WorldWideScience

Sample records for human exploration lunar

  1. Research on Human-Robot Joint System for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei

    The lunar exploration in China is in progress. In order to reduce human workload and costs, and conduct researches more effectively and efficiently, human-robot joint systems are necessary for lunar exploration. The concept of human-robot joint system for lunar exploration is studied in this paper. The possible collaborative ways between human and robots and the collaborative activities which can be conducted for lunar exploration are discussed. Moreover, the preliminary configuration of a human-robot joint system is presented.

  2. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  3. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  4. The Evolution of Mission Architectures for Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, S. F.

    1995-01-01

    Defining transportation architectures for the human exploration of the Moon is a complex task due to the multitude of mission scenarios available. The mission transportation architecture recently proposed for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) was not designed from carefully predetermined mission requirements and goals, but evolved from an initial set of requirements, which were continually modified as studies revealed that some early assumptions were not optimal. This paper focuses on the mission architectures proposed for FLO and investigates how these transportation architectures evolved. A comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the three distinct mission architectures are discussed, namely (1) Lunar Orbit Rendezvous, (2) staging from the Cislunar Libration Point, and (3) direct to the lunar surface. In addition, several new and revolutionary architectures are discussed.

  5. The Evolution of Mission Architectures for Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, S. F.

    1995-01-01

    Defining transportation architectures for the human exploration of the Moon is a complex task due to the multitude of mission scenarios available. The mission transportation architecture recently proposed for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) was not designed from carefully predetermined mission requirements and goals, but evolved from an initial set of requirements, which were continually modified as studies revealed that some early assumptions were not optimal. This paper focuses on the mission architectures proposed for FLO and investigates how these transportation architectures evolved. A comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the three distinct mission architectures are discussed, namely (1) Lunar Orbit Rendezvous, (2) staging from the Cislunar Libration Point, and (3) direct to the lunar surface. In addition, several new and revolutionary architectures are discussed.

  6. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  7. Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Spohn, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Helbert, J.; Christensen, U.; Keller, H. U.; Mall, U.; Böhnhardt, H.; Hartogh, P.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Moreira, A.; Werner, M.; Pätzold, M.; Palme, H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Mandea, M.; Lesur, V.; Häusler, B.; Hördt, A.; Eichentopf, K.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Köhler, U.; Kührt, E.; Michaelis, H.; Pauer, M.; Sohl, F.; Denk, T.; van Gasselt, S.

    2007-08-01

    The Moon is an integral part of the Earth-Moon system, it is a witness to more than 4.5 b. y. of solar system history, and it is the only planetary body except Earth for which we have samples from known locations. The Moon is our closest companion and can easily be reached from Earth at any time, even with a relatively modest financial budget. Consequently, the Moon was the first logical step in the exploration of our solar system before we pursued more distant targets such as Mars and beyond. The vast amount of knowledge gained from the Apollo and other lunar missions of the late 1960's and early 1970's demonstrates how valuable the Moon is for the understanding of our planetary system. Even today, the Moon remains an extremely interesting target scientifically and technologically, as ever since, new data have helped to address some of our questions about the Earth-Moon system, many questions remained. Therefore, returning to the Moon is the critical stepping-stone to further exploring our immediate planetary neighborhood. In this concept study, we present scientific and technological arguments for a national German lunar mission, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter (LEO). Numerous space-faring nations have realized and identified the unique opportunities related to lunar exploration and have planned missions to the Moon within the next few years. Among these missions, LEO will be unique, because it will globally explore the Moon in unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. LEO will significantly improve our understanding of the lunar surface composition, surface ages, mineralogy, physical properties, interior, thermal history, gravity field, regolith structure, and magnetic field. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter will carry an entire suite of innovative, complementary technologies, including high-resolution camera systems, several spectrometers that cover previously unexplored parts of the electromagnetic spectrum over a broad range of wavelengths, microwave and

  8. Lunar Polar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) as a Stepping Stone for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2013-01-01

    A major emphasis of NASA is to extend and expand human exploration across the solar system. While specific destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative that NASA create new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) are the development of technologies and approaches for advanced robotics, power, propulsion, habitats, life support, and especially, space resource utilization systems. Space resources and how to use them, often called In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can have a tremendous beneficial impact on robotic and human exploration of the Moon, Mars, Phobos, and Near Earth Objects (NEOs), while at the same time helping to solve terrestrial challenges and enabling commercial space activities. The search for lunar resources, demonstration of extraterrestrial mining, and the utilization of resource-derived products, especially from polar volatiles, can be a stepping stone for subsequent human exploration missions to other destinations of interest due to the proximity of the Moon, complimentary environments and resources, and the demonstration of critical technologies, processes, and operations. ISRU and the Moon: There are four main areas of development interest with respect to finding, obtaining, extracting, and using space resources: Prospecting for resources, Production of mission critical consumables like propellants and life support gases, Civil engineering and construction, and Energy production, storage, and transfer. The search for potential resources and the production of mission critical consumables are the primary focus of current NASA technology and system development activities since they provide the greatest initial reduction in mission mass, cost, and risk. Because of the proximity of the Moon, understanding lunar resources and developing, demonstrating, and implementing lunar ISRU

  9. Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars--III: studies of system reliability and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, W. W.; Heydorn, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission do not now exist nor has any self-consistent program plan been proposed to acquire them. In particular, the lack of an Abort-to-Earth capability implies that critical mission systems must perform reliably for 3 years or must be maintainable and repairable by the crew. As has been previously argued, a well-planned program of human exploration of the Moon would provide a context within which to develop the appropriate technologies because a lunar expedition incorporates many of the operational elements of a Mars expedition. Initial lunar expeditions can be carried out at scales consistent with the current experience base but can be expanded in any or all operational phases to produce an experience base necessary to successfully and safely conduct human exploration of Mars. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Building Strategic Capabilities for Sustained Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, M.; Hufenbach, B.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss a lunar exploration architecture that addresses the strategic objective of providing access to the lunar surface. This access enables the most exciting part of the lunar exploration: building a sustained infrastructure on the lunar surface.

  11. China Starts Its Lunar Exploration Prbgram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2004-01-01

    Why China Starts Lunar Exploration Program.Lunar exploration is always a subject of great interest, for the earth's I nearest neighbour probably holds the key to humanity's future subsistence and development. The unique mineral and energy resources on the moon are important supplement and reserve to the Earth resources, which will generate farreaching influence on the sustainable development of human society. The helium-3 resource unique to lunar soil is a clean, efficient, safe and cheap new-type nuclear fusion fuel, and it will help change the energy structure of human society.

  12. ILEWG report and discussion on Lunar Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" will include oral papers and posters, and a series of discussions. Members of ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group will debate: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open - Celebrating the lunar legacy of pioneers Gerhard Neukum, Colin Pillinger and Manfred Fuchs planetary science and exploration - Latest results from LADEE and Chang'e 3/4 - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang-E1 and Chang-E2, Chandrayaan-1, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS impactor, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs, Chang'E 5, Future landers, Lunar sample return - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar sorties - Preparation: databases, instruments, terrestrial field campaigns - The future international lunar exploration programme towards ILEWG roadmap of a global robotic village and permanent international lunar base - The proposals for an International Lunar Decade and International Lunar Research Parks - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Human Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with the perspective of robotic and human exploration. The session will include invited and contributed talks as well as a panel discussion and interactive posters with short oral introduction.

  13. A Notional Example of Understanding Human Exploration Traverses on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, John

    2012-01-01

    Mr. Gruener received an M.S. in physical science, with an emphasis in planetary geology, from the University of Houston-Clear Lake in 1994. He then began working with NASA JSC.s Solar System Exploration Division on the development of prototype planetary science instruments, the development of a mineral-based substrate for nutrient delivery to plant growth systems in bio-regenerative life support systems, and in support of the Mars Exploration Rover missions in rock and mineral identification. In 2004, Mr. Gruener again participated in a renewed effort to plan and design missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. He participated in many exploration planning activities, including NASA.s Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Global Exploration Strategy Workshop, Lunar Architecture Team 1 and 2, Constellation Lunar Architecture Team, the Global Point of Departure Lunar Exploration Team, and the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Workshop on Science Associated with the Lunar Exploration Architecture. Mr. Gruener has also been an active member of the science team supporting NASA.s Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS).

  14. The Open Gateway: Lunar Exploration in 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S.; Neal, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Moon, with its fundamental science questions and abundant, potentially useful re-sources, is the most viable destination for near-term future human and robotic exploration. Given what we have learned since Apollo, the lunar frontier now presents an entirely new paradigm for planetary exploration. The Lunar Exploration Roadmap [1], which was jointly developed by engineers, planetary scientists, commercial entities, and policymakers, is the cohesive strategic plan for using the Moon and its resources to enable the exploration of all other destinations within the Solar system by leveraging incremental, affordable investments in cislunar infrastructure. Here, we summarize the Lunar Exploration Roadmap, and describe the immense benefits that will arise from its successful implementation.

  15. Lunar Exploration Manned and Unmanned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudis, P. D.; Asmar, S. W.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Duxbury, N.; Friesen, L. J.; Gillis, J. J.; Hawke, B. R.; Heiken, G.; Lawrence, D.; Manifold, J.; Slade, M. A.; Smith, A.; Taylor, G. J.; Yingst, R. A.

    2002-08-01

    The past decade has seen two global reconnaissance missions to the Moon, Clementine and Lunar Prospector, which have mapped the surface in multiple wavelengths, determined the Moon's topography and gravity fields, and discovered the presence of water ice in the permanently dark regions near the poles. Although we have learned much about the Moon, many key aspects of its history and evolution remain obscure. The three highest priority questions in lunar science are: 1) the Moon's global composition, particularly the abundance of aluminum and magnesium; 2) the extent, composition, and physical state of polar deposits, including the extent, purity, and thickness of ice, the elemental, isotopic, and molecular composition of polar volatiles, the environment of the polar regions; and 3) the cratering chronology of the Moon and the implications of a possibly unique history, such as a cataclysm, for our understanding of other Solar System objects. Answering and addressing these questions require a series of new missions, including an orbiter (carrying XRF, imaging radar, and other instruments), the deployment of surface network stations equipped with seismometers and heat flow probes, selected robotic sample return missions from geologically simple areas (e.g., youngest lava flow or crater melt sheet), and complex geological field work, conducted by human explorers. Because the Moon is a touchstone for the history and evolution of other rocky bodies in the solar system, we believe that these questions are of very high scientific priority and that lunar missions should receive much more serious attention and detailed study than they have in the past by the NASA Office of Space Science.

  16. Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further

  17. International Collaboration in Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K. Bruce; Horack, John M.; Nall, Mark; Leahy, Bart. D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration commits the United States to return astronauts to the moon by 2020 using the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. Like the Apollo program of the 1960s and 1970s, this effort will require preliminary reconnaissance in the form of robotic landers and probes. Unlike Apollo, some of the data NASA will rely upon to select landing sites and conduct science will be based on international missions as well, including SMART-1, SELENE, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Opportunities for international cooperation on the moon also lie in developing lunar exploration technologies. The European Space Agency's SMART-1 orbiter (Figure 1) is making the first comprehensive inventory of key chemical elements in the lunar surface. It is also investigating the impact theory of the moon's formation.'

  18. Lunar Solar Power System Driven Human Development of the Moon and Resource-Rich Exploration of the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The people of Earth require, by the middle of the 21st century, a new source of commercial power that is sustainable, clean, reliable, low in cost ( 2 kWe/person or > 20 TWe) than now (1, 2). The Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System appears to be the only reasonable option (2, 3). The Moon dependably receives 13,000 TWs of solar power. The LSP System consists of pairs of power bases located on opposite limbs of the Moon as seen from Earth. The power bases collect the solar energy and convert it to beams of microwaves. The microwaves are delivered directly to moonward-facing receivers on Earth or indirectly through relay satellites in orbit about Earth. To achieve low cost, the power bases are made primarily of local lunar materials by machines, facilities, and people deployed from Earth. Hundreds to thousands of people will be required on the Moon, in cis-lunar space, and operating tele-robotically from Earth to construct the full scale LSP System. Models indicate that power sales on Earth can easily support the required people, their regular transport between the Earth and Moon, and provide the required return on investment to develop the LSP System (4, 5). Construction of the LSP System, even at an early stage, creates fundamentally new wealth and capabilities supportive of rapid growth of human activities within the inner solar system. A factor of ten increase in global Earth-to-orbit transport will be required in the demonstration phase. Launch cost of 5,000 /kg is acceptable. Lower cost transport decreases the upfront cost of the LSP System but is not critical to the cost of energy from the mature LSP. Logistic and assembly facilities in orbit about the Earth and Moon will be required that are at least a factor of ten large than planned for the full scale International Space Station. Transport must be provided between the Earth and the Moon of hundreds, possibly thousands, of workers. Production machinery will be available that can build fundamentally new

  19. Advances in lunar exploration detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; OUYANG Ziyuan; LI Chunlai; XU Lin

    2005-01-01

    Due to the rapid development of modem science and technology, many advanced sensors have been put into use to explore our solar system, including the Moon. With the help of those detectors,we can retrieve more information to about the Moon' s composition and evolution. The Clementine (January, 1994), Lunar Prospector ( January, 1998) and especially Smart-1 ( September, 2003 ) launched successively have demonstrated the next-generation planet exploration techniques. Now China has decided to send a probe to the Moon. So it is necessary to overview the development of detectors used for the scientific observation of the Moon. In this paper, some main instruments used to acquire geochemistry information are described, which include UV-VIS-NIR CCD imaging spectroscope, neutronray, gamma-ray, and X-ray spectrometers. Moreover, the payloads of China' s first lunar satellite are introduced briefly.

  20. NASA Lunar Robotics for Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Lavoie, Anthony R.; Gilbert, Paul A.; Horack, John M.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the robotic missions that NASA and the international partnership are undertaking to investigate the moon to support science and exploration objectives. These missions include the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Moon Mineralogy Mapper (MMM), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), and the International Lunar Network (ILN). The goals and instrumentation of these missions are reviewed.

  1. The Role of Lunar Development in Human Exploration of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1999-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system can be said to have begun with the Apollo landings on the Moon. The Apollo Project was publicly funded with the narrow technical objective of landing human beings on the Moon. The transportation and life support systems were specialized technical designs, developed in a project management environment tailored to that objective. Most scenarios for future human exploration assume a similar long-term commitment of public funds to a narrowly focused project managed by a large, monolithic organization. Advocates of human exploration of space have not yet been successful in generating the political momentum required to initiate such a project to go to the Moon or to Mars. Alternative scenarios of exploration may relax some or all of the parameters of organizational complexity, great expense, narrow technical focus, required public funding, and control by a single organization. Development of the Moon using private investment is quite possibly a necessary condition for alternative scenarios to succeed.

  2. Lunar Solar Power System and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    Five of the six billion people on Earth produce less than 2,500 per year per person of Gross World Product (GWP). GWP growth is severely limited by the high cost, low availability and reliability, environmental damages, and political uncertainties of conventional fossil, nuclear, and terrestrial renewable power systems. In 2000 the World Energy Council challenged all decision makers to enable the equivalent of 6.7 kWt per person of thermal power within two generations. This implies 67 TWt, or approx.20 to 30 TWe, of sustainable electric power by 2050. Twenty-five power systems were reviewed to select which could: (1) sustainably provide 20 TWe to consumers; (2) profitably sell electricity for less than 0.01 per kWe-h; (3) be environmentally neutral, even nurturing; and (4) use understood technologies. The analyses indicated that only the Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System could meet these requirements within the 21st Century.

  3. China's Lunar Orbit Exploration Prgram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of 2004 China National Space Administration announced that China would formally start the 1st phase of its lunar exploration program, Chang'e-1 in 2004. Whenattending the “Forum on China Important Engineering and Technology Achievements”, Mr. Hu Hao, the director of the Lunar Exploration Engineering Center,

  4. Modular Growth NTR Space Transportation System for Future NASA Human Lunar, NEA and Mars Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is a proven, high thrust propulsion technology that has twice the specific impulse (I(sub sp) approx.900 s) of today's best chemical rockets. During the Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) programs, twenty rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested. These tests demonstrated: (1) a wide range of thrust; (2) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuel; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability - everything required for affordable human missions beyond LEO. In NASA's recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower IMLEO, versatile vehicle design, and growth potential. Furthermore, the NTR requires no large technology scale-ups since the smallest engine tested during the Rover program - the 25 klb(sub f) "Pewee" engine is sufficient for human Mars missions when used in a clustered engine configuration. The "Copernicus" crewed Mars transfer vehicle developed for DRA 5.0 was an expendable design sized for fast-conjunction, long surface stay Mars missions. It therefore has significant propellant capacity allowing a reusable "1-year" round trip human mission to a large, high energy near Earth asteroid (NEA) like Apophis in 2028. Using a "split mission" approach, Copernicus and its two key elements - a common propulsion stage and integrated "saddle truss" and LH2 drop tank assembly - configured as an Earth Return Vehicle / propellant tanker, can also support a short round trip (approx.18 month) / short orbital stay (60 days) Mars reconnaissance mission in the early 2030's before a landing is attempted. The same short stay orbital mission can be performed with an "all-up" vehicle by adding an "in-line" LH2 tank to Copernicus to supply the extra propellant needed for this higher energy, opposition-class mission. To transition to a

  5. Future lunar exploration activities in ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdou, B.; Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Koschny, D.; Pradier, A.; di Pippo, S.; Gardini, B.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in the Moon and various recent and coming orbital missions including Smart-1, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter are advancing our understanding. In 2004 the US announced a new Vision for Space Exploration [1], whose objectives are focused towards human missions to the Moon and Mars. The European Space Agency has established similar objectives for Europe, described in [2] and approved at the ESA ministerial council (2009). There is considerable potential for international cooperation in these activities, as formulated in the recently agreed Global Exploration Strategy [3]. Present lunar exploration activities at ESA emphasise the development of European technologies and capabilities, to enable European participation in future international human exploration of the Moon. A major element in this contribution has been identified as a large lunar cargo lander, which would fulfill an ATV-like function, providing logistical support to human activities on the Moon, extending the duration of sorties and the capabilities of human explorers. To meet this ultimate goal, ESA is currently considering various possible development approaches, involving lunar landers of different sizes. Lunar Lander Mission Options A high capacity cargo lander able to deliver consumables, equipment and small infrastructure, in both sortie and outpost mission scenarios, would use a full Ariane 5 launch and is foreseen in the 2020-2025 timeframe. ESA is also considering an intermediate, smaller-scale mission beforehand, to mature the necessary landing technologies, to demonstrate human-related capabilities in preparation of human presence on the Moon and in general to gain experience in landing and operating on the lunar surface. Within this frame, ESA is currently leading several feasibility studies of a small lunar lander mission, also called "MoonNEXT". This mission is foreseen to be to be launched from Kourou with a

  6. Lunar exploration rover program developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klarer, P.R.

    1993-09-01

    The Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER) design concept began at Sandia National Laboratories in late 1991 with a series of small, proof-of-principle, working scale models. The models proved the viability of the concept for high mobility through mechanical simplicity, and eventually received internal funding at Sandia National Laboratories for full scale, proof-of-concept prototype development. Whereas the proof-of-principle models demonstrated the mechanical design`s capabilities for mobility, the full scale proof-of-concept design currently under development is intended to support field operations for experiments in telerobotics, autonomous robotic operations, telerobotic field geology, and advanced man-machine interface concepts. The development program`s current status is described, including an outline of the program`s work over the past year, recent accomplishments, and plans for follow-on development work.

  7. Lunar exploration phase III: Launch window and trajectory design for a lunar lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyang; Yang, Hongwei; Baoyin, Hexi

    2015-09-01

    The lunar exploration phase III mission is a part of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation's lunar exploration program that will perform a soft-landing and sample return from the Moon to test the key technologies that are required for human lunar missions. This paper focuses primarily on the trajectory design and orbital launch window generation for a lunar probe that are consistent with the constraints imposed by third phase of lunar exploration. Two categories of trajectories are explored: Earth-to-Moon and Moon-to-Earth. With the patched conic technique, the analytical and modified analytical models of the transfer trajectories are developed. The requirement of high-latitude landing for the return phase trajectory is considered in the modified model. By varying the initial input conditions and with a fast convergence iteration scheme, different characteristics of the transfer trajectory are generated. The orbital launch windows are established to study the mission sensitivities to time and fuel consumption and to provide a launch timetable that is compatible with this mission's requirements. The lunar surface stay time is analyzed for different conditions. The high-fidelity gravitational model is introduced to demonstrate the accuracy and convergence behavior of the analytical solution. The design method can also be used as a basis for the future human lunar missions.

  8. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delory, G. T.; Elphic, R. C.; Morgan, T. H.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Hine, B.; Boroson, D.; Salute, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent “Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon” (SCEM) report identify studies of the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment as among the leading priorities for future lunar science missions. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is currently under development to address these goals. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and dynamics, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. LADEE employs a high heritage instrument payload: the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS), the Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS), and the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). It will also carry the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) as a technology demo. LADEE is an important component in NASA’s portfolio of near-term lunar missions, addressing objectives that are currently not covered by other U.S. or international efforts, and whose observations must be conducted before large scale human or robotic activities irrevocably perturb the tenuous and fragile lunar atmosphere. LADEE’s success will also demonstrate the effectiveness of a low-cost, rapid development program, utilizing a modular bus design together with the new Minotaur IV+ launch vehicle, and will thus pave the way for cost-effective future lunar missions in a cost-constrained environment. The LADEE spacecraft with various instrument locations.

  9. Logistics Modeling for Lunar Exploration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraschko, Mark R.; Merrill, R. Gabe; Earle, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    The extensive logistics required to support extended crewed operations in space make effective modeling of logistics requirements and deployment critical to predicting the behavior of human lunar exploration systems. This paper discusses the software that has been developed as part of the Campaign Manifest Analysis Tool in support of strategic analysis activities under the Constellation Architecture Team - Lunar. The described logistics module enables definition of logistics requirements across multiple surface locations and allows for the transfer of logistics between those locations. A key feature of the module is the loading algorithm that is used to efficiently load logistics by type into carriers and then onto landers. Attention is given to the capabilities and limitations of this loading algorithm, particularly with regard to surface transfers. These capabilities are described within the context of the object-oriented software implementation, with details provided on the applicability of using this approach to model other human exploration scenarios. Some challenges of incorporating probabilistics into this type of logistics analysis model are discussed at a high level.

  10. Japan's Lunar Exploration Program and Its Contribution to International Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Junichiro; Kato, Manabu; Matsumoto, Kohtaro; Hashimoto, Tatsuaki

    . JAXA built its Lunar and Planetary Exploration Center (JSPEC) last April. JSPEC is doing not only the moon but planetary exploration encompassing from science to so-called exploration. JSPEC elaborates strategies of science and technology, program planning and promotion of Space Exploration activities through domestic and international collaborations. And at the same time, the Specific R&D activities for engineering and science development, operation and other related activities for spacecraft are also performed there, including the research and analysis of scientific and technical aspects for future missions. Simply speaking, the JSPEC of JAXA looks at both Exploration together with Science Missions. The activity includes the Moon, Mars and NEOs plus Primitive Bodies where humans someday may stay or may utilize in future. This January, the Lunar Exploration WG was established under the government, and started the strategic discussion at the government level on how to go about the lunar exploration in Japan. The program strategy made a report this January and made a recommendation that Japan should have a lunar lander until middle of 2010s. JAXA started its 2nd 5-year plan from 2008, and JAXA completed the MDR (Mission Definition Review) for the SELENE-2 last July, and established the Phase-A study team for it. JAXA believes it leads to International Cooperation, Discovery and Innovation and shall consist of two types of missions. The first one is the Robotic Lunar Missions, in which JAXA will make an in-depth scientific measurements and utilization, until the middle of 2010s. The other one is the Human Lunar Missions, in which the missions anyhow shall be autonomous with its own objectives, making use of humans related technologies, while pursuing the Japanese astronaut on the moon as early as possible in international activity to commensurate with its international status. As to its Independent Lunar Surface activity by Japan's own space systems assets still

  11. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremo, Stevan; Turner, Mark; Caffrey, Robert T.; Hine, Butler Preston

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a Lunar science orbiter mission currently under development to address the goals of the National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) [1] report to study the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment prior to significant human activities. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. LADEE employs a high heritage science instrument payload including a neutral mass spectrometer, ultraviolet spectrometer, and dust sensor. In addition to the science payloads, LADEE will fly a laser communications system technology demonstration that could provide a building block for future space communications architectures. LADEE is an important component in NASA's portfolio of near-term lunar missions, addressing objectives that are currently not covered by other U.S. or international efforts, and whose observations must be conducted before large-scale human or robotic activities irrevocably perturb the tenuous and fragile lunar atmosphere. LADEE will also demonstrate the effectiveness of a low-cost, rapid-development program utilizing a modular bus design launched on the new Minotaur V launch vehicle. Once proven, this capability could enable future lunar missions in a highly cost constrained environment. This paper describes the LADEE objectives, mission design, and technical

  12. SMART-1 results and future lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2008-04-01

    We present some highlights from SMART-1's science and technology payload, and the relevance of SMART-1 results and lessons for future lunar exploration. SMART-1 is the first ESA mission that reached the Moon. It is the first of Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology. It has fulfilled its technology objectives to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. After a 15-month cruise with primary SEP and successful technology demonstration, the SMART-1 science and exploration phase, provided first lunar orbit results. The mission has been extended one year and ended with an impact on 3 September 2006.

  13. Exploration of the Moon to Enable Lunar and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon represents an enabling Solar System exploration asset because of its proximity, resources, and size. Its location has facilitated robotic missions from 5 different space agencies this century. The proximity of the Moon has stimulated commercial space activity, which is critical for sustainable space exploration. Since 2000, a new view of the Moon is coming into focus, which is very different from that of the 20th century. The documented presence of volatiles on the lunar surface, coupled with mature ilmenite-rich regolith locations, represent known resources that could be used for life support on the lunar surface for extended human stays, as well as fuel for robotic and human exploration deeper into the Solar System. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to explore the terrestrial planets and Solar System processes. For example, it is an end-member in terrestrial planetary body differentiation. Ever since the return of the first lunar samples by Apollo 11, the magma ocean concept was developed and has been applied to both Earth and Mars. Because of the small size of the Moon, planetary differentiation was halted at an early (primary?) stage. However, we still know very little about the lunar interior, despite the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments, and to understand the structure of the Moon will require establishing a global lunar geophysical network, something Apollo did not achieve. Also, constraining the impact chronology of the Moon allows the surfaces of other terrestrial planets to be dated and the cratering history of the inner Solar System to be constrained. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to study space weathering of airless bodies. It is apparent, then, that human and robotic missions to the Moon will enable both science and exploration. For example, the next step in resource exploration is prospecting on the surface those deposits identified from orbit to understand the yield that can be expected. Such prospecting will also

  14. COSPAR-16-B0.1/ICEUM12A: Lunar Exploration and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    Lunar science and exploration are having a renaissance with as many as twelve missions (and 18 vehicles) sent to Moon during the last "International Lunar decade". This session is aimed at discussing new progress in lunar science from recent missions, latest science results, newer insight into our understanding of Moon, modelling and synthesis of different scientific data, future missions, and science questions. It will include invited, contributed, and poster papers. Papers on new lunar mission concepts, instrumentation for the future missions, the upcoming lunar decade of landers and lunar robotic village, and preparations for human lunar exploration towards a "Moon Village" are also welcome in this session. COSPAR-16-B0.1 will also be ICEUM12A, part of the 12th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon from the ILEWG ICEUM series started in 1994.

  15. Lunar Thermal Wadis and Exploration Rovers: Outpost Productivity and Participatory Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacksteder, Kurt; Wegeng, Robert; Suzuki, Nantel

    2009-01-01

    The presentation introduces the concept of a thermal wadi, an engineered source of thermal energy that can be created using native material on the moon or elsewhere to store solar energy for use by various lunar surface assets to survive the extremely cold environment of the lunar night. A principal benefit of this approach to energy storage is the low mass requirement for transportation from Earth derived from the use of the lunar soil, or regolith, as the energy storage medium. The presentation includes a summary of the results of a feasibility study involving the numerical modeling of the performance of a thermal wadi including a manufactured thermal mass, a solar energy reflector, a nighttime thermal energy reflector and a lunar surface rover. The feasibility study shows that sufficient thermal energy can be stored using unconcentrated solar flux to keep a lunar surface rover sufficiently warm throughout a 354 hour lunar night at the lunar equator, and that similar approaches can be used to sustain surface assets during shorter dark periods that occur at the lunar poles. The presentation includes descriptions of a compact lunar rover concept that could be used to manufacture a thermal wadi and could alternatively be used to conduct a variety of high-value tasks on the lunar surface. Such rovers can be produced more easily because the capability for surviving the lunar night is offloaded to the thermal wadi infrastructure. The presentation also includes several concepts for operational scenarios that could be implemented on the moon using the thermal wadi and compact rover concepts in which multiple affordable rovers, operated by multiple terrestrial organizations, can conduct resource prospecting and human exploration site preparation tasks.

  16. Scientific Opportunities with ispace, a Lunar Exploration Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, K. T.

    2016-11-01

    This presentation introduces ispace, a Tokyo-based lunar exploration company. Technology applied to the Team Hakuto Google Lunar XPRIZE mission will be described. Finally, it will discuss how developing low cost and mass efficient rovers can support scientific opportunities.

  17. Human Lunar Destiny: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers conceptual strategy and rationale for returning astronauts to the moon. NASA's historic Apollo program enabled humans to make the first expeditionary voyages to the moon and to gather and return samples back to the earth for further study. To continue exploration of the moon within the next ten to fifteen years, one possible mission concept for returning astronauts using existing launch vehicle infrastructure is presented. During these early lunar missions, expeditionary trips are made to geographical destinations and permanent outposts are established at the lunar south pole. As these missions continue, mining operations begin in an effort to learn how to live off the land. Over time, a burgeoning economy based on mining and scientific activity emerges with the formation of more accommodating settlements and surface infrastructure assets. As lunar activity advances, surface infrastructure assets grow and become more complex, lunar settlements and outposts are established across the globe, travel to and from the moon becomes common place, and commerce between earth and the moon develops and flourishes. Colonization and development of the moon is completed with the construction of underground cities and the establishment of a full range of political, religious, educational, and recreational institutions with a diverse population from all nations of the world. Finally, rationale for diversifying concentrations of humanity throughout earth's neighborhood and the greater solar system is presented.

  18. L-VRAP—A lunar volatile resources analysis package for lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I. P.; Sheridan, S.; Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waugh, L. J.; Howe, C. J.; Gibson, E. K.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package (L-VRAP) has been conceived to deliver some of the objectives of the proposed Lunar Lander mission currently being studied by the European Space Agency. The purpose of the mission is to demonstrate and develop capability; the impetus is very much driven by a desire to lay the foundations for future human exploration of the Moon. Thus, L-VRAP has design goals that consider lunar volatiles from the perspective of both their innate scientific interest and also their potential for in situ utilisation as a resource. The device is a dual mass spectrometer system and is capable of meeting the requirements of the mission with respect to detection, quantification and characterisation of volatiles. Through the use of appropriate sampling techniques, volatiles from either the regolith or atmosphere (exosphere) can be analysed. Furthermore, since L-VRAP has the capacity to determine isotopic compositions, it should be possible for the instrument to determine the sources of the volatiles that are found on the Moon (be they lunar per se, extra-lunar, or contaminants imparted by the mission itself).

  19. Lunar and Mars Exploration: The Autonomy Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Cynthia M.; Schuh, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    Long duration space flight crews have relied heavily on almost constant communication with ground control mission support. Ground control teams provide vehicle status and system monitoring, while offering near real time support for specific tasks, emergencies, and ensuring crew health and well being. With extended exploration goals to lunar and Mars outposts, real time communication with ground control teams and the ground s ability to conduct mission monitoring will be very limited compared to the resources provided to current International Space Station (ISS) crews. An operational shift toward more autonomy and a heavier reliance on the crew to monitor their vehicle and operations will be required for these future missions. NASA s future exploration endeavors and the subsequent increased autonomy will require a shift in crew skill composition, i.e. engineer, doctor, mission specialist etc. and lead to new training challenges and mission scenarios. Specifically, operational and design changes will be necessary in many areas including: Habitat Infrastructure and Support Systems, Crew Composition, Training, Procedures and Mission Planning. This paper will specifically address how to apply ISS lessons learned to further use ISS as a test bed to address decreased amounts of ground support to achieve full autonomous operations for lunar and Mars missions. Understanding these lessons learned and applying them to current operations will help to address the future impacts of increased crew autonomy for the lunar and Mars outposts and pave the way for success in increasingly longer mission durations.

  20. Improving Lunar Exploration with Robotic Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, T.; Bualat, M.; Deans, M.; Heggy E.; Helper, M.; Hodges, K.; Lee, P.

    2011-01-01

    We are investigating how augmenting human field work with subsequent robot activity can improve lunar exploration. Robotic "follow-up" might involve: completing geology observations; making tedious or long-duration measurements of a target site or feature; curating samples in-situ; and performing unskilled, labor-intensive work. To study this technique, we have begun conducting a series of lunar analog field tests at Haughton Crater (Canada). Motivation: In most field geology studies on Earth, explorers often find themselves left with a set of observations they would have liked to make, or samples they would have liked to take, if only they had been able to stay longer in the field. For planetary field geology, we can imagine mobile robots - perhaps teleoperated vehicles previously used for manned exploration or dedicated planetary rovers - being deployed to perform such follow-up activities [1].

  1. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    The MSFC/APL Robotic Lunar Landing Project (RLLDP) team has developed lander concepts encompassing a range of mission types and payloads for science, exploration, and technology demonstration missions: (1) Developed experience and expertise in lander systems, (2) incorporated lessons learned from previous efforts to improve the fidelity of mission concepts, analysis tools, and test beds Mature small and medium lander designs concepts have been developed: (1) Share largely a common design architecture. (2) Flexible for a large number of mission and payload options. High risk development areas have been successfully addressed Landers could be selected for a mission with much of the concept formulation phase work already complete

  2. A Dual Launch Robotic and Human Lunar Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David L.; Mulqueen, Jack; Percy, Tom; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive lunar exploration architecture developed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office that features a science-based surface exploration strategy and a transportation architecture that uses two launches of a heavy lift launch vehicle to deliver human and robotic mission systems to the moon. The principal advantage of the dual launch lunar mission strategy is the reduced cost and risk resulting from the development of just one launch vehicle system. The dual launch lunar mission architecture may also enhance opportunities for commercial and international partnerships by using expendable launch vehicle services for robotic missions or development of surface exploration elements. Furthermore, this architecture is particularly suited to the integration of robotic and human exploration to maximize science return. For surface operations, an innovative dual-mode rover is presented that is capable of performing robotic science exploration as well as transporting human crew conducting surface exploration. The dual-mode rover can be deployed to the lunar surface to perform precursor science activities, collect samples, scout potential crew landing sites, and meet the crew at a designated landing site. With this approach, the crew is able to evaluate the robotically collected samples to select the best samples for return to Earth to maximize the scientific value. The rovers can continue robotic exploration after the crew leaves the lunar surface. The transportation system for the dual launch mission architecture uses a lunar-orbit-rendezvous strategy. Two heavy lift launch vehicles depart from Earth within a six hour period to transport the lunar lander and crew elements separately to lunar orbit. In lunar orbit, the crew transfer vehicle docks with the lander and the crew boards the lander for descent to the surface. After the surface mission, the crew returns to the orbiting transfer vehicle for the return to the Earth. This

  3. Microwave processing of lunar soil for supporting longer-term surface exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, V.; Lim, S.; Anand, M.

    2016-11-01

    The future of human space exploration will inevitably involve longer-term stays and possibly permanent settlement on the surfaces of other planetary bodies. It will, therefore, be advantageous or perhaps even necessary to utilise local resources for building an infrastructure for human habitation on the destination planetary body. In this context human lunar exploration is the next obvious step. Lunar soil is regarded as an ideal feedstock for lunar construction materials. However, significant gaps remain in our knowledge and understanding of certain chemical and physical properties of lunar soil, which need to be better understood in order to develop appropriate construction techniques and materials for lunar applications. This article reviews our current understanding of the dielectric behaviour of lunar soil in the microwave spectrum, which is increasingly recognised as an important topic of research in the Space Architecture field. Although the coupling between the lunar soil and microwave energy is already recognised, considerable challenges must be overcome before microwave processing could be used as a main fabrication method for producing robust structures on the Moon. We also review the existing literature on the microwave processing of lunar soil and identify three key research areas where future efforts are needed to make significant advances in understanding the potential of microwave processing of lunar soil for construction purposes.

  4. "First Convention of Lunar Explorers" - Invitation to the media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The first LUNEX Convention will bring together lunar explorers from all backgrounds, including professionals, amateur space enthusiasts and interested visitors from the public. During the Convention numerous oral presentations will prompt detailed discussions on all aspects of future lunar exploration: the Moon as a geology laboratory or an astronomical platform; the knowledge of lunar geography needed to land and move on the surface; the implications of finding water-ice on the Moon and whether this might be detected by forthcoming missions; the architecture of lunar habitats; what would be needed in the future for the Moon to support life; cultural and social aspects; and the scientific motivation for returning to the Moon. The Convention will also be the main public event in 2001 at which SMART-1 is presented. SMART-1, due to be launched in 2002 will test solar electric propulsion and other innovative approaches for future deep space probes. It is the first European satellite to be sent towards the Moon. Visitors to the Palais de la Découverte will be able to view a model of SMART-1. On 9 March, at 09:00, the media is invited to hear about the LUNEX objectives and activities and to learn about the European Space Agency’s SMART-1 mission within the broader context of ESA’s Planetary Exploration Programme. Background information on LUNEX The Lunar Explorers Society (LUNEX) is an international organization created by 200 founder members in July 2000. LUNEX was founded at the end of the 4th Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM4), organised by ESA and the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG). Its aim is to promote the exploration of the Moon for the benefit of humanity, bridging the gap between space agencies and the general public to promote planetary exploration and space. The Lunar Explorers Society invites all interested individuals to become members. Background information on SMART-1 SMART-1 is the first of ESA

  5. International Coordination of Exploring and Using Lunar Polar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Suzuki, N. H.; Carpenter, J. D.

    2016-11-01

    This abstract discusses the efforts of an International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) study team to coordinate the worldwide exploration of lunar polar volatiles. This effort includes the development of a website and conducting virtual workshops.

  6. [Effect of lunar dust on humans: -lunar dust: regolith-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Miki, Takeo; Higashi, Toshiaki; Horie, Seichi; Tanaka, Kazunari; Mukai, Chiaki

    2010-09-01

    We reviewed the effect of lunar dust (regolith) on humans by the combination of the hazard/exposure of regolith and microgravity of the moon. With regard to the physicochemical properties of lunar dust, the hazard-related factors are its components, fibrous materials and nanoparticles. Animal exposure studies have been performed using a simulant of lunar dust, and it was speculated that the harmful effects of the simulant lies between those of crystalline silica and titanium dioxide. Fibrous materials may not have a low solubility judging from their components. The nanoparticles in lunar dust may have harmful potentials from the view of the components. As for exposure to regolith, there is a possibility that particles larger than ones in earth (1 gravity) are respirable. In microgravity, 1) the deposition of particles of less than 1 µm in diameter in the human lung did not decrease, 2) the functions of macrophages including phagocytosis were suppressed, 3) pulmonary inflammation was changed. These data on hazard/exposure and microgravity suggest that fine and ultrafine particles in regolith may have potential hazards and risks for humans.

  7. Moon 101: Introducing Students to Lunar Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Moon 101 is designed with the purpose of familiarizing students with lunar geology and exploration. Armed with guiding questions, students read articles covering various lunar science topics and browse images from past and current lunar missions to familiarize themselves with available lunar data sets. Moon 101 was originally created for high school students preparing to conduct open-inquiry, lunar research. Most high school students' knowledge of lunar science is limited to lunar phases and tides, and their knowledge of lunar exploration is close to non-existent. Moon 101 provides a summary of the state of knowledge of the Moon's formation and evolution, and the exploration that has helped inform the lunar science community. Though designed for high school students, Moon 101 is highly appropriate for the undergraduate classroom, especially at the introductory level where resources for teaching lunar science are scarce. Moon 101 is comprised of two sections covering lunar science (formation and geologic evolution of the Moon) and one section covering lunar exploration. Students read information on the formation and geologic evolution of the Moon from sources such as the Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website and the USGS professional paper A Geologic History of the Moon by Wilhelms. While these resources are not peer-reviewed journals, the information is presented at a level more advanced than articles from newspapers and popular science magazines. This ensures that the language is accessible to students who do not have a strong lunar/planetary science background, or a strong science background in general. Formation readings include information on older and current formation hypotheses, including the Giant Impact Hypothesis, the Magma Ocean hypothesis, and the age of the lunar crust. Lunar evolution articles describe ideas such as the Late Heavy Bombardment and geologic processes such as volcanism and impact cratering. After reading the articles

  8. Lunar Radio Telescopes: A Staged Approach for Lunar Science, Heliophysics, Astrobiology, Cosmology, and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd D.; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, W. M.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K.

    2012-01-01

    Observations with radio telescopes address key problems in cosmology, astrobiology, heliophysics, and planetary science including the first light in the Universe (Cosmic Dawn), magnetic fields of extrasolar planets, particle acceleration mechanisms, and the lunar ionosphere. The Moon is a unique science platform because it allows access to radio frequencies that do not penetrate the Earth's ionosphere and because its far side is shielded from intense terrestrial emissions. The instrument packages and infrastructure needed for radio telescopes can be transported and deployed as part of Exploration activities, and the resulting science measurements may inform Exploration (e.g., measurements of lunar surface charging). An illustrative roadmap for the staged deployment of lunar radio telescopes

  9. ANTS: Applying A New Paradigm for Lunar and Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Rilee, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano- Technology Swarm), a mission architecture consisting of a large (1000 member) swarm of picoclass (1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft with both adaptable and evolvable heuristic systems, is being developed as a NASA advanced mission concept, and is here examined as a paradigm for lunar surface exploration. As the capacity and complexity of hardware and software, demands for bandwidth, and the sophistication of goals for lunar and planetary exploration have increased, greater cost constraints have led to fewer resources and thus, the need to operate spacecraft with less frequent human contact. At present, autonomous operation of spacecraft systems allows great capability of spacecraft to 'safe' themselves and survive when conditions threaten spacecraft safety. To further develop spacecraft capability, NASA is at the forefront of development of new mission architectures which involve the use of Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), performing experiments in space and on the ground to advance deliberative and collaborative autonomous control techniques. Selected missions in current planning stages require small groups of spacecraft weighing tens, instead of hundreds, of kilograms to cooperate at a tactical level to select and schedule measurements to be made by appropriate instruments onboard. Such missions will be characterizing rapidly unfolding real-time events on a routine basis. The next level of development, which we are considering here, is in the use of autonomous systems at the strategic level, to explore the remote terranes, potentially involving large surveys or detailed reconnaissance.

  10. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Hoppa, G. V.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    For 60 years the US Defense Department has invested heavily in producing small, low mass, precision guided vehicles. The technologies matured under these programs include terrain-aided navigation, closed loop terminal guidance algorithms, robust autopilots, high thrust-to-weight propulsion, autonomous mission management software, sensors, and data fusion. These technologies will aid NASA in addressing New Millennium Science and Technology goals as well as the requirements flowing from the Vision articulated in January 2004. Establishing and resupplying a long term lunar presence will require automated landing precision not yet demonstrated. Precision landing will increase safety and assure mission success. In the DOD world, such technologies are used routinely and reliably. Hence, it is timely to generate a point design for a precise planetary lander useful for lunar exploration. In this design science instruments amount to 10 kg, 16% of the lander vehicle mass. This compares favorably with 7% for Mars Pathfinder and less than 15% for Surveyor. The mission design flies the lander in an inert configuration to the moon, relying on a cruise stage for navigation and TCMs. The lander activates about a minute before impact. A solid booster reduces the vehicle speed to 300-450 m/s. The lander is now about 2 minutes from touchdown and has 600 to 700 m/s delta-v capability, allowing for about 10 km of vehicle divert during terminal descent. This concept of operations is chosen because it closely mimics missile operational timelines used for decades: the vehicle remains inert in a challenging environment, then must execute its mission flawlessly on a moment's notice. The vehicle design consists of a re-plumbed propulsion system, using propellant tanks and thrusters from exoatmospheric programs. A redesigned truss provides hard points for landing gear, electronics, power supply, and science instruments. A radar altimeter and a Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator (DSMAC

  11. ATHLETE: Lunar Cargo Handling for International Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Human-Robot Systems Project within the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. The basic idea of ATHLETE is to have six relatively small wheels on the ends of legs. The small wheels and associated drive actuators are much less massive than the larger wheels and gears needed for an "all terrain" vehicle that cannot "walk" out of extreme terrain. The mass savings for the wheels and wheel actuators is greater than the mass penalty of the legs, for a net mass savings. Starting in 2009, NASA became engaged in detailed architectural studies for international discussions with the European Space Agency (ESA), the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) under the auspices of the International Architecture Working Group (IAWG). ATHLETE is considered in most of the campaign options considered, providing a way to offload cargo from large Altair-class landers (having a cargo deck 6+ meters above the surface) as well as offloading international landers launched on Ariane-5 or H-2 launch vehicles. These international landers would carry provisions as well as scientific instruments and/or small rovers that would be used by international astronauts as part of an international effort to explore the moon.Work described in this paper includes architectural studies in support of the international missions as well as field testing of a half-scale ATHLETE prototype performing cargo offloading from a lander mockup, along with multi-kilometer traverse, climbing over greater than 1 m rocks, tool use, etc.

  12. Development of Life Support System Technologies for Human Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.

  13. Back to the Moon: The Scientific Rationale for Resuming Lunar Surface Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, I A; Cockell, C S; Falcke, H; Green, D A; Jaumann, R; Wieczorek, M A

    2012-01-01

    The lunar geological record has much to tell us about the earliest history of the Solar System, the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and the near-Earth cosmic environment throughout Solar System history. In addition, the lunar surface offers outstanding opportunities for research in astronomy, astrobiology, fundamental physics, life sciences and human physiology and medicine. This paper provides an interdisciplinary review of outstanding lunar science objectives in all of these different areas. It is concluded that addressing them satisfactorily will require an end to the 40-year hiatus of lunar surface exploration, and the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the surface of the Moon. Some of these objectives can be achieved robotically (e.g. through targeted sample return, the deployment of geophysical networks, and the placing of antennas on the lunar surface to form radio telescopes). However, in the lo...

  14. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Science and Technology for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Greg; Bailey, Brad; Gibbs, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and exploration, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and development and support of the international community. As part of its mission, SSERVI acts as a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdisciplinary, research-focused collaborations. The nine domestic SSERVI teams that comprise the U.S. complement of the Institute engage with the international science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships. SSERVI represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration enabling a deeper, integrated understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies as human exploration moves beyond low Earth orbit. SSERVI centers on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars, with additional aspects of related technology development, including a major focus on human exploration-enabling efforts such as resolving Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs). The Institute focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science focused on airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. This research profile integrates investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies. New opportunities for both domestic and international partnerships are continually generated through these research and

  15. A Low Cost Spacecraft Architecture for Robotic Lunar Exploration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Lawrence G.; Gonzales, Andrew A.

    2006-01-01

    A program of frequent, capable, but affordable lunar robotic missions prior to return of humans to the moon can contribute to the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) NASA is tasked to execute. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and its secondary payload are scheduled to orbit the moon, and impact it, respectively, in 2008. It is expected that the sequence of missions occurring for approximately the decade after 2008 will place an increasing emphasis on soft landed payloads. These missions are requited to explore intrinsic characteristics of the moon, such as hydrogen distribution in the regolith, and levitated dust, to demonstrate the ability to access and process in-situ resources, and to demonstrate functions critical to supporting human presence, such as automated precision navigation and landing. Additional factors governing the design of spacecraft to accomplish this diverse set of objectives are: operating within a relatively modest funding profile, the need tb visit multiple sites (both polar and equatorial) repeatedly, and to use the current generation of launch vehicles. In the US, this implies use of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles, or EELVs, although this design philosophy may be extended to launch vehicles of other nations, as well. Many of these factors are seemingly inconsistent with each other. For example, the cost of a spacecraft usually increases with mass; therefore the desire to fly frequent, modestly priced spacecraft seems to imply small spacecraft (autonomous navigation and soft landing) also usually increases cost. A strategy for spacecraft design that meets these conflicting requirements is presented. Taken together, spacecraft structure and propulsion subsystems constitute the majority of spacecraft mass; saving development and integration cost on these elements is critical to controlling cost. Therefore, a low cost, modular design for spacecraft structure and propulsion subsystems is presented which may be easily scaled up or

  16. Goals and Strategies for the Human Lunar Reference Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Calvin H.

    2010-01-01

    The presentation examines common goals for human lunar exploration and strategic guidance. Three major sections include illustrative example goals, introduction to the GPoD campaign, and GPoD overview. The first section includes slides about strategic view of partnerships, the moon as a stepping stone and a uniquely preserved record, human-robotic partnership, innovative engagement, strategic considerations, and evaluation of campaigns against common goals. The second section examines campaigns considered, the philosophy of GPoD, GPoD campaign phase definitions, and GPoD design decision points. The third section examines lunar exploration capabilities, extended stay-relocation exploration mode, notional campaign destinations for GPoD, early robotics phase, development of the GPoD early robotics phase, polar exploration/system validation phase, polar relocatability phase, non-polar relocatability phase, long duration phase, and return to evaluation of campaigns.

  17. Lunar Exploration: Opening a Window into the History and Evolution of the Inner Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    The lunar geological record contains a rich archive of the history of the inner Solar System, including information relevant to understanding the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and our local cosmic environment. This paper provides a brief review of lunar exploration to-date, and describes how future exploration initiatives will further advance our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon, the Earth-Moon system, and of the Solar System more generally. It is concluded that further advances will require the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the lunar surface. Some of these scientific objectives can be achieved robotically, for example by in situ geochemical and geophysical measurements and through carefully targeted sample return missions. However, in the longer term, we argue that lunar science would greatly benefit from renewed human operations on the surface of the Moon, such as would be ...

  18. Deployable structures for a human lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Petra; Häuplik, Sandra; Imhof, Barbara; Özdemir, Kürsad; Waclavicek, Rene; Perino, Maria Antoinetta

    2007-06-01

    The study Lunar exploration architecture—deployable structures for a lunar base was performed within the Alcatel Alenia Space “Lunar Exploration Architecture” study for the European Space Agency. The purpose of the study was to investigate bionic concepts applicable to deployable structures and to interpret the findings for possible implementation concepts. The study aimed at finding innovative solutions for deployment possibilities. Translating folding/unfolding principles from nature, candidate geometries were developed and researched using models, drawings and visualisations. The use of materials, joints between structural elements and construction details were investigated for these conceptual approaches. Reference scenarios were used to identify the technical and environmental conditions, which served as design drivers. Mechanical issues and the investigation of deployment processes narrowed the selection down to six chosen concepts. Their applicability was evaluated at a conceptual stage in relation to the timescale of the mission.

  19. Drilling forces model for lunar regolith exploration and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ding, Xilun

    2017-02-01

    China's Chang'e lunar exploration project aims to sample and return lunar regolith samples at a minimum penetration depth of 2 m in 2017. Unlike such tasks on the Earth, automated drilling and sampling missions on the Moon are more complicated. Therefore, a delicately designed drill tool is required to minimize operational cost and enhance reliability. Penetration force and rotational torque are two critical parameters in designing the drill tool. In this paper, a novel numerical model for predicting penetration force and rotational torque in the drilling of lunar regolith is proposed. The model is based on quasi-static Mohr-Coulomb soil mechanics and explicitly describes the interaction between drill tool and lunar regolith. Geometric features of drill tool, mechanical properties of lunar regolith, and drilling parameters are taken into consideration in the model. Consequently, a drilling test bed was developed, and experimental penetration force and rotational torque were obtained in penetrating a lunar regolith simulant with different drilling parameters. Finally, theoretical and experimental results were compared to validate the proposed model. Experimental results indicated that the numerical model had good accuracy and was effective in predicting the penetration force and rotational torque in drilling the lunar regolith simulant.

  20. Man and the moon—The history of lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, George E.

    This paper delineates historical events and publications representing the human desire for exploring the Moon. Astronomers such as J. Kepler and H. Pickering were early promotors of the idea to reach out for the Moon. Many writers (Lucian, Goodwin, Cyrano de Bergerac, Jules Verne, H. G. Wells) were fascinated by the possibility of travel to the Moon. The beginning of the space age in 1957 saw early attempts to place a man-made object on the surface of the Moon, which succeeded in September 1959. Soft landers provided the first hard information on the lunar surface in the years 1966 -1968 to be followed by six manned landings in the years 1969-1972 providing a wealth of data of our neighbouring planet. Very little has happened in the years thereafter. The time has come to return to the Moon first with unmanned polar satellites to be followed by man to stay there for good.

  1. The Role of Cis-Lunar Space in Future Global Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobskill, Marianne R.; Lupisella, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Cis-lunar space offers affordable near-term opportunities to help pave the way for future global human exploration of deep space, acting as a bridge between present missions and future deep space missions. While missions in cis-lunar space have value unto themselves, they can also play an important role in enabling and reducing risk for future human missions to the Moon, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), Mars, and other deep space destinations. The Cis-Lunar Destination Team of NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been analyzing cis-lunar destination activities and developing notional missions (or "destination Design Reference Missions" [DRMs]) for cis-lunar locations to inform roadmap and architecture development, transportation and destination elements definition, operations, and strategic knowledge gaps. The cis-lunar domain is defined as that area of deep space under the gravitational influence of the earth-moon system. This includes a set of earth-centered orbital locations in low earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), highly elliptical and high earth orbits (HEO), earth-moon libration or "Lagrange" points (E-ML1 through E-ML5, and in particular, E-ML1 and E-ML2), and low lunar orbit (LLO). To help explore this large possibility space, we developed a set of high level cis-lunar mission concepts in the form of a large mission tree, defined primarily by mission duration, pre-deployment, type of mission, and location. The mission tree has provided an overall analytical context and has helped in developing more detailed design reference missions that are then intended to inform capabilities, operations, and architectures. With the mission tree as context, we will describe two destination DRMs to LEO and GEO, based on present human space exploration architectural considerations, as well as our recent work on defining mission activities that could be conducted with an EML1 or EML2 facility, the latter of which will be an emphasis of this

  2. A Sustainable Architecture for Lunar Resource Prospecting from an EML-based Exploration Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, K.; Post, K.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction - We present a point of departure architecture for prospecting for Lunar Resources from an Exploration Platform at the Earth - Moon Lagrange points. Included in our study are launch vehicle, cis-lunar transportation architecture, habitat requirements and utilization, lander/rover concepts and sample return. Different transfer design techniques can be explored by mission designers, testing various propulsive systems, maneuvers, rendezvous, and other in-space and surface operations. Understanding the availability of high and low energy trajectory transfer options opens up the possibility of exploring the human and logistics support mission design space and deriving solutions never before contemplated. For sample return missions from the lunar surface, low-energy transfers could be utilized between EML platform and the surface as well as return of samples to EML-based spacecraft. Human Habitation at the Exploration Platform - Telerobotic and telepresence capabilities are considered by the agency to be "grand challenges" for space technology. While human visits to the lunar surface provide optimal opportunities for field geologic exploration, on-orbit telerobotics may provide attractive early opportunities for geologic exploration, resource prospecting, and other precursor activities in advance of human exploration campaigns and ISRU processing. The Exploration Platform provides a perfect port for a small lander which could be refueled and used for multiple missions including sample return. The EVA and robotic capabilities of the EML Exploration Platform allow the lander to be serviced both internally and externally, based on operational requirements. The placement of the platform at an EML point allows the lander to access any site on the lunar surface, thus providing the global lunar surface access that is commonly understood to be required in order to enable a robust lunar exploration program. Designing the sample return lander for low

  3. Global Exploration Roadmap Derived Concept for Human Exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Ryan; Landgraf, Markus; Sato, Naoki; Picard, Martin; Goodliff, Kandyce; Stephenson, Keith; Narita, Shinichiro; Gonthier, Yves; Cowley, Aiden; Hosseini, Shahrzad; hide

    2017-01-01

    Taking advantage of the development of Mars-forward assets in cislunar space, a human lunar surface concept is proposed to maximize value for both lunar exploration and future deep space missions. The human lunar surface missions will be designed to build upon the cislunar activities that precede them, providing experience in planetary surface operations that cannot be obtained in cislunar space. To enable a five-mission limited campaign to the surface of the Moon, two new elements are required: a human lunar lander and a mobile surface habitat. The human lunar lander will have been developed throughout the cislunar phase from a subscale demonstrator and will consist of a descent module alongside a reusable ascent module. The reusable ascent module will be used for all five human lunar surface missions. Surface habitation, in the form of two small pressurized rovers, will enable 4 crew to spend up to 42 days on the lunar surface.

  4. Comparative Benchmark Dose Modeling as a Tool to Make the First Estimate of Safe Human Exposure Levels to Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Brief exposures of Apollo Astronauts to lunar dust occasionally elicited upper respiratory irritation; however, no limits were ever set for prolonged exposure ot lunar dust. Habitats for exploration, whether mobile of fixed must be designed to limit human exposure to lunar dust to safe levels. We have used a new technique we call Comparative Benchmark Dose Modeling to estimate safe exposure limits for lunar dust collected during the Apollo 14 mission.

  5. An overnight habitat for expanding lunar surface exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Samuel S.; Setterfield, Timothy P.; Roberson, Daniel R.; Putbrese, Benjamin; Kotowick, Kyle; Vanegas, Morris D.; Curry, Mike; Geiger, Lynn M.; Barmore, David; Foley, Jordan J.; LaTour, Paul A.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Head, James W.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual design and analysis of a system intended to increase the range, scientific capability, and safety of manned lunar surface exploration, requiring only a modest increase in capability over the Apollo mission designs. The system is intended to enable two astronauts, exploring with an unpressurized rover, to remove their space suits for an 8-h rest away from the lunar base and then conduct a second day of surface exploration before returning to base. This system is composed of an Environmental Control and Life Support System on the rover, an inflatable habitat, a solar shield and a solar power array. The proposed system doubles the distance reachable from the lunar base, thus increasing the area available for science and exploration by a factor of four. In addition to increasing mission capability, the proposed system also increases fault tolerance with an emergency inflatable structure and additional consumables to mitigate a wide range of suit or rover failures. The mass, volume, and power analyses of each subsystem are integrated to generate a total system mass of 124 kg and a volume of 594 L, both of which can be accommodated on the Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle with minor improvements.

  6. Drill System Development for the Lunar Subsurface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, Kris; Davis, Kiel; Paulsen, Gale; Roberts, Dustyn; Wilson, Jack; Hernandez, Wilson

    Reaching the cold traps at the lunar poles and directly sensing the subsurface regolith is a primary goal of lunar exploration, especially as a means of prospecting for future In Situ Resource Utilization efforts. As part of the development of a lunar drill capable of reaching a depth of two meters or more, Honeybee Robotics has built a laboratory drill system with a total linear stroke of 1 meter, capability to produce as much as 45 N-m of torque at a rotational speed of 200 rpm, and a capability of delivering maximum downforce of 1000 N. Since this is a test-bed, the motors were purposely chosen to be relative large to provide ample power to the drill system (the Apollo drill was a 500 Watt drill, i.e. not small in current standards). In addition, the drill is capable of using three different drilling modes: rotary, rotary percussive and percussive. The frequency of percussive impact can be varied if needed while rotational speed can be held constant. An integral part of this test bed is a vacuum chamber that is currently being constructed. The drill test-bed is used for analyzing various drilling modes and testing different drill bit and auger systems under low pressure conditions and in lunar regolith simulant. The results of the tests are used to develop final lunar drill design as well as efficient drilling protocols. The drill was also designed to accommodate a downhole neutron spectrometer for measuring the amount of hydrated material in the area surrounding the borehole, as well as downhole temperature sensors, accelerometers, and electrical properties tester. The presentation will include history of lunar drilling, challenges of drilling on the Moon, a description of the drill and chamber as well as preliminary drilling test results conducted in the ice-bound lunar regolith simulant with a variety of drill bits and augers systems.

  7. Towards a Moon Village: Young Lunar Explorers Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard; Batenburg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    and creating social places for astronauts to interact and relax. The proposed establishment of the lunar base can be divided into 4 steps. First the primary base infrastructure is laid out through robotic missions, assisted by human tele-operations from Earth, from the lunar orbit, or via a human-tended gateway station in one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange points (EML-1/2). During the second phase, the first manned habitation module will be deployed. This module contains a bare minimum of functionality to support a small crew for a couple of months. During the third phase, additional modules with more dedicated functions will be sent to the Moon, in order to enhance functionality and to provide astronauts with more space and comfort for long-term missions. In the final phase of the lunar village, a new set of modules will be sent to the base in order to accommodate new arriving crew members. To ensure crew safety, the landing site for supply vessels shall be located in safe distance to the base. Extensive utilization of autonomous or tele-operated robots further minimizes the risk for the crew. From the very beginning, quickly accessible emergency escape vehicles, as well as a heavily shielded 'safe haven' module to protect the crew from solar flares, shall be available. Sustainable moon village development would require explorers to fully utilize and process in-situ resources, in order to manufacture necessary equipment and create new infrastructure. Mining activities would be performed by autonomous robotic systems and managed by colonists from the command center. Building upon the heritage of commercial mining activities on Earth the production would be divided into six stages: geological exploration and mapping, mine preparation, extraction of raw resources, processing of raw resources, separation of minerals, storage and utilization. Additional manufacturing techniques, such as forging, would also need to be explored so as not to limit the production capabilities. To

  8. Particle Removal by Electrostatic and Dielectrophoretic Forces for Dust Control During Lunar Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, C. I.; Buhler, C. R.; McFall, J. L.; Snyder, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Particle removal during lunar exploration activities is of prime importance for the success of robotic and human exploration of the moon. We report on our efforts to use electrostatic and dielectrophoretic forces to develop a dust removal technology that prevents the accumulation of dust on solar panels and removes dust adhering to those surfaces. Testing of several prototypes showed solar shield output above 90% of the initial potentials after dust clearing.

  9. Community Report and Recommendations from International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) was established in April 1995 at a meeting in Hamburg, Germany. As established in its charter, this working group reports to COSPAR and is charged with developing an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon. It discusses coordination between missions, and a road map for future international lunar exploration and utilisation. It fosters information exchange or potential and real future lunar robotic and human missions, as well as for new scientific and exploration information about the Moon. We refer to COSPAR and ILEWG ICEUM and lunar conferences and declarations [1-18], present the GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration and give a report on ongoing relevant ILEWG community activities. ILEWG supported community forums, ILEWG EuroMoonMars field campaigns and technology validation activities, as well as Young Lunar Explorers events, and activities with broad stakeholders. We discuss how lunar missions SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'E1&2, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LRO, GRAIL, LADEE, Chang'E3 and upcoming missions contribute to lunar exploration objectives & roadmap towards the Moon Village. GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration: "467 International Lunar Explorers, registered delegates from 26 countries, assembled at GLUC Global Lunar Conference including the 11th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM11) in Beijing. The conference engaged scientists, engineers, enthusiast explorers, agencies and organisations in the discussion of recent results and activities and the review of plans for exploration. Space agencies representatives gave the latest reports on their current lunar activities and programmes. GLUC-ICEUM11 was a truly historical meeting that demonstrated the world-wide interest in lunar exploration, discovery, and science. More than 400 abstracts were accepted for oral and poster presentations in the technical sessions, organised in 32 sessions within 4 symposia: Science and Exploration; Technology

  10. A Celestial Assisted INS Initialization Method for Lunar Explorers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Fang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The second and third phases of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP are planning to achieve Moon landing, surface exploration and automated sample return. In these missions, the inertial navigation system (INS and celestial navigation system (CNS are two indispensable autonomous navigation systems which can compensate for limitations in the ground based navigation system. The accurate initialization of the INS and the precise calibration of the CNS are needed in order to achieve high navigation accuracy. Neither the INS nor the CNS can solve the above problems using the ground controllers or by themselves on the lunar surface. However, since they are complementary to each other, these problems can be solved by combining them together. A new celestial assisted INS initialization method is presented, in which the initial position and attitude of the explorer as well as the inertial sensors’ biases are estimated by aiding the INS with celestial measurements. Furthermore, the systematic error of the CNS is also corrected by the help of INS measurements. Simulations show that the maximum error in position is 300 m and in attitude 40″, which demonstrates this method is a promising and attractive scheme for explorers on the lunar surface.

  11. A Mission Concept Based on the ISECG Human Lunar Surface Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), working together with 13 other space agencies to advance a long-range human space exploration strategy. The ISECG has developed a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that reflects the coordinated international dialog and continued preparation for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - beginning with the International Space Station (ISS) and continuing to the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars [1]. The roadmap demonstrates how initial capabilities can enable a variety of missions in the lunar vicinity, responding to individual and common goals and objectives, while contributing to building partnerships required for sustainable human space exploration that delivers value to the public. The current GER includes three different near-term themes: exploration of a near-Earth asteroid, extended duration crew missions in cis-lunar space, and humans to the lunar surface.

  12. KOREAN LUNAR LANDER – CONCEPT STUDY FOR LANDING-SITE SELECTION FOR LUNAR RESOURCE EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea’s institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander – currently in pre-phase A – is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today’s accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon’s surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi- automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches – including methods and tools – for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of

  13. Korean Lunar Lander - Concept Study for Landing-Site Selection for Lunar Resource Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Wöhler, Christian; Hyeok Ju, Gwang; Lee, Seung-Ryeol; Rodriguez, Alexis P.; Berezhnoy, Alexey A.; van Gasselt, Stephan; Grumpe, Arne; Aymaz, Rabab

    2016-06-01

    As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea's institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP) are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander - currently in pre-phase A - is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today's accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon's surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi-) automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches - including methods and tools - for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of analyses. By considering given

  14. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, R.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M; Mahaffy, Paul; Boroson, D.; Delory, G.; Noble, s; Hine, B; Salute, J.

    2013-01-01

    performed at an orbit with periapsis between 20-60 km. This orbit must be constantly managed due to the Moon's highly inhomogeneous gravity field. During the Science Phase, the moon will rotate more than three times underneath the LADEE orbit. LADEE employs a high heritage instrument payload: a Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) from Goddard Space Flight Center, an Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) from Ames Research Center, and a dust detection experiment (LDEX) from the University of Colorado/LASP. It will also carry the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) as a technology demonstration. The LLCD is funded by the Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), managed by GSFC, and built by the MIT Lincoln Lab. Contingent upon LADEE's successful lunar orbit insertion and checkout, we will report the early results from the science investigations.

  15. A Cis-Lunar Propellant Infrastructure for Flexible Path Exploration and Space Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a space infrastructure concept that exploits lunar water for propellant production and delivers it to users in cis-lunar space. The goal is to provide responsive economical space transportation to destinations beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) and enable in-space commerce. This is a game changing concept that could fundamentally affect future space operations, provide greater access to space beyond LEO, and broaden participation in space exploration. The challenge is to minimize infrastructure development cost while achieving a low operational cost. This study discusses the evolutionary development of the infrastructure from a very modest robotic operation to one that is capable of supporting human operations. The cis-lunar infrastructure involves a mix of technologies including cryogenic propellant production, reusable lunar landers, propellant tankers, orbital transfer vehicles, aerobraking technologies, and electric propulsion. This cislunar propellant infrastructure replaces Earth-launched propellants for missions beyond LEO. It enables users to reach destinations with smaller launchers or effectively multiplies the user s existing payload capacity. Users can exploit the expanded capacity to launch logistics material that can then be traded with the infrastructure for propellants. This mutually beneficial trade between the cis-lunar infrastructure and propellant users forms the basis of in-space commerce.

  16. Lunar exploration: opening a window into the history and evolution of the inner Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian A; Joy, Katherine H

    2014-09-13

    The lunar geological record contains a rich archive of the history of the inner Solar System, including information relevant to understanding the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and our local cosmic environment. This paper provides a brief review of lunar exploration to-date and describes how future exploration initiatives will further advance our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon, the Earth-Moon system and of the Solar System more generally. It is concluded that further advances will require the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the lunar surface. Some of these scientific objectives can be achieved robotically, for example by in situ geochemical and geophysical measurements and through carefully targeted sample return missions. However, in the longer term, we argue that lunar science would greatly benefit from renewed human operations on the surface of the Moon, such as would be facilitated by implementing the recently proposed Global Exploration Roadmap.

  17. Report from International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) to COSPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We refer to COSPAR and ILEWG ICEUM and lunar conferences and declarations [1-18]. We discuss how lunar missions SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'E1&2, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LRO, GRAIL, LADEE, Chang'E3 and upcoming missions contribute to lunar exploration objectives & roadmap. We present the GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration and give a report on ongoing relevant ILEWG community activities, with focus on: “1. Science and exploration - World-wide access to raw and derived (geophysical units) data products using consistent formats and coordinate systems will maximize return on investment. We call to develop and implement plans for generation, validation, and release of these data products. Data should be made available for scientific analysis and supporting the development and planning of future missions - There are still Outstanding Questions: Structure and composition of crust, mantle, and core and implications for the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system; Timing, origin, and consequences of late heavy bombardment; Impact processes and regolith evolution; Nature and origin of volatile emplacement; Implications for resource utilization. These questions require international cooperation and sharing of results in order to be answered in a cost-effective manner - Ground truth information on the lunar far side is missing and needed to address many important scientific questions, e.g. with a sample return from South Pole-Aitken Basin - Knowledge of the interior is poor relative to the surface, and is needed to address a number of key questions, e.g. with International Lunar Network for seismometry and other geophysical measurements - Lunar missions will be driven by exploration, resource utilization, and science; we should consider minimum science payload for every mission, e.g., landers and rovers should carry instruments to determine surface composition and mineralogy - It is felt important to have a shared database about previous missions available for free, so as to provide

  18. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Chongbin; Quan Qiquan; Shi Xiaomeng; Deng Zongquan; Tang Dewei; Jiang Shengyuan

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock), this pap...

  19. Introduction to EGU session "Lunar Science and Exploration Towards Moon Village"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" Towards Moon Village" will address: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open planetary science and exploration - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'e 1, 2 and 3, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LADEE, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs polar lander, SLIM, Chandrayaan2, Chang'E 4 & 5, Lunar Resource Prospector, Future landers, Lunar sample return missions - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar surface sorties - Preparation for International Lunar Decade: databases, instruments, missions, terrestrial field campaigns, support studies - ILEWG and Global Exploration roadmaps towards a global robotic/human Moon village - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with new stakeholders. The Moon Village is an open concept proposed by ESA DG with the goal of a sustainable human and robotic presence on the lunar surface as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. Multiple goals of the Moon Village include planetary science, life sciences, astronomy, fundamental research, resources utilisation, human spaceflight, peaceful cooperation, economical development, inspiration, training and capacity building. ESA director general has revitalized and enhanced the original concept of MoonVillage discussed in the last decade. Space exploration builds on international collaboration. COSPAR and its ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group (created in 1994) have fostered collaboration between lunar missions [4-8]. A flotilla of lunar orbiters has

  20. Robotic Recon for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Matthew; Fong, Terry; Ford, Ken; Heldmann, Jennifer; Helper, Mark; Hodges, Kip; Landis, Rob; Lee, Pascal; Schaber, Gerald; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    2009-01-01

    Robotic reconnaissance has the potential to significantly improve scientific and technical return from lunar surface exploration. In particular, robotic recon may increase crew productivity and reduce operational risk for exploration. However, additional research, development and field-testing is needed to mature robot and ground control systems, refine operational protocols, and specify detailed requirements. When the new lunar surface campaign begins around 2020, and before permanent outposts are established, humans will initially be on the Moon less than 10% of the time. During the 90% of time between crew visits, robots will be available to perform surface operations under ground control. Understanding how robotic systems can best address surface science needs, therefore, becomes a central issue Prior to surface missions, lunar orbiters (LRO, Kaguya, Chandrayyan-1, etc.) will map the Moon. These orbital missions will provide numerous types of maps: visible photography, topographic, mineralogical and geochemical distributions, etc. However, remote sensing data will not be of sufficient resolution, lighting, nor view angle, to fully optimize pre-human exploration planning, e.g., crew traverses for field geology and geophysics. Thus, it is important to acquire supplemental and complementary surface data. Robotic recon can obtain such data, using robot-mounted instruments to scout the surface and subsurface at resolutions and at viewpoints not achievable from orbit. This data can then be used to select locations for detailed field activity and prioritize targets to improve crew productivity. Surface data can also help identify and assess terrain hazards, and evaluate alternate routes to reduce operational risk. Robotic recon could be done months in advance, or be part of a continuing planning process during human missions.

  1. Cartography for lunar exploration: 2008 status and mission plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R.L.; Archinal, B.A.; Gaddis, L.R.; Rosiek, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The initial spacecraft exploration of the Moon in the 1960s-70s yielded extensive data, primarily in the form of film and television images, which were used to produce a large number of hardcopy maps by conventional techniques. A second era of exploration, beginning in the early 1990s, has produced digital data including global multispectral imagery and altimetry, from which a new generation of digital map products tied to a rapidly evolving global control network has been made. Efforts are also underway to scan the earlier hardcopy maps for online distribution and to digitize the film images so that modern processing techniques can be used to make high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) and image mosaics consistent with the current global control. The pace of lunar exploration is accelerating dramatically, with as many as eight new missions already launched or planned for the current decade. These missions, of which the most important for cartography are SMART-1 (Europe), Kaguya/SELENE (Japan), Chang'e-1 (China), Chandrayaan-1 (India), and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (USA), will return a volume of data exceeding that of all previous lunar and planetary missions combined. Framing and scanner camera images, including multispectral and stereo data, hyperspectral images, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, and laser altimetry will all be collected, including, in most cases, multiple data sets of each type. Substantial advances in international standardization and cooperation, development of new and more efficient data processing methods, and availability of resources for processing and archiving will all be needed if the next generation of missions are to fulfill their potential for high-precision mapping of the Moon in support of subsequent exploration and scientific investigation.

  2. Ex Luna Scientia: The Lunar Occultation Explorer (LOX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar Occultation Explorer (LOX) is a next-generation mission concept that provides new capabilities for time-domain astrophysics and established the Moon as a platform for nuclear astrophysics. Performance requirements are driven by Type-Ia supernova (SNeIa) science goals that seek to revel details of these profoundly radioactive objects, including their diversity. Primary science objectives include, but are not limited to, probing the fundamental thermonuclear physics processes, performing a census of progenitors and their explosion mechanisms, and evaluating the environmental conditions and intrinsic systematics of these enigmatic objects. LOX provides new capabilities for all-sky, continuous monitoring in the MeV regime (0.1-10 MeV) by leveraging the Lunar Occultation Technique (LOT). Key benefits of the LOX/LOT approach include maximizing the ratio of sensitive-to-total deployed mass, low implementation risk, and demonstrated operational simplicity that leverages extensive experience with planetary orbital geochemistry investigations; LOX also enables long-term monitoring of MeV gamma-ray sources, a critical capability for SNeIa science. Proof-of-principle efforts validated all aspects of the mission using previously deployed lunar science assets, and led to the first high-energy gamma-ray source detected at the Moon. LOX mission performance, development progress, and expectations for science investigations will be presented.

  3. Beijing Lunar Declaration 2010: B) Technology and Resources; Infrastructures and Human Aspects; Moon, Space and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Foing, B. H.; Plescial, J.; Cohen, B.; Blamont, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the Beijing Lunar Declaration endorsed by the delegates of the Global Lunar Conference/11th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, held at Beijing on 30 May- 3 June 2010. Specifically we focus on Part B:Technologies and resources; Infrastructures and human aspects; Moon, Space, Society and Young Explorers. We recommend continued and enhanced development and implementation of sessions about lunar exploration, manned and robotic, at key scientific and engineering meetings. A number of robotic missions to the Moon are now undertaken independently by various nations, with a degree of exchange of information and coordination. That should increase towards real cooperation, still allowing areas of competition for keeping the process active, cost-effective and faster. - Lunar landers, pressurized lunar rover projects as presented from Europe, Asia and America are important steps that can create opportunities for international collaboration, within a coordinated village of robotic precursors and assistants to crew missions. - We have to think about development, modernization of existing navigation capabilities, and provision of lunar positioning, navigation and data relay assets to support future robotic and human exploration. New concepts and new methods for transportation have attracted much attention and are of great potential.

  4. ESA SMART-1 mission: results and lessons for future lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We review ESA’s SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. We discuss lessons for future lunar exploration and upcoming missions. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang’ E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to application geostationary missions and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of

  5. Solar System Exploration Augmented by Lunar and Outer Planet Resource Utilization: Historical Perspectives and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In the historical work, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. These studies depict program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system, lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented are presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal propulsion, nuclear surface power, as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Robotic and human outer planet exploration options are described in many detailed and extensive studies. Nuclear propulsion options for fast trips to the outer planets are discussed. To refuel such vehicles, atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has also been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen (H2) can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and H2 (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses have investigated resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional

  6. The lunar atmosphere and dust environment explorer mission (LADEE)

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains five articles describing the mission and its instruments.  The first paper, by the project scientist Richard C. Elphic and his colleagues, describes the mission objectives, the launch vehicle, spacecraft and the mission itself.  This is followed by a description of LADEE’s Neutral Mass Spectrometer by Paul Mahaffy and company.  This paper describes the investigation that directly targets the lunar exosphere, which can also be explored optically in the ultraviolet.  In the following article Anthony Colaprete describes LADEE’s Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer that operated from 230 nm to 810 nm scanning the atmosphere just above the surface.  Not only is there atmosphere but there is also dust that putatively can be levitated above the surface, possibly by electric fields on the Moon’s surface.  Mihaly Horanyi leads this investigation, called the Lunar Dust Experiment, aimed at understanding the purported observations of levitated dust.  This experiment was also very succes...

  7. Analysis of Solar-Heated Thermal Wadis to Support Extended-Duration Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Sacksteder, K. R.; Wegeng, R.; Suzuki, N.

    2011-01-01

    The realization of the renewed exploration of the Moon presents many technical challenges; among them is the survival of lunar-surface assets during periods of darkness when the lunar environment is very cold. Thermal wadis are engineered sources of stored solar energy using modified lunar regolith as a thermal storage mass that can supply energy to protect lightweight robotic rovers or other assets during the lunar night. This paper describes an analysis of the performance of thermal wadis based on the known solar illumination of the Moon and estimates of producible thermal properties of modified lunar regolith. Analysis has been performed for the lunar equatorial region and for a potential outpost location near the Lunar South Pole. The calculations indicate that thermal wadis can provide the desired thermal energy and temperature control for the survival of rovers or other equipment during periods of darkness.

  8. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chongbin; Quan Qiquan; Shi Xiaomeng; Deng Zongquan; Tang Dewei; Jiang Shengyuan

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock), this paper proposes a multi-state control strategy for autonomous lunar drilling. To represent the working circumstances in the lunar subsurface and reduce the complexity of the control algo-rithm, lunar drilling process was categorized into three drilling states:the interface detection, initi-ation of drilling parameters for recognition and drilling medium recognition. Support vector machine (SVM) and continuous wavelet transform were employed for the online recognition of dril-ling media and interface, respectively. Finite state machine was utilized to control the transition among different drilling states. To verify the effectiveness of the multi-state control strategy, drilling experiments were implemented with multi-layered drilling media constructed by lunar soil simulant and lunar rock simulant. The results reveal that the multi-state control method is capable of detect-ing drilling state variation and adjusting drilling parameters timely under vibration interferences. The multi-state control method provides a feasible reference for the control of extraterrestrial autonomous drilling.

  9. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chongbin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock, this paper proposes a multi-state control strategy for autonomous lunar drilling. To represent the working circumstances in the lunar subsurface and reduce the complexity of the control algorithm, lunar drilling process was categorized into three drilling states: the interface detection, initiation of drilling parameters for recognition and drilling medium recognition. Support vector machine (SVM and continuous wavelet transform were employed for the online recognition of drilling media and interface, respectively. Finite state machine was utilized to control the transition among different drilling states. To verify the effectiveness of the multi-state control strategy, drilling experiments were implemented with multi-layered drilling media constructed by lunar soil simulant and lunar rock simulant. The results reveal that the multi-state control method is capable of detecting drilling state variation and adjusting drilling parameters timely under vibration interferences. The multi-state control method provides a feasible reference for the control of extraterrestrial autonomous drilling.

  10. Stimulating Public Interest in Lunar Exploration and Enhancing Science Literacy Through Library Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S.; Nelson, B.; Stockman, S.; Weir, H.; Carter, B.; Bleacher, L.

    2008-07-01

    Libraries are vibrant learning places, seeking partners in science programming. LPI's Explore! program offers a model for public engagement in lunar exploration in libraries, as shown by materials created collaboratively with the LRO E/PO team.

  11. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, R. C.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Delory, G. T.; Noble, S. K.; Boroson, D.; Hine, B.; Salute, J.

    2013-12-01

    days in the event of contingencies. Following commissioning, the 100-day Science Phase is performed at an orbit with periapsis between 20-60 km. This orbit must be constantly managed due to the Moon's highly inhomogeneous gravity field. During the Science Phase, the moon will rotate more than three times underneath the LADEE orbit. LADEE employs a high heritage instrument payload: a Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) from Goddard Space Flight Center, an Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) from Ames Research Center, and a dust detection experiment (LDEX) from the University of Colorado/LASP. It will also carry the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) as a technology demonstration. The LLCD is funded by the Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), managed by GSFC, and built by the MIT Lincoln Lab. Contingent upon LADEE's successful lunar orbit insertion and checkout, we will report the early results from the science investigations.

  12. Contributions of Italian Spring Accelerometer to lunar exploration: gravimetry and seismology .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iafolla, V.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Nozzoli, S.; Peron, R.; Reale, A.; Santoli, F.

    The opening of the XXI century sees a new wave in lunar exploration, with a significant number of missions, both ongoing and in preparation. The exploration of our natural satellite is indeed important to gain understanding on the formation of Solar System and to create the basis for a future human colonization. On this respect, the study of the Moon gravity field is an important tool: indeed, the fine knowledge of selenopotential will put strong constraints on Moon internal structure and composition, and therefore on its formation and evolution towards current state. This is one of the main objectives of the proposed mission MAGIA (Missione Altimetrica Gravimetrica geochImica lunAre). Its GRACE-like two-spacecraft configuration, with a microwave link between the main satellite and a subsatellite, will enable a uniform coverage with high resolution. Due to the selected very low orbit (necessary for high resolution), the contribution of non-gravitational perturbations to the spacecraft dynamics will not be negligible. An effective way of accounting for them in the orbit determination and parameter estimation procedure is to measure their effect directly by means of an on-board accelerometer like ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer). Its role in the mission scenario is discussed. ISA instrument works also on ground, as seismometer and gravimeter, as it does in fact on Earth in a number of sites. It therefore can be used on lunar ground, as part of a selenodetic station permanently monitoring a selected location. This further capability of ISA accelerometer fits well with two current projects, the ILN (International Lunar Network) by NASA and the First Lunar Lander by ESA. Both aim to put on the Moon surface selenodetic stations which include instrumentation to investigate on its interior structure and composition, and on fundamental physics. Seismic measurements to constrain the Moon interior structure are a primary objective in both projects, and ISA is a candidate

  13. VLBI network: A security net for lunar exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 March, 2009 witnesses the solemn, spectacular and somewhat sad ending of the lunar flight of Chang'e-1. After orbiting the Moon for 494 days, the first China-made lunar orbiter, named after a beautiful fairy in Chinese mythology, culminates her perfect journey with a last dance, a controlled crash to lunar surface at 1.50°S 52.36°E at 16:13 GMT+8.

  14. Apollo Program Summary Report: Synopsis of the Apollo Program Activities and Technology for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Overall program activities and the technology developed to accomplish lunar exploration are discussed. A summary of the flights conducted over an 11-year period is presented along with specific aspects of the overall program, including lunar science, vehicle development and performance, lunar module development program, spacecraft development testing, flight crew summary, mission operations, biomedical data, spacecraft manufacturing and testing, launch site facilities, equipment, and prelaunch operations, and the lunar receiving laboratory. Appendixes provide data on each of the Apollo missions, mission type designations, spacecraft weights, records achieved by Apollo crewmen, vehicle histories, and a listing of anomalous hardware conditions noted during each flight beginning with Apollo 4.

  15. Nuclear thermal propulsion transportation systems for lunar/Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John S.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mcilwain, Melvin C.; Pellaccio, Dennis G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion technology development is underway at NASA and DoE for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars, with initial near-earth flights to validate flight readiness. Several reactor concepts are being considered for these missions, and important selection criteria will be evaluated before final selection of a system. These criteria include: safety and reliability, technical risk, cost, and performance, in that order. Of the concepts evaluated to date, the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) derivative (NDR) is the only concept that has demonstrated full power, life, and performance in actual reactor tests. Other concepts will require significant design work and must demonstrate proof-of-concept. Technical risk, and hence, development cost should therefore be lowest for the concept, and the NDR concept is currently being considered for the initial SEI missions. As lighter weight, higher performance systems are developed and validated, including appropriate safety and astronaut-rating requirements, they will be considered to support future SEI application. A space transportation system using a modular nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) system for lunar and Mars missions is expected to result in significant life cycle cost savings. Finally, several key issues remain for NTR's, including public acceptance and operational issues. Nonetheless, NTR's are believed to be the 'next generation' of space propulsion systems - the key to space exploration.

  16. Operations analysis for lunar surface construction: Results of two office of exploration case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lisa Y.; Boles, Walter; Smith, Alvin

    1991-08-01

    In an environment of intense competition for Federal funding, the U.S. space research community is responsible for developing a feasible, cost-effective approach to establishing a surface base on the moon to fulfill long-term Government objectives. This report presents the results of a construction operations analysis of two lunar scenarios provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Activities necessary to install the lunar base surface elements are defined and scheduled, based on the productivities and availability of the base resources allocated to the projects depicted in each scenario. The only construction project in which the required project milestones were not completed within the nominal timeframe was the initial startup phase of NASA's FY89 Lunar Evolution Case Study (LECS), primarily because this scenario did not include any Earth-based telerobotic site preparation before the arrival of the first crew. The other scenario analyzed. Reference Mission A from NASA's 90-Day Study of the Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars, did use telerobotic site preparation before the manned phase of the base construction. Details of the analysis for LECS are provided, including spreadsheets indicating quantities of work and Gantt charts depicting the general schedule for the work. This level of detail is not presented for the scenario based on the 90-Day Study because many of the projects include the same (or similar) surface elements and facilities.

  17. China's Lunar Exploration Program——The Third Milestone for China's Space Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luan Enjie

    2006-01-01

    To explore the moon demonstrating the wisdom and capability of mankind. China's Lunar Exploration Program is the third milestone for China's space industry. We have formed China's lunar exploration program that features three milestones, i.e. "orbiting", "landing" and "returning". As a developing country, China conducts definite deep space activities under limited conditions, reflecting China's strong national strength and symbolizing ability of China's space industry.

  18. A Chang'e-4 mission concept and vision of future Chinese lunar exploration activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Liu, Jizhong

    2016-10-01

    A novel concept for Chinese Chang'e-4 lunar exploration mission is presented in this paper at first. After the success of Chang'e-3, its backup probe, Chang'e-4 lander/rover combination, would be upgraded and land on the unexplored lunar farside by the aid of a relay satellite near the second Earth-Moon Lagrange point. Mineralogical and geochemical surveys on the farside to study the formation and evolution of lunar crust and observations at low radio frequencies to track the signals of the Universe's Dark Ages are priorities. Follow-up Chinese lunar exploration activities before 2030 are envisioned as building a robotic lunar science station by three to five missions. Finally several methods of international cooperation are proposed.

  19. [Presentation of the Lunar Precursor Robotics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP) is the host program for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate's (ESMD) lunar robotic precursor missions to the Moon. The program includes two missions, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). Both missions will provide the required lunar information to support development and operations of those systems required for Human lunar return. LPRP is developing a lunar mapping plan, Called the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project, to create the capability to archive and present all data from LRO, LCROSS, historical lunar missions, and international lunar missions for future mission planning and operations. LPRP is also developing its educational and public outreach activities for the Vision for Space Exploration's first missions. LPRP is working closely with the Science Mission Directorate as their lunar activities come into focus.

  20. Early Operations Flight Correlation of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume; Yang, Kan; Nguyen, Daniel; Cornwell, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission launched on September 7, 2013 with a one month cruise before lunar insertion. The LADEE spacecraft is a power limited, octagonal, composite bus structure with solar panels on all eight sides with four vertical segments per side and 2 panels dedicated to instruments. One of these panels has the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD), which represents a furthering of the laser communications technology demonstration proved out by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). LLCD increases the bandwidth of communication to and from the moon with less mass and power than LROs technology demonstrator. The LLCD Modem and Controller boxes are mounted to an internal cruciform composite panel and have no dedicated radiator. The thermal design relies on power cycling of the boxes and radiation of waste heat to the inside of the panels, which then reject the heat when facing cold space. The LADEE mission includes a slow roll and numerous attitudes to accommodate the challenging thermal requirements for all the instruments on board. During the cruise phase, the internal Modem and Controller avionics for LLCD were warmer than predicted by more than modeling uncertainty would suggest. This caused concern that if the boxes were considerably warmer than expected while off, they would also be warmer when operating and could limit the operational time when in lunar orbit. The thermal group at Goddard Space Flight Center evaluated the models and design for these critical avionics for LLCD. Upon receipt of the spacecraft models and audit was performed and data was collected from the flight telemetry to perform a sanity check of the models and to correlate to flight where possible. This paper describes the efforts to correlate the model to flight data and to predict the thermal performance when in lunar orbit and presents some lessons learned.

  1. MyMoon: Engaging the “Missing Link” in Lunar Science Exploration through New Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S. S.; Eriksson, A.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s new scientific exploration of the Moon, coupled with the public’s interest in the Moon and innovative social networking approaches, is being leveraged to engage a fresh adult audience in lunar science and exploration. In July 2009 the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) launched a lunar education new media portal, MyMoon. LPI is collaborating with lunar scientists, educators, artists - and the public - to populate the site with science content, diverse media exhibits, events, and opportunities for involvement. Through MyMoon, the general public interacts with lunar content that informs them about lunar science research and missions, and engages them in future plans for lunar exploration and eventual habitation. MyMoon’s objectives are to: 1) develop a dynamic, new media learning portal that will enable the general public, with a focus on adults ages 18-35; 2) host a growing, active audience that becomes further involved in NASA’s lunar exploration by sharing their ideas about lunar topics, creating their own materials, and participating in events and experiences; 3) build a community of enthusiasts through social networking media; 4) create a model for online engagement of audiences 18 to 35, and provide detailed evaluation data on best practices and strategies for success. Immersive new media technologies are changing the way that people interact, work, learn, and teach. These provide potentially high-impact opportunities for reaching an audience of young adults, age 18 to 35, that largely is not accessed by, or accessing, NASA (Dittmar, 2004). MyMoon strives to engage - and involve - this audience to build a community of enthusiasts for lunar scientific exploration through social networks and current and emerging new media platforms, including posting videos on YouTube, photo contests on Flickr, and sharing events and challenges on Facebook and Twitter. MyMoon features interactive exhibits that are audience driven and added on a quarterly basis

  2. Human assisted robotic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, B. T.; Canady, J.; Warnell, G.; Stump, E.; Nothwang, W. D.; Marathe, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    In support of achieving better performance on autonomous mapping and exploration tasks by incorporating human input, we seek here to first characterize humans' ability to recognize locations from limited visual information. Such a characterization is critical to the design of a human-in-the-loop system faced with deciding whether and when human input is useful. In this work, we develop a novel and practical place-recognition task that presents humans with video clips captured by a navigating ground robot. Using this task, we find experimentally that human performance does not seem to depend on factors such as clip length or familiarity with the scene and also that there is significant variability across subjects. Moreover, we find that humans significantly outperform a state-of-the-art computational solution to this problem, suggesting the utility of incorporating human input in autonomous mapping and exploration techniques.

  3. How the UK Can Lead the Terrestrial Translation of Biomedical Advances Arising from Lunar Exploration Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David A.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial translation of biomedical advances is insufficient justification for lunar exploration. However, terrestrial translation should be viewed as a critical part of the cycle of mission planning, execution and review, both in terms of the progress of space exploration, but also of sustained life on Earth. Thus, both the mission and its potential to benefit mankind are increased by the adoption of human-based exploration of the lunar surface. Whilst European biomedical sciences have grown in stature, there remains a gap between space biomedical science and terrestrial medical application. As such, an opportunity for the UK to take a sustainable leadership role exists by utilising its biomedical science community, socialised health care system (National Health Service) and defined mechanisms to determine the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness upon health and wellbeing (i.e. National Institute Clinical Excellence), aiding the difficult process of health care rationing. By focusing upon exploitation of the more scientifically rewarding, potentially long-term and more terrestrially analogous challenge of lunar habitation, the UK would circumnavigate the current impediments to International Space Station utilisation. Early engagement in lunar exploration would promote the UK, and its adoption of a leadership role incorporating a considered approach to the development of space biomedicine with an eye to its terrestrial value. For instance, prolonged lunar habitation could provide an `ideal controlled environment' for investigation of medical interventions, in particular multiple interactions (e.g. between exercise and nutrition), a model of accelerated aging and a number of chronic pathologies, including those related to disuse. Lunar advances could provide a springboard for individualized medicine, insights into occupational and de-centralised medicine (e.g. telemedicine) and act as a stimulus for biomedical innovation and understanding. Leadership in

  4. Robust Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon Using NTR LANTR Propulsion and Lunar-Derived Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Ryan, Stephen W.; Burke, Laura M.; McCurdy, David R.; Fittje, James E.; Joyner, Claude R.

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) has frequently been identified as a key space asset required for the human exploration of Mars. This proven technology can also provide the affordable access through cislunar space necessary for commercial development and sustained human presence on the Moon. In his post-Apollo Integrated Space Program Plan (1970-1990), Wernher von Braun, proposed a reusable nuclear thermal propulsion stage (NTPS) to deliver cargo and crew to the Moon to establish a lunar base before undertaking human missions to Mars. The NTR option was selected by von Braun because it was a demonstrated technology capable of generating both high thrust and high specific impulse (Isp 900 s) twice that of todays best chemical rockets. In NASAs Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the crewed Mars transfer vehicle used three 25 klbf Pewee engines the smallest and highest performing engine tested in the Rover program along with graphite composite fuel. Smaller, lunar transfer vehicles consisting of a NTPS using three approximately 16.5 klbf Small Nuclear Rocket Engines (SNREs), an in-line propellant tank, plus the payload can enable a variety of reusable lunar missions. These include cargo delivery and crewed lunar landing missions. Even weeklong tourism missions carrying passengers into lunar orbit for a day of sightseeing and picture taking are possible. The NTR can play an important role in the next phase of lunar exploration and development by providing an affordable in-space lunar transportation system (LTS) that can allow initial outposts to evolve into settlements supported by a variety of commercial activities such as in-situ propellant production used to supply strategically located propellant depots and transportation nodes. The utilization of iron-rich volcanic glass or lunar polar ice (LPI) deposits (each estimated at billions of metric tons) for propellant production can significantly reduce the launch mass requirements from Earth and can

  5. Robotics for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  6. The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Hodges, R. Richard; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Harpold, Daniel N.; Holmes, Vincent; Johnson, Christopher S.; Kellogg, James; Kimvilakani, Patrick; Lefavor, Matthew; Hengemihle, Jerome; Jaeger, Ferzan; Lyness, Eric; Maurer, John; Nguyen, Daniel; Nolan, Thomas; Noreiga, Felix; Noreiga, Marvin; Patel, Kiran; Prats, Benito; Quinones, Omar; Raaen, Eric; Tan, Florence; Weidner, Edwin; Woronowicz, Michael; Gundersen, Cynthia (Inventor); Battel, Steven; Block, Bruce P.; Arnett, Ken; Miller, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission is designed to measure the composition and variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere. The NMS complements two other instruments on the LADEE spacecraft designed to secure spectroscopic measurements of lunar composition and in situ measurement of lunar dust over the course of a 100-day mission in order to sample multiple lunation periods. The NMS utilizes a dual ion source designed to measure both surface reactive and inert species and a quadrupole analyzer. The NMS is expected to secure time resolved measurements of helium and argon and determine abundance or upper limits for many other species either sputtered or thermally evolved from the lunar surface.

  7. Lunar Underground Mining and Construction : A Terrestrial Vision enabling Space Exploration and Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Greg; Grenier, Louis; Blair, Brad

    As the Space Shuttle, Candarm and Space Station near their useful extended lives before the end of this decade, the question "What will be the next frontier for humans and robots to explore and how will we get there?" needs to be considered. Several countries are planning their next take on the exploration of the solar system. The moon is still a viable destination for several countries for two main reasons: the recent discovery of water improves the prospects of a basic infrastructure capability that would enable future commercial interests to drive the impetus to deploy profitable operations in the near future. The commercial appeal to establish a permanent lunar base should rise in this decade with the prospect of using natural resources available, in particular recently found water. The ability to break water into hydrogen and oxygen for providing the main necessities of life, rocket fuel and air to breathe make this permanent base feasible. Furthermore, several significant environmental issues will force this permanent base underground. These issues include lunar radiation, solar flares, temperature extremes and micro-meteorites. Lunar radiation alone will force this move to rock shielding protection of astronauts as at least 10 metres of rock cover will be required to protect human, animals and plants. As early as 1959 the placecountry-regionUS army considered a permanent underground base on the moon. While the original underground idea has merit space pioneers have strayed from this sensible safe concept. Furthermore, advances in proven telerobotic min-ing technology for terrestrial purposes can provide the opportunity for the commercial interests and perhaps government space programs to consider the concept, design, build and implement an underground lunar habitat and a mining and processing operation from basic infrastructure to commercial deployment of profitable operations. This paper discusses a Canadian concept behind a permanent manned outpost on the

  8. The Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP): A New Tool for Performance Evaluation of Human Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob; Stewart, Shaun M.; Lee, David E.; Davis, Elizabeth C.; Condon, Gerald L.; Senent, Juan

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Constellation Program paves the way for a series of lunar missions leading to a sustained human presence on the Moon. The proposed mission design includes an Earth Departure Stage (EDS), a Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and a lunar lander (Altair) which support the transfer to and from the lunar surface. This report addresses the design, development and implementation of a new mission scan tool called the Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP) and its use to provide insight into the integrated (i.e., EDS, Orion, and Altair based) mission cost as a function of various mission parameters and constraints. The Constellation architecture calls for semiannual launches to the Moon and will support a number of missions, beginning with 7-day sortie missions, culminating in a lunar outpost at a specified location. The operational lifetime of the Constellation Program can cover a period of decades over which the Earth-Moon geometry (particularly, the lunar inclination) will go through a complete cycle (i.e., the lunar nodal cycle lasting 18.6 years). This geometry variation, along with other parameters such as flight time, landing site location, and mission related constraints, affect the outbound (Earth to Moon) and inbound (Moon to Earth) translational performance cost. The mission designer must determine the ability of the vehicles to perform lunar missions as a function of this complex set of interdependent parameters. Trade-offs among these parameters provide essential insights for properly assessing the ability of a mission architecture to meet desired goals and objectives. These trades also aid in determining the overall usable propellant required for supporting nominal and off-nominal missions over the entire operational lifetime of the program, thus they support vehicle sizing.

  9. The Impact of Information Technology on the Design, Development, and Implementation of a Lunar Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Sims, Michael H.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    1996-01-01

    From the beginning to the present expeditions to the Moon have involved a large investment of human labor. This has been true for all aspects of the process, from the initial design of the mission, whether scientific or technological, through the development of the instruments and the spacecraft, to the flight and operational phases. In addition to the time constraints that this situation imposes, there is also a significant cost associated with the large labor costs. As a result lunar expeditions have been limited to a few robotic missions and the manned Apollo program missions of the 1970s. With the rapid rise of the new information technologies, new paradigms are emerging that promise to greatly reduce both the time and cost of such missions. With the rapidly increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software systems, as well as networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between the human and the machine system. This new balance holds the promise of greatly increased exploration capability, along with dramatically reduced design, development, and operating costs. These new information technologies, utilizing knowledge-based software and very highspeed computer systems, will provide new design and development tools, scheduling mechanisms, and vehicle and system health monitoring capabilities that have hitherto been unavailable to the mission and spacecraft designer and the system operator. This paper will utilize typical lunar missions, both robotic and crewed, as a basis to describe and illustrate how these new information system technologies could be applied to all aspects such missions. In particular, new system design tradeoff tools will be described along with technologies that will allow a very much greater degree of autonomy of exploration vehicles than has heretofore been possible. In addition, new information technologies that will significantly reduce the human operational requirements will be discussed.

  10. Japanese lunar robotics exploration by co-operation with lander and rover

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Takashi Kubota; Yasuharu Kunii; Yoji Kuroda

    2005-12-01

    Unmanned mobile robots for surface exploration of the Moon or planets have been extensively studied and developed.A lunar rover is expected to travel safely in a wide area and explore in detail. Japanese lunar robotics exploration is under study to conduct an unmanned geological survey in the vicinity of central peaks of impact craters for investigation of the sub-surface materials.This will give us the key information to study the lunar inner structure and understand the Moon ’s origin and evolution as well as to investigate the evolution of magma ocean and later igneous processes.To carry out the geological exploration in the central peak,lander and rover co-operative exploration is proposed.The working group has been conducting feasibility study of advance technologies.This paper addresses an overview of lunar exploration with lander and rover and also enumerates future technologies to be established. The rover R&D group has developed an innovative science micro rover with a new mobility system and a lightweight manipulator.The design and implementation of a science rover for the near future lunar missions requiring long traverses and scientific observations are described and some experimental results are presented.

  11. Human Factor Studies on a Mars Analogue During Crew 100b International Lunar Exploration Working Group EuroMoonMars Crew: Proposed New Approaches for Future Human Space and Interplanetary Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep

    2012-11-01

    Knowing the risks, costs, and complexities associated with human missions to Mars, analogue research can be a great (low-risk) tool for exploring the challenges associated with the preparation for living, operating, and undertaking research in interplanetary missions. Short-duration analogue studies, such as those being accomplished at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), offer the chance to study mission operations and human factors in a simulated environment, and therefore contribute to exploration of the Moon and Mars in planned future missions. This article is based upon previously published articles, abstracts, and presentations by a series of independent authors, human factor studies performed on mars analogue station by Crew 100B. The MDRS Crew 100B performed studies over 15 days providing a unique insight into human factor issues in simulated short-duration Mars mission. In this study, 15 human factors were evaluated and analyzed by subjective and objective means, and from the summary of results it was concluded that optimum health of an individual and the crew as a whole is a necessity in order to encourage and maintain high performance and the satisfaction of project goals.

  12. The NASA Solar System Exploration Virtual Institute: International Efforts in Advancing Lunar Science with Prospects for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), originally chartered in 2008 as the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI), is chartered to advance both the scientific goals needed to enable human space exploration, as well as the science enabled by such exploration. NLSI and SSERVI have in succession been "institutes without walls," fostering collaboration between domestic teams (7 teams for NLSI, 9 for SSERVI) as well as between these teams and the institutes' international partners, resulting in a greater global endeavor. SSERVI teams and international partners participate in sharing ideas, information, and data arising from their respective research efforts, and contribute to the training of young scientists and bringing the scientific results and excitement of exploration to the public. The domestic teams also respond to NASA's strategic needs, providing community-based responses to NASA needs in partnership with NASA's Analysis Groups. Through the many partnerships enabled by NLSI and SSERVI, scientific results have well exceeded initial projections based on the original PI proposals, proving the validity of the virtual institute model. NLSI and SSERVI have endeavored to represent not just the selected and funded domestic teams, but rather the entire relevant scientific community; this has been done through many means such as the annual Lunar Science Forum (now re-named Exploration Science Forum), community-based grass roots Focus Groups on a wide range of topics, and groups chartered to further the careers of young scientists. Additionally, NLSI and SSERVI have co-founded international efforts such as the pan-European lunar science consortium, with an overall goal of raising the tide of lunar science (and now more broadly exploration science) across the world.

  13. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission - Six years of science and exploration at the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. W.; Petro, N. E.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2016-07-01

    Since entering lunar orbit on June 23, 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has made comprehensive measurements of the Moon and its environment. The seven LRO instruments use a variety of primarily remote sensing techniques to obtain a unique set of observations. These measurements provide new information regarding the physical properties of the lunar surface, the lunar environment, and the location of volatiles and other resources. Scientific interpretation of these observations improves our understanding of the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what its history can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Scientific results from LRO observations overturned existing paradigms and deepened our appreciation of the complex nature of our nearest neighbor. This paper summarizes the capabilities, measurements, and some of the science and exploration results of the first six years of the LRO mission.

  14. Autonomous Surface Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D. P.

    2007-08-01

    Surface science sample acquisition is a critical activity within any planetary and lunar exploration mission, and our research is focused upon the design, implementation, experimentation and demonstration of an onboard autonomous surface sample acquisition capability for a rover equipped with a robotic arm upon which are mounted appropriate science instruments. Images captured by a rover stereo camera system can be processed using shape from stereo methods and a digital elevation model (DEM) generated. We have developed a terrain feature identification algorithm that can determine autonomously from DEM data suitable regions for instrument placement and/or surface sample acquisition. Once identified, surface normal data can be generated autonomously which are then used to calculate an arm trajectory for instrument placement and sample acquisition. Once an instrument placement and sample acquisition trajectory has been calculated, a collision detection algorithm is required to ensure the safe operation of the arm during sample acquisition.We have developed a novel adaptive 'bounding spheres' approach to this problem. Once potential science targets have been identified, and these are within the reach of the arm and will not cause any undesired collision, then the 'cost' of executing the sample acquisition activity is required. Such information which includes power expenditure and duration can be used to select the 'best' target from a set of potential targets. We have developed a science sample acquisition resource requirements calculation that utilises differential inverse kinematics methods to yield a high fidelity result, thus improving upon simple 1st order approximations. To test our algorithms a new Planetary Analogue Terrain (PAT) Laboratory has been created that has a terrain region composed of Mars Soil Simulant-D from DLR Germany, and rocks that have been fully characterised in the laboratory. These have been donated by the UK Planetary Analogue Field Study

  15. Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) for the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd T.; Hodges, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission currently scheduled for launch in early 2013 aboard a Minotaur V will orbit the moon at a nominal periselene of 50 km to characterized the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. The science instrument payload includes a neutral mass spectrometer as well as an ultraviolet spectrometer and a dust detector. Although to date only He, Ar-40, K, Na and Rn-222 have been firmly identified in the lunar exosphere and arise from the solar wind (He), the lunar regolith (K and Na) and the lunar interior (Ar-40, Rn-222), upper limits have been set for a large number of other species, LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) observations will determine the abundance of several species and substantially lower the present upper limits for many others. Additionally, LADEE NMS will observe the spatial distribution and temporal variability of species which condense at nighttime and show peak concentrations at the dawn terminator (e,g, Ar-40), possible episodic release from the lunar interior, and the results of sputtering or desorption processes from the regolith. In this presentation, we describe the LADEE NMS hardware and the anticipated science results.

  16. Cross Calibration of Omnidirectional Orbital Neutron Detectors of Lunar Prospector (LP) and Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) by Monte Carlo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J.; SU, J. J.; Sagdeev, R.; Chin, G.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction:Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have been used to investigate neutron production and leakage from the lunar surface to assess the composition of the lunar soil [1-3]. Orbital measurements of lunar neutron flux have been made by the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS)[4] of the Lunar Prospector mission and the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND)[5] of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. While both are cylindrical helium-3 detectors, LEND's SETN (Sensor EpiThermal Neutrons) instrument is shorter, with double the helium-3 pressure than that of LPNS. The two instruments therefore have different angular sensitivities and neutron detection efficiencies. Furthermore, the Lunar Prospector's spin-stabilized design makes its detection efficiency latitude-dependent, while the SETN instrument faces permanently downward toward the lunar surface. We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code[6] to investigate the leakage lunar neutron energy spectrum, which follows a power law of the form E-0.9 in the epithermal energy range, and the signals detected by LPNS and SETN in the LP and LRO mission epochs, respectively. Using the lunar neutron flux reconstructed for LPNS epoch, we calculate the signal that would have been observed by SETN at that time. The subsequent deviation from the actual signal observed during the LEND epoch is due to the significantly higher intensity of Galactic Cosmic Rays during the anomalous Solar Minimum of 2009-2010. References: [1] W. C. Feldman, et al., (1998) Science Vol. 281 no. 5382 pp. 1496-1500. [2] Gasnault, O., et al.,(2000) J. Geophys. Res., 105(E2), 4263-4271. [3] Little, R. C., et al. (2003), J. Geophys. Res., 108(E5), 5046. [4]W. C. Feldman, et al., (1999) Nucl. Inst. And Method in Phys. Res. A 422, [5] M. L. Litvak, et al., (2012) J.Geophys. Res. 117, E00H32 [6] J. Allison, et al, (2006) IEEE Trans. on Nucl Sci, Vol 53, No 1.

  17. Design and experimental performance verification of a thermal property test-bed for lunar drilling exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Tao; Zhao Zeng; Liu Shuting; Li Jinglin; Ding Xilun; Yin Shen; Wang Guoxin; Lai Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Chang’e lunar exploration project aims to collect and return subsurface lunar soil samples at a minimum penetration depth of 2 m in 2017. However, in contrast to those on the Earth, automated drilling and sampling missions on the Moon raise the risk of burning bits. Test-beds are required for testing the thermal properties of drill tools in a lunar environment. In this paper, a novel temperature measuring method based on thermocouples and a slip ring was proposed. Furthermore, a data acquisition system for a drilling process was designed. A vacuous, cryogenic, and anhydrous soil environment simulating the lunar surface was established. A drilling test-bed that can reach a depth of 2.2 m was developed. A control strategy based on online monitoring signals was proposed to improve the drilling performance. Vacuum and non-vacuum experiments were performed to test the temperature rising effect on drill tools. When compared with the non-vacuum experiment, the vacuum temperature rise resulted in a 12 ?C increase. These experimental results provide significant support for Chinese lunar exploration missions.

  18. Human responses to the geophysical daily, annual and lunar cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Russell G; Roenneberg, Till

    2008-09-09

    Collectively the daily, seasonal, lunar and tidal geophysical cycles regulate much of the temporal biology of life on Earth. The increasing isolation of human societies from these geophysical cycles, as a result of improved living conditions, high-quality nutrition and 24/7 working practices, have led many to believe that human biology functions independently of them. Yet recent studies have highlighted the dominant role that our circadian clock plays in the organisation of 24 hour patterns of behaviour and physiology. Preferred wake and sleep times are to a large extent driven by an endogenous temporal program that uses sunlight as an entraining cue. The alarm clock can drive human activity rhythms but has little direct effect on our endogenous 24 hour physiology. In many situations, our biology and our society appear to be in serious opposition, and the damaging consequences to our health under these circumstances are increasingly recognised. The seasons dominate the lives of non-equatorial species, and until recently, they also had a marked influence on much of human biology. Despite human isolation from seasonal changes in temperature, food and photoperiod in the industrialised nations, the seasons still appear to have a small, but significant, impact upon when individuals are born and many aspects of health. The seasonal changes that modulate our biology, and how these factors might interact with the social and metabolic status of the individual to drive seasonal effects, are still poorly understood. Lunar cycles had, and continue to have, an influence upon human culture, though despite a persistent belief that our mental health and other behaviours are modulated by the phase of the moon, there is no solid evidence that human biology is in any way regulated by the lunar cycle.

  19. Effect of Lunar Dust Simulant on Human Epithelial Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Nicholas J.; Wallace, William T.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to assess the potential toxicity of lunar dust to cause the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by human lung cells. Some of this dust is on the scale of 1-2 micrometers and could enter the lungs when astronauts track dust into the habitat and inhale it. This could be a serious problem as NASA plans on going back to the moon for an extended period of time. Literature shows that quartz, which has a known cytoxicity, can cause acute cases of silicosis within 6 months, and in most cases cause silicosis after 3 years. The activation of lunar dust through impacts creates surface based radicals which, upon contact with water create hydroxl radicals and peroxyl radicals which are very reactive and potentially might even be as cytotoxic as quartz. These radicals could then react with lung cells to produce pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, and TNF-alpha.

  20. Moon4You : a combined Raman/LIBS instrument for lunar exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.C.; Ahlers, B.; Westrenen, W.V.; Heiligers, J.; Wielders, A.

    2009-01-01

    Moon4You is a project led by the Dutch Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, with partners from industry and universities in the Netherlands that aims to provide a combined Raman/LIBS instrument as scientific payload for lunar exploration missions. It is the first time that Raman spectro

  1. Moon4You : a combined Raman/LIBS instrument for lunar exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.C.; Ahlers, B.; Westrenen, W.V.; Heiligers, J.; Wielders, A.

    2009-01-01

    Moon4You is a project led by the Dutch Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, with partners from industry and universities in the Netherlands that aims to provide a combined Raman/LIBS instrument as scientific payload for lunar exploration missions. It is the first time that Raman

  2. Integrated Network Architecture for Sustained Human and Robotic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Gary; Cesarone, Robert; Deutsch, Leslie; Edwards, Charles; Soloff, Jason; Ely, Todd; Cook, Brian; Morabito, David; Hemmati, Hamid; Piazolla, Sabino; hide

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Enterprise is planning a series of human and robotic missions to the Earth's moon and to Mars. These missions will require communication and navigation services. This paper1 sets forth presumed requirements for such services and concepts for lunar and Mars telecommunications network architectures to satisfy the presumed requirements. The paper suggests that an inexpensive ground network would suffice for missions to the near-side of the moon. A constellation of three Lunar Telecommunications Orbiters connected to an inexpensive ground network could provide continuous redundant links to a polar lunar base and its vicinity. For human and robotic missions to Mars, a pair of areostationary satellites could provide continuous redundant links between Earth and a mid-latitude Mars base in conjunction with the Deep Space Network augmented by large arrays of 12-m antennas on Earth.

  3. Trajectory Design From GTO To Lunar Equatorial Orbit For The Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Genova, Anthony L; Perez, Andres Dono; Galal, Ken F; Faber, Nicolas T; Mitchell, Scott; Landin, Brett; Datta, Abhirup; Burns, Jack O

    2015-01-01

    The trajectory design for the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) mission con-cept involves launching the DARE spacecraft into a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) as a secondary payload. From GTO, the spacecraft then transfers to a lunar orbit that is stable (i.e., no station-keeping maneuvers are required with minimum perilune altitude always above 40 km) and allows for more than 1,000 cumulative hours for science measurements in the radio-quiet region located on the lunar farside.

  4. The development of the CHANG'`E-1 lunar explorer laser altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, R.; Wang, J. Y.; Hu, Y. H.; Jia, J. J.

    According to Chinese fable CHANG prime E is the name of a peri who lives in the moon with a white rabbit The CHANG prime E-1 lunar explorer will be launched in April 2007 The Lunar Explorer Laser Altimeter LELA is one of the 6 payloads in Chang prime E-1 which is developed by Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences The data of LELA will be used with the Optical Imager for acquiring the three dimension image of the moon surface The LELA transmits laser pulses determines their round trip times to the surface of the moon using a time interval counter and measures ranges between CHANG prime E-1 lunar explorer and the lunar surface in the nadir direction with 5m accuracy every 1 second for 1 year s mission period The acquired range data are transformed to the topography of the moon with the aid of position and attitude data of the CHANG prime E-1 lunar explorer obtained from the ground-based tracking and on board star sensor respectively The mean distances between Chang prime E-1 and the surface of moon is 200Km The LELA utilizes a laser diode LD pumped Q-switched Nd YAG laser that has a wavelength of 1064nm a pulse width of 10ns The output beam divergence is improved to 0 6mrad by Galileo refractor-type collimator which resulted in a moon surface spot size foot print of 120m The return pulses are captured by Cassegrain-type reflector and detected by Si-APD detector The prototype began from 2003 Until now the engineering model had been finished

  5. Astrobiological benefits of human space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian A

    2010-01-01

    An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered.

  6. Retrospect to Human Deep Space Exploration History and Its Prospect in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Peijian; Peng Jing

    2006-01-01

    The definition, goal and impacts of deep space exploration are summarized. After a retrospect to past deep exploration activities of human being to date, both recent deep space missions and future missions in 5 years are also listed. There are also brief introductions about the future strategic plans of NASA, ESA,RAKA, JAXA and ISRO. Then authors analyze some important features of global deep space exploration scheme. Key technologies of deep space exploration are also determined. The status of China deep exploration plan is introduced including CE-1 lunar orbiter, the subsequent China Lunar Exploration Program, especially proposal for the second stage of China Lunar Exploration Program, Mars exploration program of China with Russia Kuafu mission, Hard X-Ray Modulated Telescope, Space Solar Telescope. At the end, some suggestions for China future deep space exploration are made.

  7. Epic Moon: a history of lunar exploration in the age of the telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, William P.; Dobbins, Thomas A.

    timeless. The story of mankind's endless fascination with the world of the Moon and the gallery of interesting characters who pursued the details of the lunar surface with often strange intensity is a modern-day epic. Many of the stories recounted for the first time here will still be recounted generations hence, when the Apollo explorations may seem a mere interlude in what has actually been a more sustained and more significant era of endeavour. It is possible that the names of Schroeter, Beer and Mädler, Webb and Schmidt may prove to be as memorable as those of Armstrong, Aldrin, Cernan and Schmitt.

  8. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, dur-ing the government shutdown. The spacecraft impact-ed the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE's science objectives were twofold: (1) De-termine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for parti-cles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exo-spheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) ac-quired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wave-length range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. The following are preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longi-tudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lu-nar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization process-es. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent "shroud" of small dust particles

  9. Human exploration of space and power development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron

    The possible role of Solar Power Satellites (SPS) in advancing the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative is considered. Three approaches are examined: (1) the use of lunar raw materials to construct a large SPS in GEO, (2) the construction of a similar system on the lunar surface, and (3) a combination of (1) and (2). Emphasis is given to the mining of He-3 from the moon and its use by the SPS.

  10. A multitasking behavioral control system for the Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klarer, P.

    1994-03-01

    The design of a multitasking behavioral control system for the Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER) is described. The control system design attempts to ameliorate some of the problems noted by some researchers when implementing subsumption or behavioral control systems, particularly with regard to multiple processor systems and real-time operations. The architecture is designed to allow both synchronous and asynchronous operations between various behavior modules by taking advantage of intertask communications channels, and by implementing each behavior module and each interconnection node as a stand-alone task. The potential advantages of this approach over those previously described in the field are discussed. An implementation of the architecture is planned for a prototype Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER) currently under development, and is briefly described.

  11. Numerical simulation of human orientation perception during lunar landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Torin K.; Young, Laurence R.; Stimpson, Alexander J.; Duda, Kevin R.; Oman, Charles M.

    2011-09-01

    In lunar landing it is necessary to select a suitable landing point and then control a stable descent to the surface. In manned landings, astronauts will play a critical role in monitoring systems and adjusting the descent trajectory through either supervisory control and landing point designations, or by direct manual control. For the astronauts to ensure vehicle performance and safety, they will have to accurately perceive vehicle orientation. A numerical model for human spatial orientation perception was simulated using input motions from lunar landing trajectories to predict the potential for misperceptions. Three representative trajectories were studied: an automated trajectory, a landing point designation trajectory, and a challenging manual control trajectory. These trajectories were studied under three cases with different cues activated in the model to study the importance of vestibular cues, visual cues, and the effect of the descent engine thruster creating dust blowback. The model predicts that spatial misperceptions are likely to occur as a result of the lunar landing motions, particularly with limited or incomplete visual cues. The powered descent acceleration profile creates a somatogravic illusion causing the astronauts to falsely perceive themselves and the vehicle as upright, even when the vehicle has a large pitch or roll angle. When visual pathways were activated within the model these illusions were mostly suppressed. Dust blowback, obscuring the visual scene out the window, was also found to create disorientation. These orientation illusions are likely to interfere with the astronauts' ability to effectively control the vehicle, potentially degrading performance and safety. Therefore suitable countermeasures, including disorientation training and advanced displays, are recommended.

  12. Luna-Glob project in the context of the past and present lunar exploration in Russia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E M Galimov

    2005-12-01

    The Russian Luna-Glob project has been conceived with a view to understand the origin of the Earth –Moon system.The objectives and main features of the Luna-Glob mission,which will mainly study the internal structure of the Moon by seismic instruments,are described in the context of the past and current program of lunar exploration in Russia.

  13. United States Human Access to Space, Exploration of the Moon and Preparation for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    In the past, men like Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne imagined the future and envisioned fantastic inventions such as winged flying machines, submarines, and parachutes, and posited human adventures like transoceanic flight and journeys to the Moon. Today, many of their ideas are reality and form the basis for our modern world. While individual visionaries like da Vinci and Verne are remembered for the accuracy of their predictions, today entire nations are involved in the process of envisioning and defining the future development of mankind, both on and beyond the Earth itself. Recently, Russian, European, and Chinese teams have all announced plans for developing their own next generation human space vehicles. The Chinese have announced their intention to conduct human lunar exploration, and have flown three crewed space missions since 2003, including a flight with three crew members to test their extravehicular (spacewalking) capabilities in September 2008. Very soon, the prestige, economic development, scientific discovery, and strategic security advantage historically associated with leadership in space exploration and exploitation may no longer be the undisputed province of the United States. Much like the sponsors of the seafaring explorers of da Vinci's age, we are motivated by the opportunity to obtain new knowledge and new resources for the growth and development of our own civilization. NASA's new Constellation Program, established in 2005, is tasked with maintaining the United States leadership in space, exploring the Moon, creating a sustained human lunar presence, and eventually extending human operations to Mars and beyond. Through 2008, the Constellation Program developed a full set of detailed program requirements and is now completing the preliminary design phase for the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, and the associated infrastructure necessary for humans to explore the Moon. Component testing is well

  14. A lunar venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Trinh, Lu X.

    1989-01-01

    As the Earth's space station is in its final stages of design, the dream of a permanent manned space facility is now a reality. Despite this monumental achievement, however, man's quest to extend human habitation further out into space is far from being realized. The next logical step in space exploration must be the construction of a permanent lunar base. This lunar infrastucture can, in turn, be used as a staging ground for further exploration of the remote regions of the solar system. As outlined by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the lunar base program consists of three exploratory and implementation phases. In response to the technological and facility requirements of Phase 1 and 2 of this program, the Aerospace Vehicle Design Program of the University of Virgina (UVA) is proud to present a preliminary design for such a lunar infrastructure. This study is a comprehensive evaluation of the mission requirements as well as the design criteria for space vehicles and facilities. The UVA Lunar Venture is a dual system that consists of a lunar space station and a fleet of lunar landers/transporters. With such a design, it is demonstrated that all initial exploratory and construction requirements for the lunar base can be efficiently satisfied. Additionally, the need for such a dual system is justified both from a logistic and economic standpoint.

  15. Micro-Logistics Analysis for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, William; Stromgren, Chel; Galan, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, logistics analysis for space missions has focused on the delivery of elements and goods to a destination. This type of logistics analysis can be referred to as "macro-logistics". While the delivery of goods is a critical component of mission analysis, it captures only a portion of the constraints that logistics planning may impose on a mission scenario. The other component of logistics analysis concerns the local handling of goods at the destination, including storage, usage, and disposal. This type of logistics analysis, referred to as "micro-logistics", may also be a primary driver in the viability of a human lunar exploration scenario. With the rigorous constraints that will be placed upon a human lunar outpost, it is necessary to accurately evaluate micro-logistics operations in order to develop exploration scenarios that will result in an acceptable level of system performance.

  16. The Distribution of Ice in Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions: Science Enabling Exploration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, D.; Elphic, R. C.; Bussey, B.; Hibbitts, C.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent prospecting indicates that water ice occurs in enhanced abundances in some lunar PSRs. That water constitutes a resource that enables lunar exploration if it can be harvested for fuel and life support. Future lunar exploration missions will need detailed information about the distribution of volatiles in lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs). In addition, the volatiles also offer key insights into the recent and distant past, as they have trapped volatiles delivered to the moon over ~2 Gyr. This comprises an unparalleled reservoir of past inner solar system volatiles, and future scientific missions are needed to make the measurements that will reveal the composition of those volatiles. These scientific missions will necessarily have to acquire and analyze samples of volatiles from the PSRs. For both exploration and scientific purposes, the precise location of volatiles will need to be known. However, data indicate that ice is distributed heterogeneously on the Moon. It is unlikely that the distribution will be known a priori with enough spatial resolution to guarantee access to volatiles using a single point sample. Some mechanism for laterally or vertically distributed access will increase the likelihood of acquiring a rich sample of volatiles. Trade studies will need to be conducted to anticipate the necessary range and duration of missions to lunar PSRs that will be needed to accomplish the mission objectives. We examine the spatial distribution of volatiles in lunar PSRs reported from data analyses and couple those with models of smaller scale processes. FUV and laser data from PSRs that indicate the average surface distribution is consistent with low abundances on the extreme surface in most PSRs. Neutron and radar data that probe the distribution at depth show heterogeneity at broad spatial resolution. We consider those data in conjunction with the model to understand the full, 3-D nature of the heterogeneity. A Monte Carlo technique simulates the

  17. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  18. Lunar Return Reentry Thermal Analysis of a Generic Crew Exploration Vehicle Wall Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Tran, Van T.; Bowles, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Thermostructural analysis was performed on generic crew exploration vehicle (GCEV) heat shielded wall structures subjected to reentry heating rates based on five potential lunar return reentry trajectories. The GCEV windward outer wall is fabricated with a graphite/epoxy composite honeycomb sandwich panel and the inner wall with an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel. The outer wall is protected with an ablative Avcoat-5026-39H/CG thermal protection system (TPS). A virtual ablation method (a graphical approximation) developed earlier was further extended, and was used to estimate the ablation periods, ablation heat loads, and the TPS recession layer depths. It was found that up to 83 95 percent of the total reentry heat load was dissipated in the TPS ablation process, leaving a small amount (3-15 percent) of the remaining total reentry heat load to heat the virgin TPS and maintain the TPS surface at the ablation temperature, 1,200 F. The GCEV stagnation point TPS recession layer depths were estimated to be in the range of 0.280-0.910 in, and the allowable minimum stagnation point TPS thicknesses that could maintain the substructural composite sandwich wall at the limit temperature of 300 F were found to be in the range of 0.767-1.538 in. Based on results from the present analyses, the lunar return abort ballistic reentry was found to be quite attractive because it required less TPS weight than the lunar return direct, the lunar return skipping, or the low Earth orbit guided reentry, and only 11.6 percent more TPS weight than the low Earth orbit ballistic reentry that will encounter a considerable weight penalty to obtain the Earth orbit. The analysis also showed that the TPS weight required for the lunar return skipping reentry was much more than the TPS weight necessary for any of the other reentry trajectories considered.

  19. The Penn state lunar lion: A university mission to explore the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michael V.; Spencer, David B.; Lego, Sara E.; Muncks, John P.

    2014-03-01

    The Penn State Lunar Lion Team plans to send a robotic explorer to the surface of the Moon and, by applying 30 years of technological advancements, win the Google Lunar X Prize. The Google Lunar X Prize aims to showcase the ability of the growing private space industry by having teams pursue the goal of becoming the first private entity to land a spacecraft on another body in the solar system. Through the Team's pursuit of this Prize, Penn State will establish itself as a leader in space exploration. The Lunar Lion Team will win this Prize through the collaboration of faculty and students from multiple disciplines, and the engineering and technical staff at the Penn State Applied Research Lab, as well as strategic collaborations with industry partners. The diversity of technical disciplines required to build a system that can land on the Moon can be found at Penn State. This multidisciplinary project will be not only a means for bringing together personnel from around the University, but also a way to attract faculty and students to these fields. The baseline concept for the Lunar Lion will strictly follow the requirements of the Grand Prize and the Grand Prize only, leading to the simplest possible system for the mission. By achieving the Grand Prize, Penn State will have accomplished what once took the large-scale effort of NASA's early robotic lunar landers or the USSR's space program. While the Bonus Prizes are noteworthy, ensuring their accomplishment will add development and operational risk to the flight system that could jeopardize the Team's ability to win the Grand Prize. The Team will build the simplest spacecraft, with the fewest number of systems and components. This philosophy will shorten the development timeline and result in a robust flight system that is of minimum cost. Wherever possible, the Team will use commercially available products to satisfy the needs of the system. The work of the Team will be efficient systems integration, careful

  20. A seismic-network mission proposal as an example for modular robotic lunar exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, C.; Witte, L.; Rosta, R.; Sohl, F.; Heffels, A.; Knapmeyer, M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper it is intended to discuss an approach to reduce design costs for subsequent missions by introducing modularity, commonality and multi-mission capability and thereby reuse of mission individual investments into the design of lunar exploration infrastructural systems. The presented approach has been developed within the German Helmholtz-Alliance on Robotic Exploration of Extreme Environments (ROBEX), a research alliance bringing together deep-sea and space research to jointly develop technologies and investigate problems for the exploration of highly inaccessible terrain - be it in the deep sea and polar regions or on the Moon and other planets. Although overall costs are much smaller for deep sea missions as compared to lunar missions, a lot can be learned from modularity approaches in deep sea research infrastructure design, which allows a high operational flexibility in the planning phase of a mission as well as during its implementation. The research presented here is based on a review of existing modular solutions in Earth orbiting satellites as well as science and exploration systems. This is followed by an investigation of lunar exploration scenarios from which we derive requirements for a multi-mission modular architecture. After analyzing possible options, an approach using a bus modular architecture for dedicated subsystems is presented. The approach is based on exchangeable modules e.g. incorporating instruments, which are added to the baseline system platform according to the demands of the specific scenario. It will be described in more detail, including arising problems e.g. in the power or thermal domain. Finally, technological building blocks to put the architecture into practical use will be described more in detail.

  1. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-18

    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  2. Human Power Empirically Explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Harvesting energy from the users’ muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are conven

  3. Trajectory Design from GTO to Near-Equatorial Lunar Orbit for the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Yang Yang, Fan; Perez, Andres Dono; Galal, Ken F.; Faber, Nicolas T.; Mitchell, Scott; Landin, Brett; Burns, Jack O.

    2015-01-01

    The trajectory design for the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) mission concept involves launching the DARE spacecraft into a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) as a secondary payload. From GTO, the spacecraft then transfers to a lunar orbit that is stable (i.e., no station-keeping maneuvers are required with minimum perilune altitude always above 40 km) and allows for more than 1,000 cumulative hours for science measurements in the radio-quiet region located on the lunar farside.

  4. Lunar Exploration Insights Recognized from Chandrayaan-1 M3 Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle; Green, Robert O.; Boardman, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important lessons learned from the renaissance of lunar exploration over the last decade is that new discoveries and surprises occur with every new mission to the Moon. Although the color of the Moon had been measured using Earth-based telescopes even before Apollo, modern instruments sent to orbit the Moon provide a scope of inquiry unimaginable during the last century. Spacecraft have now been successfully sent to the Moon by six different space agencies from around the world and the number is growing. The Indian Chandrayaan- 1 spacecraft carried a suite of indigenous instruments as well as several guest instruments from other countries, including the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M-cube) supplied by NASA. Even though Chandrayaan's lifetime in orbit was shortened by technical constraints, M3 provided a taste of the power of near-infrared imaging spectroscopy used for science and exploration at the Moon. Contrary to expectations, the lunar surface was discovered to be hydrated, which is now known to result from solar wind H combining with O of rocks and soil. Surficial hydration was found to be pervasive across the Moon and the limited data hint at both local concentrations and temporal variations. The prime objective of M3 was to characterize lunar mineralogy in a spatial context. Working in tandem with related instruments on JAXA's SELENE, M3 readily recognized and mapped known minerals from mare and highland terrains (pyroxenes, olivine) at high resolution, but also detected diagnostic properties of crystalline plagioclase which, when mapped across a spatial context, enabled the unambiguous identification of a massive crustal layer of plagioclase that clearly resulted from an early magma ocean. An additional surprise came with the discovery of a new rock type on the Moon that had not been recognized in samples returned by Apollo and Luna: a Mg-rich spinel anorthosite associated with material excavated from some of the greatest lunar depths. In

  5. 未来月球探测总体构想%General Conception of Future Lunar Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯建文; 赵晨; 常立平; 陈辉; 钱海鹏

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the United States, Russia and other countries have carried out various means of lunar explorations. In recent years, a number of countries, including the United States, Ja-pan and Russia began to explore the moon again and a series of exploration objectives such as robotic exploration and lunar base construction have been proposed. Based on the trend of lunar exploration, the plan for future lunar exploration of China was proposed. This plan can be summarized as the"Four Phases Lunar Exploration Plan": Luna Outpost Exploration, Lunar Robotic Exploration, Short-term Lunar Base and Long-term Lunar Base. The internal connections among the four phases and the step-by-step develop processes were proposed. The general scientific and engineering objectives, the task conceptions and the key technologies of the future Lunar Exploration were also addressed.%20世纪70年代以来,美苏等国已经对月球展开多种手段的探测;近年,美国、日本、俄罗斯等多个国家又开始展开月球探测,并提出机器人探测月球、建立月球基地等一系列月球探测目标. 基于此背景,根据月球探测一般趋势,提出了由月球前哨站工程、机器人登月工程、短期月球基地以及长期月球基地四步构成的未来月球探测构想,提出了四步走的总体科学目标、工程目标与每一步具体任务构想,阐述了四步之间的内在联系,并在此基础上提出了未来月球探测关键技术.

  6. Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Deluane, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s plans for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration include returning to the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond. Dust on the lunar surface has a ubiquitous presence which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. While the operational challenges attributable to dust during the Apollo missions did not prove critical, the comparatively long duration of impending missions presents a different challenge. Near term plans to revisit the moon places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program s Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. The Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development project has been implemented within the ETDP. Project scope and plans will be presented, along with a a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware. This paper further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it s characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost.

  7. Morpheus: Advancing Technologies for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olansen, Jon B.; Munday, Stephen R.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Baine, Michael

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing. Designed to serve as a vertical testbed (VTB) for advanced spacecraft technologies, the vehicle provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. This allows individual technologies to mature into capabilities that can be incorporated into human exploration missions. The Morpheus vehicle is propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a payload of 1100 lb to the lunar surface. In addition to VTB vehicles, the Project s major elements include ground support systems and an operations facility. Initial testing will demonstrate technologies used to perform autonomous hazard avoidance and precision landing on a lunar or other planetary surface. The Morpheus vehicle successfully performed a set of integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire and tethered hover tests, leading up to un-tethered free-flights. The initial phase of this development and testing campaign is being conducted on-site at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), with the first fully integrated vehicle firing its engine less than one year after project initiation. Designed, developed, manufactured and operated in-house by engineers at JSC, the Morpheus Project represents an unprecedented departure from recent NASA programs that traditionally require longer, more expensive development lifecycles and testing at remote, dedicated testing facilities. Morpheus testing includes three major types of integrated tests. A hot-fire (HF) is a static vehicle test of the LOX/Methane propulsion system. Tether tests (TT) have the vehicle suspended above the ground using a crane, which allows testing of the propulsion and integrated Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) in hovering flight without the risk of a vehicle departure or crash. Morpheus free-flights (FF) test the complete Morpheus system without the additional

  8. LRO and LCROSS Missions:Overview and Enlightenment for Future Lunar Exploration%LRO和LCROSS探月计划:科学探测的分析与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永春; 邹永廖; 付晓辉

    2011-01-01

    简要阐述了美国的月球勘测轨道器(LRO)和月球坑观测与遥感卫星(LCROSS)两个月球探测器的任务概况,并重点分析了其科学目标、有效载荷与探测任务,总结了LRO和LCROSS的初步探测成果,提出了对未来月球探测的几点启示:①月球南极是探月竞争的战略制高点;②高分辨地形测绘是探月重点;③月球上的水是热点科学问题;④月面环境探测具有重要意义;⑤科学目标应突出特色和创新。这些启示可为我国的月球探测提供参考。%The overview of American Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter(LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite(LCROSS) is given.The science goals,scientific instruments and preliminary results of LRO and LCROSS are the major content of the review.The enlightenment for future lunar exploration are proposed: firstly,south polar region is the sticking point of strategy for world lunar competition;secondly,topography surveying and mapping with high spatial resolution is the major item of lunar mission;thirdly,water on the moon is the focused science question of the moon;fourthly,space environment on the lunar surface have the most significance for future human lunar landing;fifthly,science goals of the lunar mission should be proposed in the view of innovation with Chinese characteristics.These enlightenment should benefit the Chinese lunar exploration.

  9. A Lunar L2-Farside Exploration and Science Mission Concept with the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and a Teleoperated Lander/Rover

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Jack O; Hopkins, Joshua B; Norris, Scott; Lazio, T Joseph W; Kasper, Justin

    2012-01-01

    A novel concept is presented in this paper for a human mission to the lunar L2 (Lagrange) point that would be a proving ground for future exploration missions to deep space while also overseeing scientifically important investigations. In an L2 halo orbit above the lunar farside, the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Vehicle would travel 15% farther from Earth than did the Apollo astronauts and spend almost three times longer in deep space. Such a mission would serve as a first step beyond low Earth orbit and prove out operational spaceflight capabilities such as life support, communication, high speed re-entry, and radiation protection prior to more difficult human exploration missions. On this proposed mission, the crew would teleoperate landers and rovers on the unexplored lunar farside, which would obtain samples from the geologically interesting farside and deploy a low radio frequency telescope. Sampling the South Pole-Aitken basin, one of the oldest impact basins in the solar system, is a key science ob...

  10. An Extension of Analysis of Solar-Heated Thermal Wadis to Support Extended-Duration Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Sacksteder, K. R.; Wegeng, R. S.; Suzuki, N. H.

    2010-01-01

    The realization of the renewed exploration of the Moon presents many technical challenges; among them is the survival of lunar surface assets during periods of darkness when the lunar environment is very cold. Thermal wadis are engineered sources of stored solar energy using modified lunar regolith as a thermal storage mass that can supply energy to protect lightweight robotic rovers or other assets during the lunar night. This paper describes an extension of an earlier analysis of performance of thermal wadis based on the known solar illumination of the Moon and estimates of producible thermal properties of modified lunar regolith. The current analysis has been performed for the lunar equatorial region and validates the formerly used 1-D model by comparison of predictions to those obtained from 2-D and 3-D computations. It includes the effects of a thin dust layer covering the surface of the wadi, and incorporating either water as a phase-change material or aluminum stakes as a high thermal conductivity material into the regolith. The calculations indicate that thermal wadis can provide the desired thermal energy and temperature control for the survival of rovers or other equipment during periods of darkness.

  11. Robots and Humans: Synergy in Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    How will humans and robots cooperate in future planetary exploration? Are humans and robots fundamentally separate modes of exploration, or can humans and robots work together to synergistically explore the solar system? It is proposed that humans and robots can work together in exploring the planets by use of telerobotic operation to expand the function and usefulness of human explorers, and to extend the range of human exploration to hostile environments.

  12. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    NASAs Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair Lunar Lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced Lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable batteries with extremely high specific energy as compared to state-of-the-art. The specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery-level at 0 degrees Celsius ( C) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation between 0 and 30 C and 200 cycles are targeted. Electrode materials that were considered include layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. Advanced cell chemistry options were evaluated with respect to multiple quantitative and qualitative attributes while considering their projected performance at the end of the available development timeframe. Following a rigorous ranking process, a chemistry that combines a lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide Li(LiNMC)O2 cathode with a silicon-based composite anode was selected as the technology that can potentially offer the best combination of safety, specific energy, energy density, and likelihood of success.

  13. Terrestrial kilometric radiation: 1: Spatial structures studies. [from satellite observation (Explorer 2 satellite) of lunar occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J. K.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    Observations are presented of lunar occultations of the earth at 250 kHz obtained with the Radio-Astronomy-Explorer-2 satellite which were used to derive two dimensional maps of the location of the sources of terrestrial kilometric radiation (TKR). By examining the two dimensional source distributions as a function of the observer's location (lunar orbit) with respect to the magnetosphere, the average three dimensional location of the emission regions can be estimated. Although TKR events at 250 kHz can often be observed at projected distances corresponding to the 250 kHz electron gyro or plasma level (approximately 2 earth radii), many events are observed much farther from the earth (between 5 and 15 earth radii). Dayside emission apparently in the region of the polar cusp and the magnetosheath and night emission associated with regions of the magnetotail are examined. The nightside emission is suggestive of a mechanism involving plasma sheet electron precipitation in the pre-midnight sector.

  14. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T.; Chin, G.

    2007-08-01

    NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) plans to launch in October 2008 with a companion secondary impactor mission, LCROSS, as the inaugural missions for the Exploration System Mission Directorate. LRO is a pathfinder whose objective is to obtain the needed information to prepare for eventual human return to the Moon. LRO will undertake at least one baseline year of operation with additional extended mission phase sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources; Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits; Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only

  15. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-01-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  16. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA 5.0), which is the latest in a series of NASA Mars reference missions. It provides a vision of one potential approach to human Mars exploration. The reference architecture provides a common framework for future planning of systems concepts, technology development, and operational testing as well as Mars robotic missions, research that is conducted on the International Space Station, and future lunar exploration missions. This summary the Mars DRA 5.0 provides an overview of the overall mission approach, surface strategy and exploration goals, as well as the key systems and challenges for the first three human missions to Mars.

  17. Analysis of Logistics in Support of a Human Lunar Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, William; Earle, Kevin; Goodliff, Kandyce; Reeves, j. D.; Andrashko, Mark; Merrill, R. Gabe; Stromgren, Chel

    2008-01-01

    Strategic level analysis of the integrated behavior of lunar transportation system and lunar surface system architecture options is performed to inform NASA Constellation Program senior management on the benefit, viability, affordability, and robustness of system design choices. This paper presents an overview of the approach used to perform the campaign (strategic) analysis, with an emphasis on the logistics modeling and the impacts of logistics resupply on campaign behavior. An overview of deterministic and probabilistic analysis approaches is provided, with a discussion of the importance of each approach to understanding the integrated system behavior. The logistics required to support lunar surface habitation are analyzed from both 'macro-logistics' and 'micro-logistics' perspectives, where macro-logistics focuses on the delivery of goods to a destination and micro-logistics focuses on local handling of re-supply goods at a destination. An example campaign is provided to tie the theories of campaign analysis to results generation capabilities.

  18. 月球探测与研究进展%A REVIEW OF LUNAR EXPLORATION AND STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊盛青

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the lunar exploration results are summarized in three aspects, namely lunar composition exploration, interior structure exploration, and lunar origin and evolution. On the basis of the summarization, the existing problems and development orientation of lunar exploration are analyzed and summarized preliminarily. First, the integration of radioactive exploration and remote sensing exploration will deepen the knowledge of the compositions of the lunar surface. Second, the synthesis of different geophysical exploration methods is the development orientation, and the acquisition of more lunar quake data is the key to studying the inner structure of the moon. Third, several hypotheses of the origin and evolution of the moon will develop into one theory when more lunar exploration data are collected.%从月球物质成分探测、内部结构探测和月球起源与演化3个方面对月球探测与研究的成果进行了全面总结,对月球探测与研究中存在的问题以及发展方向进行了初步分析.在物质成分探测方面,放射性探测与遥感探测技术充分结合及综合应用将深化对月球物质成分的认识,是重要的发展方向; 在内部结构探测方面,综合各种月球物理探测技术是重要的发展方向,获取更全面的月震数据是研究月球内部圈层结构的关键; 在月球起源与演化方面,随着各种探测数据的不断丰富,多种假说并存逐渐向统一的理论发展.

  19. DataBus-based hybrid routing approach for orbit access networks in lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Meng, Ke; Deng, Julia

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges for lunar exploration missions is how to achieve dynamic and robust routing. To reduce the development cost, it is desirable to leverage existing technologies, such as routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and delay tolerant networks (DTN). However, these technologies are developed for the Earth environment and hence need further investigation for the lunar environment. To support robust access and dynamic mission operations, we propose a DataBus-based Hybrid Routing (DBHR) approach that combines MANET reactive routing protocol (such as AODV) and DTN-based bundle delivery. Our DBHR approach is designed for a tiered architecture where remote nodes communicate with upper-tier gateways through data carriers (DataBus) using short-range radio interfaces. Our scheme explores the (non)availability of the end-to-end path between two peers using MANET routing and provides diverse route options based upon different parameters. This interaction between hop-by-hop DTN technologies and end-to-end MANET protocol will result in a reliable and robust routing protocol for orbit access and improve the overall communication capabilities. To evaluate its performance, we implemented our proposed scheme on commercial-off-theshelf (COTS) routers with the custom OpenWRT and tailored IBR-DTN bundle protocol distribution. The on-demand service request and grant mechanisms are also developed in our implementation to allow certain DTN nodes to reserve the future access opportunities. Finally, we demonstrate the achieved capabilities and performance gains through experiments on a hardware test bed that consists of several COTS routers with our implementation.

  20. Groundbreaking Mars Sample Return for Science and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara; Draper, David; Eppler, Dean; Treiman, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Partnerships between science and human exploration have recent heritage for the Moon (Lunar Precursor Robotics Program, LPRP) and nearearth objects (Exploration Precursor Robotics Program, xPRP). Both programs spent appreciable time and effort determining measurements needed or desired before human missions to these destinations. These measurements may be crucial to human health or spacecraft design, or may be desired to better optimize systems designs such as spacesuits or operations. Both LPRP and xPRP recommended measurements from orbit, by landed missions and by sample return. LPRP conducted the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) missions, providing high-resolution visible imagery, surface and subsurface temperatures, global topography, mapping of possible water ice deposits, and the biological effects of radiation [1]. LPRP also initiated a landed mission to provide dust and regolith properties, local lighting conditions, assessment of resources, and demonstration of precision landing [2]. This mission was canceled in 2006 due to funding shortfalls. For the Moon, adequate samples of rocks and regolith were returned by the Apollo and Luna programs to conduct needed investigations. Many near-earth asteroids (NEAs) have been observed from the Earth and several have been more extensively characterized by close-flying missions and landings (NEAR, Hayabusa, Rosetta). The current Joint Robotic Precursor Activity program is considering activities such as partnering with the New Frontiers mission OSIRIS-Rex to visit a NEA and return a sample to the Earth. However, a strong consensus of the NEO User Team within xPRP was that a dedicated mission to the asteroid targeted by humans is required [3], ideally including regolith sample return for more extensive characterization and testing on the Earth.

  1. Future Visions for Scientific Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, James

    2005-01-01

    Today, humans explore deep-space locations such as Mars, asteroids, and beyond, vicariously here on Earth, with noteworthy success. However, to achieve the revolutionary breakthroughs that have punctuated the history of science since the dawn of the Space Age has always required humans as "the discoverers," as Daniel Boorstin contends in this book of the same name. During Apollo 17, human explorers on the lunar surface discovered the "genesis rock," orange glass, and humans in space revamped the optically crippled Hubble Space Telescope to enable some of the greatest astronomical discoveries of all time. Science-driven human exploration is about developing the opportunities for such events, perhaps associated with challenging problems such as whether we can identify life beyond Earth within the universe. At issue, however, is how to safely insert humans and the spaceflight systems required to allow humans to operate as they do best in the hostile environment of deep space. The first issue is minimizing the problems associated with human adaptation to the most challenging aspects of deep space space radiation and microgravity (or non-Earth gravity). One solution path is to develop technologies that allow for minimization of the exposure time of people to deep space, as was accomplished in Apollo. For a mission to the planet Mars, this might entail new technological solutions for in-space propulsion that would make possible time-minimized transfers to and from Mars. The problem of rapid, reliable in-space transportation is challenged by the celestial mechanics of moving in space and the so-called "rocket equation." To travel to Mars from Earth in less than the time fuel-minimizing trajectories allow (i.e., Hohmann transfers) requires an exponential increase in the amount of fuel. Thus, month-long transits would require a mass of fuel as large as the dry mass of the ISS, assuming the existence of continuous acceleration engines. This raises the largest technological

  2. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  3. 月球探测计划研究进展%Progress in international lunar exploration programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟; 许厚泽; 钟敏; 刘成恕; 员美娟

    2012-01-01

    详细介绍了国内外已实施的苏联“月球号”和“探测器号”,美国“先驱者号”、“徘徊者号”、“勘测者号”、“月球轨道器号”、“阿波罗号”、“克莱门汀号”、“月球勘探者号”和“月球勘测轨道飞行器号”,日本“飞天号”和“月亮女神1号”,欧洲“智能1号”,中国“嫦娥一、二号”,印度“月船1号”等探测工具和未来实施的探月计划.详细介绍了美国GRAIL月球重力双星计划的总体概述、关键载荷和科学目标.具体阐述了我国下一代月球卫星重力梯度测量工程的实施建议和重要意义.认为我国下一代月球卫星重力梯度测量工程的成功实施将逐渐打破“太空战”的威胁,使世界和平得到有力维护.%Firstly, the operated lunar exploration programs including "Luna and Detector" in USSR, "Pioneer, Ranger, Surveyor, Lunar Orbiter, Apollo, Clementine, Lunar Prospector and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter" in USA, "Hiten and Selene-1" in Japan, "Smart-l" in Europe, "Chang'e-1/2" in China and "Chandrayaan-1" in India, and the planned lunar exploration missions in the world are comprehensively introduced. Secondly, the general overview, key payloads and scientific objectives of the GRAIL lunar satellite gravity exploration program are recommended in detail. Finally, the implementation suggestions and important significances of the next-generation lunar satellite gravity gradiometry mission in China are elaborated. The successful implementation of the next-generation lunar satellite gravity gradiometry mission in China is of great benefit to breaking a threat of "space war" and safeguarding world peace.

  4. Preparing Graduate Students for Solar System Science and Exploration Careers: Internships and Field Training Courses led by the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Kring, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    To be competitive in 21st century science and exploration careers, graduate students in planetary science and related disciplines need mentorship and need to develop skills not always available at their home university, including fieldwork, mission planning, and communicating with others in the scientific and engineering communities in the U.S. and internationally. Programs offered by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) address these needs through summer internships and field training programs. From 2008-2012, LPI hosted the Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program. This special summer intern program evaluated possible landing sites for robotic and human exploration missions to the lunar surface. By the end of the 2012 program, a series of scientifically-rich landing sites emerged, some of which had never been considered before. Beginning in 2015 and building on the success of the lunar exploration program, a new Exploration Science Summer Intern Program is being implemented with a broader scope that includes both the Moon and near-Earth asteroids. Like its predecessor, the Exploration Science Summer Intern Program offers graduate students a unique opportunity to integrate scientific input with exploration activities in a way that mission architects and spacecraft engineers can use. The program's activities may involve assessments and traverse plans for a particular destination or a more general assessment of a class of possible exploration targets. Details of the results of these programs will be discussed. Since 2010 graduate students have participated in field training and research programs at Barringer (Meteor) Crater and the Sudbury Impact Structure. Skills developed during these programs prepare students for their own thesis studies in impact-cratered terrains, whether they are on the Earth, the Moon, Mars, or other solar system planetary surface. Future field excursions will take place at these sites as well as the Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field. Skills

  5. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2009-01-01

    This document reviews the Design Reference Architecture (DRA) for human exploration of Mars. The DRA represents the current best strategy for human missions. The DRA is not a formal plan, but provides a vision and context to tie current systems and technology developments to potential missions to Mars, and it also serves as a benchmark against which alternative architectures can be measured. The document also reviews the objectives and products of the 2007 study that was to update NASA's human Mars mission reference architecture, assess strategic linkages between lunar and Mars strategies, develop an understanding of methods for reducing cost/risk of human missions through investment in research, technology development and synergy with other exploration plans. There is also a review of the process by which the DRA will continue to be refined. The unique capacities of human exploration is reviewed. The possible goals and objectives of the first three human missions are presented, along with the recommendation that the mission involve a long stay visiting multiple sites.The deployment strategy is outlined and diagrammed including the pre-deployment of the many of the material requirements, and a six crew travel to Mars on a six month trajectory. The predeployment and the Orion crew vehicle are shown. The ground operations requirements are also explained. Also the use of resources found on the surface of Mars is postulated. The Mars surface exploration strategy is reviewed, including the planetary protection processes that are planned. Finally a listing of the key decisions and tenets is posed.

  6. Mapping of the Lunokhod-1 Landing Site: A Case Study for Future Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Konopikhin, A.; Shingareva, K.; Gusakova, E.; Kokhanov, A.; Baskakova, M.; Peters, O.; Scholten, F.; Wählisch, M.; Robinson, M.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction. Luna-17 landed on November 17, 1970 and deployed Lunokhod-1, the first remotely operated roving vehicle ever to explore a planetary surface. Within 332 days, the vehicle conquered a traverse of approx. 10 km. The rover was equipped with a navigation camera system as well as a scanner camera with which panoramic images were obtained. From separated stations, stereoscopic views were obtained. The history of the Lunokhods came back into focus recently, when the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1] obtained images from orbit at highest resolutions of 0.5-0.25 m/pixel. The Luna-17 landing platform as well as the roving vehicles at their final resting positions can clearly be identified. In addition, the rover tracks are clearly visible in most areas. From LRO stereo images, digital elevation model (DEM) of the Lunokhod-1 landing site areas have been derived [2]. These are useful to study the topographic profile and slopes of the traverse. The data are also useful to study the 3-D morphology of craters in the surroundings. Methodology. Lunokhod-1 area mapping have been done using GIS techniques. With CraterTools [3] we digitized craters in the Lunokhod-1 traverse area and created a geodatabase, which consists at this moment of about 45,000 craters including their diameters and depths, obtained from the DEM [4]. The LRO DEM also was used to measure traverse. We used automatic GIS functions for calculating various surface parameters of the Lunokhod-1 area surface including slopes, roughness, crater cumulative and spatial densities, and prepared respective thematic maps. We also measured relative depth (ratio D/H) and inner slopes of craters and classified craters by their morphological type using automatic and visual methods. Vertical profiles through several craters using the high resolution DEM have been done, and the results show good agreement with the topographic models with contours in 10cm that have been obtained from the Lunokhod-1 stereo images [5]. The

  7. 探月过程中的粉尘干扰效应%Dust Disturbance Effects in Lunar Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小英; 贺碧蛟; 蒸国飙

    2012-01-01

    Based on study of domestic and foreign literature on lunar module landing and dust disturbance effects, the properties and physical parameters of lunar dust are summarized. Dust disturbance effects mainly include influences on the lunar exploration instruments, and those on the activities of astronauts. Study shows that the landing point should he chosen at a spot with less lunar dust, and the arrangement of exploration instruments should be far from the regions of astronauts' activities and module launch and landing.%在研究国内、外探月着陆器和探测过程中粉尘干扰效应的基础上,总结了月尘的基本性质及物理参数。粉尘的干扰效应包括两方面:对探测器和月球车及相关探测仪器的影响;对航天员和在月球表面活动的影响。研究表明:着陆器的落点应当尽可能选择月尘较少的位置;探测仪器的布置应当尽可能远离各种人员以及降落起飞活动进行的区域等。

  8. Small Spacecraft Mission Concepts to Achieve Lunar Science and Exploration Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Ricco, Tony; Stoker, Carol; Svitek, Tomas; Fenton, Lori; Cox, Sylvia; O’Leary, Lyn; Hines, John; Klupar, Peter

    2007-01-01

    NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration calls for a return to the Moon with both robotic spacecraft and human explorers in the coming decades. Both scientific and exploration-related goals can be achieved using a small spacecraft platform with relatively low cost and rapid development time. We report on mission concepts within five investigation themes and provide traceability to proposed instrumentation and measurement objectives. Specific themes addressed here include 1) Water, 2) Radiation Shi...

  9. Human lunar mission capabilities using SSTO, ISRU and LOX-augmented NTR technologies: A preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1995-10-01

    The feasibility of conducting human missions to the Moon is examined assuming the use of three 'high leverage' technologies: (1) a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle, (2) 'in-situ' resource utilization (ISRU)--specifically 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX), and (3) LOX-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (LANTR) propulsion. Lunar transportation system elements consisting of a LANTR-powered lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a chemical propulsion lunar landing/Earth return vehicle (LERV) are configured to fit within the 'compact' dimensions of the SSTO cargo bay (diameter: 4.6 m/length: 9.0 m) while satisfying an initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) limit of approximately 60 t (3 SSTO launches). Using approximately 8 t of LUNOX to 'reoxidize' the LERV for a 'direct return' flight to Earth reduces its size and mass allowing delivery to LEO on a single 20 t SSTO launch. Similarly, the LANTR engine's ability to operate at any oxygen/ hydrogen mixture ratio from 0 to 7 with high specific impulse (approximately 940 to 515 s) is exploited to reduce hydrogen tank volume, thereby improving packaging of the LANTR LTV's 'propulsion' and 'propellant modules'. Expendable and reusable, piloted and cargo missions and vehicle designs are presented along with estimates of LUNOX production required to support the different mission modes. Concluding remarks address the issue of lunar transportation system costs from the launch vehicle perspective.

  10. Human Habitation in a Lunar Electric Rover During a 14-Day Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaker, Harry, Jr.; Thompson, Shelby; Howard, Robert, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Various military and commercial entities, as well as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), have conducted space cabin confinement studies. However, after an extensive literature search, only one study was found using a simulated lunar rover (LUNEX II), under laboratory conditions, with a crew of two for an eighteen day lunar mission. Forty-three years later, NASA human factors engineers conducted a similar study using the Lunar Electric Rover (LER) in a dynamic real-world lunar simulation at the Black Point Lava Flow in Arizona. The objective of the study was to obtain human-in-the-loop performance data on the vehicle s interior volume with respect to human-system interfaces, crew accommodations, and habitation over a 14-day mission. Though part of a larger study including 212 overall operational elements, this paper will discuss only the performance of fifty different daily habitational elements within the confines of the vehicle carried out by two male subjects. Objective timing data and subjective questionnaire data were collected. Results indicate, much like the LUNEX II study, the LER field study suggest that a crew of two was able to maintain a satisfactory performance of tasks throughout the 14-day field trail within a relative small vehicle volume.

  11. Human Flight to Lunar and Beyond - Re-Learning Operations Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Edward (Ted); Statman, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    For the first time since the Apollo era, NASA is planning on sending astronauts on flights beyond LEO. The Human Space Flight (HSF) program started with a successful initial flight in Earth orbit, in December 2014. The program will continue with two Exploration Missions (EM): EM-1 will be unmanned and EM-2, carrying astronauts, will follow. NASA established a multi-center team to address the communications, and related tacking/navigation needs. This paper will focus on the lessons learned by the team designing the architecture and operations for the missions. Many of these Beyond Earth Orbit lessons had to be re-learned, as the HSF program has operated for many years in Earth orbit. Unlike the Apollo missions that were largely tracked by a dedicated ground network, the HSF planned missions will be tracked (at distances beyond GEO) by the DSN, a network that mostly serves robotic missions. There have been surprising challenges to the DSN as unique modern human spaceflight needs stretch the experience base beyond that of tracking robotic missions in deep space. Close interaction between the DSN and the HSF community to understand the unique needs (e.g. 2-way voice) resulted in a Concept of Operations (ConOps) that leverages both the deep space robotic and the Human LEO experiences. Several examples will be used to highlight the unique challenges the team faced in establishing the communications and tracking capabilities for HSF missions beyond Earth Orbit, including: Navigation. At LEO, HSF missions can rely on GPS devices for orbit determination. For Lunar-and-beyond HSF missions, techniques such as precision 2-way and 3-way Doppler and ranging, Delta-Difference-of-range, and eventually possibly on-board navigation will be used. At the same time, HSF presents a challenge to navigators, beyond those presented by robotic missions - navigating a dynamic/"noisy" spacecraft. Impact of latency - the delay associated with Round-Trip-Light-Time (RTLT). Imagine trying to

  12. Human life support for advanced space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, S H

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  13. Simulation-Based Lunar Telerobotics Design, Acquisition and Training Platform for Virtual Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Meeting the objectives of returning to the moon by 2020 will require NASA to fly a series of telerobotic lunar orbital and surface vehicles to prove the viability of...

  14. Simulation-Based Lunar Telerobotics Design, Acquisition and Training Platform for Virtual Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I proposal will develop a virtual test fixture performing a high caliber 3D dynamic reproduction of an prototype lunar bucket wheel excavator prototype...

  15. Environmental effects of human exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell

    Aerospace engineers use the term Environment to designate a set of externally imposed bound-ary conditions under which a device must operate. Although the parameters may be time-varying, the engineer thinks of the operating environment as being fixed. Any effect the device might have on the environment generally is neglected. In the case where the device is intended to measure the environment, its effect on the measured quantities must be considered. For example, a magnetometer aboard a spacecraft must be extended on a boom to minimize the disturbing influence of the spacecraft on the magnetic field, particularly if the field is weak. In contrast, Environment has taken on political and even ethical connotations in modern Western society, referring to human-induced alterations to those aspects of the terrestrial environment that are required for a healthy and productive life. The so-called Green Movement takes preservation of the environment as its mantra. Scientists are at the center of the debate on environmental issues. However, the concern of scientists over irreversible consequences of hu-man activity extend beyond ecology to preservation of cultural artifacts and to effects that alter the ability to conduct investigations such as light pollution in astronomy. The policy of Planetary Protection applied to science and exploration missions to other bodies in the solar system arises from the concern for deleterious effects in terrestrial ecology from hypothetical extraterrestrial life forms as well as overprints of extraterrestrial environments by terrestrial biology. Some in the scientific community are advocating extension of the planetary protection concept beyond exobiology to include fragile planetary environments by might be permanently altered by human activity e.g., the lunar exosphere. Beyond the scientific community, some environmentalists argue against any changes to the Moon at all, including formation of new craters or the alteration of the natural

  16. Electrical power integration for lunar operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Electrical power for future lunar operations is expected to range from a few kilowatts for an early human outpost to many megawatts for industrial operations in the 21st century. All electrical power must be imported as chemical, solar, nuclear, or directed energy. The slow rotation of the Moon and consequent long lunar night impose severe mass penalties on solar systems needing night delivery from storage. The cost of power depends on the cost of the power systems the cost of its transportation to the Moon, operating cost, and, of course, the life of the power system. The economic feasibility of some proposed lunar ventures depends in part on the cost of power. This paper explores power integration issues, costs, and affordability in the context of the following representative lunar ventures: (1) early human outpost (10 kWe); (2) early permanent lunar base, including experimental ISMU activities (100 kWe); (3) lunar oxygen production serving an evolved lunar base (500 kWe); (4) lunar base production of specialized high-value products for use on Earth (5 kWe); and (5) lunar mining and production of helium-3 (500 kWe). The schema of the paper is to project likely costs of power alternatives (including integration factors) in these power ranges, to select the most economic, to determine power cost contribution to the product or activities, to estimate whether the power cost is economically acceptable, and, finally, to offer suggestions for reaching acceptability where cost problems exist.

  17. Lunar Resources: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which I find to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industr...

  18. The Bulk Lunar Electrical Conductivity. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report; [from Explorer 35 satellite and the Apollo 12 flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Donald Lucien

    1975-01-01

    The electrical conductivity structure was studied of a spherically layered moon consistent with the very low frequency magnetic data collected on the lunar surface and by Explorer 35. In order to obtain good agreement with the lunar surface magnetometer observations, the inclusion of a void cavity behind the moon requires a conductivity at shallow depths higher than that of models having the solar wind impinging on all sides. By varying only the source parameters, a conductivity model can be found that yields a good fit to both the tangential response upstream and the radial response downstream. This model also satisfies the dark side tangential response in the frequency range above 0.006 Hz, but the few data points presently available below this range do not seem to agree with the theory.

  19. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  20. Human Exploration on the Moon, Mars and NEOs: PEX.2/ICEUM12B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    The session COSPAR-16-PEX.2: "Human Exploration on the Moon, Mars and NEOs", co-sponsored by Commissions B, F will include solicited and contributed talks and poster/interactive presentations. It will also be part of the 12th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon ICEUM12B from the ILEWG ICEUM series started in 1994. It will address various themes and COSPAR communities: - Sciences (of, on, from) the Moon enabled by humans - Research from cislunar and libration points - From robotic villages to international lunar bases - Research from Mars & NEOs outposts - Humans to Phobos/Deimos, Mars and NEOS - Challenges and preparatory technologies, field research operations - Human and robotic partnerships and precursor missions - Resource utilisation, life support and sustainable exploration - Stakeholders for human exploration One half-day session will be dedicated to a workshop format and meetings/reports of task groups: Science, Technology, Agencies, Robotic village, Human bases, Society & Commerce, Outreach, Young Explorers. COSPAR has provided through Commissions, Panels and Working Groups (such as ILEWG, IMEWG) an international forum for supporting and promoting the robotic and human exploration of the Moon, Mars and NEOS. Proposed sponsors : ILEWG, ISECG, IKI, ESA, NASA, DLR, CNES, ASI, UKSA, JAXA, ISRO, SRON, CNSA, SSERVI, IAF, IAA, Lockheed Martin, Google Lunar X prize, UNOOSA

  1. Human Space Exploration: The Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission in ways that promote leadership in space and economic expansion on the new frontier. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed, to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. The Vision commits NASA and the nation to an agenda of exploration that also includes robotic exploration and technology development, while building on lessons learned over 50 years of hard-won experience. Why the Moon? Many questions about the Moon's potential resources and how its history is linked to that of Earth were spurred by the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment for extended expeditions. The Moon also will serve as a training ground before embarking on the longer, more difficult trip to Mars. NASA plans to build a lunar outpost at one of the lunar poles, learn to live off the land, and reduce dePendence on Earth for longer missions. America needs to extend its ability to survive in hostile environments close to our home planet before astronauts will reach Mars, a planet very much like Earth. NASA has worked with scientists to define lunar exploration goals and is addressing the opportunities for a range of scientific study on Mars. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on common hardware, shared knowledge, and unique experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I

  2. Navigation system for a small size lunar exploration rover with a monocular omnidirectional camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laîné, Mickaël.; Cruciani, Silvia; Palazzolo, Emanuele; Britton, Nathan J.; Cavarelli, Xavier; Yoshida, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    A lunar rover requires an accurate localisation system in order to operate in an uninhabited environment. However, every additional piece of equipment mounted on it drastically increases the overall cost of the mission. This paper reports a possible solution for a micro-rover using a sole monocular omnidirectional camera. Our approach relies on a combination of feature tracking and template matching for Visual Odometry. The results are afterwards refined using a Graph-Based SLAM algorithm, which also provides a sparse reconstruction of the terrain. We tested the algorithm on a lunar rover prototype in a lunar analogue environment and the experiments show that the estimated trajectory is accurate and the combination with the template matching algorithm allows an otherwise poor detection of spot turns.

  3. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  4. Lunar and interplanetary explorations by electric propulsions in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Kyoichiro; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro

    Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science has undertaken an evaluation of electric (rather than chemically-fueled) propulsion systems for lunar and planetary missions in the 1990s. A lunar-penetrator and a Venus orbiter mission are taken as baselines against which to determine the characteristics and evaluate the implementation constraints of realistic electrically propelled vehicles. Attention is given to dc arcjet thrusters. It is suggested that solar cell output should be shared through the spacecraft power bus rather than dedicated to propulsion.

  5. Evaluation of Human and AutomationRobotics Integration Needs for Future Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Adelstein, Bernard D.; Ellis, Stephen; Chang, Mai Lee; Howard, Robert

    2016-01-01

    NASA employs Design Reference Missions (DRMs) to define potential architectures for future human exploration missions to deep space, the Moon, and Mars. While DRMs to these destinations share some components, each mission has different needs. This paper focuses on the human and automation/robotic integration needs for these future missions, evaluating them with respect to NASA research gaps in the area of space human factors engineering. The outcomes of our assessment is a human and automation/robotic (HAR) task list for each of the four DRMs that we reviewed (i.e., Deep Space Sortie, Lunar Visit/Habitation, Deep Space Habitation, and Planetary), a list of common critical HAR factors that drive HAR design.

  6. The Use of Nuclear Propulsion, Power and 'In-Situ' Resources for Routine Lunar Space Transportation and Commercial Base Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation illustrates possible future strategies for solar system exploration supported by Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Propulsion. Topics addressed in the presentation include: lunar mining, Liquid Oxygen (LOX) augmented NTR (LANTR), 'Shuttle-Derived' Heavy Lift Vehicle (SDHLV) options for future human Lunar missions, and lunar-produced oxygen (LUNOX).

  7. SLS-Derived Lab: Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2014-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in work and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Robotic missions have successfully demonstrated transportation, entry, landing and surface operations but for human missions there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) are the unanswered questions concerning long-duration exploration beyond low-earth-orbit. The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside earth's protective geo-magnetic field they cannot be resolved on the earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at the relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 meter and 4.3 meter diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit Habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems, solutions are not obvious, and require integrated, iterative, and multi-disciplinary development. A lunar

  8. Evaluation of lunar regolith geopolymer binder as a radioactive shielding material for space exploration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Carlos; Broussard, Kaylin; Gongre, Matthew; Simicevic, Neven; Mejia, Johanna; Tham, Jessica; Allouche, Erez; Davis, Gabrielle

    2015-09-01

    Future manned missions to the moon will require the ability to build structures using the moon's natural resources. The geopolymer binder described in this paper (Lunamer) is a construction material that consists of up to 98% lunar regolith, drastically reducing the amount of material that must be carried from Earth in the event of lunar construction. This material could be used to fabricate structural panels and interlocking blocks that have radiation shielding and thermal insulation characteristics. These panels and blocks could be used to construct living quarters and storage facilities on the lunar surface, or as shielding panels to be installed on crafts launched from the moon surface to deep-space destinations. Lunamer specimens were manufactured in the laboratory and compressive strength results of up to 16 MPa when cast with conventional methods and 37 MPa when cast using uniaxial pressing were obtained. Simulation results have shown that the mechanical and chemical properties of Lunamer allow for adequate radiation shielding for a crew inside the lunar living quarters without additional requirements.

  9. Remote control and navigation tests for application to long-range lunar surface exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, W. C.; White, P. R.; Vinz, F. L.

    1971-01-01

    Tests conducted with a vehicle system built at the Marshall Space Flight Center to investigate some of the unknown factors associated with remote controlled teleoperated vehicles on the lunar surface are described. Test data are summarized and conclusions are drawn from these data which indicate that futher testing will be required.

  10. Social Foundations of Human Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Dator, James A

    2012-01-01

    Social Foundations of Human Space Exploration presents a uniquely human perspective on the quest to explore space and to understand the universe through the lens of the arts, humanities, and social sciences. It considers early stories about the universe in various cultures; recent space fiction; the origins and cultural rationale for the space age; experiences of humans in space and their emerging interactions with robots and artificial intelligence; how humans should treat environments and alien life; and the alternative futures of space exploration and settlement.

  11. Improved Lunar and Martian Regolith Simulant Production Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's new exploration initiative created immediate need for materials science and technology research to enable safe human travel and work on future lunar or...

  12. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  13. Cytotoxic Effects of Re-Activated Lunar Dust Stimulant on Human Lung Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust has been of significant concern due to various problems observed on the Apollo missions. Reports from astronauts have shown that the dust may have caused eye and nasal irritation as well as possible hay fever like symptoms. As NASA hopes to go to the Moon within the next few years, we hope to understand the possible toxic effects the dust might have. In these studies, we are looking at the effect of "re-activated" lunar dust stimulant on human bronchial cells. A simple grinding analog as a method of simulating micrometeorite crushing on the moon is used to "activate" the dust stimulant, i.e. capable of producing hydroxyl radicals. These radicals could then interact with human cells and may lead to a loss in membrane integrity and cell death. (Castranova, 1994) Cells are exposed to the dust for 6 and 24 hour intervals to assess cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity is measured by looking at the production of inflammatory cytokines. Cells are exposed to ground and unground stimulant and compared to cytokine production from cells exposed to quartz which have a known toxicity. Here we look at the cytotoxicity of the lunar dust stimulant relative to quartz by measuring the production of inflammatory cytokines.

  14. 模拟月壤研究及其在月球探测工程中的应用%Lunar soil simulant and its engineering application in lunar exploration program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾阳; 申振荣; 党兆龙; 王琼; 陶灼

    2014-01-01

    Based on the research results of lunar soil (chemical composition, physical and mechanical characteristics, etc.), the development of the lunar soil simulant both at home and abroad is comprehensively reviewed in this paper. The lunar soil simulant used in the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program is specially addressed. It is used for the calibration of scientific instruments, the full-scale landing-impact test, the mobility test of the lunar rover, the sampling test of the lunar probe, and others. The raw materials, the production process in factories and the preparation process in a test yard are described. The research proposals are made for the mission requirements of the manned lunar landing program in the future.%在月壤化学成分、物理力学性质等方面研究结果的基础上,文章对国内外模拟月壤的研究进展进行了综合分析,重点阐述了服务于我国嫦娥探月工程的科学探测仪器标定、着陆器组合缓冲性能试验、巡视器移动试验、月表采样试验等研制任务的模拟月壤研究成果及应用情况,包括模拟月壤原料选取及制备工艺,模拟月壤试验场的铺设方法等,结合载人登月等任务需求提出了未来研究工作的发展建议。

  15. Conceptual Study on Crew-Robot Coordinated Exploration on Lunar Surface%月面人机联合探测概念研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志贤; 果琳丽; 戚发轫

    2014-01-01

    Crew-Robot coordinated exploration is not only the basis of manned lunar exploration , but also the precondition for designing mission modes and spacecraft systems of manned lunar explora -tion.Considering the background of manned lunar exploration and lunar base missions in the future , the requirements of Crew-Robot coordinated exploration were discussed and typical activities in dif-ferent lunar exploration phases were summarized .The scheme design of this novel research field was presented , the system composition for different missions were designed and the key technologies were analyzed .They could serve as a reference for the future manned lunar exploration mission .%月面人机联合探测是载人月球探测任务的基础,是制定载人登月任务模式、设计登月飞行器系统方案的前提。以未来载人登月和月球基地任务为背景,对月面人机联合探测的需求进行了分析,梳理了不同阶段月面典型作业活动,并以此为基础,对月面人机联合探测系统方案进行了论证,设计了面向不同任务的系统组成,分析了月面人机联合探测关键技术,为后续开展有人参与的月球探测任务提供参考。

  16. Applied Nanotechnology for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowell, Leonard L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanotechnology for human space exploration is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA's Strategic Vision; 2) Exploration Architecture; 3) Future Exploration Mission Requirements Cannot be met with Conventional Materials; 4) Nanomaterials: Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes; 5) Applied Nanotechnology at JSC: Fundamentals to Applications; 6) Technology Readiness Levels (TRL); 7) Growth, Modeling, Diagnostics and Production; 8) Characterization: Purity, Dispersion and Consistency; 9) Processing; 10) Nanoelectronics: Enabling Technologies; 11) Applications for Human Space Exploration; 12) Exploration Life Support: Atmosphere Revitalization System; 13) Advanced and Exploration Life Support: Regenerable CO2 Removal; 14) Exploration Life Support: Water Recovery; 15) Advanced Life Support: Water Disinfection/Recovery; 16) Power and Energy: Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells; 17) Nanomaterials for EMI Shielding; 18) Active Radiation Dosimeter; 19) Advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) Repair; 20) Thermal Radiation and Impact Protection (TRIPS); 21) Nanotechnology: Astronaut Health Management; 22) JSC Nanomaterials Group Collaborations.

  17. Summary of the results from the lunar orbiter laser altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Barker, Michael K.; Oberst, Juergen; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Mao, Dandan; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Jha, Kopal; Rowlands, David D.; Goossens, Sander; Baker, David; Bauer, Sven; Gläser, Philipp; Lemelin, Myriam; Rosenburg, Margaret; Sori, Michael M.; Whitten, Jennifer; Mcclanahan, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  18. Application Of Recent (2008-2013) Lunar Probe Instrumentation To The Exploration For Precambrian Protolife In Volcanic Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jack

    2009-12-01

    Selected recent and future lunar probes have instruments suitable for the exploration of Precambrian protolife. Fumaroles contain the ingredients for protolife. With available energy including flow charging and charge separation, amino acids and related compounds could evolve into ATP. Fischer-Tropsch reactions in hydrothermal clay could create lipid micelles as reaction chambers. Fumarolic polyphosphates and tungsten catalysts could contribute to precambrian protolife evolution . The floors of Alphonsus and Lavoisier M exhibit dark mounds which could be buried fumaroles at fracture intersections. Chang'e-1 could define regolith thickness at these mounds with microwave radiometry. The MoonLITE penetrometer could likely identify hydrothermal products in these mounds using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Regarding polar craters which may host volcanic ices, intermittent illumination of selected crater floors warmed to 220 K may create a transient tenuous atmosphere of COS, H2S, CO2, CO, HCl and CH4 which could be analyzed by near infrared spectrometry (NIMS) of SELENE or Chandrayaan-1. Prior to the 2009 impact of a polar crater by LCROSS (of the LRO mission), the Soviet LEND mission may detect water using epithermal neutrons. The impact plume proposed in the LCROSS mission at a polar crater could be analyzed by NIMS for fumarolic fluids similar the the NIMS analyses of Callisto and Ganymede moons of Jupiter. The possible identification of cyanogen in the LCROSS impact plume would support the CN2 spectrogram at Aristarchus by Kozyrev in 1969. In the Aristarchus region, lunar dawn during periods of maximum orbital flexing may accentuate release of Rn, Ar and protolife gases. These gases could possibly by identified by the Chang'e-1 gamma/x ray spectrometer, NIMS and the neutral mass spectrometer of the LADEE mission. Microwave spectrometry and radar on the LEO mission as well as LROC (LRO mission) could also be directed at verified lunar transient sites.

  19. Human space exploration the next fifty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Turnock, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration.

  20. Lunar Flashlight: Mapping Lunar Surface Volatiles Using a Cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Banazadeh, P.; Baker, J. D.; Staehle, R. L.; Paine, C..; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Water ice and other volatiles may be located in the Moon's polar regions, with sufficient quantities for in situ extraction and utilization by future human and robotic missions. Evidence from orbiting spacecraft and the LCROSS impactor suggests the presence of surface and/or nearsurface volatiles, including water ice. These deposits are of interest to human exploration to understand their potential for use by astronauts. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water/H species and other volatiles associated with lunar cold traps is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits could also reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth- Moon system, so are of scientific interest. The scientific exploration of the lunar polar regions was one of the key recommendations of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. In order to address NASA's SKGs, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program selected three lowcost 6-U CubeSat missions for launch as secondary payloads on the first test flight (EM1) of the Space Launch System (SLS) scheduled for 2017. The Lunar Flashlight mission was selected as one of these missions, specifically to address the SKG associated with lunar volatiles. Development of the Lunar Flashlight CubeSat concept leverages JPL's Interplanetary Nano- Spacecraft Pathfinder In Relevant Environment (INSPIRE) mission, MSFC's intimate knowledge of the Space Launch System and EM-1 mission, small business development of solar sail and electric propulsion hardware, and JPL experience with specialized miniature sensors. The goal of Lunar Flashlight is to determine the presence or absence of exposed water ice and its physical state, and map its concentration at the kilometer scale within the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. After being ejected in cislunar space by SLS, Lunar Flashlight deploys its solar panels and solar sail and maneuvers

  1. Astrobiology and the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Garvin, James B.; Drake, B. G.; Beaty, David

    2010-01-01

    In March 2007, the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) chartered the Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG), co-chaired by J. B. Garvin and J. S. Levine and consisting of about 30 Mars scientists from the U.S. and Europe. HEM-SAG was one of a half dozen teams charted by NASA to consider the human exploration of Mars. Other teams included: Mars Entry, Descent and Landing, Human Health and Performance, Flight and Surface Systems, and Heliospheric/Astrophysics. The results of these Mars teams and the development of an architecture for the human exploration of Mars were summarized in two recent publications: Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, NASA Special Publication-2009-566 (B. G. Drake, Editor), 100 pages, July 2009 and Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, NASA Special Publication-2009-566 Addendum (B. G. Drake, Editor), 406 pages, July 2009. This presentation summarizes the HEM-SAG conclusions on astrobiology and the search for life on Mars by humans.

  2. Microwave Extraction of Lunar Water for Rocket Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Donahue, Benjamin; Kaukler, William

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50% of the lunar surface is oxygen, present as oxides in silicate rocks and soil. Methods for reduction of these oxides could liberate the oxygen. Remote sensing has provided evidence of significant quantities of hydrogen possibly indicating hundreds of millions of metric tons, MT, of water at the lunar poles. If the presence of lunar water is verified, water is likely to be the first in situ resource exploited for human exploration and for LOX-H2 rocket fuel. In-Situ lunar resources offer unique advantages for space operations. Each unit of product produced on the lunar surface represents 6 units that need not to be launched into LEO. Previous studies have indicated the economic advantage of LOX for space tugs from LEO to GEO. Use of lunar derived LOX in a reusable lunar lander would greatly reduce the LEO mass required for a given payload to the moon. And Lunar LOX transported to L2 has unique advantages for a Mars mission. Several methods exist for extraction of oxygen from the soil. But, extraction of lunar water has several significant advantages. Microwave heating of lunar permafrost has additional important advantages for water extraction. Microwaves penetrate and heat from within not just at the surface and excavation is not required. Proof of concept experiments using a moon in a bottle concept have demonstrated that microwave processing of cryogenic lunar permafrost simulant in a vacuum rapidly and efficiently extracts water by sublimation. A prototype lunar water extraction rover was built and tested for heating of simulant. Microwave power was very efficiently delivered into a simulated lunar soil. Microwave dielectric properties (complex electric permittivity and magnetic permeability) of lunar regolith simulant, JSC-1A, were measured down to cryogenic temperatures and above room temperature. The microwave penetration has been correlated with the measured dielectric properties. Since the microwave penetration depth is a function of temperature

  3. The Primal Exploration of Space launch and Manned Lunar-landing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zeming; Jiang Yi; Fu Debin

    2006-01-01

    The lunar-landing is the continuity of manned spaceflight engineering. Comparing with the manned spacecraft engineering, it requires more reliability , larger scale, and more funds. On the basis of China's achievements and the experiences of foreign countries, the paper brings forward the idea that using the existing transportation technology to send the launch vehicles and cosmonauts to the near-earth orbit in batches,assembling the components together on the space-launch platform, and then launching them to the moon to fulfill our dream of manned landing on the moon. The paper also discusses the space launch platform and the launching ways.

  4. Lunar resources: possibilities for utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Introduction: With the current advanced orbiters sent to the Moon by the United States, Europe, Japan, China, and India, we are opening a new era of lunar studies. The International Academy of Aeronautics (IAA) has begun a study on opportunities and challenges of developing and using space mineral resources (SRM). This study will be the first international interdisciplinary assessment of the technology, economics and legal aspects of using space mineral resources for the benefit of humanity. The IAA has approved a broad outline of areas that the study will cover including type, location and extent of space mineral resources on the Moon, asteroids and others. It will be studied current technical state of the art in the identification, recovery and use of SRM in space and on the Earth that identifies all required technical processes and systems, and that makes recommendations for specific technology developments that should be addressed near term at the system and subsystem level to make possible prospecting, mineral extraction, beneficiation, transport, delivery and use of SMR. Particular attention will be dedicated to study the transportation and retrieval options available for SRM. Lunar polar volatile: ROSCOSMOS places a high priority on studying lunar polar volatiles, and has outlined a few goals related to the study of such volatiles. Over the course of several years, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter scanned the Moon’s South Pole using its Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND - IKI Russia) to measure how much hydrogen is trapped within the lunar soil. Areas exhibiting suppressed neutron activity indicate where hydrogen atoms are concentrated most, strongly suggesting the presence of water molecules. Current survey of the Moon’s polar regions integrated geospatial data for topography, temperature, and hydrogen abundances from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and Lunar Prospector to identify several landing sites near both the North and

  5. Understanding the Lunar System Architecture Design Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Reeves, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the flexible path strategy and the desire of the international community, the lunar surface remains a destination for future human exploration. This paper explores options within the lunar system architecture design space, identifying performance requirements placed on the propulsive system that performs Earth departure within that architecture based on existing and/or near-term capabilities. The lander crew module and ascent stage propellant mass fraction are primary drivers for feasibility in multiple lander configurations. As the aggregation location moves further out of the lunar gravity well, the lunar lander is required to perform larger burns, increasing the sensitivity to these two factors. Adding an orbit transfer stage to a two-stage lunar lander and using a large storable stage for braking with a one-stage lunar lander enable higher aggregation locations than Low Lunar Orbit. Finally, while using larger vehicles enables a larger feasible design space, there are still feasible scenarios that use three launches of smaller vehicles.

  6. Mission Opportunities for Human Exploration of Nearby Planetary Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    We characterize mission profiles for human expeditions to near-Earth asteroids, Venus, and Mars. Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are the closest destinations beyond cis-lunar space and present a compelling target with capabilities already under development by NASA and its partners. We present manned NEO mission options that would require between 90 days and one year. We next consider planetary flyby missions for Venus along the lines of plans that were first drafted during the Apollo program for human exploration of Venus. We also characterize a Mars flyby, and a double-flyby variant that would include close passes to both Venus and Mars. Finally, we consider orbital missions to Venus and Mars with capability for rendezvous with Phobos or Deimos. This would be a truly new class of mission for astronauts and could serve as a precursor to a human landing on Mars. We present launch opportunities, transit time, requisite {\\Delta}V, and approximate radiation environment parameters for each mission class. We find that {\\...

  7. A Class of Selenocentric Retrograde Orbits With Innovative Applications to Human Lunar Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Daniel R.; Lester, Daniel F.; Thronson, Harley A.; Barbee, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Selenocentric distant retrograde orbits with radii from approx. 12,500 km to approx. 25,000 km are assessed for stability and for suitability as crewed command and control infrastructure locations in support of telerobotic lunar surface operations and interplanetary human transport. Such orbits enable consistent transits to and from Earth at virtually any time if they are coplanar with the Moon's geocentric orbit. They possess multiple attributes and applications distinct from NASA's proposed destination orbit for a redirected asteroid about 70,000 km from the Moon.

  8. Human Space Exploration and Human Space Flight: Latency and the Cognitive Scale of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Dan; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    The role of telerobotics in space exploration as placing human cognition on other worlds is limited almost entirely by the speed of light, and the consequent communications latency that results from large distances. This latency is the time delay between the human brain at one end, and the telerobotic effector and sensor at the other end. While telerobotics and virtual presence is a technology that is rapidly becoming more sophisticated, with strong commercial interest on the Earth, this time delay, along with the neurological timescale of a human being, quantitatively defines the cognitive horizon for any locale in space. That is, how distant can an operator be from a robot and not be significantly impacted by latency? We explore that cognitive timescale of the universe, and consider the implications for telerobotics, human space flight, and participation by larger numbers of people in space exploration. We conclude that, with advanced telepresence, sophisticated robots could be operated with high cognition throughout a lunar hemisphere by astronauts within a station at an Earth-Moon Ll or L2 venue. Likewise, complex telerobotic servicing of satellites in geosynchronous orbit can be carried out from suitable terrestrial stations.

  9. NASA'S Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: An international approach toward bringing science and human exploration together for mutual benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and explora-tion, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and community development. The institute is a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdis-ciplinary, research-focused collaborations. Its relative-ly large domestic teams work together along with in-ternational partners in both traditional and virtual set-tings to bring disparate approaches together for mutual benefit. This talk will describe the research efforts of the nine domestic teams that constitute the U.S. com-plement of the Institute and how it is engaging the in-ternational science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships. The Institute is centered on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars. It focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science cen-tered around all airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study reported here will represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Mar-tian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environ-ments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. The technical focus ranges from investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies. SSERVI enhances the widening knowledgebase of planetary research by acting as a bridge between several differ-ent groups and bringing together researchers from the scientific and exploration communities, multiple disci-plines across the full range of planetary sciences, and domestic and

  10. 月球地形地貌对各种月面探测技术的影响%Effect of Topography and Geomorphology on Lunar Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏广飞; 王世杰; 李雄耀

    2013-01-01

    As an important content in lunar science, topography and geomorphology have obvious effect on lunar orbital exploration and manned or unmanned rover surveying, such as optical imaging, thermal infrared remote sensing, passive microwave remote sensing, and all kind of lunar surface activities. Unlike the Earth, there is no air, water or life on the Moon. So, most of the lunar explorations must face straightly to or acted directly on the lunar surface. Moreover there are significant difference of mineral composition and content in special landform. This paper introduces the detection technology principle of optical imaging, thermal infrared remote sensing, passive microwave remote sensing and so on. Effect of lunar surface topography and geomorphology on all kinds of detections mainly comes from the difference of rock type and composition at different regions, the change of lunar topography, the difference of lunar thermal environment and prospective security threats from rough lunar surface. The feedback mechanism and detail characters of lunar topography might entail further study.%月球的地形地貌一直以来都是备受关注的重要内容,它对光学成像、热红外、微波辐射等遥感探测以及月面探测活动具有重要的影响.与地球不同,月球上没有大气、海洋,也未发现生命迹象,对月球的探测直接面对着高低起伏变化的月球表面.而且,特殊的地形地貌,在矿物组成、含量方面也表现出显著的差异.本文介绍了光学成像、热红外遥感以及微波辐射遥感等月面探测技术的原理,通过分析其主要影响机理,认为月球地形地貌对各种月面探测技术的影响主要体现在不同地貌的岩石类型和组成差异影响、地形起伏和热环境差异影响以及崎岖月面安全威胁三个方面,这也是今后研究的重要发展方向.

  11. Sensitivity of Lunar Resource Economic Model to Lunar Ice Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Brad; Diaz, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Lunar Prospector mission data indicates sufficient concentration of hydrogen (presumed to be in the form of water ice) to form the basis for lunar in-situ mining activities to provide a source of propellant for near-Earth and solar system transport missions. A model being developed by JPL, Colorado School of Mines, and CSP, Inc. generates the necessary conditions under which a commercial enterprise could earn a sufficient rate of return to develop and operate a LEO propellant service for government and commercial customers. A combination of Lunar-derived propellants, L-1 staging, and orbital fuel depots could make commercial LEO/GEO development, inter-planetary missions and the human exploration and development of space more energy, cost, and mass efficient.

  12. Mission control team structure and operational lessons learned from the 2009 and 2010 NASA desert RATS simulated lunar exploration field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ernest R.; Badillo, Victor; Coan, David; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; Rosenbaum, Megan; Smart, Tifanie; Stone, Jeffry; Stueber, Ronald; Welsh, Daren; Guirgis, Peggy; Looper, Chris; McDaniel, Randall

    2013-10-01

    The NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is an annual field test of advanced concepts, prototype hardware, and potential modes of operation to be used on human planetary surface space exploration missions. For the 2009 and 2010 NASA Desert RATS field tests, various engineering concepts and operational exercises were incorporated into mission timelines with the focus of the majority of daily operations being on simulated lunar geological field operations and executed in a manner similar to current Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The field test for 2009 involved a two week lunar exploration simulation utilizing a two-man rover. The 2010 Desert RATS field test took this two week simulation further by incorporating a second two-man rover working in tandem with the 2009 rover, as well as including docked operations with a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM). Personnel for the field test included the crew, a mission management team, engineering teams, a science team, and the mission operations team. The mission operations team served as the core of the Desert RATS mission control team and included certified NASA Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) flight controllers, former flight controllers, and astronaut personnel. The backgrounds of the flight controllers were in the areas of Extravehicular Activity (EVA), onboard mechanical systems and maintenance, robotics, timeline planning (OpsPlan), and spacecraft communicator (Capcom). With the simulated EVA operations, mechanized operations (the rover), and expectations of replanning, these flight control disciplines were especially well suited for the execution of the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS field tests. The inclusion of an operations team has provided the added benefit of giving NASA mission operations flight control personnel the opportunity to begin examining operational mission control techniques, team compositions, and mission scenarios. This also gave the mission operations

  13. Humanity in God's Image: An Interdisciplinary Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia

    How can we, in our times, understand the biblical concept that human beings have been created in the image of an invisible God? This is a perennial but increasingly pressing question that lies at the heart of theological anthropology. Humanity in God's Image: An Interdisciplinary Exploration....... Claudia Welz offers an interdisciplinary exploration of theological and ethical 'visions' of the invisible. By analysing poetry and art, Welz exemplifies human self-understanding in the interface between the visual and the linguistic. The content of the imago Dei cannot be defined apart from the image...

  14. Robotic Follow-Up for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Deans, Matthew C.; Adams, Byron; Allan, Mark; Altobelli, Martha; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Cohen, Tamar; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Garber, Joshua; Palmer, Elizabeth; Heggy, Essam; Jurgens, Frank; Kennedy, Tim; Kobayashi, Linda; Lee, Pascal; Lee, Susan Y.; Lees, David; Lundy, Mike; Park, Eric; Pedersen, Liam; Smith, Trey; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Wheeler, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    We are studying how "robotic follow-up" can improve future planetary exploration. Robotic follow-up, which we define as augmenting human field work with subsequent robot activity, is a field exploration technique designed to increase human productivity and science return. To better understand the benefits, requirements, limitations and risks associated with this technique, we are conducting analog field tests with human and robot teams at the Haughton Crater impact structure on Devon Island, Canada. In this paper, we discuss the motivation for robotic follow-up, describe the scientific context and system design for our work, and present results and lessons learned from field testing.

  15. Robust Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon Using NTR LANTR Propulsion and Lunar-Derived Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Ryan, Stephen W.; Burke, Laura M.; McCurdy, David R.; Fittje, James E.; Joyner, Claude R.

    2017-01-01

    NASAs current focus is on the Journey to Mars sometime around the mid-to-late 2030s. However, it is also supporting the development of commercial cargo and crew delivery to the ISS (e.g., SpaceX, Orbital Sciences, SNC, Boeing) where inflatable habitation technology (e.g., Bigelow Aerospaces BEAM) is currently being tested Significant private sector interest in commercial lunar activities has also been expressed by Bigelow Aerospace, Golden Spike Company, Shackleton Energy Company (SEC), and most recently by United Launch Alliance (ULA) in their Cislunar-1000 plan Lunar-derived propellant (LDP) production specifically LLO2 and LLH2 offers significant mission leverage and are central themes of both SECs and ULAs plans for commercial lunar development. An efficient, proven propulsion technology with reuse capability like NTP offers the potential for affordable access through space essential to realizing commercial lunar missions.This presentation examines the performance potential of an evolutionary lunar transportation system (LTS) architecture using NTR initially, then transitioning to LANTR as LDPs(e.g., LLO2 from regolith or volcanic glass, LLO2 and LLH2 from lunar polar ice deposits) become available in lunar orbit (LO) Mission applications range from cargo delivery, to crewed landing, to routine commuter flights to and from transportation system nodes located in both lunar equatorial and lunar polar orbits. This presentation examines the performance potential of an evolutionary lunar transportation system (LTS) architecture using NTR initially, then transitioning to LANTR as LDPs (e.g., LLO2 from regolith or volcanic glass, LLO2 and LLH2 from lunar polar ice deposits) become available in lunar orbit (LO) Mission applications range from cargo delivery, to crewed landing, to routine commuter flights to and from transportation system nodes located in both lunar equatorial and lunar polar orbits.

  16. Human-Robot Planetary Exploration Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    The EVA Robotic Assistant (ERA) project at NASA Johnson Space Center studies human-robot interaction and robotic assistance for future human planetary exploration. Over the past four years, the ERA project has been performing field tests with one or more four-wheeled robotic platforms and one or more space-suited humans. These tests have provided experience in how robots can assist humans, how robots and humans can communicate in remote environments, and what combination of humans and robots works best for different scenarios. The most efficient way to understand what tasks human explorers will actually perform, and how robots can best assist them, is to have human explorers and scientists go and explore in an outdoor, planetary-relevant environment, with robots to demonstrate what they are capable of, and roboticists to observe the results. It can be difficult to have a human expert itemize all the needed tasks required for exploration while sitting in a lab: humans do not always remember all the details, and experts in one arena may not even recognize that the lower level tasks they take for granted may be essential for a roboticist to know about. Field tests thus create conditions that more accurately reveal missing components and invalid assumptions, as well as allow tests and comparisons of new approaches and demonstrations of working systems. We have performed field tests in our local rock yard, in several locations in the Arizona desert, and in the Utah desert. We have tested multiple exploration scenarios, such as geological traverses, cable or solar panel deployments, and science instrument deployments. The configuration of our robot can be changed, based on what equipment is needed for a given scenario, and the sensor mast can even be placed on one of two robot bases, each with different motion capabilities. The software architecture of our robot is also designed to be as modular as possible, to allow for hardware and configuration changes. Two focus

  17. The Dust Management Project: Characterizing Lunar Environments and Dust, Developing Regolith Mitigation Technology and Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    A return to the Moon to extend human presence, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth?s economic sphere, will require investment in developing new technologies and capabilities to achieve affordable and sustainable human exploration. From the operational experience gained and lessons learned during the Apollo missions, conducting long-term operations in the lunar environment will be a particular challenge, given the difficulties presented by the unique physical properties and other characteristics of lunar regolith, including dust. The Apollo missions and other lunar explorations have identified significant lunar dust-related problems that will challenge future mission success. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it?s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems and human explorers. The Dust Management Project (DMP) is tasked with the evaluation of lunar dust effects, assessment of the resulting risks, and development of mitigation and management strategies and technologies related to Exploration Systems architectures. To this end, the DMP supports the overall goal of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) of addressing the relevant high priority technology needs of multiple elements within the Constellation Program (CxP) and sister ETDP projects. Project scope, plans, and accomplishments will be presented.

  18. SLS-Derived Lab- Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand M.; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in the works and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Transportation, entry, landing, and surface operations have been successfully demonstrated for robotic missions. However, for human missions, there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), are the unanswered questions concerning long duration exploration Beyond low Earth Orbit (BEO). The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside of earth's protective geo-magnetic field, they cannot be resolved on Earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at a relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 m and 4.3 m diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems. The solutions to these problems are not obvious; they require integrated, iterative

  19. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  20. Lunar radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Spence, Harlan; Wilson, Jody

    One of the goals of the CRaTER investigation is to characterize the radiation environment near the Moon in order to enable exploration. The state-of-the-art understanding developed thus far during the LRO mission is documented in a special issue of the Spaceweather Journal entitled “Space Weather: Building the observational foundation to deduce biological effects of space radiation” (Schwadron et al., 2013a). This recently published CRaTER work probes deeper into the physics of the radiation environment at the Moon. It motivates and provides the scientific basis for new investigations in the next phase of the LRO mission. The effects of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) range from chemical modification of the regolith, the generation of a radiation albedo that is increasingly illuminating chemical properties of the regolith, causing charging of the regolith and hazards to human explorers and robotic missions. Low-lunar orbit provides a platform for measuring SEP anisotropy over timescales of 2 hours both parallel and perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, and so far we have observed more than 18 SEP events with time-variable anisotropies during the LRO mission. Albedo proton maps of the Moon from CRaTER indicate that the flux of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. The yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1% higher than the yield from the highlands, and there are localized peaks with even higher contrast (that may be co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer). The Moon’s radiation environment both charges and affects the chemistry in the Moon’s polar regions, particularly in PSRs. This makes these regions a prime target for new CRaTER observations, since CRaTER measures GCRs and SEPs that penetrate the regolith down to 10s of cm. Thus, we review emerging discoveries from LRO/CRaTER’s remarkable exploration of

  1. Science Hybrid Orbiter and Lunar Relay (SCHOLR) Architecture and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trase, Kathryn K.; Barch, Rachel A.; Chaney, Ryan E.; Coulter, Rachel A.; Gao, Hui; Huynh, David P.; Iaconis, Nicholas A.; MacMillan, Todd S.; Pitner, Gregory M.; Schwab, Devin T.

    2011-01-01

    Considered both a stepping-stone to deep space and a key to unlocking the mysteries of planetary formation, the Moon offers a unique opportunity for scientific study. Robotic precursor missions are being developed to improve technology and enable new approaches to exploration. Robots, lunar landers, and satellites play significant roles in advancing science and technologies, offering close range and in-situ observations. Science and exploration data gathered from these nodes and a lunar science satellite is intended to support future human expeditions and facilitate future utilization of lunar resources. To attain a global view of lunar science, the nodes will be distributed over the lunar surface, including locations on the far side of the Moon. Given that nodes on the lunar far side do not have direct line-of-sight for Earth communications, the planned presence of such nodes creates the need for a lunar communications relay satellite. Since the communications relay capability would only be required for a small portion of the satellite s orbit, it may be possible to include communication relay components on a science spacecraft. Furthermore, an integrated satellite has the potential to reduce lunar surface mission costs. A SCience Hybrid Orbiter and Lunar Relay (SCHOLR) is proposed to accomplish scientific goals while also supporting the communications needs of landers on the far side of the Moon. User needs and design drivers for the system were derived from the anticipated needs of future robotic and lander missions. Based on these drivers and user requirements, accommodations for communications payload aboard a science spacecraft were developed. A team of interns identified and compared possible SCHOLR architectures. The final SCHOLR architecture was analyzed in terms of orbiter lifetime, lunar surface coverage, size, mass, power, and communications data rates. This paper presents the driving requirements, operational concept, and architecture views for SCHOLR

  2. Modeling Respiratory Toxicity of Authentic Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    The lunar expeditions of the Apollo operations from the 60 s and early 70 s have generated awareness about lunar dust exposures and their implication towards future lunar explorations. Critical analyses on the reports from the Apollo crew members suggest that lunar dust is a mild respiratory and ocular irritant. Currently, NASA s space toxicology group is functioning with the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to investigate and examine toxic effects to the respiratory system of rats in order to establish permissible exposure levels (PELs) for human exposure to lunar dust. In collaboration with the space toxicology group, LADTAG and NIOSH the goal of the present research is to analyze dose-response curves from rat exposures seven and twenty-eight days after intrapharyngeal instillations, and model the response using BenchMark Dose Software (BMDS) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Via this analysis, the relative toxicities of three types of Apollo 14 lunar dust samples and two control dust samples, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and quartz will be determined. This will be executed for several toxicity endpoints such as cell counts and biochemical markers in bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the rats.

  3. Moonshine: Diurnally varying hydration through natural distillation on the Moon, detected by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, T. A.; Chin, G.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; McClanahan, T. P.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Su, J. J.

    2015-07-01

    The Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), on the polar-orbiting Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft, has detected suppression in the Moon's naturally-occurring epithermal neutron leakage flux that is consistent with the presence of diurnally varying quantities of hydrogen in the regolith near the equator. Peak hydrogen concentration (neutron flux suppression) is on the dayside of the dawn terminator and diminishes through the dawn-to-noon sector. The minimum concentration of hydrogen is in the late afternoon and dusk sector. The chemical form of hydrogen is not determinable from these measurements, but other remote sensing methods and anticipated elemental availability suggest water molecules or hydroxyl ions. Signal-to-noise ratio at maximum contrast is 5.6σ in each of two detector systems. Volatiles are deduced to collect in or on the cold nightside surface and distill out of the regolith after dawn as rotation exposes the surface to sunlight. Liberated volatiles migrate away from the warm subsolar region toward the nearby cold nightside surface beyond the terminator, resulting in maximum concentration at the dawn terminator. The peak concentration within the upper ∼1 m of regolith is estimated to be 0.0125 ± 0.0022 weight-percent water-equivalent hydrogen (wt% WEH) at dawn, yielding an accumulation of 190 ± 30 ml recoverable water per square meter of regolith at each dawn. Volatile transport over the lunar surface in opposition to the Moon's rotation exposes molecules to solar ultraviolet radiation. The short lifetime against photolysis and permanent loss of hydrogen from the Moon requires a resupply rate that greatly exceeds anticipated delivery of hydrogen by solar wind implantation or by meteoroid impacts, suggesting that the surface inventory must be continually resupplied by release from a deep volatile inventory in the Moon. The natural distillation of water from the regolith by sunlight and its capture on the cold night surface may

  4. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  5. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  6. Graphical Visualization of Human Exploration Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Erica M.; Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Simon, Matthew A.; Williams, Phillip A.; Barsoum, Christopher; Cowan, Tyler; Larman, Kevin T.; Hay, Jason; Burg, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NASA's pioneering space strategy will require advanced capabilities to expand the boundaries of human exploration on the Journey to Mars (J2M). The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) architecture serves as a framework to identify critical capabilities that need to be developed and tested in order to enable a range of human exploration destinations and missions. Agency-wide System Maturation Teams (SMT) are responsible for the maturation of these critical exploration capabilities and help formulate, guide and resolve performance gaps associated with the EMC-identified capabilities. Systems Capability Organization Reporting Engine boards (SCOREboards) were developed to integrate the SMT data sets into cohesive human exploration capability stories that can be used to promote dialog and communicate NASA's exploration investments. Each SCOREboard provides a graphical visualization of SMT capability development needs that enable exploration missions, and presents a comprehensive overview of data that outlines a roadmap of system maturation needs critical for the J2M. SCOREboards are generated by a computer program that extracts data from a main repository, sorts the data based on a tiered data reduction structure, and then plots the data according to specified user inputs. The ability to sort and plot varying data categories provides the flexibility to present specific SCOREboard capability roadmaps based on customer requests. This paper presents the development of the SCOREboard computer program and shows multiple complementary, yet different datasets through a unified format designed to facilitate comparison between datasets. Example SCOREboard capability roadmaps are presented followed by a discussion of how the roadmaps are used to: 1) communicate capability developments and readiness of systems for future missions, and 2) influence the definition of NASA's human exploration investment portfolio through capability-driven processes. The paper concludes with a description

  7. Effect of Thermal Environment on Lunar Exploration: A Review%月球探测中月面热环境影响的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于雯; 李雄耀; 王世杰

    2012-01-01

    在月球探测中,多光谱、热红外、被动微波辐射等探测技术被广泛应用于月表物质组分和物理特性的探测,也积累了大量探测数据。月球太阳辐照、月球表面温度、地球反照和内部热流等月面热环境的变化,改变了月表物质反射率、热发射率以及其他电磁学等基本性质,制约了探测数据的准确解译;同时,大幅度的太阳辐射强度和月面温度变化也直接威胁月面探测中巡视探测器和宇航员的安全。但是,目前月球表面热环境对探测活动的影响认识还比较欠缺,月面热环境的时空变化规律认识还不够充分,在实验研究不足的情况下对各种探测方式的影响缺乏系统的理解。结合月球探测的发展,进一步立足实验手段和探测结果,通过开展不同地形条件下月面太阳辐射和物理温度的时间变化和空间分布规律研究、探测数据与月面热环境参数时空匹配问题研究、建设具备类似物质组成和月面热环境特征的实验场地以及开展系统的热环境影响模拟实验研究,全面认识月面热环境参数的时空变化规律,探讨月面热环境对不同探测方式的影响将是月面热环境研究的重要内容。%In lunar exploration, muhispectral remote sensing, thermal infrared remote sensing, and passive microwave remote sensing are widely used to investigate the mineral component and physical property of lunar rego- lith. And lots of data is obtained by these techniques. Lunar solar irradiance, lunar surface-temperature, earths- hine and internal heat flow may influence the reflectivity, thermal emissivity as well as other electromagnetic proper- ties of the lunar regolith, which restricts the accurate interpretation of explored data. And the variations of solar it- radiance and lunar surface-temperature also threaten the safety of lunar rover and the health of astronauts in future lunar surface activity

  8. Preliminary Concept Study on Integrated Lunar Exploration of Astronaut and Humanoid Robot%航天员与类人机器人月面联合探测概念初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海阳; 张波; 黄海兵

    2014-01-01

    The development of technologies involved in human-robot joint exploration including the humanoid robot , tele-operation , man-machine shared control , and ground verification were intro-duced .Then the concept of integrated lunar exploration of astronaut and humanoid robot was studied and the system structure , mode analysis and mission programming of the lunar exploration were pro-posed .In the end , the key technologies such as humanoid robot technology , human-machine syner-gy technology , tele-operation and control technology and ground simulation verification technology were summarized .%介绍了人机联合探测中涉及的类人机器人、遥操作、人机共享控制、地面验证等技术发展现状;对月面类人机器人与航天员联合探测的概念进行了初步研究,规划出了月面人机联合探测系统结构、探测模式和探测任务等;并对类人机器人技术、人机协同操作技术、遥操作控制技术和地面仿真验证技术等关键技术进行了总结。

  9. Connecting Robots and Humans in Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Louis

    2000-07-01

    Mars exploration is a very special public interest. It's preeminence in the national space policy calling for "sustained robotic presence on the surface," international space policy (witness the now aborted international plan for sample return, and also aborted Russian "national Mars program") and the media attention to Mars exploration are two manifestations of that interest. Among a large segment of the public there is an implicit (mis)understanding that we are sending humans to Mars. Even among those who know that isn't already a national or international policy, many think it is the next human exploration goal. At the same time the resources for Mars exploration in the U.S. and other country's space programs are a very small part of space budgets. Very little is being applied to direct preparations for human flight. This was true before the 1999 mission losses in the United States, and it is more true today. The author's thesis is that the public interest and the space program response to Mars exploration are inconsistent. This inconsistency probably results from an explicit space policy contradiction: Mars exploration is popular because of the implicit pull of Mars as the target for human exploration, but no synergy is permitted between the human and robotic programs to carry out the program. It is not permitted because of narrow, political thinking. In this paper we try to lay out the case for overcoming that thinking, even while not committing to any premature political initiative. This paper sets out a rationale for Mars exploration and uses it to then define recommended elements of the programs: missions, science objectives, technology. That consideration is broader than the immediate issue of recovering from the failures of Mars Climate OrbIter, Mars Polar Lander and the Deep Space 2 microprobes in late 1999. But we cannot ignore those failures. They are causing a slow down Mars exploration. Not only were the three missions lost, with their planned

  10. Cryogenics and the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current plans within NASA involve extending the human exploration of space from low earth orbit into the solar system, with the first human exploration of Mars presently planned in 2011. Integral to all hum Mars mission phases is cryogenic fluid management. Cryogenic fluids will be required both as propellant and for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Without safe and efficient cryogen storage human Mars missions will not be possible. Effective control and handling of cryogenic fluids is the key to affordable Mars missions, and advancing active thermal control technology is synergistic with all of NASA's exploration initiatives and with existing and future instrument cooling programs, including MTPE and Origins. Present mission scenarios for human exploration require cryogenic propellant storage for up to 1700 days and for up to 60 metric tons. These requirements represent increases of an order of magnitude over previous storage masses and lifetimes. The key cryogenic terminology areas to be addressed in human Mars missions are long-term propellant storage, cryogenic refrigeration, cryogenic liquefaction, and zero gravity fluid management. Long-term storage for the thermal control of cryogenic propellants is best accomplished with a mix of passive and active technologies. Passive technologies such as advanced multilayer insulation (MLI) concepts will be combined with the development of active coolers (cryogenic refrigerators). Candidates for long-life active cooling applications include Reverse Turbo-Brayton, Stirling, and Pulse-Tube coolers. The integration of passive and active technologies will form a hybrid system optimized to minimize the launch mass while preserving the cryogenic propellants. Since cryogenic propellants are the largest mass that Mars missions must launch from earth, even a modest reduction in the percentage of propellant carried results in a significant weight saving. This paper will present a brief overview of cryogenic fluid management

  11. Human Exploration Science Office (KX) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Tracy A.

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office supports human spaceflight, conducts research, and develops technology in the areas of space orbital debris, hypervelocity impact technology, image science and analysis, remote sensing, imagery integration, and human and robotic exploration science. NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) resides in the Human Exploration Science Office. ODPO provides leadership in orbital debris research and the development of national and international space policy on orbital debris. The office is recognized internationally for its measurement and modeling of the debris environment. It takes the lead in developing technical consensus across U.S. agencies and other space agencies on debris mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. The Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) project evaluates the risks to spacecraft posed by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD). HVIT facilities at JSC and White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) use light gas guns, diagnostic tools, and high-speed imagery to quantify the response of spacecraft materials to MMOD impacts. Impact tests, with debris environment data provided by ODPO, are used by HVIT to predict risks to NASA and commercial spacecraft. HVIT directly serves NASA crew safety with MMOD risk assessments for each crewed mission and research into advanced shielding design for future missions. The Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) supports the International Space Station (ISS) and commercial spaceflight through the design of imagery acquisition schemes (ground- and vehicle-based) and imagery analyses for vehicle performance assessments and mission anomaly resolution. ISAG assists the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in the development of camera systems for the Orion spacecraft that will serve as data sources for flight test objectives that lead to crewed missions. The multi-center Imagery Integration Team is led by the Human Exploration Science Office and provides

  12. What can we learn from the toughest animals of the Earth? Water bears (tardigrades) as multicellular model organisms in order to perform scientific preparations for lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Rizzo, Angela Maria; Altiero, Tiziana; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2012-12-01

    Space missions of long duration required a series of preliminary experiments on living organisms, validated by a substantial phase of ground simulation experiments, in the field of micro- and inter-mediate gravities, radiobiology, and, for planetary explorations, related to risks deriving from regolith and dust exposure. In this review, we present the tardigrades, whose characteristics that recommend them as an emerging model for space biology. They are microscopic animals but are characterized by a complex structural organization similar to that of larger animals; they can be cultured in lab in small facilities, having small size; they are able to produce clonal lineages by means of parthenogenesis; they can completely suspend their metabolism when entering in dormant states (anhydrobiosis induced by dehydration and cryobiosis induced by freezing); desiccated anhydrobiotic tardigrades are able to withstand chemical and physical extremes, but a large tolerance is showed also by active animals; they can be stored in dry state for many years without loss of viability. Tardigrades have already been exposed to space stressors on Low Earth Orbit several times. The relevance of ground-based and space studies on tardigrades rests on the presumption that results could suggest strategies to protect organisms, also humans, when exposed to the space and lunar environments.

  13. Year 3 LUNAR Annual Report to the NASA Lunar Science Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research (LUNAR) is a team of researchers and students at leading universities, NASA centers, and federal research laboratories undertaking investigations aimed at using the Moon as a platform for space science. LUNAR research includes Lunar Interior Physics & Gravitation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Low Frequency Cosmology and Astrophysics (LFCA), Planetary Science and the Lunar Ionosphere, Radio Heliophysics, and Exploration Science. The LUNAR team is exploring technologies that are likely to have a dual purpose, serving both exploration and science. There is a certain degree of commonality in much of LUNAR's research. Specifically, the technology development for a lunar radio telescope involves elements from LFCA, Heliophysics, Exploration Science, and Planetary Science; similarly the drilling technology developed for LLR applies broadly to both Exploration and Lunar Science.

  14. Evaluation of IEEE 802.11g and 802.16 for Lunar Surface Exploration Missions Using MACHETE Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui, John; Jennings, Esther; Vyas, Hemali

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the suitability of terrestrial wireless networking technologies for lunar surface exploration missions. Specifically, the scenario we considered consisted of two teams of collaborating astronauts, one base station and one rover, where the base station and the rover have the capability of acting as relays. We focused on the evaluation of IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.16 protocols, simulating homogeneous 802.11g network, homogeneous 802.16 network, and heterogeneous network using both 802.11g and 802.16. A mix of traffic flows were simulated, including telemetry, caution and warning, voice, command and file transfer. Each traffic type had its own distribution profile, data volume, and priority. We analyzed the loss and delay trade-offs of these wireless protocols with various link-layer options. We observed that 802.16 network managed the channel better than an 802.11g network due to controlled infrastructure and centralized scheduling. However, due to the centralized scheduling, 802.16 also had a longer delay. The heterogeneous (hybrid) of 802.11/802.16 achieved a better balance of performance in terms of data loss and delay compared to using 802.11 or 802.16 alone.

  15. Effect of Changing Weight and Mass on Human Performance in a Lunar Prototype Spacesuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steve; Lee, Lesley; Gemhardt, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Physical effort, compensation, and controllability in a spacesuit can be affected by suit mass and gravity level. Because of limitations in certain reduced-gravity simulators and the finite selection of lunar prototype suits, it is difficult to ascertain how a change in suit mass affects suited human performance. One method of simulating a change in mass is to vary the total gravity-adjusted weight (TGAW), which is defined as the sum of the suit mass and subject mass, multiplied by the gravity level. PURPOSE: To determine if two methods of changing TGAW during parabolic flight - changing suit mass or gravity level - affect subjective ratings of suited human performance equally.METHODS: A custom weight support structure was connected to a lunar prototype spacesuit, allowing the addition of mass to the suit while maintaining a near-constant center of mass. In the varied-weight (VW) series, suit mass (120 kg) was constant at 0.1-g, 0.17-g, and 0.3-g, yielding TGAWs of 196, 333, and 588 N, assuming an 80-kg subject. In the varied-mass (VM) series, gravity level was constant at 0.17-g and suit mass was 89, 120, and 181 kg, yielding TGAWs of 282, 333, and 435 N. The 333 N condition was common to both series. Direct comparison was not possible due to limited adjustability of suit mass and limited options for parabolic profiles. Five astronaut subjects (80.311.8 kg) completed 4 different tasks (walk, bag pickup, lunge, and shoveling) in all conditions and provided ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and the gravity compensation and performance scale (GCPS) upon completion of each task. RESULTS: Where VM and VW series overlapped, RPE and GCPS trend lines were similar. Mean RPE and GCPS at 333 N was 8.4 and 3.7. Mean RPE and GCPS for VM was 7.8 and 3.8 for 282 N and 9.8 and 4.1 for 435 N. Extrapolation of the VM trend to match VW TGAWs 196 and 588 N predicts an RPE of 6.5 and 12.3 and GCPS of 4.4 and 5.9, whereas the measured VW values for RPE were 8.1 and 9.8 and GCPS were

  16. Review of SELENE Lunar Mission and Suggestion for China's Lunar and Planetary Exploration%月亮女神探月计划及对我国月球与深空探测的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永春; 邹永廖; 付晓辉

    2011-01-01

    The SELenological and ENgineering Explorer “Kaguya” (SELENE), Japan's first large lunar probe, was launched by the H-IIA rocket on September 14, 2007.The Kaguya was maneuvered to be crashed onto the lunar surface on June 11, 2009.SELENE has made great success, such as using three orbiters to measure the detailed gravity field of the farside of the Moon, innovating design of scientific instruments, collecting scientific data, and making public outreach of the mission.This paper summarizes an overview of SELENE mission.Some opinions are proposed: 1) China's Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) should reflect Chinese characteristics and get innovating achievements; 2) Scientific goal is one of the most important themes in lunar and planetary missions; 3) We should encourage developing and using of new materials and techniques in future lunar and planetary missions; 4) We should tolerate failures, face and overcome difficulties in future mission; 5) Besides the Moon, China should pay much attention to carry out other planetary mission; 6) We should force up public outreach of lunar and planetary mission, and inspire the spirits of exploration and innovation of the youth.We wish that our detailed review of SELENE mission, thoughts and opinions will benefit mission design and implement, and long term programming of China's future lunar and planetary missions.%日本月亮女神月球探测器在顺利完成各项探测任务后,于北京时间2009年6月11日受控落月.该探月计划在一箭三星组网探测月球背面重力场、有效载荷创新设计、科研活动组织、成果产出、公众参与和科普宣传等方面有许多亮点,对我国探月工程有重要参考价值.文章综合回顾、分析和评述了月亮女神探月计划的任务、探测器、轨道与飞控、重要事件等,提出了对月球和深空探测的6点思考:1)我国探月工程需要体现中国特色,获得创新性科学成果;2)月球与深空探测中科

  17. Human-Robot Site Survey and Sampling for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Edwards, Laurence; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Kunz, Clayton; Lee, Susan Y.; Park, Eric; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Ackner, Nir

    2006-01-01

    NASA is planning to send humans and robots back to the Moon before 2020. In order for extended missions to be productive, high quality maps of lunar terrain and resources are required. Although orbital images can provide much information, many features (local topography, resources, etc) will have to be characterized directly on the surface. To address this need, we are developing a system to perform site survey and sampling. The system includes multiple robots and humans operating in a variety of team configurations, coordinated via peer-to-peer human-robot interaction. In this paper, we present our system design and describe planned field tests.

  18. A Multi-Decadal Sample Return Campaign Will Advance Lunar and Solar System Science and Exploration by 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    There have been 11 missions to the Moon this century, 10 of which have been orbital, from 5 different space agencies. China became the third country to successfully soft-land on the Moon in 2013, and the second to successfully remotely operate a rover on the lunar surface. We now have significant global datasets that, coupled with the 1990s Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, show that the sample collection is not representative of the lithologies present on the Moon. The M3 data from the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission have identified lithologies that are not present/under-represented in the sample collection. LRO datasets show that volcanism could be as young as 100 Ma and that significant felsic complexes exist within the lunar crust. A multi-decadal sample return campaign is the next logical step in advancing our understanding of lunar origin and evolution and Solar System processes.

  19. Effects of Lunar Dust Simulant (JSC-1A-vf) on WI-38 Human Embryonic Lung Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Stephen; Hammond, Dianne; Jeevarajan, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    In order to develop appropriate countermeasures for NASA's return mission to the moon, the potential toxicity of lunar dust needs to be examined. Due to its abrasiveness, reactivity, composition and small size, lunar dust may pose a serious health risk to astronauts who inhale it. This project focuses on the toxicity of lunar dust simulant (JSC-1A-vf) using WI-38 human embryonic lung cells. Past results show that the simulant has toxic effects on small animals using intratracheal instillation. Earlier studies in this lab suggest that the dust remaining in media after low speed centrifugation is toxic. In order to better assess its toxicity, the simulant has been diluted in media, filtered with a 5 micron filter before combining it with media. This filtered dust is compared with dust centrifuged in media. Whole dust toxicity is also tested. Toxicity is estimated using a 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) toxicity test which measures the activity of reducing enzymes in the mitochondria of viable cells. Preliminary results suggest that simulant which is diluted in media at different concentrations is slightly toxic. Interestingly, the cells appear to sweep up and collect the simulant. Whether this contributes to its toxicity is unclear. This project provides possible toxicity testing protocols for lunar dust and contributes to the knowledge of nanosize particle toxicity.

  20. Lunar Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  1. Cislunar Near Rectilinear Halo Orbit for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Ryan; Martinez, Roland; Condon, Gerald; Williams, Jacob; Lee, David; Davis, Diane; Barton, Gregg; Bhatt, Sagar; Jang, Jiann-Woei; Clark, Fred; Hinkel, Heather

    2016-01-01

    In order to conduct sustained human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), spacecraft systems are designed to operate in a series of missions of increasing complexity. Regardless of the destination, Moon, Mars, asteroids or beyond, there is a substantial set of common objectives that must be met. Many orbit characterization studies have endeavored to evaluate the potential locations in cislunar space that are favorable for meeting common human exploration objectives in a stepwise approach. Multiple studies, by both NASA and other international space agencies, have indicated that Earth-­-moon libration point orbits are attractive candidates for staging operations in the proving ground and beyond. In particular, the Near Rectilinear Orbit (NRO) has been demonstrated to meet multi-­-mission and multi-­-destination architectural constraints. However, a human mission to a selected NRO presents a variety of new challenges for mission planning. While a growing number of robotic missions have completed successful operations to various specific libration point orbits, human missions have never been conducted to orbits of this class. Human missions have unique challenges that differ significantly from robotic missions, including a lower tolerance for mission risk and additional operational constraints that are associated only with human spacecraft. In addition, neither robotic nor human missions have been operated in the NRO regime specifically, and NROs exhibit dynamical characteristics that can differ significantly as compared to other halo orbits. Finally, multi-­-body orbits, such as libration point orbits, are identified to exist in a simplified orbit model known as the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem (CRTBP) and must then be re-­-solved in the full ephemeris model. As a result, the behavior of multi-­-body orbits cannot be effectively characterized within the classical two-­-body orbit dynamics framework more familiar to the human spaceflight community

  2. Exploring Human Capital and Hybrid Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyver, Kim; Lomberg, Carina; Steffens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    An individual’s human capital affects their choice to become and entrepreneur and also their likely success as a nascent entrepreneur. This paper explores how hybrid employment—entrepreneur opportunities impact these dynamics. Drawing on insights from decision theory, we argue that an individual...... longitudinal dataset of individuals facing career transition as nascent entrepreneurs, job seekers or both, we find that while hybrid nascent entrepreneurship (trying to start a business while being employed) has a positive influence on outcomes, hybrid search (concurrent job search while trying to start...

  3. Addressing Human System Risks to Future Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, W. H.; Francisco, D. R.; Davis, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is contemplating future human exploration missions to destinations beyond low Earth orbit, including the Moon, deep-space asteroids, and Mars. While we have learned much about protecting crew health and performance during orbital space flight over the past half-century, the challenges of these future missions far exceed those within our current experience base. To ensure success in these missions, we have developed a Human System Risk Board (HSRB) to identify, quantify, and develop mitigation plans for the extraordinary risks associated with each potential mission scenario. The HSRB comprises research, technology, and operations experts in medicine, physiology, psychology, human factors, radiation, toxicology, microbiology, pharmacology, and food sciences. Methods: Owing to the wide range of potential mission characteristics, we first identified the hazards to human health and performance common to all exploration missions: altered gravity, isolation/confinement, increased radiation, distance from Earth, and hostile/closed environment. Each hazard leads to a set of risks to crew health and/or performance. For example the radiation hazard leads to risks of acute radiation syndrome, central nervous system dysfunction, soft tissue degeneration, and carcinogenesis. Some of these risks (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) could affect crew health or performance during the mission, while others (e.g., carcinogenesis) would more likely affect the crewmember well after the mission ends. We next defined a set of design reference missions (DRM) that would span the range of exploration missions currently under consideration. In addition to standard (6-month) and long-duration (1-year) missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), these DRM include deep space sortie missions of 1 month duration, lunar orbital and landing missions of 1 year duration, deep space journey and asteroid landing missions of 1 year duration, and Mars orbital and landing missions of 3 years duration. We then

  4. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Stage (NTPS): A Key Space Asset for Human Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Burke, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) has frequently been discussed as a key space asset that can bridge the gap between a sustained human presence on the Moon and the eventual human exploration of Mars. Recently, a human mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) has also been included as a "deep space precursor" to an orbital mission of Mars before a landing is attempted. In his "post-Apollo" Integrated Space Program Plan (1970 to 1990), Wernher von Braun, proposed a reusable Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Stage (NTPS) to deliver cargo and crew to the Moon to establish a lunar base initially before sending human missions to Mars. The NTR was selected because it was a proven technology capable of generating both high thrust and high specific impulse (Isp approx. 900 s)-twice that of today's best chemical rockets. During the Rover and NERVA programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and successfully ground tested. These tests demonstrated the (1) thrust levels; (2) high fuel temperatures; (3) sustained operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability needed for an affordable in-space transportation system. In NASA's Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the "Copernicus" crewed NTR Mars transfer vehicle used three 25 klbf "Pewee" engines-the smallest and highest performing engine tested in the Rover program. Smaller lunar transfer vehicles-consisting of a NTPS with three approx. 16.7 klbf "SNRE-class" engines, an in-line propellant tank, plus the payload-can be delivered to LEO using a 70 t to LEO upgraded SLS, and can support reusable cargo delivery and crewed lunar landing missions. The NTPS can play an important role in returning humans to the Moon to stay by providing an affordable in-space transportation system that can allow initial lunar outposts to evolve into settlements capable of supporting commercial activities. Over the next decade collaborative efforts between NASA and private industry could open up new exploration and commercial

  5. Strategies For Human Exploration Leading To Human Colonization of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Everett, Harmon

    2009-01-01

    Enabling the commercial development of space is key to the future colonization of space and key to a viable space exploration program. Without commercial development following in the footsteps of exploration it is difficult to justify and maintain public interest in the efforts. NASA's exploration program has suffered from the lack of a good commercial economic strategy for decades. Only small advances in commercial space have moved forward, and only up to Earth orbit with the commercial satellite industry. A way to move beyond this phase is to begin the establishment of human commercial activities in space in partnership with the human exploration program. In 2007 and 2008, the authors researched scenarios to make space exploration and commercial space development more feasible as part of their graduate work in the Space Architecture Program at the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture at the University of Houston, Houston, Texas. Through this research it became apparent that the problems facing future colonization are much larger than the technology being developed or the international missions that our space agencies are pursuing. These issues are addressed in this paper with recommendations for space exploration, commercial development, and space policy that are needed to form a strategic plan for human expansion into space. In conclusion, the authors found that the current direction in space as carried out by our space agencies around the world is definitely needed, but is inadequate and incapable of resolving all of the issues that inhibit commercial space development. A bolder vision with strategic planning designed to grow infrastructures and set up a legal framework for commercial markets will go a long way toward enabling the future colonization of space.

  6. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  7. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Planetary Base Issues for Mercury and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In references 1 through 9, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. Figures 1 depicts program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system which included lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon. Figures 2 and 3 present the results for human Mercury missions, including LEO departure masses and round trip Mercury lander masses. Using in-situ resources, the missions become less burdensome to the LEO launch infrastructure. In one example using Mercury derived hydrogen, the LEO mass of the human Mercury missions can be reduced from 2,800 MT to 1,140 MT (Ref. 15). Additional analyses of staging options for human Mercury missions will be presented. Figures 4 shows an option for thermal control for long term in-space cryogenic storage and Figure 5 depicts the potentially deleterious elements emanating from Mercury that must be addressed, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented will be presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Human bases at Mercury may have to be resupplied from resources from regolith and water resources in permanently shadowed craters at its northern pole.

  8. Use of a Lunar Outpost for Developing Space Settlement Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2008-01-01

    The type of polar lunar outpost being considered in the NASA Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) can effectively support the development of technologies that will not only significantly enhance lunar exploration, but also enable long term crewed space missions, including space settlement. The critical technologies are: artificial gravity, radiation protection, Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). These enhance lunar exploration by extending the time an astronaut can remain on the moon and reducing the need for supplies from Earth, and they seem required for space settlement. A polar lunar outpost provides a location to perform the research and testing required to develop these technologies, as well as to determine if there are viable countermeasures that can reduce the need for Earth-surface-equivalent gravity and radiation protection on long human space missions. The types of spinning space vehicles or stations envisioned to provide artificial gravity can be implemented and tested on the lunar surface, where they can create any level of effective gravity above the 1/6 Earth gravity that naturally exists on the lunar surface. Likewise, varying degrees of radiation protection can provide a natural radiation environment on the lunar surface less than or equal to 1/2 that of open space at 1 AU. Lunar ISRU has the potential of providing most of the material needed for radiation protection, the centrifuge that provides artificial gravity; and the atmosphere, water and soil for a CELSS. Lunar ISRU both saves the cost of transporting these materials from Earth and helps define the requirements for ISRU on other planetary bodies. Biosphere II provides a reference point for estimating what is required for an initial habitat with a CELSS. Previous studies provide initial estimates of what would be required to provide such a lunar habitat with the gravity and radiation environment of the Earth s surface. While much preparatory

  9. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Overview: The Instrument Suite and Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Gordon; Brylow, Scott; Foote, Marc; Garvin, James; Kasper, Justin; Keller, John; Litvak, Maxim; Mitrofanov, Igor; Paige, David; Raney, Keith; Robinson, Mark; Sanin, Anton; Smith, David; Spence, Harlan; Spudis, Paul; Stern, S. Alan; Zuber, Maria

    2007-04-01

    NASA’s Lunar Precursor Robotic Program (LPRP), formulated in response to the President’s Vision for Space Exploration, will execute a series of robotic missions that will pave the way for eventual permanent human presence on the Moon. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is first in this series of LPRP missions, and plans to launch in October of 2008 for at least one year of operation. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources, Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration, Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits, Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only by starlight. Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRa

  10. Understanding Predictability and Exploration in Human Mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Cuttone, Andrea; González, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Predictive models for human mobility have important applications in many fields such as traffic control, ubiquitous computing and contextual advertisement. The predictive performance of models in literature varies quite broadly, from as high as 93% to as low as under 40%. In this work we investigate which factors influence the accuracy of next-place prediction, using a high-precision location dataset of more than 400 users for periods between 3 months and one year. We show that it is easier to achieve high accuracy when predicting the time-bin location than when predicting the next place. Moreover we demonstrate how the temporal and spatial resolution of the data can have strong influence on the accuracy of prediction. Finally we uncover that the exploration of new locations is an important factor in human mobility, and we measure that on average 20-25% of transitions are to new places, and approx. 70% of locations are visited only once. We discuss how these mechanisms are important factors limiting our abili...

  11. Impacts of Launch Vehicle Fairing Size on Human Exploration Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon; Collins, Tim; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Polsgrove, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Human missions to Mars, particularly to the Martian surface, are grand endeavors that place extensive demands on ground infrastructure, launch capabilities, and mission systems. The interplay of capabilities and limitations among these areas can have significant impacts on the costs and ability to conduct Mars missions and campaigns. From a mission and campaign perspective, decisions that affect element designs, including those based on launch vehicle and ground considerations, can create effects that ripple through all phases of the mission and have significant impact on the overall campaign. These effects result in impacts to element designs and performance, launch and surface manifesting, and mission operations. In current Evolvable Mars Campaign concepts, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) is the primary launch vehicle for delivering crew and payloads to cis-lunar space. SLS is currently developing an 8.4m diameter cargo fairing, with a planned upgrade to a 10m diameter fairing in the future. Fairing diameter is a driving factor that impacts many aspects of system design, vehicle performance, and operational concepts. It creates a ripple effect that influences all aspects of a Mars mission, including: element designs, grounds operations, launch vehicle design, payload packaging on the lander, launch vehicle adapter design to meet structural launch requirements, control and thermal protection during entry and descent at Mars, landing stability, and surface operations. Analyses have been performed in each of these areas to assess and, where possible, quantify the impacts of fairing diameter selection on all aspects of a Mars mission. Several potential impacts of launch fairing diameter selection are identified in each of these areas, along with changes to system designs that result. Solutions for addressing these impacts generally result in increased systems mass and propellant needs, which can further exacerbate packaging and flight challenges. This paper

  12. CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R.; Kennedy, K.; Howard, R.; Whitmore, M.; Martin, C.; Garate, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In preparation for human exploration to Mars, there is a need to define the development and test program that will validate deep space operations and systems. In that context, a Proving Grounds CisLunar habitat spacecraft is being defined as the next step towards this goal. This spacecraft will operate differently from the ISS or other spacecraft in human history. The performance envelope of this spacecraft (mass, volume, power, specifications, etc.) is being defined by the Future Capabilities Study Team. This team has recognized the need for a human-centered approach for the internal architecture of this spacecraft and has commissioned a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture Study Team to develop a NASA reference configuration, providing the Agency with a "smart buyer" approach for future acquisition. THE CISLUNAR HABITAT INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE STUDY: Overall, the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture study will address the most significant questions and risks in the current CisLunar architecture, habitation, and operations concept development. This effort is achieved through definition of design criteria, evaluation criteria and process, design of the CisLunar Habitat Phase-1 internal architecture, and the development and fabrication of internal architecture concepts combined with rigorous and methodical Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) evaluations and testing of the conceptual innovations in a controlled test environment. The vision of the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Study is to design, build, and test a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture that will be used for habitation (e.g. habitability and human factors) evaluations. The evaluations will mature CisLunar habitat evaluation tools, guidelines, and standards, and will interface with other projects such as the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program integrated Power, Avionics, Software (iPAS), and Logistics for integrated human-in-the-loop testing. The mission of the CisLunar

  13. Robots and Humans in Planetary Exploration: Working Together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Today's approach to human-robotic cooperation in planetary exploration focuses on using robotic probes as precursors to human exploration. A large portion of current NASA planetary surface exploration is focussed on Mars, and robotic probes are seen as precursors to human exploration in: Learning about operation and mobility on Mars; Learning about the environment of Mars; Mapping the planet and selecting landing sites for human mission; Demonstration of critical technology; Manufacture fuel before human presence, and emplace elements of human-support infrastructure

  14. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved

  15. Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

    1992-01-01

    The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

  16. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong During Lunar Rock Collection Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong uses a geologist's hammer in selecting rock specimens during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas. Armstrong, alongside astronaut Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, practiced gathering rock specimens using special lunar geological tools in preparation for the first Lunar landing. Mission was accomplished in July of the same year. Aboard the Marshall Space Fight center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Armstrong, commander; Aldrin, Lunar Module pilot; and a third astronaut Michael Collins, Command Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin, while Collins remained in lunar orbit. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The lunar surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours.

  17. Acute Meteorite Dust Exposure and Pulmonary Inflammation - Implications for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2017-01-01

    The previous manned missions to the Moon represent milestones of human ingenuity, perseverance, and intellectual curiosity. However, one of the major ongoing concerns is the array of hazards associated with lunar surface dust. Not only did the dust cause mechanical and structural integrity issues with the suits, the dust 'storm' generated upon reentrance into the crew cabin caused "lunar hay fever" and "almost blindness [1-3]" (Figure 1). It was further reported that the allergic response to the dust worsened with each exposure [4]. The lack of gravity exacerbated the exposure, requiring the astronauts to wear their helmet within the module in order to avoid breathing the irritating particles [1]. Due to the prevalence of these high exposures, the Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern [5]. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts. Going forward, hazard assessments of celestial dusts will be determined through sample return efforts prior to astronaut deployment. Studies on the lunar highland regolith indicate that the dust is not only respirable but also reactive [2, 6-9], and previous studies concluded that it is moderately toxic; generating a greater response than titanium oxide but a lower response than quartz [6]. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the surface of the dust has been implicated. However, there is actually little data related to physicochemical characteristics of particulates and pulmonary toxicity, especially as it relates to celestial dust exposure. As a direct response to this deficit, the present study evaluates the role of a particulate's innate geochemical features (e.g., bulk chemistry, internal composition, morphology, size, and reactivity) in generating adverse toxicological responses in vitro and in vivo. This highly interdisciplinary

  18. Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses To Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - Implications For Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2017-01-01

    The previous manned missions to the Moon represent milestones of human ingenuity, perseverance, and intellectual curiosity. However, one of the major ongoing concerns is the array of hazards associated with lunar surface dust. Not only did the dust cause mechanical and structural integrity issues with the suits, the dust 'storm' generated upon reentrance into the crew cabin caused "lunar hay fever" and "almost blindness" (Figure 1). It was further reported that the allergic response to the dust worsened with each exposure. The lack of gravity exacerbated the exposure, requiring the astronauts to wear their helmet within the module in order to avoid breathing the irritating particles. Due to the prevalence of these high exposures, the Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts. Going forward, hazard assessments of celestial dusts will be determined through sample return efforts prior to astronaut deployment. Studies on the lunar highland regolith indicate that the dust is not only respirable but also reactive, and previous studies concluded that it is moderately toxic; generating a greater response than titanium oxide but a lower response than quartz. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the surface of the dust has been implicated. However, there is actually little data related to physicochemical characteristics of particulates and pulmonary toxicity, especially as it relates to celestial dust exposure. As a direct response to this deficit, the present study evaluates the role of a particulate's innate geochemical features (e.g., bulk chemistry, internal composition, morphology, size, and reactivity) in generating adverse toxicological responses in vitro and in vivo. This highly interdisciplinary study evaluates the relative

  19. The Lunar X-ray Observatory (LXO)/Magnetosheath Explorer in X-Rays (MagEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M.R.; Abbey, T.F.; Bannister, N.P.; Carter, J.A.; Choi, M.; Cravens, T.; Evans, M.; Fraser, G.W.; Hills, H.K.; Kuntz, K.; Lyons, J.; Omidi, N.; Porter, F.S.; Read, A.M.; Robertson, I.; Rozmarynowski, P.; Sembay, S.; Sibeck, D.G.; Snowden, S.L.; Stubbs, T.; Travnicek, P.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray observations of solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission, a nuisance to astrophysicists, will dramatically enhance our ability to determine the structure and variability of the Earth's magnetosheath. Such observations could be made from the lunar surface or an Earth-orbiting spacecraft and will resolve key controversies about magnetopause physics as well as better characterize SWCX emission with the aim of avoiding or removing it from astrophysical observations.

  20. INTEGRITY -- Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, D.; Tri, T.; Daues, K.

    It is proposed to develop a high -fidelity ground facil ity to carry out long-duration human exploration mission simulations. These would not be merely computer simulations - they would in fact comprise a series of actual missions that just happen to stay on earth. These missions would include all elements of an actual mission, using actual technologies that would be used for the real mission. These missions would also include such elements as extravehicular activities, robotic systems, telepresence and teleoperation, surface drilling technology--all using a simulated planetary landscape. A sequence of missions would be defined that get progressively longer and more robust, perhaps a series of five or six missions over a span of 10 to 15 years ranging in durat ion from 180 days up to 1000 days. This high-fidelity ground facility would operate hand-in-hand with a host of other terrestrial analog sites such as the Antarctic, Haughton Crater, and the Arizona desert. Of course, all of these analog mission simulations will be conducted here on earth in 1-g, and NASA will still need the Shuttle and ISS to carry out all the microgravity and hypogravity science experiments and technology validations. The proposed missions would have sufficient definition such that definitive requirements could be derived from them to serve as direction for all the program elements of the mission. Additionally, specific milestones would be established for the "launch" date of each mission so that R&D programs would have both good requirements and solid milestones from which to build their implementation plans. Mission aspects that could not be directly incorporated into the ground facility would be simulated via software. New management techniques would be developed for evaluation in this ground test facility program. These new techniques would have embedded metrics which would allow them to be continuously evaluated and adjusted so that by the time the sequence of missions is completed

  1. Lunar astrobiology: a review and suggested laboratory equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronstal, Aaron; Cockell, Charles S; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Bittner, Tobias; Clacey, Erik; Clark, Olathe; Ingold, Olivier; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Wathiong, Steven

    2007-10-01

    In October of 2005, the European Space Agency (ESA) and Alcatel Alenia Spazio released a "call to academia for innovative concepts and technologies for lunar exploration." In recent years, interest in lunar exploration has increased in numerous space programs around the globe, and the purpose of our study, in response to the ESA call, was to draw on the expertise of researchers and university students to examine science questions and technologies that could support human astrobiology activity on the Moon. In this mini review, we discuss astrobiology science questions of importance for a human presence on the surface of the Moon and we provide a summary of key instrumentation requirements to support a lunar astrobiology laboratory.

  2. Benefits of Microalgae for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrecchia, Angelique; Bebout, Brad M.; Murphy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Algae have long been known to offer a number of benefits to support long duration human space exploration. Algae contain proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, and lipids needed for human consumption, and can be produced using waste streams, while consuming carbon dioxide, and producing oxygen. In comparison with higher plants, algae have higher growth rates, fewer environmental requirements, produce far less "waste" tissue, and are resistant to digestion and/or biodegradation. As an additional benefit, algae produce many components (fatty acids, H2, etc.) which are useful as biofuels. On Earth, micro-algae survive in many harsh environments including low humidity, extremes in temperature, pH, and as well as high salinity and solar radiation. Algae have been shown to survive inmicro-gravity, and can adapt to high and low light intensity while retaining their ability to perform nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis. Studies have demonstrated that some algae are resistant to the space radiation environment, including solar ultraviolet radiation. It remains to be experimentally demonstrated, however, that an algal-based system could fulfil the requirements for a space-based Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) under comparable spaceflight power, mass, and environmental constraints. Two specific challenges facing algae cultivation in space are that (i) conventional growth platforms require large masses of water, which in turn require a large amount of propulsion fuel, and (ii) most nutrient delivery mechanisms (predominantly bubbling) are dependent on gravity. To address these challenges, we have constructed a low water biofilm based bioreactor whose operation is enabled by capillary forces. Preliminary characterization of this Surface Adhering BioReactor (SABR) suggests that it can serve as a platform for cultivating algae in space which requires about 10 times less mass than conventional reactors without sacrificing growth rate. Further work is necessary to

  3. Toward an International Lunar Polar Volatiles Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Suzuki, N. H.; Carpenter, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen international space agencies are participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), working together to advance a long-range human space exploration strategy. The ISECG is a voluntary, non-binding international coordination mechanism through which individual agencies may exchange information regarding interests, objectives, and plans in space exploration with the goal of strengthening both individual exploration programs as well as the collective effort. The ISECG has developed a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that reflects the coordinated international dialog and continued preparation for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - beginning with the Moon and cis-lunar space, and continuing to near-Earth asteroids, and Mars. Space agencies agree that human space exploration will be most successful as an international endeavor, given the challenges of these missions. The roadmap demonstrates how initial capabilities can enable a variety of missions in the lunar vicinity, responding to individual and common goals and objectives, while contributing to building partnerships required for sustainable human space exploration that delivers value to the public.

  4. Why Will China Explore the Moon?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Landing on the Moon has been a dream of the Chinese nation for thousands of years. In addition to providing an important support to the longterm, sustainable development of human society, lunar exploration will be a novel opportunity for China's scientific and technological progress and economic prosperity, explains OUYANG Ziyuan, chief scientist of China's Lunar Exploration Program and an astro- and geo-chemist from the CAS Institute of Geochemistry, in an recent article in the Guangming Daily.

  5. There's gold in them thar' lunar highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David G.

    Lunar exploration intended to find lunar resources and future sources of terrestrial electrical power is addressed focusing on economic possibilities, lunar minerals, and estimated production of precious metals. It is noted that mining the moon for He-3 will be a massive undertaking, and if it ever takes place, every effort will have to be made to extract valuable materials from the very large throughput of lunar soil.

  6. Lunar horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  7. Space Resource Utilization: Near-Term Missions and Long-Term Plans for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of all major space faring nations is to explore space: from the Earth with telescopes, with robotic probes and space telescopes, and with humans. For the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this pursuit is captured in three important strategic goals: 1. Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for life elsewhere, 2. Extend and sustain human activities across the solar system (especially the surface of Mars), and 3. Create innovative new space technologies for exploration, science, and economic future. While specific missions and destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative for NASA that it foster the development and implementation of new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) is the development of technologies and systems to identify, extract, and use resources in space instead of bringing everything from Earth. To reduce the development and implementation costs for space resource utilization, often called In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), it is imperative to work with terrestrial mining companies to spin-in/spin-off technologies and capabilities, and space mining companies to expand our economy beyond Earth orbit. In the last two years, NASA has focused on developing and implementing a sustainable human space exploration program with the ultimate goal of exploring the surface of Mars with humans. The plan involves developing technology and capability building blocks critical for sustained exploration starting with the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion crew spacecraft and utilizing the International Space Station as a springboard into the solar system. The evolvable plan develops and expands human exploration in phases starting with missions that are reliant on Earth, to performing ever more challenging and

  8. Relational and Transcendental Humanism: Exploring the Consequences of a Thoroughly Pragmatic Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2007-01-01

    The relational and transcendental elements of humanism are considered. Although the relational component of humanism is extraordinarily valuable, the author argues that the transcendental portion of humanism should be abandoned. The implications of a thoroughly pragmatic humanism are explored.

  9. Relational and Transcendental Humanism: Exploring the Consequences of a Thoroughly Pragmatic Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2007-01-01

    The relational and transcendental elements of humanism are considered. Although the relational component of humanism is extraordinarily valuable, the author argues that the transcendental portion of humanism should be abandoned. The implications of a thoroughly pragmatic humanism are explored.

  10. Exploring care for human service profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2015-01-01

    maintain their dignity, it is important to explore, how dignity is maintained in such situations. Views of dignity and factors influencing dignity have been studied from both the nursing homes residents´ and the care providers´ perspective. However, little is known about how the residents’ experience...

  11. Fast Ray Tracing of Lunar Digital Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Mitrofanov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Ray-tracing (RT) of Lunar Digital Elevation Models (DEM)'s is performed to virtually derive the degree of radiation incident to terrain as a function of time, orbital and ephemeris constraints [I- 4]. This process is an integral modeling process in lunar polar research and exploration due to the present paucity of terrain information at the poles and mission planning activities for the anticipated spring 2009 launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). As part of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) preparations RI methods are used to estimate the critical conditions presented by the combined effects of high latitude, terrain and the moons low obliquity [5-7]. These factors yield low incident solar illumination and subsequently extreme thermal, and radiation conditions. The presented research uses RT methods both for radiation transport modeling in space and regolith related research as well as to derive permanently shadowed regions (PSR)'s in high latitude topographic minima, e.g craters. These regions are of scientific and human exploration interest due to the near constant low temperatures in PSRs, inferred to be < 100 K. Hydrogen is thought to have accumulated in PSR's through the combined effects of periodic cometary bombardment and/or solar wind processes, and the extreme cold which minimizes hydrogen sublimation [8-9]. RT methods are also of use in surface position optimization for future illumination dependent on surface resources e.g. power and communications equipment.

  12. The Importance of Time Synchronization in the Local Networks of the Science and Application Center for Lunar and Deep-space Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guoping; OUYANG Ziyuan; LI Chunlai; LIU Jianfeng

    2004-01-01

    The data acquisition stations and the data processing center of the Science and Application Center for Lunar and Deep-space Exploration (SACLuDE) are located at different geographical sites. They respectively have their own local networks and interconnect with each other through access to the core data network. This paper describes the clock drift in the computer and other networked devices building up the infrastructure of the above local networks. The network time variance of the stochastic model is also estimated. The poor precision of network synchronization will bring about potential hazards to the network operation and application running in the networks, which is clarified in the present paper.At the end of the paper, a cost-effective and feasible solution is proposed based on the Global Position System (GPS) and the Network Time Protocol (NTP).

  13. A Descriptive and Explorative Case Study of a Scratch Programming Experience Involving the Creation of a Lunar Simulation/Model with Grade Six Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen Alexander

    This mixed methods descriptive and exploratory case study examined the experiences of two classes in an elementary school (39 students) using the Scratch programming language to create a lunar simulation of the Earth/Moon System over six days. Using the Computational Thinking Framework developed by Brennan and Resnick (2012) the researcher examined the computational thinking (CT) concepts and practices students were exposed to. This study finds that all of the student groups experienced at least partial success in building their simulation. The researcher found that all of the groups explored the CT concepts of sequence, events, parallelism, conditionals and operators while building their simulation and more than 80% of the groups used data and loops. There is evidence that the students were involved in three of the computational practices: incremental and iterative, testing and debugging and, abstracting and modularizing. This study offers recommendations for practice and for future research.

  14. Google Moon Lunar Mapping Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A collection of lunar maps and charts. This tool is an exciting new way to explore the story of the Apollo missions, still the only time mankind has set foot on...

  15. Lunar Probe Reaches Deep Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's second lunar probe, Chang'e-2, has reached an orbit 1.5 million kilometers from Earth for an additional mission of deep space exploration, the State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense announced.

  16. Exploring Abort of Manned Lunar Module from Powered Descent Phase%载人登月舱动力下降段应急返回轨道设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘睿; 周军; 刘莹莹

    2012-01-01

    Sections 1, 2 and 3 explain the exploration mentioned in the title. Tables 2, 4 and 5, and Figs. 1 and 4, present the results of our exploration, utilizing the published parameters of the Apollo 17; in addition, we analyzed the results. The core of sections 1, 2 and 3 consists of: "We mainly focus on the orbit design of the manned lunar module abort from powered descent phase. Firstly, in order to meet the requirements of the manned spacecraft aborting, an improved co-elliptic technique was proposed. Secondly, the expression of the explicit guidance law for ascent phase in abort was deduced. Then, with the help of Simulink tools this guidance law was proved to be precise enough when used in ascent phase, for the error in the height could be neglected and the error in the velocity was within a few meters per second. Finally, the height of apolune of the ellipse transfer orbit was designed based on the result of the ascent phase, which effectively shortened the waiting time of lunar module. Only abort from the pre-phase of powered descent needs this technique. " Section 4 presents our preliminary main conclusions, which may be useful for the manned lunar project.%文章主要研究载人登月舱动力下降段应急返回轨道设计问题.针对应急返回对等待时间的需求,改进了同心椭圆返回轨道方案.将显式制导法应用于应急返回上升段控制中,充分利用了登月舱的剩余速度,得到了满足要求的入轨精度.根据仿真结果确定了利用下降级推力器完成上升段应急返回的准则.在上升段仿真的基础上设计了跟踪段过渡椭圆轨道,显著缩短了登月舱在停泊轨道的等待时间.文中的方法和结论可以为载人登月工程应急返回提供一定的参考价值.

  17. Neil Armstrong At Lunar Landing Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, on July 20,1969, Neil Armstrong, shown here with NASA Langley Research Centers Lunar Excursion Module (LEM) Simulator, became the first human to walk on the moon after practicing with the simulator in May of 1969. Training with the simulator, part of Langleys Lunar Research Facility, allowed the Apollo astronauts to study and safely overcome problems that could have occurred during the final 150-foot descent to the surface of the moon. NASA needed such a facility in order to explore and develop techniques for landing the LEM on the moons surface, where gravity is only one-sixth as strong as on the Earth, as well as to determine the limits of human piloting capabilities in the new surroundings. This unique facility, completed in 1965 and now a National Historic Landmark, effectively canceled all but one-sixth of Earths gravitational force by using an overhead cable system.

  18. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  19. Lunar cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  20. Exploring Data in Human Resources Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela BARA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, social networks and informatics technologies and infrastructures are constantly developing and affect each other. In this context, the HR recruitment process became complex and many multinational organizations have encountered selection issues. The objective of the paper is to develop a prototype system for assisting the selection of candidates for an intelligent management of human resources. Such a system can be a starting point for the efficient organization of semi-structured and unstructured data on recruitment activities. The article extends the research presented at the 14th International Conference on Informatics in Economy (IE 2015 in the scientific paper "Big Data challenges for human resources management".

  1. Interaction Challenges in Human-Robot Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, NASA established a new, long-term exploration program to fulfill the President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration. The primary goal of this program is to establish a sustained human presence in space, beginning with robotic missions to the Moon in 2008, followed by extended human expeditions to the Moon as early as 2015. In addition, the program places significant emphasis on the development of joint human-robot systems. A key difference from previous exploration efforts is that future space exploration activities must be sustainable over the long-term. Experience with the space station has shown that cost pressures will keep astronaut teams small. Consequently, care must be taken to extend the effectiveness of these astronauts well beyond their individual human capacity. Thus, in order to reduce human workload, costs, and fatigue-driven error and risk, intelligent robots will have to be an integral part of mission design.

  2. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  3. Lunar Mare Dome Identification and Morphologic Properties Analysis Using Chang'E-2 Lunar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingguo; Mu, Lingli; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2016-04-01

    Identify the lunar mare dome and study the morphologic properties to know more knowledge about the structure will enhance the study of lunar volcanism. Traditionally, most lunar domes are identified by the scientists from exploring the images or topographic maps of the lunar surface with manual method, which already found out a bunch of lunar domes in specific local areas. For the purpose of getting more knowledge about global lunar dome, it is necessary to identify the lunar dome from the global lunar mare. However, it is hard to find new lunar domes from the global lunar mare only with manual method, since in that case, the large volume lunar data is needed and such work is too time consumed, so that, there are few researchers who have indentified and study the properties of the lunar dome from the perspective of lunar global scale. To solve the problem mentioned above, in this approach , CE-2 DEM, DOM data in 7m resolution were used in the detection and morphologic analysis of the lunar domes and a dome detection method based on topographic characteristics were developed.We firstly designed a method considering the morphologic characteristics to identify the lunar dome with Chang'E2(CE-2) lunar global data, after that, the initial identified result with properties is analyzed, and finally, by integrating the result with lunar domes already found by former researchers, we made some maps about the spatial distribution of the global lunar mare dome. With the CE-2 data covering the former lunar domes and the new found lunar domes, we surveyed and calculated some morphologic properties, and found that, lunar domes are circular or eclipse shaped, obviously different from background in topography,which has a average diameter between 3-25km, circular degree less than 1.54, with a average slope less than 10°, average height less than 650m and diameter/height less than 0.065. Almost all of the lunar domes are located in the extent of 58°N~54°S,167°W~180°E,and nearly

  4. Lunar Navigation Determination System - LaNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David; Talabac, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A portable comprehensive navigational system has been developed that both robotic and human explorers can use to determine their location, attitude, and heading anywhere on the lunar surface independent of external infrastructure (needs no Lunar satellite network, line of sight to the Sun or Earth, etc.). The system combines robust processing power with an extensive topographical database to create a real-time atlas (GIS Geospatial Information System) that is able to autonomously control and monitor both single unmanned rovers and fleets of rovers, as well as science payload stations. The system includes provisions for teleoperation and tele-presence. The system accepts (but does not require) inputs from a wide range of sensors. A means was needed to establish a location when the search is taken deep in a crater (looking for water ice) and out of view of Earth or any other references. A star camera can be employed to determine the user's attitude in menial space and stellar map in body space. A local nadir reference (e.g., an accelerometer that orients the nadir vector in body space) can be used in conjunction with a digital ephemeris and gravity model of the Moon to isolate the latitude, longitude, and azimuth of the user on the surface. That information can be used in conjunction with a Lunar GIS and advanced navigation planning algorithms to aid astronauts (or other assets) to navigate on the Lunar surface.

  5. Prospecting for lunar resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Martel, L.

    Large space settlements on the Moon (thousands of people) will require use of indigenous resources to build and maintain the infrastructure and generate products for export. Prospecting for these resources is a crucial step in human migration to space and needs to begin before settlement and the establishment of industrial complexes. We are devising a multi-faceted approach to prospect for resources. A central part of this work is developing the methodology for prospecting the Moon and other planetary bodies. This involves a number of investigations: (1) It is essential to analyze the economics of planetary ore deposits. Ore deposits are planetary materials that we can mine, process, and deliver to customers at a profit. The planetary context tosses in some interesting twists to this definition. (2) We are also making a comprehensive theoretical assessment of potential lunar ore deposits. Our understanding of the compositions, geological histories, and geological processes on the Moon will lead to significant differences in how we assess wh a t types of ores could be present. For example, the bone-dry nature of the Moon (except at the poles) eliminates all ore deposits associated with hydrothermal fluids. (3) We intend to search for resources using existing data for the Moon. Thus, prospecting can begin immediately. We have a wealth of remote sensing data for the Moon. We also have a good sampling of the Moon by the Apollo and Luna missions, and from lunar meteorites. We can target specific types of deposits already identified (e.g. lunar pyroclastic deposits) and look for other geological settings that might have produced ores and other materials of economic value. Another approach we will take is to examine all data available to look for anomalies. Examples are unusual spectral properties, large disagreements between independent techniques that measure the same property, unusual elemental ratios, or simply exceptional properties such as elemental abundances much

  6. An Integrated Human System Interaction (HSI) Framework for Human-Agent Team Collaboration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA commitment to a human presence in space exploration results in the interaction of humans with challenging environments in space, on lunar, and on planetary...

  7. Exploring Data in Human Resources Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Adela BARA; Iuliana BOTHA; Anda BELCIU (VELICANU); Bogdan NEDELCU

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, social networks and informatics technologies and infrastructures are constantly developing and affect each other. In this context, the HR recruitment process became complex and many multinational organizations have encountered selection issues. The objective of the paper is to develop a prototype system for assisting the selection of candidates for an intelligent management of human resources. Such a system can be a starting point for the efficient organization of semi-structured an...

  8. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To ensure the safety and success of future lunar exploration missions, it is important to measure the toxicity of the lunar dust and its electrostatic properties. The electrostatic properties of lunar dust govern its behavior, from how the dust is deposited in an astronaut s lungs to how it contaminates equipment surfaces. NASA has identified the threat caused by lunar dust as one of the top two problems that need to be solved before returning to the Moon. To understand the electrostatic nature of lunar dust, NASA must answer the following questions: (1) how much charge can accumulate on the dust? (2) how long will the charge remain? and (3) can the dust be removed? These questions can be answered by measuring the electrostatic properties of the dust: its volume resistivity, charge decay, charge-to-mass ratio or chargeability, and dielectric properties.

  9. The Effect of Center of Gravity and Anthropometrics on Human Performance in Simulated Lunar and Mars Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Chappell, Steven P.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from the experiences of the Apollo missions, it is evident that the off nominal center of gravity (CG) induced by the portable life support system (PLSS) had significant impact on the locomotion stability of the crew. This in turn is believed to have been a major contributor to the high numbers of falls and high metabolic rates experienced by the crew, and thus significantly hampered the crew s performance. With this in mind, the EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) group at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been conducting tests to assess how spacesuit CG location impacts human performance in simulated lunar and Mars gravity. The results acquired to date show correlations between CG location and performance. However, noticeable variations in the performance data have been observed across subjects for fixed CG configurations. Consequently, it was hypothesized that this variability may be attributed to the anthropometrics of the different test subjects. It was further hypothesized that trunk-to-height ratio (THR) may be directly correlated to performance in reduced gravity; i.e. subjects with increased THR may have increased performance. To test this hypothesis, lunar and Mars gravity test data acquired over three years during NASA Neural Buoyancy Lab (NBL) tests and NASA Extreme Environment Missions Operation (NEEMO) missions were analyzed against THR, height, trunk length, and subject body mass/weight. The results of the study supported the hypothesis relating THR and performance, while the other three anthropometric parameters did not provide consistent correlations with performance. This in turn suggests that human performance in reduced gravity may be more dependent on anthropometric proportions than on body segment lengths and mass/weight.

  10. The Effect of Center of Gravity and Anthropometrics on Human Performance in Simulated Lunar and Mars Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Chappell, Steven P.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from the experiences of the Apollo missions, it is evident that the off nominal center of gravity (CG) induced by the portable life support system (PLSS) had significant impact on the locomotion stability of the crew. This in turn is believed to have been a major contributor to the high numbers of falls and high metabolic rates experienced by the crew, and thus significantly hampered the crew s performance. With this in mind, the EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) group at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been conducting tests to assess how spacesuit CG location impacts human performance in simulated lunar and Mars gravity. The results acquired to date show correlations between CG location and performance. However, noticeable variations in the performance data have been observed across subjects for fixed CG configurations. Consequently, it was hypothesized that this variability may be attributed to the anthropometrics of the different test subjects. It was further hypothesized that trunk-to-height ratio (THR) may be directly correlated to performance in reduced gravity; i.e. subjects with increased THR may have increased performance. To test this hypothesis, lunar and Mars gravity test data acquired over three years during NASA Neural Buoyancy Lab (NBL) tests and NASA Extreme Environment Missions Operation (NEEMO) missions were analyzed against THR, height, trunk length, and subject body mass/weight. The results of the study supported the hypothesis relating THR and performance, while the other three anthropometric parameters did not provide consistent correlations with performance. This in turn suggests that human performance in reduced gravity may be more dependent on anthropometric proportions than on body segment lengths and mass/weight.

  11. A lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Due to large amounts of oxygen required for space travel, a method of mining, transporting, and storing this oxygen in space would facilitate further space exploration. The following project deals specifically with the methods for transporting liquid oxygen from the lunar surface to the Lunar Orbit (LO) space station, and then to the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) space station. Two vehicles were designed for operation between the LEO and LO space stations. The first of these vehicles is an aerobraked design vehicle. The Aerobrake Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is capable of transporting 5000 lbm of payload to LO while returning to LEO with 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen, and thus meet mission requirements. The second vehicle can deliver 18,000 lbm of payload to LO and is capable of bringing 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen back to LEO. A lunar landing vehicle was also designed for operation between LO and the established moon base. The use of an electromagnetic railgun as a method for launching the lunar lander was also investigated. The feasibility of the railgun is doubtful at this time. A system of spheres was also designed for proper storing and transporting of the liquid oxygen. The system assumes a safe means for transferring the liquid oxygen from tank to tank is operational. A sophisticated life support system was developed for both the OTV and the lunar lander. This system focuses on such factors as the vehicle environment, waste management, water requirements, food requirements, and oxygen requirements.

  12. Lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  13. Space Exploration as a Human Enterprise: The Scientific Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl

    1973-01-01

    Presents examples which illustrate the importance of space exploration in diverse aspects of scientific knowledge. Indicates that human beings are today not wise enough to anticipate the practical benefits of planetary studies. (CC)

  14. Creating Methane from Plastics: Recycling at a Lunar Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Wheeler, Ray; Strayer, RIchard; Garland, Jay; Parrish, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The high cost of re-supply from Earth demands resources to be utilized to the fullest extent for exploration missions. Recycling is a key technology that maximizes the available resources by converting waste products into useful commodities. One example of this is to convert crew member waste such as plastic packaging, food scraps, and human waste, into fuel. The ability to refuel on the lunar surface would reduce the vehicle mass during launch and provide excess payload capability. The goal of this project is to determine the feasibility of recycling waste into methane on the lunar outpost by performing engineering assessments and lab demonstrations of the technology. The first goal of the project was to determine how recycling could influence lunar exploration. Table I shows an estimation of the typical dried waste stream generated each day for a crew of four. Packaging waste accounts for nearly 86% of the dry waste stream and is a significant source of carbon on the lunar surface. This is important because methane (CH4) can be used as fuel and no other source of carbon is available on the lunar surface. With the initial assessment indicating there is sufficient resources in the waste stream to provide refueling capabilities, the project was designed to examine the conversion of plastics into methane.

  15. Apollo 15-Lunar Module Falcon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is a photo of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module, Falcon, on the lunar surface. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. The first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions, the mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn V rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  16. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  17. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  18. The Use of Lunar Data in the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    In the fall of 2008, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) will set forth on a journey to study the moon, paving the way for future human exploration. LRO comprises six research instruments and a technology demonstration that will search for water ice, map the surface of the moon, and assess the chemical composition for identification of potential resources. A key component of a majority of the instrument EPO plans is to engage the public and education audiences through the use of data collected during the mission. In preparation for the wealth of new lunar data the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program for LRO is supporting the use of current lunar data in education settings in both formal and informal education communities. The LRO EPO program has partnered on funded proposals that reach librarians, small science museums, Girl Scouts, NASA Explorer Schools and in-service teachers. Through our involvement with these projects, we are introducing a broad audience to lunar exploration and are preparing them to utilize LRO data in education settings when it becomes available. LRO instrument EPO teams are developing an array of tools, modules and visualizations to be used with image, topography, and spectrometry data that will be available during and after the LRO mission. They have initiated partnerships with museums, planetariums, public television stations, the Mars Museum Alliance, NASA Explorer Schools, HBCUs and other minority serving institutions, and the Society of Physics students. During this presentation we will discuss the use of planetary data in current partnerships that have been funded by NASA's Office of Education and NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate as well as the LRO instrument team plans. We will also explore opportunities for future collaborative efforts in the development and dissemination of materials that utilize LRO data products.

  19. New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In FY 2001, NASA will undertake a new research and technology program supporting the goals of human exploration: the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative (HTCI). The HTCI represents a new strategic approach to exploration technology, in which an emphasis will be placed on identifying and developing technologies for systems and infrastructures that may be common among exploration and commercial development of space objectives. A family of preliminary strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps have been formulated that address "technology for human exploration and development of space (THREADS). These road maps frame and bound the likely content of the HTCL Notional technology themes for the initiative include: (1) space resources development, (2) space utilities and power, (3) habitation and bioastronautics, (4) space assembly, inspection and maintenance, (5) exploration and expeditions, and (6) space transportation. This paper will summarize the results of the THREADS road mapping process and describe the current status and content of the HTCI within that framework. The paper will highlight the space resources development theme within the Initiative and will summarize plans for the coming year.

  20. New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In FY 2001, NASA will undertake a new research and technology program supporting the goals of human exploration: the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative (HTCI). The HTCI represents a new strategic approach to exploration technology, in which an emphasis will be placed on identifying and developing technologies for systems and infrastructures that may be common among exploration and commercial development of space objectives. A family of preliminary strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps have been formulated that address "technology for human exploration and development of space (THREADS). These road maps frame and bound the likely content of the HTCL Notional technology themes for the initiative include: (1) space resources development, (2) space utilities and power, (3) habitation and bioastronautics, (4) space assembly, inspection and maintenance, (5) exploration and expeditions, and (6) space transportation. This paper will summarize the results of the THREADS road mapping process and describe the current status and content of the HTCI within that framework. The paper will highlight the space resources development theme within the Initiative and will summarize plans for the coming year.

  1. Economic geology of lunar Helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1988-09-01

    Economic geology evaluation of lunar He-3 should answer the question: Can lunar He-3 be sold on Earth with sufficient profit margins and low enough risk to attract capital investment in the enterprise. Concepts that relate to economic geology of recovering He-3 from the lunar maria are not new to human experience. A parametric cost and technology evaluation scheme, based on existing and future data, is required to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the comprehensive economic feasibility and return on investment of He-3 recovery from the lunar maria. There are also many political issues which must be considered as a result of nuclear fusion and lunar mining.

  2. Economic geology of lunar Helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1988-01-01

    Economic geology evaluation of lunar He-3 should answer the question: Can lunar He-3 be sold on Earth with sufficient profit margins and low enough risk to attract capital investment in the enterprise. Concepts that relate to economic geology of recovering He-3 from the lunar maria are not new to human experience. A parametric cost and technology evaluation scheme, based on existing and future data, is required to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the comprehensive economic feasibility and return on investment of He-3 recovery from the lunar maria. There are also many political issues which must be considered as a result of nuclear fusion and lunar mining.

  3. Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. The interlocking, angular nature of Lunar dust and its broad...

  4. Human exploration and settlement of Mars - The roles of humans and robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    The scientific objectives and strategies for human settlement on Mars are examined in the context of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integrated strategy for humans and robots in the exploration and settlement of Mars is examined. Such an effort would feature robotic, telerobotic, and human-supervised robotic phases.

  5. Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Mount, Frances; Carreon, Patricia; Torney, Susan E.

    2001-01-01

    The Engineering and Mission Operations Directorates at NASA Johnson Space Center are combining laboratories and expertise to establish the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations. This is a testbed for human centered design, development and evaluation of intelligent autonomous and assistant systems that will be needed for human exploration and development of space. This project will improve human-centered analysis, design and evaluation methods for developing intelligent software. This software will support human-machine cognitive and collaborative activities in future interplanetary work environments where distributed computer and human agents cooperate. We are developing and evaluating prototype intelligent systems for distributed multi-agent mixed-initiative operations. The primary target domain is control of life support systems in a planetary base. Technical approaches will be evaluated for use during extended manned tests in the target domain, the Bioregenerative Advanced Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex). A spinoff target domain is the International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC). Prodl}cts of this project include human-centered intelligent software technology, innovative human interface designs, and human-centered software development processes, methods and products. The testbed uses adjustable autonomy software and life support systems simulation models from the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed, to represent operations on the remote planet. Ground operations prototypes and concepts will be evaluated in the Exploration Planning and Operations Center (ExPOC) and Jupiter Facility.

  6. Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. c2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Lunar biological effects and the magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The debate about how far the Moon causes biological effects has continued for two millennia. Pliny the Elder argued for lunar power "penetrating all things", including plants, fish, animals and humans. He also linked the Moon with tides, confirmed mathematically by Newton. A review of modern studies of biological effects, especially from plants and animals, confirms the pervasive nature of this lunar force. However calculations from physics and other arguments refute the supposed mechanisms of gravity and light. Recent space exploration allows a new approach with evidence of electromagnetic fields associated with the Earth's magnetotail at full moon during the night, and similar, but more limited, effects from the Moon's wake on the magnetosphere at new moon during the day. The disturbance of the magnetotail is perhaps shown by measurements of electric fields of up to 16V/m compared with the usual effects on some sensitive organisms. Similar intensities found in sferics, geomagnetic storms, aurora disturbance, sensations of a 'presence' and pre-seismic electromagnetic radiation are known to affect animals and 10-20% of the human population. There is now evidence for mechanisms such as calcium flux, melatonin disruption, magnetite and cryptochromes. Both environmental and receptor variations explain confounding factors and inconsistencies in the evidence. Electromagnetic effects might also account for some evolutionary changes. Further research on lunar biological effects, such as acute myocardial infarction, could help the development of strategies to reduce adverse effects for people sensitive to geomagnetic disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of Fundamental Physics in Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyshev, Slava

    2004-01-01

    This talk will discuss the critical role that fundamental physics research plays for the human space exploration. In particular, the currently available technologies can already provide significant radiation reduction, minimize bone loss, increase crew productivity and, thus, uniquely contribute to overall mission success. I will discuss how fundamental physics research and emerging technologies may not only further reduce the risks of space travel, but also increase the crew mobility, enhance safety and increase the value of space exploration in the near future.

  9. Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Wireless Technologies and Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.; Lansdowne, Chatwin

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionics architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. The AAE project team includes members from most NASA centers and from industry. This paper provides an overview of recent AAE efforts, with particular emphasis on the wireless technologies being evaluated under AES to support human spaceflight.

  10. Targeting Cislunar Near Rectilinear Halo Orbits for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob; Lee, David E.; Whitley, Ryan J.; Bokelmann, Kevin A.; Davis, Diane C.; Berry, Christopher F.

    2017-01-01

    Part of the challenge of charting a human exploration space architecture is finding locations to stage missions to multiple destinations. To that end, a specific subset of Earth-Moon halo orbits, known as Near Rectilinear Halo Orbits (NRHOs) are evaluated. In this paper, a systematic process for generating full ephemeris based ballistic NRHOs is outlined, different size NRHOs are examined for their favorability to avoid eclipses, the performance requirements for missions to and from NRHOs are calculated, and disposal options are evaluated. Combined, these studies confirm the feasibility of cislunar NRHOs to enable human exploration in the cislunar proving ground.

  11. DDESC: Dragon database for exploration of sodium channels in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanovic Aleksandar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium channels are heteromultimeric, integral membrane proteins that belong to a superfamily of ion channels. The mutations in genes encoding for sodium channel proteins have been linked with several inherited genetic disorders such as febrile epilepsy, Brugada syndrome, ventricular fibrillation, long QT syndrome, or channelopathy associated insensitivity to pain. In spite of these significant effects that sodium channel proteins/genes could have on human health, there is no publicly available resource focused on sodium channels that would support exploration of the sodium channel related information. Results We report here Dragon Database for Exploration of Sodium Channels in Human (DDESC, which provides comprehensive information related to sodium channels regarding different entities, such as "genes and proteins", "metabolites and enzymes", "toxins", "chemicals with pharmacological effects", "disease concepts", "human anatomy", "pathways and pathway reactions" and their potential links. DDESC is compiled based on text- and data-mining. It allows users to explore potential associations between different entities related to sodium channels in human, as well as to automatically generate novel hypotheses. Conclusion DDESC is first publicly available resource where the information related to sodium channels in human can be explored at different levels. This database is freely accessible for academic and non-profit users via the worldwide web http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/ddesc.

  12. Electrostatic Charging of Lunar Dust by UV Photoelectric Emissions and Solar Wind Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James f.; LeClair, Andre C.; Dube, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of dust in the lunar environment with its high adhesive characteristics has been recognized to be a major safety issue that must be addressed in view of its hazardous effects on robotic and human exploration of the Moon. The reported observations of a horizon glow and streamers at the lunar terminator during the Apollo missions are attributed to the sunlight scattered by the levitated lunar dust. The lunar surface and the dust grains are predominantly charged positively by the incident UV solar radiation on the dayside and negatively by the solar wind electrons on the night-side. The charged dust grains are levitated and transported over long distances by the established electric fields. A quantitative understanding of the lunar dust phenomena requires development of global dust distribution models, based on an accurate knowledge of lunar dust charging properties. Currently available data of lunar dust charging is based on bulk materials, although it is well recognized that measurements on individual dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the bulk measurements. In this paper we present laboratory measurements of charging properties of Apollo 11 & 17 dust grains by UV photoelectric emissions and by electron impact. These measurements indicate substantial differences of both qualitative and quantitative nature between dust charging properties of individual micron/submicron sized dust grains and of bulk materials. In addition, there are no viable theoretical models available as yet for calculation of dust charging properties of individual dust grains for both photoelectric emissions and electron impact. It is thus of paramount importance to conduct comprehensive measurements for charging properties of individual dust grains in order to develop realistic models of dust processes in the lunar atmosphere, and address the hazardous issues of dust on lunar robotic and human missions.

  13. Lunar Beagle and Lunar Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Waugh, Lester J.

    2010-12-01

    The study of the elements and molecules of astrobiological interest on the Moon can be made with the Gas Analysis Package (GAP) and associated instruments developed for the Beagle 2 Mars Express Payload. The permanently shadowed polar regions of the Moon may offer a unique location for the "cold-trapping" of the light elements (i.e. H, C, N, O, etc.) and their simple compounds. Studies of the returned lunar samples have shown that lunar materials have undergone irradiation with the solar wind and adsorb volatiles from possible cometary and micrometeoroid impacts. The Beagle 2's analytical instrument package including the sample processing facility and the GAP mass spectrometer can provide vital isotopic information that can distinguish whether the lunar volatiles are indigenous to the moon, solar wind derived, cometary in origin or from meteoroids impacting on the Moon. As future Lunar Landers are being considered, the suite of instruments developed for the Mars Beagle 2 lander can be consider as the baseline for any lunar volatile or resource instrument package.

  14. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Martin; Muniyandi, Manivannan; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Jung; Krause, Frank; Mueller, Stephanie; Srinivasan, Mandayam A

    2014-01-01

    The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these "explorative stops" (ES) during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: (a) between mean exploration time and duration of ES, (b) between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and (c) the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Five different Experiments were used. The first two Experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A) and of common objects (B). In Experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For Experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D) and real (E) sunken reliefs. In each Experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For Experiment A: 329.50 ms, Experiment B: 67.47 ms, Experiment C: 189.92 ms, Experiment D: 186.17 ms and Experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.

  15. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGrunwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these explorative stops (ES during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: a between mean exploration time and duration of ES, b between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and c the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different experiments were used. The first two experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A and of common objects (B. In experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D and real (E sunken reliefs. Results: In each experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For experiment A: 329.50 ms, experiment B: 67.47 ms, experiment C: 189.92 ms, experiment D: 186.17 ms and experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.

  16. Contaminant Robust System for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The necessity of oxygen for consumption by human inhabitants on the lunar surface is readily apparent. NASA is pursuing several ways to generate oxygen from lunar...

  17. Teleoperated Modular Robots for Lunar Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Hornby, Greg; Larchev, Greg; Hancher, Matt; Cannon, Howard; Lohn, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Solar system exploration is currently carried out by special purpose robots exquisitely designed for the anticipated tasks. However, all contingencies for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), human habitat preparation, and exploration will be difficult to anticipate. Furthermore, developing the necessary special purpose mechanisms for deployment and other capabilities is difficult and error prone. For example, the Galileo high gain antenna never opened, severely restricting the quantity of data returned by the spacecraft. Also, deployment hardware is used only once. To address these problems, we are developing teleoperated modular robots for lunar missions, including operations in transit from Earth. Teleoperation of lunar systems from Earth involves a three second speed-of-light delay, but experiment suggests that interactive operations are feasible.' Modular robots typically consist of many identical modules that pass power and data between them and can be reconfigured for different tasks providing great flexibility, inherent redundancy and graceful degradation as modules fail. Our design features a number of different hub, link, and joint modules to simplify the individual modules, lower structure cost, and provide specialized capabilities. Modular robots are well suited for space applications because of their extreme flexibility, inherent redundancy, high-density packing, and opportunities for mass production. Simple structural modules can be manufactured from lunar regolith in situ using molds or directed solar sintering. Software to direct and control modular robots is difficult to develop. We have used genetic algorithms to evolve both the morphology and control system for walking modular robots3 We are currently using evolvable system technology to evolve controllers for modular robots in the ISS glove box. Development of lunar modular robots will require software and physical simulators, including regolith simulation, to enable design and test of robot

  18. Bringing You the Moon: Lunar Education Efforts of the Center for Lunar Science and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.; Halligan, E.; LaConte, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA's Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute. In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and public outreach. Overarching goals of CLSE education are to strengthen the future science workforce, attract and retain students in STEM disciplines, and develop advocates for lunar exploration. The team's efforts have resulted in a variety of programs and products, including the creation of a variety of Lunar Traveling Exhibits and the High School Lunar Research Project, featured at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/nlsi/education/.

  19. Plume Mitigation: Soil Erosion and Lunar Prospecting Sensor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.

    2014-01-01

    Demonstrate feasibility of the simplest, lowest-mass method of measuring density of a cloud of lunar soil ejected by rocket exhaust, using new math techniques with a small baseline laser/camera system. Focus is on exploring the erosion process that occurs when the exhaust plume of a lunar rocket impacts the regolith. Also, predicting the behavior of the lunar soil that would be blasted from a lunar landing/launch site shall assist in better design and protection of any future lunar settlement from scouring of structures and equipment. NASA is gathering experimental data to improve soil erosion models and understand how lunar particles enter the plume flow.

  20. Low-Energy Ballistic Transfers to Lunar Halo Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent lunar missions have begun to take advantage of the benefits of low-energy ballistic transfers between the Earth and the Moon rather than implementing conventional Hohmann-like lunar transfers. Both Artemis and GRAIL plan to implement low-energy lunar transfers in the next few years. This paper explores the characteristics and potential applications of many different families of low-energy ballistic lunar transfers. The transfers presented here begin from a wide variety of different orbits at the Earth and follow several different distinct pathways to the Moon. This paper characterizes these pathways to identify desirable low-energy lunar transfers for future lunar missions.

  1. Towards the Next International Lunar Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, Vidvuds

    2016-07-01

    The idea of an International Lunar Decade (ILD) germinated in work underway in the International Lunar Working Group (ILEWG) coordinated by ESA starting before 2000. Envisioned was an International Geophysical Year (IGY) inspired global collaborative undertaking to better understand the Moon, its origins and resources as a step towards lunar development and possible human settlement. By 2006 the ILD idea had evolved sufficiently that the ILEWG endorsed it and endorsement was also received from COSPAR [1] The Planetary Society under the leadership of Louis Friedman championed the ILD idea, received a grant from the Secure World Foundation to promote it at various conferences as well as to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). Friedman made a presentation about ILD to COPUOS in February, 2007 [2]. Despite positive interest in the idea no member state of COPUOS chose to promote it. The ILD agenda was adopted by ILEWG and largely fulfilled by the member space agencies in the decade from 2007-2014, but without UN endorsement as a global initiative. In 2013 an idea for an International Lunar Decade took hold among a group of space activists that included ideas for an International Lunar Research Park [3], an International Lunar Geophysical Year and other elements including an article published by V. Beldavs in the Space Review on January 14, 2014 [4]. These various thought streams were brought to focus at the conference "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space", November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii that resulted in the International Lunar Decade Declaration [3] and the formation of the working group (ILDWG) to promote implementation of ILD. In 2015 numerous organizations and influential persons were approached and informed about the idea of a framework for international collaboration sustained over a decade to gain an understanding of the Moon and its resources and to develop the technologies and

  2. NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near

  3. Microwave Brightness Temperature and Lunar Son Dielectric Property Retrieve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Wu; D.H. Li; A.T. Altyntsev; B.I. Lubyshev

    2005-01-01

    Among many scientific objectives of lunar exploration, investigations on lunar soil become more and more attractive to the scientists duo to the existence of abundant 3He and ilmenite in the lunar soil and their possible utilization. Although the soil composition determination on the lunar surface is available by visible light spectrometer, γ/X-ray spectrometer etc, the evaluations on the total reserves of 3He and ilmenite in the lunar deep and on the thickness of the lunar soil are still impossible so far. In this paper, the authors first give a rough analysis of the microwave brightness temperature images of the lunar disc observed using the NRAO 12 Meter Telescope and Siberian Solar Radio Telescope; then introduce our researches on the microwave dielectric properties of lunar soil simulators; finally, discuss some basic relations between the microwave brightness temperature and lunar soil properties.

  4. Lunar outpost the challenges of establishing a human settlement on the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2009-01-01

    What is needed to return to the moon by 2020? This book details the technologies, mission architectures, medical requirements and training for that mission. Too, it explores the cost and roles played by private enterprise and individual countries.

  5. Comparison of Human Exploration Architecture and Campaign Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodliff, Kandyce; Cirillo, William; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Shyface, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    As part of an overall focus on space exploration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) continues to evaluate potential approaches for sending humans beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). In addition, various external organizations are studying options for beyond LEO exploration. Recent studies include NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign and Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0, JPL's Minimal Mars Architecture; the Inspiration Mars mission; the Mars One campaign; and the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). Each of these potential exploration constructs applies unique methods, architectures, and philosophies for human exploration. It is beneficial to compare potential approaches in order to better understand the range of options available for exploration. Since most of these studies were conducted independently, the approaches, ground rules, and assumptions used to conduct the analysis differ. In addition, the outputs and metrics presented for each construct differ substantially. This paper will describe the results of an effort to compare and contrast the results of these different studies under a common set of metrics. The paper will first present a summary of each of the proposed constructs, including a description of the overall approach and philosophy for exploration. Utilizing a common set of metrics for comparison, the paper will present the results of an evaluation of the potential benefits, critical challenges, and uncertainties associated with each construct. The analysis framework will include a detailed evaluation of key characteristics of each construct. These will include but are not limited to: a description of the technology and capability developments required to enable the construct and the uncertainties associated with these developments; an analysis of significant operational and programmatic risks associated with that construct; and an evaluation of the extent to which exploration is enabled by the construct, including the destinations

  6. A large human centrifuge for exploration and exploitation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.W.A. van Loon; J.P. Baeyens; J. Berte; S. Blanc; L. ter Braak; K. Bok; J. Bos; R. Boyle; N. Bravenoer; M. Eekhoff; A. Chouker; G. Clement; P. Cras; E. Cross; M.A. Cusaud; M. De Angelis; C. de Dreu; T. Delavaux; R. Delfos; C. Poelma; P. Denise; D. Felsenberg; K. Fong; C. Fuller; S. Grillner; E. Groen; J. Harlaar; M. Heer; N. Heglund; H. Hinghofer-Szalkay; N. Goswami; M. Hughes-Fulford; S. Iwase; J.M. Karemaker; B. Langdahl; D. Linarsson; C. Lüthen; M. Monici; E. Mulder; M. Narici; P. Norsk; W. Paloski; G.K. Prisk; M. Rutten; P. Singer; D. Stegeman; A. Stephan; G.J.M. Stienen; P. Suedfeld; P. Tesch; O. Ullrich; R. van den Berg; P. Van de Heyning; A. Delahaye; J. Veyt; L. Vico; E. Woodward; L.R. Young; F. Wuyts

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses concepts regarding the development of an Altered Gravity Platform (AGP) that will serve as a research platform for human space exploration. Space flight causes a multitude of physiological problems, many of which are due to gravity level transitions. Going from Earth’s gravity t

  7. NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Since early 2005, NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander Development (RLLD) office at NASA MSFC, in partnership with the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), has developed mission concepts and preformed risk-reduction activities to address planetary science and exploration objectives uniquely met with landed missions. The RLLD team developed several concepts for lunar human-exploration precursor missions to demonstrate precision landing and in-situ resource utilization, a multi-node lunar geophysical network mission, either as a stand-alone mission, or as part of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer and a Mercury lander mission for the Planetary Science decadal survey, and an asteroid rendezvous and landing mission for the Exploration Precursor Robotics Mission (xPRM) office. The RLLD team has conducted an extensive number of risk-reduction activities in areas common to all lander concepts, including thruster testing, propulsion thermal control demonstration, composite deck design and fabrication, and landing leg stability and vibration. In parallel, the team has developed two robotic lander testbeds providing closed-loop, autonomous hover and descent activities for integration and testing of flight-like components and algorithms. A compressed-air test article had its first flight in September 2009 and completed over 150 successful flights. This small test article (107 kg dry/146 kg wet) uses a central throttleable thruster to offset gravity, plus 3 descent thrusters (37lbf ea) and 6 attitude-control thrusters (12lbf ea) to emulate the flight system with pulsed operation over approximately 10s of flight time. The test article uses carbon composite honeycomb decks, custom avionics (COTS components assembled in-house), and custom flight and ground software. A larger (206 kg dry/322 kg wet), hydrogen peroxide-propelled vehicle began flight tests in spring 2011 and fly over 30 successful flights to a maximum altitude of 30m. The monoprop testbed

  8. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration" included the following reports:Training Informal Educators Provides Leverage for Space Science Education and Public Outreach; Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education: K-12 Teacher Retention, Renewal, and Involvement in Professional Science; Telling the Tale of Two Deserts: Teacher Training and Utilization of a New Standards-based, Bilingual E/PO Product; Lindstrom M. M. Tobola K. W. Stocco K. Henry M. Allen J. S. McReynolds J. Porter T. T. Veile J. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes -- Update; Utilizing Mars Data in Education: Delivering Standards-based Content by Exposing Educators and Students to Authentic Scientific Opportunities and Curriculum; K. E. Little Elementary School and the Young Astronaut Robotics Program; Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities; and Online Access to the NEAR Image Collection: A Resource for Educators and Scientists.

  9. Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toyokawa

    Full Text Available The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate "information scroungers" may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a "multi-armed bandit" problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental "dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas" successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence.

  10. NASA Lunar Mining and Construction Activities and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2009-01-01

    The Space Exploration Policy enacted by the US Congress in 2005 calls for the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond; Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations; Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration; and Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests. In 2006, NASA released the Lunar Architecture Study, which proposed establishing a lunar Outpost on the Moon with international participation to extend human presence beyond Earth's orbit, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth s economic sphere. The establishment of sustained human presence on the Moon for science and exploration combines the design, integration, and operation challenges experienced from both the short Apollo lunar missions and the build-up and sustained crew operations of the International Space Station (ISS). Apollo experience reminds developers and mission planners that hardware must operate under extremely harsh environmental and abrasive conditions and every kilogram of mass and payload must be critical to achieve the mission s objectives due to the difficulty and cost of reaching the lunar surface. Experience from the ISS reminds developers and mission planners that integration of all hardware must be designed and planned from the start of the program, operations and evolution of capabilities on a continuous basis are important, and long-term life-cycle costs and logistical needs are equally or more important than minimizing early development and test costs. Overarching all of this is

  11. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, C. I.; Buhler, C. R.; Ritz, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar dust can jeopardize exploration activities due to its ability to cling to most surfaces. In this paper, we report on our measurements of the electrostatic properties of the lunar soil simulants. Methods have been developed to measure the volume resistivity, dielectric constant, chargeability, and charge decay of lunar soil. While the first two parameters have been measured in the past [Olhoeft 1974], the last two have never been measured directly on the lunar regolith or on any of the Apollo samples. Measurements of the electrical properties of the lunar samples are being performed in an attempt to answer important problems that must be solved for the development of an effective dust mitigation technology, namely, how much charge can accumulate on the dust and how long does the charge remain on surfaces. The measurements will help develop coatings that are compatible with the intrinsic electrostatic properties of the lunar regolith.

  12. A lunar dust simulant: CLDS-i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong; Li, Xiongyao; Zhang, Sensen; Wang, Shijie; Liu, Jianzhong; Li, Shijie; Li, Yang; Wu, Yanxue

    2017-02-01

    Lunar dust can make serious damage to the spacecrafts, space suits, and health of astronauts, which is one of the most important problems faced in lunar exploration. In the case of rare lunar dust sample, CLDS-i with high similarity to the real lunar dust is an important objective for studying dust protection and dust toxicity. The CLDS-i developed by the Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy Sciences contains ∼75 vol% glass and a little nanophase metal iron (np-Fe0), and with a median particle size about 500 nm. The CLDS-i particles also have complicated shape and sharp edges. These properties are similar to those of lunar dust, and make the CLDS-i can be applied to many fields such as the scientific researches, the treatment technology and toxicological study of lunar dust.

  13. Lunar Science from and for Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III

    2008-09-01

    Our Moon Every person on Earth is familiar with the Moon. Every resident with nominal eyesight on each continent has seen this near-by planetary body with their own eyes countless times. Those fortunate enough to have binoculars or access to a telescope have explored the craters, valleys, domes, and plains across the lunar surface as changing lighting conditions highlight the mysteries of this marvellously foreign landscape. Schoolchildren learn that the daily rhythm and flow of tides along the coastlines of our oceans are due to the interaction of the Earth and the Moon. This continuous direct and personal link is but one of the many reasons lunar science is fundamental to humanity. The Earth-Moon System In the context of space exploration, our understanding of the Earth-Moon system has grown enormously. The Moon has become the cornerstone for most aspects of planetary science that relate to the terrestrial (rocky) planets. The scientific context for exploration of the Moon is presented in a recent report by a subcommittee of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council [free from the website: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11954]. Figure 1 captures the interwoven themes surrounding lunar science recognized and discussed in that report. In particular, it is now recognized that the Earth and the Moon have been intimately linked in their early history. Although they subsequently took very different evolutionary paths, the Moon provides a unique and valuable window both into processes that occurred during the first 600 Million years of solar system evolution (planetary differentiation and the heavy bombardment record) as well as the (ultimately dangerous) impact record of more recent times. This additional role of the Moon as keystone is because the Earth and the Moon share the same environment at 1 AU, but only the Moon retains a continuous record of cosmic events. An Initial Bloom of Exploration and Drought The space age celebrated its 50th

  14. International partnership in lunar missions: Inaugural address

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dr A P J Abdul Kalam

    2005-12-01

    I am delighted to participate in the 6th International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon organized by the Physical Research Laboratory,Ahmedabad.I greet the organizers, eminent planetary exploration and space scientists from India and abroad,academicians,industrialists,engineers,entrepreneurs and distinguished guests.I understand that the International Lunar Conference is a forum to discuss scienti fic results of the ongoing and future space missions related to lunar exploration.This conference will also be utilized to develop understanding on various strategies,initiatives and missions leading to a permanent human presence on our Moon as the future objective.I am happy to note that interactions that took place in the earlier conferences have been bene ficial to participating countries through the intense sharing of scientific knowledge,data and hands-on mission experiences of various space agencies pursuing lunar exploration programmes.I find that nearly 100 scientific papers are being presented in this conference and that the Moon missions being planned and conducted by all the space faring nations of the world are being presented,reviewed and discussed.I note with excitement that many key issues related to space science and Moon missions are being addressed in this conference.These deliberations are important for the world space science community.This will enable you to obtain a comprehensive picture of the goals and policies of all nations striving towards a common vision of space research,being made available for the bene fit of all mankind.Indeed this augurs well for progress towards universal peace and harmony that is a cherished goal of the people of the world as a whole.

  15. NASA Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Brian; Law, Emily

    2016-10-01

    NASA's Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling Portals provide web-based suites of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, planetary scientists, students, and the general public to access mapped lunar data products from past and current missions for the Moon, Mars, and Vesta. New portals for additional planetary bodies are being planned. This presentation will recap some of the enhancements to these products during the past year and preview work currently being undertaken.New data products added to the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP) include both generalized products as well as polar data products specifically targeting potential sites for the Resource Prospector mission. New tools being developed include traverse planning and surface potential analysis. Current development work on LMMP also includes facilitating mission planning and data management for lunar CubeSat missions. Looking ahead, LMMP is working with the NASA Astromaterials Office to integrate with their Lunar Apollo Sample database to help better visualize the geographic contexts of retrieved samples. All of this will be done within the framework of a new user interface which, among other improvements, will provide significantly enhanced 3D visualizations and navigation.Mars Trek, the project's Mars portal, has now been assigned by NASA's Planetary Science Division to support site selection and analysis for the Mars 2020 Rover mission as well as for the Mars Human Landing Exploration Zone Sites, and is being enhanced with data products and analysis tools specifically requested by the proposing teams for the various sites. NASA Headquarters is giving high priority to Mars Trek's use as a means to directly involve the public in these upcoming missions, letting them explore the areas the agency is focusing upon, understand what makes these sites so fascinating, follow the selection process, and get caught up in the excitement of exploring Mars.The portals also

  16. NASA Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Law, E.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling Portals provide web-based suites of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, planetary scientists, students, and the general public to access mapped lunar data products from past and current missions for the Moon, Mars, and Vesta. New portals for additional planetary bodies are being planned. This presentation will recap significant enhancements to these toolsets during the past year and look forward to the results of the exciting work currently being undertaken. Additional data products and tools continue to be added to the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP). These include both generalized products as well as polar data products specifically targeting potential sites for the Resource Prospector mission. Current development work on LMMP also includes facilitating mission planning and data management for lunar CubeSat missions, and working with the NASA Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office's Lunar Apollo Sample database in order to help better visualize the geographic contexts from which samples were retrieved. A new user interface provides, among other improvements, significantly enhanced 3D visualizations and navigation. Mars Trek, the project's Mars portal, has now been assigned by NASA's Planetary Science Division to support site selection and analysis for the Mars 2020 Rover mission as well as for the Mars Human Landing Exploration Zone Sites. This effort is concentrating on enhancing Mars Trek with data products and analysis tools specifically requested by the proposing teams for the various sites. Also being given very high priority by NASA Headquarters is Mars Trek's use as a means to directly involve the public in these upcoming missions, letting them explore the areas the agency is focusing upon, understand what makes these sites so fascinating, follow the selection process, and get caught up in the excitement of exploring Mars. The portals also serve as

  17. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation by lunar simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Rickman, Douglas; Schoonen, Martin A.

    2016-05-01

    The current interest in human exploration of the Moon and past experiences of Apollo astronauts has rekindled interest into the possible harmful effects of lunar dust on human health. In comparison to the Apollo-era explorations, human explorers may be weeks on the Moon, which will raise the risk of inhalation exposure. The mineralogical composition of lunar dust is well documented, but its effects on human health are not fully understood. With the aim of understanding the reactivity of dusts that may be encountered on geologically different lunar terrains, we have studied Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation by a suite of lunar simulants of different mineralogical-chemical composition dispersed in water and Simulated Lung Fluid (SLF). To further explore the reactivity of simulants under lunar environmental conditions, we compared the reactivity of simulants both in air and inert atmosphere. As the impact of micrometeorites with consequent shock-induced stresses is a major environmental factor on the Moon, we also studied the effect of mechanical stress on samples. Mechanical stress was induced by hand crushing the samples both in air and inert atmosphere. The reactivity of samples after crushing was analyzed for a period of up to nine days. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water and SLF was analyzed by an in situ electrochemical probe and hydroxyl radical (•OH) by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and Adenine probe. Out of all simulants, CSM-CL-S was found to be the most reactive simulant followed by OB-1 and then JSC-1A simulant. The overall reactivity of samples in the inert atmosphere was higher than in air. Fresh crushed samples showed a higher level of reactivity than uncrushed samples. Simulant samples treated to create agglutination, including the formation of zero-valent iron, showed less reactivity than untreated simulants. ROS generation in SLF is initially slower than in deionized water (DI), but the ROS formation is sustained for as long as 7

  18. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  19. Radiation Shielding of Lunar Regolith/Polyethylene Composites and Lunar Regolith/Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Quincy F.; Gersey, Brad; Wilkins, Richard; Zhou, Jianren

    2011-01-01

    Space radiation is a complex mixed field of ionizing radiation that can pose hazardous risks to sophisticated electronics and humans. Mission planning for lunar exploration and long duration habitat construction will face tremendous challenges of shielding against various types of space radiation in an attempt to minimize the detrimental effects it may have on materials, electronics, and humans. In late 2009, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) discovered that water content in lunar regolith found in certain areas on the moon can be up to 5.6 +/-2.8 weight percent (wt%) [A. Colaprete, et. al., Science, Vol. 330, 463 (2010). ]. In this work, shielding studies were performed utilizing ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and aluminum, both being standard space shielding materials, simulated lunar regolith/ polyethylene composites, and simulated lunar regolith mixed with UHMWPE particles and water. Based on the LCROSS findings, radiation shielding experiments were conducted to test for shielding efficiency of regolith/UHMWPE/water mixtures with various percentages of water to compare relative shielding characteristics of these materials. One set of radiation studies were performed using the proton synchrotron at the Loma Linda Medical University where high energy protons similar to those found on the surface of the moon can be generated. A similar experimental protocol was also used at a high energy spalation neutron source at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). These experiments studied the shielding efficiency against secondary neutrons, another major component of space radiation field. In both the proton and neutron studies, shielding efficiency was determined by utilizing a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) behind various thicknesses of shielding composite panels or mixture materials. Preliminary results from these studies indicated that adding 2 wt% water to regolith particles could increase shielding of

  20. Report from ILEWG and Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    2009-04-01

    We shall report on the ILEWG charter, goals and activities, on ICEUM "lunar declarations" and follow-up activities, with focus on societal questions, and the Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration 2008. ILEWG charter: ILEWG , the International Lunar Exploration Working Group is a public forum created in 1994, sponsored by the world's space agencies to support "international cooperation towards a world strategy for the exploration and utilization of the Moon - our natural satellite". The charter of ILEWG is: - To develop an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon - To establish a forum and mechanisms for the communication and coordination of activities - To implement international coordination and cooperation - In order to facilitate communication among all interested parties ILEWG agrees to establish an electronic communication network for exchange of science, technology and programmatic information related to lunar activities ILEWG meets regularly, at least, once a year, and leads the organization of an International Conference in order to discuss the state of lunar exploration. Formal reports are given at COSPAR meetings and to space agencies. ILEWG is sponsored by the world's space agencies and is intended to serve three relevant groups: - actual members of the ILEWG, ie delegates and repre-sentatives of the participating Space Agencies and organizations - allowing them to discuss and possibly harmonize their draft concepts and plans - team members of the relevant space projects - allowing them to coordinate their internal work according to the guidelines provided by the Charter of the ILEWG - members of the general public and of the Lunar Explorer's Society who are interested and wish to be informed on the progress of the Moon projects and possibly contribute their own ideas ILEWG activities and working groups: ILEWG task groups include science, technology, human aspects, socio-economics, young explorers and outreach, programmatics, roadmaps and

  1. Recent Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John W.; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Garvin, James B.; Rice, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September, 2012. The LRO mission has been extended for two years under SMD. The extended mission focuses on a new set of goals related to understanding the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution Of the Solar System. Here we will review the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including plans for the extended science phase out to 2014. Results from the LRO mission include but are not limited to the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the day and night time temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs, evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon, and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions as the poles. The objectives for the second and extended science phases of the mission under SMD include: 1) understanding the bombardment history of the Moon, 2) interpreting Lunar geologic processes, 3) mapping the global Lunar regolith, 4) identifying volatiles on the Moon, and 5

  2. Lunar Outpost Life Support Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering trade-off studies of life support system architecture and technology options were conducted for potential lunar surface mission scenarios within NASA's Constellation Program. The scenarios investigated are based largely on results of the NASA Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) Phase II study. In particular, the possibility of Hosted Sortie missions, the high cost of power during eclipse periods, and the potential to reduce life support consumables through scavenging, in-situ resources, and alternative EVA technologies were all examined. These trade studies were performed within the Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) element of NASA's Exploration Life Support (ELS) technology development project. The tools and methodology used in the study are described briefly, followed by a discussion of mission scenarios, life support technology options and results presented in terms of equivalent system mass for various regenerative life support technologies and architectures. Three classes of repeated or extended lunar surface missions were investigated in this study along with several life support resource scenarios for each mission class. Individual mission durations of 14 days, 90 days and 180 days were considered with 10 missions assumed for each at a rate of 2 missions per year. The 14-day missions represent a class of Hosted Sortie missions where a pre-deployed and potentially mobile habitat provides life support for multiple crews at one or more locations. The 90-day and 180-day missions represent lunar outpost expeditions with a larger fixed habitat. The 180-day missions assume continuous human presence and must provide life support through eclipse periods of up to 122 hours while the 90-day missions are planned for best-case periods of nearly continuous sunlight. This paper investigates system optimization within the assumptions of each scenario and addresses how the scenario selected drives the life support system to different designs

  3. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  4. Exploring Manual-Control Strategy for Manned Lunar Soft Landing%载人登月软着陆中手动控制制导方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹莹; 吕纪远; 周军

    2012-01-01

    Sections 1 though 3 of the full paper explain our exploration mentioned in the title, which we believe provides some results useful in China and whose core consists of; " First, the approach phase and landing phase are introduced in which crew visibility and manual control are available. The coordinate systems and dynamic model of the lunar module are also established. Second, the TV guidance strategy is presented. The manual control delay model is considered in the guidance system. Desired landing location can be chosen directly by the pilot from the TV visual field. This location is used to renew the states of the guidance system and realized by a nominal trajectory guidance law. Then, porthole guidance strategy used in the Apollo mission is discussed. In this manual landing system, the vision of the pilot is limited by the lunar module's forward window. Furthermore, the pilot is restricted to only making incremental changes manually. " Simulation results, presented in Figs. 4 though 8 and Tables 1 and 2, and their analysis show preliminarily that: (1) the landing optional region of TV guidance strategy is considerably larger than that of porthole guidance one; the in-plane location can be retargeted from - 1000 m to 4000 m for TV guidance, and from -161.7 m to 1424.2m for porthole guidance; (2) it is also verified that the earlier the manual control intervenes, the larger is the landing retarget region; ( 3 ) the attitude maneuver angle of TV guidance is bigger than that of porthole guidance.%针对载人登月软着陆的接近段和着陆段,研究手动控制重新选址方案.首先引入了载人登月阶段划分,建立了登月舱动力学模型,然后对电视制导和舷窗制导2种手动控制选址方案进行了比较.电视制导方案中,宇航员能够直接在视场内选择新的着月点,并由自动控制系统实现对目标的制导;传统的舷窗制导要求宇航员全程参与控制,主要约束包括手动控制的延迟以及

  5. Lunar hand tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Karl F.; Coleman, Robert D.; Dubnik, Kathy; Marshall, William S.; Mcentee, Amy; Na, Sae H.; Patton, Scott G.; West, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    Tools useful for operations and maintenance tasks on the lunar surface were determined and designed. Primary constraints are the lunar environment, the astronaut's space suit and the strength limits of the astronaut on the moon. A multipurpose rotary motion tool and a collapsible tool carrier were designed. For the rotary tool, a brushless motor and controls were specified, a material for the housing was chosen, bearings and lubrication were recommended and a planetary reduction gear attachment was designed. The tool carrier was designed primarily for ease of access to the tools and fasteners. A material was selected and structural analysis was performed on the carrier. Recommendations were made about the limitations of human performance and about possible attachments to the torque driver.

  6. Design and Demonstration of Minimal Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Exohab Team

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: We propose a conceptual analysis of a first minimal lunar base, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture [1-3]. We justify the case for a scientific outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of the Earth, geophysical and geochemical studies of the Moon, life sciences, observation from the Moon). Research: Research activities will be conducted with this first settlement in: - science (of, from and on the Moon) - exploration (robotic mobility, rover, drilling), - technology (communication, command, organisation, automatism). Life sciences. The life sciences aspects are considered through a life support for a crew of 4 (habitat) and a laboratory activity with biological experiments performed on Earth or LEO, but then without any magnetosphere protection and therefore with direct cosmic rays and solar particle effects. Moreover, the ability of studying the lunar environment in the field will be a big asset before settling a permanent base [3-5]. Lunar environment. The lunar environment adds constraints to instruments specifications (vacuum, extreme temperature, regolith, seism, micrometeorites). SMART-1 and other missions data will bring geometrical, chemical and physical details about the environment (soil material characteristics, on surface conditions …). Test bench. To assess planetary technologies and operations preparing for Mars human exploration. Lunar outpost predesign modular concept: To allow a human presence on the moon and to carry out these experiments, we will give a pre-design of a human minimal lunar base. Through a modular concept, this base will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon

  7. Proactive Integration of Planetary Protection Needs Into Early Design Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine

    Planetary protection (PP) policies established by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science have been in force effectively for five decades, ensuring responsible exploration and the integrity of science activities, for both human and robotic missions in the Solar System beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). At present, operations on most bodies in the solar system are not constrained by planetary protection considerations because they cannot be contaminated by Earth life in ways that impact future space exploration. However, operations on Mars, Europa, and Enceladus, which represent locations with biological potential, are subject to strict planetary protection constraints for missions of all types because they can potentially be contaminated by organisms brought from Earth. Forward contamination control for robotic missions is generally accomplished through a combination of activities that reduce the bioload of microbial hitchhikers on outbound spacecraft prior to launch. Back contamination control for recent robotic missions has chiefly been accomplished by selecting sample-return targets that have little or no potential for extant life (e.g., cometary particles returned by Stardust mission). In the post-Apollo era, no human missions have had to deal with planetary protection constraints because they have never left Earth orbit. Future human missions to Mars, for example, will experience many of the challenges faced by the Apollo lunar missions, with the added possibility that astronauts on Mars may encounter habitable environments in their exploration or activities. Current COSPAR PP Principles indicate that safeguarding the Earth from potential back contamination is the highest planetary protection priority in Mars exploration. While guidelines for planetary protection controls on human missions to Mars have been established by COSPAR, detailed engineering constraints and processes for implementation of these guidelines have not

  8. Microwave brightness temperature imaging and dielectric properties of lunar soil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wu Ji; Li Dihui; Zhang Xiaohui; Jiang Jingshan; A T Altyntsev; B I Lubyshev

    2005-12-01

    Among many scientific objectives of lunar exploration, investigations on lunar soil become attractive due to the existence of He3 and ilmenite in the lunar soil and their possible utilization as nuclear fuel for power generation.Although the composition of the lunar surface soil can be determined by optical and /X-ray spectrometers, etc., the evaluation of the total reserves of He3 and ilmenite within the regolith and in the lunar interior are still not available.In this paper,we give a rough analysis of the microwave brightness temperature images of the lunar disc observed using the NRAO 12 meter Telescope and Siberian Solar Radio Telescope.We also present the results of the microwave dielectric properties of terrestrial analogues of lunar soil and,discuss some basic relations between the microwave brightness temperature and lunar soil properties.

  9. Telerobotic exploration and development of the Moon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B L Cooper; B Sharpe; D Schrunk; M Thangavelu

    2005-12-01

    There has been a debate for the last thirty years about the relative merits of human versus robotic systems and we argue here that both are essential components for successful lunar exploration and development.We examine the role of robots in the next phases of exploration and human development of the Moon.The historical use of robots and humans in exploration is discussed,including Apollo-era exploration,International Space Station,and deep-water petroleum exploration.The technological challenges of lunar operations are addressed in the context of how robotic systems can be designed for robust and flexible operations.System design recommendations are given based on the lessons learned from terrestrial and space robotics.

  10. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ˜5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (˜4 beat/min and ˜5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (˜5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations.

  11. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ∼5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (∼4 beat/min and ∼5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (∼5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations.

  12. Resource Prospector: An Update on the Lunar Volatiles Prospecting and ISRU Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R.; Andrews, D.; Trimble, J.; Bluethmann, B.; Quinn, J.; Chavers, G.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last two decades a wealth of new observations of the moon have demonstrated a lunar water system dramatically more complex and rich than was deduced following the Apollo era. Lunar water, and other volatiles, have the potential to be a valuable or enabling resource for future exploration. The NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) have selected a lunar volatiles prospecting mission for a concept study and potential flight in CY2021. The mission includes a rover-borne payload that (1) can locate surface and near-subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile- bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials.

  13. Lunar science: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stuart Ross Taylor

    2005-12-01

    Before spacecraft exploration,facts about the Moon were restricted to information about the lunar orbit,angular momentum and density.Speculations about composition and origin were unconstrained.Naked eye and telescope observations revealed two major terrains,the old heavily cratered highlands and the younger mostly circular,lightly cratered maria.The lunar highlands were thought to be composed of granite or covered with volcanic ash-flows.The maria were thought to be sediments,or were full of dust,and possibly only a few million years old.A few perceptive observers such as Ralph Baldwin (Baldwin 1949)concluded that the maria were filled with volcanic lavas, but the absence of terrestrial-type central volcanoes like Hawaii was a puzzle. The large circular craters were particularly difficult to interpret.Some thought,even after the Apollo flights,that they were some analogue to terrestrial caldera (e.g.,Green 1971),formed by explosive volcanic activity and that the central peaks were volcanoes.The fact that the craters were mostly circular was difficult to accommodate if they were due to meteorite impact,as meteorites would hit the Moon at all angles.The rilles were taken by many as de finitive evidence that there was or had been,running water on the lunar surface.Others such as Carl Sagan thought that organic compounds were likely present (see Taylor 1975,p.111,note 139).

  14. 月球返回再入着陆场位置选择限定因素分析%Analysis on Selection Considerations of Lunar Exploration Mission Reentry Landing Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵学龙; 潘腾; 郭海林

    2011-01-01

    Lunar exploration mission reentry landing site affects not only the trans-Earth and reentry trajectories, but also the whole mission analysis and design.So its location determination is very important.This paper studies the relative positions between the vehicle, the Moon and the Earth, and the characters of the trans-Earth and reentry trajectories, analyzes some considerations of lunar reentry landing site latitude and its center position, and then gives some useful conclusions which will be very useful to the analysis and design of the future lunar soil sampling missions and manned lunar missions.%月球返回再入着陆场不仅影响月-地返回转移和返回再入飞行,同时也影响整个月球飞行任务的规划和设计.文章首先分析了航天器与地-月间的相对位置关系;结合月-地返回转移及返回再入轨道特性,理清了月球、地球着陆场和航天器三者在惯性空间内相对位置的内在约束关系;最后分析并通过仿真研究,明确了制约航天器返回再入着陆场位置选择的限定因素,可为载人月球飞行和月球取样返回任务的分析设计提供有益参考.

  15. Establishing lunar resource viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Fisackerly, R.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential of lunar resources as an important element of space exploration but their viability has not been demonstrated. Establishing whether or not they can be considered in future plans is a multidisciplinary effort, requiring scientific expertise and delivering scientific results. To this end various space agencies and private entities are looking to lunar resources, extracted and processed in situ, as a potentially game changing element in future space architectures, with the potential to increase scale and reduce cost. However, before any decisions can be made on the inclusion of resources in exploration roadmaps or future scenarios some big questions need to be answered about the viability of different resource deposits and the processes for extraction and utilisation. The missions and measurements that will be required to answer these questions, and which are being prepared by agencies and others, can only be performed through the engagement and support of the science community. In answering questions about resources, data and knowledge will be generated that is of fundamental scientific importance. In supporting resource prospecting missions the science community will de facto generate new scientific knowledge. Science enables exploration and exploration enables science.

  16. Lunar Regolith Stabilization for Excavation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During lunar exploration, regolith is both the major available resource and a substantial obstacle in establishing a long-term presence. The fine surface dust is...

  17. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  18. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Mercury and Saturn Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed. Unique elements of the local planetary environments are discussed and included in the analyses and assessments. Using historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many way. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed.

  19. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial

  20. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  1. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  2. Global Lunar Gravity Field Recovery from SELENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Heki, Kosuke; Hanada, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    Results of numerical simulation are presented to examine the global gravity field recovery capability of the Japanese lunar exploration project SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) which will be launched in 2005. New characteristics of the SELENE lunar gravimetry include four-way satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking of main orbiter and differential VLBI tracking of two small free-flier satellites. It is shown that planned satellites configuration will improve lunar gravity field in wide range of wavelength as well as far-side selenoid.

  3. Lunar sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuck, David L.

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  4. Lunar Surface Reference Missions: A Description of Human and Robotic Surface Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael B.; Hoffman, Stephen J.; Snook, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Most medical equipment to the International Space Station (ISS) is manisfested as part of the U.S. or the Russian medical hardware systems. However, certain medical hardware is also available as part of the Human Research Facility. The HRF and the JSC Medical Operations Branch established a Memorandum of Agreement for joint use of certain medical hardware, including the HRF ultrasound system, the only diagnostic imaging device currently manifested to fly on ISS. The outcome of a medical contingency may be changed drastically, or an unnecessary evacuation may be prevented, if clinical decisions are supported by timely and objective diagnostic information. In many higher-probability medical scenarios, diagnostic ultrasound is a first-choice modality or provides significant diagnostic information. Accordingly, the Clinical Care Capability Development Project is evaluating the HRF ultrasound system for its utility in relevant clinical siruations on board ISS. For effective management of these ultrasound-supported ISS medical scenarios, the resulting data should be available for viewing and interpretation on the ground, and bidirectional voice communication should be readily available to allow ground experts (sonographers, physicians) to provide guidance to the Crew Medical Officer. It may also be vitally important to have the capability of real-time guidance via video uplink to the CMO-opertor during an exam to facilitate the diagnosis in a timely fashion.

  5. Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Green

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated.

  6. Exploring host-microbiota interactions in animal models and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Aleksandar D; Howitt, Michael R; Garrett, Wendy S

    2013-04-01

    The animal and bacterial kingdoms have coevolved and coadapted in response to environmental selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. The meta'omics revolution in both sequencing and its analytic pipelines is fostering an explosion of interest in how the gut microbiome impacts physiology and propensity to disease. Gut microbiome studies are inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on approaches and technical skill sets from the biomedical sciences, ecology, and computational biology. Central to unraveling the complex biology of environment, genetics, and microbiome interaction in human health and disease is a deeper understanding of the symbiosis between animals and bacteria. Experimental model systems, including mice, fish, insects, and the Hawaiian bobtail squid, continue to provide critical insight into how host-microbiota homeostasis is constructed and maintained. Here we consider how model systems are influencing current understanding of host-microbiota interactions and explore recent human microbiome studies.

  7. Assessment of lunar sources of He-3 for use on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Robert E.

    1988-09-01

    As a gross measure of the economics of mining lunar sources of He-3, the energy densities (GJ/ton) of lunar soils were compared with the energy densities of various existing and future terrestrial sources of energy. On this basis, only the very richest lunar ores appear competitive with coal. Future lunar exploration might emphasize identification of lunar soils having higher concentrations of He-3.

  8. Exploring the existence and potential underpinnings of dog-human and horse-human attachment bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elyssa; DeAraugo, Jodi; Bennett, Pauleen; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    This article reviews evidence for the existence of attachment bonds directed toward humans in dog-human and horse-human dyads. It explores each species' alignment with the four features of a typical attachment bond: separation-related distress, safe haven, secure base and proximity seeking. While dog-human dyads show evidence of each of these, there is limited alignment for horse-human dyads. These differences are discussed in the light of the different selection paths of domestic dogs and horses as well as the different contexts in which the two species interact with humans. The role of emotional intelligence in humans as a potential mediator for human-animal relationships, attachment or otherwise, is also examined. Finally, future studies, which may clarify the interplay between attachment, human-animal relationships and emotional intelligence, are proposed. Such avenues of research may help us explore the concepts of trust and bonding that are often said to occur at the dog-human and horse-human interface.

  9. Science Operations on the Lunar Surface - Understanding the Past, Testing in the Present, Considering the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2013-01-01

    The scientific success of any future human lunar exploration mission will be strongly dependent on design of both the systems and operations practices that underpin crew operations on the lunar surface. Inept surface mission preparation and design will either ensure poor science return, or will make achieving quality science operation unacceptably difficult for the crew and the mission operations and science teams. In particular, ensuring a robust system for managing real-time science information flow during surface operations, and ensuring the crews receive extensive field training in geological sciences, are as critical to mission success as reliable spacecraft and a competent operations team.

  10. Lunar meteoritic gardening rate derived from in situ LADEE/LDEX measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály

    2016-05-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). LDEX was uniquely equipped to characterize the current rate of lunar impact gardening as it measured the very particles taking part in this process. By deriving an average lunar dust density distribution, we calculate the rate at which exospheric dust rains back down onto the lunar surface. Near the equatorial plane, we find that approximately 40 μm/Myr of lunar regolith, with a cumulative size distribution index of 2.7, is redistributed due to meteoritic bombardment, a process which occurs predominantly on the lunar apex hemisphere.

  11. Desert RATS 2011: Near-Earth Asteroid Human Exploration Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Chappel, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) 2011 field test involved the planning and execution of a series of exploration scenarios under operational conditions similar to those that would be expected during a human exploration mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA). The focus was on understanding the operations tempo during simulated NEA exploration and the implications of communications latency and limited data bandwidth. Anchoring technologies and sampling techniques were not evaluated due to the immaturity of those technologies and the inability to meaningfully test them at D-RATS. Reduced gravity analogs and simulations are being used to fully evaluate Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) and extravehicular (EVA) operations and interactions in near-weightlessness at a NEA as part of NASA s integrated analogs program. Hypotheses were tested by planning and performing a series of 1-day simulated exploration excursions comparing test conditions all of which involved a single Deep Space Habitat (DSH) and either zero, one, or two MMSEVs; three or four crewmembers; one of two different communications bandwidths; and a 100-second roundtrip communications latency between the field site and Houston. Excursions were executed at the Black Point Lava Flow test site with a Mission Control Center and Science Support Room at Johnson Space Center (JSC) being operated with 100-second roundtrip communication latency to the field. Crews were composed of astronauts and professional field geologists and teams of Mission Operations, Science, and Education & Public Outreach (EPO) experts also supported the mission simulations each day. Data were collected separately from the Crew, Mission Operations, Science, and EPO teams to assess the test conditions from multiple perspectives. For the operations tested, data indicates practically significant benefits may be realized by including at least one MMSEV and by including 4 versus 3 crewmembers in the NEA exploration

  12. Human Exploration of the Solar System by 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ronald J.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that the U.S., in concert with private entities and international partners, set itself on a course to accomplish human exploration of the solar system by the end of this century. This is a strikingly bold vision intended to revitalize the aspirations of HSF in service to the security, economic, and scientific interests of the nation. Solar system distance and time scales impose severe requirements on crewed space transportation systems, however, and fully realizing all objectives in support of this goal will require a multi-decade commitment employing radically advanced technologies - most prominently, space habitats capable of sustaining and protecting life in harsh radiation environments under zero gravity conditions and in-space propulsion technologies capable of rapid deep space transits with earth return, the subject of this paper. While near term mission destinations such as the moon and Mars can be accomplished with chemical propulsion and/or high power SEP, fundamental capability constraints render these traditional systems ineffective for solar system wide exploration. Nuclear based propulsion and alternative energetic methods, on the other hand, represent potential avenues, perhaps the only viable avenues, to high specific power space transport evincing reduced trip time, reduced IMLEO, and expanded deep space reach. Here, very long term HSF objectives for solar system wide exploration are examined in relation to the advanced propulsion technology solution landscape including foundational science, technical/engineering challenges, and developmental prospects.

  13. Scientific return of a lunar elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Radley, C. F.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing the capabilities of robotic and human explorers. These missions use planetary scale tethers, strings many thousands of kilometers long stabilized either by rotation or by gravitational gradients. These systems promise major reduction in transport costs versus chemical rockets, in a rapid timeframe, for a modest investment. Science will thus benefit as well as commercial activities.

  14. Scientific Return of a Lunar Elevator

    CERN Document Server

    Eubanks, T M

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing the capabilities of robotic and human explorers. These missions use planetary scale tethers, strings many thousands of kilometers long stabilized either by rotation or by gravitational gradients. These systems promise major reduction in transport costs versus chemical rockets, in a rapid timeframe, for a modest investment. Science will thus benefit as well as commercial activities.

  15. Lunar base initiative 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, H. H.

    The return to the Moon is no longer a question of yes or no, but a question of when and how. The first landing of a human being on the lunar surface in 1969 was a purely national effort of the U.S.A. Building a lunar base and operating it in the next century is rather a task for all nations of this planet, even if one nation could do it alone. However, there are several alternatives to carry out such a program and these will and should be debated during the next years on an urgent basis. To do this, one has to take into account not only the historical accomplishments and the present trends of cooperation in space programs, but also recent geopolitical developments as well as the frame of reference established by international law. The case for an International Lunar Base (ILB) has been presented to the International Academy of Astronautics on 11 October 1987 by the IAA Ad Hoc Committee "Return-to-the-Moon". This draft of a position paper was subsequently published in Acta Astronautica Vol. 17, No. 5, (pp. 463-489) with the request of public debate particularly by the members of the Academy. Some 80 Academicians responded to this invitation by the President of the Academy and voiced their opinions on the questions and issues raised by this draft of a position paper. This led to a refinement of the arguments and assumptions made and it is now possible to prepare an improved position paper proposing concrete steps which may lead to an ILB. An issue of this proportion must start with a discussion of goals and objectives to be arranged in some kind of a ranked order. It also has to take note of the limitations existing at any time by the availability of suitable space transportation systems. These will determine the acquisition date and rate of growth of a lunar base. The logistics system will also greatly influence the base characteristics and layout. The availability of heavy lift launch vehicles would simplify the task and allow to concentrate the construction

  16. ENGINES: exploring single nucleotide variation in entire human genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Antonio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation ultra-sequencing technologies are starting to produce extensive quantities of data from entire human genome or exome sequences, and therefore new software is needed to present and analyse this vast amount of information. The 1000 Genomes project has recently released raw data for 629 complete genomes representing several human populations through their Phase I interim analysis and, although there are certain public tools available that allow exploration of these genomes, to date there is no tool that permits comprehensive population analysis of the variation catalogued by such data. Description We have developed a genetic variant site explorer able to retrieve data for Single Nucleotide Variation (SNVs, population by population, from entire genomes without compromising future scalability and agility. ENGINES (ENtire Genome INterface for Exploring SNVs uses data from the 1000 Genomes Phase I to demonstrate its capacity to handle large amounts of genetic variation (>7.3 billion genotypes and 28 million SNVs, as well as deriving summary statistics of interest for medical and population genetics applications. The whole dataset is pre-processed and summarized into a data mart accessible through a web interface. The query system allows the combination and comparison of each available population sample, while searching by rs-number list, chromosome region, or genes of interest. Frequency and FST filters are available to further refine queries, while results can be visually compared with other large-scale Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP repositories such as HapMap or Perlegen. Conclusions ENGINES is capable of accessing large-scale variation data repositories in a fast and comprehensive manner. It allows quick browsing of whole genome variation, while providing statistical information for each variant site such as allele frequency, heterozygosity or FST values for genetic differentiation. Access to the data mart

  17. Lunar Ice Cube: Searching for Lunar Volatiles with a lunar cubesat orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Pamela E.; Malphrus, Ben; Brown, Kevin; Hurford, Terry; Brambora, Cliff; MacDowall, Robert; Folta, David; Tsay, Michael; Brandon, Carl; Lunar Ice Cube Team

    2016-10-01

    Lunar Ice Cube, a NASA HEOMD NextSTEP science requirements-driven deep space exploration 6U cubesat, will be deployed, with 12 others, by NASA's EM1 mission. The mission's high priority science application is understanding volatile origin, distribution, and ongoing processes in the inner solar system. JPL's Lunar Flashlight, and Arizona State University's LunaH-Map, also lunar orbiters to be deployed by EM1, will provide complementary observations. Lunar Ice Cube utilizes a versatile GSFC-developed payload: BIRCHES, Broadband InfraRed Compact, High-resolution Exploration Spectrometer, a miniaturized version of OVIRS on OSIRIS-REx. BIRCHES is a compact (1.5U, 2 kg, 20 W including cryocooler) point spectrometer with a compact cryocooled HgCdTe focal plane array for broadband (1 to 4 micron) measurements and Linear Variable Filter enabling 10 nm spectral resolution. The instrument will achieve sufficient SNR to identify water in various forms, mineral bands, and potentially other volatiles seen by LCROSS (e.g., CH4) as well. GSFC is developing compact instrument electronics easily configurable for H1RG family of focal plane arrays. The Lunar Ice Cube team is led by Morehead State University, who will provide build, integrate and test the spacecraft and provide mission operations. Onboard communication will be provided by the X-band JPL Iris Radio and dual X-band patch antennas. Ground communication will be provided by the DSN X-band network, particularly the Morehead State University 21-meter substation. Flight Dynamics support is provided by GSFC. The Busek micropropulsion system in a low energy trajectory will allow the spacecraft to achieve the science orbit less than a year. The high inclination, equatorial periapsis orbit will allow coverage of overlapping swaths once every lunar cycle at up to six different times of day (from dawn to dusk) as the mission progresses during its nominal six month science mapping period. Led by the JPL Science PI, the Lunar Ice Cube

  18. 78 FR 42805 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration Operations Committee; Research... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Research Subcommittee of the Human Exploration and Operations Committee (HEOC) of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports...

  19. The effect of the Earth's oblateness on predicting the shadow conditions of a distant spacecraft: Application to a fictitious lunar explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Joo; Kim, Bang-Yeop

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the Earth's oblateness on predicting the shadow events of a lunar spacecraft caused by the Earth's shadow is analyzed in this study. To ensure a reliable analysis, the proven 'line-of-intersection' method is modified and directly applied to predict the shadow conditions using a spheroidal model of the Earth and a conical shadow model. Two major lunar mission phases, namely, transfer and orbiting, are considered with corresponding fictitious initial conditions, and eclipse events are predicted and the results are compared using both spherical and spheroidal Earth models. For the lunar transfer phase, for which an Earth-bound highly elliptical orbit is assumed, not only the predicted entry and exit times of an event but also its duration are found to be more strongly shifted as the apogee altitude increases; for perigee and apogee altitudes of 1000 and 380,000 km, respectively, the maximum difference in predicted duration is found to be approximately 0.76 min for a penumbra event. For the lunar orbiting phase, for which a circular orbit around the Moon at an altitude of 100 km is assumed, a prediction difference of approximately half a minute on average and approximately one minute at maximum (e.g., 0.73 min for qumbra events, 1.03 min for penumbra events and 1.32 min for 'instantaneous' full sunlight events) can occur. The results of the present analysis highlight the importance of modeling the oblate shape of the Earth when predicting the shadow events of a distant spacecraft, and they are expected to provide numerous insights for any missions involving highly elliptical orbits around the Earth or travel to the Moon.

  20. Conceptual Design of a Communications Relay Satellite for a Lunar Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Christopher W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, NASA solicited proposals for a robotic exploration of the lunar surface. Submissions were requested for a lunar sample return mission from the South Pole-Aitken Basin. The basin is of interest because it is thought to contain some of the oldest accessible rocks on the lunar surface. A mission is under study that will land a spacecraft in the basin, collect a sample of rock fragments, and return the sample to Earth. Because the Aitken Basin is on the far side of the Moon, the lander will require a communications relay satellite (CRS) to maintain contact with the Earth during its surface operation. Design of the CRS's orbit is therefore critical. This paper describes a mission design which includes potential transfer and mission orbits, required changes in velocity, orbital parameters, and mission dates. Several different low lunar polar orbits are examined to compare their availability to the lander versus the distance over which they must communicate. In addition, polar orbits are compared to a halo orbit about the Earth-Moon L2 point, which would permit continuous communication at a cost of increased fuel requirements and longer transmission distances. This thesis also examines some general parameters of the spacecraft systems for the mission under study. Mission requirements for the lander dictate the eventual choice of mission orbit. This mission could be the first step in a period of renewed lunar exploration and eventual human landings.

  1. Exploring human disease using the Rat Genome Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Shimoyama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rattus norvegicus, the laboratory rat, has been a crucial model for studies of the environmental and genetic factors associated with human diseases for over 150 years. It is the primary model organism for toxicology and pharmacology studies, and has features that make it the model of choice in many complex-disease studies. Since 1999, the Rat Genome Database (RGD; http://rgd.mcw.edu has been the premier resource for genomic, genetic, phenotype and strain data for the laboratory rat. The primary role of RGD is to curate rat data and validate orthologous relationships with human and mouse genes, and make these data available for incorporation into other major databases such as NCBI, Ensembl and UniProt. RGD also provides official nomenclature for rat genes, quantitative trait loci, strains and genetic markers, as well as unique identifiers. The RGD team adds enormous value to these basic data elements through functional and disease annotations, the analysis and visual presentation of pathways, and the integration of phenotype measurement data for strains used as disease models. Because much of the rat research community focuses on understanding human diseases, RGD provides a number of datasets and software tools that allow users to easily explore and make disease-related connections among these datasets. RGD also provides comprehensive human and mouse data for comparative purposes, illustrating the value of the rat in translational research. This article introduces RGD and its suite of tools and datasets to researchers – within and beyond the rat community – who are particularly interested in leveraging rat-based insights to understand human diseases.

  2. Exploring human disease using the Rat Genome Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulederkind, Stanley J. F.; De Pons, Jeff; Nigam, Rajni; Smith, Jennifer R.; Tutaj, Marek; Petri, Victoria; Hayman, G. Thomas; Wang, Shur-Jen; Ghiasvand, Omid; Thota, Jyothi; Dwinell, Melinda R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rattus norvegicus, the laboratory rat, has been a crucial model for studies of the environmental and genetic factors associated with human diseases for over 150 years. It is the primary model organism for toxicology and pharmacology studies, and has features that make it the model of choice in many complex-disease studies. Since 1999, the Rat Genome Database (RGD; http://rgd.mcw.edu) has been the premier resource for genomic, genetic, phenotype and strain data for the laboratory rat. The primary role of RGD is to curate rat data and validate orthologous relationships with human and mouse genes, and make these data available for incorporation into other major databases such as NCBI, Ensembl and UniProt. RGD also provides official nomenclature for rat genes, quantitative trait loci, strains and genetic markers, as well as unique identifiers. The RGD team adds enormous value to these basic data elements through functional and disease annotations, the analysis and visual presentation of pathways, and the integration of phenotype measurement data for strains used as disease models. Because much of the rat research community focuses on understanding human diseases, RGD provides a number of datasets and software tools that allow users to easily explore and make disease-related connections among these datasets. RGD also provides comprehensive human and mouse data for comparative purposes, illustrating the value of the rat in translational research. This article introduces RGD and its suite of tools and datasets to researchers – within and beyond the rat community – who are particularly interested in leveraging rat-based insights to understand human diseases. PMID:27736745

  3. Hazard Detection Methods for Lunar Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Tye; Zimpfer, Doug; Robertson, Edward; Epp, Chirold; Paschall, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The methods and experiences from the Apollo Program are fundamental building blocks for the development of lunar landing strategies for the Constellation Program. Each of the six lunar landing Apollo missions landed under near ideal lighting conditions. The astronauts visually performed terrain relative navigation while looking out of windows, and were greatly aided by external communication and well lit scenes. As the LM approached the landing site, the astronauts performed visual hazard detection and avoidance, also under near-ideal lighting conditions. The astronauts were looking out of the windows trying to the best of their ability to avoid rocks, slopes, and craters and find a safe landing location. NASA has expressed a desire for global lunar access for both crewed and robotic sortie lunar exploration missions (Cook, 2007) (Dale, 2006). Early NASA architecture studies have identified the lunar poles as desirable locations for early lunar missions. These polar missions have less than ideal lighting conditions and will significantly affect the way a crewed vehicle plans to land at such locales. Consequently, a variety of hazard identification methods should be considered for use by the crew to ensure a high degree of safety. This paper discusses such identification methods applicable to the poorly lit polar lunar environment, better ensuring global access for the soon to be designed Lunar Lander Vehicle (LLV).

  4. The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S.; French, R.; Nall, M.; Muery, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) is managing the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling tools and data products that support lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test, and operations associated with crewed and/or robotic operations on the lunar surface. In addition, LMMP should prove to be a convenient and useful tool for scientific analysis and for education and public outreach (E/PO) activities. LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Lunar Prospector, Clementine, Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, and Chandrayaan-1) as available and appropriate. LMMP will provide such products as image mosaics, DEMs, hazard assessment maps, temperature maps, lighting maps and models, gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and ensure the highest quality data products. A beta version of the LMMP software was released for limited distribution in December 2009, with the public release of version 1 expected in the Fall of 2010.

  5. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Stage Technology Options for NASA's Future Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners and designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (Isp ~ 850-1000 seconds) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~ 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a ``dual mode'' system capable of generating stage electrical power. At present, NASA is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, ``single burn'' trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's ``First Lunar Outpost'' (FLO) mission to all propulsive, ``multi-burn,'' spacecraft supporting a ``split cargo/piloted sprint'' Mars mission architecture. Two ``proven'' solid core NTR concepts are examined -one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application)-derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide ``twisted ribbon'' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Integrated systems and mission study results are used in designing ``aerobraked'' and ``all propulsive'' Mars vehicle concepts which are mass-, and volume-compatible with both a reference 240 metric tonne (t) heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and a smaller 120 t HLLV option. For the ``aerobraked'' scenario, the 2010 piloted mission determines the size of the expendable trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage which is a growth version of the FLO TLI stage. An ``all-propulsive'' Moon/Mars mission architecture is also described which uses common ``modular'' engine and stage hardware consisting of: (1) clustered 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NDR or CIS engines; (2) two ``standardized'' liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank sizes; and (3) ``dual mode'' NTR and refrigeration system technologies for long duration missions. The ``modular'' NTR approach can form the basis for a ``faster, safer, and cheaper'' space transportation system for tomorrow's piloted missions to the Moon and Mars.

  6. Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Brian F.; Robinson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing effort named HESTIA (Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement), led at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to promote a cross-subsystem approach to developing Mars-enabling technologies with the ultimate goal of integrated system optimization. HESTIA also aims to develop the infrastructure required to rapidly test these highly integrated systems at a low cost. The initial focus is on the common fluids architecture required to enable human exploration of mars, specifically between life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) subsystems. An overview of the advancements in both integrated technologies, in infrastructure, in simulation, and in modeling capabilities will be presented, as well as the results and findings of integrated testing,. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth), minimization of surface hardware and commodities is paramount. Hardware requirements can be minimized by reduction of equipment performing similar functions though for different subsystems. If hardware could be developed which meets the requirements of both life support and ISRU it could result in the reduction of primary hardware and/or reduction in spares. Minimization of commodities to the surface of mars can be achieved through the creation of higher efficiency systems producing little to no undesired waste, such as a closed-loop life support subsystem. Where complete efficiency is impossible or impractical, makeup commodities could be manufactured via ISRU. Although, utilization of ISRU products (oxygen and water) for crew consumption holds great promise of reducing demands on life support hardware, there exist concerns as to the purity and transportation of commodities. To date, ISRU has been focused on production rates and purities for

  7. ISRU in the Context of Future European Human Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. M.; Tomatis, C.

    2002-01-01

    ISRU or In-Situ Resource Utilisation is the use of Martian resources to manufacture, typically, life support consumables (e.g. water, oxygen, breathing buffer gases), and propellant for a return journey to Earth. European studies have shown that some 4kg of reaction mass must be launched to LEO to send 1kg payload to Mars orbit, with landing on the Mars surface reducing payload mass still further. This results in very high transportation costs to Mars, and still higher costs for returning payloads to Earth. There is therefore a major incentive to reduce payload mass for any form of Mars return mission (human or otherwise) by generating consumables on the surface. ESA through its GSTP programme has been investigating the system level design of a number of mission elements as potential European contributions to an international human Mars exploration mission intended for the 2020-2030 timeframe. One of these is an ISRU plant, a small chemical factory to convert feedstock brought from Earth (hydrogen), and Martian atmospheric gases (CO2 and trace quantities of nitrogen and argon) into methane and oxygen propellant for Earth return and life support consumables, in advance of the arrival of astronauts. ISRU technology has been the subject of much investigation around the world, but little detailed research or system level studies have been reported in Europe. Furthermore, the potential applicability of European expertise, technology and sub- system studies to Martian ISRU is not well quantified. Study work covered in this paper has compared existing designs (e.g. NASA's Design Reference Mission, DLR and Mars Society studies) with the latest ESA derived requirements for human Mars exploration, and has generated a system level ISRU design. This paper will review and quantify the baseline chemical reactions essential for ISRU, including CO2 collection and purification, Sabatier reduction of CO2 with hydrogen to methane and water, and electrolysis of water in the context of

  8. Strategy for the International Lunar Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2015-10-01

    LD is a global event and process for international collaboration in space initiated by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), the National Space Society and the National Science Centre FOTONIKA-LV of the University of Latvia. ILD is planned for launch in 2017, the 60th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year that marked the dawn of the space age with the launch of Sputnik. ILD is envisioned as a decade long process of international collaboration with lunar exploration concurrent with development of policies, key enabling technologies and infrastructures on the Moon and in cislunar space leading towards an eventual goal of industrial development of the Moon and economic activity beyond Earth orbit[1]. This second International Lunar Decade will build on the foundations of the ILD first proposed in by the Planetary Society in 2006 at International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM), was endorsed by ICEUM participants[3], and then by ILEWG, COSPAR and other organizations. Starting in 2007, the work plan included a series of recommendations for lunar exploration missions coordinated through the ILEWG agencies and COSPAR. Advances in technology such as CubeSats and 3D printing and fundamental changes in mind-set marked by initiatives such as the Google Lunar-X prize and asteroid mining ventures have made industrial development of the Moon a thinkable proposition. The ILD to be launched in 2017 is intended to set the stage for the Moon to become a wealth generating platform for human expansion into the solar system.ILD is being organized to engage existing organizations involved in space collaboration such as COSPAR, COPUOS, ISECG, technical and scientific organizations and others that address space policy, space law, space security, governance and related concerns. Additional organizations will be involved that deal with structures, ecosystems, financing, economic development and health and life support and

  9. Exploring Life Support Architectures for Evolution of Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Stambaugh, Imelda C.

    2015-01-01

    Life support system architectures for long duration space missions are often explored analytically in the human spaceflight community to find optimum solutions for mass, performance, and reliability. But in reality, many other constraints can guide the design when the life support system is examined within the context of an overall vehicle, as well as specific programmatic goals and needs. Between the end of the Constellation program and the development of the "Evolvable Mars Campaign", NASA explored a broad range of mission possibilities. Most of these missions will never be implemented but the lessons learned during these concept development phases may color and guide future analytical studies and eventual life support system architectures. This paper discusses several iterations of design studies from the life support system perspective to examine which requirements and assumptions, programmatic needs, or interfaces drive design. When doing early concept studies, many assumptions have to be made about technology and operations. Data can be pulled from a variety of sources depending on the study needs, including parametric models, historical data, new technologies, and even predictive analysis. In the end, assumptions must be made in the face of uncertainty. Some of these may introduce more risk as to whether the solution for the conceptual design study will still work when designs mature and data becomes available.

  10. Evaluating the High School Lunar Research Projects Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA s Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA s and NLSI s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE s High School Lunar Research Projects program is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The objectives of the program are to enhance 1) student views of the nature of science; 2) student attitudes toward science and science careers; and 3) student knowledge of lunar science. In its first three years, approximately 168 students and 28 teachers from across the United States have participated in the program. Before beginning their research, students undertake Moon 101, a guided-inquiry activity designed to familiarize them with lunar science and exploration. Following Moon 101, and guided by a lunar scientist mentor, teams choose a research topic, ask their own research question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results to a panel of lunar scientists. This panel selects four posters to be presented at the annual Lunar Science Forum held at NASA Ames. The top scoring team travels to the forum to present their research in person.

  11. Human Outer Solar System Exploration via Q-Thruster Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. Kent; White, Harold G.

    2014-01-01

    Propulsion technology development efforts at the NASA Johnson Space Center continue to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QThruster), a form of electric propulsion. Through the use of electric and magnetic fields, a Q-thruster pushes quantum particles (electrons/positrons) in one direction, while the Qthruster recoils to conserve momentum. This principle is similar to how a submarine uses its propeller to push water in one direction, while the submarine recoils to conserve momentum. Based on laboratory results, it appears that continuous specific thrust levels of 0.4 - 4.0 N/kWe are achievable with essentially no onboard propellant consumption. To evaluate the potential of this technology, a mission analysis tool was developed utilizing the Generalized Reduced Gradient non-linear parameter optimization engine contained in the Microsoft Excel® platform. This tool allowed very rapid assessments of "Q-Ship" minimum time transfers from earth to the outer planets and back utilizing parametric variations in thrust acceleration while enforcing constraints on planetary phase angles and minimum heliocentric distances. A conservative Q-Thruster specific thrust assumption (0.4 N/kWe) combined with "moderate" levels of space nuclear power (1 - 2 MWe) and vehicle specific mass (45 - 55 kg/kWe) results in continuous milli-g thrust acceleration, opening up realms of human spaceflight performance completely unattainable by any current systems or near-term proposed technologies. Minimum flight times to Mars are predicted to be as low as 75 days, but perhaps more importantly new "retro-phase" and "gravity-augmented" trajectory shaping techniques were revealed which overcome adverse planetary phasing and allow virtually unrestricted departure and return opportunities. Even more impressively, the Jovian and Saturnian systems would be opened up to human exploration with round-trip times of 21 and 32 months respectively including 6 to 12 months of

  12. NASA's Lunar Robotic Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulville, Daniel R.

    2006-07-01

    This report documents the findings and analysis of a 60-day agency-wide Lunar Robotic Architecture Study (LRAS) conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Work on this study began in January 2006. Its purpose was to: Define a lunar robotics architecture by addressing the following issues: 1) Do we need robotic missions at all? If so, why and under what conditions? 2) How would they be accomplished and at what cost? Are they within budget? 3) What are the minimum requirements? What is the minimum mission set? 4) Integrate these elements together to show a viable robotic architecture. 5) Establish a strategic framework for a lunar robotics program. The LRAS Final Report presents analysis and recommendations concerning potential approaches related to NASA s implementation of the President's Vision for Space Exploration. Project and contract requirements will likely be derived in part from the LRAS analysis and recommendations contained herein, but these do not represent a set of project or contract requirements and are not binding on the U.S. Government unless and until they are formally and expressly adopted as such. Details of any recommendations offered by the LRAS Final Report will be translated into implementation requirements. Moreover, the report represents the assessments and projects of the report s authors at the time it was prepared; it is anticipated that the concepts in this report will be analyzed further and refined. By the time some of the activities addressed in this report are implemented, certain assumptions on which the report s conclusions are based will likely evolve as a result of this analysis. Accordingly, NASA, and any entity under contract with NASA, should not use the information in this report for final project direction. Since the conclusion of this study, there have been various changes to the Agency's current portfolio of lunar robotic precursor activities. First, the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP

  13. A Quantitative ADME-base Tool for Exploring Human ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to a wide range of chemicals through our daily habits and routines is ubiquitous and largely unavoidable within modern society. The potential for human exposure, however, has not been quantified for the vast majority of chemicals with wide commercial use. Creative advances in exposure science are needed to support efficient and effective evaluation and management of chemical risks, particularly for chemicals in consumer products. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development is developing, or collaborating in the development of, scientifically-defensible methods for making quantitative or semi-quantitative exposure predictions. The Exposure Prioritization (Ex Priori) model is a simplified, quantitative visual dashboard that provides a rank-ordered internalized dose metric to simultaneously explore exposures across chemical space (not chemical by chemical). Diverse data streams are integrated within the interface such that different exposure scenarios for “individual,” “population,” or “professional” time-use profiles can be interchanged to tailor exposure and quantitatively explore multi-chemical signatures of exposure, internalized dose (uptake), body burden, and elimination. Ex Priori has been designed as an adaptable systems framework that synthesizes knowledge from various domains and is amenable to new knowledge/information. As such, it algorithmically captures the totality of exposure across pathways. It

  14. Integrated Suit Test 1 - A Study to Evaluate Effects of Suit Weight, Pressure, and Kinematics on Human Performance during Lunar Ambulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Norcross, Jason; Vos, Jessica R.

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to design the next generation Lunar suit, NASA has initiated a series of tests aimed at understanding the human physiological and biomechanical affects of space suits under a variety of conditions. The first of these tests was the EVA Walkback Test (ICES 2007-01-3133). NASA-JSC assembled a multi-disciplinary team to conduct the second test of the series, titled Integrated Suit Test 1 (IST-1), from March 6 through July 24, 2007. Similar to the Walkback Test, this study was performed with the Mark III (MKIII) EVA Technology Demonstrator suit, a treadmill, and the Partial Gravity Simulator in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center. The data collected for IST-1 included metabolic rates, ground reaction forces, biomechanics, and subjective workload and controllability feedback on both suited and unsuited (shirt-sleeve) astronaut subjects. For IST-1 the center of gravity was controlled to a nearly perfect position while the weight, pressure and biomechanics (waist locked vs. unlocked) were varied individually to evaluate the effects of each on the ability to perform level (0 degree incline) ambulation in simulated Lunar gravity. The detailed test methodology and preliminary key findings of IST-1 are summarized in this report.

  15. A LARGE HUMAN CENTRIFUGE FOR EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack J.W.A. van Loon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses concepts regarding the development of an Altered Gravity Platform (AGP that will serve as a research platform for human space exploration. Space flight causes a multitude of physiological problems, many of which are due to gravity level transitions. Going from Earth's gravity to microgravity generates fluid shifts, space motion sickness, cardiovascular deconditioning among other changes, and returning to a gravity environment again puts the astronauts under similar stressors. A prolonged stay in microgravity provokes additional deleterious changes such as bone loss, muscle atrophy and loss of coordination or specific psychological stresses. To prepare for future manned space exploration missions, a ground-based research test bed for validating countermeasures against the deleterious effects of g-level transitions is needed. The proposed AGP is a large rotating facility (diameter > 150 m, where gravity levels ranging from 1.1 to 1.5g are generated, covering short episodes or during prolonged stays of weeks or even months. On this platform, facilities are built where a crew of 6 to 8 humans can live autonomously. Adaptation from 1 g to higher g levels can be studied extensively and monitored continuously. Similarly, re-adaptation back to 1 g, after a prolonged period of altered g can also be investigated. Study of the physiological and psychological adaptation to changing g-levels will provide instrumental and predictive knowledge to better define the ultimate countermeasures that are needed for future successful manned space exploration missions to the Moon, Mars and elsewhere. The AGP initiative will allow scientific top experts in Europe and worldwide to investigate the necessary scientific, operational, and engineering inputs required for such space missions. Because so many different physiological systems are involved in adaptation to gravity levels, a multidisciplinary approach is crucial. One of the final and crucial

  16. Microbial Impact on Success of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Groves, T. O.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify microbiological risks associated with space exploration and identify potential countermeasures available. Identification of microbial risks associated with space habitation requires knowledge of the sources and expected types of microbial agents. Crew data along with environmental data from water, surfaces, air, and free condensate are utilized in risk examination. Data from terrestrial models are also used. Microbial risks to crew health include bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Adverse effects of microbes include: infections, allergic reactions, toxin production, release of volatiles, food spoilage, plant disease, material degradation, and environmental contamination. Risk is difficult to assess because of unknown potential changes in microbes (e.g., mutation) and the human host (e.g., immune changes). Prevention of adverse microbial impacts is preferred over remediation. Preventative measures include engineering measures (e.g., air filtration), crew microbial screening, acceptability standards, and active verification by onboard monitoring. Microbiological agents are important risks to human health and performance during space flight and risks increase with mission duration. Acceptable risk level must be defined. Prevention must be given high priority. Careful screening of crewmembers and payloads is an important element of any risk mitigation plan. Improved quantitation of microbiological risks is a high priority.

  17. Integrating Human Factors into Crew Exploration Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Campbell, paul

    2007-01-01

    With NASA's new Vision for Exploration to send humans beyond Earth orbit, it is critical to consider the human as a system that demands early and continuous user involvement, and an iterative prototype/test/redesign process. Addressing human-system interface issues early on can be very cost effective even cost reducing when performed early in the design and development cycle. To achieve this goal within Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Project Office, human engineering (HE) team is formed. Key tasks are to apply HE requirements and guidelines to hardware/software, and provide HE design, analysis and evaluation of crew interfaces. Initial activities included many practice-orientated evaluations using low-fidelity CEV mock-ups. What follows is a description of such evaluations that focused on a HE requirement regarding Net Habitable Volume (NHV). NHV is defined as the total remaining pressurized volume available to on-orbit crew after accounting for the loss of volume due to deployed hardware and structural inefficiencies which decrease functional volume. The goal of the NHV evaluations was to develop requirements providing sufficient CEV NHV for crewmembers to live and perform tasks in support of mission goals. Efforts included development of a standard NHV calculation method using computer models and physical mockups, and crew/ stakeholder evaluations. Nine stakeholders and ten crewmembers participated in the unsuited evaluations. Six crewmembers also participated in a suited evaluation. The mock-up was outfitted with volumetric representation of sub-systems such as seats, and stowage bags. Thirteen scenarios were developed to represent mission/crew tasks and considered to be primary volume drivers (e.g., suit donning) for the CEV. Unsuited evaluations included a structured walkthrough of these tasks. Suited evaluations included timed donning of the existing launch and entry suit to simulate a contingency scenario followed by doffing/ stowing of the suits. All mockup

  18. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  19. Development of Multifunctional Radiation Shielding Materials for Long Duration Human Exploration Beyond the Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Bhattacharya, M.; Schofield, E.; Carranza, S.; O'Dell, S.

    2007-01-01

    One of the major challenges for long duration human exploration beyond the low Earth orbit and sustained human presence on planetary surfaces would be development of materials that would help minimize the radiation exposure to crew and equipment from the interplanetary radiation environment, This radiation environment consists primarily of a continuous flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and transient but intense fluxes of solar energetic particles (SEP). The potential for biological damage by the relatively low percentage of high-energy heavy-ions in the GCR spectrum far outweigh that due to lighter particles because of their ionizing-power and the quality of the resulting biological damage. Although the SEP spectrum does not contain heavy ions and their energy range is much lower than that for GCRs, they however pose serious risks to astronaut health particularly in the event of a bad solar storm The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss our recent efforts in development and evaluation of materials for minimizing the hazards from the interplanetary radiation environment. Traditionally, addition of shielding materials to spacecrafts has invariably resulted in paying a penalty in terms of additional weight. It would therefore be of great benefit if materials could be developed not only with superior shielding effectiveness but also sufficient structural integrity. Such a multifunctional material could then be considered as an integral part of spacecraft structures. Any proposed radiation shielding material for use in outer space should be composed of nuclei that maximize the likelihood of projectile fragmentation while producing the minimum number of target fragments. A modeling based approach will be presented to show that composite materials using hydrogen-rich epoxy matrices reinforced with polyethylene fibers and/or fabrics could effectively meet this requirement. This paper will discuss the fabrication of such a material for a crewed vehicle. Ln addition

  20. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Daniel; Loucks, Mike; Carrico, John; Policastri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    delivery and surface power generation, in partnership with industry; 2) incentivize industry to establish economical and sustainable lunar infrastructure services to support NASA missions and initiate lunar commerce; and 3) encourage creation of new space markets for economic growth and benefit. A phased-development approach was also studied to allow for incremental development and demonstration of capabilities needed to build a lunar infrastructure. This paper will describe the Lunar COTS concept goals, objectives and approach for building an economical and sustainable lunar infrastructure. It will also describe the technical challenges and advantages of developing and operating each infrastructure element. It will also describe the potential benefits and progress that can be accomplished in the initial phase of this Lunar COTS approach. Finally, the paper will also look forward to the potential of a robust lunar industrialization environment and its potential effect on the next 50 years of space exploration.

  1. 新型轮式载人月球车滑移转向初探%Preliminary Exploration of Skid Steering of a Novel Wheeled Manned Lunar Rover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春燕; 段婷婷; 赵万忠; 于蕾艳; 吕泽炜

    2014-01-01

    载人月球车转向系统设计的好坏直接影响月球车的平稳性、路径跟踪及紧急避障能力。将滑移转向技术与载人月球车有效结合,提出了一种新型载人月球车滑移转向系统,研究其动力学与运动学建模方法。在分析载人月球车滑移转向的纵向行驶特性、方向稳定性及原地转向特性的基础上,设计了载人月球车滑移转向系统横摆角速度 PID 闭环控制控制器,实现了车辆自主横摆角速度的跟踪控制。仿真结果表明,载人月球车滑移转向系统具有较好的原地转向能力,在转向过程中不仅兼顾了滑移转向车辆低速时的转向轻便性,而且有效地改善了车辆的操纵性能和跟踪性能。%The steering system of manned lunar rover has a direct impact on its smoothness ,path tracking and emergency obstacle avoidance capability .Herein ,the skid-steer technology and manned lunar rover were integrated effectively .A new skid steer system of manned lunar rover was proposed , and the dynamics and kinematics modeling method were conducted .Based on the analyses of longitu‐dinal driving characteristics ,directional stability and steering characteristics of skid steering ,an yaw angular velocity PID control method was proposed to achieve autonomous vehicle yaw rate tracking control .Simulation results show that the skid steer of manned lunar rover has a good pivot turn capa‐bility .In the steering process ,it takes the steering agility into account at low speeds ,and improves the vehicle’s steering stability at high speeds effectively .

  2. Exploration Science Opportunities for Students within Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brad; Minafra, Joseph; Schmidt, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on exploration science related to near-term human exploration targets, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and education and public outreach. As part of the SSERVI mission, we act as a hub for opportunities that engage the public through education and outreach efforts in addition to forming new interdisciplinary, scientific collaborations.SSERVI provides opportunities for students to bridge the scientific and generational gap currently existing in the planetary exploration field. This bridge is essential to the continued international success of scientific, as well as human and robotic, exploration.The decline in funding opportunities after the termination of the Apollo missions to the Moon in the early 1970's produced a large gap in both the scientific knowledge and experience of the original lunar Apollo researchers and the resurgent group of young lunar/NEA researchers that have emerged within the last 15 years. One of SSERVI's many goals is to bridge this gap through the many networking and scientific connections made between young researchers and established planetary principle investigators. To this end, SSERVI has supported the establishment of NextGen Lunar Scientists and Engineers group (NGLSE), a group of students and early-career professionals designed to build experience and provide networking opportunities to its members. SSERVI has also created the LunarGradCon, a scientific conference dedicated solely to graduate and undergraduate students working in the lunar field. Additionally, SSERVI produces monthly seminars and bi-yearly virtual workshops that introduce students to the wide variety of exploration science being performed in today's research labs. SSERVI also brokers opportunities for domestic and international student exchange between collaborating laboratories as well as internships at our member institutions. SSERVI provides a

  3. Options for Staging Orbits in Cis-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Ryan; Martinez, Roland

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been studying options to conduct missions beyond Low Earth Orbit, but within the Earth-Moon system, in preparation for deep space exploration including human missions to Mars. Referred to as the Proving Ground, this arena of exploration activities will enable the development of human spaceflight systems and operations to satisfy future exploration objectives beyond the cis-lunar environment. One option being considered includes the deployment of a habitable element or elements, which could be used as a central location for aggregation of supplies and resources for human missions in cis-lunar space and beyond. Characterizing candidate orbit locations for this asset and the impacts on system design and mission operations is important in the overall assessment of the options being considered. The orbits described in this paper were initially selected by taking advantage of previous studies conducted by NASA and the work of other authors. In this paper orbits are assessed for their relative attractiveness based on various factors. First, a set of constraints related to the capability of the combined Orion and SLS system to deliver humans and cargo to and from the orbit are evaluated. Second, the ability to support potential lunar surface activities is considered. Finally, deployed assets intended to spend multiple years in the Proving Ground would ideally require minimal station keeping costs to reduce the mass budget allocated to this function. Additional mission design drivers include potential for uninterrupted communication with deployed assets, thermal, communications, and other operational implications. The results of the characterization and evaluation of the selected orbits indicate a Near Rectilinear Orbit (NRO) is an attractive candidate as an aggregation point or staging location for operations. In this paper, the NRO is further described in terms which balance a number of key attributes that favor a variety of mission classes to meet multiple

  4. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  5. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium is to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon....

  6. Lunar Sample Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sample Atlas provides pictures of the Apollo samples taken in the Lunar Sample Laboratory, full-color views of the samples in microscopic thin-sections,...

  7. Lunar Surface Navigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To support extended lunar operations, precision localization and route mapping is required for planetary EVA, manned rovers and lunar surface mobility units. A...

  8. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  9. The structural stability of lunar lava tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David M.; Chappaz, Loic; Sood, Rohan; Milbury, Colleen; Bobet, Antonio; Melosh, H. Jay; Howell, Kathleen C.; Freed, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    Mounting evidence from the SELENE, LRO, and GRAIL spacecraft suggests the presence of vacant lava tubes under the surface of the Moon. GRAIL evidence, in particular, suggests that some may be more than a kilometer in width. Such large sublunarean structures would be of great benefit to future human exploration of the Moon, providing shelter from the harsh environment at the surface-but could empty lava tubes of this size be stable under lunar conditions? And what is the largest size at which they could remain structurally sound? We address these questions by creating elasto-plastic finite element models of lava tubes using the Abaqus modeling software and examining where there is local material failure in the tube's roof. We assess the strength of the rock body using the Geological Strength Index method with values appropriate to the Moon, assign it a basaltic density derived from a modern re-analysis of lunar samples, and assume a 3:1 width-to-height ratio for the lava tube. Our results show that the stability of a lava tube depends on its width, its roof thickness, and whether the rock comprising the structure begins in a lithostatic or Poisson stress state. With a roof 2 m thick, lava tubes a kilometer or more in width can remain stable, supporting inferences from GRAIL observations. The theoretical maximum size of a lunar lava tube depends on a variety of factors, but given sufficient burial depth (500 m) and an initial lithostatic stress state, our results show that lava tubes up to 5 km wide may be able to remain structurally stable.

  10. Lunar electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, D.; Madden, T.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that the lunar magnetometer experiment has made important contributions to studies of the lunar interior. Numerical inversions of the lunar electromagnetic response have been carried out, taking into account a void region behind the moon. The amplitude of the transfer function of an eight-layer model is considered along with a model of the temperature distribution inside the moon and the amplitude of the transfer function of a semiconductor lunar model.

  11. Reference Avionics Architecture for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervill, Kevin M.; Lapin, Jonathan C.; Schmidt, Oron L.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering infrastructure capable of supporting long-term manned operations to the lunar surface has been a primary objective of the Constellation Program in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Several concepts have been developed related to development and deployment lunar exploration vehicles and assets that provide critical functionality such as transportation, habitation, and communication, to name a few. Together, these systems perform complex safety-critical functions, largely dependent on avionics for control and behavior of system functions. These functions are implemented using interchangeable, modular avionics designed for lunar transit and lunar surface deployment. Systems are optimized towards reuse and commonality of form and interface and can be configured via software or component integration for special purpose applications. There are two core concepts in the reference avionics architecture described in this report. The first concept uses distributed, smart systems to manage complexity, simplify integration, and facilitate commonality. The second core concept is to employ extensive commonality between elements and subsystems. These two concepts are used in the context of developing reference designs for many lunar surface exploration vehicles and elements. These concepts are repeated constantly as architectural patterns in a conceptual architectural framework. This report describes the use of these architectural patterns in a reference avionics architecture for Lunar surface systems elements.

  12. Exploring the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M

    2008-01-01

    David Harland opens with a review of the robotic probes, namely the Rangers which returned television before crashing into the Moon, the Surveyors which ''soft landed'' in order to investigate the nature of the surface, and the Lunar Orbiters which mapped prospective Apollo landing sites. He then outlines the historic landing by Apollo 11 in terms of what was discovered, and how over the next several missions the program was progressively geared up to enable the final three missions each to spend three days on comprehensive geological investigations. He concludes with a review of the robotic spacecraft that made remote-sensing observations of the Moon. Although aimed at the enthusiast, and can be read as an adventure in exploration, the book develops the scientific theme of lunar geology, and therefore will be of use as background reading for undergraduate students of planetary sciences. In addition, with the prospect of a resumption of human missions, it will help journalists understand what Apollo achieved ...

  13. Lunar COTS: An Economical and Sustainable Approach to Reaching Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Rasky, Daniel; Pittman, Robert B.; Zapata, Edgar; Lepsch, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The NASA COTS (Commercial Orbital Transportation Services) Program was a very successful program that developed and demonstrated cost-effective development and acquisition of commercial cargo transportation services to the International Space Station (ISS). The COTS acquisition strategy utilized a newer model than normally accepted in traditional procurement practices. This new model used Space Act Agreements where NASA entered into partnerships with industry to jointly share cost, development and operational risks to demonstrate new capabilities for mutual benefit. This model proved to be very beneficial to both NASA and its industry partners as NASA saved significantly in development and operational costs while industry partners successfully expanded their market share of the global launch transportation business. The authors, who contributed to the development of the COTS model, would like to extend this model to a lunar commercial services program that will push development of technologies and capabilities that will serve a Mars architecture and lead to an economical and sustainable pathway to transporting humans to Mars. Over the past few decades, several architectures for the Moon and Mars have been proposed and studied but ultimately halted or not even started due to the projected costs significantly exceeding NASA's budgets. Therefore a new strategy is needed that will fit within NASA's projected budgets and takes advantage of the US commercial industry along with its creative and entrepreneurial attributes. The authors propose a new COTS-like program to enter into partnerships with industry to demonstrate cost-effective, cis-lunar commercial services, such as lunar transportation, lunar ISRU operations, and cis-lunar propellant depots that can enable an economical and sustainable Mars architecture. Similar to the original COTS program, the goals of the proposed program, being notionally referred to as Lunar Commercial Orbital Transfer Services (LCOTS

  14. Lunar Base Sitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-12-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  15. Use of GNSS Receivers in Phase-Ⅲ of China’s Lunar Exploration Program%GNSS 接收机在探月三期中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻长远; 蒋勇; 李东俊; 仇跃华; 王盾

    2015-01-01

    探月工程对飞行器导航系统的性能提出了更高要求,因而有必要研究 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System,全球导航卫星系统)接收机在探月任务中的应用。以探月工程三期为应用需求,开展地-月-地转移过程中的 GNSS 接收机可用性分析、GNSS 信号特性分析;并针对低信噪比环境下的高灵敏度接收机系统应用进行设计,采用弱信号捕获算法和弱信号跟踪算法实现-175 dBW 的灵敏度;最终采用基于轨道动力学模型的卡尔曼滤波方法实现了 GNSS 自主定轨算法。仿真表明:GNSS 接收机在60000 km 以下的地-月转移和月-地转移弧段能够为探月飞行器提供100 m 以内位置精度的导航服务。%The use of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)receivers in lunar exploration missions is studied to meet higher requirements of China’s lunar exploration program on the performance of the spacecraft navigation system.Based on the application requirements of Phase-Ⅲ of China’s lunar exploration program,availability analy-sis of GNSS receivers and analysis of GNSS signal characteristics are done for GNSS receivers for the Earth-Moon-Earth transfer orbit.High sensitivity receiver systems are designed for low signal-to-noise operation environment and weak signal acquisition algorithms and weak signal tracking algorithms are used to achieve a sensitivity of -1 75 dBW.Finally,GNSS autonomous orbit determination algorithm is developed with Kalman filters based on orbit dy-namics models.Simulation results indicate that under the height of 60 000 km during the Earth-Moon and Moon-Earth transfer orbit phases,a GNSS receiver provides spacecraft with navigation service with a positioning accuracy of less than 100 m.

  16. Visual exploration and analysis of human-robot interaction rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Boyles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel interaction paradigm for the visual exploration, manipulation and analysis of human-robot interaction (HRI) rules; our development is implemented using a visual programming interface and exploits key techniques drawn from both information visualization and visual data mining to facilitate the interaction design and knowledge discovery process. HRI is often concerned with manipulations of multi-modal signals, events, and commands that form various kinds of interaction rules. Depicting, manipulating and sharing such design-level information is a compelling challenge. Furthermore, the closed loop between HRI programming and knowledge discovery from empirical data is a relatively long cycle. This, in turn, makes design-level verification nearly impossible to perform in an earlier phase. In our work, we exploit a drag-and-drop user interface and visual languages to support depicting responsive behaviors from social participants when they interact with their partners. For our principal test case of gaze-contingent HRI interfaces, this permits us to program and debug the robots' responsive behaviors through a graphical data-flow chart editor. We exploit additional program manipulation interfaces to provide still further improvement to our programming experience: by simulating the interaction dynamics between a human and a robot behavior model, we allow the researchers to generate, trace and study the perception-action dynamics with a social interaction simulation to verify and refine their designs. Finally, we extend our visual manipulation environment with a visual data-mining tool that allows the user to investigate interesting phenomena such as joint attention and sequential behavioral patterns from multiple multi-modal data streams. We have created instances of HRI interfaces to evaluate and refine our development paradigm. As far as we are aware, this paper reports the first program manipulation paradigm that integrates visual programming

  17. Exploring the impact of climate on human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Arai, Yasumichi; Willcox, D Craig; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of physical geographic factors and climate conditions on human longevity. The centenarian rate (CR) in 2005 was computed for Japan's 47 prefectures, whose geography and climate vary greatly. Several pathways, such as excess winter mortality, land use and agricultural production, possibly linking physical and climate factors with extreme longevity, were explored. The probability of becoming a centenarian varies significantly among the Japanese prefectures. In particular, the computation of CR(70) demonstrated that the actual probability for individuals 70 years old in 1975 of becoming centenarians in 2005 was 3 times higher, on average, in Okinawa, both for males and females, than in Japan as a whole. About three quarters of the variance in CR(70) for females and half for males is explained by the physical environment and land use, even when variations in the level of socio-economic status between prefectures are controlled. Our analysis highlighted two features which might have played an important role in the longevity observed in Okinawa. First, there is virtually no winter in Okinawa. For instance, the mean winter temperature observed in 2005 was 17.2°C. Second, today, there is almost no rice production in Okinawa compared to other parts of Japan. In the past, however, production was higher in Okinawa. If we consider that long term effects of harsh winters can contribute to the mortality differential in old age and if we consider that food availability in the first part of the 20th century was mainly dependent on local production, early 20th century birth cohorts in Okinawa clearly had different experiences in terms of winter conditions and in terms of food availability compared to their counterparts in other parts of Japan. This work confirms the impact of climate conditions on human longevity, but it fails to demonstrate a strong association between longevity and mountainous regions and/or air quality.

  18. The Lunar dusty plasmas -levitation and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamaniuk, Barbara; Rothkaehl, Hanna

    Lunar dust can exhibit unusual behavior -due to electron photoemission via solar-UV radiation the lunar surface represents a complex plasma -"dusty plasma". The dust grains and lunar surface are electrostatically charged by the Moon's interaction with the local plasma environ-ment and the photoemission of electrons due to solar UV and X-rays. This effect causes the like-charged surface and dust particles to repel each other, and creates a near-surface electric field. Lunar dust must be treated as a dusty plasma. Using analytic (kinetic (Vlasov) and magnetohydrodynamic theory ) and numerical modeling we show physical processes related to levitation and transport dusty plasma on the Moon. These dust grains could affect the lunar environment for radio wave and plasma diagnostics and interfere with exploration activities. References: 1. Wilson T.L. (1992), in Analysis of Interplanetary Dust, M. Zolensky et al. AIP Conf.Proc. 310, 33-44 (AIP, NY), 2.Wilson T.L."LUNAR DUST AND DUSTY PLASMA PHYSICS".40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2009), 3. Grün E., et al.(1993),Nature 363, 144. 4. Morfill G. and Grün E.(1979), Planet. Space Sci.. 27, 1269, 1283, 5. Manka R. and Michel F. (1971), Proc. 2nd Lun. Sci. Conf. 2, 1717 (MIT Press, Cambridge). 6. Manka R. et al.(1973), Lun. Sci.-III, 504. 7. Barbara Atamaniuk "Kinetic Description of Localized Plasma Structure in Dusty Plasmas". Czechoslovak Journal of Physics Vol.54 C 2004

  19. NASA's Planned Return to the Moon: Global Access and Anytime Return Requirement Implications on the Lunar Orbit Insertion Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Michelle; Qu, Min; Chrone, Jonathan; Su, Philip; Karlgaard, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Lunar orbit insertion LOI is a critical maneuver for any mission going to the Moon. Optimizing the geometry of this maneuver is crucial to the success of the architecture designed to return humans to the Moon. LOI burns necessary to meet current NASA Exploration Constellation architecture requirements for the lunar sortie missions are driven mainly by the requirement for global access and "anytime" return from the lunar surface. This paper begins by describing the Earth-Moon geometry which creates the worst case (delta)V for both the LOI and the translunar injection (TLI) maneuvers over the full metonic cycle. The trajectory which optimizes the overall (delta)V performance of the mission is identified, trade studies results covering the entire lunar globe are mapped onto the contour plots, and the effects of loitering in low lunar orbit as a means of reducing the insertion (delta)V are described. Finally, the lighting conditions on the lunar surface are combined with the LOI and TLI analyses to identify geometries with ideal lighting conditions at sites of interest which minimize the mission (delta)V.

  20. Low-Latency Lunar Surface Telerobotics from Earth-Moon Libration Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Daniel; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    Concepts for a long-duration habitat at Earth-Moon LI or L2 have been advanced for a number of purposes. We propose here that such a facility could also have an important role for low-latency telerobotic control of lunar surface equipment, both for lunar science and development. With distances of about 60,000 km from the lunar surface, such sites offer light-time limited two-way control latencies of order 400 ms, making telerobotic control for those sites close to real time as perceived by a human operator. We point out that even for transcontinental teleoperated surgical procedures, which require operational precision and highly dexterous manipulation, control latencies of this order are considered adequate. Terrestrial telerobots that are used routinely for mining and manufacturing also involve control latencies of order several hundred milliseconds. For this reason, an Earth-Moon LI or L2 control node could build on the technology and experience base of commercially proven terrestrial ventures. A lunar libration-point telerobotic node could demonstrate exploration strategies that would eventually be used on Mars, and many other less hospitable destinations in the solar system. Libration-point telepresence for the Moon contrasts with lunar telerobotic control from the Earth, for which two-way control latencies are at least six times longer. For control latencies that long, telerobotic control efforts are of the "move-and-wait" variety, which is cognitively inferior to near real-time control.

  1. Effects of lunar phase on sleep in men and women in Surrey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Monica, Ciro; Atzori, Giuseppe; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2015-12-01

    Recently, evidence has emerged that the phases of the moon may modulate subjective sleep quality and polysomnographically assessed sleep structure in humans. We aimed to explore further the putative effects of circa-lunar periodicity (~29.5 days) on subjective and objective parameters of human sleep in a retrospective analysis. The baseline sleep recordings of 205 (91 males and 114 females; mean age = 47.47 years, standard deviation =19.01; range: 20-84 years) healthy and carefully screened participants who participated in two clinical trials in the Surrey Clinical Research Centre were included in the analyses. Sleep was recorded in windowless sleep laboratories. For each study night, we calculated the distance, in days, to the date of the closest full moon phase and based on this distance, classified sleep records in three lunar classes. Univariate analysis of variance with factors lunar class, age and sex was applied to each of 21 sleep parameters. No significant main effect for the factor lunar class was observed for any of the objective sleep parameters and subjective sleep quality but some significant interactions were observed. The interaction between lunar class and sex was significant for total sleep time, Stage 4 sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Separate analyses for men and women indicated that in women total sleep time, Stage 4 sleep and REM sleep were reduced when sleep occurred close to full moon, whereas in men REM duration increased around full moon. These data provide limited evidence for an effect of lunar phase on human sleep.

  2. Incremental Scheduling Engines for Human Exploration of the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  3. Possible biomedical applications and limitations of a variable-force centrifuge on the lunar surface: A research tool and an enabling resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowing, Keith L.

    1992-01-01

    Centrifuges will continue to serve as a valuable research tool in gaining an understanding of the biological significance of the inertial acceleration due to gravity. Space- and possibly lunar-based centrifuges will play a significant and enabling role with regard to the human component of future lunar and martian exploration, both as a means of accessing potential health and performance risks and as a means of alleviating these risks. Lunar-based centrifuges could be particularly useful as part of a program of physiologic countermeasures designed to alleviate the physical deconditioning that may result from prolonged exposure to a 1/6-g environment. Centrifuges on the lunar surface could also be used as part of a high-fidelity simulation of a trip to Mars. Other uses could include crew readaptation to 1 g, waste separation, materials processing, optical mirror production in situ on the Moon, and laboratory specimen separation.

  4. Lunar mission design using Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancati, Michael L.; Collins, John T.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    1991-01-01

    The NERVA-class Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR), with performance nearly double that of advanced chemical engines, has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars. NTR engines address the demanding trip time and payload delivery needs of both cargo-only and piloted flights. But NTR can also reduce the Earth launch requirements for manned lunar missions. First use of NTR for the Moon would be less demanding and would provide a test-bed for early operations experience with this powerful technology. Study of application and design options indicates that NTR propulsion can be integrated with the Space Exploration Initiative scenarios to deliver performance gains while managing controlled, long-term disposal of spent reactors to highly stable orbits.

  5. A mars communication constellation for human exploration and network science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Francesco; Simonetto, Andrea; Martini, Roberto; Lavagna, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of exploiting a small spacecrafts constellation around Mars to ensure a complete and continuous coverage of the planet, for the purpose of supporting future human and robotic operations and taking advantage of optical transmission techniques. The study foresees such a communications mission to be implemented at least after 2020 and a high data-rate requirement is imposed for the return of huge scientific data from massive robotic exploration or to allow video transmissions from a possible human outpost. In addition, the set-up of a communication constellation around Mars would give the opportunity of exploiting this multi-platform infrastructure to perform network science, that would largely increase our knowledge of the planet. The paper covers all technical aspects of a feasibility study performed for the primary communications mission. Results are presented for the system trade-offs, including communication architecture, constellation configuration and transfer strategy, and the mission analysis optimization, performed through the application of a multi-objective genetic algorithm to two models of increasing difficulty for the low-thrust trajectory definition. The resulting communication architecture is quite complex and includes six 530 kg spacecrafts on two different orbital planes, plus one redundant unit per plane, that ensure complete coverage of the planet’s surface; communications between the satellites and Earth are achieved through optical links, that allow lower mass and power consumption with respect to traditional radio-frequency technology, while inter-satellite links and spacecrafts-to-Mars connections are ensured by radio transmissions. The resulting data-rates for Earth-Mars uplink and downlink, satellite-to-satellite and satellite-to-surface are respectively 13.7 Mbps, 10.2 Mbps, 4.8 Mbps and 4.3 Mbps, in worst-case. Two electric propulsion modules are foreseen, to be placed on a C3˜0 escape orbit with two

  6. Liquid Crystal Membrane Dust Mitigation System for Lunar or Martian Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust creates a number of hazards to lunar operations including, effect on human health, degradation of life support systems, wear to mechanical systems and...

  7. 78 FR 20696 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Research... and fact-finding with respect to the research activities within the Human Exploration and Operations... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Research Subcommittee of the Human...

  8. Tribocharging Lunar Soil for Electrostatic Beneficiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Future human lunar habitation requires using in situ materials for both structural components and oxygen production. Lunar bases must be constructed from thermal-and radiation-shielding materials that will provide significant protection from the harmful cosmic energy which normally bombards the lunar surface. In addition, shipping oxygen from Earth is weight-prohibitive, and therefore investigating the production of breathable oxygen from oxidized mineral components is a major ongoing NASA research initiative. Lunar regolith may meet the needs for both structural protection and oxygen production. Already a number of oxygen production technologies are being tested, and full-scale bricks made of lunar simulant have been sintered. The beneficiation, or separation, of lunar minerals into a refined industrial feedstock could make production processes more efficient, requiring less energy to operate and maintain and producing higher-performance end products. The method of electrostatic beneficiation used in this research charges mineral powders (lunar simulant) by contact with materials of a different composition. The simulant acquires either a positive or negative charge depending upon its composition relative to the charging material.

  9. A Lunar Electromagnetic Launch System for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael R.; Kuznetsov, Steven B.; Kloesel, Kurt J.

    2010-01-01

    Future human exploration of the moon will require the development of capabilities for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Transport of lunar-derived commodities such as fuel and oxygen to orbiting resource depots has been proposed to enable refueling landers or other vehicles. A lunar electromagnetic launch (LEML) system could be an effective means of transporting materials, as an alternative to non-renewable chemical-based propulsion systems. An example LEML concept is presented based on previous studies, existing EML technologies, and NASA's human exploration architecture. A preliminary assessment of the cost-versus-benefit of such a system is also offered; the conclusion, however, is not as favorable for LEML as originally suggested.

  10. 用于月球矿物探测的LCTF成像光谱仪热控系统设计%Thermal control system design about LCTF imaging spectrometer for lunar exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月; 苏云; 王彬; 郑国宪; 张鹏斌

    2014-01-01

    LCTF (Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter) is one of the rapid developing technologies in recent years. LCTF has many advantages, such as high spectral resolution, wide spectral range and light mass, so it is used widely in hyperspectral imaging remote sensor for lunar exploration. Various temperature in Liquid Crystal of LCTF will cause larger deviation of double refractive index, and that will affect the imaging quality of LCTF spectral imager. Working conditions of LCTF imaging spectrometer were analyzed in this paper. With the consideration about LCTF working modes and working temperature requirements, thermal control system was designed for LCTF spectral imager. The simulation results show that the designed thermal control system can meet the design requirements and LCTF spectral imager can get clear image to get ready for lunar exploration.%LCTF成像光谱技术是近年来快速发展的一种成像光谱技术,具有光谱分辨率高、谱段范围宽、质量轻等诸多优点,在月球矿物探测高光谱成像遥感器中具有独特的优势。LCTF中液晶材料温度变化会引起双折射率偏差变大,从而影响LCTF光谱仪成像质量。通过对光谱仪工作环境的热分析,综合考虑光谱仪的工作模式及各部件工作温度要求,设计了LCTF光谱仪热控系统。仿真结果表明,该热控系统能较好地满足设计要求,使LCTF光谱仪清晰成像,为月球矿物探测做好硬件准备。

  11. The contamination impact of human exploration to a subterranean environment and the implications for further crewed space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuko, Stefan; Rettberg, Petra; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Laura; Koskinen, Kaisa

    2016-07-01

    The quest of exploring and looking for life in new places is a human desire since centuries. Nowadays, we are not only looking on planet Earth any more, but our endeavours focus on nearby planets in our solar system. It is therefore of great importance to preserve the extra-terrestrial environment and not to contaminate it with terrestrial / human associated bacteria. At this point in time we are not able to send crewed missions to other planets; however, analysing the impact of human exploration on environments is of great planetary protection concern. This can be achieved by obtaining samples from a subterranean environment, where only expert speleologists have access and the human impact is considered very low. For this study, astronauts participating in the 2014 ESA CAVES (Cooperative Adventure for Valuing and Exercising human behaviour and performance Skills) training course, obtained samples from deep within a subterranean environment and returned them to the laboratory for molecular microbial analysis. The diversity of the returned soil samples was analysed by molecular means such as clone library and next-generation sequencing (NGS). It was found that humans have an immense impact on the microbial diversity in the environment. Although the cave system is sparsely entered by humans, a high relative abundance of Staphylococcus spp. and Propionibacteria spp., organisms that are characteristic for human skin, have been recovered. Some samples even showed the presence of human gut associated methanogenic archaea, Methanomassiliicoccus spp. The obtained data from this investigation indicate that human exploration is strongly polluting an environment and may lead to false-positive sign of life on other planets. It is therefore imperative to increase our awareness to this problem as well as work towards new protocols to protect a pristine extraterrestrial environment during exploration.

  12. Fast track NTR systems assessment for NASA's first lunar outpost scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Alexander, Stephen W.

    1994-10-01

    Integrated systems and mission study results are presented which quantify the rationale and benefits for developing and using nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology for returning humans to the moon in the early 2000's. At present, the Exploration Program Office (ExPO) is considering chemical propulsion for its 'First Lunar Outpost' (FLO) mission, and NTR propulsion for the more demanding Mars missions to follow. The use of an NTR-based lunar transfer stage, capable of evolving to Mars mission applications, could result in an accelerated schedule, reduced cost approach to moon/Mars exploration. Lunar mission applications would also provide valuable operational experience and serve as a 'proving ground' for NTR engine and stage technologies. In terms of performance benefits, studies indicate that an expendable NTR stage powered by two 50 klbf engines can deliver approximately 96 metric tons (t) to trans-lunar injection (TLI) conditions for an initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) of approximately 199 t compared to 250 t for a cryogenic chemical TLI stage. The NTR stage liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank has a 10 m diameter, 14.8 m length, and 68 t LH2 capacity. The NTR utilizes a 'graphite' fuel form consisting of coated UC2 particles in a graphite substrate, and has a specific impulse capability of approximately 870 s, and an engine thrust-to-weight ratio of approximately 4.8. The NTR stage and its piloted FLO lander has a total length of approximately 38 m and can be launched by a single Saturn V-derived heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) in the 200 to 250 t-class range. The paper summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost scenario, describes characteristics for representative engine/stage configurations, and examines the impact on engine selection and vehicle design resulting from a consideration of alternative NTR fuel forms and lunar mission profiles.

  13. Concept of Lunar Energy Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Masayuki; Kisara, Katsuto; Chen, Lidong

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents a new concept of energy supply system named Lunar Energy Park (LEP) as one of the next-generation clean energy sources. In this concept, electricity is generated by nuclear power plants built on the moon and then transmitted to receiving stations on the earth by laser beam through transporting systems situated in geostationary orbit. The lunar nuclear power plants use a high-efficiency composite energy conversion system consisting of thermionic and thermoelectric generators to change nuclear thermal energy into electricity directly. The nuclear resources are considered to be available from the moon, and nuclear fuel transport from earth to moon is not necessary. Because direct energy conversion systems are employed, the lunar nuclear plants can be operated and controlled by robots and are maintenance-free, and so will cause no pollution to humans. The key technologies for LEP include improvements of conversion efficiency of both thermionic and thermoelectric converters, and developments of laser-beam power transmission technology as well. The details, including the construction of lunar nuclear plants, energy conversion and energy transmission systems, as well as the research plan strategies for this concept are reviewed.

  14. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the

  15. The Use of Nanomaterials to Achieve NASA's Exploration Program Power Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the power requirements for the space exploration and the lunar surface mobility programs. It includes information about the specifications for high energy batteries and the power requirements for lunar rovers, lunar outposts, lunar ascent module, and the lunar EVA suit.

  16. Determining the Magnitude of Neutron and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) Fluxes at the Moon using the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector during the Historic Space-Age Era of High GCR Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Boynton, W. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Milikh, G. M.; Su, J. J.; Livengood, T. A.; McClanahan, T. P.; Evans, L.; Starr, R. D.; litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched June 18, 2009 during an historic space-age era of minimum solar activity [1]. The lack of solar sunspot activity signaled a complex set of heliospheric phenomena [2,3,4] that also gave rise to a period of unprecedentedly high Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux [5]. These events coincided with the primary mission of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND, [6]), onboard LRO in a nominal 50-km circular orbit of the Moon [7]. Methods to calculate the emergent neutron albedo population using Monte Carlo techniques [8] rely on an estimate of the GCR flux and spectra calibrated at differing periods of solar activity [9,10,11]. Estimating the actual GCR flux at the Moon during the LEND's initial period of operation requires a correction using a model-dependent heliospheric transport modulation parameter [12] to adjust the GCR flux appropriate to this unique solar cycle. These corrections have inherent uncertainties depending on model details [13]. Precisely determining the absolute neutron and GCR fluxes is especially important in understanding the emergent lunar neutrons measured by LEND and subsequently in estimating the hydrogen/water content in the lunar regolith [6]. LEND is constructed with a set of neutron detectors to meet differing purposes [6]. Specifically there are two sets of detector systems that measure the flux of epithermal neutrons: a) the uncollimated Sensor for Epi-Thermal Neutrons (SETN) and b) the Collimated Sensor for Epi-Thermal Neutrons (CSETN). LEND SETN and CSETN observations form a complementary set of simultaneous measurements that determine the absolute scale of emergent lunar neutron flux in an unambiguous fashion and without the need for correcting to differing solar-cycle conditions. LEND measurements are combined with a detailed understanding of the sources of instrumental back-ground, and the performance of CSETN and SETN. This comparison allows us to calculate a constant scale factor

  17. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  18. Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration Leading to Human Exploration: Results from the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, Mark L.; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper will provide a summary and analysis of the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop all-day session on "Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration, Leading to Human Exploration", held at Fucino Space Center, Italy on June 12th, 2015. The session was primarily intended to explore how robotic missions and robotics technologies more generally can help lead to human exploration missions. The session included a wide range of presentations that were roughly grouped into (1) broader background, conceptual, and high-level operations concepts presentations such as the International Space Exploration Coordination Group Roadmap, followed by (2) more detailed narrower presentations such as rover autonomy and communications. The broader presentations helped to provide context and specific technical hooks, and helped lay a foundation for the narrower presentations on more specific challenges and technologies, as well as for the discussion that followed. The discussion that followed the presentations touched on key questions, themes, actions and potential international collaboration opportunities. Some of the themes that were touched on were (1) multi-agent systems, (2) decentralized command and control, (3) autonomy, (4) low-latency teleoperations, (5) science operations, (6) communications, (7) technology pull vs. technology push, and (8) the roles and challenges of operations in early human architecture and mission concept formulation. A number of potential action items resulted from the workshop session, including: (1) using CCSDS as a further collaboration mechanism for human mission operations, (2) making further contact with subject matter experts, (3) initiating informal collaborative efforts to allow for rapid and efficient implementation, and (4) exploring how SpaceOps can support collaboration and information exchange with human exploration efforts. This paper will summarize the session and provide an overview of the above subjects as they emerged from the SpaceOps 2015

  19. PERISCOPE: PERIapsis Subsurface Cave OPtical Explorer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar sub-surface exploration has been a topic of discussion since the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter identified openings (cave skylights) on the surface of the moon...

  20. Design of a lunar propellant processing facility. NASA/USRA advanced program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Rajesh; Bell, Jason; Campbell, J. Matt; Cash, Tom; Collins, John; Dailey, Brian; France, Angelique; Gareau, Will; Gleckler, Mark; Hamilton, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Mankind's exploration of space will eventually lead to the establishment of a permanent human presence on the Moon. Essential to the economic viability of such an undertaking will be prudent utilization of indigenous lunar resources. The design of a lunar propellant processing system is presented. The system elements include facilities for ore processing, ice transportation, water splitting, propellant storage, personnel and materials transportation, human habitation, power generation, and communications. The design scenario postulates that ice is present in the lunar polar regions, and that an initial lunar outpost was established. Mining, ore processing, and water transportation operations are located in the polar regions. Water processing and propellant storage facilities are positioned near the equator. A general description of design operations is outlined below. Regolith containing the ice is mined from permanently-shaded polar craters. Water is separated from the ore using a microwave processing technique, and refrozen into projectiles for launch to the equatorial site via railgun. A mass-catching device retrieves the ice. This ice is processed using fractional distillation to remove impurities, and the purified liquid water is fed to an electrolytic cell that splits the water into vaporous hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen and oxygen are condensed and stored separately in a tank farm. Electric power for all operations is supplied by SP-100 nuclear reactors. Transportation of materials and personnel is accomplished primarily using chemical rockets. Modular living habitats are used which provide flexibility for the placement and number of personnel. A communications system consisting of lunar surface terminals, a lunar relay satellite, and terrestrial surface stations provides capabilities for continuous Moon-Moon and Moon-Earth transmissions of voice, picture, and data.

  1. [Evaluation of Cellular Effects Caused by Lunar Regolith Simulant Including Fine Particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Miki, Takeo; Honma, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Shigeru; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has announced a plan to establish a manned colony on the surface of the moon, and our country, Japan, has declared its participation. The surface of the moon is covered with soil called lunar regolith, which includes fine particles. It is possible that humans will inhale lunar regolith if it is brought into the spaceship. Therefore, an evaluation of the pulmonary effects caused by lunar regolith is important for exploration of the moon. In the present study, we examine the cellular effects of lunar regolith simulant, whose components are similar to those of lunar regolith. We focused on the chemical component and particle size in particular. The regolith simulant was fractionated to effects of fine regolith simulant whose primary particle size is 5.10 μm. These regolith simulants were applied to human lung carcinoma A549 cells at concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/ml. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and immune response were examined after 24 h exposure. Cell membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were observed at the concentration of 1.0 mg/ml. The cellular effects of the regolith simulant at the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml were small, as compared with crystalline silica as a positive control. Secretion of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was observed at the concentration of 1.0 mg/ml, but induction of gene expression was not observed at 24 h after exposure. Induction of cellular oxidative stress was small. Although the cellular effects tended to be stronger in the effects of lunar regolith simulant such as cell membrane damage, induction of oxidative stress and proinflammatory effect.

  2. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  3. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  4. Test of Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A test engineer drives a Mobility Test Article (MTA) during a test of a Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) concept through the mountains of Arizona. The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  5. Test of Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A test engineer drives a Mobility Test Article (MTA) during a test of a Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) concept through the mountains of Arizona. The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  6. An Evidence-based Approach to Developing a Management Strategy for Medical Contingencies on the Lunar Surface: The NASA/Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation at Devon Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chappell, S.; Rafiq, A.; Braham, S.; Hodgson, E.; Sullivan, P.; Wilkinson, N.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The lunar architecture for future sortie and outpost missions will require humans to serve on the lunar surface considerably longer than the Apollo moon missions. Although the Apollo crewmembers sustained few injuries during their brief lunar surface activity, injuries did occur and are a concern for the longer lunar stays. Interestingly, lunar medical contingency plans were not developed during Apollo. In order to develop an evidence-base for handling a medical contingency on the lunar surface, a simulation using the moon-Mars analog environment at Devon Island, Nunavut, high Canadian Arctic was conducted. Objectives of this study included developing an effective management strategy for dealing with an incapacitated crewmember on the lunar surface, establishing audio/visual and biomedical data connectivity to multiple centers, testing rescue/extraction hardware and procedures, and evaluating in suit increased oxygen consumption. Methods: A review of the Apollo lunar surface activities and personal communications with Apollo lunar crewmembers provided the knowledge base of plausible scenarios that could potentially injure an astronaut during a lunar extravehicular activity (EVA). Objectives were established to demonstrate stabilization and transfer of an injured crewmember and communication with ground controllers at multiple mission control centers. Results: The project objectives were successfully achieved during the simulation. Among these objectives were extraction from a sloped terrain by a two-member crew in a 1 g analog environment, establishing real-time communication to multiple centers, providing biomedical data to flight controllers and crewmembers, and establishing a medical diagnosis and treatment plan from a remote site. Discussion: The simulation provided evidence for the types of equipment and methods for performing extraction of an injured crewmember from a sloped terrain. Additionally, the necessary communications infrastructure to connect

  7. Exploring Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Urban Human Mobility Hotspots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Xiping; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Lu, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding human mobility patterns provides us with knowledge about human mobility in an urban context, which plays a critical role in urban planning, traffic management and the spread of disease...

  8. Walking Wheel Design for Lunar Rove-Rand and Its Application Simulation Based on Virtual Lunar Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yibing

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The lunar rover design is the key problem of planet exploration. It is extraordinarily important for researchers to fully understand the lunar terrain and propose the reasonable lunar rover. In this paper, one new type of walking wheel modeled on impeller is presented based on vehicle terramechanics. The passive earth pressure of soil mechanics put forward by C. A. Coulomb is employed to obtain the wheel traction force. Some kinematics simulations are conducted for lunar rover model. Besides, this paper presents how to model lunar landing terrain containing typical statistic characteristic including craters and boulders; then, the second step is to construct basal lunar surface by using Brown Fractal Motion and the next is to add craters and boulders by means of known diameter algorithm and Random-create Diameter Algorithm. By means of importing 2D plain of lunar surface into UG, 3D parasolid is modeled and finally imported to ADAMS, which is available for lunar rover kinematics and dynamics simulation. Lastly, based on power spectrum curve of lunar terrain, the spectral characteristic of three different lunar terrain roughness is educed by using reverse engineering algorithm. Simulation results demonstrated the frequency of vibration mechanics properties of different roughness surfaces.

  9. Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis Subsystem: Pressure Transducer Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Edward Shinuk

    2017-01-01

    In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key factor in paving the way for the future of human space exploration. The ability to harvest resources on foreign astronomical objects to produce consumables and propellant offers potential reduction in mission cost and risk. Through previous missions, the existence of water ice at the poles of the moon has been identified, however the feasibility of water extraction for resources remains unanswered. The Resource Prospector (RP) mission is currently in development to provide ground truth, and will enable us to characterize the distribution of water at one of the lunar poles. Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) is the primary payload on RP that will be used in conjunction with a rover. RESOLVE contains multiple instruments for systematically identifying the presence of water. The main process involves the use of two systems within RESOLVE: the Oxygen Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) and Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA). Within the LAVA subsystem, there are multiple calculations that depend on accurate pressure readings. One of the most important instances where pressure transducers (PT) are used is for calculating the number of moles in a gas transfer from the OVEN subsystem. As a critical component of the main process, a mixture of custom and commercial off the shelf (COTS) PTs are currently being tested in the expected operating environment to eventually down select an option for integrated testing in the LAVA engineering test unit (ETU).

  10. The roles of humans and robots in exploring the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, W. W.

    2004-07-01

    Historically, advocates of solar system exploration have disagreed over whether program goals could be entirely satisfied by robotic missions. Scientists tend to argue that robotic exploration is most cost-effective. However, the human space program has a great deal of support in the general public, thereby enabling the scientific element of exploration to be larger than it might be as a stand-alone activity. A comprehensive strategy of exploration needs a strong robotic component complementing and supporting human missions. Robots are needed for precursor missions, for crew support on planetary surfaces, and for probing dangerous environments. Robotic field assistants can provide mobility, access to scientific sites, data acquisition, visualization of the environment, precision operations, sample acquisition and analysis, and expertise to human explorers. As long as space exploration depends on public funds, space exploration must include an appropriate mix of human and robotic activity.

  11. NASA's International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes and Robotic Lunar Lander Project Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Ballard, Benjamin; Chavers, Greg; Eng, Doug S.; Hammond, Monica S.; Hill, Larry A.; Harris, Danny W.; Hollaway, Todd A.; Kubota, Sanae; Morse, Brian J.; Mulac, Brian D.; Reed, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA's robotic lunar lander flight projects. Additional mission studies have been conducted to support other objectives of the lunar science and exploration community and extensive risk reduction design and testing has been performed to advance the design of the lander system and reduce development risk for flight projects.

  12. Lunar Applications in Reconfigurable Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervill, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program is developing a lunar surface outpost in which reconfigurable computing will play a significant role. Reconfigurable systems provide a number of benefits over conventional software-based implementations including performance and power efficiency, while the use of standardized reconfigurable hardware provides opportunities to reduce logistical overhead. The current vision for the lunar surface architecture includes habitation, mobility, and communications systems, each of which greatly benefit from reconfigurable hardware in applications including video processing, natural feature recognition, data formatting, IP offload processing, and embedded control systems. In deploying reprogrammable hardware, considerations similar to those of software systems must be managed. There needs to be a mechanism for discovery enabling applications to locate and utilize the available resources. Also, application interfaces are needed to provide for both configuring the resources as well as transferring data between the application and the reconfigurable hardware. Each of these topics are explored in the context of deploying reconfigurable resources as an integral aspect of the lunar exploration architecture.

  13. Improvement of the lunar rover with two parallel wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Z. F.; Deng, Z. Q.; Tao, J. G.

    With raising the new upsurge for lunar exploration the lunar rover with two parallel wheels is proposed for lunar exploration The lunar rover is driven by the offset of the driving weight and it is selected as the subsystem of the lunar rover group system The communication among the lunar rover group is simulated with blue-tooth technology In the group system the characteristic and the stability are the key problems for application The lunar rover has simple structure and it is controlled easily and also it has more performance such as motion flexibility antidumping combinability The lunar rover is composed of two wheels and a case platform Each wheel is controlled independently On the top of the case platform CCD is used for navigation In the front and the back of the case platform there are docking mechanism for combination The precise speed and position of the lunar rover is controlled by PMAC With PC 104 the actual load such as the information of sensors and real-time communication via blue-tooth is processed The good stability of the lunar rover is favorable for vision navigation and combination of several rovers Focused on the stability the lunar rover with changeable radius is proposed Screw pair is used in the lunar rover system for adjusting the driving radius Through adjusting the driving radius the tilt angle of the case platform can be variant value under the same driving moment and also the tilt angle can keep equal under the variant driving moment For testing the feasibility of the scheme based on the

  14. Lunar Network Tracking Architecture for Lunar Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Shane B.; Geller, David

    2010-01-01

    A trade study was conducted with the objective of comparing and contrasting the radiometric navigation performance provided by various architectures of lunar-based navigations assets. Architectures considered consist of a compliment of two beacons located on the lunar surface, and two orbiting beacons that provide range and range-rate measurements to the user. Configurations of these assets include both coplanar and linked constellations of frozen elliptic orbiters and halo orbiters. Each arc...

  15. Lunar based massdriver applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Manfred; Gabrielli, Roland Atonius; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, René

    2017-05-01

    The results of a lunar massdriver mission and system analysis are discussed and show a strong case for a permanent lunar settlement with a site near the lunar equator. A modular massdriver concept is introduced, which uses multiple acceleration modules to be able to launch large masses into a trajectory that is able to reach Earth. An orbital mechanics analysis concludes that the launch site will be in the Oceanus Procellarum a flat, Titanium rich lunar mare area. It is further shown that the bulk of massdriver components can be manufactured by collecting lunar minerals, which are broken down into its constituting elements. The mass to orbit transfer rates of massdriver case study are significant and can vary between 1.8 kt and 3.3 megatons per year depending on the available power. Thus a lunar massdriver would act as a catalyst for any space based activities and a game changer for the scale of feasible space projects.

  16. Exploring the intramolecular phosphorylation sites in human Chk2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte B; Larsen, Martin R; Boldyreff, Brigitte;

    2008-01-01

    A comparative biochemical analysis was performed using recombinant human protein kinase Chk2 (checkpoint kinase 2) expressed in bacteria and insect cells. Dephosphorylated, inactive, recombinant human Chk2 could be reactivated in a concentration-dependent manner. Despite distinct time....... Mass spectrometric analyses of human recombinant Chk2 isolated from bacteria and insect cells showed distinct differences. The number of phosphorylated residues in human recombinant Chk2 isolated from bacteria was 16, whereas in the case of the recombinant human Chk2 from insect cells it was 8. Except...... for phosphorylated amino acid T378 which was not found in the Chk2 isolated from bacteria, all other phosphorylated residues identified in human Chk2 from insect cells were present also in Chk2 from bacteria....

  17. Effect of Simulated Microgravity and Lunar Gravity on Human Inspiratory Muscle Function: 'Selena-T' 2015 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segizbaeva, M O; Aleksandrova, N P; Donina, Z A; Baranova, E V; Katuntsev, V P; Tarasenkov, G G; Baranov, V M

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the multi-disciplinary "SELENA-T"-2015 Bed Rest Study, we investigated the pattern of inspiratory muscles fatigue in 22 healthy male subjects during incremental exercise test to exhaustion before and after 21 days of hypokinesia evoked by bed rest. Hypokinesia consisted of head-down bed rest (HDBR) at a minus 6° angle, simulating microgravity present on orbiting spacecraft, in 10 subjects. The remaining 12 subjects spent the first 5 days of hypokinesia in HDBR position and the subsequent 16 days in head-up bed rest (HUBR) at a plus 9.6° angle, as a presumed analog of lunar gravity that is six times less than Earth's gravity. Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and electromyograms (EMG) of the diaphragm (D), parasternal (PS), sternocleidomastoid (SCM), and scalene (S) muscles served as indices of inspiratory muscle function. Before both HDBR and HUBR, exercise decreased MIP and centroid frequency (fc) of EMG (D, PS, SCM, and S) power spectrum (p effect. These changes may limit maximal ventilation and may contribute to exercise intolerance observed after prolonged simulated microgravity. The physiological mechanisms of respiratory muscle dysfunction after HDBR consist primarily of postural effects, and are not due only to hypokinesia.

  18. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  19. Exploring Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Urban Human Mobility Hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiping Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mobility patterns provides us with knowledge about human mobility in an urban context, which plays a critical role in urban planning, traffic management and the spread of disease. Recently, the availability of large-scale human-sensing datasets enables us to analyze human mobility patterns and the relationships between humans and their living environments on an unprecedented spatial and temporal scale to improve decision-making regarding the quality of life of citizens. This study aims to characterize the urban spatial-temporal dynamic from the perspective of human mobility hotspots by using mobile phone location data. We propose a workflow to identify human convergent and dispersive hotspots that represent the status of human mobility in local areas and group these hotspots into different classes according to clustering their temporal signatures. To illustrate our proposed approach, a case study of Shenzhen, China, has been conducted. Six typical spatial-temporal patterns in the city are identified and discussed by combining the spatial distribution of these identified patterns with urban functional areas. The findings enable us to understand the human dynamics in a different area of the city, which can serve as a reference for urban planning and traffic management.

  20. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  1. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-09-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  2. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, NASA has tasked its toxicology laboratory to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal/intrapharyngeal instillation. This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies are in progress to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated (ground) lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The results from the instillation studies will be useful for choosing exposure concentrations for the animal inhalation study. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The experiment with the simulate will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust w