distances of about 9~13.4 Re has an apparent driving relationship with the solar wind. It is found that (1 there is a positive correlation between the duskward component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and the duskward component of the geomagnetic field in the plasma sheet, with a proportionality constant of about 1.09. It indicates that the duskward component of the IMF can effectively penetrate into the near-Earth plasma sheet, and can be amplified by sunward convection in the corresponding region at geocentric distances of about 9~13.4 Re; (2 the increase in the density or the dynamic pressure of the solar wind will generally lead to the increase in the density of the plasma sheet; (3 the ion thermal pressure in the near-Earth plasma sheet is significantly controlled by the dynamic pressure of solar wind; (4 under the northward IMF condition, the ion temperature and ion thermal pressure in the plasma sheet decrease as the solar wind speed increases. This feature indicates that plasmas in the near-Earth plasma sheet can come from the magnetosheath through the LLBL. Northward IMF is one important condition for the transport of the cold plasmas of the magnetosheath into the plasma sheet through the LLBL, and fast solar wind will enhance such a transport process.

  5. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Martin; Muniyandi, Manivannan; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Jung; Krause, Frank; Mueller, Stephanie; Srinivasan, Mandayam A

    2014-01-01

    The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these "explorative stops" (ES) during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: (a) between mean exploration time and duration of ES, (b) between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and (c) the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Five different Experiments were used. The first two Experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A) and of common objects (B). In Experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For Experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D) and real (E) sunken reliefs. In each Experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For Experiment A: 329.50 ms, Experiment B: 67.47 ms, Experiment C: 189.92 ms, Experiment D: 186.17 ms and Experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.

  6. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGrunwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these explorative stops (ES during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: a between mean exploration time and duration of ES, b between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and c the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different experiments were used. The first two experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A and of common objects (B. In experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D and real (E sunken reliefs. Results: In each experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For experiment A: 329.50 ms, experiment B: 67.47 ms, experiment C: 189.92 ms, experiment D: 186.17 ms and experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.

  7. Can we colonize the solar system? Human biology and survival in the extreme space environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launius, Roger D

    2010-09-01

    Throughout the history of the space age the dominant vision for the future has been great spaceships plying the solar system, and perhaps beyond, moving living beings from one planet to another. Spacesuited astronauts would carry out exploration, colonization, and settlement as part of a relentlessly forward looking movement of humanity beyond Earth. As time has progressed this image has not changed appreciably even as the full magnitude of the challenges it represents have become more and more apparent. This essay explores the issues associated with the human movement beyond Earth and raises questions about whether humanity will ever be able to survive in the extreme environment of space and the other bodies of the solar system. This paper deals with important historical episodes as well as wider conceptual issues about life in space. Two models of expansion beyond Earth are discussed: (1) the movement of microbes and other types of life on Earth that can survive the space environment and (2) the modification of humans into cyborgs for greater capability to survive in the extreme environments encountered beyond this planet.

  8. Human Mission to Asteroids in the Context of Future Space Exploration Studies .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messidoro, P.; Fenoglio, F.; Pasquinelli, M.; Gottlieb, J.

    The final goal, for the foreseeable future, of the Human Exploration of the Solar System is to land a crew on the Mars Surface (and to bring it back). A wide array of capabilities has to be developed and demonstrated before attempting such a risky endeavor; intermediate steps are therefore needed, also to comply with budget constraints. Human missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and specifically Asteroids (NEAs) are among the most suitable candidates, thanks to high scientific interest, good opportunities for testing technologies and crew operations, and to mature Earth protection capabilities. In the following, a review of existing NEA Human mission concepts is provided and a new one, characterized by the exploitation of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion to reduce overall lift-off mass, is proposed.

  9. NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near

  10. An overview of the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N.; Mason, Glenn M.; Figueroa, Orlando; Colon, G.; Watzin, J. G.; Aleman, Roberto M.

    1993-01-01

    The scientific objective of the NASA Small-class Explorer Mission SAMPEX is summarized. A brief history of the Small Explorer program is provided along with a description of the SAMPEX project development and structure. The spacecraft and scientific instrument configuration is presented. The orbit of SAMPEX has an altitude of 520 by 670 km and an 82 deg inclination. Maximum possible power is provided by articulated solar arrays that point continuously toward the sun. Highly sensitive science instruments point generally toward the local zenith, especially over the terrestrial poles, in order to measure optimally the galactic and solar cosmic ray flux. Energetic magnetospheric particle precipitation is monitored at lower geomagnetic latitudes. The spacecraft uses several innovative approaches including an optical fiber bus, powerful onboard computers, and large solid state memories (instead of tape recorders). Spacecraft communication and data acquisition are discussed, and the space- and ground-segment data flows are summarized. A mission lifetime of 3 years is sought with the goal of extending data acquisition over an even longer portion of the 11-year solar activity cycle.

  11. Comparison of Human Exploration Architecture and Campaign Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodliff, Kandyce; Cirillo, William; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Shyface, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    As part of an overall focus on space exploration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) continues to evaluate potential approaches for sending humans beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). In addition, various external organizations are studying options for beyond LEO exploration. Recent studies include NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign and Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0, JPL's Minimal Mars Architecture; the Inspiration Mars mission; the Mars One campaign; and the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). Each of these potential exploration constructs applies unique methods, architectures, and philosophies for human exploration. It is beneficial to compare potential approaches in order to better understand the range of options available for exploration. Since most of these studies were conducted independently, the approaches, ground rules, and assumptions used to conduct the analysis differ. In addition, the outputs and metrics presented for each construct differ substantially. This paper will describe the results of an effort to compare and contrast the results of these different studies under a common set of metrics. The paper will first present a summary of each of the proposed constructs, including a description of the overall approach and philosophy for exploration. Utilizing a common set of metrics for comparison, the paper will present the results of an evaluation of the potential benefits, critical challenges, and uncertainties associated with each construct. The analysis framework will include a detailed evaluation of key characteristics of each construct. These will include but are not limited to: a description of the technology and capability developments required to enable the construct and the uncertainties associated with these developments; an analysis of significant operational and programmatic risks associated with that construct; and an evaluation of the extent to which exploration is enabled by the construct, including the destinations

  12. ISRU Reactant, Fuel Cell Based Power Plant for Robotic and Human Mobile Exploration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Russell S.; Sanders, Gerald; Simon, Thomas; McCurdy, Kerri

    2003-01-01

    Three basic power generation system concepts are generally considered for lander, rover, and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) assistant applications for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration missions. The most common power system considered is the solar array and battery system. While relatively simple and successful, solar array/battery systems have some serious limitations for mobile applications. For typical rover applications, these limitations include relatively low total energy storage capabilities, daylight only operating times (6 to 8 hours on Mars), relatively short operating lives depending on the operating environment, and rover/lander size and surface use constraints. Radioisotope power systems are being reconsidered for long-range science missions. Unfortunately, the high cost, political controversy, and launch difficulties that are associated with nuclear-based power systems suggests that the use of radioisotope powered landers, rovers, and EVA assistants will be limited. The third power system concept now being considered are fuel cell based systems. Fuel cell power systems overcome many of the performance and surface exploration limitations of solar array/battery power systems and the prohibitive cost and other difficulties associated with nuclear power systems for mobile applications. In an effort to better understand the capabilities and limitations of fuel cell power systems for Moon and Mars exploration applications. NASA is investigating the use of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) produced reactant, fuel cell based power plants to power robotic outpost rovers, science equipment, and future human spacecraft, surface-excursion rovers, and EVA assistant rovers. This paper will briefly compare the capabilities and limitations of fuel cell power systems relative to solar array/battery and nuclear systems, discuss the unique and enhanced missions that fuel cell power systems enable, and discuss the common technology and system attributes

  13. A large human centrifuge for exploration and exploitation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.W.A. van Loon; J.P. Baeyens; J. Berte; S. Blanc; L. ter Braak; K. Bok; J. Bos; R. Boyle; N. Bravenoer; M. Eekhoff; A. Chouker; G. Clement; P. Cras; E. Cross; M.A. Cusaud; M. De Angelis; C. de Dreu; T. Delavaux; R. Delfos; C. Poelma; P. Denise; D. Felsenberg; K. Fong; C. Fuller; S. Grillner; E. Groen; J. Harlaar; M. Heer; N. Heglund; H. Hinghofer-Szalkay; N. Goswami; M. Hughes-Fulford; S. Iwase; J.M. Karemaker; B. Langdahl; D. Linarsson; C. Lüthen; M. Monici; E. Mulder; M. Narici; P. Norsk; W. Paloski; G.K. Prisk; M. Rutten; P. Singer; D. Stegeman; A. Stephan; G.J.M. Stienen; P. Suedfeld; P. Tesch; O. Ullrich; R. van den Berg; P. Van de Heyning; A. Delahaye; J. Veyt; L. Vico; E. Woodward; L.R. Young; F. Wuyts

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses concepts regarding the development of an Altered Gravity Platform (AGP) that will serve as a research platform for human space exploration. Space flight causes a multitude of physiological problems, many of which are due to gravity level transitions. Going from Earth’s gravity t

  14. Three dimensional visualisation of human facial exposure to solar ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio

    2007-01-01

    A three dimensional computer model of the human face has been developed to represent solar ultraviolet exposures recorded by dosimeter measurements on a manikin headform under low cloud conditions and various solar zenith angles. Additionally, polysulfone dosimeters have been successfully miniaturised to provide the detailed measurements required across the face. The headform used in this research was scanned at 709 individual locations to make a wireframe mesh consisting of 18 vertical contours and 49 horizontal contours covering half the manikin's frontal facial topography. Additionally, the back of the headform and neck have also been scanned at 576 locations. Each scanned location has been used as a viable dosimeter position on the headform and represents a grid intersection point on the developed computer wireframe. A series of exposures recorded by dosimeters have been translated into three dimensional exposure ratio maps, representing ambient solar ultraviolet exposure. High dosimeter density has allowed for the development of individual topographic contour models which take into account complex variation in the face and improve upon previously employed techniques which utilise fewer dosimeters to interpolate exposure across facial contours. Exposure ratios for solar zenith angle ranges of 0 degrees -30 degrees, 30 degrees -50 degrees, and 50 degrees -80 degrees have been developed.

  15. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA 5.0), which is the latest in a series of NASA Mars reference missions. It provides a vision of one potential approach to human Mars exploration. The reference architecture provides a common framework for future planning of systems concepts, technology development, and operational testing as well as Mars robotic missions, research that is conducted on the International Space Station, and future lunar exploration missions. This summary the Mars DRA 5.0 provides an overview of the overall mission approach, surface strategy and exploration goals, as well as the key systems and challenges for the first three human missions to Mars.

  16. Global Exploration Roadmap Derived Concept for Human Exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Ryan; Landgraf, Markus; Sato, Naoki; Picard, Martin; Goodliff, Kandyce; Stephenson, Keith; Narita, Shinichiro; Gonthier, Yves; Cowley, Aiden; Hosseini, Shahrzad; hide

    2017-01-01

    Taking advantage of the development of Mars-forward assets in cislunar space, a human lunar surface concept is proposed to maximize value for both lunar exploration and future deep space missions. The human lunar surface missions will be designed to build upon the cislunar activities that precede them, providing experience in planetary surface operations that cannot be obtained in cislunar space. To enable a five-mission limited campaign to the surface of the Moon, two new elements are required: a human lunar lander and a mobile surface habitat. The human lunar lander will have been developed throughout the cislunar phase from a subscale demonstrator and will consist of a descent module alongside a reusable ascent module. The reusable ascent module will be used for all five human lunar surface missions. Surface habitation, in the form of two small pressurized rovers, will enable 4 crew to spend up to 42 days on the lunar surface.

  17. Exploring the Physics of the Corona with Total Solar Eclipse Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Habbal, Shadia R; Daw, Adrian; Ding, Adalbert; Druckmuller, Miloslav; Esser, Ruth; Johnson, Judd; Morgan, Huw

    2011-01-01

    This white paper is a call for a concerted effort to support total solar eclipse observations over the next decade, in particular for the 21 August 2017 eclipse which will traverse the US continent. With the recent advances in image processing techniques and detector technology, the time is ripe to capitalize on the unique diagnostic tools available in the visible and near infrared wavelength range to explore the physics of the corona. The advantage of coronal emission lines in this wavelength range, over their extreme ultraviolet counterparts, is (1) the significant radiative component in their excitation process (in addition to the collisional excitation), which allows for observations out to a few solar radii, (2) the higher spectral selectivity available for imaging, giving well-defined temperature responses for each bandpass (one line as opposed to many), and (3) the capability of polarization measurements in a number of spectral lines. Consequently, the evolution of the thermodynamic and magnetic proper...

  18. Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, P; Clairon, A; Duchayne, L; Landragin, A; Lemonde, P; Santarelli, G; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Cataliotti, F S; Inguscio, M; Tino, G M; Gill, P; Klein, H; Reynaud, S; Salomon, C; Peik, E; Bertolami, O; Gil, P; Páramos, J; Jentsch, C; Johann, U; Rathke, A; Bouyer, P; Cacciapuoti, L; Izzo, D; De Natale, P; Christophe, B; Touboul, P; Turyshev, S G; Anderson, J D; Tobar, M E; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Vigué, J; Madej, A; Marmet, L; Angonin, M-C; Delva, P; Tourrenc, P; Metris, G; Müller, H; Walsworth, R; Lu, Z H; Wang, L; Bongs, K; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Dittus, H; Lämmerzahl, C; Galzerano, G; Laporta, P; Laskar, J; Fienga, A; Roques, F; Sengstock, K

    2007-01-01

    We summarise the scientific and technological aspects of the SAGAS (Search for Anomalous Gravitation using Atomic Sensors) project, submitted to ESA in June 2007 in response to the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 call for proposals. The proposed mission aims at flying highly sensitive atomic sensors (optical clock, cold atom accelerometer, optical link) on a Solar System escape trajectory in the 2020 to 2030 time-frame. SAGAS has numerous science objectives in fundamental physics and Solar System science, for example numerous tests of general relativity and the exploration of the Kuiper belt. The combination of highly sensitive atomic sensors and of the laser link well adapted for large distances will allow measurements with unprecedented accuracy and on scales never reached before. We present the proposed mission in some detail, with particular emphasis on the science goals and associated measurements.

  19. Analysis of Solar-Heated Thermal Wadis to Support Extended-Duration Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Sacksteder, K. R.; Wegeng, R.; Suzuki, N.

    2011-01-01

    The realization of the renewed exploration of the Moon presents many technical challenges; among them is the survival of lunar-surface assets during periods of darkness when the lunar environment is very cold. Thermal wadis are engineered sources of stored solar energy using modified lunar regolith as a thermal storage mass that can supply energy to protect lightweight robotic rovers or other assets during the lunar night. This paper describes an analysis of the performance of thermal wadis based on the known solar illumination of the Moon and estimates of producible thermal properties of modified lunar regolith. Analysis has been performed for the lunar equatorial region and for a potential outpost location near the Lunar South Pole. The calculations indicate that thermal wadis can provide the desired thermal energy and temperature control for the survival of rovers or other equipment during periods of darkness.

  20. Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toyokawa

    Full Text Available The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate "information scroungers" may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a "multi-armed bandit" problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental "dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas" successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence.

  1. Japanese Exploration to Solar System Small Bodies: Rewriting a Planetary Formation Theory with Astromaterial Connection (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, H.

    2013-12-01

    Three decades ago, Japan's deep space exploration started with Sakigake and Suisei, twin flyby probes to P/Halley. Since then, the Solar System small bodies have been one of focused destinations to the Japanese solar system studies even today. Only one year after the Halley armada launch, the very first meeting was held for an asteroid sample return mission at ISAS, which after 25 years, materialized as the successful Earth return of Hayabusa , an engineering verification mission for sample return from surfaces of an NEO for the first time in the history. Launched in 2003 and returned in 2010, Hayabusa became the first to visit a sub-km, rubble-pile potentially hazardous asteroid in near Earth space. Its returned samples solved S-type asteroid - ordinary chondrite paradox by proving space weathering evidences in sub-micron scale. Between the Halley missions and Hayabusa, SOCCER concept by M-V rocket was jointly studied between ISAS and NASA; yet it was not realized due to insufficient delta-V for intact capture by decelerating flyby/encounter velocity to a cometary coma. The SOCCER later became reality as Stardust, NASA Discovery mission for cometary coma dust sample return in1999-2006. Japan has collected the second largest collection of the Antarctic meteorites and micrometeorites of the world and asteromaterial scientists are eager to collaborate with space missions. Also Japan enjoyed a long history of collaborations between professional astronomers and high-end amateur observers in the area of observational studies of asteroids, comets and meteors. Having these academic foundations, Japan has an emphasis on programmatic approach to sample returns of Solar System small bodies in future prospects. The immediate follow-on to Hayabusa is Hayabusa-2 mission to sample return with an artificial impactor from 1999 JU3, a C-type NEO in 2014-2020. Following successful demonstration of deep space solar sail technique by IKAROS in 2010-2013, the solar power sail is a deep

  2. Human Health and Performance Considerations for Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will describe the human health and performance issues that are anticipated for the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEA). Humans are considered a system in the design of any such deep-space exploration mission, and exploration of NEA presents unique challenges for the human system. Key factors that define the mission are those that are strongly affected by distance and duration. The most critical of these is deep-space radiation exposure without even the temporary shielding of a nearby large planetary body. The current space radiation permissible exposure limits (PEL) restrict mission duration to 3-10 months depending on age and gender of crewmembers and stage of the solar cycle. Factors that affect mission architecture include medical capability; countermeasures for bone, muscle, and cardiovascular atrophy during continuous weightlessness; restricted food supplies; and limited habitable volume. The design of a habitat that can maintain the physical and psychological health of the crew and support mission operations with limited intervention from Earth will require an integrated research and development effort by NASA s Human Research Program, engineering, and human factors groups. Limited abort and return options for an NEA mission are anticipated to have important effects on crew psychology as well as influence medical supplies and training requirements of the crew. Other important factors are those related to isolation, confinement, communication delays, autonomous operations, task design, small crew size, and even the unchanging view outside the windows for most of the mission. Geological properties of the NEA will influence design of sample handling and containment, and extravehicular activity capabilities including suit ports and tools. A robotic precursor mission that collects basic information on NEA surface properties would reduce uncertainty about these aspects of the mission as well as aid in design of mission architecture and

  3. The NASA Solar System Exploration Virtual Institute: International Efforts in Advancing Lunar Science with Prospects for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), originally chartered in 2008 as the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI), is chartered to advance both the scientific goals needed to enable human space exploration, as well as the science enabled by such exploration. NLSI and SSERVI have in succession been "institutes without walls," fostering collaboration between domestic teams (7 teams for NLSI, 9 for SSERVI) as well as between these teams and the institutes' international partners, resulting in a greater global endeavor. SSERVI teams and international partners participate in sharing ideas, information, and data arising from their respective research efforts, and contribute to the training of young scientists and bringing the scientific results and excitement of exploration to the public. The domestic teams also respond to NASA's strategic needs, providing community-based responses to NASA needs in partnership with NASA's Analysis Groups. Through the many partnerships enabled by NLSI and SSERVI, scientific results have well exceeded initial projections based on the original PI proposals, proving the validity of the virtual institute model. NLSI and SSERVI have endeavored to represent not just the selected and funded domestic teams, but rather the entire relevant scientific community; this has been done through many means such as the annual Lunar Science Forum (now re-named Exploration Science Forum), community-based grass roots Focus Groups on a wide range of topics, and groups chartered to further the careers of young scientists. Additionally, NLSI and SSERVI have co-founded international efforts such as the pan-European lunar science consortium, with an overall goal of raising the tide of lunar science (and now more broadly exploration science) across the world.

  4. Vision of Space Exploration Possibilities and limits of a human space conquest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev

    Few generations of a schoolboys, which later become active and productive space researchers, have been brought up on a science fiction books. These books told us about travels to other Galaxies with velocities larger then velocity of light, meetings with friendly aliens (necessarily with communistic mentalities in Soviet Union books), star wars with ugly space monsters (in the western hemisphere books), etc. Beginning of Space age (4/10/1957) opened the door to a magic box, full of scientific discoveries, made mostly by robotic satellites and spacecraft. However, already the first human space trips clearly demonstrated that space is vigorously hostile to a human beings. Space medicine during the years since Gagarin flight, made an outstanding progress in supporting human presence at orbital stations, but the radiation hazards and problem of hypomagnetism are still opened and there is no visible path to their solution. So the optimistic slogan of 60-ies “Space is Our Place” is not supported by an almost half a century practice. Space never will be a comfortable place for soft and vulnerable humans? There is a general consensus that man will be on Mars during this century (or even its first part). This is very difficult but task it seems to be realistic after the significant advance of modern technologies will be made. But, is there any real need for humans to travel beyond the Mars orbit or to the inner regions of the Solar system? Will the age of Solar system exploration comes to its logical as it was described by Stanislav Lem in his famous book “Return from stars”? The author of this talk has more questions than answers, and thinks that PEX1 Panel on Exploration is just a right place to discuss these usually by passed topics.

  5. Asteroid Redirect Mission - Next Major stepping-stone to Human Exploration of NEOs and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    In response to NASA's Asteroid Initiative, an Asteroid Redirect and Robotic Mission (ARRM) is being studied by a NASA cohort, led by JPL, to enable the capture a multi-ton boulder from the surface of a Near-Earth Asteroid and return it to cislunar space for subsequent human and robotic exploration. The mission would boost our understanding of NEOs and develop technological capabilities for Planetary Defense, shall a NEO come up on a collision course. The benefits of this mission can extend our capabilities to explore farther into space, as well as create a new commercial sector in Space Mining, which would make materials in Space available for our use. ARRM would leverage and advance current knowledge of higher-efficiency propulsion systems with a new Solar Electric Propulsion demonstration (similar to that on the Dawn spacecraft) to be incorporated into future Mars Missions.

  6. Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars--III: studies of system reliability and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, W. W.; Heydorn, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission do not now exist nor has any self-consistent program plan been proposed to acquire them. In particular, the lack of an Abort-to-Earth capability implies that critical mission systems must perform reliably for 3 years or must be maintainable and repairable by the crew. As has been previously argued, a well-planned program of human exploration of the Moon would provide a context within which to develop the appropriate technologies because a lunar expedition incorporates many of the operational elements of a Mars expedition. Initial lunar expeditions can be carried out at scales consistent with the current experience base but can be expanded in any or all operational phases to produce an experience base necessary to successfully and safely conduct human exploration of Mars. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Micro-Logistics Analysis for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, William; Stromgren, Chel; Galan, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, logistics analysis for space missions has focused on the delivery of elements and goods to a destination. This type of logistics analysis can be referred to as "macro-logistics". While the delivery of goods is a critical component of mission analysis, it captures only a portion of the constraints that logistics planning may impose on a mission scenario. The other component of logistics analysis concerns the local handling of goods at the destination, including storage, usage, and disposal. This type of logistics analysis, referred to as "micro-logistics", may also be a primary driver in the viability of a human lunar exploration scenario. With the rigorous constraints that will be placed upon a human lunar outpost, it is necessary to accurately evaluate micro-logistics operations in order to develop exploration scenarios that will result in an acceptable level of system performance.

  8. Hinode magnetic-field observations of solar flares for exploring the energy storage and trigger mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Toshifumi; Inoue, Satoshi; Kawabata, Yusuke

    2015-08-01

    Solar flares abruptly release the free energy stored as a non-potential magnetic field in the corona and may be accompanied by eruptions of the coronal plasma. Magnetic reconnection is considered as a physical process in which the magnetic energy is converted to kinetic energy, thermal energy, and particle acceleration, but the location of magnetic reconnection is difficult to identify directly because of low emission measure at the reconnection region. We are still lack of observational knowledge on the 3D magnetic configuration and physical conditions for leading to flare trigger. Accurate measurements of vector magnetic fields at the solar photosphere, provided by the Solar Optical Telescope onboard Hinode, help us in exploring how the free energy is stored in the solar atmosphere and how the release of the energy is triggered. This presentation will review the magnetic field configuration and possible candidates for flare trigger primarily based on Hinode observations of some large flare events, which may include X5.4/X1.3 flares on 7 March 2012, X1.2 flare on 7 January 2014 and two M-class flares on 2 February 2014. The 7 March 2012 events were observed in an active region with delta-type sunspots, showing a strong shear in the entire magnetic system. For the sheared magnetic structure, the inclusion of a small-scale trigger field was identified near the polarity inversion line with excitation of a high-speed material flow in the horizontally oriented magnetic field formed nearly in parallel to the polarity inversion line. The observations suggest that gas dynamics at the solar surface play a vital role of leading to the onset of flares. The 7 January 2014 event is an exceptional event which most scientists would not be able to predict its occurrence. The flare unexpectedly happened apart from the sheared magnetic field region. The M-class flares on 2 February 2014 were observed in the magnetic field configuration, in which four magnetic domains were

  9. Exploring the potential of semiconducting BaSi2 for thin-film solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suemasu, Takashi; Usami, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    Semiconducting barium disilicide (BaSi2), which is composed of earth-abundant elements, has attractive features for thin-film solar cell applications. Both a large absorption coefficient comparable to copper indium gallium diselenide and a minority-carrier diffusion length much larger than the grain size of BaSi2 can be used to improve solar cell properties. In this review article, we explore the potential of semiconducting BaSi2 film for thin-film solar cell applications. We start by describing its crystal and energy band structure, followed by discussing thin-film growth techniques and the optical and electrical properties of BaSi2 films. We use a first-principles calculation based on density-functional theory to calculate the position of the Fermi level to predict the carrier type of impurity-doped BaSi2 films using either a group 13 or 15 element, and compare the calculated results with the experimental ones. Special attention was paid to the minority-carrier properties, such as minority-carrier lifetime, minority-carrier diffusion length, and surface passivation. The potential variations across the grain boundaries measured by Kelvin-probe force microscopy allowed us to detect a larger minority-carrier diffusion length in BaSi2 on Si(1 1 1) compared with BaSi2 on Si(0 0 1). Finally, we demonstrate the operation of p-BaSi2/n-Si heterojunction solar cells and discuss prospects for future development.

  10. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  11. Science Drivers for Polarimetric Exploration of the Solar System and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing and robotic exploration of our solar system and exoplanetary systems can be enhanced with the inclusion of spectrophotopolarimetry as a complementary approach to standard techniques of imaging and spectroscopy. Since all objects have unique polarimetric signatures, like fingerprints, much can be learned about the scattering object. I highlight some of the science drivers that will benefit from polarimteric exploration. In our own dynamic solar system, the study of linear polarization of reflected light by solar system objects (planetary atmospheres, satellites, rings systems, comets, asteroids, dust, etc.) provides insight into the scattering characteristics of aerosols and hazes in atmospheres and surficial properties of atmosphereless objects. Well-known examples are the identification of spherical droplets of sulphuric acid in the atmosphere of Venus, and dust storms and ice clouds on Mars. In the case of outer planets, although the phase angles available from earth to observe are limited to a very narrow range, measurements of linear limb polarization characterizes the variation of aerosol properties across the planetary disk. Since methane is present in all giant planets' atmospheres, limb measurements of linear polarization in various methane bands allow a direct measurement of the vertical distribution of aerosol and haze particles, complementary to direct imaging and spectroscopy. Linear polarization of atmosphereless objects (the Moon, planetary satellites and asteroids) are diagnostic of surface texture, and demonstrate that most of them have their surfaces covered with a regolith of fine material, function of particle size and packing density. The recent discovery of multi-planetary systems (or multis) by Kepler mission, illustrate that a variety of planetary systems exist beyond our solar system. Current indirect techniques such as radial velocity, pulsar timing, and transits identify exoplanetary candidates and identification of

  12. Design Considerations for Spacecraft Operations During Uncrewed Dormant Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Antol, Jeff; Jefferies, Sharon; Goodliff, Kandyce; Williams, Phillip; Ambrose, Rob; Sylvester, Andre; Anderson, Molly; Dinsmore, Craig; Hoffman, Stephen; Lawrence, James; Seibert, Marc; Schier, Jim; Frank, Jeremy; Alexander, Leslie; Ruff, Gary; Soeder, Jim; Guinn, Joseph; Stafford, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Subject matter experts from NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) are currently studying a human exploration campaign that involves deployment of assets for planetary exploration. This study, called the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) study, explores options with solar electric propulsion as a central component of the transportation architecture. This particular in-space transportation option often results in long duration transit to destinations. The EMC study is also investigating deployed human rated systems like landers, habitats, rovers, power systems and ISRU system to the surface of Mars, which also will involve long dormant periods when these systems are staged on the surface. In order to enable the EMC architecture, campaign and element design leads along with system and capability development experts from HEOMD's System Maturation Team (SMT) have identified additional capabilities, systems and operation modes that will sustain these systems especially during these dormant phases of the mission. Dormancy is defined by the absence of crew and relative inactivity of the systems. For EMC missions, dormant periods could range from several months to several years. Two aspects of uncrewed dormant operations are considered herein: (1) the vehicle systems that are placed in a dormant state and (2) the autonomous vehicle systems and robotic capabilities that monitor, maintain, and repair the vehicle and systems. This paper describes the mission stages of dormancy operations, phases of dormant

  13. Solar High-energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE). Volume 1: Proposed concept, statement of work and cost plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Martin, Franklin D.; Prince, T.; Lin, R.; Bruner, M.; Culhane, L.; Ramaty, R.; Doschek, G.; Emslie, G.; Lingenfelter, R.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of the Solar High-Energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE) is studied. The primary goal is to understand the impulsive release of energy, efficient acceleration of particles to high energies, and rapid transport of energy. Solar flare studies are the centerpieces of the investigation because in flares these high energy processes can be studied in unmatched detail at most wavelenth regions of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as in energetic charged particles and neutrons.

  14. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  15. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  16. Issues of exploration: human health and wellbeing during a mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. J.; Bassingthwaighte, J. B.; Charles, J. B.; Kushmerick, M. J.; Newman, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    Today, the tools are in our hands to enable us to travel away from our home planet and become citizens of the solar system. Even now, we are seriously beginning to develop the robust infrastructure that will make the 21st century the Century of Space Travel. But this bold step must be taken with due concern for the health, safety and wellbeing of future space explorers. Our long experience with space biomedical research convinces us that, if we are to deal effectively with the medical and biomedical issues of exploration, then dramatic and bold steps are also necessary in this field. We can no longer treat the human body as if it were composed of muscles, bones, heart and brain acting independently. Instead, we must lead the effort to develop a fully integrated view of the body, with all parts connected and fully interacting in a realistic way. This paper will present the status of current (2000) plans by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute to initiate research in this area of integrative physiology and medicine. Specifically, three example projects are discussed as potential stepping stones towards the ultimate goal of producing a digital human. These projects relate to developing a functional model of the human musculoskeletal system and the heart. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lunar Polar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) as a Stepping Stone for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2013-01-01

    A major emphasis of NASA is to extend and expand human exploration across the solar system. While specific destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative that NASA create new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) are the development of technologies and approaches for advanced robotics, power, propulsion, habitats, life support, and especially, space resource utilization systems. Space resources and how to use them, often called In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can have a tremendous beneficial impact on robotic and human exploration of the Moon, Mars, Phobos, and Near Earth Objects (NEOs), while at the same time helping to solve terrestrial challenges and enabling commercial space activities. The search for lunar resources, demonstration of extraterrestrial mining, and the utilization of resource-derived products, especially from polar volatiles, can be a stepping stone for subsequent human exploration missions to other destinations of interest due to the proximity of the Moon, complimentary environments and resources, and the demonstration of critical technologies, processes, and operations. ISRU and the Moon: There are four main areas of development interest with respect to finding, obtaining, extracting, and using space resources: Prospecting for resources, Production of mission critical consumables like propellants and life support gases, Civil engineering and construction, and Energy production, storage, and transfer. The search for potential resources and the production of mission critical consumables are the primary focus of current NASA technology and system development activities since they provide the greatest initial reduction in mission mass, cost, and risk. Because of the proximity of the Moon, understanding lunar resources and developing, demonstrating, and implementing lunar ISRU

  18. An analysis of Solar Mesospheric Explorer temperatures for the upper stratosphere and mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Rusch, David W.

    1993-01-01

    We proposed to analyze Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) limb profiles of Rayleigh scattered solar flux at wavelengths of 304, 313, and 443 nm to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles over the 40-65 km altitude region. These temperatures can be combined with the previous analysis of SME 296 nm limb radiances to construct a monthly average climatology of atmospheric temperatures over the 40-90 km, upper stratosphere-mesosphere region, with approximately 4 km vertical resolution. We proposed to investigate the detailed nature of the global temperature structure of this poorly measured region, based on these 1982-1986 SME temperatures. The average vertical structure of temperatures between the stratopause and mesopause has never been determined globally with vertical resolution sufficient to retrieve even scale-height structures. Hence, the SME temperatures provided a unique opportunity to study the detailed thermal structure of the mesosphere, in advance of Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energy and Dynamics (TIMED) mission.

  19. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System:. [Aerial Vehicle Reconnaissance and Exploration Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and hydrogen (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. Additional supporting analyses were conducted to illuminate vehicle sizing and orbital transportation issues. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional gases, the potential for fueling small and large fleets of additional exploration and exploitation vehicles exists. Additional aerospacecraft or other aerial vehicles (UAVs, balloons, rockets, etc.) could fly through the outer planet atmospheres, for global weather observations, localized storm or other disturbance investigations, wind speed measurements, polar observations, etc. Deep-diving aircraft (built with the strength to withstand many atmospheres of pressure) powered by the excess hydrogen or helium 4 may be designed to probe the higher density regions of the gas giants. Outer planet atmospheric properties, atmospheric storm data, and mission planning for future outer planet UAVs are presented.

  20. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager Small Explorer Concept Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Dennis, Brian R.; Glesener, Lindsay; Krucker, Sam; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian

    2016-05-01

    We present the FOXSI (Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager) small explorer (SMEX) concept, a mission dedicated to studying particle acceleration and energy release on the Sun. FOXSI is designed as a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft in low-Earth orbit making use of state-of-the-art grazing incidence focusing optics combined withpixelated solid-state detectors, allowing for direct imaging of solar X-rays. The current design being studied features multiple telescopes with a 14 meter focal length enabled by a deployable boom.FOXSI will observe the Sun in the 3-100 keV energy range. The FOXSI imaging concept has already been tested on two sounding rocket flights, in 2012 and 2014 and on the HEROES balloon payload flight in 2013. FOXSI will image the Sun with an angular resolution of 5'', a spectral resolution of 0.5 keV, and sub-second temporal resolution. FOXSI is a direct imaging spectrometer with high dynamic range and sensitivity and will provide a brand-new perspective on energy release on the Sun. We describe the mission and its science objectives.

  1. Field experiments on solar geoengineering: report of a workshop exploring a representative research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David W; Duren, Riley; MacMartin, Douglas G

    2014-12-28

    We summarize a portfolio of possible field experiments on solar radiation management (SRM) and related technologies. The portfolio is intended to support analysis of potential field research related to SRM including discussions about the overall merit and risk of such research as well as mechanisms for governing such research and assessments of observational needs. The proposals were generated with contributions from leading researchers at a workshop held in March 2014 at which the proposals were critically reviewed. The proposed research dealt with three major classes of SRM proposals: marine cloud brightening, stratospheric aerosols and cirrus cloud manipulation. The proposals are summarized here along with an analysis exploring variables such as space and time scale, risk and radiative forcing. Possible gaps, biases and cross-cutting considerations are discussed. Finally, suggestions for plausible next steps in the development of a systematic research programme are presented.

  2. Internationally supported data acquisition for solar system exploration in the 1990's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. S.; Lyman, P. T.; Layland, J. W.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures that could be followed for cooperative agreements between countries with large ground station antennas to help provide mission telemetry support for increasing solar system exploration are outlined. It is noted that mission cost reductions, and thereby greater chances that missions will be approved, are offered by the opportunity to make planetary probes multinational efforts. The Canberra station is a suitable site for the Japanese Planet A Halley's comet intercept probe. The French have requested U.S. cooperation in developing VLBI stations in the L-band to receive signals from the Venus balloons and landers being sent as part of a joint French-Soviet mission to Venus and Halley's comet. The construction of the stations would extend the capabilities already present with NASA's deep space network, particularly for tracking the Voyager visits to Uranus and Neptune.

  3. Exploring host-microbiota interactions in animal models and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Aleksandar D; Howitt, Michael R; Garrett, Wendy S

    2013-04-01

    The animal and bacterial kingdoms have coevolved and coadapted in response to environmental selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. The meta'omics revolution in both sequencing and its analytic pipelines is fostering an explosion of interest in how the gut microbiome impacts physiology and propensity to disease. Gut microbiome studies are inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on approaches and technical skill sets from the biomedical sciences, ecology, and computational biology. Central to unraveling the complex biology of environment, genetics, and microbiome interaction in human health and disease is a deeper understanding of the symbiosis between animals and bacteria. Experimental model systems, including mice, fish, insects, and the Hawaiian bobtail squid, continue to provide critical insight into how host-microbiota homeostasis is constructed and maintained. Here we consider how model systems are influencing current understanding of host-microbiota interactions and explore recent human microbiome studies.

  4. Integrated Network Architecture for Sustained Human and Robotic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Gary; Cesarone, Robert; Deutsch, Leslie; Edwards, Charles; Soloff, Jason; Ely, Todd; Cook, Brian; Morabito, David; Hemmati, Hamid; Piazolla, Sabino; hide

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Enterprise is planning a series of human and robotic missions to the Earth's moon and to Mars. These missions will require communication and navigation services. This paper1 sets forth presumed requirements for such services and concepts for lunar and Mars telecommunications network architectures to satisfy the presumed requirements. The paper suggests that an inexpensive ground network would suffice for missions to the near-side of the moon. A constellation of three Lunar Telecommunications Orbiters connected to an inexpensive ground network could provide continuous redundant links to a polar lunar base and its vicinity. For human and robotic missions to Mars, a pair of areostationary satellites could provide continuous redundant links between Earth and a mid-latitude Mars base in conjunction with the Deep Space Network augmented by large arrays of 12-m antennas on Earth.

  5. Groundbreaking Mars Sample Return for Science and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara; Draper, David; Eppler, Dean; Treiman, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Partnerships between science and human exploration have recent heritage for the Moon (Lunar Precursor Robotics Program, LPRP) and nearearth objects (Exploration Precursor Robotics Program, xPRP). Both programs spent appreciable time and effort determining measurements needed or desired before human missions to these destinations. These measurements may be crucial to human health or spacecraft design, or may be desired to better optimize systems designs such as spacesuits or operations. Both LPRP and xPRP recommended measurements from orbit, by landed missions and by sample return. LPRP conducted the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) missions, providing high-resolution visible imagery, surface and subsurface temperatures, global topography, mapping of possible water ice deposits, and the biological effects of radiation [1]. LPRP also initiated a landed mission to provide dust and regolith properties, local lighting conditions, assessment of resources, and demonstration of precision landing [2]. This mission was canceled in 2006 due to funding shortfalls. For the Moon, adequate samples of rocks and regolith were returned by the Apollo and Luna programs to conduct needed investigations. Many near-earth asteroids (NEAs) have been observed from the Earth and several have been more extensively characterized by close-flying missions and landings (NEAR, Hayabusa, Rosetta). The current Joint Robotic Precursor Activity program is considering activities such as partnering with the New Frontiers mission OSIRIS-Rex to visit a NEA and return a sample to the Earth. However, a strong consensus of the NEO User Team within xPRP was that a dedicated mission to the asteroid targeted by humans is required [3], ideally including regolith sample return for more extensive characterization and testing on the Earth.

  6. Exploring the existence and potential underpinnings of dog-human and horse-human attachment bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elyssa; DeAraugo, Jodi; Bennett, Pauleen; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    This article reviews evidence for the existence of attachment bonds directed toward humans in dog-human and horse-human dyads. It explores each species' alignment with the four features of a typical attachment bond: separation-related distress, safe haven, secure base and proximity seeking. While dog-human dyads show evidence of each of these, there is limited alignment for horse-human dyads. These differences are discussed in the light of the different selection paths of domestic dogs and horses as well as the different contexts in which the two species interact with humans. The role of emotional intelligence in humans as a potential mediator for human-animal relationships, attachment or otherwise, is also examined. Finally, future studies, which may clarify the interplay between attachment, human-animal relationships and emotional intelligence, are proposed. Such avenues of research may help us explore the concepts of trust and bonding that are often said to occur at the dog-human and horse-human interface.

  7. Desert RATS 2011: Near-Earth Asteroid Human Exploration Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Chappel, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) 2011 field test involved the planning and execution of a series of exploration scenarios under operational conditions similar to those that would be expected during a human exploration mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA). The focus was on understanding the operations tempo during simulated NEA exploration and the implications of communications latency and limited data bandwidth. Anchoring technologies and sampling techniques were not evaluated due to the immaturity of those technologies and the inability to meaningfully test them at D-RATS. Reduced gravity analogs and simulations are being used to fully evaluate Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) and extravehicular (EVA) operations and interactions in near-weightlessness at a NEA as part of NASA s integrated analogs program. Hypotheses were tested by planning and performing a series of 1-day simulated exploration excursions comparing test conditions all of which involved a single Deep Space Habitat (DSH) and either zero, one, or two MMSEVs; three or four crewmembers; one of two different communications bandwidths; and a 100-second roundtrip communications latency between the field site and Houston. Excursions were executed at the Black Point Lava Flow test site with a Mission Control Center and Science Support Room at Johnson Space Center (JSC) being operated with 100-second roundtrip communication latency to the field. Crews were composed of astronauts and professional field geologists and teams of Mission Operations, Science, and Education & Public Outreach (EPO) experts also supported the mission simulations each day. Data were collected separately from the Crew, Mission Operations, Science, and EPO teams to assess the test conditions from multiple perspectives. For the operations tested, data indicates practically significant benefits may be realized by including at least one MMSEV and by including 4 versus 3 crewmembers in the NEA exploration

  8. ENGINES: exploring single nucleotide variation in entire human genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Antonio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation ultra-sequencing technologies are starting to produce extensive quantities of data from entire human genome or exome sequences, and therefore new software is needed to present and analyse this vast amount of information. The 1000 Genomes project has recently released raw data for 629 complete genomes representing several human populations through their Phase I interim analysis and, although there are certain public tools available that allow exploration of these genomes, to date there is no tool that permits comprehensive population analysis of the variation catalogued by such data. Description We have developed a genetic variant site explorer able to retrieve data for Single Nucleotide Variation (SNVs, population by population, from entire genomes without compromising future scalability and agility. ENGINES (ENtire Genome INterface for Exploring SNVs uses data from the 1000 Genomes Phase I to demonstrate its capacity to handle large amounts of genetic variation (>7.3 billion genotypes and 28 million SNVs, as well as deriving summary statistics of interest for medical and population genetics applications. The whole dataset is pre-processed and summarized into a data mart accessible through a web interface. The query system allows the combination and comparison of each available population sample, while searching by rs-number list, chromosome region, or genes of interest. Frequency and FST filters are available to further refine queries, while results can be visually compared with other large-scale Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP repositories such as HapMap or Perlegen. Conclusions ENGINES is capable of accessing large-scale variation data repositories in a fast and comprehensive manner. It allows quick browsing of whole genome variation, while providing statistical information for each variant site such as allele frequency, heterozygosity or FST values for genetic differentiation. Access to the data mart

  9. Robotic Reconnaissance Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic reconnaissance missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near- Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the direction of the Human Exploration and Operations Missions Directorate (HEOMD), given NASA's recent interest in NEAs and the Martian moons as potential human destinations [1]. The action team

  10. Development of NASA's Small Fission Power System for Science and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marc A.; Mason, Lee S.; Bowman, Cheryl L.; Poston, David I.; McClure, Patrick R.; Creasy, John; Robinson, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system has brought many exciting challenges to our nations scientific and engineering community over the past several decades. As we expand our visions to explore new, more challenging destinations, we must also expand our technology base to support these new missions. NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate is tasked with developing these technologies for future mission infusion and continues to seek answers to many existing technology gaps. One such technology gap is related to compact power systems (1 kWe) that provide abundant power for several years where solar energy is unavailable or inadequate. Below 1 kWe, Radioisotope Power Systems have been the workhorse for NASA and will continue to be used for lower power applications similar to the successful missions of Voyager, Ulysses, New Horizons, Cassini, and Curiosity. Above 1 kWe, fission power systems become an attractive technology offering a scalable modular design of the reactor, shield, power conversion, and heat transport subsystems. Near term emphasis has been placed in the 1-10kWe range that lies outside realistic radioisotope power levels and fills a promising technology gap capable of enabling both science and human exploration missions. History has shown that development of space reactors is technically, politically, and financially challenging and requires a new approach to their design and development. A small team of NASA and DOE experts are providing a solution to these enabling FPS technologies starting with the lowest power and most cost effective reactor series named Kilopower that is scalable from approximately 1-10 kWe.

  11. 78 FR 42805 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration Operations Committee; Research... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Research Subcommittee of the Human Exploration and Operations Committee (HEOC) of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports...

  12. Exploring human disease using the Rat Genome Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Shimoyama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rattus norvegicus, the laboratory rat, has been a crucial model for studies of the environmental and genetic factors associated with human diseases for over 150 years. It is the primary model organism for toxicology and pharmacology studies, and has features that make it the model of choice in many complex-disease studies. Since 1999, the Rat Genome Database (RGD; http://rgd.mcw.edu has been the premier resource for genomic, genetic, phenotype and strain data for the laboratory rat. The primary role of RGD is to curate rat data and validate orthologous relationships with human and mouse genes, and make these data available for incorporation into other major databases such as NCBI, Ensembl and UniProt. RGD also provides official nomenclature for rat genes, quantitative trait loci, strains and genetic markers, as well as unique identifiers. The RGD team adds enormous value to these basic data elements through functional and disease annotations, the analysis and visual presentation of pathways, and the integration of phenotype measurement data for strains used as disease models. Because much of the rat research community focuses on understanding human diseases, RGD provides a number of datasets and software tools that allow users to easily explore and make disease-related connections among these datasets. RGD also provides comprehensive human and mouse data for comparative purposes, illustrating the value of the rat in translational research. This article introduces RGD and its suite of tools and datasets to researchers – within and beyond the rat community – who are particularly interested in leveraging rat-based insights to understand human diseases.

  13. Exploring human disease using the Rat Genome Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulederkind, Stanley J. F.; De Pons, Jeff; Nigam, Rajni; Smith, Jennifer R.; Tutaj, Marek; Petri, Victoria; Hayman, G. Thomas; Wang, Shur-Jen; Ghiasvand, Omid; Thota, Jyothi; Dwinell, Melinda R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rattus norvegicus, the laboratory rat, has been a crucial model for studies of the environmental and genetic factors associated with human diseases for over 150 years. It is the primary model organism for toxicology and pharmacology studies, and has features that make it the model of choice in many complex-disease studies. Since 1999, the Rat Genome Database (RGD; http://rgd.mcw.edu) has been the premier resource for genomic, genetic, phenotype and strain data for the laboratory rat. The primary role of RGD is to curate rat data and validate orthologous relationships with human and mouse genes, and make these data available for incorporation into other major databases such as NCBI, Ensembl and UniProt. RGD also provides official nomenclature for rat genes, quantitative trait loci, strains and genetic markers, as well as unique identifiers. The RGD team adds enormous value to these basic data elements through functional and disease annotations, the analysis and visual presentation of pathways, and the integration of phenotype measurement data for strains used as disease models. Because much of the rat research community focuses on understanding human diseases, RGD provides a number of datasets and software tools that allow users to easily explore and make disease-related connections among these datasets. RGD also provides comprehensive human and mouse data for comparative purposes, illustrating the value of the rat in translational research. This article introduces RGD and its suite of tools and datasets to researchers – within and beyond the rat community – who are particularly interested in leveraging rat-based insights to understand human diseases. PMID:27736745

  14. NASAs Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute- Expanded Goals and More Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G. K.; Daou, D.; Pendleton, Y.; Bailey, B. E.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) has been pursuing international partnerships since its inception as the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI), in order to both leverage the science being done by its domestic member institutions as well as to help lunar science and exploration become a greater global endeavor. The international partners of the Institute have pursued a broad program of lunar science stimulated by scientific partnerships enabled by the SSERVI community. Furthermore, regional partnerships have been formed such as the new pan-European lunar science consortium, which promises both new scientific approaches and mission concepts. International partner membership requires long-term commitment from both the partner and SSERVI, together with tangible and specific plans for scientific interaction that will produce results of mutual benefit to both the institute's U.S. Teams and the international partner. International partners are invited to participate in all aspects of the Institute's activities and programs, on a basis of no exchange of funds. Through these activities, SSERVI researchers and international partners participate in sharing ideas, information, and data arising from their respective research efforts, and contribute to the training of young scientists. This talk will present an overview of the Institute and the international nodes. We will also discuss the various processes to become a SSERVI partner as well as the opportunities available for collaborations with the SSERVI national teams.

  15. "NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute" - Expanded Goals and More Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, D.; Schmidt, G.; Pendleton, Y.; Bailey, B.; Morrison, D.

    2015-10-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) has been pursuing international partnerships since its inceptionas the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI), in order to both leverage the science being done by its domestic member institutions as well as to help lunar science and exploration become a greater global endeavor. The international partners of the I nstitute have pursued a broad program of lunar science stimulated by scientific partnerships enabled by the SSERVI community. Furthermore, regional partnerships have been formed such as the new pan- European lunar science consortium, which promises both new scientific approaches and mission concepts.International partner membership requires longterm commitment from both the partner and SSERVI, together with tangible and specific plans for scientific interaction that will produce results of mutual benefit to both the institute's U.S. Teams and the international partner.International partners are invited to participate in all aspects of the Institute's activities and programs, on a basis of no exchange of funds. Through these activities, SSERVI researchers and international partners participate in sharing ideas, information, and data arising from their respective research efforts, and contribute to the training of young scientists.This talk will present an overview of the Institute and the international nodes. We will also discuss the various processes to become a SSERVI partner as well as the opportunities available for collaborations with the SSERVI national teams.

  16. Mission Opportunities for Human Exploration of Nearby Planetary Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    We characterize mission profiles for human expeditions to near-Earth asteroids, Venus, and Mars. Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are the closest destinations beyond cis-lunar space and present a compelling target with capabilities already under development by NASA and its partners. We present manned NEO mission options that would require between 90 days and one year. We next consider planetary flyby missions for Venus along the lines of plans that were first drafted during the Apollo program for human exploration of Venus. We also characterize a Mars flyby, and a double-flyby variant that would include close passes to both Venus and Mars. Finally, we consider orbital missions to Venus and Mars with capability for rendezvous with Phobos or Deimos. This would be a truly new class of mission for astronauts and could serve as a precursor to a human landing on Mars. We present launch opportunities, transit time, requisite {\\Delta}V, and approximate radiation environment parameters for each mission class. We find that {\\...

  17. Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Brian F.; Robinson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing effort named HESTIA (Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement), led at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to promote a cross-subsystem approach to developing Mars-enabling technologies with the ultimate goal of integrated system optimization. HESTIA also aims to develop the infrastructure required to rapidly test these highly integrated systems at a low cost. The initial focus is on the common fluids architecture required to enable human exploration of mars, specifically between life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) subsystems. An overview of the advancements in both integrated technologies, in infrastructure, in simulation, and in modeling capabilities will be presented, as well as the results and findings of integrated testing,. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth), minimization of surface hardware and commodities is paramount. Hardware requirements can be minimized by reduction of equipment performing similar functions though for different subsystems. If hardware could be developed which meets the requirements of both life support and ISRU it could result in the reduction of primary hardware and/or reduction in spares. Minimization of commodities to the surface of mars can be achieved through the creation of higher efficiency systems producing little to no undesired waste, such as a closed-loop life support subsystem. Where complete efficiency is impossible or impractical, makeup commodities could be manufactured via ISRU. Although, utilization of ISRU products (oxygen and water) for crew consumption holds great promise of reducing demands on life support hardware, there exist concerns as to the purity and transportation of commodities. To date, ISRU has been focused on production rates and purities for

  18. Addressing Human System Risks to Future Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, W. H.; Francisco, D. R.; Davis, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is contemplating future human exploration missions to destinations beyond low Earth orbit, including the Moon, deep-space asteroids, and Mars. While we have learned much about protecting crew health and performance during orbital space flight over the past half-century, the challenges of these future missions far exceed those within our current experience base. To ensure success in these missions, we have developed a Human System Risk Board (HSRB) to identify, quantify, and develop mitigation plans for the extraordinary risks associated with each potential mission scenario. The HSRB comprises research, technology, and operations experts in medicine, physiology, psychology, human factors, radiation, toxicology, microbiology, pharmacology, and food sciences. Methods: Owing to the wide range of potential mission characteristics, we first identified the hazards to human health and performance common to all exploration missions: altered gravity, isolation/confinement, increased radiation, distance from Earth, and hostile/closed environment. Each hazard leads to a set of risks to crew health and/or performance. For example the radiation hazard leads to risks of acute radiation syndrome, central nervous system dysfunction, soft tissue degeneration, and carcinogenesis. Some of these risks (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) could affect crew health or performance during the mission, while others (e.g., carcinogenesis) would more likely affect the crewmember well after the mission ends. We next defined a set of design reference missions (DRM) that would span the range of exploration missions currently under consideration. In addition to standard (6-month) and long-duration (1-year) missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), these DRM include deep space sortie missions of 1 month duration, lunar orbital and landing missions of 1 year duration, deep space journey and asteroid landing missions of 1 year duration, and Mars orbital and landing missions of 3 years duration. We then

  19. ISRU in the Context of Future European Human Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. M.; Tomatis, C.

    2002-01-01

    ISRU or In-Situ Resource Utilisation is the use of Martian resources to manufacture, typically, life support consumables (e.g. water, oxygen, breathing buffer gases), and propellant for a return journey to Earth. European studies have shown that some 4kg of reaction mass must be launched to LEO to send 1kg payload to Mars orbit, with landing on the Mars surface reducing payload mass still further. This results in very high transportation costs to Mars, and still higher costs for returning payloads to Earth. There is therefore a major incentive to reduce payload mass for any form of Mars return mission (human or otherwise) by generating consumables on the surface. ESA through its GSTP programme has been investigating the system level design of a number of mission elements as potential European contributions to an international human Mars exploration mission intended for the 2020-2030 timeframe. One of these is an ISRU plant, a small chemical factory to convert feedstock brought from Earth (hydrogen), and Martian atmospheric gases (CO2 and trace quantities of nitrogen and argon) into methane and oxygen propellant for Earth return and life support consumables, in advance of the arrival of astronauts. ISRU technology has been the subject of much investigation around the world, but little detailed research or system level studies have been reported in Europe. Furthermore, the potential applicability of European expertise, technology and sub- system studies to Martian ISRU is not well quantified. Study work covered in this paper has compared existing designs (e.g. NASA's Design Reference Mission, DLR and Mars Society studies) with the latest ESA derived requirements for human Mars exploration, and has generated a system level ISRU design. This paper will review and quantify the baseline chemical reactions essential for ISRU, including CO2 collection and purification, Sabatier reduction of CO2 with hydrogen to methane and water, and electrolysis of water in the context of

  20. Foundational Methane Propulsion Related Technology Efforts, and Challenges for Applications to Human Exploration Beyond Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas; Klem, Mark; McRight, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Current interest in human exploration beyond earth orbit is driving requirements for high performance, long duration space transportation capabilities. Continued advancement in photovoltaic power systems and investments in high performance electric propulsion promise to enable solar electric options for cargo delivery and pre-deployment of operational architecture elements. However, higher thrust options are required for human in-space transportation as well as planetary descent and ascent functions. While high thrust requirements for interplanetary transportation may be provided by chemical or nuclear thermal propulsion systems, planetary descent and ascent systems are limited to chemical solutions due to their higher thrust to weight and potential planetary protection concerns. Liquid hydrogen fueled systems provide high specific impulse, but pose challenges due to low propellant density and the thermal issues of long term propellant storage. Liquid methane fueled propulsion is a promising compromise with lower specific impulse, higher bulk propellant density and compatibility with proposed in-situ propellant production concepts. Additionally, some architecture studies have identified the potential for commonality between interplanetary and descent/ascent propulsion solutions using liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellants. These commonalities may lead to reduced overall development costs and more affordable exploration architectures. With this increased interest, it is critical to understand the current state of LOX/LCH4 propulsion technology and the remaining challenges to its application to beyond earth orbit human exploration. This paper provides a survey of NASA's past and current methane propulsion related technology efforts, assesses the accomplishments to date, and examines the remaining risks associated with full scale development.

  1. Proactive Integration of Planetary Protection Needs Into Early Design Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine

    Planetary protection (PP) policies established by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science have been in force effectively for five decades, ensuring responsible exploration and the integrity of science activities, for both human and robotic missions in the Solar System beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). At present, operations on most bodies in the solar system are not constrained by planetary protection considerations because they cannot be contaminated by Earth life in ways that impact future space exploration. However, operations on Mars, Europa, and Enceladus, which represent locations with biological potential, are subject to strict planetary protection constraints for missions of all types because they can potentially be contaminated by organisms brought from Earth. Forward contamination control for robotic missions is generally accomplished through a combination of activities that reduce the bioload of microbial hitchhikers on outbound spacecraft prior to launch. Back contamination control for recent robotic missions has chiefly been accomplished by selecting sample-return targets that have little or no potential for extant life (e.g., cometary particles returned by Stardust mission). In the post-Apollo era, no human missions have had to deal with planetary protection constraints because they have never left Earth orbit. Future human missions to Mars, for example, will experience many of the challenges faced by the Apollo lunar missions, with the added possibility that astronauts on Mars may encounter habitable environments in their exploration or activities. Current COSPAR PP Principles indicate that safeguarding the Earth from potential back contamination is the highest planetary protection priority in Mars exploration. While guidelines for planetary protection controls on human missions to Mars have been established by COSPAR, detailed engineering constraints and processes for implementation of these guidelines have not

  2. Exploring Life Support Architectures for Evolution of Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Stambaugh, Imelda C.

    2015-01-01

    Life support system architectures for long duration space missions are often explored analytically in the human spaceflight community to find optimum solutions for mass, performance, and reliability. But in reality, many other constraints can guide the design when the life support system is examined within the context of an overall vehicle, as well as specific programmatic goals and needs. Between the end of the Constellation program and the development of the "Evolvable Mars Campaign", NASA explored a broad range of mission possibilities. Most of these missions will never be implemented but the lessons learned during these concept development phases may color and guide future analytical studies and eventual life support system architectures. This paper discusses several iterations of design studies from the life support system perspective to examine which requirements and assumptions, programmatic needs, or interfaces drive design. When doing early concept studies, many assumptions have to be made about technology and operations. Data can be pulled from a variety of sources depending on the study needs, including parametric models, historical data, new technologies, and even predictive analysis. In the end, assumptions must be made in the face of uncertainty. Some of these may introduce more risk as to whether the solution for the conceptual design study will still work when designs mature and data becomes available.

  3. SLS-Derived Lab: Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2014-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in work and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Robotic missions have successfully demonstrated transportation, entry, landing and surface operations but for human missions there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) are the unanswered questions concerning long-duration exploration beyond low-earth-orbit. The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside earth's protective geo-magnetic field they cannot be resolved on the earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at the relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 meter and 4.3 meter diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit Habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems, solutions are not obvious, and require integrated, iterative, and multi-disciplinary development. A lunar

  4. The Evolution of Mission Architectures for Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, S. F.

    1995-01-01

    Defining transportation architectures for the human exploration of the Moon is a complex task due to the multitude of mission scenarios available. The mission transportation architecture recently proposed for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) was not designed from carefully predetermined mission requirements and goals, but evolved from an initial set of requirements, which were continually modified as studies revealed that some early assumptions were not optimal. This paper focuses on the mission architectures proposed for FLO and investigates how these transportation architectures evolved. A comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the three distinct mission architectures are discussed, namely (1) Lunar Orbit Rendezvous, (2) staging from the Cislunar Libration Point, and (3) direct to the lunar surface. In addition, several new and revolutionary architectures are discussed.

  5. The Evolution of Mission Architectures for Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, S. F.

    1995-01-01

    Defining transportation architectures for the human exploration of the Moon is a complex task due to the multitude of mission scenarios available. The mission transportation architecture recently proposed for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) was not designed from carefully predetermined mission requirements and goals, but evolved from an initial set of requirements, which were continually modified as studies revealed that some early assumptions were not optimal. This paper focuses on the mission architectures proposed for FLO and investigates how these transportation architectures evolved. A comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the three distinct mission architectures are discussed, namely (1) Lunar Orbit Rendezvous, (2) staging from the Cislunar Libration Point, and (3) direct to the lunar surface. In addition, several new and revolutionary architectures are discussed.

  6. A Quantitative ADME-base Tool for Exploring Human ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to a wide range of chemicals through our daily habits and routines is ubiquitous and largely unavoidable within modern society. The potential for human exposure, however, has not been quantified for the vast majority of chemicals with wide commercial use. Creative advances in exposure science are needed to support efficient and effective evaluation and management of chemical risks, particularly for chemicals in consumer products. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development is developing, or collaborating in the development of, scientifically-defensible methods for making quantitative or semi-quantitative exposure predictions. The Exposure Prioritization (Ex Priori) model is a simplified, quantitative visual dashboard that provides a rank-ordered internalized dose metric to simultaneously explore exposures across chemical space (not chemical by chemical). Diverse data streams are integrated within the interface such that different exposure scenarios for “individual,” “population,” or “professional” time-use profiles can be interchanged to tailor exposure and quantitatively explore multi-chemical signatures of exposure, internalized dose (uptake), body burden, and elimination. Ex Priori has been designed as an adaptable systems framework that synthesizes knowledge from various domains and is amenable to new knowledge/information. As such, it algorithmically captures the totality of exposure across pathways. It

  7. Cislunar Near Rectilinear Halo Orbit for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Ryan; Martinez, Roland; Condon, Gerald; Williams, Jacob; Lee, David; Davis, Diane; Barton, Gregg; Bhatt, Sagar; Jang, Jiann-Woei; Clark, Fred; Hinkel, Heather

    2016-01-01

    In order to conduct sustained human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), spacecraft systems are designed to operate in a series of missions of increasing complexity. Regardless of the destination, Moon, Mars, asteroids or beyond, there is a substantial set of common objectives that must be met. Many orbit characterization studies have endeavored to evaluate the potential locations in cislunar space that are favorable for meeting common human exploration objectives in a stepwise approach. Multiple studies, by both NASA and other international space agencies, have indicated that Earth-­-moon libration point orbits are attractive candidates for staging operations in the proving ground and beyond. In particular, the Near Rectilinear Orbit (NRO) has been demonstrated to meet multi-­-mission and multi-­-destination architectural constraints. However, a human mission to a selected NRO presents a variety of new challenges for mission planning. While a growing number of robotic missions have completed successful operations to various specific libration point orbits, human missions have never been conducted to orbits of this class. Human missions have unique challenges that differ significantly from robotic missions, including a lower tolerance for mission risk and additional operational constraints that are associated only with human spacecraft. In addition, neither robotic nor human missions have been operated in the NRO regime specifically, and NROs exhibit dynamical characteristics that can differ significantly as compared to other halo orbits. Finally, multi-­-body orbits, such as libration point orbits, are identified to exist in a simplified orbit model known as the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem (CRTBP) and must then be re-­-solved in the full ephemeris model. As a result, the behavior of multi-­-body orbits cannot be effectively characterized within the classical two-­-body orbit dynamics framework more familiar to the human spaceflight community

  8. Hands-on Activities for Exploring the Solar System in K-14 Formal and Informal Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.

    2004-12-01

    Introduction: Activities developed by NASA scientists and teachers focus on integrating Planetary Science activities with existing Earth science, math, and language arts curriculum. Educators may choose activities that fit a particular concept or theme within their curriculum from activities that highlight missions and research pertaining to exploring the solar system. Most of the activities use simple, inexpensive techniques that help students understand the how and why of what scientists are learning about comets, asteroids, meteorites, moons and planets. The web sites for the activities contain current information so students experience recent mission information such as data from Mars rovers or the status of Stardust sample return. The Johnson Space Center Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science education team has compiled a variety of NASA solar system activities to produce an annotated thematic syllabus useful to classroom educators and informal educators as they teach space science. An important aspect of the syllabus is that it highlights appropriate science content information and key science and math concepts so educators can easily identify activities that will enhance curriculum development. The outline contains URLs for the activities and NASA educator guides as well as links to NASA mission science and technology. In the informal setting, educators can use solar system exploration activities to reinforce learning in association with thematic displays, planetarium programs, youth group gatherings, or community events. In both the informal and the primary education levels the activities are appropriately designed to excite interest, arouse curiosity and easily take the participants from pre-awareness to the awareness stage. Middle school educators will find activities that enhance thematic science and encourage students to think about the scientific process of investigation. Some of the activities offered may easily be adapted for the upper

  9. A LARGE HUMAN CENTRIFUGE FOR EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack J.W.A. van Loon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses concepts regarding the development of an Altered Gravity Platform (AGP that will serve as a research platform for human space exploration. Space flight causes a multitude of physiological problems, many of which are due to gravity level transitions. Going from Earth's gravity to microgravity generates fluid shifts, space motion sickness, cardiovascular deconditioning among other changes, and returning to a gravity environment again puts the astronauts under similar stressors. A prolonged stay in microgravity provokes additional deleterious changes such as bone loss, muscle atrophy and loss of coordination or specific psychological stresses. To prepare for future manned space exploration missions, a ground-based research test bed for validating countermeasures against the deleterious effects of g-level transitions is needed. The proposed AGP is a large rotating facility (diameter > 150 m, where gravity levels ranging from 1.1 to 1.5g are generated, covering short episodes or during prolonged stays of weeks or even months. On this platform, facilities are built where a crew of 6 to 8 humans can live autonomously. Adaptation from 1 g to higher g levels can be studied extensively and monitored continuously. Similarly, re-adaptation back to 1 g, after a prolonged period of altered g can also be investigated. Study of the physiological and psychological adaptation to changing g-levels will provide instrumental and predictive knowledge to better define the ultimate countermeasures that are needed for future successful manned space exploration missions to the Moon, Mars and elsewhere. The AGP initiative will allow scientific top experts in Europe and worldwide to investigate the necessary scientific, operational, and engineering inputs required for such space missions. Because so many different physiological systems are involved in adaptation to gravity levels, a multidisciplinary approach is crucial. One of the final and crucial

  10. Microbial Impact on Success of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Groves, T. O.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify microbiological risks associated with space exploration and identify potential countermeasures available. Identification of microbial risks associated with space habitation requires knowledge of the sources and expected types of microbial agents. Crew data along with environmental data from water, surfaces, air, and free condensate are utilized in risk examination. Data from terrestrial models are also used. Microbial risks to crew health include bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Adverse effects of microbes include: infections, allergic reactions, toxin production, release of volatiles, food spoilage, plant disease, material degradation, and environmental contamination. Risk is difficult to assess because of unknown potential changes in microbes (e.g., mutation) and the human host (e.g., immune changes). Prevention of adverse microbial impacts is preferred over remediation. Preventative measures include engineering measures (e.g., air filtration), crew microbial screening, acceptability standards, and active verification by onboard monitoring. Microbiological agents are important risks to human health and performance during space flight and risks increase with mission duration. Acceptable risk level must be defined. Prevention must be given high priority. Careful screening of crewmembers and payloads is an important element of any risk mitigation plan. Improved quantitation of microbiological risks is a high priority.

  11. Integrating Human Factors into Crew Exploration Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Campbell, paul

    2007-01-01

    With NASA's new Vision for Exploration to send humans beyond Earth orbit, it is critical to consider the human as a system that demands early and continuous user involvement, and an iterative prototype/test/redesign process. Addressing human-system interface issues early on can be very cost effective even cost reducing when performed early in the design and development cycle. To achieve this goal within Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Project Office, human engineering (HE) team is formed. Key tasks are to apply HE requirements and guidelines to hardware/software, and provide HE design, analysis and evaluation of crew interfaces. Initial activities included many practice-orientated evaluations using low-fidelity CEV mock-ups. What follows is a description of such evaluations that focused on a HE requirement regarding Net Habitable Volume (NHV). NHV is defined as the total remaining pressurized volume available to on-orbit crew after accounting for the loss of volume due to deployed hardware and structural inefficiencies which decrease functional volume. The goal of the NHV evaluations was to develop requirements providing sufficient CEV NHV for crewmembers to live and perform tasks in support of mission goals. Efforts included development of a standard NHV calculation method using computer models and physical mockups, and crew/ stakeholder evaluations. Nine stakeholders and ten crewmembers participated in the unsuited evaluations. Six crewmembers also participated in a suited evaluation. The mock-up was outfitted with volumetric representation of sub-systems such as seats, and stowage bags. Thirteen scenarios were developed to represent mission/crew tasks and considered to be primary volume drivers (e.g., suit donning) for the CEV. Unsuited evaluations included a structured walkthrough of these tasks. Suited evaluations included timed donning of the existing launch and entry suit to simulate a contingency scenario followed by doffing/ stowing of the suits. All mockup

  12. Resonance of about-weekly human heart rate rhythm with solar activity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, G; Halberg, F; Wendt, H W; Bingham, C; Sothern, R B; Haus, E; Kleitman, E; Kleitman, N; Revilla, M A; Revilla, M; Breus, T K; Pimenov, K; Grigoriev, A E; Mitish, M D; Yatsyk, G V; Syutkina, E V

    1996-12-01

    In several human adults, certain solar activity rhythms may influence an about 7-day rhythm in heart rate. When no about-weekly feature was found in the rate of change in sunspot area, a measure of solar activity, the double amplitude of a circadian heart rate rhythm, approximated by the fit of a 7-day cosine curve, was lower, as was heart rate corresponds to about-weekly features in solar activity and/or relates to a sunspot cycle.

  13. Marco Polo: International Small Solar System Body Exploration Mission in 2010's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Hajime

    Since 2000, Japanese scientists and engineers have investigated new generation primitive body missions in the post-Hayabusa era in 2010's. Receiving the Minorbody Exploration Forum Final Report, ISAS established the nation-wide Small Body Exploration Working Group (SBE-WG) in 2004. After the successful exploration of the S-type NEO Itokawa by Hayabusa in 2005, the Hayabusa-2 concept emerged for a C-type asteroid sample return by the original Hayabusa spacecraft system with minor improvements and modifications. In parallel to that effort, the SBE-WG continued to develop the post-Hayabusa mission concept as "Hayabusa Mk-II," a fully model-changed, advanced spacecraft with the sample return capability from the most primitive bodies of the solar system. It is this Hayabusa Mk-II that has became the foundation of the International small body exploration concept "Marco Polo" since 2006. Jointly proposed to the first call of the ESA Cosmic Vision by scientists from Japan, Europe, and the U.S., the Marco Polo concept was selected as one of the M-class mission candidates for the assessment study phase in the fall of 2007. In 2008, the international joint study team has been created and its mission definitions, system requirements, and target selections are currently under the study. The top-level scientific themes are to decode the solar system formation and evolution in the astrobiology and astromineralogy contexts as one of the most important scientific challenges of 2010's. These themes are sub-divided into several objectives to be achieved by both instruments carried onboard the mother spacecraft (MSC), a large lander, or small hopping rovers and returned samples. The initial mission target candicdates include comet-asteroid transition (CAT) objects, D-type asteroids and C-type binary asteroids in near-Earth orbits. In the baseline scenario, a Soyuz launcher provided by ESA will launch the JAXA-made MSC with sampling and other in-situ science instruments provided by

  14. NASA's Deep Space Network and ESA's Tracking Network Collaboration to Enable Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Accomazzo, Andrea; Firre, Daniel; Ferri, Paolo; Liebrecht, Phil; Mann, Greg; Morse, Gary; Costrell, Jim; Kurtik, Susan; Hell, Wolfgang; Warhaut, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Planetary missions travel vast distances in the solar system to explore and answer important scientific questions. To return the data containing their discoveries, communications challenges have to be overcome, namely the relatively low transmitter power, typically 20 Watts at X-band, and the one-over-the-square of the distance loss of the received power, among other factors. These missions were enabled only when leading space agencies developed very large communications antennas to communicate with them as well as provide radio-metric navigation tools. NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) and ESA's ESTRACK network are distributed geographically in order to provide global coverage and utilize stations ranging in size from 34 m to 70 m in diameter. With the increasing number of missions and significant loading on networks' capacity, unique requirements during critical events, and long-baseline interferometry navigation techniques, it became obvious that collaboration between the networks was necessary and in the interest of both agencies and the advancement of planetary and space sciences. NASA and ESA established methods for collaboration that include a generic cross-support agreement as well as mission-specific memoranda of understanding. This collaboration also led to the development of international inter-operability standards. As a result of its success, the DSN-ESTRACK cross support approach is serving as a model for other agencies with similar stations and an interest in collaboration. Over recent years, many critical events were supported and some scientific breakthroughs in planetary science were enabled. This paper will review selected examples of the science resulting from this work and the overall benefits for deep space exploration, including lessons learned, from inter-agency collaboration with communications networks.

  15. Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer attitude control electronics box design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, K.; Clagett, C.; Correll, T.; Gruner, T.; Quinn, T.; Shiflett, L.; Schnurr, R.; Wennersten, M.; Frederick, M.; Fox, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The attitude Control Electronics (ACE) Box is the center of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite. This unit is the single point interface for all of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) related sensors and actuators. Commands and telemetry between the SAMPEX flight computer and the ACE Box are routed via a MIL-STD-1773 bus interface, through the use of an 80C85 processor. The ACE Box consists of the flowing electronic elements: power supply, momentum wheel driver, electromagnet driver, coarse sun sensor interface, digital sun sensor interface, magnetometer interface, and satellite computer interface. In addition, the ACE Box also contains an independent Safehold electronics package capable of keeping the satellite pitch axis pointing towards the sun. The ACE Box has dimensions of 24 x 31 x 8 cm, a mass of 4.3 kg, and an average power consumption of 10.5 W. This set of electronics was completely designed, developed, integrated, and tested by personnel at NASA GSFC. SAMPEX was launched on July 3, 1992, and the initial attitude acquisition was successfully accomplished via the analog Safehold electronics in the ACE Box. This acquisition scenario removed the excess body rates via magnetic control and precessed the satellite pitch axis to within 10 deg of the sun line. The performance of the SAMPEX ACS in general and the ACE Box in particular has been quite satisfactory.

  16. Improved angular momentum evolution model for solar-like stars II. Exploring the mass dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Gallet, Florian

    2015-01-01

    We developed angular momentum evolution models for 0.5 and 0.8 $M_{\\odot}$ stars. The parametric models include a new wind braking law based on recent numerical simulations of magnetised stellar winds, specific dynamo and mass-loss rate prescriptions, as well as core/envelope decoupling. We compare model predictions to the distributions of rotational periods measured for low mass stars belonging to star forming regions and young open clusters. Furthermore, we explore the mass dependence of model parameters by comparing these new models to the solar-mass models we developed earlier. Rotational evolution models are computed for slow, median, and fast rotators at each stellar mass. The models reproduce reasonably well the rotational behaviour of low-mass stars between 1~Myr and 8-10~Gyr, including pre-main sequence to zero-age main sequence spin up, prompt zero-age main sequence spin down, and early-main sequence convergence of the surface rotation rates. Fast rotators are found to have systematically shorter di...

  17. The Solar System Radio Explorer Kiosk - Leveraging Other E/PO Programs for Greater Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L. N.; Reinisch, B. W.; Taylor, W. W.; Thieman, J. R.; Mendez, F.; Riccobono, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Solar System Radio Explorer Kiosk (SSREK) - a newly won small E/PO follow-on to a NASA/OSS research grant - is designed to leverage existing NASA E/PO projects and other education programs to enable a large return from a small investment. The SSREK project will create an interactive museum kiosk to engage and teach visitors about Jupiter and the Sun by learning what their low frequency radio bursts may be telling us about these worlds. This project will work with the network of radio observers and the archive of data obtained through the NASA-sponsored Radio Jove project. The SSREK project is partnering with the Maryland Science Center (MSC) as a test site for the SSREK. The MSC will enable us to ensure that this project meets the requirements of their museum environment. We are also partnering with the National Federation of the Blind (NFB) to help us enable museum visitors with visual impairments to share in the excitement of science and help these visitors recognize how other senses besides sight can be used to do science. Both the MSC and NFB will assist us in formative and summative evaluation of the project. All of the software and designs for the wheelchair-accessible arcade-style cabinet will be made available on the associated web site hosted at NASA/GSFC - further extending the reach of the project.

  18. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Resource Capturing, Exploration, and Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system (AMOSS) has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high-energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as helium 3 (He-3) and hydrogen can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. 3He and hydrogen (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest, with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of AMOSS. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. Additional supporting analyses were conducted to illuminate vehicle sizing and orbital transportation issues. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and helium 4 (He-4) are produced. With these two additional gases, the potential exists for fueling small and large fleets of additional exploration and exploitation vehicles. Additional aerospacecraft or other aerial vehicles (UAVs, balloons, rockets, etc.) could fly through the outer-planet atmosphere to investigate cloud formation dynamics, global weather, localized storms or other disturbances, wind speeds, the poles, and so forth. Deep-diving aircraft (built with the strength to withstand many atmospheres of pressure) powered by the excess hydrogen or 4He may be designed to probe the higher density regions of the gas giants.

  19. SLS-Derived Lab- Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand M.; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in the works and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Transportation, entry, landing, and surface operations have been successfully demonstrated for robotic missions. However, for human missions, there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), are the unanswered questions concerning long duration exploration Beyond low Earth Orbit (BEO). The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside of earth's protective geo-magnetic field, they cannot be resolved on Earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at a relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 m and 4.3 m diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems. The solutions to these problems are not obvious; they require integrated, iterative

  20. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  1. Technology Development to Support Human Health and Performance in Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, C.E.; Steinberg, S. L.; Charles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    In the course of defining the level of risks and mitigating the risks for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit, NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) has identified the need for technology development in several areas. Long duration missions increase the risk of serious medical conditions due to limited options for return to Earth; no resupply; highly limited mass, power, volume; and communication delays. New space flight compatible medical capabilities required include: diagnostic imaging, oxygen concentrator, ventilator, laboratory analysis (saliva, blood, urine), kidney stone diagnosis & treatment, IV solution preparation and delivery. Maintenance of behavioral health in such an isolated, confined and extreme environment requires new sensory stimulation (e.g., virtual reality) technology. Unobtrusive monitoring of behavioral health and treatment methods are also required. Prolonged exposure to weightlessness deconditions bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system. Novel exercise equipment or artificial gravity are necessary to prevent deconditioning. Monitoring of the degree of deconditioning is required to ensure that countermeasures are effective. New technologies are required in all the habitable volumes (e.g., suit, capsule, habitat, exploration vehicle, lander) to provide an adequate food system, and to meet human environmental standards for air, water, and surface contamination. Communication delays require the crew to be more autonomous. Onboard decision support tools that assist crew with real-time detection and diagnosis of vehicle and habitat operational anomalies will enable greater autonomy. Multi-use shield systems are required to provide shielding from solar particle events. The HRP is pursuing the development of these technologies in laboratories, flight analog environments and the ISS so that the human health and performance risks will be acceptable with the available resources.

  2. Robotic Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration and planetary defense. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. These data can also be applied for gaining an understanding of pertinent small body physical characteristics that would also be beneficial for formulating future impact mitigation procedures. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the

  3. Human Space Exploration and Human Space Flight: Latency and the Cognitive Scale of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Dan; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    The role of telerobotics in space exploration as placing human cognition on other worlds is limited almost entirely by the speed of light, and the consequent communications latency that results from large distances. This latency is the time delay between the human brain at one end, and the telerobotic effector and sensor at the other end. While telerobotics and virtual presence is a technology that is rapidly becoming more sophisticated, with strong commercial interest on the Earth, this time delay, along with the neurological timescale of a human being, quantitatively defines the cognitive horizon for any locale in space. That is, how distant can an operator be from a robot and not be significantly impacted by latency? We explore that cognitive timescale of the universe, and consider the implications for telerobotics, human space flight, and participation by larger numbers of people in space exploration. We conclude that, with advanced telepresence, sophisticated robots could be operated with high cognition throughout a lunar hemisphere by astronauts within a station at an Earth-Moon Ll or L2 venue. Likewise, complex telerobotic servicing of satellites in geosynchronous orbit can be carried out from suitable terrestrial stations.

  4. Results of the First Astronaut-Rover (ASRO) Field Experiment: Lessons and Directions for the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Kosmo, J. J.; Trevino, R. C.; Thomas, H.; Eppler, D.; Bualat, M. G.; Baker, K.; Huber, E.; Sierhuis, M.; Grin, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    The first Astronaut-Rover Interaction field experiment (hereafter designated as the ASRO project) took place Feb. 22-27, 1999, in Silver Lake, Mojave Desert, CA. The ASRO project is the result of a joint project between NASA Ames Research Center and Johnson Space Center. In the perspective of the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) of the Solar System, this interaction - the astronaut and the rover as a complementary and interactive team - in the field is critical to assess but had never been tested before the Silver Lake experiment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Three-dimensional exploration of the solar wind using observations of interplanetary scintillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumaru, Munetoshi

    2013-01-01

    The solar wind, a supersonic plasma flow continuously emanating from the Sun, governs the space environment in a vast region extending to the boundary of the heliosphere (∼100 AU). Precise understanding of the solar wind is of importance not only because it will satisfy scientific interest in an enigmatic astrophysical phenomenon, but because it has broad impacts on relevant fields. Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) of compact radio sources at meter to centimeter wavelengths serves as a useful ground-based method for investigating the solar wind. IPS measurements of the solar wind at a frequency of 327 MHz have been carried out regularly since the 1980s using the multi-station system of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL) of Nagoya University. This paper reviews new aspects of the solar wind revealed from our IPS observations.

  6. Visual exploration and analysis of human-robot interaction rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Boyles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel interaction paradigm for the visual exploration, manipulation and analysis of human-robot interaction (HRI) rules; our development is implemented using a visual programming interface and exploits key techniques drawn from both information visualization and visual data mining to facilitate the interaction design and knowledge discovery process. HRI is often concerned with manipulations of multi-modal signals, events, and commands that form various kinds of interaction rules. Depicting, manipulating and sharing such design-level information is a compelling challenge. Furthermore, the closed loop between HRI programming and knowledge discovery from empirical data is a relatively long cycle. This, in turn, makes design-level verification nearly impossible to perform in an earlier phase. In our work, we exploit a drag-and-drop user interface and visual languages to support depicting responsive behaviors from social participants when they interact with their partners. For our principal test case of gaze-contingent HRI interfaces, this permits us to program and debug the robots' responsive behaviors through a graphical data-flow chart editor. We exploit additional program manipulation interfaces to provide still further improvement to our programming experience: by simulating the interaction dynamics between a human and a robot behavior model, we allow the researchers to generate, trace and study the perception-action dynamics with a social interaction simulation to verify and refine their designs. Finally, we extend our visual manipulation environment with a visual data-mining tool that allows the user to investigate interesting phenomena such as joint attention and sequential behavioral patterns from multiple multi-modal data streams. We have created instances of HRI interfaces to evaluate and refine our development paradigm. As far as we are aware, this paper reports the first program manipulation paradigm that integrates visual programming

  7. Exploring the impact of climate on human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Arai, Yasumichi; Willcox, D Craig; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of physical geographic factors and climate conditions on human longevity. The centenarian rate (CR) in 2005 was computed for Japan's 47 prefectures, whose geography and climate vary greatly. Several pathways, such as excess winter mortality, land use and agricultural production, possibly linking physical and climate factors with extreme longevity, were explored. The probability of becoming a centenarian varies significantly among the Japanese prefectures. In particular, the computation of CR(70) demonstrated that the actual probability for individuals 70 years old in 1975 of becoming centenarians in 2005 was 3 times higher, on average, in Okinawa, both for males and females, than in Japan as a whole. About three quarters of the variance in CR(70) for females and half for males is explained by the physical environment and land use, even when variations in the level of socio-economic status between prefectures are controlled. Our analysis highlighted two features which might have played an important role in the longevity observed in Okinawa. First, there is virtually no winter in Okinawa. For instance, the mean winter temperature observed in 2005 was 17.2°C. Second, today, there is almost no rice production in Okinawa compared to other parts of Japan. In the past, however, production was higher in Okinawa. If we consider that long term effects of harsh winters can contribute to the mortality differential in old age and if we consider that food availability in the first part of the 20th century was mainly dependent on local production, early 20th century birth cohorts in Okinawa clearly had different experiences in terms of winter conditions and in terms of food availability compared to their counterparts in other parts of Japan. This work confirms the impact of climate conditions on human longevity, but it fails to demonstrate a strong association between longevity and mountainous regions and/or air quality.

  8. Finding Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) Destinations for Human Exploration: Implications for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Rob; Abell, Paul; Barbee, Brent; Johnson, Lindley

    2012-01-01

    The current number of known potential NEA targets for HSF is limited to those objects whose orbital characteristics are similar to that of the Earth. This is due to the projected capabilities of the exploration systems currently under consideration and development at NASA. However, NEAs with such orbital characteristics often have viewing geometries that place them at low solar elongations and thus are difficult to detect from the vicinity of Earth. While ongoing ground-based surveys and data archives maintained by the NEO Program Observation Program Office and the Minor Planet Center (MPC) have provided a solid basis upon which to build, a more complete catalog of the NEO population is required to inform a robust and sustainable HSF exploration program. Since all the present NEO observing assets are currently confined to the vicinity of the Earth, additional effort must be made to provide capabilities for detection of additional HSF targets via assets beyond Earth orbit. A space-based NEO survey telescope located beyond the vicinity of the Earth, has considerable implications for planetary science and astrobiology. Such a telescope will provide foundational knowledge of our Solar System small body population and detect targets of interest for both the HSF and scientific communities. Data from this asset will yield basic characterization data on the NEOs observed (i.e., albedo, size determination, potential for volatiles and organics, etc.) and help down select targets for future HSF missions. Ideally, the most attractive targets from both HSF and astrobiology perspectives are those NEAs that may contain organic and volatile materials, and which could be effectively sampled at a variety of locations and depths. Presented here is an overview of four space-based survey concepts; any one of which after just a few years of operation will discover many highly accessible NEO targets suitable for robotic and human exploration. Such a space-based survey mission will reveal

  9. Evaluation of Human and AutomationRobotics Integration Needs for Future Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Adelstein, Bernard D.; Ellis, Stephen; Chang, Mai Lee; Howard, Robert

    2016-01-01

    NASA employs Design Reference Missions (DRMs) to define potential architectures for future human exploration missions to deep space, the Moon, and Mars. While DRMs to these destinations share some components, each mission has different needs. This paper focuses on the human and automation/robotic integration needs for these future missions, evaluating them with respect to NASA research gaps in the area of space human factors engineering. The outcomes of our assessment is a human and automation/robotic (HAR) task list for each of the four DRMs that we reviewed (i.e., Deep Space Sortie, Lunar Visit/Habitation, Deep Space Habitation, and Planetary), a list of common critical HAR factors that drive HAR design.

  10. Incremental Scheduling Engines for Human Exploration of the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  11. A mars communication constellation for human exploration and network science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Francesco; Simonetto, Andrea; Martini, Roberto; Lavagna, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of exploiting a small spacecrafts constellation around Mars to ensure a complete and continuous coverage of the planet, for the purpose of supporting future human and robotic operations and taking advantage of optical transmission techniques. The study foresees such a communications mission to be implemented at least after 2020 and a high data-rate requirement is imposed for the return of huge scientific data from massive robotic exploration or to allow video transmissions from a possible human outpost. In addition, the set-up of a communication constellation around Mars would give the opportunity of exploiting this multi-platform infrastructure to perform network science, that would largely increase our knowledge of the planet. The paper covers all technical aspects of a feasibility study performed for the primary communications mission. Results are presented for the system trade-offs, including communication architecture, constellation configuration and transfer strategy, and the mission analysis optimization, performed through the application of a multi-objective genetic algorithm to two models of increasing difficulty for the low-thrust trajectory definition. The resulting communication architecture is quite complex and includes six 530 kg spacecrafts on two different orbital planes, plus one redundant unit per plane, that ensure complete coverage of the planet’s surface; communications between the satellites and Earth are achieved through optical links, that allow lower mass and power consumption with respect to traditional radio-frequency technology, while inter-satellite links and spacecrafts-to-Mars connections are ensured by radio transmissions. The resulting data-rates for Earth-Mars uplink and downlink, satellite-to-satellite and satellite-to-surface are respectively 13.7 Mbps, 10.2 Mbps, 4.8 Mbps and 4.3 Mbps, in worst-case. Two electric propulsion modules are foreseen, to be placed on a C3˜0 escape orbit with two

  12. NREL Explores Earth-Abundant Materials for Future Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-10-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are using a theory-driven technique - sequential cation mutation - to understand the nature and limitations of promising solar cell materials that can replace today's technologies. Finding new materials that use Earth-abundant elements and are easily manufactured is important for large-scale solar electricity deployment.

  13. Scientific Investigations To Prepare For The Potential Human Exploration Of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Lindsay; Beaty, David; Whitley, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    In order for human missions to the martian system to be successful and safe, we need a certain minimum set of knowledge. Comparison of what we need to know with what we already know defines what we refer to as "Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs)". The SKG list needs to be the driving force behind the robotic precursor program. The Mars SKG list was first constructed by the Precursor Strategy Analysis Group (P-SAG) in 2012. It consisted of 17 SKGs that could be addressed by about 60 gap-filling activities (GFA). These GFAs were split into three groups based on where and how they could be carried out: requires a Mars flight/mission, addressed on Earth, or technology demonstration. Those GFAs that require a Mars mission were incorporated into the revision of the 2012 Goals Document of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) as "investigations" under Goal IV: Prepare for Human Exploration. In 2015, MEPAG updated the Goals Document, and comparison of the 2012 and 2015 versions shows that significant and encouraging overall progress has been made on a number of the investigations. We note three specific kinds of changes: 1) Complete retirement of several investigations, 2) Decreased investigation priority based on partial progress, and 3) Addition of a few new investigations. Some of these changes are detailed below: Retired: • Simultaneous spectra of solar energetic particles in space and ion the surface • Spectra of galactic cosmic rays on the surface • Trace gas abundances • Determine traction/cohesion in martian regolith • Determine vertical variation in regolith • High spatial resolution maps of mineral composition and abundance • High spatial resolution maps of subsurface ice depth and concentration Decreased Priority: • Making long-term measurements of winds and wind directions (improvements in EDL technologies have decreased the importance of this measurement) • Profile the near-surface winds (improvements in EDL technologies have

  14. Solar system a visual exploration of the planets, moons, and other heavenly bodies that orbit our sun

    CERN Document Server

    Chown, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Based on the latest ebook sensation developed by Theodore Gray and his company Touch Press, this beautiful print book presents a new and fascinating way to experience the wonders of the solar system Following the stunning success of both the print edition and the app of The Elements, Black Dog & Leventhal and Touch Press have teamed up again. Solar System is something completely new under the sun. Never before have the wonders of our solar system—all its planets, dwarf planets, the sun, moons, rocky Asteroid Belt, and icy Kuiper Belt—been so immediately accessible to readers of all ages. Beginning with a fascinating overview and then organized by planet, in order of its distance from the sun, Solar System takes us on a trip across time and space that includes a front-row seat to the explosive birth of the solar system, a journey to (and then deep inside) each of its eight planets, and even an in-depth exploration of asteroids and comets. With hundreds of gorgeous images produced especially for this...

  15. 78 FR 20696 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Research... and fact-finding with respect to the research activities within the Human Exploration and Operations... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Research Subcommittee of the Human...

  16. Impacts of Launch Vehicle Fairing Size on Human Exploration Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon; Collins, Tim; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Polsgrove, Tara

    2017-01-01

    presents the results of the analyses performed, the potential changes to mission architectures and campaigns that result, and the general trends that are more broadly applicable to any element design or mission planning for human exploration.

  17. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  18. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  19. Trojan Tour and Rendezvous (TTR): A New Frontiers Mission to Explore the Origin and Evolution of the Early Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Olkin, C.; Castillo, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The orbital properties, compositions, and physical properties of the diverse populations of small outer solar system bodies provide a forensic map of how our solar system formed and evolved. Perhaps the most potentially diagnostic, but least explored, of those populations are the Jupiter Trojan asteroids, which orbit at ~5 AU in the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter. More than 6200 Jupiter Trojans are presently known, but these are predicted to be only a small fraction of the 500,000 to 1 million Trojans >1 km in size. The Trojans are hypothesized to be either former Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) that were scattered into the inner solar system by early giant planet migration and then trapped in the 1:1 Jupiter mean motion resonance, or bodies formed near 5 AU in a much more quiescent early solar system, and then trapped at L4 and L5. The 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey identified important questions about the origin and evolution of the solar system that can be addressed by studying of the Trojan asteroids, including: (a) How did the giant planets and their satellite systems accrete, and is there evidence that they migrated to new orbital positions? (b) What is the relationship between large and small KBOs? Is the small population derived by impact disruption of the large one? (c) What kinds of surface evolution, radiation chemistry, and surface-atmosphere interactions occur on distant icy primitive bodies? And (d) What are the sources of asteroid groups (Trojans and Centaurs) that remain to be explored by spacecraft? The Trojan Tour and Rendezvous (TTR) is a New Frontiers-class mission designed to answer these questions, and to test hypotheses for early giant planet migration and solar system evolution. Via close flybys of a large number of these objects,, and orbital characterization of at least one large Trojan, TTR will enable the first-time exploration of this population. Our primary mission goals are to characterize the overall surface geology

  20. Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration Leading to Human Exploration: Results from the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, Mark L.; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper will provide a summary and analysis of the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop all-day session on "Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration, Leading to Human Exploration", held at Fucino Space Center, Italy on June 12th, 2015. The session was primarily intended to explore how robotic missions and robotics technologies more generally can help lead to human exploration missions. The session included a wide range of presentations that were roughly grouped into (1) broader background, conceptual, and high-level operations concepts presentations such as the International Space Exploration Coordination Group Roadmap, followed by (2) more detailed narrower presentations such as rover autonomy and communications. The broader presentations helped to provide context and specific technical hooks, and helped lay a foundation for the narrower presentations on more specific challenges and technologies, as well as for the discussion that followed. The discussion that followed the presentations touched on key questions, themes, actions and potential international collaboration opportunities. Some of the themes that were touched on were (1) multi-agent systems, (2) decentralized command and control, (3) autonomy, (4) low-latency teleoperations, (5) science operations, (6) communications, (7) technology pull vs. technology push, and (8) the roles and challenges of operations in early human architecture and mission concept formulation. A number of potential action items resulted from the workshop session, including: (1) using CCSDS as a further collaboration mechanism for human mission operations, (2) making further contact with subject matter experts, (3) initiating informal collaborative efforts to allow for rapid and efficient implementation, and (4) exploring how SpaceOps can support collaboration and information exchange with human exploration efforts. This paper will summarize the session and provide an overview of the above subjects as they emerged from the SpaceOps 2015

  1. Next Generation Extremely Large Solar Array System for NASA Exploration Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed technology is a revolutionary solar array advancement that relies on a structurally optimized platform to provide unparalleled specific-performance and...

  2. Exploring Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Urban Human Mobility Hotspots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Xiping; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Lu, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding human mobility patterns provides us with knowledge about human mobility in an urban context, which plays a critical role in urban planning, traffic management and the spread of disease...

  3. The future of VIS-IR hyperspectral remote sensing for the exploration of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filacchione, Gianrico

    2017-06-01

    In the last 30 years our understanding of the Solar System has greatly advanced thanks to the introduction of VIS-IR imaging spectrometers which have provided hyperspectral views of planets, satellites, asteroids, comets and rings. By providing moderate resolution images and reflectance spectra for each pixel at the same time, these instruments allow to elaborate spectral-spatial models for very different targets: when used to observe surfaces, hyperspectral methods permit to retrieve endmembers composition (minerals, ices, organics, liquids), mixing state among endmembers (areal, intimate, intraparticle), physical properties (particle size, roughness, temperature) and to correlate these quantities with geological and morphological units. Similarly, morphological, dynamical and compositional studies of gaseous and aerosol species can be retrieved for planetary atmospheres, exospheres and auroras. To achieve these results, very different optical layouts, detectors technologies and observing techniques have been adopted in the last decades, going from very large and complex payloads, like ISM (IR Spectral Mapper) on russian mission Phobos to Mars and NIMS (Near IR Mapping Spectrometer) on US Galileo mission to Jupiter, which were the first hyperspectral imagers to flow aboard planetary missions, to more recent compact and performing experiments. The future of VIS-IR hyperspectral remote sensing is challenging because the complexity of modern planetary missions drives towards the realization of increasingly smaller, lighter and more performing payloads able to survive in harsh radiation and planetary protected environments or to operate from demanding platforms like landers, rovers and cubesats. As a development for future missions, one can foresee that apart instruments designed around well-consolidated optical solutions relying on prisms or gratings as dispersive elements, a new class of innovative hyperspectral imagers will rise: recent developments in

  4. Gas Cromatography In Solar System Exploration:decoding Complex Chromatograms Recovered From Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrogrande, M. C.; Tellini, I.; Dondi, F.; Felinger, A.; Sternberg, R.; Szopa, C.; Vidal-Madjar, C.

    GC plays a predominant role in solar system explorations: it has been applied to space research related to exobiology: i.e., Cassini-Huygens mission devoted to characterize chemical composition of TitanSs atmosphere [2], Rosetta mission to investigate the nucleus of comet p/Wirtamen (COSAC experiments) [1]. GC analysis of planetary atmosphere is a difficult analytical task because of the unknown and low level of an- alytes present in the sample, the high degree of automatization required, the strong constraints due to the flight (short analysis time, low power consumption, high accu- racy and reliability under extreme space conditions). In these circumstances the use of a signal processing procedure is practically mandatory to efficiently extract useful in- formation from the raw chromatogram ­ i.e. to decode the complex chromatogram to determine the number of components, the separation efficiency and the retention pat- tern. In this work a chemometric approach based on the Fourier analysis is applied to complex chromatograms related to space research: from the autocovariance function (ACVF) computed on the digitized chromatogram, the chromatographic parameters ­ number of components, peak shape parameters, retention pattern ­ can be estimated [3-7]. The procedure, originally developed for constant peak width [3], was extended to variable peak width [4], in order to describe chromatograms obtained in isother- mal conditions, i.e., analysis condition compatible with space flight constraints. The chemometric procedure was applied to chromatograms of standard mixtures repre- sentative of planetary atmospheres ­ hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds with carbon atom number ranging from 2 to 8 ­ obtained in flight simulating conditions ­ isothermal or pseudo-isothermal conditions. Both the simplified graphic procedure, based on the assumption of constant peak width [3], and the complete approach de- veloped for variable peak width [4], were applied and the results

  5. Preparing Graduate Students for Solar System Science and Exploration Careers: Internships and Field Training Courses led by the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Kring, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    To be competitive in 21st century science and exploration careers, graduate students in planetary science and related disciplines need mentorship and need to develop skills not always available at their home university, including fieldwork, mission planning, and communicating with others in the scientific and engineering communities in the U.S. and internationally. Programs offered by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) address these needs through summer internships and field training programs. From 2008-2012, LPI hosted the Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program. This special summer intern program evaluated possible landing sites for robotic and human exploration missions to the lunar surface. By the end of the 2012 program, a series of scientifically-rich landing sites emerged, some of which had never been considered before. Beginning in 2015 and building on the success of the lunar exploration program, a new Exploration Science Summer Intern Program is being implemented with a broader scope that includes both the Moon and near-Earth asteroids. Like its predecessor, the Exploration Science Summer Intern Program offers graduate students a unique opportunity to integrate scientific input with exploration activities in a way that mission architects and spacecraft engineers can use. The program's activities may involve assessments and traverse plans for a particular destination or a more general assessment of a class of possible exploration targets. Details of the results of these programs will be discussed. Since 2010 graduate students have participated in field training and research programs at Barringer (Meteor) Crater and the Sudbury Impact Structure. Skills developed during these programs prepare students for their own thesis studies in impact-cratered terrains, whether they are on the Earth, the Moon, Mars, or other solar system planetary surface. Future field excursions will take place at these sites as well as the Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field. Skills

  6. Exploring the intramolecular phosphorylation sites in human Chk2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte B; Larsen, Martin R; Boldyreff, Brigitte;

    2008-01-01

    A comparative biochemical analysis was performed using recombinant human protein kinase Chk2 (checkpoint kinase 2) expressed in bacteria and insect cells. Dephosphorylated, inactive, recombinant human Chk2 could be reactivated in a concentration-dependent manner. Despite distinct time....... Mass spectrometric analyses of human recombinant Chk2 isolated from bacteria and insect cells showed distinct differences. The number of phosphorylated residues in human recombinant Chk2 isolated from bacteria was 16, whereas in the case of the recombinant human Chk2 from insect cells it was 8. Except...... for phosphorylated amino acid T378 which was not found in the Chk2 isolated from bacteria, all other phosphorylated residues identified in human Chk2 from insect cells were present also in Chk2 from bacteria....

  7. Exploring Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Urban Human Mobility Hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiping Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mobility patterns provides us with knowledge about human mobility in an urban context, which plays a critical role in urban planning, traffic management and the spread of disease. Recently, the availability of large-scale human-sensing datasets enables us to analyze human mobility patterns and the relationships between humans and their living environments on an unprecedented spatial and temporal scale to improve decision-making regarding the quality of life of citizens. This study aims to characterize the urban spatial-temporal dynamic from the perspective of human mobility hotspots by using mobile phone location data. We propose a workflow to identify human convergent and dispersive hotspots that represent the status of human mobility in local areas and group these hotspots into different classes according to clustering their temporal signatures. To illustrate our proposed approach, a case study of Shenzhen, China, has been conducted. Six typical spatial-temporal patterns in the city are identified and discussed by combining the spatial distribution of these identified patterns with urban functional areas. The findings enable us to understand the human dynamics in a different area of the city, which can serve as a reference for urban planning and traffic management.

  8. 77 FR 6825 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY... Administration announces a meeting of the Human Exploration and Operations Committee of the NASA Advisory Council..., 300 E Street SW., Washington, DC 20546, 202-358-2245; bette.siegel@nasa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  9. Space Resource Utilization and Extending Human Presence Across the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    investment enables commercial and private viability beyond Earth orbit. For example, analysis has shown the lunar oxygen production for propellant becomes commercially viable after the exploration program completes the R&D, and power from lunar derived photovoltaics could, according to past NASA sponsored studies, pay for themselves while supplying most of Earth's electrical energy after about 17 years. Besides the Moon and Mars the resources of the near Earth asteroids enable the building of large space structures and science payloads. Analysis has shown that one of the thousands of these objects (some as easily accessible in space as the Moon and Mars), 2 km dia, the size of a typical open pit mine, would cost the total global financial product of Earth for 30,000 years if we were to launch it from Earth. Beyond Mars, the belt asteroids have been calculated to contain enough materials for habitat and life to support 10 quadrillion people. Thus, the development and use of space resources enables the extension of human life through the solar system allowing humanity to move from a planetary to a solar system society.

  10. Exploring Near to Home: Solar System Science with the Palomar Transient Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Thomas Allen; Palomar Transient Factory; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory

    2017-01-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) is best known for its contributions to the science of extragalactic transients. However, the same large-area observations of the sky that yield detections of extragalactic transients can also be used to characterize, and discover, solar system objects. In this talk I will review the work of the PTF collaboration in the area of solar system science, in particular observations of asteroids and comets. Specific topics that will be covered include: characterization of asteroid rotation periods through observation of their synoptic light curves, transient activity of comets, and detection of small (less than 20 meter!) near-earth asteroids. Several of the investigations undertaken using PTF are prototypes of those that will be possible using the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) which will have 10-20 times more capability for observations of solar system objects. ZTF will become operational later in 2017.

  11. Exploration of Human Rights by Chinese Communist Pioneers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU SHUANGXI

    2011-01-01

    The Communist Party of China (CPC) ascended the stage of history holding high the banner of human fights.From the moment of its establishment,the Party has inscribed manifestly on its banner the principle of striving for human fights for the public.

  12. Teaching exploration and practice of the human body structure course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng LI; Ming-feng CHEN; Wen-long DING

    2015-01-01

    In the 21 st century,the medical model has transformed from the biological model to the biopsycho-social medical model. The transformation of medical model raises higher requirements for the training of medical staff. Comprehensive promotion of the reform of medical education has become the consensus and trend,which breeds the integrated medical teaching that is based on modules and organ systems. As one of eight integrated modules,the human body structure course of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine introduces morphological structures of normal human organs according to function systems( such as locomotor system,digestive system,angiological system,and nervous system) of human organs and parts of human body. This course endeavors to integrate theories with practices,contents of disciplines of basic medicine,and basic medicine with clinical medicine. The human body structure course combines basic medicine with clinical medicine and is an important part of medical science.

  13. Exploring the Solar System Activities Outline: Hands-On Planetary Science for Formal Education K-14 and Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.; Lindstrom, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Activities by NASA scientists and teachers focus on integrating Planetary Science activities with existing Earth science, math, and language arts curriculum. The wealth of activities that highlight missions and research pertaining to the exploring the solar system allows educators to choose activities that fit a particular concept or theme within their curriculum. Most of the activities use simple, inexpensive techniques that help students understand the how and why of what scientists are learning about comets, asteroids, meteorites, moons and planets. With these NASA developed activities students experience recent mission information about our solar system such as Mars geology and the search for life using Mars meteorites and robotic data. The Johnson Space Center ARES Education team has compiled a variety of NASA solar system activities to produce an annotated thematic outline useful to classroom educators and informal educators as they teach space science. An important aspect of the outline annotation is that it highlights appropriate science content information and key science and math concepts so educators can easily identify activities that will enhance curriculum development. The outline contains URLs for the activities and NASA educator guides as well as links to NASA mission science and technology. In the informal setting educators can use solar system exploration activities to reinforce learning in association with thematic displays, planetarium programs, youth group gatherings, or community events. Within formal education at the primary level some of the activities are appropriately designed to excite interest and arouse curiosity. Middle school educators will find activities that enhance thematic science and encourage students to think about the scientific process of investigation. Some of the activities offered are appropriate for the upper levels of high school and early college in that they require students to use and analyze data.

  14. Development of Multifunctional Radiation Shielding Materials for Long Duration Human Exploration Beyond the Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Bhattacharya, M.; Schofield, E.; Carranza, S.; O'Dell, S.

    2007-01-01

    One of the major challenges for long duration human exploration beyond the low Earth orbit and sustained human presence on planetary surfaces would be development of materials that would help minimize the radiation exposure to crew and equipment from the interplanetary radiation environment, This radiation environment consists primarily of a continuous flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and transient but intense fluxes of solar energetic particles (SEP). The potential for biological damage by the relatively low percentage of high-energy heavy-ions in the GCR spectrum far outweigh that due to lighter particles because of their ionizing-power and the quality of the resulting biological damage. Although the SEP spectrum does not contain heavy ions and their energy range is much lower than that for GCRs, they however pose serious risks to astronaut health particularly in the event of a bad solar storm The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss our recent efforts in development and evaluation of materials for minimizing the hazards from the interplanetary radiation environment. Traditionally, addition of shielding materials to spacecrafts has invariably resulted in paying a penalty in terms of additional weight. It would therefore be of great benefit if materials could be developed not only with superior shielding effectiveness but also sufficient structural integrity. Such a multifunctional material could then be considered as an integral part of spacecraft structures. Any proposed radiation shielding material for use in outer space should be composed of nuclei that maximize the likelihood of projectile fragmentation while producing the minimum number of target fragments. A modeling based approach will be presented to show that composite materials using hydrogen-rich epoxy matrices reinforced with polyethylene fibers and/or fabrics could effectively meet this requirement. This paper will discuss the fabrication of such a material for a crewed vehicle. Ln addition

  15. Exploration of the brown dwarf regime around solar-like stars by CoRoT

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Szilárd

    2016-01-01

    Aims. A summary of the CoRoT brown dwarf investigations are presented. Methods. Transiting brown dwarfs around solar like stars were studied by using the photometric time-series of CoRoT, and ground based radial velocity measurements. Results. CoRoT detected three transiting brown dwarfs around F and G dwarf stars. The occurence rate of brown dwarfs was found to be 0.20 +/- 0.15% around solar-like stars which is compatible with the value obtained by Kepler-data.

  16. Teachers' Pedagogical Perspectives and Teaching Practices on Human Rights in Cyprus: An Empirical Exploration and Implications for Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Constadina; Charalambous, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study that explored the understandings of human rights, pedagogical perspectives and practices in human rights teaching of three Greek-Cypriot elementary teachers. The study revealed some significant challenges in human rights teaching that seemed to be common for all three participating teachers. First, all of…

  17. Exploring the Cytoskeleton During Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawe, Vanesa Y.; Chemes, Héctor

    Understanding the cellular events during fertilization in mammals is a major challenge that can contribute to the improvement of future infertility treatments in humans and reproductive performance in farm animals. Of special interest is the role of the oocyte and sperm cytoskeleton during the initial interaction between gametes. The aim of this chapter is to describe methods for studying cytoskeletal features during in vitro fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in humans. The following protocols will provide a detailed description of how to perform immunodetection and imaging of human eggs, zygotes, and sperm by fluorescence (confocal and epifluorescence) and electron microscopy.

  18. Human-Robot Site Survey and Sampling for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Edwards, Laurence; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Kunz, Clayton; Lee, Susan Y.; Park, Eric; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Ackner, Nir

    2006-01-01

    NASA is planning to send humans and robots back to the Moon before 2020. In order for extended missions to be productive, high quality maps of lunar terrain and resources are required. Although orbital images can provide much information, many features (local topography, resources, etc) will have to be characterized directly on the surface. To address this need, we are developing a system to perform site survey and sampling. The system includes multiple robots and humans operating in a variety of team configurations, coordinated via peer-to-peer human-robot interaction. In this paper, we present our system design and describe planned field tests.

  19. Probing the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  20. Probing the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  1. Exploring Coronal Dynamics: A Next Generation Solar Physics Mission white paper

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, R J; Bloomfield, D S; McLaughlin, J A; Regnier, S; McIntosh, S W; Tomczyk, S; Young, P

    2016-01-01

    Determining the mechanisms responsible for the heating of the coronal plasma and maintaining and accelerating the solar wind are long standing goals in solar physics. There is a clear need to constrain the energy, mass and momentum flux through the solar corona and advance our knowledge of the physical process contributing to these fluxes. Furthermore, the accurate forecasting of Space Weather conditions at the near-Earth environment and, more generally, the plasma conditions of the solar wind throughout the heliosphere, require detailed knowledge of these fluxes in the near-Sun corona. Here we present a short case for a space-based imaging-spectrometer coronagraph, which will have the ability to provide synoptic information on the coronal environment and provide strict constraints on the mass, energy, and momentum flux through the corona. The instrument would ideally achieve cadences of $\\sim10$~s, spatial resolution of 1" and observe the corona out to 2~$R_{\\sun}$. Such an instrument will enable significant...

  2. Taking a "Giant Tour" to Explore the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Helping children to visualise what is inside them and how their bodies work can be a challenge, since teachers are often reliant on secondary sources or investigations that can only measure outward signs (such as pulse rate). Another way is to involve the children in an imaginative role-play exercise where they explore the insides of a…

  3. Organizational Effectiveness: Exploring What It Means in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abston, Kristie A.; Stout, Vickie J.

    2006-01-01

    The literature on organizational effectiveness was reviewed to explore the various definitions and terminology used as well as to identify the criteria, correlates, theories and/or models, and measurement/assessment methods. AHRD Conference Proceedings for 2004 and 2005 were analyzed for usage of the phrase. Results indicated that researchers and…

  4. Solar Water disinfection for human consumption; Desinfeccao Solar de Agua para consumo humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, A.; Vilar, V.; Boaventura, R.

    2008-07-01

    In this work a pilot plant with 0.59 m{sup 2} of solar collectors has been used for studying the disinfection by solar photo catalysis of waters contaminated with Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecal or humic acids. the results obtained showed a higher resistance of Enterococcus to the photo catalytic treatment ([TiO{sub 2}] =50 mg/L) compared with E. coli, being necessary a higher amount of UV energy for killing them, using an initial bacteria concentration of 1x10{sup 5} CFU/mL. For the treatment of water contaminated with humic acids was applied 20 kJ UV/L to reduce the TOC concentration from 6.9 mg/L to 1 mg/L. (Author)

  5. Safety Characteristics in System Application Software for Human Rated Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA and its industry and international partners are embarking on a bold and inspiring development effort to design and build an exploration class space system. The space system is made up of the Orion system, the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) system. All are highly coupled together and dependent on each other for the combined safety of the space system. A key area of system safety focus needs to be in the ground and flight application software system (GFAS). In the development, certification and operations of GFAS, there are a series of safety characteristics that define the approach to ensure mission success. This paper will explore and examine the safety characteristics of the GFAS development.

  6. Destination Deimos: A Design Reference Architecture for Initial Human Exploration of the Mars System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, James S.; Adamo, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    The two biggest challenges to successful human operations in interplanetary space are flight dynamics, constrained by the cold hard physics of the rocket equation, and bioastronautics, the psychophysiological realities of human adaptation, or lack thereof, to the deep space environment. Without substantial innovation in project/mission architecture and vehicle design, human exploration of the Mars system could be problematic for decades. Although a human landing on Mars is inevitable, humans-in-the-loop telerobotic exploration from the outer Martian moon Deimos is the best way to begin. Precursor robotic missions for reconnaissance and local site preparation will be required.

  7. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  8. Supporting Human Activities - Exploring Activity-Centered Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bardram, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore an activity-centered computing paradigm that is aimed at supporting work processes that are radically different from the ones known from office work. Our main inspiration is healthcare work that is characterized by an extreme degree of mobility, many interruptions, ad...... objects. We also present an exploratory prototype design and first implementation and present some initial results from evaluations in a healthcare environment....

  9. [Affective computing--a mysterious tool to explore human emotions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Honghong; Dou, Yi; Hou, Yongjie; Li, Changwu

    2013-12-01

    Perception, affection and consciousness are basic psychological functions of human being. Affection is the subjective reflection of different kinds of objects. The foundation of human being's thinking is constituted by the three basic functions. Affective computing is an effective tool of revealing the affectiveness of human being in order to understand the world. Our research of affective computing focused on the relation, the generation and the influent factors among different affections. In this paper, the affective mechanism, the basic theory of affective computing, is studied, the method of acquiring and recognition of affective information is discussed, and the application of affective computing is summarized as well, in order to attract more researchers into this working area.

  10. Coordination of International Risk-Reduction Investigations by the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Bogomolov, Valery V.

    2015-01-01

    Effective use of the unique capabilities of the International Space Station (ISS) for risk reduction on future deep space missions involves preliminary work in analog environments to identify and evaluate the most promising techniques, interventions and treatments. This entails a consolidated multinational approach to biomedical research both on ISS and in ground analogs. The Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) was chartered by the five ISS partners to recommend the best combination of partner investigations on ISS for risk reduction in the relatively short time available for ISS utilization. MHRPE will also make recommendations to funding agencies for appropriate preparatory analog work. In 2011, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Science, acting for MHRPE, developed a joint US-Russian biomedical program for the 2015 one-year ISS mission (1YM) of American and Russian crewmembers. This was to evaluate the possibilities for multilateral research on ISS. An overlapping list of 16 HRP, 9 IBMP, 3 Japanese, 3 European and 1 Canadian investigations were selected to address risk-reduction goals in 7 categories: Functional Performance, Behavioral Health, Visual Impairment, Metabolism, Physical Capacity, Microbial and Human Factors. MHRPE intends to build on this bilateral foundation to recommend more fully-integrated multilateral investigations on future ISS missions commencing after the 1YM. MHRPE has also endorsed an on-going program of coordinated research on 6-month, one-year and 6-week missions ISS expeditions that is now under consideration by ISS managers. Preparatory work for these missions will require coordinated and collaborative campaigns especially in the psychological and psychosocial areas using analog isolation facilities in Houston, Köln and Moscow, and possibly elsewhere. The multilateral Human Analogs research working group (HANA) is the focal point of those

  11. Exploring human breast milk composition by NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praticò, Giulia; Capuani, Giorgio; Tomassini, Alberta; Baldassarre, Maria Elisabetta; Delfini, Maurizio; Miccheli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Breast milk is a complex fluid evolutionarily adapted to satisfy the nutritional requirements of growing infants. In addition, milk biochemical and immunological components protect newborns against infective agents in the new environment. Human milk oligosaccharides, the third most abundant component of breast milk, are believed to modulate the microbiota composition, thus influencing a wide range of physiological processes of the infant. Human milk also contains a number of other bioactive compounds, the functional role of which has not yet been clearly elucidated. In this scenario, NMR-based metabolic profiling can provide a rapid characterisation of breast milk composition, thus allowing a better understanding of its nutritional properties.

  12. Design and Development of a Methane Cryogenic Propulsion Stage for Human Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Thomas K.; Polsgrove, Tara; Turpin, Jason; Alexander, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    NASA is currently working on the Evolvabe Mars Campaign (EMC) study to outline transportation and mission options for human exploration of Mars. One of the key aspects of the EMC is leveraging current and planned near-term technology investments to build an affordable and evolvable approach to Mars exploration. This leveraging of investments includes the use of high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) systems evolved from those currently under development in support of the Asteroid Redirect Mission to deliver payloads to Mars. The EMC is considering several transportation options that combine solar electric and chemical propulsion technologies to deliver crew and cargo to Mars. In one primary architecture option, the SEP propulsion system is used to pre-deploy mission elements to Mars while a high-thrust chemical propulsion system is used to send crew on faster ballistic transfers between Earth and Mars. This high-thrust chemical system uses liquid oxygen - liquid methane main propulsion and reaction control systems integrated into the Methane Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (MCPS). Over the past year, there have been several studies completed to provide critical design and development information related to the MCPS. This paper is intended to provide a summary of these efforts. A summary of the current point of departure design for the MCPS is provided as well as an overview of the mission architecture and concept of operations that the MCPS is intended to support. To leverage the capabilities of solar electric propulsion to the greatest extent possible, the EMC architecture pre-deploys the required stages for returning crew from Mars. While this changes the risk posture of the architecture, it provides mass savings by using higher-efficiency systems for interplanetary transfer. However, this does introduce significantly longer flight times to Mars which, in turn, increases the overall lifetime of the stages to as long as 3000 days. This unique aspect to the concept

  13. Design and Development of a Methane Cryogenic Propulsion Stage for Human Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Thomas K.; Polsgrove, Tara; Turpin, Jason; Alexander, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    NASA is currently working on the Evolvabe Mars Campaign (EMC) study to outline transportation and mission options for human exploration of Mars. One of the key aspects of the EMC is leveraging current and planned near-term technology investments to build an affordable and evolvable approach to Mars exploration. This leveraging of investments includes the use of high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) systems, evolved from those currently under development in support of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), to deliver payloads to Mars. The EMC is considering several transportation options that combine solar electric and chemical propulsion technologies to deliver crew and cargo to Mars. In one primary architecture option, the SEP propulsion system is used to pre-deploy mission elements to Mars while a high-thrust chemical propulsion system is used to send crew on faster ballistic transfers between Earth and Mars. This high-thrust chemical system uses liquid oxygen - liquid methane main propulsion and reaction control systems integrated into the Methane Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (MCPS). Over the past year, there have been several studies completed to provide critical design and development information related to the MCPS. This paper is intended to provide a summary of these efforts. A summary of the current point of departure design for the MCPS is provided as well as an overview of the mission architecture and concept of operations that the MCPS is intended to support. To leverage the capabilities of solar electric propulsion to the greatest extent possible, the EMC architecture pre-deploys to Mars orbit the stages required for returning crew from Mars. While this changes the risk posture of the architecture, it can provide some mass savings by using higher-efficiency systems for interplanetary transfer. However, this does introduce significantly longer flight times to Mars which, in turn, increases the overall lifetime of the stages to as long as 2500 days. This

  14. Preliminary Results from NEOWISE: An Enhancement to the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer for Solar System Science

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A; Grav, T; Masiero, J; Cutri, R M; Dailey, J; Eisenhardt, P; McMillan, R S; Wright, E; Walker, R; Jedicke, R; Spahr, T; Tholen, D; Alles, R; Beck, R; Brandenburg, H; Conrow, T; Evans, T; Fowler, J; Jarrett, T; Marsh, K; Masci, F; McCallon, H; Wheelock, S; Wittman, M; Wyatt, P; DeBaun, E; Elliott, G; Elsbury, D; Gautier, T; Gomillion, S; Leisawitz, D; Maleszewski, C; Micheli, M; Wilkins, A

    2011-01-01

    The \\emph{Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer} has surveyed the entire sky at four infrared wavelengths with greatly improved sensitivity and spatial resolution compared to its predecessors, the \\emph{Infrared Astronomical Satellite} and the \\emph{Cosmic Background Explorer}. NASA's Planetary Science Division has funded an enhancement to the \\WISE\\ data processing system called "NEOWISE" that allows detection and archiving of moving objects found in the \\WISE\\ data. NEOWISE has mined the \\WISE\\ images for a wide array of small bodies in our Solar System, including Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), Main Belt asteroids, comets, Trojans, and Centaurs. By the end of survey operations in February 2011, NEOWISE identified over 157,000 asteroids, including more than 500 NEOs and $\\sim$120 comets. The NEOWISE dataset will enable a panoply of new scientific investigations.

  15. Illuminating Solar Decathlon Homes: Exploring Next Generation Lighting Technology - Light Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-05-22

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the US Department of Energy Building Technologies Program, Solid-State Lighting Program. The report will be provided to teams of university students who are building houses for the 2009 Solar Decathlon, a home design competition sponsored in part by DOE, to encourage teams to build totally solar powered homes. One aspect of the competition is lighting. This report provides the teams with information about LED lighting that can help them determine how they incorporate LED lighting into their homes. The report provides an overview of LED technology, a status of where LED technology is today, questions and answers about lighting quality, efficiency, lifetime etc.; numerous examples of LED products; and several weblinks for further research.

  16. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster: The NEXT Ion Propulsion System for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion system. The NEXT project is developing a solar electric ion propulsion system. The NEXT project is advancing the capability of ion propulsion to meet NASA robotic science mission needs. The NEXT system is planned to significantly improve performance over the state of the art electric propulsion systems, such as NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR). The status of NEXT development is reviewed, including information on the NEXT Thruster, the power processing unit, the propellant management system (PMS), the digital control interface unit, and the gimbal. Block diagrams NEXT system are presented. Also a review of the lessons learned from the Dawn and NSTAR systems is provided. In summary the NEXT project activities through 2007 have brought next-generation ion propulsion technology to a sufficient maturity level.

  17. The Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE) Solar Array Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Edward M.; Kichak, Robert; Niemeyer, Lee; Stegeman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The XTE was launched December 30, 1995. Shortly after launch, it become apparent that the solar array was not performing as expected. On leaving shadow, the array exhibited many discontinuous drops in current output. The size of each of these drops was consistent with the loss of a part of a sell. The current decreases could not be caused by the loss of an entire circuit. This meant that the array may have had numerous cracked solar cells that opened as array got warmer. Studies performed on the array's qualification panel suggest that the cell cracks may have been cased by extensive tap testing performed on the array and that these cracks were undetectable at room temperature using usual inspection method.

  18. Exploring human brain lateralization with molecular genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francks, Clyde

    2015-11-01

    Lateralizations of brain structure and motor behavior have been observed in humans as early as the first trimester of gestation, and are likely to arise from asymmetrical genetic-developmental programs, as in other animals. Studies of gene expression levels in postmortem tissue samples, comparing the left and right sides of the human cerebral cortex, have generally not revealed striking transcriptional differences between the hemispheres. This is likely due to lateralization of gene expression being subtle and quantitative. However, a recent re-analysis and meta-analysis of gene expression data from the adult superior temporal and auditory cortex found lateralization of transcription of genes involved in synaptic transmission and neuronal electrophysiology. Meanwhile, human subcortical mid- and hindbrain structures have not been well studied in relation to lateralization of gene activity, despite being potentially important developmental origins of asymmetry. Genetic polymorphisms with small effects on adult brain and behavioral asymmetries are beginning to be identified through studies of large datasets, but the core genetic mechanisms of lateralized human brain development remain unknown. Identifying subtly lateralized genetic networks in the brain will lead to a new understanding of how neuronal circuits on the left and right are differently fine-tuned to preferentially support particular cognitive and behavioral functions. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Exploring the Relevance of Holocaust Education for Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Can Holocaust education be considered a tool for human rights education? If so, to what extent? These questions elicit discussions among a wide range of educators, and interest among politicians, educational planners, and ministries in charge of memorials. At first glance the obvious answer seems to be yes; both educators and students have strong…

  20. PyramidalExplorer: A New Interactive Tool to Explore Morpho-Functional Relations of Human Pyramidal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toharia, Pablo; Robles, Oscar D; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; Makarova, Julia; Galindo, Sergio E; Rodriguez, Angel; Pastor, Luis; Herreras, Oscar; DeFelipe, Javier; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This work presents PyramidalExplorer, a new tool to interactively explore and reveal the detailed organization of the microanatomy of pyramidal neurons with functionally related models. It consists of a set of functionalities that allow possible regional differences in the pyramidal cell architecture to be interactively discovered by combining quantitative morphological information about the structure of the cell with implemented functional models. The key contribution of this tool is the morpho-functional oriented design that allows the user to navigate within the 3D dataset, filter and perform Content-Based Retrieval operations. As a case study, we present a human pyramidal neuron with over 9000 dendritic spines in its apical and basal dendritic trees. Using PyramidalExplorer, we were able to find unexpected differential morphological attributes of dendritic spines in particular compartments of the neuron, revealing new aspects of the morpho-functional organization of the pyramidal neuron.

  1. Metrological analysis of the human foot: 3D multisensor exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Potosi, A.; Meneses Fonseca, J.; León Téllez, J.

    2011-08-01

    In the podiatry field, many of the foot dysfunctions are mainly generated due to: Congenital malformations, accidents or misuse of footwear. For the treatment or prevention of foot disorders, the podiatrist diagnoses prosthesis or specific adapted footwear, according to the real dimension of foot. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire 3D information of foot with 360 degrees of observation. As alternative solution, it was developed and implemented an optical system of threedimensional reconstruction based in the principle of laser triangulation. The system is constituted by an illumination unit that project a laser plane into the foot surface, an acquisition unit with 4 CCD cameras placed around of axial foot axis, an axial moving unit that displaces the illumination and acquisition units in the axial axis direction and a processing and exploration unit. The exploration software allows the extraction of distances on three-dimensional image, taking into account the topography of foot. The optical system was tested and their metrological performances were evaluated in experimental conditions. The optical system was developed to acquire 3D information in order to design and make more appropriate footwear.

  2. Belonging, occupation, and human well-being: an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2014-02-01

    Researchers identify the importance of belonging to human well-being and provide evidence-based support for occupation as a medium for expressing and achieving a sense of belonging and connectedness. The purpose of this article is to highlight the imperative for occupational therapy theory and practice to address occupations concerned with belonging needs. Dominant occupational therapy models emphasise doing self-care, productive, and leisure occupations, thereby ignoring occupations undertaken to contribute to the well-being of others, occupations that foster connections to nature and ancestors, collaborative occupations, and those valued for their social context and potential to strengthen social roles. Belonging, connectedness, and interdependence are positively correlated with human well-being, are prioritized by the majority of the world's people, and inform the meanings attributed to and derived from the occupations of culturally diverse people. If occupational therapy is to address meaningful occupations, attention should be paid to occupations concerned with belonging, connecting, and contributing to others.

  3. Boots on Mars: Earth Independent Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Josephine; Gill, Tracy R.; Ellis, Kim Gina

    2017-01-01

    This package is for the conduct of a workshop during the International Space University Space Studies Program in the summer of 2017 being held in Cork, Ireland. It gives publicly available information on NASA and international plans to move beyond low Earth orbit to Mars and discusses challenges and capabilities. This information will provide the participants a basic level of insight to develop a response on their perceived obstacles to a future vision of humans on Mars.

  4. Exploring possible human influences on the evolution of Darwin's finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León, Luis Fernando; Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Bermingham, Eldredge; Podos, Jeffrey; Herrel, Anthony; Hendry, Andrew P

    2011-08-01

    Humans are an increasingly common influence on the evolution of natural populations. Potential arenas of influence include altered evolutionary trajectories within populations and modifications of the process of divergence among populations. We consider this second arena in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos, Ecuador. Our study compared the G. fortis population at a relatively undisturbed site, El Garrapatero, to the population at a severely disturbed site, Academy Bay, which is immediately adjacent to the town of Puerto Ayora. The El Garrapatero population currently shows beak size bimodality that is tied to assortative mating and disruptive selection, whereas the Academy Bay population was historically bimodal but has lost this property in conjunction with a dramatic increase in local human population density. We here evaluate potential ecological-adaptive drivers of the differences in modality by quantifying relationships between morphology (beak and head dimensions), functional performance (bite force), and environmental characteristics (diet). Our main finding is that associations among these variables are generally weaker at Academy Bay than at El Garrapatero, possibly because novel foods are used at the former site irrespective of individual morphology and performance. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the rugged adaptive landscapes promoting and maintaining diversification in nature can be smoothed by human activities, thus hindering ongoing adaptive radiation.

  5. Exploring the Largest Mass Fraction of the Solar System: the Case for Planetary Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Draper, D.; Righter, K.; McCubbin, F.; Boyce, J.

    2017-01-01

    Why explore planetary interiors: The typical image that comes to mind for planetary science is that of a planet surface. And while surface data drive our exploration of evolved geologic processes, it is the interiors of planets that hold the key to planetary origins via accretionary and early differentiation processes. It is that initial setting of the bulk planet composition that sets the stage for all geologic processes that follow. But nearly all of the mass of planets is inaccessible to direct examination, making experimentation an absolute necessity for full planetary exploration.

  6. Exoplanets, Exo-Solar Life, and Human Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    With the recent detection of over 500 extrasolar planets, the existence of "other worlds", perhaps even other Earths, is no longer in the realm of science fiction. The study of exoplanets rapidly moved from an activity on the fringe of astronomy to one of the highest priorities of the world's astronomical programs. Actual images of extrasolar planets were revealed over the past two years for the first time. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is already characterizing the atmospheres of Jupiter-like planets, in other systems. And the recent launch of the NASA Kepler space telescope is enabling the first statistical assessment of how common solar systems like our own really are. As we begin to characterize these "other worlds" and assess their habitability, the question of the significance and uniqueness of life on Earth will impact our society as never before. I will provide a comprehensive overview of the techniques and status of exoplanet detection, followed by reflections as to the societal impact of finding out that Earths are common, or rare. Will finding other potentially habitable planets create another "Copernican Revolution"? Will perceptions of the significance of life on Earth change when we find other Earth-like planets? I will discuss the plans of the scientific community for future telescopes that will be abe to survey our solar neighborhood for Earth-like planets, study their atmospheres, and search for biological signs of life.

  7. Human Exploration on the Moon, Mars and NEOs: PEX.2/ICEUM12B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    The session COSPAR-16-PEX.2: "Human Exploration on the Moon, Mars and NEOs", co-sponsored by Commissions B, F will include solicited and contributed talks and poster/interactive presentations. It will also be part of the 12th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon ICEUM12B from the ILEWG ICEUM series started in 1994. It will address various themes and COSPAR communities: - Sciences (of, on, from) the Moon enabled by humans - Research from cislunar and libration points - From robotic villages to international lunar bases - Research from Mars & NEOs outposts - Humans to Phobos/Deimos, Mars and NEOS - Challenges and preparatory technologies, field research operations - Human and robotic partnerships and precursor missions - Resource utilisation, life support and sustainable exploration - Stakeholders for human exploration One half-day session will be dedicated to a workshop format and meetings/reports of task groups: Science, Technology, Agencies, Robotic village, Human bases, Society & Commerce, Outreach, Young Explorers. COSPAR has provided through Commissions, Panels and Working Groups (such as ILEWG, IMEWG) an international forum for supporting and promoting the robotic and human exploration of the Moon, Mars and NEOS. Proposed sponsors : ILEWG, ISECG, IKI, ESA, NASA, DLR, CNES, ASI, UKSA, JAXA, ISRO, SRON, CNSA, SSERVI, IAF, IAA, Lockheed Martin, Google Lunar X prize, UNOOSA

  8. Human relationships: an exploration of loneliness and touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playfair, Catherine

    The aim of this article is to provide a cursory review of some of the literature relating to loneliness, existentialism and touch. With reference to the critical incident analysis (see Box 1), a reflection on the learning that has been achieved both intrapersonally and interpersonally will also be provided. A consideration of how exactly this experience of structured reflection may be used to enhance and develop practice will also be explored. The review will analyze the key concepts of loneliness, existentialism, the therapeutic relationship and touch within the realms of nursing practice, specifically in relation to death and dying. This article seeks to highlight the importance of having an understanding of loneliness in nursing, particularly when caring for patients who are dying.

  9. Exploration of solar photospheric magnetic field data sets using the UCSD tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H.-S.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P.; Nishimura, N.; Nozaki, N.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.; Hayashi, K.

    2016-12-01

    This article investigates the use of two different types of National Solar Observatory magnetograms and two different coronal field modeling techniques over 10 years. Both the "open-field" Current Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) and a "closed-field" technique using CSSS modeling are compared. The University of California, San Diego, tomographic modeling, using interplanetary scintillation data from Japan, provides the global velocities to extrapolate these fields outward, which are then compared with fields measured in situ near Earth. Although the open-field technique generally gives a better result for radial and tangential fields, we find that a portion of the closed extrapolated fields measured in situ near Earth comes from the direct outward mapping of these fields in the low solar corona. All three closed-field components are nonzero at 1 AU and are compared with the appropriate magnetometer values. A significant positive correlation exists between these closed-field components and the in situ measurements over the last 10 years. We determine that a small fraction of the static low-coronal component flux, which includes the Bn (north-south) component, regularly escapes from closed-field regions. The closed-field flux fraction varies by about a factor of 3 from a mean value during this period, relative to the magnitude of the field components measured in situ near Earth, and maximizes in 2014. This implies that a relatively more efficient process for closed-flux escape occurs near solar maximum. We also compare and find that the popular Potential Field Source Surface and CSSS model closed fields are nearly identical in sign and strength.

  10. Non-Radioisotope Power Systems For Sunless Solar System Exploration Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Description: explore mission architectures to the Moon's southern Aitken Basin, the surface of Saturn’s moon, Titan, and the surface of Venus that do not...

  11. Dual-mode Propulsion System Enabling CubeSat Exploration of the Solar System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the cost of planetary exploration rising and budgets for such missions declining newer, cheaper, i.e. low mass, systems must be developed to perform...

  12. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Rockström

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic pressures on the Earth System have reached a scale where abrupt global environmental change can no longer be excluded. We propose a new approach to global sustainability in which we define planetary boundaries within which we expect that humanity can operate safely. Transgressing one or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or even catastrophic due to the risk of crossing thresholds that will trigger non-linear, abrupt environmental change within continental- to planetary-scale systems. We have identified nine planetary boundaries and, drawing upon current scientific understanding, we propose quantifications for seven of them. These seven are climate change (CO2 concentration in the atmosphere

  13. Revolutionary Concepts of Radiation Shielding for Human Exploration of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Hathaway, D. H.; Grugel, R. N.; Watts, J. W.; Parnell, T. A.; Gregory, J. C.; Winglee, R. M.

    2005-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum covers revolutionary ideas for space radiation shielding that would mitigate mission costs while limiting human exposure, as studied in a workshop held at Marshall Space Flight Center at the request of NASA Headquarters. None of the revolutionary new ideas examined for the .rst time in this workshop showed clear promise. The workshop attendees felt that some previously examined concepts were de.nitely useful and should be pursued. The workshop attendees also concluded that several of the new concepts warranted further investigation to clarify their value.

  14. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Rockström, Johan; Steffen, Will

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic pressures on the Earth System have reached a scale where abrupt global environmental change can no longer be excluded. We propose a new approach to global sustainability in which we define planetary boundaries within which we expect that humanity can operate safely. Transgressing one...... or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or even catastrophic due to the risk of crossing thresholds that will trigger non-linear, abrupt environmental change within continental- to planetary-scale systems. We have identified nine planetary boundaries and, drawing upon current scientific...... background weathering of P); global freshwater use (system change (

  15. Exploring the solar system with Mega-Precovery data mining server: strengthening our database and functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, F.; Vaduvescu, O.; Popescu, M.

    Mega-Precovery is an online service focused on data mining few collections of instruments archives; with the aim to improve the orbital and physical knowledge of known asteroids and other Solar System objects. Mega-Precovery comprises a collection of millions of images which can be searched for serendipitous recoveries and precoveries (apparitions before discoveries). In this work we present a data mining of ESO WFI and INT WFC archives and some precoveries using this tool; developed within the European Near Earth Asteroid Research project (EURONEAR); in collaboration with the IMCCE Observatoire de Paris.

  16. A Human Exploration Zone on the East Rim of Hellas Basin, Mars: Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Z. E.; Newsom, H. E.

    2015-10-01

    This abstract highlights a previously unexplored area in the Hellas Planitia region of Mars. The exploration zone proposed offers scientifically compelling regions of interest, as well as abundant resources for reoccurring human missions.

  17. Exploration of Multifocal Rod Electroretinograms Recording in Human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changzheng Chen; Lezheng Wu; De-Zheng Wu; Shixian Long; Jiongji Liang; Futian Jiang; Libing Jiang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To test the feasibility of recording rod multifocal electroretinograms (ERG) in humans and observe appropriate recording conditions.Methods: Multifocal rod ERG were recorded using a stimulus array of 61 equalsized hexagons in two normal subjects after the dark adaptation. Flashes were blue (W47B). Blank frames between two successive flashes of hexagons varied from 0 to 14. Length of the m-sequence, bandwidth, flash frequency, flash intensities and background intensities were changed to obtain appropriate recording conditions for the clinical use.Results:Multifocal rod ERG were clearly recordable and well formed. They had an early implicit time, very small negative wave and a late implicit time, large positive wave. The positive wave was bimodal, whose timing and waveform were similar to the full-field rod ERG. The local response amplitudes can be suppressed with increase in flash frequency or background intensity, decrease in flash intensity or the size of stimulus elements.Conclusions: Multifocal rod ERG can be recorded in human and can provide topographical maps of retinal function that have clinical usage. 212-1 m-sequence length, 3F blank frames and 3~ 300 Hz bandwidth were suggested to appropriate recording conditions.

  18. Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Saike; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel; Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace.

  19. Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saike He

    Full Text Available Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace.

  20. Exploring the world of human development and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red-Horse, Kristy; Drake, Penelope M; Fisher, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Susan Fisher has spent her career studying human development, proteomics, and the intersection between the two. When she began studying human placentation, there had been extensive descriptive studies of this fascinating organ that intertwines with the mother's vasculature during pregnancy. Susan can be credited with numerous major findings on the mechanisms that regulate placental cytotrophoblast invasion. These include the discovery that cytotrophoblasts undergo vascular mimicry to insert themselves into uterine arteries, the finding that oxygen tension greatly effects placentation, and identifying how these responses go awry in pregnancy complications such as preeclamsia. Other important work has focused on the effect of post-translational modifications such as glycosylation on bacterial adhesion and reproduction. Susan has also forayed into the world of proteomics to identify cancer biomarkers. Because her work is truly groundbreaking, many of these findings inspire research in other laboratories around the world resulting in numerous follow up papers. Likewise, her mentoring and support inspires young scientists to go on and make their own important discoveries. In this interview, Susan shares what drove her science, how she continued to do important research while balancing other aspects of life, and provides insights for the next generation.

  1. Towards human exploration of space: the THESEUS review series on cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal research priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, André E.; André E. Larina, Irina; Momken, Iman; Blanc, Stéphane; White, Olivier; Prisk, Kim; Linnarsson, Dag

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The THESEUS project (Towards Human Exploration of Space: aEUropean Strategy) was initiated within the seventh FrameworkProgramme by the European Commission. This project aimed toprovide a cross-cutting, life science-based roadmap for Europe’sstrategy towards human exploration of space, especially for deepspace missions and its relevance to applications on Earth. Toaddress these challenges, relevance of space research on thecardiovascular system, the lungs and kidneys, ...

  2. Becoming Earth Independent: Human-Automation-Robotics Integration Challenges for Future Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.

    2016-01-01

    Future exploration missions will require NASA to integrate more automation and robotics in order to accomplish mission objectives. This presentation will describe on the future challenges facing the human operator (astronaut, ground controllers) as we increase the amount of automation and robotics in spaceflight operations. It will describe how future exploration missions will have to adapt and evolve in order to deal with more complex missions and communication latencies. This presentation will outline future human-automation-robotic integration challenges.

  3. Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Ongoing Efforts in Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Hames, Kevin L.; Vitalpur, Sharada V.; Woodman, Keith L.

    2014-01-01

    The field of Avionics is advancing far more rapidly in terrestrial applications than in spaceflight applications. Spaceflight Avionics are not keeping pace with expectations set by terrestrial experience, nor are they keeping pace with the need for increasingly complex automation and crew interfaces as we move beyond Low Earth Orbit. NASA must take advantage of the strides being made by both space-related and terrestrial industries to drive our development and sustaining costs down. This paper describes ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionic architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. The AAE project team includes members from most NASA centers, and from industry. It is our intent to develop a common core avionic system that has standard capabilities and interfaces, and contains the basic elements and functionality needed for any spacecraft. This common core will be scalable and tailored to specific missions. It will incorporate hardware and software from multiple vendors, and be upgradeable in order to infuse incremental capabilities and new technologies. It will maximize the use of reconfigurable open source software (e.g., Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Core Flight Software (CFS)). Our long-term focus is on improving functionality, reliability, and autonomy, while reducing size, weight, and power. Where possible, we will leverage terrestrial commercial capabilities to drive down development and sustaining costs. We will select promising technologies for evaluation, compare them in an objective manner, and mature them to be available for future programs. The remainder of this paper describes our approach, technical areas of emphasis, integrated test experience and results as of mid-2014, and future plans. As a part of the AES

  4. A New Presentation and Exploration of Human Cerebral Vasculature Correlated with Surface and Sectional Neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Thirunavuukarasuu, Arumugam; Volkau, Ihar; Marchenko, Yevgen; Aminah, Bivi; Gelas, Arnaud; Huang, Su; Lee, Looi Chow; Liu, Jimin; Ng, Ting Ting; Nowinska, Natalia G.; Qian, Guoyu Yu; Puspitasari, Fiftarina; Runge, Val M.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing complexity of human body models enabled by advances in diagnostic imaging, computing, and growing knowledge calls for the development of a new generation of systems for intelligent exploration of these models. Here, we introduce a novel paradigm for the exploration of digital body models illustrating cerebral vasculature. It enables…

  5. Pesticides and human diabetes: a link worth exploring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, K

    2013-11-01

    It is no exaggeration to claim that the 'diabetes epidemic' has become a 'runaway train' causing huge health and economic consequences, especially in the developing nations. Traditionally, the risk factors for diabetes have largely focused on genetics and lifestyle. Great emphasis is placed on lifestyle measures and finding novel pharmacological treatment options to combat diabetes, but there is increasing evidence linking environmental pollutants, especially pesticides, to the development of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Pesticide use has increased dramatically worldwide and the effects of pesticides on glucose metabolism are too significant for a possible diabetogenic link to be dismissed. The aim of this review article was to assess the links between pesticides and human diabetes with the goal of stimulating further research in this area. © 2013 The Author. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  6. Molecular effects of 1-naphthyl-methylcarbamate and solar radiation exposures on human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucio, Bianca; Tiago, Manoela; Fannin, Richard D; Liu, Liwen; Gerrish, Kevin; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Paules, Richard S; Barros, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes

    2017-02-01

    Carbaryl (1-naphthyl-methylcarbamate), a broad-spectrum insecticide, has recently been associated with the development of cutaneous melanoma in an epidemiological cohort study with U.S. farm workers also exposed to ultraviolet radiation, the main etiologic factor for skin carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that carbaryl exposure may increase deleterious effects of UV solar radiation on skin melanocytes. This study aimed to characterize human melanocytes after individual or combined exposure to carbaryl (100μM) and solar radiation (375mJ/cm(2)). In a microarray analysis, carbaryl, but not solar radiation, induced an oxidative stress response, evidenced by the upregulation of antioxidant genes, such as Hemeoxygenase-1 (HMOX1), and downregulation of Microphtalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF), the main regulator of melanocytic activity; results were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Carbaryl and solar radiation induced a gene response suggestive of DNA damage and cell cycle alteration. The expression of CDKN1A, BRCA1/2 and MDM2 genes was notably more intense in the combined treatment group, in a synergistic manner. Flow cytometry assays demonstrated S-phase cell cycle arrest, reduced apoptosis levels and faster induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) lesions in carbaryl treated groups. Our data suggests that carbaryl is genotoxic to human melanocytes, especially when associated with solar radiation.

  7. A Retrospective: Active Volatile-Driven Geologic Processes Across the Solar System—Lessons for Planetary Explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    When Voyagers 1 and 2 left Earth in 1977, we had little clue as to the rich variety of activity we'd find on the outer Solar System moons. The moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune would likely exhibit little geologic evolution¾much less even than our Moon. We expected battered, cratered, dead worlds. Like the Moon, Mars had showed volcanic activity in the geologic past, but ancient, heavily crater highlands dominated both surfaces. It seemed unlikely that we'd find even extinct volcanism in the cold, dead reaches of the outer Solar System. Voyager 1 shocked us by revealing Io's prolific ongoing volcanism. (Not all were surprised: just days earlier, Peale, Cassen, and Reynolds published a prediction that Io could be volcanically active). Europa, too, was a Voyager surprise; only a small handful of impact craters pocked its surface. It too had to be a geologically young body—likely still actively evolving. We have even found very recent geological activity on tiny cometary nuclei, where young flows have oozed forth across their surfaces. At Neptune, incredibly, Voyager 2 found eruptions on Triton's 37K polar cap—plumes driven by solar-heated nitrogen gas blasting dark dust and bright ice in 8-km-high columns. On Mars, "dark spiders" near the pole signaled similar active eruptions, in this case driven by pressurized carbon dioxide. Cassini witnessed a myriad of jets near tiny Enceladus' south pole, arising from an internal ocean evidently driven by active chemical processes and modulated by Saturn's proximity. Cassini revealed Titan to be Earth's alien twin, with a host of processes borrowed from textbooks on terrestrial geomorphology and meteorology. Akin to Earth's global hydrological cycle, Titan's runs on methane—methane rivers, seas, and rain abound. What lessons can we take from these active places into the next phase of exploration? When the Voyagers were launched, our naiveté allowed that only planet Earth was dynamically active. But exploring

  8. Hypermodular Distributed Solar Power Satellites -- Exploring a Technology Option for Near-Term LEO Demonstration and GLPO Full-Scale Plants

    CERN Document Server

    Leitgab, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new and innovative design for scaleable space solar power systems based on satellite self-assembly and microwave spatial power combination. Lower system cost of utility-scale space solar power is achieved by independence of yet-to-be-built in-space assembly and transportation infrastructure. Using current and expected near-term technology, this study explores a design for near-term space solar power low-Earth orbit demonstrators and for mid-term utility-scale power plants in geosynchronous Laplace plane orbits. High-level economic considerations in the context of current and expected future launch costs are given as well.

  9. A Notional Example of Understanding Human Exploration Traverses on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, John

    2012-01-01

    Mr. Gruener received an M.S. in physical science, with an emphasis in planetary geology, from the University of Houston-Clear Lake in 1994. He then began working with NASA JSC.s Solar System Exploration Division on the development of prototype planetary science instruments, the development of a mineral-based substrate for nutrient delivery to plant growth systems in bio-regenerative life support systems, and in support of the Mars Exploration Rover missions in rock and mineral identification. In 2004, Mr. Gruener again participated in a renewed effort to plan and design missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. He participated in many exploration planning activities, including NASA.s Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Global Exploration Strategy Workshop, Lunar Architecture Team 1 and 2, Constellation Lunar Architecture Team, the Global Point of Departure Lunar Exploration Team, and the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Workshop on Science Associated with the Lunar Exploration Architecture. Mr. Gruener has also been an active member of the science team supporting NASA.s Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS).

  10. Design of Photovoltaic Power System for a Precursor Mission for Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnatt, Jeremiah; Landis, Geoffrey; Fincannon, James

    2016-01-01

    This project analyzed the viability of a photovoltaic power source for technology demonstration mission to demonstrate Mars in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) to produce propellant for a future human mission, based on technology available within the next ten years. For this assessment, we performed a power-system design study for a scaled ISRU demonstrator lander on the Mars surface based on existing solar array technologies.

  11. The Solar Probe Plus Mission: Humanity's First Visit to Our Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, N. J.; Velli, M. C.; Bale, S. D.; Decker, R.; Driesman, A.; Howard, R. A.; Kasper, J. C.; Kinnison, J.; Kusterer, M.; Lario, D.; Lockwood, M. K.; McComas, D. J.; Raouafi, N. E.; Szabo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Solar Probe Plus (SPP) will be the first spacecraft to fly into the low solar corona. SPP's main science goal is to determine the structure and dynamics of the Sun's coronal magnetic field, understand how the solar corona and wind are heated and accelerated, and determine what processes accelerate energetic particles. Understanding these fundamental phenomena has been a top-priority science goal for over five decades, dating back to the 1958 Simpson Committee Report. The scale and concept of such a mission has been revised at intervals since that time, yet the core has always been a close encounter with the Sun. The mission design and the technology and engineering developments enable SPP to meet its science objectives to: (1) Trace the flow of energy that heats and accelerates the solar corona and solar wind; (2) Determine the structure and dynamics of the plasma and magnetic fields at the sources of the solar wind; and (3) Explore mechanisms that accelerate and transport energetic particles. The SPP mission was confirmed in March 2014 and is under development as a part of NASA's Living with a Star (LWS) Program. SPP is scheduled for launch in mid-2018, and will perform 24 orbits over a 7-year nominal mission duration. Seven Venus gravity assists gradually reduce SPP's perihelion from 35 solar radii (RS) for the first orbit to {<}10 RS for the final three orbits. In this paper we present the science, mission concept and the baseline vehicle for SPP, and examine how the mission will address the key science questions

  12. The impact of solar ultraviolet radiation on human health in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Photoprotection messages and ‘SunSmart’ programmes exist mainly to prevent skin cancers and, more recently, to encourage adequate personal sun exposure to elicit a vitamin D response for healthy bone and immune systems. Several developed countries maintain intensive research networks and monitor solar UV radiation to support awareness campaigns and intervention development. The situation is different in sub-Saharan Africa. Adequate empirical evidence of the impact of solar UV radiation on human health, even for melanomas and cataracts, is lacking, and is overshadowed by other factors such as communicable diseases, especially HIV, AIDS and tuberculosis. In addition, the established photoprotection messages used in developed countries have been adopted and implemented in a limited number of sub-Saharan countries but with minimal understanding of local conditions and behaviours. In this review, we consider the current evidence for sun-related effects on human health in sub-Saharan Africa, summarise published research and identify key issues. Data on the prevalence of human diseases affected by solar UV radiation in all subpopulations are not generally available, financial support is insufficient and the infrastructure to address these and other related topics is inadequate. Despite these limitations, considerable progress may be made regarding the management of solar UV radiation related health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, provided researchers collaborate and resources are allocated appropriately.

  13. Crabby Interactions: Fifth Graders Explore Human Impact on the Blue Crab Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Tonya D.; McCollough, Cherie A.; Moore, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a two-day lesson in which fifth-grade students took on the role of marine biology scientists, using their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to explore human impact on the blue crab ecosystem. The purpose of "Crabby Interactions" was to help students understand the impact of human activities on the local…

  14. Seeking Asylum: Adolescents Explore the Crossroads of Human Rights Education and Cosmopolitan Critical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerly-Bean, Judith; Bean, Thomas; Alnajjar, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school (grade 6-8) students' understanding and interpretation of human rights issues with local and global implications as they engaged in the process of creating a film after reading print and multimedia texts and participating in human rights education activities. As the students explored…

  15. Seeking Asylum: Adolescents Explore the Crossroads of Human Rights Education and Cosmopolitan Critical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerly-Bean, Judith; Bean, Thomas; Alnajjar, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school (grade 6-8) students' understanding and interpretation of human rights issues with local and global implications as they engaged in the process of creating a film after reading print and multimedia texts and participating in human rights education activities. As the students explored…

  16. Crabby Interactions: Fifth Graders Explore Human Impact on the Blue Crab Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Tonya D.; McCollough, Cherie A.; Moore, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a two-day lesson in which fifth-grade students took on the role of marine biology scientists, using their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to explore human impact on the blue crab ecosystem. The purpose of "Crabby Interactions" was to help students understand the impact of human activities on the local…

  17. Exploring the Effects of Solar Radiation Management on Water Cycling in a Coupled Land-Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagon, K.; Schrag, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) has been proposed as a form of geoengineering to reduce the warming effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Modeling studies have concluded that SRM roughly compensates for global mean temperature changes induced by greenhouse gas forcing, while large-scale hydrologic cycle changes persist. This is driven by both the sensitivity of surface energy fluxes to changes in shortwave versus longwave radiation, and the physiological effect of carbon dioxide on vegetation. We explore the impact of SRM on the hydrologic cycle that may contribute to local and regional temperature and temperature variability. Regional and seasonal changes are examined under simulations using the Community Land Model, version 4, with reductions in solar radiation relative to simulations with present-day and elevated CO2 concentrations. There are significant regional impacts due to vegetation-climate interactions that are not compensated under SRM, including changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff. In the tropics, evapotranspiration decreases due to increased vegetation water use efficiency, increasing soil moisture. In northern mid-latitudes, decreases in evapotranspiration do not always translate to increases in soil moisture due in part to the precipitation response. These results imply that SRM does not compensate for higher greenhouse gas concentrations when one considers land-atmosphere interactions.

  18. An Extension of Analysis of Solar-Heated Thermal Wadis to Support Extended-Duration Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Sacksteder, K. R.; Wegeng, R. S.; Suzuki, N. H.

    2010-01-01

    The realization of the renewed exploration of the Moon presents many technical challenges; among them is the survival of lunar surface assets during periods of darkness when the lunar environment is very cold. Thermal wadis are engineered sources of stored solar energy using modified lunar regolith as a thermal storage mass that can supply energy to protect lightweight robotic rovers or other assets during the lunar night. This paper describes an extension of an earlier analysis of performance of thermal wadis based on the known solar illumination of the Moon and estimates of producible thermal properties of modified lunar regolith. The current analysis has been performed for the lunar equatorial region and validates the formerly used 1-D model by comparison of predictions to those obtained from 2-D and 3-D computations. It includes the effects of a thin dust layer covering the surface of the wadi, and incorporating either water as a phase-change material or aluminum stakes as a high thermal conductivity material into the regolith. The calculations indicate that thermal wadis can provide the desired thermal energy and temperature control for the survival of rovers or other equipment during periods of darkness.

  19. Heliophysical Explorers (HELEX): Solar Orbiter and Sentinels - Report of the Joint Science and Technology Definition Team (JSTDT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Heliophysical Explorers (HELEX) brings together and augments the unique capabilities of ESA's Solar Orbiter mission (near-Sun and out-of-ecliptic in-situ plus remote-sensing observations) with those of NASA's Inner Heliospheric Sentinels (in-situ observations from multiple platforms arrayed at varying radial distances and azimuthal locations in the near-ecliptic plane)to investigate, characterize, and understand how the Sun determines the environment of the inner solar system and, more broadly, generates the heliosphere itself. This joint ESA-NASA science program offers a unique opportunity for coordinated, correlative measurements, resulting in a combined observational capability and science return that far outweighs that of either mission alone. Building on the knowledge gained from missions like Helios and Ulysses, and STEREO, HELEX will bring to bear the power of multipoint, in-situ measurements using previously unavailable instrumental capabilities in combination with remote-sensing observations from a new, inner heliospheric perspective to answer fundamental questions about the Sun-heliosphere linkage.

  20. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator) on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA)); Nelson, R.C. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Bollinger, L. (Air Force Inspection and Safety Center, Kirtland AFB, NM (USA)); Hoover, M.D. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Templeton, W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Anspaugh, L. (Lawren

    1990-11-02

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher. 83 refs.

  1. Beyond Electric Propulsion: Non-Propulsive Benefits of Nuclear Power for the Exploration of the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert M.

    1994-07-01

    In the past, most studies dealing with the benefits of space nuclear electric power systems for solar system exploration have focused on the potential of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) to enhance missions by increasing delivered payload, decreasing LEO mass, or reducing trip time. While important, such mission enhancements have failed to go to the heart of the concerns of the scientific community supporting interplanetary exploration. To put the matter succinctly, scientists don't buy delivered payload - they buy data returned. With nuclear power we can increase both the quantity of data returned, by enormously increasing data communication rates, and the quality of data by enabling a host of active sensing techniques otherwise impossible. These non-propulsive mission enhancement capabilities of space nuclear power have been known in principle for many years, but they have not been adequately documented. As a result, support for the development of space nuclear power by the interplanetary exploration community has been much less forceful than it might otherwise be. In this paper we shall present mission designs that take full advantage of the potential mission enhancements offered by space nuclear power systems in the 10 to 100 kWe range, not just for propulsion, but to radically improve, enrich, and expand the science return itself. Missions considered include orbiter missions to each of the outer planets. It will be shown that be using hybrid trajectories combining chemical propulsion with NEP and (in certain cases) gravity assists, that it is possible, using a Titan IV-Centaur launch vehicle, for high-powered spacecraft to be placed in orbit around each of the outer planets with electric propulsion burn times of less than 4 years. Such hybrid trajectories therefore make the outer solar-system available to near-term nuclear electric power systems. Once in orbit, the spacecraft will utilize multi-kilowatt communication systems, similar to those now employed by

  2. Spacecraft/Rover Hybrids for the Exploration of Small Solar System Bodies. [NASA NIAC Phase I Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Marco; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Nesnas, Issa A. D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated a novel mission architecture for the systematic and affordable in-situ exploration of small Solar System bodies. Specifically, a mother spacecraft would deploy over the surface of a small body one, or several, spacecraft/rover hybrids, which are small, multi-faceted enclosed robots with internal actuation and external spikes. They would be capable of 1) long excursions (by hopping), 2) short traverses to specific locations (through a sequence of controlled tumbles), and 3) high-altitude, attitude-controlled ballistic flight (akin to spacecraft flight). Their control would rely on synergistic operations with the mother spacecraft (where most of hybrids' perception and localization functionalities would be hosted), which would make the platforms minimalistic and, in turn, the entire mission architecture affordable.

  3. Possible biophysical mechanism of the effect of the solar activity on the human central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, G. A.; Mikhailov, Y. M.

    Numerous studies, beginning with Tchizhevsky's works, demonstrated the undeniable effect of the solar activity on the human body. A possible geophysical mechanism of the effect of the solar activity on the human body was proposed by Vladimirsky. In this mechanism solar disturbances (powerful chromospheres flares) cause "magnetosphere and plasmasphere disturbances on the Earth (sudden magnetic storms), which are accompanied by a change in the spectrum of the electromagnetic field on the Earth's surface in the extremely low frequency band. In its turn, this brings about shifts in the phisiological indices of the human body". In this model, the human body is regarded as a self-oscillating system affected by external geophysical factors. We also adhere to the main principles of this model but refine the part of this model that describes the change in the spectrum of the electromagnetic field on the Earth's surface in the extremely low frequency band. Unlike Vladimirsky model, we regard the human is not as a self-oscillating system but as one of two coupled oscillating system with discrete resonance frequencies in the human-habitat ensemble. Solar processes and their induced changes in one of the two coupled oscillating systems, specifically, the habitat play the role of an external force. Such an approach is based on the fact that the brain rhythms have the following definite frequencies: the alpha rhythm, 8-13 Hz; the beta rhythm, 14-30 Hz; the gamma rhythm, above 30 Hz; the delta rhythm, 1.5-3 Hz; and the theta rhythm, 4-7 Hz. On the other hand, the natural electromagnetic field on the Earth's surface in the extremely low frequency band also has a quite distinct resonance distribution. There are so-called Schuman resonances of the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the lower boundary of the ionosphere (the D and E layers) at f1=10.6; f2=18.3; f3=25.9; f4=33.5; f5=41.1 Hz. These resonance frequencies are variable and most sensitive to variations of the

  4. Crew systems: integrating human and technical subsystems for the exploration of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, M. M.; Harrison, A. A.; Summit, J.

    1994-01-01

    Space exploration missions will require combining human and technical subsystems into overall "crew systems" capable of performing under the rigorous conditions of outer space. This report describes substantive and conceptual relationships among humans, intelligent machines, and communication systems, and explores how these components may be combined to complement and strengthen one another. We identify key research issues in the combination of humans and technology and examine the role of individual differences, group processes, and environmental conditions. We conclude that a crew system is, in effect, a social cyborg, a living system consisting of multiple individuals whose capabilities are extended by advanced technology.

  5. The Future of Asset Management for Human Space Exploration: Supply Classification and an Integrated Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Gralla, Erica L.; deWeck, Olivier L.; Shishko, Robert

    2006-01-01

    One of the major logistical challenges in human space exploration is asset management. This paper presents observations on the practice of asset management in support of human space flight to date and discusses a functional-based supply classification and a framework for an integrated database that could be used to improve asset management and logistics for human missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond.

  6. Peer-to-Peer Human-Robot Interaction for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2004-01-01

    NASA has embarked on a long-term program to develop human-robot systems for sustained, affordable space exploration. To support this mission, we are working to improve human-robot interaction and performance on planetary surfaces. Rather than building robots that function as glorified tools, our focus is to enable humans and robots to work as partners and peers. In this paper. we describe our approach, which includes contextual dialogue, cognitive modeling, and metrics-based field testing.

  7. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury in BJ human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po Yee; Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-06-01

    The effects of schisandrin B (Sch B) and its analogs on solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury were examined in BJ human fibroblasts. Sch B and schisandrin C (Sch C) increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level and protected against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury. The photoprotection was paralleled by decreases in the elastases-type protease activity and matrix-metalloproteinases-1 expression in solar-irradiated fibroblasts. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production. The results suggest that by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent glutathione antioxidant response, Sch B or Sch C may offer the prospect of preventing skin photo-aging.

  8. Exploring the Flux Tube Paradigm in Solar-like Convection Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Maria A.; Nelson, Nicholas; Browning, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    In the solar context, important insight into the flux emergence process has been obtained by assuming the magnetism giving rise to sunspots consists partly of idealized flux tubes. Global-scale dynamo models are only now beginning to capture some aspects of flux emergence. In certain regimes, these simulations self-consistently generate magnetic flux structures that rise buoyantly through the computational domain. How similar are these dynamo-generated, rising flux structures to traditional flux tube models? The work we present here is a step toward addressing this question. We utilize the thin flux tube (TFT) approximation to simply model the evolution of flux tubes in a global, three-dimensional geometry. The TFTs are embedded in convective flows taken from a global dynamo simulation of a rapidly rotating Sun within which buoyant flux structures arise naturally from wreaths of magnetism. The initial conditions of the TFTs are informed by rising flux structures identified in the dynamo simulation. We compare the trajectories of the dynamo-generated flux loops with those computed through the TFT approach. We also assess the nature of the relevant forces acting on both sets of flux structures, such as buoyancy, the Coriolis force, and external forces imparted by the surrounding convection. To achieve the fast flux structures, we must suppress the large retrograde flow established inside the TFTs which occurs due to a strong conservation of angular momentum as they move outward. This tendency is common in flux tube models in solar-like convection zones, but is not present to the same degree in the dynamo-generated flux loops. We discuss the mechanisms that may be responsible for suppressing the axial flow inside the flux tube, and consider the implications this has regarding the role of the Coriolis force in explaining sunspot latitudes and the observed Joy’s Law trend of active regions. Our work aims to provide constraints, and possible calibrations, on the

  9. Preparing the Public for the James Webb Space Telescope and its Exploration of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; Smith, Denise A.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Jirdeh, Hussein; Office of Public Outreach

    2016-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. The challenges in ensuring the high profile of JWST (understanding the infrared, the vast distance to the telescope's final position, and the unfamiliar science territory) requires us to lay the proper background. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing outreach programs: for example, simulated, scientifically-inspired but aesthetic JWST scenes (illustrating the differences between JWST and previous missions); partnering with high impact science communicators such as MinutePhysics to produce timely and concise content; incorporating JWST science into activities at large scale events. JWST has unique observational capabilities that optimize its ability ot study the Solar System: monitoring weather, tracking and measuring dusty objects, collaborative parallax observations with other observatories, and more. We discuss some of the ways we engage the public on these concepts.

  10. A Non-Modeling Exploration of Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Adoption and Non-Adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, Benjamin O. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moezzi, Mithra [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Ingle, Aaron [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Lutzenhiser, Loren [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Although U.S. deployment of residential rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has accelerated in recent years, PV is still installed on less than 1 percent of single-family homes. Most research on household PV adoption focuses on scaling initial markets and modeling predicted growth rather than considering more broadly why adoption occurs. Among the studies that have investigated the characteristics of PV adoption, most collected data from adopters, sometimes with additional non-adopter data, and rarely from people who considered but did not adopt PV. Yet the vast majority of Americans are non-adopters, and they are a diverse group - understanding their ways of evaluating PV adoption is important. Similarly, PV is a unique consumer product, which makes it difficult to apply findings from studies of other technologies to PV. In addition, little research addresses the experience of households after they install PV. This report helps fill some of these gaps in the existing literature. The results inform a more detailed understanding of residential PV adoption, while helping ensure that adoption is sufficiently beneficial to adopters and even non-adopters.

  11. The Nrf2-inducers tanshinone I and dihydrotanshinone protect human skin cells and reconstructed human skin against solar simulated UV☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shasha; Justiniano, Rebecca; Zhang, Donna D.; Wondrak, Georg T.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a causative factor in skin photocarcinogenesis and photoaging, and an urgent need exists for improved strategies for skin photoprotection. The redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2), a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant defense against environmental electrophilic insult, has recently emerged as an important determinant of cutaneous damage from solar UV, and the concept of pharmacological activation of Nrf2 has attracted considerable attention as a novel approach to skin photoprotection. In this study, we examined feasibility of using tanshinones, a novel class of phenanthrenequinone-based cytoprotective Nrf2 inducers derived from the medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza, for protection of cultured human skin cells and reconstructed human skin against solar simulated UV. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay in human Hs27 dermal fibroblasts pronounced transcriptional activation of Nrf2 by four major tanshinones [tanshinone I (T-I), dihydrotanshinone (DHT), tanshinone IIA (T-II-A) and cryptotanshinone (CT)] was detected. In fibroblasts, the more potent tanshinones T-I and DHT caused a significant increase in Nrf2 protein half-life via blockage of ubiquitination, ultimately resulting in upregulated expression of cytoprotective Nrf2 target genes (GCLC, NQO1) with the elevation of cellular glutathione levels. Similar tanshinone-induced changes were also observed in HaCaT keratinocytes. T-I and DHT pretreatment caused significant suppression of skin cell death induced by solar simulated UV and riboflavin-sensitized UVA. Moreover, feasibility of tanshinone-based cutaneous photoprotection was tested employing a human skin reconstruct exposed to solar simulated UV (80 mJ/cm2 UVB; 1.53 J/cm2 UVA). The occurrence of markers of epidermal solar insult (cleaved procaspase 3, pycnotic nuclei, eosinophilic cytoplasm, acellular cavities) was significantly attenuated in DHT

  12. The Nrf2-inducers tanshinone I and dihydrotanshinone protect human skin cells and reconstructed human skin against solar simulated UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Tao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is a causative factor in skin photocarcinogenesis and photoaging, and an urgent need exists for improved strategies for skin photoprotection. The redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2, a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant defense against environmental electrophilic insult, has recently emerged as an important determinant of cutaneous damage from solar UV, and the concept of pharmacological activation of Nrf2 has attracted considerable attention as a novel approach to skin photoprotection. In this study, we examined feasibility of using tanshinones, a novel class of phenanthrenequinone-based cytoprotective Nrf2 inducers derived from the medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza, for protection of cultured human skin cells and reconstructed human skin against solar simulated UV. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay in human Hs27 dermal fibroblasts pronounced transcriptional activation of Nrf2 by four major tanshinones [tanshinone I (T-I, dihydrotanshinone (DHT, tanshinone IIA (T-II-A and cryptotanshinone (CT] was detected. In fibroblasts, the more potent tanshinones T-I and DHT caused a significant increase in Nrf2 protein half-life via blockage of ubiquitination, ultimately resulting in upregulated expression of cytoprotective Nrf2 target genes (GCLC, NQO1 with the elevation of cellular glutathione levels. Similar tanshinone-induced changes were also observed in HaCaT keratinocytes. T-I and DHT pretreatment caused significant suppression of skin cell death induced by solar simulated UV and riboflavin-sensitized UVA. Moreover, feasibility of tanshinone-based cutaneous photoprotection was tested employing a human skin reconstruct exposed to solar simulated UV (80 mJ/cm2 UVB; 1.53 J/cm2 UVA. The occurrence of markers of epidermal solar insult (cleaved procaspase 3, pycnotic nuclei, eosinophilic cytoplasm, acellular cavities was significantly attenuated in DHT

  13. The Nrf2-inducers tanshinone I and dihydrotanshinone protect human skin cells and reconstructed human skin against solar simulated UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shasha; Justiniano, Rebecca; Zhang, Donna D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a causative factor in skin photocarcinogenesis and photoaging, and an urgent need exists for improved strategies for skin photoprotection. The redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2), a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant defense against environmental electrophilic insult, has recently emerged as an important determinant of cutaneous damage from solar UV, and the concept of pharmacological activation of Nrf2 has attracted considerable attention as a novel approach to skin photoprotection. In this study, we examined feasibility of using tanshinones, a novel class of phenanthrenequinone-based cytoprotective Nrf2 inducers derived from the medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza, for protection of cultured human skin cells and reconstructed human skin against solar simulated UV. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay in human Hs27 dermal fibroblasts pronounced transcriptional activation of Nrf2 by four major tanshinones [tanshinone I (T-I), dihydrotanshinone (DHT), tanshinone IIA (T-II-A) and cryptotanshinone (CT)] was detected. In fibroblasts, the more potent tanshinones T-I and DHT caused a significant increase in Nrf2 protein half-life via blockage of ubiquitination, ultimately resulting in upregulated expression of cytoprotective Nrf2 target genes (GCLC, NQO1) with the elevation of cellular glutathione levels. Similar tanshinone-induced changes were also observed in HaCaT keratinocytes. T-I and DHT pretreatment caused significant suppression of skin cell death induced by solar simulated UV and riboflavin-sensitized UVA. Moreover, feasibility of tanshinone-based cutaneous photoprotection was tested employing a human skin reconstruct exposed to solar simulated UV (80 mJ/cm(2) UVB; 1.53 J/cm(2) UVA). The occurrence of markers of epidermal solar insult (cleaved procaspase 3, pycnotic nuclei, eosinophilic cytoplasm, acellular cavities) was significantly attenuated in DHT

  14. Generation of electrical power under human skin by subdermal solar cell arrays for implantable bioelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kwangsun; Han, Jung Hyun; Yang, Hyung Chae; Nam, Kwang Il; Lee, Jongho

    2017-06-15

    Medical electronic implants can significantly improve people's health and quality of life. These implants are typically powered by batteries, which usually have a finite lifetime and therefore must be replaced periodically using surgical procedures. Recently, subdermal solar cells that can generate electricity by absorbing light transmitted through skin have been proposed as a sustainable electricity source to power medical electronic implants in bodies. However, the results to date have been obtained with animal models. To apply the technology to human beings, electrical performance should be characterized using human skin covering the subdermal solar cells. In this paper, we present electrical performance results (up to 9.05mW/cm(2)) of the implantable solar cell array under 59 human skin samples isolated from 10 cadavers. The results indicate that the power densities depend on the thickness and tone of the human skin, e.g., higher power was generated under thinner and brighter skin. The generated power density is high enough to operate currently available medical electronic implants such as pacemakers that require tens of microwatt.

  15. Dust Interactions on Small Solar System Bodies and Technology Considerations for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrick, Ryan,; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Pavone, Marco; Street, Kenneth; Rickman, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Small-bodies such as asteroids and Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos have relatively unknown regolith environments. It is hypothesized that dust preserved in the regolith on the surfaces will have similar mechanical properties to lunar dust because of similar formation processes from micrometeorite bombardment, low relative gravity for slow settling times, and virtually no weathering because there is no atmosphere. This combination of processes infers that small-body dust particles will be highly angular and retain abrasive properties. The focus of this paper uses the mission architecture and engineering design for an asteroid hopper known as Hedgehog, a spherical spacecraft with several symmetric spikes used to aid with tumbling mobility in a low gravity environment. Dust abrasion considerations are highlighted throughout the paper relating to the lead authors' previous work, but act as an example of one of many important dust or regolith physical properties that need to be considered for future exploration. Measurable regolith properties are summarized in order to identify technologies that may be useful for exploration in terms of scientific return and spacecraft design. Previous instruments are summarized in this paper that could be used on the Hedgehog. Opportunities for hardware payloads are highlighted that include low mass solutions or dualpurpose instruments that can measure regolith or dust properties. Finally, dust mitigation suggestions are made for vehicles of this mobility profile.

  16. Exploration of Icy Moons in the Outer Solar System: Updated Planetary Protection Requirements for Missions to Enceladus and Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, J. D.; Race, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Enceladus and Europa are bodies with icy/watery environments and potential habitable conditions for life, making both of great interest in astrobiological studies of chemical evolution and /or origin of life. They are also of significant planetary protection concern for spacecraft missions because of the potential for harmful contamination during exploration. At a 2015 COSPAR colloquium in Bern Switzerland, international scientists identified an urgent need to establish planetary protection requirements for missions proposing to return samples to Earth from Saturn's moon Enceladus. Deliberations at the meeting resulted in recommended policy updates for both forward and back contamination requirements for missions to Europa and Enceladus, including missions sampling plumes originating from those bodies. These recently recommended COSPAR policy revisions and biological contamination requirements will be applied to future missions to Europa and Encealadus, particularly noticeable in those with plans for in situ life detection and sample return capabilities. Included in the COSPAR policy are requirementsto `break the chain of contact' with Europa or Enceladus, to keep pristine returned materials contained, and to complete required biohazard analyses, testing and/or sterilization upon return to Earth. Subsequent to the Bern meeting, additional discussions of Planetary Protection of Outer Solar System bodies (PPOSS) are underway in a 3-year study coordinated by the European Science Foundation and involving multiple international partners, including Japan, China and Russia, along with a US observer. This presentation will provide science and policy updates for those whose research or activities will involve icy moon missions and exploration.

  17. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  18. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  19. Consideration for solar system exploration - A system to Mars. [biomedical, environmental, and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Biomedical issues related to a manned mission to Mars are reviewed. Consideration is given to cardiovascular deconditioning, hematological and immunological changes, bone and muscle changes, nutritional issues, and the development of physiological countermeasures. Environmental issues are discussed, including radiation hazards, toxic chemical exposure, and the cabin environment. Also, human factors, performance and behavior, medical screening of the crew, disease prediction, and health maintenance are examined.

  20. Evolutionary Space Communications Architectures for Human/Robotic Exploration and Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA enterprises have growing needs for an advanced, integrated, communications infrastructure that will satisfy the capabilities needed for multiple human, robotic and scientific missions beyond 2015. Furthermore, the reliable, multipoint infrastructure is required to provide continuous, maximum coverage of areas of concentrated activities, such as around Earth and in the vicinity of the Moon or Mars, with access made available on demand of the human or robotic user. As a first step, the definitions of NASA's future space communications and networking architectures are underway. Architectures that describe the communications and networking needed between the nodal regions consisting of Earth, Moon, Lagrange points, Mars, and the places of interest within the inner and outer solar system have been laid out. These architectures will need the modular flexibility that must be included in the communication and networking technologies to enable the infrastructure to grow in capability with time and to transform from supporting robotic missions in the solar system to supporting human ventures to Mars, Jupiter, Jupiter's moons, and beyond. The protocol-based networking capability seamlessly connects the backbone, access, inter-spacecraft and proximity network elements of the architectures employed in the infrastructure. In this paper, we present the summary of NASA's near and long term needs and capability requirements that were gathered by participative methods. We describe an integrated architecture concept and model that will enable communications for evolutionary robotic and human science missions. We then define the communication nodes, their requirements, and various options to connect them.

  1. Human physiological reaction to geomagnetic disturbances of solar origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Sv.; Stoilova, I.

    2002-12-01

    During the last two decades publications about the influence of geomagnetic activity on human health increase but there are not still strong evidences for this relationship. We performed measurements and observations of 86 working volunteers during the period of autumn and spring equinox. We examined systolic, diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate. We also collected data for some personal health condition complaints. Four-way analyses of variance (MANOVA method) were employed and the influence of factors geomagnetic activity level, sequence of the days of measurements with respect to the increased geomagnetic activity, medicaments and sex was investigated. We also performed three-way analyses of variance and investigated influence of atmospheric pressure, medicaments and sex on the physiological parameters under consideration. Our investigations indicate that most of the persons examined irrespectively to their health status could be sensitive to the geomagnetic changes, which influence directly self-confidence and working ability.

  2. Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

  3. Early Solar System Bombardment: Exploring the Echos of Planetary Migration and Lost Ice Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, William

    2017-01-01

    Heavily cratered surfaces on the Moon, Mars, Mercury show the terrestrial planets were battered by an intense bombardment during their first billion years or more, but the timing, sources, and dynamical implications of these impacts are controversial. The Late Heavy Bombardment refers to impact events that occurred after stabilization of planetary lithospheres such that they could be preserved as craters. Lunar melt rocks and meteorite shock ages point toward a discrete episode of elevated impact flux between ~3.5 to ~4.2 Ga and a relative quiescence between ~4.0-4.2 to ~4.4 Ga. Evidence from Precambrian impact spherule layers suggest a long-lived tail of terrestrial impactors lasted to ~2.0-2.5 Ga.Dynamical models that include populations residual from primary accretion and destabilized by giant planet migration can potentially account for observations, although all have pros and cons. The most parsimonious solution to match constraints is a hybrid model with discrete early, post-accretion and later, planetary instability-driven impactor populations.For the latter, giant planet instability models can successfully reproduce the orbits of the giant planets, the origin/properties of Jupiter/Neptune Trojans, irregular satellites, the structure of the main asteroid and Kuiper belts, and the presence of comet-like bodies in the main belt, Hilda, and Trojan asteroid populations. The best solutions, however, postulate there were once five giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, and three ice giants, one that was eventually ejected out of the Solar System by a Jupiter encounter. Intriguing evidence for this “lost” ice giant planet can be found in the orbital properties of bodies captured in the main asteroid belt.The applicability of giant planet instabilities to exoplanet systems seems likely, with the initial configuration of giant planet orbits a byproduct of their early migration and subsequent capture into mutual mean motion resonances. The question is how long can a

  4. Scientific Goals and Objectives for the Human Exploration of Mars: 1. Biology and Atmosphere/Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Garvin, J. B.; Anbar, A. D.; Beaty, D. W.; Bell, M. S.; Clancy, R. T.; Cockell, C. S.; Connerney, J. E.; Doran, P. T.; Delory, G.; Dickson, J. T.; Elphic, R. C.; Eppler, D. B.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Head, J. W.; Helper, M.; Gruener, J. E.; Heldmann, J.; Hipkin, V.; Lane, M. D.; Levy, J.; Moersch, J.; Ori, G. G.; Peach, L.; Poulet, F.

    2008-01-01

    To prepare for the exploration of Mars by humans, as outlined in the new national vision for Space Exploration (VSE), the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG), chartered by NASA's Mars Exploration Program (MEP), formed a Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG), in March 2007. HEM-SAG was chartered to develop the scientific goals and objectives for the human exploration of Mars based on the Mars Scientific Goals, Objectives, Investigations, and Priorities.1 The HEM-SAG is one of several humans to Mars scientific, engineering and mission architecture studies chartered in 2007 to support NASA s plans for the human exploration of Mars. The HEM-SAG is composed of about 30 Mars scientists representing the disciplines of Mars biology, climate/atmosphere, geology and geophysics from the U.S., Canada, England, France, Italy and Spain. MEPAG selected Drs. James B. Garvin (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) and Joel S. Levine (NASA Langley Research Center) to serve as HEMSAG co-chairs. The HEM-SAG team conducted 20 telecons and convened three face-to-face meetings from March through October 2007. The management of MEP and MEPAG were briefed on the HEM-SAG interim findings in May. The HEM-SAG final report was presented on-line to the full MEPAG membership and was presented at the MEPAG meeting on February 20-21, 2008. This presentation will outline the HEM-SAG biology and climate/atmosphere goals and objectives. A companion paper will outline the HEM-SAG geology and geophysics goals and objectives.

  5. Modeling additional solar constraints on a human being inside a room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thellier, Francoise; Monchoux, Francoise; Bonnis-Sassi, Michel; Lartigue, Berengere [Laboratoire Physique de l' Homme Appliquee a Son Environnement (PHASE), Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-04-15

    Sun fluxes induce additional heterogeneous thermal constraints in buildings and may also lead to discomfort for the inhabitant. To calculate the local thermal sensation of a human being totally or partially situated in the sunlight, the solar radiation inside a room and its detailed distribution on parts of the human body are modeled. The present study focuses on the solar gains part of a complete modeling tool simulating an occupied building. The irradiated areas are calculated with a ray tracing method taking shadow into account. Solar fluxes are computed. Fluxes can be absorbed by each surface or reflected. The reflected fluxes are then absorbed at the next impact. A multi-node thermoregulation model (MARCL) represents the thermal behavior of the human body and all its heat exchanges with the environment. The thermal transient simulation of the whole occupied building is performed in TRNSYS simulation software. In the case presented here, the results show that, when a person is inside the building, the skin and clothing temperatures of the irradiated segments increase more or less depending on the segments but the global thermal equilibrium of the body is maintained thanks to strong physiological reactions. (author)

  6. Exploration of the Transition Region-Corona Interface With the Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to observe the solar upper transition region and lower corona in Ne VII 46.5 nm with the Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph (MOSES) rocket payload. The...

  7. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, Addendum #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G. (Editor); Watts Kevin D. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    This report serves as the second Addendum to NASA-SP-2009-566, "Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0." The data and descriptions contained within this Addendum capture some of the key assessments and studies produced since publication of the original document, predominately covering those conducted from 2009 through 2012. The assessments and studies described herein are for the most part independent stand-alone contributions. Effort has not been made to assimilate the findings to provide an updated integrated strategy. That is a recognized future effort. This report should not be viewed as constituting a formal plan for the human exploration of Mars.

  8. Human factors research as part of a Mars exploration analogue mission on Devon Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsted, Kim; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Griofa, Marc Ó.; Bishop, Sheryl; Lapierre, Judith

    2010-06-01

    Human factors research is a critical element of space exploration as it provides insight into a crew's performance, psychology and interpersonal relationships. Understanding the way humans work in space-exploration analogue environments permits the development and testing of countermeasures for and responses to potential hazardous situations, and can thus help improve mission efficiency and safety. Analogue missions, such as the one described here, have plausible mission constraints and operational scenarios, similar to those that a real Mars crew would experience. Long duration analogue studies, such as those being conducted at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) on Devon Island, Canada, offer an opportunity to study mission operations and human factors in a semi-realistic environment, and contribute to the design of missions to explore the Moon and Mars. The FMARS XI Long Duration Mission (F-XI LDM) was, at four months, the longest designed analogue Mars mission conducted to date, and thus provides a unique insight into human factors issues for long-duration space exploration. Here, we describe the six human factors studies that took place during F-XI LDM, and give a summary of their results, where available. We also present a meta-study, which examined the impact of the human-factors research itself on crew schedule and workload. Based on this experience, we offer some lessons learnt: some aspects (perceived risk and crew motivation, for example) of analogue missions must be realistic for study results to be valid; human factors studies are time-consuming, and should be fully integrated into crew schedules; and crew-ground communication and collaboration under long-term exploration conditions can present serious challenges.

  9. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literature Review and Systems Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Conley, Cassie; Siegel, Bette

    2015-01-01

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literature review of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current 'state of knowledge'. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection.

  10. Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model.

  11. Solar ultraviolet irradiation induces decorin degradation in human skin likely via neutrophil elastase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Xia, Wei; Liu, Ying; Remmer, Henriette A; Voorhees, John; Fisher, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity, which degrades type I collagen fibrils. Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in skin and constitutes the majority of skin connective tissue (dermis). Degradation of collagen fibrils impairs the structure and function of skin that characterize skin aging. Decorin is the predominant proteoglycan in human dermis. In model systems, decorin binds to and protects type I collagen fibrils from proteolytic degradation by enzymes such as MMP-1. Little is known regarding alterations of decorin in response to UV irradiation. We found that solar-simulated UV irradiation of human skin in vivo stimulated substantial decorin degradation, with kinetics similar to infiltration of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. Proteases that were released from isolated PMN cells degraded decorin in vitro. A highly selective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase blocked decorin breakdown by proteases released from PMN cells. Furthermore, purified neutrophil elastase cleaved decorin in vitro and generated fragments with similar molecular weights as those resulting from protease activity released from PMN cells, and as observed in UV-irradiated human skin. Cleavage of decorin by neutrophil elastase significantly augmented fragmentation of type I collagen fibrils by MMP-1. Taken together, these data indicate that PMN cell proteases, especially neutrophil elastase, degrade decorin, and this degradation renders collagen fibrils more susceptible to MMP-1 cleavage. These data identify decorin degradation and neutrophil elastase as potential therapeutic targets for mitigating sun exposure-induced collagen fibril degradation in human skin.

  12. Solar ultraviolet irradiation induces decorin degradation in human skin likely via neutrophil elastase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    Full Text Available Exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet (UV irradiation induces matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 activity, which degrades type I collagen fibrils. Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in skin and constitutes the majority of skin connective tissue (dermis. Degradation of collagen fibrils impairs the structure and function of skin that characterize skin aging. Decorin is the predominant proteoglycan in human dermis. In model systems, decorin binds to and protects type I collagen fibrils from proteolytic degradation by enzymes such as MMP-1. Little is known regarding alterations of decorin in response to UV irradiation. We found that solar-simulated UV irradiation of human skin in vivo stimulated substantial decorin degradation, with kinetics similar to infiltration of polymorphonuclear (PMN cells. Proteases that were released from isolated PMN cells degraded decorin in vitro. A highly selective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase blocked decorin breakdown by proteases released from PMN cells. Furthermore, purified neutrophil elastase cleaved decorin in vitro and generated fragments with similar molecular weights as those resulting from protease activity released from PMN cells, and as observed in UV-irradiated human skin. Cleavage of decorin by neutrophil elastase significantly augmented fragmentation of type I collagen fibrils by MMP-1. Taken together, these data indicate that PMN cell proteases, especially neutrophil elastase, degrade decorin, and this degradation renders collagen fibrils more susceptible to MMP-1 cleavage. These data identify decorin degradation and neutrophil elastase as potential therapeutic targets for mitigating sun exposure-induced collagen fibril degradation in human skin.

  13. HExpoChem: a systems biology resource to explore human exposure to chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Kalhauge, Christian Gram

    2013-01-01

    of computational biology approaches are needed to assess the health risks of chemical exposure. Here we present HExpoChem, a tool based on environmental chemicals and their bioactivities on human proteins with the objective of aiding the qualitative exploration of human exposure to chemicals. The chemical......Summary: Humans are exposed to diverse hazardous chemicals daily. Although an exposure to these chemicals is suspected to have adverse effects on human health, mechanistic insights into how they interact with the human body are still limited. Therefore, acquisition of curated data and development......–protein interactions have been enriched with a quality-scored human protein–protein interaction network, a protein–protein association network and a chemical–chemical interaction network, thus allowing the study of environmental chemicals through formation of protein complexes and phenotypic outcomes enrichment...

  14. Could periodic patterns in human mortality be sensitive to solar activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Díaz-Sandoval

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal behaviour of human diseases have been observed and reported in the literature for years. Although the Sun plays an essential role in the origin and evolution of life on Earth, it is barely taken into account in biological processes for the development of a specific disease. Higher mortality rates occur during the winter season in the Northern Hemisphere for several diseases, particularly diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. This increment has been associated with seasonal and social causes. However, is there more behind these correlations, in particular in terms of solar variability? In this paper we attempt to make a first step towards answering this question. A detailed wavelet analysis of periodicities for diseases from England and Wales seem to reveal that mortality periodicities (3 days to half a year could be due to the Earth's position around the Sun. Moreover, crosswavelet and wavelet coherence analysis show common features between medical diseases and solar proxies around solar maximum activity suggesting that this relation, if any, has to be searched in times of high solar activity.

  15. Implementation of Safety and Human-Rating on Lockheed Martin's Crew Exploration Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemisch, Michael K.

    2005-12-01

    Lockheed Martin leads an industry and academic team to develop requirements and the design of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) in support of the United States' Vision for Space Exploration. This paper discusses the safety and human-rating requirements, challenges, and approaches taken by the team focusing on safety and human-rating design decisions and trade- offs. Examples of these requirements are failure- tolerance, crew abort/escape, "design for minimum risk", computer-based control, all reviewed by a new NASA human-rating process. NASA allowed contractors freedom in the approaches they could pursue, which offered the opportunity for safety and human-rating goals to influence the basic concepts and major design decisions made early in the program, which drive the major safety features (and limitations) of the CEV project. The paper discusses the method developed by Lockheed Martin, HazComp, to evaluate hazards of proposed concept options, without the benefit of detailed design data used to provide a hazard-based "safety figure of merit" and substantiating data to the trade study decision process. The importance of a well- developed preliminary hazard analysis to support these evaluations is discussed. Major NASA safety and human-rating requirements and their evolution are also discussed along with issues, concerns and recommendations for future human space exploration safety requirements and safety focus.

  16. The ambiguity of human ashes: Exploring encounters with cremated remains in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, B.M.H.P.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores cremation and disposal practices in the Netherlands, focusing on the attitudes and experiences of bereaved Dutch people in relation to cremated remains. In academic and professional narratives, human ashes are commonly described as “important,” as “sacred,” and as a vehicle to

  17. Guides to Sustainable Connections? Exploring Human-Nature Relationships among Wilderness Travel Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimwood, Bryan S. R.; Haberer, Alexa; Legault, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores and critically interprets the role wilderness travel may play in fostering environmental sustainability. The paper draws upon two qualitative studies that sought to understand human-nature relationships as experienced by different groups of wilderness travel leaders in Canada. According to leaders involved in the studies,…

  18. Shijun Ma: keeping on exploring new areas to meet the challenge of human and social demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le Kang; Ming Li

    2011-01-01

    @@ Professor Shijun Ma (1915-1991) is a renowned Chinese ecologist.Shijun, literally in Chinese, means the finest horse,which also perfectly describes his academic lifc 50 years of non-stop traveling and exploring new areas, from insects to human being, from experimental science to systematic science, from ecology to environmental science, and from nature to society.

  19. Human Body Explorations: Hands-On Investigations of What Makes Us Tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalumuck, Karen E.

    This book presents science activities on the human body with materials that can be purchased in a grocery store or pharmacy. Each activity includes an explorer and facilitator guide. Activities include: (1) "Naked Egg"; (2) "Cellular Soap Opera"; (3) "Acid in Your Stomach"; (4) "How Much Do You C?"; (5)…

  20. 76 FR 63663 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Status Space Launch System/Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Status Overall Human Exploration and Operations (HEO) Mission Directorate Status Status of Commercial Orbital Transportation Services and Commercial... will need to show valid, officially-issued picture identification such as a driver's license to...

  1. Exploring the Strategic Role of Human Resource Development in Organizational Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Hutchins, Holly M.; Garavan, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Crisis management has been a largely overlooked territory in human resource development (HRD) despite the increasingly recognized impact of organizational crises on the individual and organizational performance. This article explores the strategic role of HRD in the context of organizational crisis management using Garavan's strategic HRD model as…

  2. Semi-transparent Perovskite Solar Cells Developed by Considering Human Luminosity Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyu Min; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2017-09-06

    Semi-transparent solar cells draw a great deal of attention because their applications include, for instance, photovoltaic windows. General approach to semi-transparent cells is using thin active layers or island-type structures. Here we take human luminosity function into account, and develop solar cells that harvest photons in the wavelength regions in which human eyes are less sensitive to light. We used an organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, which is sensitive to light particularly in the blue and deep-blue regions, and plasmonic silver nanocubes that enhance light harvesting in the red and deep-red ranges. In order to tune the plasmonic wavelength to that range, we took advantage of electrode-coupled plasmons (ECPs). We prepared non-plasmonic semi-transparent solar cells, and reduced the active layer thickness and introduced ECPs, so that the visual transparency index and power conversion efficiency of the cell were improved by 28% and 6%, respectively, of the initial values.

  3. Decision Analysis Methods Used to Make Appropriate Investments in Human Exploration Capabilities and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Hay, Jason; Reeves, John D.; Craig, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. Through pioneering, NASA seeks to address national goals to develop the capacity for people to work, learn, operate, live, and thrive safely beyond Earth for extended periods of time. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Prudent investments in capability and technology developments, based on mission need, are critical for enabling a campaign of human exploration missions. There are a wide variety of capabilities and technologies that could enable these missions, so it is a major challenge for NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to make knowledgeable portfolio decisions. It is critical for this pioneering initiative that these investment decisions are informed with a prioritization process that is robust and defensible. It is NASA's role to invest in targeted technologies and capabilities that would enable exploration missions even though specific requirements have not been identified. To inform these investments decisions, NASA's HEOMD has supported a variety of analysis activities that prioritize capabilities and technologies. These activities are often based on input from subject matter experts within the NASA community who understand the technical challenges of enabling human exploration missions. This paper will review a variety of processes and methods that NASA has used to prioritize and rank capabilities and technologies applicable to human space exploration. The paper will show the similarities in the various processes and showcase instances were customer specified priorities force modifications to the process. Specifically

  4. The Need for Analogue Missions in Scientific Human and Robotic Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, K. J.; Mendell, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing challenges of planetary missions, and especially with the prospect of human exploration of the moon and Mars, the need for earth-based mission simulations has never been greater. The current focus on science as a major driver for planetary exploration introduces new constraints in mission design, planning, operations, and technology development. Analogue missions can be designed to address critical new integration issues arising from the new science-driven exploration paradigm. This next step builds on existing field studies and technology development at analogue sites, providing engineering, programmatic, and scientific lessons-learned in relatively low-cost and low-risk environments. One of the most important outstanding questions in planetary exploration is how to optimize the human and robotic interaction to achieve maximum science return with minimum cost and risk. To answer this question, researchers are faced with the task of defining scientific return and devising ways of measuring the benefit of scientific planetary exploration to humanity. Earth-based and spacebased analogue missions are uniquely suited to answer this question. Moreover, they represent the only means for integrating science operations, mission operations, crew training, technology development, psychology and human factors, and all other mission elements prior to final mission design and launch. Eventually, success in future planetary exploration will depend on our ability to prepare adequately for missions, requiring improved quality and quantity of analogue activities. This effort demands more than simply developing new technologies needed for future missions and increasing our scientific understanding of our destinations. It requires a systematic approach to the identification and evaluation of the categories of analogue activities. This paper presents one possible approach to the classification and design of analogue missions based on their degree of fidelity in ten

  5. 391 Ways to Explore Arts and Humanities Careers: Classroom Activities in Dance, Music, Theater and Media, Visual Arts and Crafts, Writing, Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mary Lewis; And Others

    One of a series of 11 arts and humanities career exploration guides for grade 7-12 teachers, counselors, and students, this curriculum guide is intended to help teachers help students explore arts and humanities careers in regular grade 7-12 arts and humanities courses. Focus throughout the four sections is on augmenting, rather than replacing,…

  6. Molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhalaya, M Ya; Maksimov, G V; Rubin, A B; Lademann, J; Darvin, M E

    2014-07-01

    The generation of ROS underlies all solar infrared-affected therapeutic and pathological cutaneous effects. The signaling pathway NF-kB is responsible for the induced therapeutic effects, while the AP-1 for the pathological effects. The different signaling pathways of infrared-induced ROS and infrared-induced heat shock ROS were shown to act independently multiplying the influence on each other by increasing the doses of irradiation and/or increasing the temperature. The molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin are summarized and discussed in detail in the present paper. The critical doses are determined. Protection strategies against infrared-induced skin damage are proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High Sensitive Precise 3D Accelerometer for Solar System Exploration with Unmanned Spacecrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenko, Y. V.; Demyanenko, P. O.; Zinkovskiy, Y. F.

    ): threshold sensitivity is (10 -9 ldots 10 -13) g (threshold is determine by customer with determination of sizes of sensor and electronic processing unit); dynamic range is 10 7 ldots 10 9 ; frequency range is 0 ldots 10 Hz; mass is 50 grams; size: length is 120 mm and diameter is 20 mm In addition, that it can be used as accelerometer properly, on its base it is possible to create the strapdown inertial systems (SIS) for spacecraft. Flight control is carried out in accordance to flight programe of spacecraft without support connection with external reference objects. These SIS allow: - direct control over changes of orbital parameter or flight track, caused by action of extra low but long time external force factors (braking action of planet atmosphere remains, sun wind pressure, etc.) on spacecraft; - checking correction of orbital parameters (spacecraft track) by including of low power spaceborne engine; The developed accelerometer can be also used as high sensitive gravimeter for geophysical investigations and geological explorations - anywhere, where it is required to measure extra low deviation of terrestrial gravity value. High sensitivity of described accelerometers allows to create, on its base, gradientometers of real system for investigation of Planet gravity field heterogeneity from spacecraft orbit. This opens possibilities of practical solution of number important tasks of Planet physics.

  8. Performance of humans vs. exploration algorithms on the Tower of London Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Fimbel

    Full Text Available The Tower of London Test (TOL used to assess executive functions was inspired in Artificial Intelligence tasks used to test problem-solving algorithms. In this study, we compare the performance of humans and of exploration algorithms. Instead of absolute execution times, we focus on how the execution time varies with the tasks and/or the number of moves. This approach used in Algorithmic Complexity provides a fair comparison between humans and computers, although humans are several orders of magnitude slower. On easy tasks (1 to 5 moves, healthy elderly persons performed like exploration algorithms using bounded memory resources, i.e., the execution time grew exponentially with the number of moves. This result was replicated with a group of healthy young participants. However, for difficult tasks (5 to 8 moves the execution time of young participants did not increase significantly, whereas for exploration algorithms, the execution time keeps on increasing exponentially. A pre-and post-test control task showed a 25% improvement of visuo-motor skills but this was insufficient to explain this result. The findings suggest that naive participants used systematic exploration to solve the problem but under the effect of practice, they developed markedly more efficient strategies using the information acquired during the test.

  9. Progress Toward Electrostatic Radiation Shielding of Interplanetary Spacecraft: Strategies, Concepts and Technical Challenges of Human Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    The radiation problem is a serious obstacle to solar system exploration. Electrostatic shielding was previously dismissed as unworkable. This was based on the false assumption that radial symmetry is needed to provide isotropic protection. KSC recently demonstrated the feasibility of asymmetric, multipole electrostatic shielding. Combined with passive shielding it might solve the radiation problem

  10. Solar Photovoltaic

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, human demand for new energy sources is urgent, because the traditional fossil energy is unable to meet human needs, and the fossil resource will make pollution, in this situation, solar energy gradually into the vision of scientists. As science advances, humans can already extensive use of solar energy to generate electricity. Solar energy is an inexhaustible and clean energy. In the global energy crisis, environmental pollution is the growing problem of today. The us...

  11. Nrf2 Activation Protects against Solar-Simulated Ultraviolet Radiation in Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knatko, Elena V; Ibbotson, Sally H; Zhang, Ying; Higgins, Maureen; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Dawe, Robert S; Ferguson, James; Huang, Jeffrey T-J; Clarke, Rosemary; Zheng, Suqing; Saito, Akira; Kalra, Sukirti; Benedict, Andrea L; Honda, Tadashi; Proby, Charlotte M; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

    2015-06-01

    The transcription factor Nrf2 determines the ability to adapt and survive under conditions of electrophilic, oxidative, and inflammatory stress by regulating the expression of elaborate networks comprising nearly 500 genes encoding proteins with versatile cytoprotective functions. In mice, disruption of Nrf2 increases susceptibility to carcinogens and accelerates disease pathogenesis. Paradoxically, Nrf2 is upregulated in established human tumors, but whether this upregulation drives carcinogenesis is not known. Here we show that the incidence, multiplicity, and burden of solar-simulated UV radiation-mediated cutaneous tumors that form in SKH-1 hairless mice in which Nrf2 is genetically constitutively activated are lower than those that arise in their wild-type counterparts. Pharmacologic Nrf2 activation by topical biweekly applications of small (40 nmol) quantities of the potent bis(cyano enone) inducer TBE-31 has a similar protective effect against solar-simulated UV radiation in animals receiving long-term treatment with the immunosuppressive agent azathioprine. Genetic or pharmacologic Nrf2 activation lowers the expression of the pro-inflammatory factors IL6 and IL1β, and COX2 after acute exposure of mice to UV radiation. In healthy human subjects, topical applications of extracts delivering the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane reduced the degree of solar-simulated UV radiation-induced skin erythema, a quantifiable surrogate endpoint for cutaneous damage and skin cancer risk. Collectively, these data show that Nrf2 is not a driver for tumorigenesis even upon exposure to a very potent and complete carcinogen and strongly suggest that the frequent activation of Nrf2 in established human tumors is a marker of metabolic adaptation.

  12. Humanities data in R exploring networks, geospatial data, images, and text

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering book teaches readers to use R within four core analytical areas applicable to the Humanities: networks, text, geospatial data, and images. This book is also designed to be a bridge: between quantitative and qualitative methods, individual and collaborative work, and the humanities and social scientists. Exploring Humanities Data Types with R does not presuppose background programming experience. Early chapters take readers from R set-up to exploratory data analysis (continuous and categorical data, multivariate analysis, and advanced graphics with emphasis on aesthetics and facility). Everything is hands-on: networks are explained using U.S. Supreme Court opinions, and low-level NLP methods are applied to short stories by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. The book’s data, code, appendix with 100 basic programming exercises and solutions, and dedicated website are valuable resources for readers. The methodology will have wide application in classrooms and self-study for the humanities, but also for use...

  13. Effects of solar wind speed on the secondary energetic neutral source of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Funsten, H. O.; Heerikhuisen, J.; McComas, D. J.

    2016-02-01

    The Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) ribbon is an intense energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission feature encircling the sky, spanning energies ≤0.5-6 keV. The ribbon may be produced by the "secondary ENA" mechanism, where ENAs emitted from a source plasma population inside the heliosphere propagate outside the heliopause, undergo two charge-exchange events, and become secondary ENAs that may be directed back toward Earth and detected by IBEX. In this scenario, the source plasma population is governed by the interaction of the solar wind (SW) with the interstellar medium and is thus sensitive to the global SW properties. Moreover, this scenario predicts that the distance to the source of secondary ENAs depends on the ENA energy and SW speed, which in turn may affect the shape of the ribbon. In this paper, we use a computational model of the heliosphere with simplified SW boundary conditions to analyze the influence of ENA energy and SW speed, independent of time and latitude, on the global spatial and geometric properties of the ribbon. We find a strong dependence of the simulated ribbon energy spectrum and spatial symmetry on SW speed and ENA energy, and only a slight dependence on ribbon geometry. Our results suggest a significant number of primary ENAs from the inner heliosheath may contribute to the pickup ion source population outside the heliopause, depending on the ENA energy and SW speed. The lack of variation in the simulated ribbon center as a function of ENA energy and SW speed, in contrast to the observations, implies that the asymmetry of the SW plays an important role in determining the position of the ribbon. Comparisons to the IBEX data also signify the ribbon's dependence on the properties of the local interstellar medium, particularly the interstellar magnetic field.

  14. Towards a developmental ethology: exploring Deleuze's contribution to the study of health and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Cameron

    2010-11-01

    This article explores the work of French thinker Gilles Deleuze and argues for the application of his central ideas to the study of health and human development. Deleuze's work furnishes a host of ontological and epistemological resources for such analysis, ushering in new methods and establishing new objects of inquiry. Of principal interest are the inventive conceptualizations of affect, multiplicity and relationality that Deleuze proposes, and the novel reading of subjectivity that these concepts support. This article introduces a developmental ethology in exploring Deleuze's contributions to the study of human development and its varied courses and processes. Taken from a Deleuzean perspective, human development will be characterized as a discontinuous process of affective and relational encounters. It will be argued further that human development is advanced in the provision of new affective sensitivities and new relational capacities. This course is broadly consistent with existing approaches to human development--particularly those associated with Amartya Sen's capabilities model--with the considerable advantage of offering a more viable working theory of the ways in which developmental capacities are acquired, cultivated and maintained. A provisional research agenda consistent with this developmental ethology is offered by way of conclusion.

  15. Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for NASA's Deep Space Human Exploration Missions 2016-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James C.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has embarked on an endeavor that will enable humans to explore deep space, with the ultimate goal of sending humans to Mars. This journey will require significant developments in a wide range of technical areas, as resupply is unavailable in the Mars transit phase and early return is not possible. Additionally, mass, power, volume, and other resources must be minimized for all subsystems to reduce propulsion needs. Among the critical areas identified for development are life support systems, which will require increases in reliability and reductions in resources. This paper discusses current and planned developments in the area of carbon dioxide removal to support crewed Mars-class missions.

  16. Modeling and Simulation for Exploring Human-Robot Team Interaction Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean; Bruemmer, David Jonathon; Davis, Midge Lee

    2001-12-01

    Small-sized and micro-robots will soon be available for deployment in large-scale forces. Consequently, the ability of a human operator to coordinate and interact with largescale robotic forces is of great interest. This paper describes the ways in which modeling and simulation have been used to explore new possibilities for human-robot interaction. The paper also discusses how these explorations have fed implementation of a unified set of command and control concepts for robotic force deployment. Modeling and simulation can play a major role in fielding robot teams in actual missions. While live testing is preferred, limitations in terms of technology, cost, and time often prohibit extensive experimentation with physical multi-robot systems. Simulation provides insight, focuses efforts, eliminates large areas of the possible solution space, and increases the quality of actual testing.

  17. Restorative urban open space: Exploring the spatial configuration of human emotional fulfilment in urban open space

    OpenAIRE

    Thwaites, K.; Helleur, E.; Simkins, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity of outdoor settings to benefit human well being is well established by research. Examples of restorative settings can be found throughout history and are still applied today in health-care facilities, as healing or restorative gardens for the sick, but their wider significance in the urban public realm remains insufficiently explored. A conceptual framework for restorative urban open space based on mosaics of linked and nested spaces woven into the urban fabric is presented. The ...

  18. Rationalizing spatial exploration patterns of wild animals and humans through a temporal discounting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Levy, Joshua M; Mihalas, Stefan; Sims, David W; Hussain Shuler, Marshall G

    2016-08-02

    Understanding the exploration patterns of foragers in the wild provides fundamental insight into animal behavior. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that path lengths (distances between consecutive turns) taken by foragers are well fitted by a power law distribution. Numerous theoretical contributions have posited that "Lévy random walks"-which can produce power law path length distributions-are optimal for memoryless agents searching a sparse reward landscape. It is unclear, however, whether such a strategy is efficient for cognitively complex agents, from wild animals to humans. Here, we developed a model to explain the emergence of apparent power law path length distributions in animals that can learn about their environments. In our model, the agent's goal during search is to build an internal model of the distribution of rewards in space that takes into account the cost of time to reach distant locations (i.e., temporally discounting rewards). For an agent with such a goal, we find that an optimal model of exploration in fact produces hyperbolic path lengths, which are well approximated by power laws. We then provide support for our model by showing that humans in a laboratory spatial exploration task search space systematically and modify their search patterns under a cost of time. In addition, we find that path length distributions in a large dataset obtained from free-ranging marine vertebrates are well described by our hyperbolic model. Thus, we provide a general theoretical framework for understanding spatial exploration patterns of cognitively complex foragers.

  19. Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Resource Utilization, Science, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Friedensen, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and planetary defence. Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. With respect to planetary defence, in 2005 the U.S. Congress directed NASA to implement a survey program to detect, track, and characterize NEAs equal or greater than 140 m in diameter in order to access the threat from such objects to the Earth. The current goal of this survey is to achieve 90% completion of objects equal or greater than 140 m in diameter by 2020.

  20. Exploring the prominence-corona connection and its expansion into the outer corona using total solar eclipse observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habbal, Shadia Rifai [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Morgan, Huw [Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion, Cymru SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Druckmüller, Miloslav, E-mail: shadia@ifa.hawaii.edu [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-01

    Prominences constitute the most complex magnetic structures in the solar corona. The ubiquitous presence of their seemingly confined dense and cool plasma in an otherwise million-degree environment remains a puzzle. Using a decade of white light total solar eclipse observations, we show how these images reveal an intricate relationship between prominences and coronal structures both in their immediate vicinity, known as coronal cavities, and in the extended corona out to several solar radii. Observations of suspended prominences and twisted helical structures spanning several solar radii are central to these findings. The different manifestations of the prominence-corona interface that emerge from this study underscore the fundamental role played by prominences in defining and controlling the complex expansion and dynamic behavior of the solar magnetic field in the neighborhood of magnetic polarity reversal regions. This study suggests that the unraveling of prominences and the outward expansion of the helical twisted field lines linked to them could be the solar origin of twisted magnetic flux ropes detected in interplanetary space, and of the mechanism by which the Sun sheds its magnetic helicity. This work also underscores the likely role of the prominence-corona interface as a source of the slow solar wind.

  1. Enabling Future Science and Human Exploration with NASA's Next Generation near Earth and Deep Space Communications and Navigation Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Schier, James S.; Israel, David J.; Tai, Wallace; Liebrecht, Philip E.; Townes, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is studying alternatives for the United States space communications architecture through the 2040 timeframe. This architecture provides communication and navigation services to both human exploration and science missions throughout the solar system. Several of NASA's key space assets are approaching their end of design life and major systems are in need of replacement. The changes envisioned in the relay satellite architecture and capabilities around both Earth and Mars are significant undertakings and occur only once or twice each generation, and therefore is referred to as NASA's next generation space communications architecture. NASA's next generation architecture will benefit from technology and services developed over recent years. These innovations will provide missions with new operations concepts, increased performance, and new business and operating models. Advancements in optical communications will enable high-speed data channels and the use of new and more complex science instruments. Modern multiple beam/multiple access technologies such as those employed on commercial high throughput satellites will enable enhanced capabilities for on-demand service, and with new protocols will help provide Internet-like connectivity for cooperative spacecraft to improve data return and coordinate joint mission objectives. On-board processing with autonomous and cognitive networking will play larger roles to help manage system complexity. Spacecraft and ground systems will coordinate among themselves to establish communications, negotiate link connectivity, and learn to share spectrum to optimize resource allocation. Spacecraft will autonomously navigate, plan trajectories, and handle off-nominal events. NASA intends to leverage the ever-expanding capabilities of the satellite communications industry and foster its continued growth. NASA's technology development will complement and extend commercial capabilities

  2. NEEMO 15: Evaluation of human exploration systems for near-Earth asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2013-08-01

    The NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 15 mission was focused on evaluating techniques for exploring near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). It began with a University of Delaware autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) systematically mapping the coral reef for hundreds of meters surrounding the Aquarius habitat. This activity is akin to the type of "far-field survey" approach that may be used by a robotic precursor in advance of a human mission to a NEA. Data from the far-field survey were then examined by the NEEMO science team and follow-up exploration traverses were planned, which used Deepworker single-person submersibles. Science traverses at NEEMO 15 were planned according to a prioritized list of objectives developed by the science team. These objectives were based on review and discussion of previous related marine science research, including previous marine science saturation missions conducted at the Aquarius habitat. AUV data were used to select several areas of scientific interest. The Deepworker science traverses were then executed at these areas of interest during 4 days of the NEEMO 15 mission and provided higher resolution data such as coral species distribution and mortality. These traverses are analogous to the "near-field survey" approach that is expected to be performed by a Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) during a human mission to a NEA before extravehicular activities (EVAs) are conducted. In addition to the science objectives that were pursued, the NEEMO 15 traverses provided an opportunity to test newly developed software and techniques. Sample collection and instrument deployment on the NEA surface by EVA crew would follow the "near-field survey" in a human NEA mission. Sample collection was not necessary for the purposes of the NEEMO science objectives; however, the engineering and operations objectives during NEEMO 15 were to evaluate different combinations of vehicles, crew members, tools, and equipment that could be

  3. Human missions to Mars enabling technologies for exploring the red planet

    CERN Document Server

    Rapp, Donald

    2016-01-01

    A mission to send humans to explore the surface of Mars has been the ultimate goal of planetary exploration since the 1950s, when von Braun conjectured a flotilla of 10 interplanetary vessels carrying a crew of at least 70 humans. Since then, more than 1,000 studies were carried out on human missions to Mars, but after 60 years of study, we remain in the early planning stages. The second edition of this book now includes an annotated history of Mars mission studies, with quantitative data wherever possible. Retained from the first edition, Donald Rapp looks at human missions to Mars from an engineering perspective. He divides the mission into a number of stages: Earth’s surface to low-Earth orbit (LEO); departing from LEO toward Mars; Mars orbit insertion and entry, descent and landing; ascent from Mars; trans-Earth injection from Mars orbit and Earth return. For each segment, he analyzes requirements for candidate technologies. In this connection, he discusses the status and potential of a wide range of el...

  4. Human cortical θ during free exploration encodes space and predicts subsequent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Joseph; Plank, Markus; Lynch, Gary; Halgren, Eric; Poizner, Howard

    2013-09-18

    Spatial representations and walking speed in rodents are consistently related to the phase, frequency, and/or amplitude of θ rhythms in hippocampal local field potentials. However, neuropsychological studies in humans have emphasized the importance of parietal cortex for spatial navigation, and efforts to identify the electrophysiological signs of spatial navigation in humans have been stymied by the difficulty of recording during free exploration of complex environments. We resolved the recording problem and experimentally probed brain activity of human participants who were fully ambulant. On each of 2 d, electroencephalography was synchronized with head and body movement in 13 subjects freely navigating an extended virtual environment containing numerous unique objects. θ phase and amplitude recorded over parietal cortex were consistent when subjects walked through a particular spatial separation at widely separated times. This spatial displacement θ autocorrelation (STAcc) was quantified and found to be significant from 2 to 8 Hz within the environment. Similar autocorrelation analyses performed on an electrooculographic channel, used to measure eye movements, showed no significant spatial autocorrelations, ruling out eye movements as the source of STAcc. Strikingly, the strength of an individual's STAcc maps from day 1 significantly predicted object location recall success on day 2. θ was also significantly correlated with walking speed; however, this correlation appeared unrelated to STAcc and did not predict memory performance. This is the first demonstration of memory-related, spatial maps in humans generated during active spatial exploration.

  5. Exploring Human Mobility Patterns Based on Location Information of US Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2011-01-01

    A range of early studies have been conducted to illustrate human mobility patterns using different tracking data, such as dollar notes, cell phones and taxicabs. Here, we explore human mobility patterns based on massive tracking data of US flights. Both topological and geometric properties are examined in detail. We found that topological properties, such as traffic volume (between airports) and degree of connectivity (of individual airports), including both in- and outdegrees, follow a power law distribution but not a geometric property like travel lengths. The travel lengths exhibit an exponential distribution rather than a power law with an exponential cutoff as previous studies illustrated. We further simulated human mobility on the established topologies of airports with various moving behaviors and found that the mobility patterns are mainly attributed to the underlying binary topology of airports and have little to do with other factors, such as moving behaviors and geometric distances. Apart from the ...

  6. Effects of isolation and confinement on humans-implications for manned space explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, J I; Choukèr, A

    2016-06-15

    Human psychology and physiology are significantly altered by isolation and confinement. In light of planned exploration class interplanetary missions, the related adverse effects on the human body need to be explored and defined as they have a large impact on a mission's success. Terrestrial space analogs offer an excellent controlled environment to study some of these stressors during a space mission in isolation without the complex environment of the International Space Station. Participants subjected to these space analog conditions can encounter typical symptoms ranging from neurocognitive changes, fatigue, misaligned circadian rhythm, sleep disorders, altered stress hormone levels, and immune modulatory changes. This review focuses on both the psychological and the physiological responses observed in participants of long-duration spaceflight analog studies, such as Mars500 or Antarctic winter-over. They provide important insight into similarities and differences encountered in each simulated setting. The identification of adverse effects from confinement allows not only the crew to better prepare for but also to design feasible countermeasures that will help support space travelers during exploration class missions in the future. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Low-Latency Teleoperations for Human Exploration and Evolvable Mars Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, Mark; Wright, Michael; Arney, Dale; Gershman, Bob; Stillwagen, Fred; Bobskill, Marianne; Johnson, James; Shyface, Hilary; Larman, Kevin; Lewis, Ruthan; Bleacher, Jake; Gernhardt, Mike; Mueller, Rob; Sanders, Gerald; Watts, Kevin; Eigenbrode, Jen; Garry, Brent; Freeh, Joshua; Manzella, David; Hack, Kurt; Aranyos, Tom

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been analyzing a number of mission concepts and activities that involve low-latency telerobotic (LLT) operations. One mission concept that will be covered in this presentation is Crew-Assisted Sample Return which involves the crew acquiring samples (1) that have already been delivered to space, and or acquiring samples via LLT from orbit to a planetary surface and then launching the samples to space to be captured in space and then returned to the earth with the crew. Both versions of have key roles for low-latency teleoperations. More broadly, the NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign is exploring a number of other activities that involve LLT, such as: (a) human asteroid missions, (b) PhobosDeimos missions, (c) Mars human landing site reconnaissance and site preparation, and (d) Mars sample handling and analysis. Many of these activities could be conducted from Mars orbit and also with the crew on the Mars surface remotely operating assets elsewhere on the surface, e.g. for exploring Mars special regions and or teleoperating a sample analysis laboratory both of which may help address planetary protection concerns. The operational and technology implications of low-latency teleoperations will be explored, including discussion of relevant items in the NASA Technology Roadmap and also how previously deployed robotic assets from any source could subsequently be used by astronauts via LLT.

  8. Assessing the Biohazard Potential of Putative Martian Organisms for Exploration Class Human Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmflash, David; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey; Fox, George E.; McKay, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Exploration Class missions to Mars will require precautions against potential contamination by any native microorganisms that may be incidentally pathogenic to humans. While the results of NASA's Viking biology experiments of 1976 have been generally interpreted as inconclusive for surface organisms, the possibility of native surface life has never been ruled out and more recent studies suggest that the case for biological interpretation of the Viking Labeled Release data may now be stronger than it was when the experiments were originally conducted. It is possible that, prior to the first human landing on Mars, robotic craft and sample return missions will provide enough data to know with certainty whether or not future human landing sites harbor extant life forms. However, if native life is confirmed, it will be problematic to determine whether any of its species may present a medical risk to astronauts. Therefore, it will become necessary to assess empirically the risk that the planet contains pathogens based on terrestrial examples of pathogenicity and to take a reasonably cautious approach to bio-hazard protection. A survey of terrestrial pathogens was conducted with special emphasis on those pathogens whose evolution has not depended on the presence of animal hosts. The history of the development and implementation of Apollo anticontamination protocol and recent recommendations of the NRC Space Studies Board regarding Mars were reviewed. Organisms can emerge in nature in the absence of indigenous animal hosts and both infectious and non-infectious human pathogens are theoretically possible on Mars. The prospect of Martian surface life, together with the existence of a diversity of routes by which pathogenicity has emerged on Earth, suggests that the possibility of human pathogens on Mars, while low, is not zero. Since the discovery and study of Martian life can have long-term benefits for humanity, the risk that Martian life might include pathogens should not

  9. Can your country make you sick? Multi-level explorations of population health and human rights in a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating health and human rights from a socio-epidemiological perspective is emerging. Still there is a noticeable paucity of research that empirically links population health to human rights concerns. In this thesis, three examples relevant to human rights are explored. We investigate

  10. Can your country make you sick? Multi-level explorations of population health and human rights in a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating health and human rights from a socio-epidemiological perspective is emerging. Still there is a noticeable paucity of research that empirically links population health to human rights concerns. In this thesis, three examples relevant to human rights are explored. We investigate

  11. A Delphi-Based Framework for systems architecting of in-orbit exploration infrastructure for human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbargolkar, Alessandro; Crawley, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The current debate in the U.S. Human Spaceflight Program focuses on the development of the next generation of man-rated heavy lift launch vehicles. While launch vehicle systems are of critical importance for future exploration, a comprehensive analysis of the entire exploration infrastructure is required to avoid costly pitfalls at early stages of the design process. This paper addresses this need by presenting a Delphi-Based Systems Architecting Framework for integrated architectural analysis of future in-orbit infrastructure for human space exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit. The paper is structured in two parts. The first part consists of an expert elicitation study to identify objectives for the in-space transportation infrastructure. The study was conducted between November 2011 and January 2012 with 15 senior experts involved in human spaceflight in the United States and Europe. The elicitation study included the formation of three expert panels representing exploration, science, and policy stakeholders engaged in a 3-round Delphi study. The rationale behind the Delphi approach, as imported from social science research, is discussed. Finally, a novel version of the Delphi method is presented and applied to technical decision-making and systems architecting in the context of human space exploration. The second part of the paper describes a tradespace exploration study of in-orbit infrastructure coupled with a requirements definition exercise informed by expert elicitation. The uncertainties associated with technical requirements and stakeholder goals are explicitly considered in the analysis. The outcome of the expert elicitation process portrays an integrated view of perceived stakeholder needs within the human spaceflight community. Needs are subsequently converted into requirements and coupled to the system architectures of interest to analyze the correlation between exploration, science, and policy goals. Pareto analysis is used to identify architectures

  12. Martian Surface Boundary Layer Characterization: Enabling Environmental Data for Science, Engineering and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, C.

    2000-01-01

    For human or large robotic exploration of Mars, engineering devices such as power sources will be utilized that interact closely with the Martian environment. Heat sources for power production, for example, will use the low ambient temperature for efficient heat rejection. The Martian ambient, however, is highly variable, and will have a first order influence on the efficiency and operation of all large-scale equipment. Diurnal changes in temperature, for example, can vary the theoretical efficiency of power production by 15% and affect the choice of equipment, working fluids, and operating parameters. As part of the Mars Exploration program, missions must acquire the environmental data needed for design, operation and maintenance of engineering equipment including the transportation devices. The information should focus on the variability of the environment, and on the differences among locations including latitudes, altitudes, and seasons. This paper outlines some of the WHY's, WHAT's and WHERE's of the needed data, as well as some examples of how this data will be used. Environmental data for engineering design should be considered a priority in Mars Exploration planning. The Mars Thermal Environment Radiator Characterization (MTERC), and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiments planned for early Mars landers are examples of information needed for even small robotic missions. Large missions will require proportionately more accurate data that encompass larger samples of the Martian surface conditions. In achieving this goal, the Mars Exploration program will also acquire primary data needed for understanding Martian weather, surface evolution, and ground-atmosphere interrelationships.

  13. Human and Robotic Mission to Small Bodies: Mapping, Planning and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffian, Ara V.; Bellerose, Julie; Beyer, Ross A.; Archinal, Brent; Edwards, Laurence; Lee, Pascal; Colaprete, Anthony; Fong, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the requirements, performs a gap analysis and makes a set of recommendations for mapping products and exploration tools required to support operations and scientific discovery for near- term and future NASA missions to small bodies. The mapping products and their requirements are based on the analysis of current mission scenarios (rendezvous, docking, and sample return) and recommendations made by the NEA Users Team (NUT) in the framework of human exploration. The mapping products that sat- isfy operational, scienti c, and public outreach goals include topography, images, albedo, gravity, mass, density, subsurface radar, mineralogical and thermal maps. The gap analysis points to a need for incremental generation of mapping products from low (flyby) to high-resolution data needed for anchoring and docking, real-time spatial data processing for hazard avoidance and astronaut or robot localization in low gravity, high dynamic environments, and motivates a standard for coordinate reference systems capable of describing irregular body shapes. Another aspect investigated in this study is the set of requirements and the gap analysis for exploration tools that support visualization and simulation of operational conditions including soil interactions, environment dynamics, and communications coverage. Building robust, usable data sets and visualisation/simulation tools is the best way for mission designers and simulators to make correct decisions for future missions. In the near term, it is the most useful way to begin building capabilities for small body exploration without needing to commit to specific mission architectures.

  14. Martian Surface Boundary Layer Characterization: Enabling Environmental Data for Science, Engineering and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, C.

    2000-01-01

    For human or large robotic exploration of Mars, engineering devices such as power sources will be utilized that interact closely with the Martian environment. Heat sources for power production, for example, will use the low ambient temperature for efficient heat rejection. The Martian ambient, however, is highly variable, and will have a first order influence on the efficiency and operation of all large-scale equipment. Diurnal changes in temperature, for example, can vary the theoretical efficiency of power production by 15% and affect the choice of equipment, working fluids, and operating parameters. As part of the Mars Exploration program, missions must acquire the environmental data needed for design, operation and maintenance of engineering equipment including the transportation devices. The information should focus on the variability of the environment, and on the differences among locations including latitudes, altitudes, and seasons. This paper outlines some of the WHY's, WHAT's and WHERE's of the needed data, as well as some examples of how this data will be used. Environmental data for engineering design should be considered a priority in Mars Exploration planning. The Mars Thermal Environment Radiator Characterization (MTERC), and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiments planned for early Mars landers are examples of information needed for even small robotic missions. Large missions will require proportionately more accurate data that encompass larger samples of the Martian surface conditions. In achieving this goal, the Mars Exploration program will also acquire primary data needed for understanding Martian weather, surface evolution, and ground-atmosphere interrelationships.

  15. Exploring Visual Evidence of Human Impact on the Environment with Planetary-Scale Zoomable Timelapse Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, R.; Egge, M.; Dille, P. S.; O'Donnell, G. D.; Herwig, C.

    2016-12-01

    Visual evidence ignites curiosity and inspires advocacy. Zoomable imagery and video on a planetary scale provides compelling evidence of human impact on the environment. Earth Timelapse places the observable impact of 30+ years of human activity into the hands of policy makers, scientists, and advocates, with fluidity and speed that supports inquiry and exploration. Zoomability enables compelling narratives and ready apprehension of environmental changes, connecting human-scale evidence to regional and ecosystem-wide trends and changes. Leveraging the power of Google Earth Engine, join us to explore 30+ years of Landset 30m RGB imagery showing glacial retreat, agricultural deforestation, irrigation expansion, and the disappearance of lakes. These narratives are enriched with datasets showing planetary forest gain/loss, annual cycles of agricultural fires, global changes in the health of coral reefs, trends in resource extraction, and of renewable energy development. We demonstrate the intuitive and inquiry-enabling power of these planetary visualizations, and provide instruction on how scientists and advocates can create and share or contribute visualizations of their own research or topics of interest.

  16. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy as a Counter-Measure for Human Exploration of Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, S.; Roach, A.-N.; Ramsahai, S.; Kim, B. C.; Fitzgerald, W.; Riley, D. A.; Gonda, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    Human exploration of deep space depends, in part, on our ability to counter severe/invasive disorders that astronauts experience in space environments. The known symptoms include hematological/cardiac abnormalities,bone and muscle losses, immunodeficiency, neurological disorders, and cancer. Exploiting the extraordinary plasticity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which differentiate not only to all types of blood cells, but also to various tissues, we have advanced a hypothesis that ome of the space-caused disorders maybe amenable to hematopoietis stem cell therapy(HSCT) so as to maintain promote human exploration of deep space. Using mouse models of human anemia beta-thaiassemia) as well as spaceflight (hindlimb unloading system), we have obtained feasibility results of HSCT for space anemia, muscle loss, and immunodeficiency. For example, in the case of HSCT for muscle loss, the beta-galactosidese marked HSCs were detected in the hindlimbs of unloaded mouse following transplantation by -X-gal wholemaunt staining procedure. Histochemicaland physical analyses indicated structural contribution of HSCs to the muscle. HSCT for immunodeficiency was investigated ising beta-galactosidese gene-tagged Escherichia coli as the infectious agent. Results of the X-gal staining procedure indicated the rapeutic role of the HSCT. To facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs were optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

  17. Using Pareto optimality to explore the topology and dynamics of the human connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena-Koenigsberger, Andrea; Goñi, Joaquín; Betzel, Richard F; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Griffa, Alessandra; Hagmann, Patric; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Sporns, Olaf

    2014-10-05

    Graph theory has provided a key mathematical framework to analyse the architecture of human brain networks. This architecture embodies an inherently complex relationship between connection topology, the spatial arrangement of network elements, and the resulting network cost and functional performance. An exploration of these interacting factors and driving forces may reveal salient network features that are critically important for shaping and constraining the brain's topological organization and its evolvability. Several studies have pointed to an economic balance between network cost and network efficiency with networks organized in an 'economical' small-world favouring high communication efficiency at a low wiring cost. In this study, we define and explore a network morphospace in order to characterize different aspects of communication efficiency in human brain networks. Using a multi-objective evolutionary approach that approximates a Pareto-optimal set within the morphospace, we investigate the capacity of anatomical brain networks to evolve towards topologies that exhibit optimal information processing features while preserving network cost. This approach allows us to investigate network topologies that emerge under specific selection pressures, thus providing some insight into the selectional forces that may have shaped the network architecture of existing human brains.

  18. Visual exploration patterns of human figures in action: an eye tracker study with art paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Daniela; Morganti, Francesca; Cipresso, Pietro; Ruggi, Simona; Riva, Giuseppe; Gilli, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Art exploration is a complex process conditioned by factors at different levels and includes both basic visual principles and complex cognitive factors. The human figure is considered a critical factor attracting the attention in art painting. Using an eye-tracking methodology, the goal of this study was to explore different elements of the human figure performing an action (face and body parts in action) in complex social scenes characterized by different levels of social interaction between agents depicted in scenes (individual vs. social). The sample included 44 laypersons, and the stimuli consisted of 10 fine art paintings representing the figurative style of classical art. The results revealed different scanning patterns of the human figure elements related to the level of social interaction of agents depicted in the scene. The agents' face attracted eye movements in social interaction scenes while the agents' body parts attracted eye movements only when the agents were involved in individual actions. These processes were confirmed specifically in participants with high empathic abilities who became immediately fixated on faces to develop a mimetic engagement with other agents. Future studies integrating other measures would help confirm the results obtained and strengthen their implication for embodiment processes.

  19. Exploring the human body space: A geographical information system based anatomical atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barbeito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical atlases allow mapping the anatomical structures of the human body. Early versions of these systems consisted of analogical representations with informative text and labeled images of the human body. With computer systems, digital versions emerged and the third and fourth dimensions were introduced. Consequently, these systems increased their efficiency, allowing more realistic visualizations with improved interactivity and functionality. The 4D atlases allow modeling changes over time on the structures represented. The anatomical atlases based on geographic information system (GIS environments allow the creation of platforms with a high degree of interactivity and new tools to explore and analyze the human body. In this study we expand the functions of a human body representation system by creating new vector data, topology, functions, and an improved user interface. The new prototype emulates a 3D GIS with a topological model of the human body, replicates the information provided by anatomical atlases, and provides a higher level of functionality and interactivity. At this stage, the developed system is intended to be used as an educational tool and integrates into the same interface the typical representations of surface and sectional atlases.

  20. Towards human exploration of space: The THESEUS review series on immunology research priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jean-Pol, Frippiat; Crucian, Brian E; de Quervain, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    to maintain immune homeostasis under such challenges. In the framework of the THESEUS project whose aim was to develop an integrated life sciences research roadmap regarding human space exploration, experts working in the field of space immunology, and related disciplines, established a questionnaire sent......Dysregulation of the immune system occurs during spaceflight and may represent a crew health risk during exploration missions because astronauts are challenged by many stressors. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the biology of immune modulation under spaceflight conditions in order to be able...... to scientists around the world. From the review of collected answers, they deduced a list of key issues and provided several recommendations such as a maximal exploitation of currently available resources on Earth and in space, and to increase increments duration for some ISS crew members to 12 months or longer...

  1. The University Rover Challenge: A competition highlighting Human and Robotic partnerships for exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather; Duncan, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The University Rover Challenge began in 2006 with 4 American college teams competing, now in it's 10th year there are 63 teams from 12 countries registered to compete for the top rover designed to assist humans in the exploration of Mars. The Rovers compete aided by the University teams in four tasks (3 engineering and 1 science) in the Mars analog environment of the Utah Southern Desert in the United States. In this presentation we show amazing rover designs with videos demonstrating the incredible ingenuity, skill and determination of the world's most talented college students. We describe the purpose and results of each of the tasks: Astronaut Assistant, Rover Dexterity, Terrain maneuvering, and Science. We explain the evolution of the competition and common challenges faced by the robotic explorers

  2. Solar Simulated Ultraviolet Radiation Induces Global Histone Hypoacetylation in Human Keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoru Zhang

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation (UVR from sunlight is the primary effector of skin DNA damage. Chromatin remodeling and histone post-translational modification (PTM are critical factors in repairing DNA damage and maintaining genomic integrity, however, the dynamic changes of histone marks in response to solar UVR are not well characterized. Here we report global changes in histone PTMs induced by solar simulated UVR (ssUVR. A decrease in lysine acetylation of histones H3 and H4, particularly at positions of H3 lysine 9, lysine 56, H4 lysine 5, and lysine 16, was found in human keratinocytes exposed to ssUVR. These acetylation changes were highly associated with ssUVR in a dose-dependent and time-specific manner. Interestingly, H4K16ac, a mark that is crucial for higher order chromatin structure, exhibited a persistent reduction by ssUVR that was transmitted through multiple cell divisions. In addition, the enzymatic activities of histone acetyltransferases were significantly reduced in irradiated cells, which may account for decreased global acetylation. Moreover, depletion of histone deacetylase SIRT1 in keratinocytes rescued ssUVR-induced H4K16 hypoacetylation. These results indicate that ssUVR affects both HDAC and HAT activities, leading to reduced histone acetylation.

  3. Solar Simulated Ultraviolet Radiation Induces Global Histone Hypoacetylation in Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoru; Kluz, Thomas; Gesumaria, Lisa; Matsui, Mary S; Costa, Max; Sun, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight is the primary effector of skin DNA damage. Chromatin remodeling and histone post-translational modification (PTM) are critical factors in repairing DNA damage and maintaining genomic integrity, however, the dynamic changes of histone marks in response to solar UVR are not well characterized. Here we report global changes in histone PTMs induced by solar simulated UVR (ssUVR). A decrease in lysine acetylation of histones H3 and H4, particularly at positions of H3 lysine 9, lysine 56, H4 lysine 5, and lysine 16, was found in human keratinocytes exposed to ssUVR. These acetylation changes were highly associated with ssUVR in a dose-dependent and time-specific manner. Interestingly, H4K16ac, a mark that is crucial for higher order chromatin structure, exhibited a persistent reduction by ssUVR that was transmitted through multiple cell divisions. In addition, the enzymatic activities of histone acetyltransferases were significantly reduced in irradiated cells, which may account for decreased global acetylation. Moreover, depletion of histone deacetylase SIRT1 in keratinocytes rescued ssUVR-induced H4K16 hypoacetylation. These results indicate that ssUVR affects both HDAC and HAT activities, leading to reduced histone acetylation.

  4. The ambiguity of human ashes: Exploring encounters with cremated remains in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    This article explores cremation and disposal practices in the Netherlands, focusing on the attitudes and experiences of bereaved Dutch people in relation to cremated remains. In academic and professional narratives, human ashes are commonly described as "important," as "sacred," and as a vehicle to continue intense and physical relationships with the dead. Based on quantitative and qualitative data this article illustrates the ambiguity of such relationships. It highlights the diverse experiences, unexpected challenges, and moral obligations that can be evoked by the deceased's ashes, where the latter are seen as embedded in material practices and entangled in social relationships.

  5. Modern Gemini-Approach to Technology Development for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold

    2010-01-01

    In NASA's plan to put men on the moon, there were three sequential programs: Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. The Gemini program was used to develop and integrate the technologies that would be necessary for the Apollo program to successfully put men on the moon. We would like to present an analogous modern approach that leverages legacy ISS hardware designs, and integrates developing new technologies into a flexible architecture This new architecture is scalable, sustainable, and can be used to establish human exploration infrastructure beyond low earth orbit and into deep space.

  6. A U.S. perspective on the human exploration and expansion on the planet Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Connolly, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA perspective on the human exploration of Mars is presented which is based on the fundamental background available from the many previous studies. A hypothetical architecture of the Mars surface system is described which represents the complete spectrum of envisioned activities. Using the Strategic Implementation Architecture it is possible to construct a thoughtful roadmap which would enable a logical and flexible evolution of missions. Based on that architecture a suite of Martian surface elements is proposed to provide increasing levels of capability to the maturing infrastructure.

  7. Exploring the implications of social change for human development: perspectives, issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have investigated the implications of social change for human development from different perspectives. The studies published in this special section were conducted within Greenfield's theoretical framework (2009). The findings concerning links between specific sociodemographic features (e.g., commercial activities, schooling) and individual cognition and social behaviour are particularly interesting because they tap the underlying forces that drive human development. To further understand the issues in these studies and in the field, a pluralist-constructive perspective is discussed, which emphasises the integration of diverse values and practices in both Western and non-Western societies and its effects on the development of sophisticated competencies in individual adaptation to the changing global community. In addition, several issues are highlighted and some suggestions are provided for future explorations in this field.

  8. Macaques in farms and folklore: exploring the human-nonhuman primate interface in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Erin P; Priston, Nancy E C

    2010-09-01

    The island of Sulawesi is an ecologically diverse and anthropogenically complex region in the Indonesian archipelago; it is home to multiple macaque species and a key locus of human-nonhuman primate interconnections. Here, we review the ethnoprimatology of Sulawesi by exploring two primary domains of the human-macaque interface: overlapping resource use and cultural perceptions of macaques. Crop raiding is the primary form of overlapping resource use. While the raiding of cacao plantations predominates in Central and South Sulawesi, subsistence crops (e.g., sweet potato and maize) are most vulnerable on Buton, Southeast Sulawesi. Despite this overlap levels of conflict are generally low, with farmers showing considerable tolerance. This tolerance can be explained by positive perceptions of the macaques despite their crop raiding behavior, and the finding that in some areas macaques figure prominently in local folklore, hence affording them protection. These findings provide some hope for the future management and conservation of these endemic macaques.

  9. An exploration in the will psychology of Otto Rank: human intentionality and individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, Masayo

    2012-12-01

    The author explores the meaning and the importance of the will in Rank's relation-based self-creative, self-constructive psychology and argues for the consideration of the concept of the will in psychoanalysis. The paper shows that Rank's concept of the will explains what gives a human being the impetus to choose an action, positive or negative. When validated by the other, this will, the power of intention, enables a person to create his/her unique individuality. The paper reviews Rank's definition of will and traces the evolution of his ideas of intentionality in his writings. Further, the author discusses how Rank attempts to capture the subtle movements of the human mind as suffused with struggles and dynamic interplay between external and internal forces.

  10. A General Education Course in Cultural Astronomy: Exploring the Universe Through Human Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy courses for non-science majors (often referred to as Astro 101) are the bread and butter of the general education service obligation of astronomy faculty and programs across the US. Their content has traditionally been a general survey of the solar system, stars and galaxies, or even the entire universe. However, because the audience is students who will not be continuing on in astronomy, there is actually no need to cover a broad range of specific topics. Rather, it is more important to concentrate on the scientific process, and hopefully leave the student with an understanding of the relevance of science in everyday life, regardless of his or her major. As a result, some faculty prefer a more interdisciplinary focus for their Astro 101 classes, for example courses on the search for extraterrestrial life. Another option for general education astronomy courses is what has become known as cultural astronomy. Cultural astronomy focuses on the ways in which astronomical knowledge and belief influences human behavior and social structures. Under this umbrella fall two important areas of study, archaeoastronomy (concentrating on ancient cultures) and enthoastronomy (focusing on extant cultures). Such interdisciplinary courses draw heavily upon archaeology, history, anthropology, art, and other fields more traditionally aligned with the humanities and social sciences than the natural sciences, and therefore can be attractive to students in these non-science majors. In such courses, students experience the “humanity” of science: the important connections between science and the human experience, and how experts in myriad fields contribute in meaningful ways to our understanding of how astronomical knowledge has been constructed and disseminated across time and space. This poster describes the content and pedagogy of a general education course in cultural astronomy for non-science majors that stresses hands-on and experiential learning, including the use of

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Human Capital Investment and Corporate Financial Performance of Jordanian Industrial Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Nasif ALSHUBIRI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The revolution of globalization, computerization and information technology has entered to Jordanian market. This phenomenon requires company's attention of human element and the acquired knowledge, experience and the development of the so-called concept of intellectual capital.(IC In this study I used only the human capital as a part of IC. This study aims to exploring the relationship between human capital investment (HCI, and corporate financial performance. This study used an 11 industrial sectors listed of Amman Stock Exchange from 2005to 2011. Correlation analysis tests used in this study and the results indicate the high positive significant relationship between HCI and corporate financial performance related to, ROE , PTBV , log of sales , log of assets , DPS and ICR but no significant relationship between HCI and WCTO. The researcher recommends industrial companies to strengthen and stimulate the concept of human capital in the companies and the need for develop administrative innovation program. For future analysis may be used more sectors listed in market in addition used the all parts of intellectual capital related to structural and physical capital with corporate financial performance.

  12. Ubiquitous Geo-Sensing for Context-Aware Analysis: Exploring Relationships between Environmental and Human Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Beinat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous geo-sensing enables context-aware analyses of physical and social phenomena, i.e., analyzing one phenomenon in the context of another. Although such context-aware analysis can potentially enable a more holistic understanding of spatio-temporal processes, it is rarely documented in the scientific literature yet. In this paper we analyzed the collective human behavior in the context of the weather. We therefore explored the complex relationships between these two spatio-temporal phenomena to provide novel insights into the dynamics of urban systems. Aggregated mobile phone data, which served as a proxy for collective human behavior, was linked with the weather data from climate stations in the case study area, the city of Udine, Northern Italy. To identify and characterize potential patterns within the weather-human relationships, we developed a hybrid approach which integrates several spatio-temporal statistical analysis methods. Thereby we show that explanatory factor analysis, when applied to a number of meteorological variables, can be used to differentiate between normal and adverse weather conditions. Further, we measured the strength of the relationship between the ‘global’ adverse weather conditions and the spatially explicit effective variations in user-generated mobile network traffic for three distinct periods using the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC. The analyses result in three spatially referenced maps of MICs which reveal interesting insights into collective human dynamics in the context of weather, but also initiate several new scientific challenges.

  13. A combined approach exploring gene function based on Worm-Human Orthology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsen Robert

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many aspects of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans biology are conserved between invertebrates and vertebrates establishing this particular organism as an excellent genetic model. Because of its small size, large populations and self-fertilization of the hermaphrodite, functional predictions carried out by genetic modifications as well as RNAi screens, can be rapidly tested. Results In order to explore the function of a set of C. elegans genes of unknown function, as well as their potential functional roles in the human genome, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to select the most probable worm orthologs. A total of 13 C. elegans genes were subjected to down- regulation via RNAi and characterization of expression profiles using GFP strains. Previously unknown distinct expression patterns were observed for four of the analyzed genes, as well as four visible RNAi phenotypes. In addition, subcellular protein over-expression profiles of the human orthologs for seven out of the thirteen genes using human cells were also analyzed. Conclusion By combining a whole-organism approach using C. elegans with complementary experimental work done on human cell lines, this analysis extends currently available information on the selected set of genes.

  14. A combined approach exploring gene function based on Worm-Human Orthology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Hodges, Emily; Dessi, Patrick; Johnsen, Robert; Vaz Gomes, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Background Many aspects of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans biology are conserved between invertebrates and vertebrates establishing this particular organism as an excellent genetic model. Because of its small size, large populations and self-fertilization of the hermaphrodite, functional predictions carried out by genetic modifications as well as RNAi screens, can be rapidly tested. Results In order to explore the function of a set of C. elegans genes of unknown function, as well as their potential functional roles in the human genome, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to select the most probable worm orthologs. A total of 13 C. elegans genes were subjected to down- regulation via RNAi and characterization of expression profiles using GFP strains. Previously unknown distinct expression patterns were observed for four of the analyzed genes, as well as four visible RNAi phenotypes. In addition, subcellular protein over-expression profiles of the human orthologs for seven out of the thirteen genes using human cells were also analyzed. Conclusion By combining a whole-organism approach using C. elegans with complementary experimental work done on human cell lines, this analysis extends currently available information on the selected set of genes. PMID:15877817

  15. Desert RATS 2011: Human and robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Chappell, Steven P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2013-10-01

    The Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) 2011 field test involved the planning and execution of a series of exploration scenarios under operational conditions similar to those expected during a human exploration mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA). The focus was on understanding the operations tempo during simulated NEA exploration and the implications of communications latency and limited data bandwidth. Anchoring technologies and sampling techniques were not evaluated due to the immaturity of those technologies and the inability to meaningfully test them at D-RATS. Reduced gravity analogs and simulations are being used to fully evaluate Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV) and extravehicular (EVA) operations and interactions in near-weightlessness at a NEA as part of NASA's integrated analogs program. Hypotheses were tested by planning and performing a series of 1-day simulated exploration excursions comparing test conditions all of which involved a single Deep Space Habitat (DSH) and either 0, 1, or 2 SEVs; 3 or 4 crewmembers; 1 of 2 different communications bandwidths; and a 50-second each-way communications latency between the field site and Houston. Excursions were executed at the Black Point Lava Flow test site with a remote Mission Control Center and Science Support Room at Johnson Space Center (JSC) being operated with 50-second each-way communication latency to the field. Crews were composed of astronauts and professional field geologists. Teams of Mission Operations and Science experts also supported the mission simulations each day. Data were collected separately from the Crew, Mission Operations, and Science teams to assess the test conditions from multiple perspectives. For the operations tested, data indicates practically significant benefits may be realized by including at least one SEV and by including 4 versus 3 crewmembers in the NEA exploration architecture as measured by increased scientific data quality, EVA exploration time

  16. Evaluating Potential Human Health Risks Associated with the Development of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Facilities on Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J. -J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chang, Y. -S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartmann, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wescott, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kygeris, C. [Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania, PA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report presents a general methodology for obtaining preliminary estimates of the potential human health risks associated with developing a utility-scale solar energy facility on a contaminated site, based on potential exposures to contaminants in soils (including transport of those contaminants into the air).

  17. The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey : Exploring The History of the Inner Solar System and Near Earth Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A.; Stansberry, J. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Smith, H. A.; Penprase, B. E.; Mueller, M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Harris, A. W.; Fazio, G. G.; Emery, J. P.; Delbo, M.; Chesley, S. R.; Bottke, W. F.; Bhattacharya, B.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped th

  18. Exploring the Origin of the Temperature-Dependent Behavior of PbS Nanocrystal Thin Films and Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szendrei, Krisztina; Speirs, Mark; Gomulya, Widianta; Jarzab, Dorota; Manca, Marianna; Mikhnenko, Oleksandr V.; Yarema, Maksym; Kooi, Bart J.; Heiss, Wolfgang; Loi, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature-dependent studies of the electrical and optical properties of cross-linked PbS nanocrystal (NC) solar cells can provide deeper insight into their working mechanisms. It is demonstrated that the overall effect of temperature on the device efficiency originates from the temperature depende

  19. Exploring tiny images: the roles of appearance and contextual information for machine and human object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Devi; Zitnick, C Lawrence; Chen, Tsuhan

    2012-10-01

    Typically, object recognition is performed based solely on the appearance of the object. However, relevant information also exists in the scene surrounding the object. In this paper, we explore the roles that appearance and contextual information play in object recognition. Through machine experiments and human studies, we show that the importance of contextual information varies with the quality of the appearance information, such as an image's resolution. Our machine experiments explicitly model context between object categories through the use of relative location and relative scale, in addition to co-occurrence. With the use of our context model, our algorithm achieves state-of-the-art performance on the MSRC and Corel data sets. We perform recognition tests for machines and human subjects on low and high resolution images, which vary significantly in the amount of appearance information present, using just the object appearance information, the combination of appearance and context, as well as just context without object appearance information (blind recognition). We also explore the impact of the different sources of context (co-occurrence, relative-location, and relative-scale). We find that the importance of different types of contextual information varies significantly across data sets such as MSRC and PASCAL.

  20. BrainScope: interactive visual exploration of the spatial and temporal human brain transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Sjoerd M H; van Lew, Baldur; Mahfouz, Ahmed; Pezzotti, Nicola; Höllt, Thomas; Michielsen, Lieke; Vilanova, Anna; Reinders, Marcel J T; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

    2017-06-02

    Spatial and temporal brain transcriptomics has recently emerged as an invaluable data source for molecular neuroscience. The complexity of such data poses considerable challenges for analysis and visualization. We present BrainScope: a web portal for fast, interactive visual exploration of the Allen Atlases of the adult and developing human brain transcriptome. Through a novel methodology to explore high-dimensional data (dual t-SNE), BrainScope enables the linked, all-in-one visualization of genes and samples across the whole brain and genome, and across developmental stages. We show that densities in t-SNE scatter plots of the spatial samples coincide with anatomical regions, and that densities in t-SNE scatter plots of the genes represent gene co-expression modules that are significantly enriched for biological functions. We also show that the topography of the gene t-SNE maps reflect brain region-specific gene functions, enabling hypothesis and data driven research. We demonstrate the discovery potential of BrainScope through three examples: (i) analysis of cell type specific gene sets, (ii) analysis of a set of stable gene co-expression modules across the adult human donors and (iii) analysis of the evolution of co-expression of oligodendrocyte specific genes over developmental stages. BrainScope is publicly accessible at www.brainscope.nl. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations: Science Operations Development for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission 16 in 2012 was to evaluate and compare the performance of a defined series of representative near-Earth asteroid (NEA) extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks under different conditions and combinations of work systems, constraints, and assumptions considered for future human NEA exploration missions. NEEMO 16 followed NASA's 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS), the primary focus of which was understanding the implications of communication latency, crew size, and work system combinations with respect to scientific data quality, data management, crew workload, and crew/mission control interactions. The 1-g environment precluded meaningful evaluation of NEA EVA translation, worksite stabilization, sampling, or instrument deployment techniques. Thus, NEEMO missions were designed to provide an opportunity to perform a preliminary evaluation of these important factors for each of the conditions being considered. NEEMO 15 also took place in 2011 and provided a first look at many of the factors, but the mission was cut short due to a hurricane threat before all objectives were completed. ARES Directorate (KX) personnel consulted with JSC engineers to ensure that high-fidelity planetary science protocols were incorporated into NEEMO mission architectures. ARES has been collaborating with NEEMO mission planners since NEEMO 9 in 2006, successively building upon previous developments to refine science operations concepts within engineering constraints; it is expected to continue the collaboration as NASA's human exploration mission plans evolve.

  2. Exploring food effects on indinavir absorption with human intestinal fluids in the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstock, Nico; De Bruyn, Tom; Bevernage, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Mols, Raf; Tack, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick

    2013-04-11

    Food can have a significant impact on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs, as it may affect drug solubility as well as permeability. Since fed state conditions cannot easily be implemented in the presently available permeability tools, including the frequently used Caco-2 system, exploring food effects during drug development can be quite challenging. In this study, we investigated the effect of fasted and fed state conditions on the intestinal absorption of the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir using simulated and human intestinal fluids in the in situ intestinal perfusion technique in mice. Although the solubility of indinavir was 6-fold higher in fed state human intestinal fluids (FeHIF) as compared to fasted state HIF (FaHIF), the intestinal permeation of indinavir was 22-fold lower in FeHIF as compared to FaHIF. Dialysis experiments showed that only a small fraction of indinavir is accessible for absorption in FeHIF due to micellar entrapment, possibly explaining its low intestinal permeation. The presence of ritonavir, a known P-gp inhibitor, increased the intestinal permeation of indinavir by 2-fold in FaHIF, while there was no increase when using FeHIF. These data confirm that drug-food interactions form a complex interplay between solubility and permeability effects. The use of HIF in in situ intestinal perfusions holds great promise for biorelevant absorption evaluation as it allows to directly explore this complex solubility/permeability interplay on drug absorption.

  3. Exploring the Potential Competitiveness of Utility-Scale Photovoltaics plus Batteries with Concentrating Solar Power, 2015–2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stekli, Joseph [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2016-08-01

    Declining costs of both solar photovoltaics (PV) and battery storage have raised interest in the creation of “solar-plus-storage” systems to provide dispatchable energy and reliable capacity. There has been limited deployment of PV-plus-energy storage systems (PV+ESS), and the actual configuration and performance of these systems for dispatchable energy are in the early stages of being defined. In contrast, concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP+TES) has been deployed at scale with the proven capability of providing a dispatchable, reliable source of renewable generation. A key question moving forward is how to compare the relative costs and benefits of PV+ESS and CSP+TES. While both technologies collect solar radiation and produce electricity, they do so through very different mechanisms, which creates challenges for direct comparison. Nonetheless, it is important to establish a framework for comparison and to identify cost and performance targets to aid meeting the nation’s goals for clean energy deployment. In this paper, we provide a preliminary assessment comparing the cost of energy from CSP+TES and PV+ESS that focuses on a single metric: levelized cost of energy (LCOE). We begin by defining the configuration of each system, which is particularly important for PV+ESS systems. We then examine a range of projected cost declines for PV, batteries, and CSP. Finally, we summarize the estimated LCOE over a range of configuration and cost estimates. We conclude by acknowledging that differences in these technologies present challenges for comparison using a single performance metric. We define systems with similar configurations in some respects. In reality, because of inherent differences in CSP+TES and PV+ESS systems, they will provide different grid services and different value. For example, depending on its configuration, a PV+ESS system may provide additional value over CSP+TES by providing more flexible operation, including certain

  4. Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: An Update on NASA's Status and Proposed Activities for Small Body Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Reeves, David; Drake, Bret; Friedensen, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth- Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. The scientific and hazard mitigation benefits, along with the programmatic and operational benefits of a human venture beyond the Earth-Moon system, make a mission to a NEA using NASA s proposed exploration systems a compelling endeavor.

  5. Our Solar System at a Glance. Information Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The United States has explored the solar system with automated spacecraft and human-crewed expeditions that have produced a quantum leap in our knowledge and understanding of the solar system. Through the electronic sight and other "senses" of our automated spacecraft, color and complexion have been given to worlds that for centuries…

  6. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 4: Solar electric propulsion vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    This document presents the solar electric propulsion (SEP) concept design developed as part of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study. The evolution of the SEP concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities, and costs.

  7. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  8. The Human Space Life Sciences Critical Path Roadmap Project: A Strategy for Human Space Flight through Exploration-Class Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Charles F.

    1999-01-01

    The product of the critical path roadmap project is an integrated strategy for mitigating the risks associated with human exploration class missions. It is an evolving process that will assure the ability to communicate the integrated critical path roadmap. Unlike previous reports, this one will not sit on a shelf - it has the full support of the JSC Space and Life Sciences Directorate (SA) and is already being used as a decision making tool (e.g., budget and investigation planning for Shuttle and Space Station mission). Utility of this product depends on many efforts, namely: providing the required information (completed risk data sheets, critical question information, technology data). It is essential to communicate the results of the critical path roadmap to the scientific community - this meeting is a good opportunity to do so. The web site envisioned for the critical path roadmap will provide the capability to communicate to a broader community and to track and update the system routinely.

  9. Building a framework to explore water-human interaction for sustainable agro ecosystems in US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Ding, D.; Rapolu, U.

    2012-12-01

    Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. On this context, this team has investigated connections among agriculture, policy, climate, land use/land cover, and water quality in Iowa over the past couple of years. To help explore these connections the team is developing a variety of cyber infrastructure tools that facilitate the collection, analysis and visualization of data, and the simulation of system dynamics. In an ongoing effort, the prototype system is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa in the US Midwest, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. The primary aim of this research is to understand the connections that exist among the agricultural and biofuel economy, land use/land cover change, and water quality. To help explore these connections an agent-based model (ABM) of land use change has been developed that simulates the decisions made by farmers given alternative assumptions about market forces, farmer characteristics, and water quality regulations. The SWAT model was used to simulate the impact of these decisions on the movement of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus across the landscape. The paper also demonstrate how through the use of this system researchers can, for example, search for scenarios that lead to desirable socio-economic outcomes as well as preserve water quantity and quality.

  10. Low-latency Science Exploration of Planetary Bodies: a Demonstration Using ISS in Support of Mars Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Valinia, Azita; Bleacher, Jacob; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Garvin, Jim; Petro, Noah

    2014-01-01

    We summarize a proposed experiment to use the International Space Station to formally examine the application and validation of low-latency telepresence for surface exploration from space as an alternative, precursor, or potentially as an adjunct to astronaut "boots on the ground." The approach is to develop and propose controlled experiments, which build upon previous field studies and which will assess the effects of different latencies (0 to 500 msec), task complexity, and alternate forms of feedback to the operator. These experiments serve as an example of a pathfinder for NASA's roadmap of missions to Mars with low-latency telerobotic exploration as a precursor to astronaut's landing on the surface to conduct geological tasks.

  11. Saccades during visual exploration align hippocampal 3-8 Hz rhythms in human and non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari L Hoffman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual exploration in primates depends on saccadic eye movements that cause alternations of neural suppression and enhancement. This modulation extends beyond retinotopic areas, and is thought to facilitate perception; yet saccades may also influence brain regions critical for forming memories of these exploratory episodes. The hippocampus, for example, shows oscillatory activity that is generally associated with encoding of information. Whether or how hippocampal oscillations are influenced by eye movements is unknown. We recorded the neural activity in the human and macaque hippocampus during visual scene search. Across species, saccadic eye movements were associated with a time-limited alignment of a low-frequency (3-8 Hz rhythm. The phase alignment depended on the task and not only on eye movements per se, and the frequency band was not a direct consequence of saccade rate. Hippocampal theta-frequency oscillations are produced by other mammals during repetitive exploratory behaviors, including whisking, sniffing, echolocation and locomotion. The present results may reflect a similar yet distinct primate homologue supporting active perception during exploration.

  12. Exploring the current application of professional competencies in human resource management in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Schutte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Human research (HR practitioners have an important role to play in the sustainability and competitiveness of organisations. Yet their strategic contribution and the value they add remain unrecognised.Research purpose: The main objective of this research was to explore the extent to which HR practitioners are currently allowed to display HR competencies in the workplace, and whether any significant differences exist between perceived HR competencies, based on the respondents’ demographic characteristics.Motivation for the study: Limited empirical research exists on the extent to which HR practitioners are allowed to display key competencies in the South African workplace.Research approach, design, and method: A quantitative research approach was followed. A Human Resource Management Professional Competence Questionnaire was administered to HR practitioners and managers (N = 481.Main findings: The results showed that HR competencies are poorly applied in selected South African workplaces. The competencies that were indicated as having the poorest application were talent management, HR metrics, HR business knowledge, and innovation. The white ethic group experienced a poorer application of all human research management (HRM competencies compared to the black African ethnic group.Practical/managerial implications: The findings of the research highlighted the need for management to evaluate the current application of HR practices in the workplace and also the extent to which HR professionals are involved as strategic business partners.Contribution/value-add: This research highlights the need for the current application of HR competencies in South African workplaces to be improved.

  13. Exploring the Human Ecology of the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, D. J.; Erlandson, J. M.; Braje, T. J.; Culleton, B. J.

    2007-05-01

    Several lines of evidence now exist for a major extraterrestrial impact event in North America at 12.9 ka (the YDB). This impact partially destabilized the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets, triggered abrupt Younger Dryas cooling and extensive wildfires, and contributed to megafaunal extinction. This event also occurred soon after the well established colonization of the Americas by anatomically modern humans. Confirmation of this event would represent the first near-time extraterrestrial impact with significant effects on human populations. These likely included widespread, abrupt human mortality, population displacement, migration into less effected or newly established habitats, loss of cultural traditions, and resource diversification in the face of the massive megafaunal extinction and population reductions in surviving animal populations. Ultimately, these transformations established the context for the special character of plant and animal domestication and the emergence of agricultural economies in North America. We explore the Late Pleistocene archaeological record in North America within the context of documented major biotic changes associated with the YDB in North America and of the massive ecological affects hypothesized for this event.

  14. Evidence from neuroimaging to explore brain plasticity in humans during an ultra-endurance burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrey Stéphane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical activity, likely through induction of neuroplasticity, is a promising intervention to promote brain health. In athletes it is clear that training can and does, by physiological adaptations, extend the frontiers of performance capacity. The limits of our endurance capacity lie deeply in the human brain, determined by various personal factors yet to be explored. The human brain, with its vast neural connections and its potential for seemingly endless behaviors, constitutes one of the final frontiers of medicine. In a recent study published in BMC Medicine, the TransEurope FootRace Project followed 10 ultra-endurance runners over around 4,500 km across Europe and recorded a large data collection of brain imaging scans. This study indicates that the cerebral atrophy amounting to a reduction of approximately 6% throughout the two months of the race is reversed upon follow-up. While this study will contribute to advances in the limits of human performance on the neurophysiological processes in sports scientists, it will also bring important understanding to clinicians about cerebral atrophy in people who are vulnerable to physical and psychological stress long term. See related research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/170

  15. Solar thermal evaporation of human urine for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonini, Samantha, E-mail: sam_antonini@uni-bonn.de; Nguyen, Phong Thanh; Arnold, Ute; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    A No Mix sanitation system was installed in a dormitory at the University of Can Tho in Vietnam, with the objective of recycling nutrients from source separated urine. This paper presents a pilot scale evaporation technology, and investigates the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from human urine by solar still for use as fertilizer. After 26 days of sun exposure, 360 g of solid fertilizer material was recovered from 50 L undiluted urine. This urine-derived fertilizer was mainly composed of sodium chloride, and had phosphorus and nitrogen contents of almost 2%. When tested with maize and ryegrass, the urine fertilizer led to biomass yields and phosphorus and nitrogen uptakes comparable to those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Urine acidification with sulfuric or phosphoric acid prior treatment reduced nitrogen losses, improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers, and induced higher biomass yields and nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes than the commercial mineral fertilizer. However, acidification is not recommended in developing countries due to additional costs and handling risks. The fate of micropollutants and the possibility of separating sodium chloride from other beneficial nutrients require further investigation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 360 g of fertilizer was derived from 50 L urine by solar evaporative distillation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fertilizer contained 90% sodium chloride, 3% sulfur, 2% nitrogen, 2% phosphorus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It induced biomass yields comparable to those produced by a commercial fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine acidification improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acidification is not recommended for use in developing countries (costs, safety).

  16. Exploring an East~West Epistemological Convergence of Embodied Democracy in Education through Cultural Humanism in Confucius~Makiguchi~Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming Fang

    2016-01-01

    This article explores an East~West epistemological convergence of embodied democracy in education through cultural humanism illuminated in five main themes in the works of John Dewey (1859-1952), Confucius (551-479 B.C.), and Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944): "human-nature interconnection," "self-cultivation," "value…

  17. Exploring an East~West Epistemological Convergence of Embodied Democracy in Education through Cultural Humanism in Confucius~Makiguchi~Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming Fang

    2016-01-01

    This article explores an East~West epistemological convergence of embodied democracy in education through cultural humanism illuminated in five main themes in the works of John Dewey (1859-1952), Confucius (551-479 B.C.), and Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944): "human-nature interconnection," "self-cultivation," "value…

  18. Nanosatellites for Interplanetary Exploration : Missions of Co-Operation and Exploration to Mars, Exo-Moons and other worlds in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Aditya; Radhakrishnan, Arun

    2016-07-01

    The last decade has borne witness to a large number of Nano-satellites being launched.This increasing trend is mainly down to the advancements in consumer electronics that has played a crucial role in increasing the potential power available on board for mission study and analysis whilst being much smaller in size when compared to their satellite counterparts. This overall reduction in size and weight is a crucial factor when coupled with the recent innovations in various propulsion systems and orbital launch vehicles by private players has also allowed the cost of missions to brought down to a very small budget whilst able to retain the main science objectives of a dedicated space Missions. The success of first time missions such as India's Mars Orbiter Mission and the upcoming Cube-Sat Mission to Mars has served as a catalyst and is a major eye-opener on how Interplanetary missions can be funded and initiated in small time spans. This shows that Interplanetary missions with the main objective of a scientific study can be objectified by using Dedicated Nano-satellite constellations with each satellite carrying specific payloads for various mission parameters such as Telemetry, Observation and possible small lander payloads for studying the various Atmospheric and Geo-Physical parameters of a particular object with-out the requirement of a very long term expensive Spacecraft Mission. The association of Major Universities and Colleges in building Nano and-satellites are facilitating an atmosphere of innovation and research among students in a class-room level as their creative potential will allow for experiments and innovation on a scale never imagined before. In this paper, the Author envisions the feasibility of such low cost Nano satellite missions to various bodies in the solar system and how Nano satellite partnerships from universities and space agencies from around the world could foster a new era in diplomacy and International Co-operation.

  19. Acute Meteorite Dust Exposure and Pulmonary Inflammation - Implications for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2017-01-01

    The previous manned missions to the Moon represent milestones of human ingenuity, perseverance, and intellectual curiosity. However, one of the major ongoing concerns is the array of hazards associated with lunar surface dust. Not only did the dust cause mechanical and structural integrity issues with the suits, the dust 'storm' generated upon reentrance into the crew cabin caused "lunar hay fever" and "almost blindness [1-3]" (Figure 1). It was further reported that the allergic response to the dust worsened with each exposure [4]. The lack of gravity exacerbated the exposure, requiring the astronauts to wear their helmet within the module in order to avoid breathing the irritating particles [1]. Due to the prevalence of these high exposures, the Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern [5]. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts. Going forward, hazard assessments of celestial dusts will be determined through sample return efforts prior to astronaut deployment. Studies on the lunar highland regolith indicate that the dust is not only respirable but also reactive [2, 6-9], and previous studies concluded that it is moderately toxic; generating a greater response than titanium oxide but a lower response than quartz [6]. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the surface of the dust has been implicated. However, there is actually little data related to physicochemical characteristics of particulates and pulmonary toxicity, especially as it relates to celestial dust exposure. As a direct response to this deficit, the present study evaluates the role of a particulate's innate geochemical features (e.g., bulk chemistry, internal composition, morphology, size, and reactivity) in generating adverse toxicological responses in vitro and in vivo. This highly interdisciplinary

  20. Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses To Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - Implications For Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2017-01-01

    The previous manned missions to the Moon represent milestones of human ingenuity, perseverance, and intellectual curiosity. However, one of the major ongoing concerns is the array of hazards associated with lunar surface dust. Not only did the dust cause mechanical and structural integrity issues with the suits, the dust 'storm' generated upon reentrance into the crew cabin caused "lunar hay fever" and "almost blindness" (Figure 1). It was further reported that the allergic response to the dust worsened with each exposure. The lack of gravity exacerbated the exposure, requiring the astronauts to wear their helmet within the module in order to avoid breathing the irritating particles. Due to the prevalence of these high exposures, the Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts. Going forward, hazard assessments of celestial dusts will be determined through sample return efforts prior to astronaut deployment. Studies on the lunar highland regolith indicate that the dust is not only respirable but also reactive, and previous studies concluded that it is moderately toxic; generating a greater response than titanium oxide but a lower response than quartz. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the surface of the dust has been implicated. However, there is actually little data related to physicochemical characteristics of particulates and pulmonary toxicity, especially as it relates to celestial dust exposure. As a direct response to this deficit, the present study evaluates the role of a particulate's innate geochemical features (e.g., bulk chemistry, internal composition, morphology, size, and reactivity) in generating adverse toxicological responses in vitro and in vivo. This highly interdisciplinary study evaluates the relative

  1. An Exploration of Human Nature and a Challenge Against Conventional Morality of American South

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡辉平

    2005-01-01

    文章通过对马克·吐温名著主题的分析,深刻探讨了马克·吐温对人的本性的探索和对美国南方传统道德的挑战,并进而提出了与现今社会紧密联系的人文关怀问题.%By analyzing the theme of Mark Twain's work The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,we can learn that Mark Twain makes an exploration of human nature and a challenge against conventional morality in American South through the depiction of Huck's mental conflict, his final determination to help Jim acquire freedom as well as the friendship between Huck and Jim established during their escape journey down the Mississippi River.

  2. Preliminary System Analysis of In Situ Resource Utilization for Mars Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Donald; Andringa, Jason; Easter, Robert; Smith, Jeffrey H .; Wilson, Thomas; Clark, D. Larry; Payne, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    We carried out a system analysis of processes for utilization of Mars resources to support human exploration of Mars by production of propellants from indigenous resources. Seven ISRU processes were analyzed to determine mass. power and propellant storage volume requirements. The major elements of each process include C02 acquisition, chemical conversion, and storage of propellants. Based on a figure of merit (the ratio of the mass of propellants that must be brought from Earth in a non-ISRU mission to the mass of the ISRU system. tanks and feedstocks that must be brought from Earth for a ISRU mission) the most attractive process (by far); is one where indigenous Mars water is accessible and this is processed via Sabatier/Electrolysis to methane and oxygen. These processes are technically relatively mature. Other processes with positive leverage involve reverse water gas shift and solid oxide electrolysis.

  3. Capability and Technology Performance Goals for the Next Step in Affordable Human Exploration of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Taminger, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    The capability for living off the land, commonly called in-situ resource utilization, is finally gaining traction in space exploration architectures. Production of oxygen from the Martian atmosphere is called an enabling technology for human return from Mars, and a flight demonstration to be flown on the Mars 2020 robotic lander is in development. However, many of the individual components still require technical improvements, and system-level trades will be required to identify the best combination of technology options. Based largely on work performed for two recent roadmap activities, this paper defines the capability and technology requirements that will need to be achieved before this game-changing capability can reach its full potential.

  4. The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Surveyor (ARES): New Mars Science to Reduce Human Risk and Prepare for the Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Wright, Henry S.; Killough, B. D.; Edwards, W. C.

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining critical measurements for eventual human Mars missions while expanding upon recent Mars scientific discoveries and deriving new scientific knowledge from a unique near surface vantage point is the focus of the Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Surveyor (ARES) exploration mission. The key element of ARES is an instrumented,rocket-powered, well-tested robotic airplane platform, that will fly between one to two kilometers above the surface while traversing hundreds of kilometers to collect and transmit previously unobtainable high spatial measurements relevant to the NASA Mars Exploration Program and the exploration of Mars by humans.

  5. Human Exploration Using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO)- Crew Telerobotic Control Vehicle (CTCV) Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Chato, David; Fincannon, James; Landis, Geoff; Sandifer, Carl; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Colozza, Tony; Fittje, Jim; Martini, Mike; Packard, Tom; McCurdy, Dave; Gyekenyesi, John

    2010-01-01

    The HERRO concept allows real time investigation of planets and small bodies by sending astronauts to orbit these targets and telerobotically explore them using robotic systems. Several targets have been put forward by past studies including Mars, Venus, and near Earth asteroids. A conceptual design study was funded by the NASA Innovation Fund to explore what the HERRO concept and it's vehicles would look like and what technological challenges need to be met. This design study chose Mars as the target destination. In this way the HERRO studies can define the endpoint design concepts for an all-up telerobotic exploration of the number one target of interest Mars. This endpoint design will serve to help planners define combined precursor telerobotics science missions and technology development flights. A suggested set of these technologies and demonstrator missions is shown in Appendix B. The HERRO concept includes a crewed telerobotics orbit vehicle as well three Truck rovers, each supporting two teleoperated geologist robots Rockhounds (each truck/Rockhounds set is landed using a commercially launched aeroshell landing system.) Options include a sample ascent system teamed with an orbital telerobotic sample rendezvous and return spacecraft (S/C) (yet to be designed). Each truck rover would be landed in a science location with the ability to traverse a 100 km diameter area, carrying the Rockhounds to 100 m diameter science areas for several week science activities. The truck is not only responsible for transporting the Rockhounds to science areas, but also for relaying telecontrol and high-res communications to/from the Rockhound and powering/heating the Rockhound during the non-science times (including night-time). The Rockhounds take the place of human geologists by providing an agile robotic platform with real-time telerobotics control to the Rockhound from the crew telerobotics orbiter. The designs of the Truck rovers and Rockhounds will be described in other

  6. Experiments in socially guided exploration: lessons learned in building robots that learn with and without human teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Andrea; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2008-06-01

    We present a learning system, socially guided exploration, in which a social robot learns new tasks through a combination of self-exploration and social interaction. The system's motivational drives, along with social scaffolding from a human partner, bias behaviour to create learning opportunities for a hierarchical reinforcement learning mechanism. The robot is able to learn on its own, but can flexibly take advantage of the guidance of a human teacher. We report the results of an experiment that analyses what the robot learns on its own as compared to being taught by human subjects. We also analyse the video of these interactions to understand human teaching behaviour and the social dynamics of the human-teacher/robot-learner system. With respect to learning performance, human guidance results in a task set that is significantly more focused and efficient at the tasks the human was trying to teach, whereas self-exploration results in a more diverse set. Analysis of human teaching behaviour reveals insights of social coupling between the human teacher and robot learner, different teaching styles, strong consistency in the kinds and frequency of scaffolding acts across teachers and nuances in the communicative intent behind positive and negative feedback.

  7. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Saul, L.; Wurz, P. [University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Bzowski, M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Frisch, P. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gruntman, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Mueller, H. R. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Lyα. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (μ) has increased slightly from μ = 0.94 ± 0.04 in 2009 to μ = 1.01 ± 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

  8. High-Resolution Observations of Limb Spicules from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and the Swedish Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Owen; Pasachoff, J. M.; Kozarev, K. A.; Yee, J.

    2006-06-01

    We observed spicules at the solar limb with TRACE and the Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma for four-day intervals in 2004 and 2005 as well as simultaneous SUMER/SOHO observations in 2004. We are evaluating the apparent motion of individual spicules to infer chromospheric heat flow and mass transfer and to improve the statistics of basic spicule parameters including height, velocity, and inclination. We use the highest available cadence to measure height vs. time curves, using parabolic and linear fits to extract average maximum heights and apparent velocities of rise and descent. Our semiautomatic measurements of several dozen individual Ca II H spicules find an average height of 7610 ± 20 km based on ballistic fits and 7990 ± 80 km based on linear fits, with average velocities 8.7 ± 0.2 km/s ascending and 5.6 ± 0.1 km/s descending. Our TRACE data include observations at 1600 Å, 171 Å, and Lyman-alpha; our SST observations using Lockheed Martin's SOUP include H-alpha (four wing wavelengths to measure velocities) and Ca II H. We are investigating the relationships between spicule height and intensity to search for evidence of sheathed vs. monolithic spicule models, and analyzing ionization fadeout vs. velocity reversals for limiting spicule heights. A third yearly session of simultaneous TRACE/SST observations is scheduled.We thank S. P. Souza, B. De Pontieu, L. Golub, and J. Cirtain; earlier collaboration by D. B. Seaton, J. P. Shoer, D. L. Butts, and J. W. Gangestad; as well as the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Support was provided by a NASA/Solar-Terrestrial Guest Investigator Grant for TRACE (NNG04GK44G), from Sigma Xi, and from the NASA/Massachusetts Space Grant.

  9. Characterizing Cold Giant Planets in Reflected Light: Lessons from 50 Years of Outer Solar System Exploration and Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark Scott; Hammel, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    A space based coronagraph, whether as part of the WFIRST/AFTA mission or on a dedicated space telescope such as Exo-C or -S, will be able to obtain photometry and spectra of multiple gas giant planets around nearby stars, including many known from radial velocity detections. Such observations will constrain the masses, atmospheric compositions, clouds, and photochemistry of these worlds. Giant planet albedo models, such as those of Cahoy et al. (2010) and Lewis et al. (this meeting), will be crucial for mission planning and interpreting the data. However it is equally important that insights gleaned from decades of solar system imaging and spectroscopy of giant planets be leveraged to optimize both instrument design and data interpretation. To illustrate these points we will draw on examples from solar system observations, by both HST and ground based telescopes, as well as by Voyager, Galileo, and Cassini, to demonstrate the importance clouds, photochemical hazes, and various molecular absorbers play in sculpting the light scattered by solar system giant planets. We will demonstrate how measurements of the relative depths of multiple methane absorption bands of varying strengths have been key to disentangling the competing effects of gas column abundances, variations in cloud height and opacity, and scattering by high altitude photochemical hazes. We will highlight both the successes, such as the accurate remote determination of the atmospheric methane abundance of Jupiter, and a few failures from these types of observations. These lessons provide insights into technical issues facing spacecraft designers, from the selection of the most valuable camera filters to carry to the required capabilities of the flight spectrometer, as well as mission design questions such as choosing the most favorable phase angles for atmospheric characterization.

  10. Preliminary Results from NEOWISE: An Enhancement to the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer for Solar System Science

    OpenAIRE

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; McMillan, R. S.; Wright, E.; Walker, R.; Jedicke, R.; Spahr, T.; Tholen, D.; Alles, R; Beck, R.

    2011-01-01

    The \\emph{Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer} has surveyed the entire sky at four infrared wavelengths with greatly improved sensitivity and spatial resolution compared to its predecessors, the \\emph{Infrared Astronomical Satellite} and the \\emph{Cosmic Background Explorer}. NASA's Planetary Science Division has funded an enhancement to the \\WISE\\ data processing system called "NEOWISE" that allows detection and archiving of moving objects found in the \\WISE\\ data. NEOWISE has mined the \\WIS...

  11. Exploring the mechanisms of action of human secretory RNase 3 and RNase 7 against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Vivian A; Arranz-Trullén, Javier; Navarro, Susanna; Blanco, Jose A; Sánchez, Daniel; Moussaoui, Mohammed; Boix, Ester

    2016-10-01

    Human antimicrobial RNases, which belong to the vertebrate RNase A superfamily and are secreted upon infection, display a wide spectrum of antipathogen activities. In this work, we examined the antifungal activity of the eosinophil RNase 3 and the skin-derived RNase 7, two proteins expressed by innate cell types that are directly involved in the host defense against fungal infection. Candida albicans has been selected as a suitable working model for testing RNase activities toward a eukaryotic pathogen. We explored the distinct levels of action of both RNases on yeast by combining cell viability and membrane model assays together with protein labeling and confocal microscopy. Site-directed mutagenesis was applied to ablate either the protein active site or the key anchoring region for cell binding. This is the first integrated study that highlights the RNases' dual mechanism of action. Along with an overall membrane-destabilization process, the RNases could internalize and target cellular RNA. The data support the contribution of the enzymatic activity for the antipathogen action of both antimicrobial proteins, which can be envisaged as suitable templates for the development of novel antifungal drugs. We suggest that both human RNases work as multitasking antimicrobial proteins that provide a first line immune barrier.

  12. Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Human Exploration Program: Benchmarking with "The Hydrogen Economy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John H.

    2007-01-01

    The theoretically high efficiency and low temperature operation of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells has motivated them to be the subject of much study since their invention in the 19th Century, but their relatively high life cycle costs kept them as a "solution in search of a problem" for many years. The first problem for which fuel cells presented a truly cost effective solution was that of providing a power source for NASA's human spaceflight vehicles in the 1960 s. NASA thus invested, and continues to invest, in the development of fuel cell power plants for this application. This development program continues to place its highest priorities on requirements for minimum system mass and maximum durability and reliability. These priorities drive fuel cell power plant design decisions at all levels, even that of catalyst support. However, since the mid-1990's, prospective environmental regulations have driven increased governmental and industrial interest in "green power" and the "Hydrogen Economy." This has in turn stimulated greatly increased investment in fuel cell development for a variety of commercial applications. This investment is bringing about notable advances in fuel cell technology, but, as these development efforts place their highest priority on requirements for minimum life cycle cost and field safety, these advances are yielding design solutions quite different at almost every level from those needed for spacecraft applications. This environment thus presents both opportunities and challenges for NASA's Human Exploration Program

  13. Free-Flyers for Exploration and Resource Mapping for ISRU and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Sibille, L.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    2017-02-01

    This presentation discusses prospecting for resources on a planetary surface using a free-flyer platform to assist in achieving a sustainable human presence in space beyond low Earth orbit and in exploring the evolution of the solar system.

  14. A spectroscopic study on the effect of ultra-violet solar radiation in Antarctica on the human skin fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuyuki Yamamoto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effect of the solar ultra-violet radiation on the human skin fibroblast cells revealed that the production of matrix metalloproteinase-2 was inhibited by the radiation. A CO2 incubator connected by optical fibers to a reflector telescope for collecting the solar light was built at Syowa station by the 49th Japanese Antarctica Research Expedition. The direction of the telescope was continuously controlled by a sun-tracker to follow the movement of the Sun automatically. The intensity of the collected light was monitored by a portable spectrophotometer housed inside. The human skin fibroblast cells were incubated in the CO2 chamber to investigate the effect of the solar radiation at Syowa station and were compared with those reference experiments at a laboratory in Japan. The results showed cell damage by strong UV radiation. The production of matrix metalloproteinase-2 was prompted by the moderate UV-B, but was inhibited by the strong UV-B radiation, as studied under laboratory conditions in Japan. The effect of strong solar radiation at Syowa station involving the radiation of UV-B region was estimated to be of the same extent of the radiation caused by an artificial UV-B light with the intensity more than 50 mJ/cm2.

  15. Exploring the capabilities of the Anti-Coincidence Shield of the INTEGRAL spectrometer to study solar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Gasén, Rosa; Tatischeff, Vincent; Vilmer, Nicole; Hamadache, Clarisse; Klein, Karl-Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    INTEGRAL is a hard X-ray/gamma-ray observatory for astrophysics (ESA) covering photon energies from 15 keV to 10 MeV. It was launched in 2002 and since then the BGO detectors of the Anti-Coincidence shield (ACS) of the SPI spectrometer have detected many hard X-ray (HXR) bursts from the Sun, producing lightcurves at photon energies above ~ 100 keV. The spacecraft has a highly elliptical orbit, providing a long uninterrupted observing time (about 90% of the orbital period) with nearly constant background due to the reduction of the crossing time of the Earth's radiation belts. However, due to technical constraints, INTEGRAL cannot point to the Sun and high-energy solar photons are always detected in non-standard observation conditions. To make the data useful for solar studies, we have undertaken a major effort to specify the observing conditions through Monte-Carlo simulations of the response of ACS for several selected flares. We check the performance of the model employed for the Monte-Carlo simulations usi...

  16. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: A Robotic Boulder Capture Option for Science, Human Exploration, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar electric propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (4 - 10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (1 - 5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well- characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense. Science: The RBC option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting

  17. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (Ntr) Propulsion: A Proven Game-Changing Technology for Future Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The NTR represents the next evolutionary step in high performance rocket propulsion. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) of approx.900 seconds (s) or more V twice that of today s best chemical rockets. The technology is also proven. During the previous Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) nuclear rocket programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested. These tests demonstrated: (1) a wide range of thrust; (2) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuel; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability V all the requirements needed for a human mission to Mars. Ceramic metal cermet fuel was also pursued, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant growth and evolution potential. Configured as a bimodal system, it can generate electrical power for the spacecraft. Adding an oxygen afterburner nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, simple assembly and mission operations. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, NTP requires no large technology scale-ups. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program V the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) Pewee engine is sufficient for human Mars missions when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The Copernicus crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth asteroid (NEA) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. Initially, the basic Copernicus vehicle can enable reusable 1-year round trip human missions to candidate NEAs like 1991 JW and Apophis in the late 2020 s to check out vehicle systems. Afterwards, the

  18. Exploring Earth and the Solar System: Educational Outreach Through NASA's Space Place, SciJinks, and Climate Kids Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Joseph Chistopher

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Place team publishes engaging content and creates an effective environment to inspire a young audience to dare mighty things. NASA uses the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks websites to cultivate interest among elementary-school-aged children in both science and technology. During my summer internship at Jet Propulsion Laboratory I used Adobe Flash and ActionScript 3 to develop content for the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks sites. In addition, I was involved in the development process for ongoing and new projects during my internship. My involvement allowed me to follow a project from concept to design, implementation, and release. I personally worked on three projects this summer, two of which are currently in deployment. The first is a scrambled letter-tile guessing game titled Solar System Scramble. The second, Butterfrog Mix-Up, is a rotating-tile puzzle game. The third project is a unfinished prototype for a maze game.

  19. A Multi-Decadal Sample Return Campaign Will Advance Lunar and Solar System Science and Exploration by 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    There have been 11 missions to the Moon this century, 10 of which have been orbital, from 5 different space agencies. China became the third country to successfully soft-land on the Moon in 2013, and the second to successfully remotely operate a rover on the lunar surface. We now have significant global datasets that, coupled with the 1990s Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, show that the sample collection is not representative of the lithologies present on the Moon. The M3 data from the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission have identified lithologies that are not present/under-represented in the sample collection. LRO datasets show that volcanism could be as young as 100 Ma and that significant felsic complexes exist within the lunar crust. A multi-decadal sample return campaign is the next logical step in advancing our understanding of lunar origin and evolution and Solar System processes.

  20. Exploring the Potential of Fulvalene Dimetals as Platforms for Molecular Solar Thermal Energy Storage: Computations, Syntheses, Structures, Kinetics, and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borjesson, K; Coso, D; Gray, V; Grossman, JC; Guan, JQ; Harris, CB; Hertkorn, N; Hou, ZR; Kanai, Y; Lee, D; Lomont, JP; Majumdar, A; Meier, SK; Moth-Poulsen, K; Myrabo, RL; Nguyen, SC; Segalman, RA; Srinivasan, V; Tolman, WB; Vinokurov, N; Vollhardt, KPC; Weidman, TW

    2014-10-03

    A study of the scope and limitations of varying the ligand framework around the dinuclear core of FvRu(2) in its function as a molecular solar thermal energy storage framework is presented. It includes DFT calculations probing the effect of substituents, other metals, and CO exchange for other ligands on Delta H-storage. Experimentally, the system is shown to be robust in as much as it tolerates a number of variations, except for the identity of the metal and certain substitution patterns. Failures include 1,1',3,3'-tetra-tert-butyl (4), 1,2,2',3'-tetraphenyl (9), diiron (28), diosmium (24), mixed iron-ruthenium (27), dimolybdenum (29), and di-tungsten (30) derivatives. An extensive screen of potential catalysts for the thermal reversal identified AgNO3-SiO2 as a good candidate, although catalyst decomposition remains a challenge.

  1. Exploring the potential of fulvalene dimetals as platforms for molecular solar thermal energy storage: computations, syntheses, structures, kinetics, and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börjesson, Karl; Ćoso, Dušan; Gray, Victor; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Guan, Jingqi; Harris, Charles B; Hertkorn, Norbert; Hou, Zongrui; Kanai, Yosuke; Lee, Donghwa; Lomont, Justin P; Majumdar, Arun; Meier, Steven K; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Myrabo, Randy L; Nguyen, Son C; Segalman, Rachel A; Srinivasan, Varadharajan; Tolman, Willam B; Vinokurov, Nikolai; Vollhardt, K Peter C; Weidman, Timothy W

    2014-11-17

    A study of the scope and limitations of varying the ligand framework around the dinuclear core of FvRu2 in its function as a molecular solar thermal energy storage framework is presented. It includes DFT calculations probing the effect of substituents, other metals, and CO exchange for other ligands on ΔHstorage . Experimentally, the system is shown to be robust in as much as it tolerates a number of variations, except for the identity of the metal and certain substitution patterns. Failures include 1,1',3,3'-tetra-tert-butyl (4), 1,2,2',3'-tetraphenyl (9), diiron (28), diosmium (24), mixed iron-ruthenium (27), dimolybdenum (29), and ditungsten (30) derivatives. An extensive screen of potential catalysts for the thermal reversal identified AgNO3 -SiO2 as a good candidate, although catalyst decomposition remains a challenge. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Exploring Earth and the Solar System: Educational Outreach Through NASA's Space Place, SciJinks, and Climate Kids Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Joseph Chistopher

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Place team publishes engaging content and creates an effective environment to inspire a young audience to dare mighty things. NASA uses the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks websites to cultivate interest among elementary-school-aged children in both science and technology. During my summer internship at Jet Propulsion Laboratory I used Adobe Flash and ActionScript 3 to develop content for the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks sites. In addition, I was involved in the development process for ongoing and new projects during my internship. My involvement allowed me to follow a project from concept to design, implementation, and release. I personally worked on three projects this summer, two of which are currently in deployment. The first is a scrambled letter-tile guessing game titled Solar System Scramble. The second, Butterfrog Mix-Up, is a rotating-tile puzzle game. The third project is a unfinished prototype for a maze game.

  3. A Vision for the Exploration of Mars: Robotic Precursors Followed by Humans to Mars Orbit in 2033

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Piers J.; Garvin, James B.; Kinney, Anne L.; Amato, Michael J.; White, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    The reformulation of the Mars program gives NASA a rare opportunity to deliver a credible vision in which humans, robots, and advancements in information technology combine to open the deep space frontier to Mars. There is a broad challenge in the reformulation of the Mars exploration program that truly sets the stage for: 'a strategic collaboration between the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) and the Office of the Chief Technologist, for the next several decades of exploring Mars'.Any strategy that links all three challenge areas listed into a true long term strategic program necessitates discussion. NASA's SMD and HEOMD should accept the President's challenge and vision by developing an integrated program that will enable a human expedition to Mars orbit in 2033 with the goal of returning samples suitable for addressing the question of whether life exists or ever existed on Mars

  4. Human Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: An Update on NASA's Current Status and Proposed Activities for Small Body Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Larman, K. T.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010.

  5. Exploring the Inner Acceleration Region of Solar Wind: A Study Based on Coronagraphic UV and Visible Light Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemporad, A.

    2017-09-01

    This work combined coronagraphic visible light (VL) and UV data to provide with an unprecedented view of the inner corona where the nascent solar wind is accelerated. The UV (H i Lyα) and VL (polarized brightness) images (reconstructed with SOHO/UVCS, LASCO, and Mauna Loa data) have been analyzed with the Doppler dimming technique to provide for the first time daily 2D images of the radial wind speed between 1 and 6 R ⊙ over 1 month of observations. Results show that both polar and equatorial regions are characterized at the base of the corona by plasma outflows at speeds > 100 km s‑1. The plasma is then decelerated within ∼1.5 R ⊙ at the poles and ∼2.0 R ⊙ at the equator, where local minima of the expansion speeds are reached, and gently reaccelerated higher up, reaching speeds typical of fast and slow wind components. The mass flux is highly variable with latitude and time at the equator and more uniform and stable over the poles. The polar flow is asymmetric, with speeds above the south pole lower than those above the north pole. A correlation (anticorrelation) between the wind speed and its density is found below (above) ∼1.8 R ⊙. The 2D distribution of forces responsible for deceleration and reacceleration of solar wind is provided and interpreted in terms of Alfvén waves. These results provide a possible connection between small-scale outflows reported with other instruments at the base of the corona and bulk wind flows measured higher up.

  6. Evolvable Mars Campaign Long Duration Habitation Strategies: Architectural Approaches to Enable Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry; Howe, A. Scott; Wald, Samuel I.

    2015-01-01

    The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) is the current NASA Mars mission planning effort which seeks to establish sustainable, realistic strategies to enable crewed Mars missions in the mid-2030s timeframe. The primary outcome of the Evolvable Mars Campaign is not to produce "The Plan" for sending humans to Mars, but instead its intent is to inform the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate near-term key decisions and investment priorities to prepare for those types of missions. The FY'15 EMC effort focused upon analysis of integrated mission architectures to identify technically appealing transportation strategies, logistics build-up strategies, and vehicle designs for reaching and exploring Mars moons and Mars surface. As part of the development of this campaign, long duration habitats are required which are capable of supporting crew with limited resupply and crew abort during the Mars transit, Mars moons, and Mars surface segments of EMC missions. In particular, the EMC design team sought to design a single, affordable habitation system whose manufactured units could be outfitted uniquely for each of these missions and reused for multiple crewed missions. This habitat system must provide all of the functionality to safely support 4 crew for long durations while meeting mass and volume constraints for each of the mission segments set by the chosen transportation architecture and propulsion technologies. This paper describes several proposed long-duration habitation strategies to enable the Evolvable Mars Campaign through improvements in mass, cost, and reusability, and presents results of analysis to compare the options and identify promising solutions. The concepts investigated include several monolithic concepts: monolithic clean sheet designs, and concepts which leverage the co-manifested payload capability of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) to deliver habitable elements within the Universal Payload Adaptor between the SLS upper stage and the Orion

  7. Repeated assessment of exploration and novelty seeking in the human behavioral pattern monitor in bipolar disorder patients and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpi Minassian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exploration and novelty seeking are cross-species adaptive behaviors that are dysregulated in bipolar disorder (BD and are critical features of the illness. While these behaviors have been extensively quantified in animals, multivariate human paradigms of exploration are lacking. The human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM, a human version of the animal open field, identified a signature pattern of hyper-exploration in manic BD patients, but whether exploratory behavior changes with treatment is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of the hBPM to changes in manic symptoms, a necessary step towards elucidating the neurobiology underlying BD. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve acutely hospitalized manic BD subjects and 21 healthy volunteers were tested in the hBPM over three sessions; all subjects were retested one week after their first session and two weeks after their second session. Motor activity, spatial and entropic (degree of unpredictability patterns of exploration, and interactions with novel objects were quantified. Manic BD patients demonstrated greater motor activity, extensive and more unpredictable patterns of exploration, and more object interactions than healthy volunteers during all three sessions. Exploration and novelty-seeking slightly decreased in manic BD subjects over the three sessions as their symptoms responded to treatment, but never to the level of healthy volunteers. Among healthy volunteers, exploration did not significantly decrease over time, and hBPM measures were highly correlated between sessions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Manic BD patients showed a modest reduction in symptoms yet still demonstrated hyper-exploration and novelty seeking in the hBPM, suggesting that these illness features may be enduring characteristics of BD. Furthermore, behavior in the hBPM is not subject to marked habituation effects. The hBPM can be reliably used in a repeated-measures design

  8. Cooperation and dialogical modeling for designing a safe Human space exploration mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grès, Stéphane; Tognini, Michel; Le Cardinal, Gilles; Zalila, Zyed; Gueydan, Guillaume

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes an approach for a complex and innovative project requiring international contributions from different communities of knowledge and expertise. Designing a safe and reliable architecture for a manned mission to Mars or the Asteroids necessitates strong cooperation during the early stages of design to prevent and reduce risks for the astronauts at each step of the mission. The stake during design is to deal with the contradictions, antagonisms and paradoxes of the involved partners for the definition and modeling of a shared project of reference. As we see in our research which analyses the cognitive and social aspects of technological risks in major accidents, in such a project, the complexity of the global organization (during design and use) and the integration of a wide and varie d range of sciences and innovative technologies is likely to increase systemic risks as follows: human and cultural mistakes, potential defaults, failures and accidents. We identify as the main danger antiquated centralized models of organization and the operational limits of interdisciplinarity in the sciences. Beyond this, we can see that we need to take carefully into account human cooperation and the quality of relations between heterogeneous partners. Designing an open, self-learning and reliable exploration system able to self-adapt in dangerous and unforeseen situations implies a collective networked intelligence led by a safe process that organizes interaction between the actors and the aims of the project. Our work, supported by the CNES (French Space Agency), proposes an innovative approach to the coordination of a complex project.

  9. Human Exploration Ethnography of the Haughton-Mars Project, 1998-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During the past two field seasons, July 1988 and 1999, we have conducted research about the field practices of scientists and engineers at Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic, with the objective of determining how people will live and work on Mars. This broad investigation of field life and work practice, part of the Haughton-Mars Project lead by Pascal Lee, spans social and cognitive anthropology, psychology, and computer science. Our approach involves systematic observation and description of activities, places, and concepts, constituting an ethnography of field science at Haughton. Our focus is on human behaviors-what people do, where, when, with whom, and why. By locating behavior in time and place-in contrast with a purely functional or "task oriented" description of work-we find patterns constituting the choreography of interaction between people, their habitat, and their tools. As such, we view the exploration process in terms of a total system comprising a social organization, facilities, terrain/climate, personal identities, artifacts, and computer tools. Because we are computer scientists seeking to develop new kinds of tools for living and working on Mars, we focus on the existing representational tools (such as documents and measuring devices), learning and improvization (such as use of the internet or informal assistance), and prototype computational systems brought to the field. Our research is based on partnership, by which field scientists and engineers actively contribute to our findings, just as we participate in their work and life.

  10. [Human functioning and disability: exploring the scope of the World Health Organization's international classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Luz, Madel Terezinha

    2009-03-01

    The theoretical discussion on disability is dichotomized according to the medical and social perspectives. The biomedical model focuses on impairment, disease, or physical abnormality and how these factors produce disability. The social approach suggests that the meaning of disability and impairment emerges from specific social and cultural contexts. The WHO created the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), with a classification system and theoretical model based on the combination of the medical and social models and using a biopsychosocial approach to integrate the health dimensions. Despite the importance and immediacy of the ICF, some concepts were insufficiently detailed and justified and could lead to distinct interpretations. This essay proposes to describe the ICF model and analyze the scope of the biopsychosocial theory for exploring the relational nature of the 'disability' and 'impairment' categories, as well as the universal nature of the WHO proposal. One of the most positive aspects of the ICF is to highlight the interactive nature of disability and the division of the phenomenon into three dimensions, thus demonstrating the degree of complexity in the process of human functioning and disability.

  11. Exploring Codon Usage Patterns of Alternatively Spliced Genes in Human Chromosome 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞; 庄永龙; 黄颖; 李衍达

    2004-01-01

    In this study, 414 whole protein-coding sequences (238 004 codons) of alternatively spliced genes of human chromosome 1 have been employed to explore the patterns of codon usage bias among genes. Overall codon usage data analysis indicates that G- and C-ending codons are predominant in the genes. The base usage in all three codon positions suggests a selection-mutation balance. Multivariate statistical analysis reveals that the codon usage variation has a strong positive correlation with the expressivities of the genes (r=0.5790, P<0.0001). All 27 codons identified as optimal are G- and C-ending codons.Correlation analysis shows a strong negative correlation between the gene length and codon adaptation index value (r=-0.2252, P<0.0001), and a significantly positive correlation between the gene length and Nc values (r=0.1876, P<0.0001). These results suggest that the comparatively shorter genes in the genes have higher codon usage bias to maximize translational efficiency, and selection may also contribute to the reduction of highly expressed proteins.

  12. Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron, Nitza; Dutson, Eric; Friedl, Karl; Hyman, William; Jemison, Mae; Klonoff, David

    2009-01-01

    The SRP believes strongly that regularly performed in-flight crew assessments are needed in order to identify a change in health status before a medical condition becomes clinically apparent. It is this early recognition in change