WorldWideScience

Sample records for human exploration framework

  1. Rationalizing spatial exploration patterns of wild animals and humans through a temporal discounting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Levy, Joshua M; Mihalas, Stefan; Sims, David W; Hussain Shuler, Marshall G

    2016-08-02

    Understanding the exploration patterns of foragers in the wild provides fundamental insight into animal behavior. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that path lengths (distances between consecutive turns) taken by foragers are well fitted by a power law distribution. Numerous theoretical contributions have posited that "Lévy random walks"-which can produce power law path length distributions-are optimal for memoryless agents searching a sparse reward landscape. It is unclear, however, whether such a strategy is efficient for cognitively complex agents, from wild animals to humans. Here, we developed a model to explain the emergence of apparent power law path length distributions in animals that can learn about their environments. In our model, the agent's goal during search is to build an internal model of the distribution of rewards in space that takes into account the cost of time to reach distant locations (i.e., temporally discounting rewards). For an agent with such a goal, we find that an optimal model of exploration in fact produces hyperbolic path lengths, which are well approximated by power laws. We then provide support for our model by showing that humans in a laboratory spatial exploration task search space systematically and modify their search patterns under a cost of time. In addition, we find that path length distributions in a large dataset obtained from free-ranging marine vertebrates are well described by our hyperbolic model. Thus, we provide a general theoretical framework for understanding spatial exploration patterns of cognitively complex foragers.

  2. Revisiting the MDG’s: Exploring a Multidimensional Framework for Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Khan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With a standardized set of goals, and targets set in rates,proportions and percentages, an aggregated generalization marks theMillennium Development Goals (MDG’s. Obscuring the real entitlementdeficits, such an approach cloaks the multidimensionality of human suffering by ignoring distributional inequity and interpersonal diversities. The MDG’s, therefore, needs a revisiting within a broader informational space like the one envisaged by the capabilities approach (CA of Amartya Sen. The paper develops a framework for such an assessment, evaluates the outreach and effectiveness of the MDG’s within the framework, and taking it as a paradigm, outlines an alternative global agenda for humandevelopment in terms of CA.

  3. Exploring the Science Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Philip; Bricker, Leah; Tzou, Carrie; Lee, Tiffany; Van Horne, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The National Research Council's recent publication "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" (NRC 2011), which is the foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards now being developed, places unprecedented focus on the practices involved in doing scientific and engineering work. In an effort…

  4. Building a framework to explore water-human interaction for sustainable agro ecosystems in US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Ding, D.; Rapolu, U.

    2012-12-01

    Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. On this context, this team has investigated connections among agriculture, policy, climate, land use/land cover, and water quality in Iowa over the past couple of years. To help explore these connections the team is developing a variety of cyber infrastructure tools that facilitate the collection, analysis and visualization of data, and the simulation of system dynamics. In an ongoing effort, the prototype system is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa in the US Midwest, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. The primary aim of this research is to understand the connections that exist among the agricultural and biofuel economy, land use/land cover change, and water quality. To help explore these connections an agent-based model (ABM) of land use change has been developed that simulates the decisions made by farmers given alternative assumptions about market forces, farmer characteristics, and water quality regulations. The SWAT model was used to simulate the impact of these decisions on the movement of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus across the landscape. The paper also demonstrate how through the use of this system researchers can, for example, search for scenarios that lead to desirable socio-economic outcomes as well as preserve water quantity and quality.

  5. A Delphi-Based Framework for systems architecting of in-orbit exploration infrastructure for human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbargolkar, Alessandro; Crawley, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The current debate in the U.S. Human Spaceflight Program focuses on the development of the next generation of man-rated heavy lift launch vehicles. While launch vehicle systems are of critical importance for future exploration, a comprehensive analysis of the entire exploration infrastructure is required to avoid costly pitfalls at early stages of the design process. This paper addresses this need by presenting a Delphi-Based Systems Architecting Framework for integrated architectural analysis of future in-orbit infrastructure for human space exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit. The paper is structured in two parts. The first part consists of an expert elicitation study to identify objectives for the in-space transportation infrastructure. The study was conducted between November 2011 and January 2012 with 15 senior experts involved in human spaceflight in the United States and Europe. The elicitation study included the formation of three expert panels representing exploration, science, and policy stakeholders engaged in a 3-round Delphi study. The rationale behind the Delphi approach, as imported from social science research, is discussed. Finally, a novel version of the Delphi method is presented and applied to technical decision-making and systems architecting in the context of human space exploration. The second part of the paper describes a tradespace exploration study of in-orbit infrastructure coupled with a requirements definition exercise informed by expert elicitation. The uncertainties associated with technical requirements and stakeholder goals are explicitly considered in the analysis. The outcome of the expert elicitation process portrays an integrated view of perceived stakeholder needs within the human spaceflight community. Needs are subsequently converted into requirements and coupled to the system architectures of interest to analyze the correlation between exploration, science, and policy goals. Pareto analysis is used to identify architectures

  6. Human assisted robotic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, B. T.; Canady, J.; Warnell, G.; Stump, E.; Nothwang, W. D.; Marathe, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    In support of achieving better performance on autonomous mapping and exploration tasks by incorporating human input, we seek here to first characterize humans' ability to recognize locations from limited visual information. Such a characterization is critical to the design of a human-in-the-loop system faced with deciding whether and when human input is useful. In this work, we develop a novel and practical place-recognition task that presents humans with video clips captured by a navigating ground robot. Using this task, we find experimentally that human performance does not seem to depend on factors such as clip length or familiarity with the scene and also that there is significant variability across subjects. Moreover, we find that humans significantly outperform a state-of-the-art computational solution to this problem, suggesting the utility of incorporating human input in autonomous mapping and exploration techniques.

  7. Robotics for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  8. One Medicine One Science: a framework for exploring challenges at the intersection of animals, humans, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Dominic A; Sriramarao, P; Cardona, Carol; Steer, Clifford J; Kennedy, Shaun; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing the health consequences of interactions among animals, humans, and the environment in the face of climatic change, environmental disturbance, and expanding human populations is a critical global challenge in today's world. Exchange of interdisciplinary knowledge in basic and applied sciences and medicine that includes scientists, health professionals, key sponsors, and policy experts revealed that relevant case studies of monkeypox, influenza A, tuberculosis, and HIV can be used to guide strategies for anticipating and responding to new disease threats such as the Ebola and Chickungunya viruses, as well as to improve programs to control existing zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis. The problem of safely feeding the world while preserving the environment and avoiding issues such as antibiotic resistance in animals and humans requires cooperative scientific problem solving. Food poisoning outbreaks resulting from Salmonella growing in vegetables have demonstrated the need for knowledge of pathogen evolution and adaptation in developing appropriate countermeasures for prevention and policy development. Similarly, pesticide use for efficient crop production must take into consideration bee population declines that threaten the availability of the two-thirds of human foods that are dependent on pollination. This report presents and weighs the objective merits of competing health priorities and identifies gaps in knowledge that threaten health security, to promote discussion of major public policy implications such that they may be decided with at least an underlying platform of facts. © 2014 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. A framework for exploring adolescent wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurr, Shelley; Bally, Jill; Ogenchuk, Marcella; Walker, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This article presents and explains a "Framework for Exploring Adolescent Wellness" and outlines a research approach used to explore adolescent wellness specific to the discipline of nursing. The "Framework for Exploring Adolescent Wellness" assessed the concept of wellness through the perceptions of youth and sought to explain the relationship between adolescent well-being and development. A wellness survey was used to collect data from 280 youth, 16 to 20 years old, in two Western Canadian high schools. Their perceptions of wellness meant more to them than regular physical activity and healthy eating. The majority of youth suggested that psychological (89%), social (85%), and physical (80%) development made the most significant contribution to adolescent wellness. Slightly more than half the youth felt that spirituality (53%) contributed to their sense of wellness. These research findings indicate the need for an approach to adolescent nursing care that includes a high priority and greater visibility to the practice and philosophy of wellness.

  10. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-18

    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  11. Human Power Empirically Explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Harvesting energy from the users’ muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are conven

  12. The exploration-exploitation dilemma: a multidisciplinary framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Berger-Tal

    Full Text Available The trade-off between the need to obtain new knowledge and the need to use that knowledge to improve performance is one of the most basic trade-offs in nature, and optimal performance usually requires some balance between exploratory and exploitative behaviors. Researchers in many disciplines have been searching for the optimal solution to this dilemma. Here we present a novel model in which the exploration strategy itself is dynamic and varies with time in order to optimize a definite goal, such as the acquisition of energy, money, or prestige. Our model produced four very distinct phases: Knowledge establishment, Knowledge accumulation, Knowledge maintenance, and Knowledge exploitation, giving rise to a multidisciplinary framework that applies equally to humans, animals, and organizations. The framework can be used to explain a multitude of phenomena in various disciplines, such as the movement of animals in novel landscapes, the most efficient resource allocation for a start-up company, or the effects of old age on knowledge acquisition in humans.

  13. Robots and Humans: Synergy in Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    How will humans and robots cooperate in future planetary exploration? Are humans and robots fundamentally separate modes of exploration, or can humans and robots work together to synergistically explore the solar system? It is proposed that humans and robots can work together in exploring the planets by use of telerobotic operation to expand the function and usefulness of human explorers, and to extend the range of human exploration to hostile environments.

  14. Graphical Visualization of Human Exploration Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Erica M.; Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Simon, Matthew A.; Williams, Phillip A.; Barsoum, Christopher; Cowan, Tyler; Larman, Kevin T.; Hay, Jason; Burg, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NASA's pioneering space strategy will require advanced capabilities to expand the boundaries of human exploration on the Journey to Mars (J2M). The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) architecture serves as a framework to identify critical capabilities that need to be developed and tested in order to enable a range of human exploration destinations and missions. Agency-wide System Maturation Teams (SMT) are responsible for the maturation of these critical exploration capabilities and help formulate, guide and resolve performance gaps associated with the EMC-identified capabilities. Systems Capability Organization Reporting Engine boards (SCOREboards) were developed to integrate the SMT data sets into cohesive human exploration capability stories that can be used to promote dialog and communicate NASA's exploration investments. Each SCOREboard provides a graphical visualization of SMT capability development needs that enable exploration missions, and presents a comprehensive overview of data that outlines a roadmap of system maturation needs critical for the J2M. SCOREboards are generated by a computer program that extracts data from a main repository, sorts the data based on a tiered data reduction structure, and then plots the data according to specified user inputs. The ability to sort and plot varying data categories provides the flexibility to present specific SCOREboard capability roadmaps based on customer requests. This paper presents the development of the SCOREboard computer program and shows multiple complementary, yet different datasets through a unified format designed to facilitate comparison between datasets. Example SCOREboard capability roadmaps are presented followed by a discussion of how the roadmaps are used to: 1) communicate capability developments and readiness of systems for future missions, and 2) influence the definition of NASA's human exploration investment portfolio through capability-driven processes. The paper concludes with a description

  15. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  16. A compositional modelling framework for exploring MPSoC systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg-Hansen, Anders Sejer; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel compositional framework for system level performance estimation and exploration of Multi-Processor System On Chip (MPSoC) based systems. The main contributions are the definition of a compositional model which allows quantitative performance estimation to be carried ou...

  17. Robotic Recon for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Matthew; Fong, Terry; Ford, Ken; Heldmann, Jennifer; Helper, Mark; Hodges, Kip; Landis, Rob; Lee, Pascal; Schaber, Gerald; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    2009-01-01

    Robotic reconnaissance has the potential to significantly improve scientific and technical return from lunar surface exploration. In particular, robotic recon may increase crew productivity and reduce operational risk for exploration. However, additional research, development and field-testing is needed to mature robot and ground control systems, refine operational protocols, and specify detailed requirements. When the new lunar surface campaign begins around 2020, and before permanent outposts are established, humans will initially be on the Moon less than 10% of the time. During the 90% of time between crew visits, robots will be available to perform surface operations under ground control. Understanding how robotic systems can best address surface science needs, therefore, becomes a central issue Prior to surface missions, lunar orbiters (LRO, Kaguya, Chandrayyan-1, etc.) will map the Moon. These orbital missions will provide numerous types of maps: visible photography, topographic, mineralogical and geochemical distributions, etc. However, remote sensing data will not be of sufficient resolution, lighting, nor view angle, to fully optimize pre-human exploration planning, e.g., crew traverses for field geology and geophysics. Thus, it is important to acquire supplemental and complementary surface data. Robotic recon can obtain such data, using robot-mounted instruments to scout the surface and subsurface at resolutions and at viewpoints not achievable from orbit. This data can then be used to select locations for detailed field activity and prioritize targets to improve crew productivity. Surface data can also help identify and assess terrain hazards, and evaluate alternate routes to reduce operational risk. Robotic recon could be done months in advance, or be part of a continuing planning process during human missions.

  18. An emerging framework for human becoming criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gail J

    2004-04-01

    This column presents a new framework for researchers to consider as a guide when participating in the process of scholarly critique. The framework is aligned with the philosophical view of Gadamerian hermeneutics. The emerging framework, consistent with the human becoming school of thought, builds on ideas from literary theory, specifically reception or reader-response theory, and the human becoming hermeneutic method. Three processes- sketching the horizon of expectation, illuminating artistic disclosure, and enhancing the original with artform-guide reviewers to bring forth the contributions of the researcher and to enhance the researcher's contribution with artform. The emerging framework will enable researchers to participate in interpretive discourse and to advance the understanding of a scholarly community.

  19. Strategies For Human Exploration Leading To Human Colonization of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Everett, Harmon

    2009-01-01

    Enabling the commercial development of space is key to the future colonization of space and key to a viable space exploration program. Without commercial development following in the footsteps of exploration it is difficult to justify and maintain public interest in the efforts. NASA's exploration program has suffered from the lack of a good commercial economic strategy for decades. Only small advances in commercial space have moved forward, and only up to Earth orbit with the commercial satellite industry. A way to move beyond this phase is to begin the establishment of human commercial activities in space in partnership with the human exploration program. In 2007 and 2008, the authors researched scenarios to make space exploration and commercial space development more feasible as part of their graduate work in the Space Architecture Program at the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture at the University of Houston, Houston, Texas. Through this research it became apparent that the problems facing future colonization are much larger than the technology being developed or the international missions that our space agencies are pursuing. These issues are addressed in this paper with recommendations for space exploration, commercial development, and space policy that are needed to form a strategic plan for human expansion into space. In conclusion, the authors found that the current direction in space as carried out by our space agencies around the world is definitely needed, but is inadequate and incapable of resolving all of the issues that inhibit commercial space development. A bolder vision with strategic planning designed to grow infrastructures and set up a legal framework for commercial markets will go a long way toward enabling the future colonization of space.

  20. A human rights framework for midwifery care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joyce Beebe

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a rights-based model for midwifery care of women and childbearing families. Salient features include discussion of the influence of values on how women are viewed within cultures and societies, universal ethical principles applicable to health care services, and human rights based on the view of women as persons rather than as objects or chattel. Examples of the health impact on women of persistent violation of basic human rights are used to support the need for using a human rights framework for midwifery care--a model supported by codes of ethics, the midwifery philosophy of care, and standards of practice.

  1. Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technologies Program sponsors research, development and deployment activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant, Advanced Reactor Concepts, and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) Programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) Research Project is located under the aSMR Program, which identifies developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces as one of four key research areas. It is expected that the new nuclear power plant designs will employ technology significantly more advanced than the analog systems in the existing reactor fleet as well as utilizing automation to a greater extent. Moving towards more advanced technology and more automation does not necessary imply more efficient and safer operation of the plant. Instead, a number of concerns about how these technologies will affect human performance and the overall safety of the plant need to be addressed. More specifically, it is important to investigate how the operator and the automation work as a team to ensure effective and safe plant operation, also known as the human-automation collaboration (HAC). The focus of the HAC research is to understand how various characteristics of automation (such as its reliability, processes, and modes) effect an operator’s use and awareness of plant conditions. In other words, the research team investigates how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. This report addresses the Department of Energy milestone M4AT-15IN2302054, Complete Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration, by discussing the two phased development of a preliminary HAC framework. The framework developed in the first phase was used as the

  2. Social Foundations of Human Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Dator, James A

    2012-01-01

    Social Foundations of Human Space Exploration presents a uniquely human perspective on the quest to explore space and to understand the universe through the lens of the arts, humanities, and social sciences. It considers early stories about the universe in various cultures; recent space fiction; the origins and cultural rationale for the space age; experiences of humans in space and their emerging interactions with robots and artificial intelligence; how humans should treat environments and alien life; and the alternative futures of space exploration and settlement.

  3. Exploring a New Security Framework for Remote Patient Monitoring Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Ondiege

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Security has been an issue of contention in healthcare. The lack of familiarity and poor implementation of security in healthcare leave the patients’ data vulnerable to attackers. The main issue is assessing how we can provide security in an RPM infrastructure. The findings in literature show there is little empirical evidence on proper implementation of security. Therefore, there is an urgent need in addressing cybersecurity issues in medical devices. Through the review of relevant literature in remote patient monitoring and use of a Microsoft threat modelling tool, we identify and explore current vulnerabilities and threats in IEEE 11073 standard devices to propose a new security framework for remote patient monitoring devices. Additionally, current RPM devices have a limitation on the number of people who can share a single device, therefore, we propose the use of NFC for identification in Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM devices for multi-user environments where we have multiple people sharing a single device to reduce errors associated with incorrect user identification. We finally show how several techniques have been used to build the proposed framework.

  4. Applied Nanotechnology for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowell, Leonard L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanotechnology for human space exploration is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA's Strategic Vision; 2) Exploration Architecture; 3) Future Exploration Mission Requirements Cannot be met with Conventional Materials; 4) Nanomaterials: Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes; 5) Applied Nanotechnology at JSC: Fundamentals to Applications; 6) Technology Readiness Levels (TRL); 7) Growth, Modeling, Diagnostics and Production; 8) Characterization: Purity, Dispersion and Consistency; 9) Processing; 10) Nanoelectronics: Enabling Technologies; 11) Applications for Human Space Exploration; 12) Exploration Life Support: Atmosphere Revitalization System; 13) Advanced and Exploration Life Support: Regenerable CO2 Removal; 14) Exploration Life Support: Water Recovery; 15) Advanced Life Support: Water Disinfection/Recovery; 16) Power and Energy: Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells; 17) Nanomaterials for EMI Shielding; 18) Active Radiation Dosimeter; 19) Advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) Repair; 20) Thermal Radiation and Impact Protection (TRIPS); 21) Nanotechnology: Astronaut Health Management; 22) JSC Nanomaterials Group Collaborations.

  5. Human space exploration the next fifty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Turnock, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration.

  6. Exploring knowledge exchange: a useful framework for practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Vicky; Smith, Simon; House, Allan; Hamer, Susan

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge translation is underpinned by a dynamic and social knowledge exchange process but there are few descriptions of how this unfolds in practice settings. This has hampered attempts to produce realistic and useful models to help policymakers and researchers understand how knowledge exchange works. This paper reports the results of research which investigated the nature of knowledge exchange. We aimed to understand whether dynamic and fluid definitions of knowledge exchange are valid and to produce a realistic, descriptive framework of knowledge exchange. Our research was informed by a realist approach. We embedded a knowledge broker within three service delivery teams across a mental health organisation in the UK, each of whom was grappling with specific challenges. The knowledge broker participated in the team's problem-solving process and collected observational fieldnotes. We also interviewed the team members. Observational and interview data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively in order to determine and describe the nature of the knowledge exchange process in more detail. This enabled us to refine our conceptual framework of knowledge exchange. We found that knowledge exchange can be understood as a dynamic and fluid process which incorporates distinct forms of knowledge from multiple sources. Quantitative analysis illustrated that five broadly-defined components of knowledge exchange (problem, context, knowledge, activities, use) can all be in play at any one time and do not occur in a set order. Qualitative analysis revealed a number of distinct themes which better described the nature of knowledge exchange. By shedding light on the nature of knowledge exchange, our findings problematise some of the linear, technicist approaches to knowledge translation. The revised model of knowledge exchange which we propose here could therefore help to reorient thinking about knowledge exchange and act as a starting point for further exploration and

  7. Astrobiology and the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Garvin, James B.; Drake, B. G.; Beaty, David

    2010-01-01

    In March 2007, the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) chartered the Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG), co-chaired by J. B. Garvin and J. S. Levine and consisting of about 30 Mars scientists from the U.S. and Europe. HEM-SAG was one of a half dozen teams charted by NASA to consider the human exploration of Mars. Other teams included: Mars Entry, Descent and Landing, Human Health and Performance, Flight and Surface Systems, and Heliospheric/Astrophysics. The results of these Mars teams and the development of an architecture for the human exploration of Mars were summarized in two recent publications: Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, NASA Special Publication-2009-566 (B. G. Drake, Editor), 100 pages, July 2009 and Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, NASA Special Publication-2009-566 Addendum (B. G. Drake, Editor), 406 pages, July 2009. This presentation summarizes the HEM-SAG conclusions on astrobiology and the search for life on Mars by humans.

  8. New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In FY 2001, NASA will undertake a new research and technology program supporting the goals of human exploration: the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative (HTCI). The HTCI represents a new strategic approach to exploration technology, in which an emphasis will be placed on identifying and developing technologies for systems and infrastructures that may be common among exploration and commercial development of space objectives. A family of preliminary strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps have been formulated that address "technology for human exploration and development of space (THREADS). These road maps frame and bound the likely content of the HTCL Notional technology themes for the initiative include: (1) space resources development, (2) space utilities and power, (3) habitation and bioastronautics, (4) space assembly, inspection and maintenance, (5) exploration and expeditions, and (6) space transportation. This paper will summarize the results of the THREADS road mapping process and describe the current status and content of the HTCI within that framework. The paper will highlight the space resources development theme within the Initiative and will summarize plans for the coming year.

  9. New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In FY 2001, NASA will undertake a new research and technology program supporting the goals of human exploration: the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative (HTCI). The HTCI represents a new strategic approach to exploration technology, in which an emphasis will be placed on identifying and developing technologies for systems and infrastructures that may be common among exploration and commercial development of space objectives. A family of preliminary strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps have been formulated that address "technology for human exploration and development of space (THREADS). These road maps frame and bound the likely content of the HTCL Notional technology themes for the initiative include: (1) space resources development, (2) space utilities and power, (3) habitation and bioastronautics, (4) space assembly, inspection and maintenance, (5) exploration and expeditions, and (6) space transportation. This paper will summarize the results of the THREADS road mapping process and describe the current status and content of the HTCI within that framework. The paper will highlight the space resources development theme within the Initiative and will summarize plans for the coming year.

  10. Planetary protection in the framework of the Aurora exploration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.

    The Aurora Exploration Program will give ESA new responsibilities in the field of planetary protection. Until now, ESA had only limited exposure to planetary protection from its own missions. With the proposed ExoMars and MSR missions, however, ESA will enter the realm of the highest planetary protection categories. As a consequence, the Aurora Exploration Program has initiated a number of activities in the field of planetary protection. The first and most important step was to establish a Planetary Protection Working Group (PPWG) that is advising the Exploration Program Advisory Committee (EPAC) on all matters concerning planetary protection. The main task of the PPWG is to provide recommendations regarding: Planetary protection for robotic missions to Mars; Planetary protection for a potential human mission to Mars; Review/evaluate standards & procedures for planetary protection; Identify research needs in the field of planetary protection. As a result of the PPWG deliberations, a number of activities have been initiated: Evaluation of the Microbial Diversity in SC Facilities; Working paper on legal issues of planetary protection and astrobiology; Feasibility study on a Mars Sample Return Containment Facility; Research activities on sterilization procedures; Training course on planetary protection (May, 2004); Workshop on sterilization techniques (fall 2004). In parallel to the PPWG, the Aurora Exploration Program has established an Ethical Working Group (EWG). This working group will address ethical issues related to astrobiology, planetary protection, and manned interplanetary missions. The recommendations of the working groups and the results of the R&D activities form the basis for defining planetary protection specification for Aurora mission studies, and for proposing modification and new inputs to the COSPAR planetary protection policy. Close cooperation and free exchange of relevant information with the NASA planetary protection program is strongly

  11. Affect in Mathematics Education--Exploring Theoretical Frameworks. Research Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Markku; Evans, Jeff; Philippou, George; Zan, Rosetta

    2004-01-01

    This document brings into a dialogue some of the theoretical frameworks used to study affect in mathematics education. It presents affect as a representational system, affect as one regulator of the dynamic self, affect in a socio-constructivist framework, and affect as embodied. It also evaluates these frameworks from different perspectives:…

  12. Humanity in God's Image: An Interdisciplinary Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia

    How can we, in our times, understand the biblical concept that human beings have been created in the image of an invisible God? This is a perennial but increasingly pressing question that lies at the heart of theological anthropology. Humanity in God's Image: An Interdisciplinary Exploration....... Claudia Welz offers an interdisciplinary exploration of theological and ethical 'visions' of the invisible. By analysing poetry and art, Welz exemplifies human self-understanding in the interface between the visual and the linguistic. The content of the imago Dei cannot be defined apart from the image...

  13. Robotic Follow-Up for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Deans, Matthew C.; Adams, Byron; Allan, Mark; Altobelli, Martha; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Cohen, Tamar; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Garber, Joshua; Palmer, Elizabeth; Heggy, Essam; Jurgens, Frank; Kennedy, Tim; Kobayashi, Linda; Lee, Pascal; Lee, Susan Y.; Lees, David; Lundy, Mike; Park, Eric; Pedersen, Liam; Smith, Trey; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Wheeler, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    We are studying how "robotic follow-up" can improve future planetary exploration. Robotic follow-up, which we define as augmenting human field work with subsequent robot activity, is a field exploration technique designed to increase human productivity and science return. To better understand the benefits, requirements, limitations and risks associated with this technique, we are conducting analog field tests with human and robot teams at the Haughton Crater impact structure on Devon Island, Canada. In this paper, we discuss the motivation for robotic follow-up, describe the scientific context and system design for our work, and present results and lessons learned from field testing.

  14. Human-Robot Planetary Exploration Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    The EVA Robotic Assistant (ERA) project at NASA Johnson Space Center studies human-robot interaction and robotic assistance for future human planetary exploration. Over the past four years, the ERA project has been performing field tests with one or more four-wheeled robotic platforms and one or more space-suited humans. These tests have provided experience in how robots can assist humans, how robots and humans can communicate in remote environments, and what combination of humans and robots works best for different scenarios. The most efficient way to understand what tasks human explorers will actually perform, and how robots can best assist them, is to have human explorers and scientists go and explore in an outdoor, planetary-relevant environment, with robots to demonstrate what they are capable of, and roboticists to observe the results. It can be difficult to have a human expert itemize all the needed tasks required for exploration while sitting in a lab: humans do not always remember all the details, and experts in one arena may not even recognize that the lower level tasks they take for granted may be essential for a roboticist to know about. Field tests thus create conditions that more accurately reveal missing components and invalid assumptions, as well as allow tests and comparisons of new approaches and demonstrations of working systems. We have performed field tests in our local rock yard, in several locations in the Arizona desert, and in the Utah desert. We have tested multiple exploration scenarios, such as geological traverses, cable or solar panel deployments, and science instrument deployments. The configuration of our robot can be changed, based on what equipment is needed for a given scenario, and the sensor mast can even be placed on one of two robot bases, each with different motion capabilities. The software architecture of our robot is also designed to be as modular as possible, to allow for hardware and configuration changes. Two focus

  15. A Neurocognitive Framework for Human Creative Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Arne; Haider, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    We are an intensely creative species. Creativity is the fountainhead of our civilizations and a defining characteristic of what makes us human. But for all its prominence at the apex of human mental faculties, we know next to nothing about how brains generate creative ideas. With all previous attempts to tighten the screws on this vexed problem unsuccessful – right brains, divergent thinking, defocused attention, default mode network, alpha enhancement, prefrontal activation, etc. (Dietrich and Kanso, 2010) – the neuroscientific study of creativity finds itself in a theoretical arid zone that has perhaps no equal in psychology. We propose here a general framework for a fresh attack on the problem and set it out under 10 foundational concepts. Most of the ideas we favor are part and parcel of the standard conceptual toolbox of cognitive neuroscience but their combination and significance to creativity are original. By outlining, even in such broad strokes, the theoretical landscape of cognitive neuroscience as it relates to creative insights, we hope to bring into clear focus the key enabling factors that are likely to have a hand in computing ideational combinations in the brain. PMID:28119660

  16. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA 5.0), which is the latest in a series of NASA Mars reference missions. It provides a vision of one potential approach to human Mars exploration. The reference architecture provides a common framework for future planning of systems concepts, technology development, and operational testing as well as Mars robotic missions, research that is conducted on the International Space Station, and future lunar exploration missions. This summary the Mars DRA 5.0 provides an overview of the overall mission approach, surface strategy and exploration goals, as well as the key systems and challenges for the first three human missions to Mars.

  17. The "Blueprint" Framework for Career Management Skills: A Critical Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley, Tristram; Watts, A. G.; Sultana, Ronald G.; Neary, Siobhan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the Blueprint framework for career management skills as it has been revealed across sequential implementations in the USA, Canada and Australia. It is argued that despite its lack of an empirical basis, the framework forms a useful and innovative means through which career theory, practice and policy can be connected. The…

  18. The "Blueprint" Framework for Career Management Skills: A Critical Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley, Tristram; Watts, A. G.; Sultana, Ronald G.; Neary, Siobhan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the Blueprint framework for career management skills as it has been revealed across sequential implementations in the USA, Canada and Australia. It is argued that despite its lack of an empirical basis, the framework forms a useful and innovative means through which career theory, practice and policy can be connected. The…

  19. Exploring hydroclimatic change disparity via the Budyko framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, Y. van der; Vercauteren, N.; Jaramillo, F.; Dekker, S.C.; Destouni, G.; Lyon, S.W.

    2013-01-01

    The Budyko framework characterizes landscape water cycles as a function of climate. We used this framework to identify regions with contrasting hydroclimatic change during the past 50years in Sweden. This analysis revealed three distinct regions: the mountains, the forests, and the areas with agricu

  20. Integrating Human and Ecosystem Health Through Ecosystem Services Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Adriana E S; Graham, Hilary; White, Piran C L

    2015-12-01

    The pace and scale of environmental change is undermining the conditions for human health. Yet the environment and human health remain poorly integrated within research, policy and practice. The ecosystem services (ES) approach provides a way of promoting integration via the frameworks used to represent relationships between environment and society in simple visual forms. To assess this potential, we undertook a scoping review of ES frameworks and assessed how each represented seven key dimensions, including ecosystem and human health. Of the 84 ES frameworks identified, the majority did not include human health (62%) or include feedback mechanisms between ecosystems and human health (75%). While ecosystem drivers of human health are included in some ES frameworks, more comprehensive frameworks are required to drive forward research and policy on environmental change and human health.

  1. The design explorer project: Using a cognitive framework to support knowledge exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, A. M.; Sonnenwald, D.H.; Buur, J.;

    1997-01-01

    , or categories, of domain information which need to be available for a system or product designer/design team in order to determine the characteristics of the artefact, or object of design. These dimensions include information about the different work domains in which the product plays a role during its lifetime...... the 'Design Explorer' research project whose goal is to specify requirements for an information system that will effectively help design team members from different domains and organizational cultures to locate and utilize diverse information sources and interact more effectively throughout the design process......, and various related task spaces, domain activities, decisionmaking activities, division and coordination of work, and social organization. The framework is the result of a generalization of experiences from field studies in and design of support systems for a variety of modern work domains, such as process...

  2. A multidisciplinary framework for (teaching) human product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; Bijl-Brouwer, van der Mieke; Boks, C.; McMahon, C.; Ion, W.; Parkinson, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a framework for dealing with the complexity of human-product relationships. The actual framework is a matrix of design perspectives, with three cooperating disciplines on the one hand and three levels of abstraction on the other hand. Basis of the framework is the notion t

  3. A multidisciplinary framework for (teaching) human product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; van der Bijl-Brouwer, Mieke; Boks, C.; McMahon, C.; Ion, W.; Parkinson, B

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a framework for dealing with the complexity of human-product relationships. The actual framework is a matrix of design perspectives, with three cooperating disciplines on the one hand and three levels of abstraction on the other hand. Basis of the framework is the notion

  4. Towards the Establishment of a Strategic Framework for a Global Exploration Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Piero

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the development of space exploration through a framework of the European Space Policy is shown. The topics include: 1) Europe's Involvement in Space Exploration; 2) Different Programs-Similar Goals; 3) International Cooperation; and 4) Establishing an International Cooperation Framework.

  5. Connecting Robots and Humans in Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Louis

    2000-07-01

    Mars exploration is a very special public interest. It's preeminence in the national space policy calling for "sustained robotic presence on the surface," international space policy (witness the now aborted international plan for sample return, and also aborted Russian "national Mars program") and the media attention to Mars exploration are two manifestations of that interest. Among a large segment of the public there is an implicit (mis)understanding that we are sending humans to Mars. Even among those who know that isn't already a national or international policy, many think it is the next human exploration goal. At the same time the resources for Mars exploration in the U.S. and other country's space programs are a very small part of space budgets. Very little is being applied to direct preparations for human flight. This was true before the 1999 mission losses in the United States, and it is more true today. The author's thesis is that the public interest and the space program response to Mars exploration are inconsistent. This inconsistency probably results from an explicit space policy contradiction: Mars exploration is popular because of the implicit pull of Mars as the target for human exploration, but no synergy is permitted between the human and robotic programs to carry out the program. It is not permitted because of narrow, political thinking. In this paper we try to lay out the case for overcoming that thinking, even while not committing to any premature political initiative. This paper sets out a rationale for Mars exploration and uses it to then define recommended elements of the programs: missions, science objectives, technology. That consideration is broader than the immediate issue of recovering from the failures of Mars Climate OrbIter, Mars Polar Lander and the Deep Space 2 microprobes in late 1999. But we cannot ignore those failures. They are causing a slow down Mars exploration. Not only were the three missions lost, with their planned

  6. Cryogenics and the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current plans within NASA involve extending the human exploration of space from low earth orbit into the solar system, with the first human exploration of Mars presently planned in 2011. Integral to all hum Mars mission phases is cryogenic fluid management. Cryogenic fluids will be required both as propellant and for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Without safe and efficient cryogen storage human Mars missions will not be possible. Effective control and handling of cryogenic fluids is the key to affordable Mars missions, and advancing active thermal control technology is synergistic with all of NASA's exploration initiatives and with existing and future instrument cooling programs, including MTPE and Origins. Present mission scenarios for human exploration require cryogenic propellant storage for up to 1700 days and for up to 60 metric tons. These requirements represent increases of an order of magnitude over previous storage masses and lifetimes. The key cryogenic terminology areas to be addressed in human Mars missions are long-term propellant storage, cryogenic refrigeration, cryogenic liquefaction, and zero gravity fluid management. Long-term storage for the thermal control of cryogenic propellants is best accomplished with a mix of passive and active technologies. Passive technologies such as advanced multilayer insulation (MLI) concepts will be combined with the development of active coolers (cryogenic refrigerators). Candidates for long-life active cooling applications include Reverse Turbo-Brayton, Stirling, and Pulse-Tube coolers. The integration of passive and active technologies will form a hybrid system optimized to minimize the launch mass while preserving the cryogenic propellants. Since cryogenic propellants are the largest mass that Mars missions must launch from earth, even a modest reduction in the percentage of propellant carried results in a significant weight saving. This paper will present a brief overview of cryogenic fluid management

  7. A Framework for Human Microbiome Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    microbiome ) exist throughout the human body, with fundamental roles in human health and disease . The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human...roles in human health and disease . The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human Microbiome Project Consortium has established a population...human health and disease . The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human Microbiome Project Consortium has established a population-scale

  8. Exploring How Globalization Shapes Education: Methodology and Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This is a commentary on some major issues raised in Carter and Dediwalage's "Globalisation and science education: The case of "Sustainability by the bay"" (this issue), particularly their methodology and theoretical framework for understanding how globalisation shapes education (including science education). While acknowledging the authors'…

  9. Exploring How Globalization Shapes Education: Methodology and Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This is a commentary on some major issues raised in Carter and Dediwalage's "Globalisation and science education: The case of "Sustainability by the bay"" (this issue), particularly their methodology and theoretical framework for understanding how globalisation shapes education (including science education). While acknowledging the authors'…

  10. Astrobiological benefits of human space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian A

    2010-01-01

    An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered.

  11. Interior Design Education within a Human Ecological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaup, Migette L.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Honey, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    An education based in human ecology can greatly benefit interior designers as they work to understand and improve the human condition. Design programs housed in colleges focusing on human ecology can improve the interior design profession by taking advantage of their home base and emphasizing the human ecological framework in the design curricula.…

  12. Interior Design Education within a Human Ecological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaup, Migette L.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Honey, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    An education based in human ecology can greatly benefit interior designers as they work to understand and improve the human condition. Design programs housed in colleges focusing on human ecology can improve the interior design profession by taking advantage of their home base and emphasizing the human ecological framework in the design curricula.…

  13. Comparison of Human Exploration Architecture and Campaign Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodliff, Kandyce; Cirillo, William; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Shyface, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    As part of an overall focus on space exploration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) continues to evaluate potential approaches for sending humans beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). In addition, various external organizations are studying options for beyond LEO exploration. Recent studies include NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign and Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0, JPL's Minimal Mars Architecture; the Inspiration Mars mission; the Mars One campaign; and the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). Each of these potential exploration constructs applies unique methods, architectures, and philosophies for human exploration. It is beneficial to compare potential approaches in order to better understand the range of options available for exploration. Since most of these studies were conducted independently, the approaches, ground rules, and assumptions used to conduct the analysis differ. In addition, the outputs and metrics presented for each construct differ substantially. This paper will describe the results of an effort to compare and contrast the results of these different studies under a common set of metrics. The paper will first present a summary of each of the proposed constructs, including a description of the overall approach and philosophy for exploration. Utilizing a common set of metrics for comparison, the paper will present the results of an evaluation of the potential benefits, critical challenges, and uncertainties associated with each construct. The analysis framework will include a detailed evaluation of key characteristics of each construct. These will include but are not limited to: a description of the technology and capability developments required to enable the construct and the uncertainties associated with these developments; an analysis of significant operational and programmatic risks associated with that construct; and an evaluation of the extent to which exploration is enabled by the construct, including the destinations

  14. Human Exploration Science Office (KX) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Tracy A.

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office supports human spaceflight, conducts research, and develops technology in the areas of space orbital debris, hypervelocity impact technology, image science and analysis, remote sensing, imagery integration, and human and robotic exploration science. NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) resides in the Human Exploration Science Office. ODPO provides leadership in orbital debris research and the development of national and international space policy on orbital debris. The office is recognized internationally for its measurement and modeling of the debris environment. It takes the lead in developing technical consensus across U.S. agencies and other space agencies on debris mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. The Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) project evaluates the risks to spacecraft posed by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD). HVIT facilities at JSC and White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) use light gas guns, diagnostic tools, and high-speed imagery to quantify the response of spacecraft materials to MMOD impacts. Impact tests, with debris environment data provided by ODPO, are used by HVIT to predict risks to NASA and commercial spacecraft. HVIT directly serves NASA crew safety with MMOD risk assessments for each crewed mission and research into advanced shielding design for future missions. The Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) supports the International Space Station (ISS) and commercial spaceflight through the design of imagery acquisition schemes (ground- and vehicle-based) and imagery analyses for vehicle performance assessments and mission anomaly resolution. ISAG assists the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in the development of camera systems for the Orion spacecraft that will serve as data sources for flight test objectives that lead to crewed missions. The multi-center Imagery Integration Team is led by the Human Exploration Science Office and provides

  15. Exploring the Use of a Test Automation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Alex

    2009-01-01

    It is known that software testers, more often than not, lack the time needed to fully test the delivered software product within the time period allotted to them. When problems in the implementation phase of a development project occur, it normally causes the software delivery date to slide. As a result, testers either need to work longer hours, or supplementary resources need to be added to the test team in order to meet aggressive test deadlines. One solution to this problem is to provide testers with a test automation framework to facilitate the development of automated test solutions.

  16. A Software Framework for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a software framework we designed and implemented for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface. The proposed framework is based on publish / subscribe architecture, which allows developers and researchers to conveniently configure, test and

  17. A Software Framework for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a software framework we designed and implemented for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface. The proposed framework is based on publish / subscribe architecture, which allows developers and researchers to conveniently configure, test and

  18. An Animation Framework for Continuous Interaction with Reactive Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Zwiers, Jakob; Ruttkay, Z.M.; ter Maat, Mark; Nijholt, Antinus; Egges, A.; van Welbergen, H.; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    We present a complete framework for animation of Reactive Virtual Humans that offers a mixed animation paradigm: control of different body parts switches between keyframe animation, procedural animation and physical simulation, depending on the requirements of the moment. This framework implements

  19. Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to describe a Framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision‐making processes in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  20. Exploring the UMLS: a rough sets based theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P

    1999-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) [1] has a unique and leading position in the evolution of thesauri and metathesauri. Features that set it apart are: its composition from more than fifty component health care vocabularies; the sophisticated UMLS ontology linking the Metathesaurus with structures such as the Semantic Network and the SPECIALIST lexicon; and the high level of social collaboration invested in its construction and growth. It is our thesis that in order to successfully harness such a complex vocabulary for text retrieval we need sophisticated methods derived from a deeper understanding of the UMLS system. Thus we propose a theoretical framework based on the theory of rough sets, that supports the systematic and exploratory investigation of the UMLS Metathesaurus for text retrieval. Our goal is to make it more feasible for individuals such as patients and health care professionals to access relevant information at the point of need.

  1. Allotment Garden Dwellings: Exploring Tradition and Legal Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja LORBEK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 19th century, the removal of city walls and introduction of mass transport in European cities provided the opportunity to expand cities in green suburban areas. Colonies of small houses with garden plots and allotment gardens developed during this era thus represent a new type of settlement, where green infrastructure (gardens and allotment dwellings are closely intertwined. The gardens in these settlements were originally based on the notion of subsistence economy, providing food and emergency accommodation in periods of crisis. This paper examines the evolution of allotments and particularly allotment dwellings in Germany and Austria by matching the actual practices of gardeners with the formation of and changes in the legal framework. The legislation and zoning regulations, which were predominantly established after the fact, reveal an ongoing process of negotiation between informal practices and planning authorities.

  2. Exploring the Application of a Conceptual Framework in a Social MALL App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Timothy; Bárcena, Elena; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a prototype social Mobile Assisted Language Learning (henceforth, MALL) app based on Kukulska-Hulme's (2012) conceptual framework. This research allows the exploration of time, place and activity type as key factors in the design of MALL apps, and is the first step toward a systematic analysis of such a framework in this type…

  3. Future Visions for Scientific Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, James

    2005-01-01

    Today, humans explore deep-space locations such as Mars, asteroids, and beyond, vicariously here on Earth, with noteworthy success. However, to achieve the revolutionary breakthroughs that have punctuated the history of science since the dawn of the Space Age has always required humans as "the discoverers," as Daniel Boorstin contends in this book of the same name. During Apollo 17, human explorers on the lunar surface discovered the "genesis rock," orange glass, and humans in space revamped the optically crippled Hubble Space Telescope to enable some of the greatest astronomical discoveries of all time. Science-driven human exploration is about developing the opportunities for such events, perhaps associated with challenging problems such as whether we can identify life beyond Earth within the universe. At issue, however, is how to safely insert humans and the spaceflight systems required to allow humans to operate as they do best in the hostile environment of deep space. The first issue is minimizing the problems associated with human adaptation to the most challenging aspects of deep space space radiation and microgravity (or non-Earth gravity). One solution path is to develop technologies that allow for minimization of the exposure time of people to deep space, as was accomplished in Apollo. For a mission to the planet Mars, this might entail new technological solutions for in-space propulsion that would make possible time-minimized transfers to and from Mars. The problem of rapid, reliable in-space transportation is challenged by the celestial mechanics of moving in space and the so-called "rocket equation." To travel to Mars from Earth in less than the time fuel-minimizing trajectories allow (i.e., Hohmann transfers) requires an exponential increase in the amount of fuel. Thus, month-long transits would require a mass of fuel as large as the dry mass of the ISS, assuming the existence of continuous acceleration engines. This raises the largest technological

  4. Research on Human-Robot Joint System for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei

    The lunar exploration in China is in progress. In order to reduce human workload and costs, and conduct researches more effectively and efficiently, human-robot joint systems are necessary for lunar exploration. The concept of human-robot joint system for lunar exploration is studied in this paper. The possible collaborative ways between human and robots and the collaborative activities which can be conducted for lunar exploration are discussed. Moreover, the preliminary configuration of a human-robot joint system is presented.

  5. A nondimensional framework for exploring the relief structure of landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Stuart W. D.; Mudd, Simon M.; Hurst, Martin D.; Milodowski, David T.

    2016-04-01

    Considering the relationship between erosion rate and the relief structure of a landscape within a nondimensional framework facilitates the comparison of landscapes undergoing forcing at a range of scales, and allows broad-scale patterns of landscape evolution to be observed. We present software which automates the extraction and processing of relevant topographic parameters to rapidly generate nondimensional erosion rate and relief data for any landscape where high-resolution topographic data are available. Individual hillslopes are identified using a connected-components technique which allows spatial averaging to be performed over geomorphologically meaningful spatial units, without the need for manual identification of hillslopes. The software is evaluated on four landscapes across the continental United States, three of which have been studied previously using this technique. We show that it is possible to identify whether landscapes are in topographic steady state. In locations such as Cascade Ridge, CA, a clear signal of an erosional gradient can be observed. In the southern Appalachians, nondimensional erosion rate and relief data are interpreted as evidence for a landscape decaying following uplift during the Miocene. An analysis of the sensitivity of this method to free parameters used in the data smoothing routines is presented which allows users to make an informed choice of parameters when interrogating new topographic data using this method. A method to constrain the critical gradient of the nonlinear sediment flux law is also presented which provides an independent constraint on this parameter for three of the four study landscapes.

  6. Functionalized organic frameworks explored as second order NLO agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil K Singh; Brijesh Rathi; Volodymyr V Medviediev; Oleg V Shishkin; Vijay Bahadur; Taruna Singh; Brajendra K Singh; N Vijayan; V Balachandran; Nikolay Yu Gorobets

    2016-02-01

    A new class of chiral phthalimides functionalized with aryl piperazines was designed anticipating their strong candidature for crystal engineering and technological applications. Five new phthalimides were synthesized, characterized and subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction study that directed their noncentrosymmetric structures. Four phthalimides crystallized in 21 space group with monoclinic crystal system, however, one was found to possess 212121 space group with orthorhombic system. The supramolecular architectures of phthalimide crystals were analysed by an approach based on consideration of energy of intermolecular interaction. The molecular hyperpolarizability () calculation for all the listed phthalimides indicated their promising candidature for NLO materials. Further, the crystalline form of all phthalimides was evaluated for their second harmonic generation (SHG) response. A significant response of 16.4mV was measured for phthalimide possessing t-butyl substituent at the para position of 4-benzylpiperazine. This high SHG response may be attributed to the molecular chirality and helical supramolecular frameworks stabilized by C-H· · ·O hydrogen bonds in the solid state. The current study attests chiral phthalimides possessing arylpiperazines as effective nominees to the area of crystal engineering and nonlinear optics.

  7. Exploring Human Capital and Hybrid Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyver, Kim; Lomberg, Carina; Steffens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    An individual’s human capital affects their choice to become and entrepreneur and also their likely success as a nascent entrepreneur. This paper explores how hybrid employment—entrepreneur opportunities impact these dynamics. Drawing on insights from decision theory, we argue that an individual...... longitudinal dataset of individuals facing career transition as nascent entrepreneurs, job seekers or both, we find that while hybrid nascent entrepreneurship (trying to start a business while being employed) has a positive influence on outcomes, hybrid search (concurrent job search while trying to start...

  8. Metal Organic Frameworks: Explorations and Design Strategies for MOF Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulHalim, Rasha

    2016-11-27

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) represent an emerging new class of functional crystalline solid-state materials. In the early discovery of this now rapidly growing class of materials significant challenges were often encountered. However, MOFs today, with its vast structural modularity, reflected by the huge library of the available chemical building blocks, and exceptional controlled porosity, stand as the most promising candidate to address many of the overbearing societal challenges pertaining to energy and environmental sustainability. A variety of design strategies have been enumerated in the literature which rely on the use of predesigned building blocks paving the way towards potentially more predictable structures. The two major design strategies presented in this work are the molecular building block (MBB) and supermolecular building block (SBB) -based approaches for the rationale assembly of functional MOF materials with the desired structural features. In this context, we targeted two highly connected MOF platforms, namely rht-MOF and shp-MOF. These two MOF platforms are classified based on their topology, defined as the underlying connectivity of their respective net, as edge transitive binodal nets; shp being (4,12)-connected net and rht being (3,24)-connected net. These highly connected nets were deliberately targeted due to the limited number of possible nets for connecting their associated basic building units. Two highly porous materials were designed and successfully constructed; namely Y-shp-MOF-5 and rht-MOF-10. The Y-shp-MOF-5 features a phenomenal water stability with an exquisite behavior when exposed to water, positioning this microporous material as the best adsorbent for moisture control applications. The shp-MOF platform proved to be modular to ligand functionalization and thus imparting significant behavioral changes when hydrophilic and hydrophobic functionalized ligands were introduced on the resultant MOF. On the other hand, rht

  9. Towards human exploration of space: the THESEUS review series on cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal research priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, André E.; André E. Larina, Irina; Momken, Iman; Blanc, Stéphane; White, Olivier; Prisk, Kim; Linnarsson, Dag

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The THESEUS project (Towards Human Exploration of Space: aEUropean Strategy) was initiated within the seventh FrameworkProgramme by the European Commission. This project aimed toprovide a cross-cutting, life science-based roadmap for Europe’sstrategy towards human exploration of space, especially for deepspace missions and its relevance to applications on Earth. Toaddress these challenges, relevance of space research on thecardiovascular system, the lungs and kidneys, ...

  10. Conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne; Knudsen, Lisbeth; Vorkamp, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring (HBM) program. The EU and national science-policy interface, that is fundamental for a realization of the national and European environment and human health strategies, is discussed, including the need...

  11. Understanding Predictability and Exploration in Human Mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Cuttone, Andrea; González, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Predictive models for human mobility have important applications in many fields such as traffic control, ubiquitous computing and contextual advertisement. The predictive performance of models in literature varies quite broadly, from as high as 93% to as low as under 40%. In this work we investigate which factors influence the accuracy of next-place prediction, using a high-precision location dataset of more than 400 users for periods between 3 months and one year. We show that it is easier to achieve high accuracy when predicting the time-bin location than when predicting the next place. Moreover we demonstrate how the temporal and spatial resolution of the data can have strong influence on the accuracy of prediction. Finally we uncover that the exploration of new locations is an important factor in human mobility, and we measure that on average 20-25% of transitions are to new places, and approx. 70% of locations are visited only once. We discuss how these mechanisms are important factors limiting our abili...

  12. The Future of Asset Management for Human Space Exploration: Supply Classification and an Integrated Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Gralla, Erica L.; deWeck, Olivier L.; Shishko, Robert

    2006-01-01

    One of the major logistical challenges in human space exploration is asset management. This paper presents observations on the practice of asset management in support of human space flight to date and discusses a functional-based supply classification and a framework for an integrated database that could be used to improve asset management and logistics for human missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond.

  13. Eli Lilly and Company's bioethics framework for human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Current ethics and good clinical practice guidelines address various aspects of pharmaceutical research and development, but do not comprehensively address the bioethical responsibilities of sponsors. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company developed and implemented a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research to guide ethical decisions. (See our companion article that describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique of its usefulness and limitations.) This paper presents the actual framework that serves as a company resource for employee education and bioethics deliberations. The framework consists of four basic ethical principles and 13 essential elements for ethical human biomedical research and resides within the context of our company's mission, vision and values. For each component of the framework, we provide a high-level overview followed by a detailed description with cross-references to relevant well regarded guidance documents. The principles and guidance described should be familiar to those acquainted with research ethics. Therefore the novelty of the framework lies not in the foundational concepts presented as much as the attempt to specify and compile a sponsor's bioethical responsibilities to multiple stakeholders into one resource. When such a framework is employed, it can serve as a bioethical foundation to inform decisions and actions throughout clinical planning, trial design, study implementation and closeout, as well as to inform company positions on bioethical issues. The framework is, therefore, a useful tool for translating ethical aspirations into action - to help ensure pharmaceutical human biomedical research is conducted in a manner that aligns with consensus ethics principles, as well as a sponsor's core values.

  14. Robots and Humans in Planetary Exploration: Working Together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Today's approach to human-robotic cooperation in planetary exploration focuses on using robotic probes as precursors to human exploration. A large portion of current NASA planetary surface exploration is focussed on Mars, and robotic probes are seen as precursors to human exploration in: Learning about operation and mobility on Mars; Learning about the environment of Mars; Mapping the planet and selecting landing sites for human mission; Demonstration of critical technology; Manufacture fuel before human presence, and emplace elements of human-support infrastructure

  15. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved

  16. An efficient stochastic framework for 3D human motion tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bingbing; Winkler, Stefan; Kassim, Ashraf Ali

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present a stochastic framework for articulated 3D human motion tracking. Tracking full body human motion is a challenging task, because the tracking performance normally suffers from several issues such as self-occlusion, foreground segmentation noise and high computational cost. In our work, we use explicit 3D reconstructions of the human body based on a visual hull algorithm as our system input, which effectively eliminates self-occlusion. To improve tracking efficiency as well as robustness, we use a Kalman particle filter framework based on an interacting multiple model (IMM). The posterior density is approximated by a set of weighted particles, which include both sample means and covariances. Therefore, tracking is equivalent to searching the maximum a posteriori (MAP) of the probability distribution. During Kalman filtering, several dynamical models of human motion (e.g., zero order, first order) are assumed which interact with each other for more robust tracking results. Our measurement step is performed by a local optimization method using simulated physical force/moment for 3D registration. The likelihood function is designed to be the fitting score between the reconstructed human body and our 3D human model, which is composed of a set of cylinders. This proposed tracking framework is tested on a real motion sequence. Our experimental results show that the proposed method improves the sampling efficiency compared with most particle filter based methods and achieves high tracking accuracy.

  17. Exploration of a digital audio processing platform using a compositional system level performance estimation framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg-Hansen, Anders Sejer; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a compositional simulation based system-level performance estimation framework on a non-trivial industrial case study. The case study is provided by the Danish company Bang & Olufsen ICEpower a/s and focuses on the exploration of a digital mobile audio...

  18. A Longitudinal Examination of Adolescent Career Planning and Exploration Using a Social Cognitive Career Theory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), as a framework to investigate predictors of career choice actions, operationalised as career planning and career exploration. The model was tested cross-sectionally and longitudinally with 631 high school students enrolled in Grades 10-12. Students completed measures of…

  19. Exploring the Value of Bourdieu's Framework in the Context of Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloot, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the usefulness of the theoretical framework of the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu in relation to institutional change through data gathered in some initial interviews at Emerston University, a previously white, English-medium, South African institution. This exploration is based on Bourdieu's concept of a social space as…

  20. A Longitudinal Examination of Adolescent Career Planning and Exploration Using a Social Cognitive Career Theory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), as a framework to investigate predictors of career choice actions, operationalised as career planning and career exploration. The model was tested cross-sectionally and longitudinally with 631 high school students enrolled in Grades 10-12. Students completed measures of…

  1. INTEGRITY -- Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, D.; Tri, T.; Daues, K.

    It is proposed to develop a high -fidelity ground facil ity to carry out long-duration human exploration mission simulations. These would not be merely computer simulations - they would in fact comprise a series of actual missions that just happen to stay on earth. These missions would include all elements of an actual mission, using actual technologies that would be used for the real mission. These missions would also include such elements as extravehicular activities, robotic systems, telepresence and teleoperation, surface drilling technology--all using a simulated planetary landscape. A sequence of missions would be defined that get progressively longer and more robust, perhaps a series of five or six missions over a span of 10 to 15 years ranging in durat ion from 180 days up to 1000 days. This high-fidelity ground facility would operate hand-in-hand with a host of other terrestrial analog sites such as the Antarctic, Haughton Crater, and the Arizona desert. Of course, all of these analog mission simulations will be conducted here on earth in 1-g, and NASA will still need the Shuttle and ISS to carry out all the microgravity and hypogravity science experiments and technology validations. The proposed missions would have sufficient definition such that definitive requirements could be derived from them to serve as direction for all the program elements of the mission. Additionally, specific milestones would be established for the "launch" date of each mission so that R&D programs would have both good requirements and solid milestones from which to build their implementation plans. Mission aspects that could not be directly incorporated into the ground facility would be simulated via software. New management techniques would be developed for evaluation in this ground test facility program. These new techniques would have embedded metrics which would allow them to be continuously evaluated and adjusted so that by the time the sequence of missions is completed

  2. Exploring the oxygen supply and demand framework as a learning tool in undergraduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Mary; Shackell, Eileen

    2017-09-06

    In nursing education, physiological concepts are typically presented within a body 'systems' framework yet learners are often challenged to apply this knowledge in the holistic and functional manner needed for effective clinical decision-making and safe patient care. A nursing faculty addressed this learning challenge by developing an advanced organizer as a conceptual and integrative learning tool to support learners in diverse learning environments and practice settings. A mixed methods research study was conducted that explored the effectiveness of the Oxygen Supply and Demand Framework as a learning tool in undergraduate nursing education. A pretest/post-test assessment and reflective journal were used to gather data. Findings indicated the Oxygen Supply and Demand Framework guided the development of pattern recognition and thinking processes and supported knowledge development, knowledge application and clinical decision-making. The Oxygen Supply and Demand Framework supports undergraduate students learning to provide safe and effective nursing care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Benefits of Microalgae for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrecchia, Angelique; Bebout, Brad M.; Murphy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Algae have long been known to offer a number of benefits to support long duration human space exploration. Algae contain proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, and lipids needed for human consumption, and can be produced using waste streams, while consuming carbon dioxide, and producing oxygen. In comparison with higher plants, algae have higher growth rates, fewer environmental requirements, produce far less "waste" tissue, and are resistant to digestion and/or biodegradation. As an additional benefit, algae produce many components (fatty acids, H2, etc.) which are useful as biofuels. On Earth, micro-algae survive in many harsh environments including low humidity, extremes in temperature, pH, and as well as high salinity and solar radiation. Algae have been shown to survive inmicro-gravity, and can adapt to high and low light intensity while retaining their ability to perform nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis. Studies have demonstrated that some algae are resistant to the space radiation environment, including solar ultraviolet radiation. It remains to be experimentally demonstrated, however, that an algal-based system could fulfil the requirements for a space-based Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) under comparable spaceflight power, mass, and environmental constraints. Two specific challenges facing algae cultivation in space are that (i) conventional growth platforms require large masses of water, which in turn require a large amount of propulsion fuel, and (ii) most nutrient delivery mechanisms (predominantly bubbling) are dependent on gravity. To address these challenges, we have constructed a low water biofilm based bioreactor whose operation is enabled by capillary forces. Preliminary characterization of this Surface Adhering BioReactor (SABR) suggests that it can serve as a platform for cultivating algae in space which requires about 10 times less mass than conventional reactors without sacrificing growth rate. Further work is necessary to

  4. HUMAN SECURITY – BUILDING THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea IANCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals agenda through the human security paradigm. It suggests that the human security paradigm represents “the missing link” from the development agenda. Therefore, this analysis explains the necessity for extending the development agenda by including the human security doctrine. The first part of the article discusses the relation between human security and development. The next section analyzes the values of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals. The last part evaluates the improvements that the inclusion of the human security on the post-2015 development framework may bring. The results of this analysis present illustrate the opportunity of deepening the MDGs agenda with a more realistic and ethical approach, through the inclusion of the human security paradigm within the development agenda.

  5. A Quantitative ADME-base Tool for Exploring Human ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to a wide range of chemicals through our daily habits and routines is ubiquitous and largely unavoidable within modern society. The potential for human exposure, however, has not been quantified for the vast majority of chemicals with wide commercial use. Creative advances in exposure science are needed to support efficient and effective evaluation and management of chemical risks, particularly for chemicals in consumer products. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development is developing, or collaborating in the development of, scientifically-defensible methods for making quantitative or semi-quantitative exposure predictions. The Exposure Prioritization (Ex Priori) model is a simplified, quantitative visual dashboard that provides a rank-ordered internalized dose metric to simultaneously explore exposures across chemical space (not chemical by chemical). Diverse data streams are integrated within the interface such that different exposure scenarios for “individual,” “population,” or “professional” time-use profiles can be interchanged to tailor exposure and quantitatively explore multi-chemical signatures of exposure, internalized dose (uptake), body burden, and elimination. Ex Priori has been designed as an adaptable systems framework that synthesizes knowledge from various domains and is amenable to new knowledge/information. As such, it algorithmically captures the totality of exposure across pathways. It

  6. Framework for Simulation of Heterogeneous MpSoC for Design Space Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisrat Tafesse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ever-growing requirements in high performance data computation, multiprocessor systems have been proposed to solve the bottlenecks in uniprocessor systems. Developing efficient multiprocessor systems requires effective exploration of design choices like application scheduling, mapping, and architecture design. Also, fault tolerance in multiprocessors needs to be addressed. With the advent of nanometer-process technology for chip manufacturing, realization of multiprocessors on SoC (MpSoC is an active field of research. Developing efficient low power, fault-tolerant task scheduling, and mapping techniques for MpSoCs require optimized algorithms that consider the various scenarios inherent in multiprocessor environments. Therefore there exists a need to develop a simulation framework to explore and evaluate new algorithms on multiprocessor systems. This work proposes a modular framework for the exploration and evaluation of various design algorithms for MpSoC system. This work also proposes new multiprocessor task scheduling and mapping algorithms for MpSoCs. These algorithms are evaluated using the developed simulation framework. The paper also proposes a dynamic fault-tolerant (FT scheduling and mapping algorithm for robust application processing. The proposed algorithms consider optimizing the power as one of the design constraints. The framework for a heterogeneous multiprocessor simulation was developed using SystemC/C++ language. Various design variations were implemented and evaluated using standard task graphs. Performance evaluation metrics are evaluated and discussed for various design scenarios.

  7. An Integrated Framework for Human-Robot Collaborative Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Weihua; Thobbi, Anand; Gu, Ye

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an integrated learning framework that enables humanoid robots to perform human-robot collaborative manipulation tasks. Specifically, a table-lifting task performed jointly by a human and a humanoid robot is chosen for validation purpose. The proposed framework is split into two phases: 1) phase I-learning to grasp the table and 2) phase II-learning to perform the manipulation task. An imitation learning approach is proposed for phase I. In phase II, the behavior of the robot is controlled by a combination of two types of controllers: 1) reactive and 2) proactive. The reactive controller lets the robot take a reactive control action to make the table horizontal. The proactive controller lets the robot take proactive actions based on human motion prediction. A measure of confidence of the prediction is also generated by the motion predictor. This confidence measure determines the leader/follower behavior of the robot. Hence, the robot can autonomously switch between the behaviors during the task. Finally, the performance of the human-robot team carrying out the collaborative manipulation task is experimentally evaluated on a platform consisting of a Nao humanoid robot and a Vicon motion capture system. Results show that the proposed framework can enable the robot to carry out the collaborative manipulation task successfully.

  8. Morpheus: Advancing Technologies for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olansen, Jon B.; Munday, Stephen R.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Baine, Michael

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing. Designed to serve as a vertical testbed (VTB) for advanced spacecraft technologies, the vehicle provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. This allows individual technologies to mature into capabilities that can be incorporated into human exploration missions. The Morpheus vehicle is propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a payload of 1100 lb to the lunar surface. In addition to VTB vehicles, the Project s major elements include ground support systems and an operations facility. Initial testing will demonstrate technologies used to perform autonomous hazard avoidance and precision landing on a lunar or other planetary surface. The Morpheus vehicle successfully performed a set of integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire and tethered hover tests, leading up to un-tethered free-flights. The initial phase of this development and testing campaign is being conducted on-site at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), with the first fully integrated vehicle firing its engine less than one year after project initiation. Designed, developed, manufactured and operated in-house by engineers at JSC, the Morpheus Project represents an unprecedented departure from recent NASA programs that traditionally require longer, more expensive development lifecycles and testing at remote, dedicated testing facilities. Morpheus testing includes three major types of integrated tests. A hot-fire (HF) is a static vehicle test of the LOX/Methane propulsion system. Tether tests (TT) have the vehicle suspended above the ground using a crane, which allows testing of the propulsion and integrated Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) in hovering flight without the risk of a vehicle departure or crash. Morpheus free-flights (FF) test the complete Morpheus system without the additional

  9. A Framework for Agent-based Human Interaction Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bürkle

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe an agent-based infrastructure for multimodal perceptual systems which aims at developing and realizing computer services that are delivered to humans in an implicit and unobtrusive way. The framework presented here supports the implementation of human-centric context-aware applications providing non-obtrusive assistance to participants in events such as meetings, lectures, conferences and presentations taking place in indoor "smart spaces". We emphasize on the design and implementation of an agent-based framework that supports "pluggable" service logic in the sense that the service developer can concentrate on coding the service logic independently of the underlying middleware. Furthermore, we give an example of the architecture's ability to support the cooperation of multiple services in a meeting scenario using an intelligent connector service and a semantic web oriented travel service.

  10. From Internal Marketing to Human Resource Marketing. A Conceptual Framework of the Human Resources Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Neagu Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on shaping a conceptual framework of the human resources marketing, having as starting points the interactions between internal marketing and human management resources at the organisation’s level. The concept of internal customers, belonging to internal marketing and refering to the employees, can be taken in the human resources marketing as focus of the specific processes.

  11. Exploring Causal Relationships among Teaching, Cognitive and Social Presence: Student Perceptions of the Community of Inquiry Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, D. R.; Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Fung, Tak Shing

    2010-01-01

    The causal relationships among the three presences in the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework are explored and tested in this paper. The CoI framework has been used extensively in the research and practice of online and blended learning contexts. With the development of a survey instrument based on the CoI framework, it is possible to test the…

  12. Relational and Transcendental Humanism: Exploring the Consequences of a Thoroughly Pragmatic Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2007-01-01

    The relational and transcendental elements of humanism are considered. Although the relational component of humanism is extraordinarily valuable, the author argues that the transcendental portion of humanism should be abandoned. The implications of a thoroughly pragmatic humanism are explored.

  13. Relational and Transcendental Humanism: Exploring the Consequences of a Thoroughly Pragmatic Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2007-01-01

    The relational and transcendental elements of humanism are considered. Although the relational component of humanism is extraordinarily valuable, the author argues that the transcendental portion of humanism should be abandoned. The implications of a thoroughly pragmatic humanism are explored.

  14. Using A Normative Framework to Explore the Prototyping of Wireless Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balke, Tina; De Vos, Marina; Padget, Julian;

    2011-01-01

    The capacity for normative frameworks to capture the essential features of interactions between components in open architectures suggests they might also be of assistance in an early, rapid prototyping phase of system development, helping to refine concepts, identify actors, explore policies...... be used in combination with network communication to achieve common goals while at the same time extending the battery duty cycle. This results in a social dilemma, as it is advantageous for rational users to benefit from the energy savings without any contribution to the cooperation, as every commitment...... has its price. We present a necessarily simplified model, whose purpose is to provide us with the foundation to explore issues in the management of such a framework, policies to encourage collaborative behaviour, and the means to evaluate the effects on energy consumption....

  15. Transactional Analysis: Conceptualizing a Framework for Illuminating Human Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Thomas Stewart PhD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Myriad methods exist for analyzing qualitative data. It is, however, imperative for qualitative researchers to employ data analysis tools that are congruent with the theoretical frameworks underpinning their inquiries. In this paper, I have constructed a framework for analyzing data that could be useful for researchers interested in focusing on the transactional nature of language as they engage in Social Science research. Transactional Analysis (TA is an inductive approach to data analysis that transcends constant comparative methods of exploring data. Drawing on elements of narrative and thematic analysis, TA uses the theories of Bakhtin and Rosenblatt to attend to the dynamic processes researchers identify as they generate themes in their data and seek to understand how their participants' worldviews are being shaped. This paper highlights the processes researchers can utilize to study the mutual shaping that occurs as participants read and enter into dialogue with the world around them.

  16. Evolutionary Visual Exploration: Evaluation of an IEC Framework for Guided Visual Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhelifa, N; Bezerianos, A; Cancino, W; Lutton, E

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate and analyse a framework for evolutionary visual exploration (EVE) that guides users in exploring large search spaces. EVE uses an interactive evolutionary algorithm to steer the exploration of multidimensional data sets toward two-dimensional projections that are interesting to the analyst. Our method smoothly combines automatically calculated metrics and user input in order to propose pertinent views to the user. In this article, we revisit this framework and a prototype application that was developed as a demonstrator, and summarise our previous study with domain experts and its main findings. We then report on results from a new user study with a clearly predefined task, which examines how users leverage the system and how the system evolves to match their needs. While we previously showed that using EVE, domain experts were able to formulate interesting hypotheses and reach new insights when exploring freely, our new findings indicate that users, guided by the interactive evolutionary algorithm, are able to converge quickly to an interesting view of their data when a clear task is specified. We provide a detailed analysis of how users interact with an evolutionary algorithm and how the system responds to their exploration strategies and evaluation patterns. Our work aims at building a bridge between the domains of visual analytics and interactive evolution. The benefits are numerous, in particular for evaluating interactive evolutionary computation (IEC) techniques based on user study methodologies.

  17. Are Engineering and Social Justice (In)commensurable? A Theoretical Exploration of Macro-Sociological Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Jon A. Leydens; Juan C. Lucena; Jen Schneider

    2012-01-01

    The degree to which engineering and social justice as fields of practice are (in)commensurable remains an open question. To illuminate important dimensions of that question, we explore intersections between those fields and two macro-sociological frameworks. Those theoretical frameworks—structural functionalism and social conflict—represent contrasting perspectives on how society should be organized. Specifically, we reveal conceptual alignments between structural functionalism and engineerin...

  18. Exploring an informed decision-making framework using in-home sensors: older adults’ perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Sensor technologies are designed to assist independent living of older adults. However, it is often difficult for older adults to make an informed decision about adopting sensor technologies.Objective To explore Bruce’s framework of informed decision making (IDM for in-home use of sensor technologies in community-dwelling elders.Method The IDM framework guided development of a semi-structured interview. A theory-driven coding approach was used for analysis.Results Participants supported most of the elements of the framework, but not all aspects of each element were addressed. Perceived usefulness of technologies was identified as an area for framework extension.Conclusion This paper provides useful information for health care professionals to consider how to enhance IDM of older adults regarding the use of sensor technologies. The results also illuminate elements of the IDM framework that may be critical to facilitating independent living for older adults.

  19. An Integrated Human System Interaction (HSI) Framework for Human-Agent Team Collaboration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA commitment to a human presence in space exploration results in the interaction of humans with challenging environments in space, on lunar, and on planetary...

  20. Exploring care for human service profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2015-01-01

    maintain their dignity, it is important to explore, how dignity is maintained in such situations. Views of dignity and factors influencing dignity have been studied from both the nursing homes residents´ and the care providers´ perspective. However, little is known about how the residents’ experience...

  1. Flexible Human Behavior Analysis Framework for Video Surveillance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilun Lao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. Although human motion is widely investigated, we have extended such research in three aspects. By adding a second camera, not only more reliable behavior analysis is possible, but it also enables to map the ongoing scene events onto a 3D setting to facilitate further semantic analysis. The second contribution is the introduction of a 3D reconstruction scheme for scene understanding. Thirdly, we perform a fast scheme to detect different body parts and generate a fitting skeleton model, without using the explicit assumption of upright body posture. The extension of multiple-view fusion improves the event-based semantic analysis by 15%–30%. Our proposed framework proves its effectiveness as it achieves a near real-time performance (13–15 frames/second and 6–8 frames/second for monocular and two-view video sequences.

  2. Human exploration of space and power development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron

    The possible role of Solar Power Satellites (SPS) in advancing the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative is considered. Three approaches are examined: (1) the use of lunar raw materials to construct a large SPS in GEO, (2) the construction of a similar system on the lunar surface, and (3) a combination of (1) and (2). Emphasis is given to the mining of He-3 from the moon and its use by the SPS.

  3. Exploring Data in Human Resources Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela BARA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, social networks and informatics technologies and infrastructures are constantly developing and affect each other. In this context, the HR recruitment process became complex and many multinational organizations have encountered selection issues. The objective of the paper is to develop a prototype system for assisting the selection of candidates for an intelligent management of human resources. Such a system can be a starting point for the efficient organization of semi-structured and unstructured data on recruitment activities. The article extends the research presented at the 14th International Conference on Informatics in Economy (IE 2015 in the scientific paper "Big Data challenges for human resources management".

  4. Interaction Challenges in Human-Robot Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, NASA established a new, long-term exploration program to fulfill the President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration. The primary goal of this program is to establish a sustained human presence in space, beginning with robotic missions to the Moon in 2008, followed by extended human expeditions to the Moon as early as 2015. In addition, the program places significant emphasis on the development of joint human-robot systems. A key difference from previous exploration efforts is that future space exploration activities must be sustainable over the long-term. Experience with the space station has shown that cost pressures will keep astronaut teams small. Consequently, care must be taken to extend the effectiveness of these astronauts well beyond their individual human capacity. Thus, in order to reduce human workload, costs, and fatigue-driven error and risk, intelligent robots will have to be an integral part of mission design.

  5. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  6. To what extent can human and non-human radiation protection frameworks be integrated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, C.; Stark, Karolina [Stockholm University (Sweden); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - IRSN (France); Beresford, Nicholas A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology - CEH (United Kingdom); Brown, Justin; Dowdall, Mark; Hosseini, Ali; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena; Robles, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Oughton, Deborah [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - UMB (Norway); Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Sweeck, Lieve; Vives I Batlle, Jordi [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The first radiation protection frameworks were initiated in the early 20. century and focused on the protection of humans. Protection frameworks for non-human species were developed later, based on the human protection system as well as that used to protect the environment from adverse effects of chemicals. These two radiation protection frameworks have to some degree developed quite separately from each other over the last few decades, and it is a source of debate as to what extent the integration of the two is possible. This presentation critically reviews some of the key aspects of integrating human and non-human assessment frameworks, including both conceptual and practical issues, and focuses on five main topics: 1) the conceptual consideration of humans as part of ecosystems, rather than a separate entity; 2) the consistency and potential harmonisation of underlying data and transfer model parameters; 3) consideration of different life stages and life histories in radiation protection and the implications for exposure, dose and effects; 4) calculation of doses, including modelling approaches, spatial and temporal variability and biokinetic modelling; and 5) benchmarks and screening values. Similarities and differences between the two existing frameworks are highlighted and the feasibility of integrating the two discussed. Our recommendations on how to further integrate, where achievable and warranted, are given. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  7. Exploring Data in Human Resources Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Adela BARA; Iuliana BOTHA; Anda BELCIU (VELICANU); Bogdan NEDELCU

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, social networks and informatics technologies and infrastructures are constantly developing and affect each other. In this context, the HR recruitment process became complex and many multinational organizations have encountered selection issues. The objective of the paper is to develop a prototype system for assisting the selection of candidates for an intelligent management of human resources. Such a system can be a starting point for the efficient organization of semi-structured an...

  8. Choreographic Inscriptions: A Framework for Exploring Sociomaterial Influences on Qualities of Movement for HCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Loke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of ubiquitous computing technologies in everyday life, the daily actions of people are becoming ever more choreographed by the interactions available through technology. By combining the notion of inscriptions from actor–network theory and the qualitative descriptors of movement from Laban movement analysis, an analytic framework is proposed for exploring how the interplay of material and social inscriptions gives rise to movement patterns and behaviors, translated into choreographic inscriptions described with Laban effort and shape. It is demonstrated through a case study of an affective gesture mobile device. The framework provides an understanding of (a how movement qualities are shaped by social and material inscriptions, (b how the relative strength of inscriptions on movements may change according to different settings and user appropriation over time, and (c how transforming inscriptions by design across different mediums can generate action spaces with varying degrees of openness.

  9. Space Exploration as a Human Enterprise: The Scientific Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl

    1973-01-01

    Presents examples which illustrate the importance of space exploration in diverse aspects of scientific knowledge. Indicates that human beings are today not wise enough to anticipate the practical benefits of planetary studies. (CC)

  10. Developing a General Framework for Human Autonomy Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Automation has entered nearly every aspect of our lives, but it often remains hard to understand. Why is this? Automation is often brittle, requiring constant human oversight to assure it operates as intended. This oversight has become harder as automation has become more complicated. To resolve this problem, Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) has been proposed. HAT looks to make automation act as more of a teammate, by having it communicate with human operators in a more human, goal-directed, manner which provides transparency into the reasoning behind automated recommendations and actions. This, in turn, permits more trust in the automation when it is appropriate, and less when it is not, allowing a more targeted supervision of automated functions. This paper proposes a framework for HAT, incorporating two key tenets: bi-directional communication, and operator directed authority. We have successfully applied these tenets to integrating the autonomous constrained flight planner (an aide for planning diverts) into a dispatch station. We propose the development of general design patterns that may allow these results to be generalized to domains such as photography and automotive navigation. While these domains are very different, we find application of our HAT tenets provides a number of opportunities for improving interaction between human operators and automation.

  11. Restorative urban open space: Exploring the spatial configuration of human emotional fulfilment in urban open space

    OpenAIRE

    Thwaites, K.; Helleur, E.; Simkins, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity of outdoor settings to benefit human well being is well established by research. Examples of restorative settings can be found throughout history and are still applied today in health-care facilities, as healing or restorative gardens for the sick, but their wider significance in the urban public realm remains insufficiently explored. A conceptual framework for restorative urban open space based on mosaics of linked and nested spaces woven into the urban fabric is presented. The ...

  12. A conceptual framework to explore the roles and contributions of industrial psychologists in South Africa (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Barnard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing a conceptual framework against which the roles and contributions of industrial psychologists in South Africa could be explored. Three widely-used business frameworks – Balanced Score Card, South African Excellence Model and King II Report on Corporate Governance for South Africa – were theoretically integrated to produce a multi-dimensional framework to clarify roles and contributions in a discourse familiar to the business community. The framework was subsequently utilised in a follow-up study involving 23 registered industrial psychologists who were asked to clarify specific roles and contributions within each of the dimensions of the framework.

  13. Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Ezer, Tamar

    2013-12-12

    The concept of "human rights in patient care" refers to the application of human rights principles to the context of patient care. It provides a principled alternative to the growing discourse of "patients' rights" that has evolved in response to widespread and severe human rights violations in health settings. Unlike "patients' rights," which is rooted in a consumer framework, this concept derives from inherent human dignity and neutrally applies universal, legally recognized human rights principles, protecting both patients and providers and admitting of limitations that can be justified by human rights norms. It recognizes the interrelation between patient and provider rights, particularly in contexts where providers face simultaneous obligations to patients and the state ("dual loyalty") and may be pressured to abet human rights violations. The human rights lens provides a means to examine systemic issues and state responsibility. Human rights principles that apply to patient care include both the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which covers both positive and negative guarantees in respect of health, as well as civil and political rights ranging from the patient's right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment to liberty and security of person. They also focus attention on the right of socially excluded groups to be free from discrimination in the delivery of health care. Critical rights relevant to providers include freedom of association and the enjoyment of decent work conditions. Some, but not all, of these human rights correspond to rights that have been articulated in "patients' rights" charters. Complementary to—but distinct from—bioethics, human rights in patient care carry legal force and can be applied through judicial action. They also provide a powerful language to articulate and mobilize around justice concerns, and to engage in advocacy through the media and political negotiation. As "patients' rights" movements and

  14. Cislunar Near Rectilinear Halo Orbit for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Ryan; Martinez, Roland; Condon, Gerald; Williams, Jacob; Lee, David; Davis, Diane; Barton, Gregg; Bhatt, Sagar; Jang, Jiann-Woei; Clark, Fred; Hinkel, Heather

    2016-01-01

    In order to conduct sustained human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), spacecraft systems are designed to operate in a series of missions of increasing complexity. Regardless of the destination, Moon, Mars, asteroids or beyond, there is a substantial set of common objectives that must be met. Many orbit characterization studies have endeavored to evaluate the potential locations in cislunar space that are favorable for meeting common human exploration objectives in a stepwise approach. Multiple studies, by both NASA and other international space agencies, have indicated that Earth-­-moon libration point orbits are attractive candidates for staging operations in the proving ground and beyond. In particular, the Near Rectilinear Orbit (NRO) has been demonstrated to meet multi-­-mission and multi-­-destination architectural constraints. However, a human mission to a selected NRO presents a variety of new challenges for mission planning. While a growing number of robotic missions have completed successful operations to various specific libration point orbits, human missions have never been conducted to orbits of this class. Human missions have unique challenges that differ significantly from robotic missions, including a lower tolerance for mission risk and additional operational constraints that are associated only with human spacecraft. In addition, neither robotic nor human missions have been operated in the NRO regime specifically, and NROs exhibit dynamical characteristics that can differ significantly as compared to other halo orbits. Finally, multi-­-body orbits, such as libration point orbits, are identified to exist in a simplified orbit model known as the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem (CRTBP) and must then be re-­-solved in the full ephemeris model. As a result, the behavior of multi-­-body orbits cannot be effectively characterized within the classical two-­-body orbit dynamics framework more familiar to the human spaceflight community

  15. A critical review of frameworks used for evaluating reliability and relevance of (eco)toxicity data: Perspectives for an integrated eco-human decision-making framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, N; Ciffroy, P

    2016-10-01

    Considerable efforts have been invested so far to evaluate and rank the quality and relevance of (eco)toxicity data for their use in regulatory risk assessment to assess chemical hazards. Many frameworks have been developed to improve robustness and transparency in the evaluation of reliability and relevance of individual tests, but these frameworks typically focus on either environmental risk assessment (ERA) or human health risk assessment (HHRA), and there is little cross talk between them. There is a need to develop a common approach that would support a more consistent, transparent and robust evaluation and weighting of the evidence across ERA and HHRA. This paper explores the applicability of existing Data Quality Assessment (DQA) frameworks for integrating environmental toxicity hazard data into human health assessments and vice versa. We performed a comparative analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of eleven frameworks for evaluating reliability and/or relevance of toxicity and ecotoxicity hazard data. We found that a frequent shortcoming is the lack of a clear separation between reliability and relevance criteria. A further gaps and needs analysis revealed that none of the reviewed frameworks satisfy the needs of a common eco-human DQA system. Based on our analysis, some key characteristics, perspectives and recommendations are identified and discussed for building a common DQA system as part of a future integrated eco-human decision-making framework. This work lays the basis for developing a common DQA system to support the further development and promotion of Integrated Risk Assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human life support for advanced space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, S H

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  17. Human exploration and settlement of Mars - The roles of humans and robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    The scientific objectives and strategies for human settlement on Mars are examined in the context of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integrated strategy for humans and robots in the exploration and settlement of Mars is examined. Such an effort would feature robotic, telerobotic, and human-supervised robotic phases.

  18. The power problematic: exploring the uncertain terrains of political ecology and the resilience framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah L. Ingalls

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant and growing concerns relating to global social and environmental conditions and processes have raised deep questions relating to the ability of traditional governance regimes to manage for the complexities of social-ecological systems. The resilience framework provides a more dynamic approach to system analysis and management, emphasizing nonlinearity, feedbacks, and multiscalar engagement along the social-ecological nexus. In recent years, however, a number of scholars and practitioners have noted various insufficiencies in the formulation of the resilience framework, including its lack of engagement with the dimensions of power within social-ecological systems, which blunt the analytical potential of resilience and run the risk of undermining resilience-based management objectives. In this analysis, we engage with this power problematic by drawing on key insights from the scholarly tradition of political ecology, suggesting that a more appreciative, thoroughgoing engagement between resilience scholarship and political ecology may allow not only a deeper treatment of power within the resilience framework but also address several important critiques of political ecology itself. We explore the shared intellectual spaces of these traditions and suggest some ways in which a critical engagement between resilience and political ecology on the subject of power better informs our understanding of socio-political dynamics within complex systems. In closing, we train the critical light backward on political ecology to suggest that an appreciative engagement with the resilience framework may assist by reasserting a more serious treatment of ecology within political ecological analyses and support the formulation of more elegant, politically tractable counternarratives to address global environmental crises.

  19. Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Mount, Frances; Carreon, Patricia; Torney, Susan E.

    2001-01-01

    The Engineering and Mission Operations Directorates at NASA Johnson Space Center are combining laboratories and expertise to establish the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations. This is a testbed for human centered design, development and evaluation of intelligent autonomous and assistant systems that will be needed for human exploration and development of space. This project will improve human-centered analysis, design and evaluation methods for developing intelligent software. This software will support human-machine cognitive and collaborative activities in future interplanetary work environments where distributed computer and human agents cooperate. We are developing and evaluating prototype intelligent systems for distributed multi-agent mixed-initiative operations. The primary target domain is control of life support systems in a planetary base. Technical approaches will be evaluated for use during extended manned tests in the target domain, the Bioregenerative Advanced Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex). A spinoff target domain is the International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC). Prodl}cts of this project include human-centered intelligent software technology, innovative human interface designs, and human-centered software development processes, methods and products. The testbed uses adjustable autonomy software and life support systems simulation models from the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed, to represent operations on the remote planet. Ground operations prototypes and concepts will be evaluated in the Exploration Planning and Operations Center (ExPOC) and Jupiter Facility.

  20. Global energy futures and human development: a framework for analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, A.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper explores the relationship between measures of human well-being and consumption of energy and electricity. A correlation is shown between the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) and annual per- capita electricity consumption for 60 populous countries comprising 90% of the world population. In this correlation, HDI reaches a maximum value when electricity consumption is about 4,000 kWh per person per year, well below consumption levels for most developed countries but also well above the level for developing countries. The correlation with electricity use is better than with total primary energy use. Global electricity consumption associated with a ''Human Development Scenario'' is estimated by adding to U.S. Department of Energy projections for the year 2020 increments of additional electricity consumption sufficient to reach 4,000 kWh per capita on a country-by-country basis. A roughly constant ratio of primary energy consumption to electric energy consumption is observed for countries with high levels of electricity use, and this ratio is used to estimate global primary energy consumption in the Human Development Scenario. The Human Development Scenario implies significantly greater global consumption of electricity and primary energy than do projections for 2020 by the DOE and others. (author)

  1. United States Human Access to Space, Exploration of the Moon and Preparation for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    In the past, men like Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne imagined the future and envisioned fantastic inventions such as winged flying machines, submarines, and parachutes, and posited human adventures like transoceanic flight and journeys to the Moon. Today, many of their ideas are reality and form the basis for our modern world. While individual visionaries like da Vinci and Verne are remembered for the accuracy of their predictions, today entire nations are involved in the process of envisioning and defining the future development of mankind, both on and beyond the Earth itself. Recently, Russian, European, and Chinese teams have all announced plans for developing their own next generation human space vehicles. The Chinese have announced their intention to conduct human lunar exploration, and have flown three crewed space missions since 2003, including a flight with three crew members to test their extravehicular (spacewalking) capabilities in September 2008. Very soon, the prestige, economic development, scientific discovery, and strategic security advantage historically associated with leadership in space exploration and exploitation may no longer be the undisputed province of the United States. Much like the sponsors of the seafaring explorers of da Vinci's age, we are motivated by the opportunity to obtain new knowledge and new resources for the growth and development of our own civilization. NASA's new Constellation Program, established in 2005, is tasked with maintaining the United States leadership in space, exploring the Moon, creating a sustained human lunar presence, and eventually extending human operations to Mars and beyond. Through 2008, the Constellation Program developed a full set of detailed program requirements and is now completing the preliminary design phase for the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, and the associated infrastructure necessary for humans to explore the Moon. Component testing is well

  2. A Parallel Framework for Multilayer Perceptron for Human Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, M K; Nasipuri, M; Basu, D K; Kundu, M

    2010-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have already shown their success in face recognition and similar complex pattern recognition tasks. However, a major disadvantage of the technique is that it is extremely slow during training for larger classes and hence not suitable for real-time complex problems such as pattern recognition. This is an attempt to develop a parallel framework for the training algorithm of a perceptron. In this paper, two general architectures for a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) have been demonstrated. The first architecture is All-Class-in-One-Network (ACON) where all the classes are placed in a single network and the second one is One-Class-in-One-Network (OCON) where an individual single network is responsible for each and every class. Capabilities of these two architectures were compared and verified in solving human face recognition, which is a complex pattern recognition task where several factors affect the recognition performance like pose variations, facial expression changes, occlusions, and ...

  3. A framework for understanding risk perception, explored from the perspective of the water practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, Meredith Frances; Brown, Rebekah Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Sustainable urban water systems are likely to be hybrids of centralized and decentralized infrastructure, managed as an integrated system in water-sensitive cities. The technology for many of these systems is available. However, social and institutional barriers, which can be understood as deeply embedded risk perceptions, have impeded their implementation. Risk perceptions within the water sector are often unrecognized or unacknowledged, despite their role in risk management generally in informing value judgments and specifically in ranking risks to achieve management objectives. There has been very little examination of the role of these risk perceptions in advancing more sustainable water supply management through the adoption of alternative sources. To address this gap, this article presents a framework that can be used as a tool for understanding risk perceptions. The framework is built on the relational theory of risk and presents the range of human phenomena that might influence the perception of an "object at risk" in relation to a "risk object." It has been synthesized from a critical review of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical studies of perception broadly and risk perception specifically, and interpreted in relation to water practitioners. For a water practitioner, the risk object might be an alternative water system, a component, a process, or a technology, and the object at risk could be public or environmental health, profitability, or professional reputation. This framework has two important functions: to allow practitioners to understand their own and others' risk perceptions, which might differ, and to inform further empirical research.

  4. A Conceptual Framework of Human Reliability Analysis for Execution Human Error in NPP Advanced MCRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, In Seok; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Won Dea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The operation environment of Main Control Rooms (MCRs) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) has changed with the adoption of new human-system interfaces that are based on computer-based technologies. The MCRs that include these digital and computer technologies, such as large display panels, computerized procedures, and soft controls, are called Advanced MCRs. Among the many features of Advanced MCRs, soft controls are a particularly important feature because the operation action in NPP Advanced MCRs is performed by soft control. Using soft controls such as mouse control, and touch screens, operators can select a specific screen, then choose the controller, and finally manipulate the given devices. Due to the different interfaces between soft control and hardwired conventional type control, different human error probabilities and a new Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) framework should be considered in the HRA for advanced MCRs. In other words, new human error modes should be considered for interface management tasks such as navigation tasks, and icon (device) selection tasks in monitors and a new framework of HRA method taking these newly generated human error modes into account should be considered. In this paper, a conceptual framework for a HRA method for the evaluation of soft control execution human error in advanced MCRs is suggested by analyzing soft control tasks.

  5. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2009-01-01

    This document reviews the Design Reference Architecture (DRA) for human exploration of Mars. The DRA represents the current best strategy for human missions. The DRA is not a formal plan, but provides a vision and context to tie current systems and technology developments to potential missions to Mars, and it also serves as a benchmark against which alternative architectures can be measured. The document also reviews the objectives and products of the 2007 study that was to update NASA's human Mars mission reference architecture, assess strategic linkages between lunar and Mars strategies, develop an understanding of methods for reducing cost/risk of human missions through investment in research, technology development and synergy with other exploration plans. There is also a review of the process by which the DRA will continue to be refined. The unique capacities of human exploration is reviewed. The possible goals and objectives of the first three human missions are presented, along with the recommendation that the mission involve a long stay visiting multiple sites.The deployment strategy is outlined and diagrammed including the pre-deployment of the many of the material requirements, and a six crew travel to Mars on a six month trajectory. The predeployment and the Orion crew vehicle are shown. The ground operations requirements are also explained. Also the use of resources found on the surface of Mars is postulated. The Mars surface exploration strategy is reviewed, including the planetary protection processes that are planned. Finally a listing of the key decisions and tenets is posed.

  6. A longitudinal examination of adolescent career planning and exploration using a social cognitive career theory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mary E; Creed, Peter A

    2011-02-01

    This study used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), as a framework to investigate predictors of career choice actions, operationalised as career planning and career exploration. The model was tested cross-sectionally and longitudinally with 631 high school students enrolled in Grades 10-12. Students completed measures of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goals, supports and personality. Results of the hierarchical regression analyses indicated strong support for self-efficacy and goals predicting career planning and exploration across all grades at T1, and predicting change in career planning and exploration from T1 to T2. Whilst support for pathways among other predictor variables (personality, contextual influences and biographic variables) to choice actions was found, these pathways varied across grades at T1, and also from T1 to T2. Implications for social cognitive career theory, career counselling practice and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. c2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Role of Fundamental Physics in Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyshev, Slava

    2004-01-01

    This talk will discuss the critical role that fundamental physics research plays for the human space exploration. In particular, the currently available technologies can already provide significant radiation reduction, minimize bone loss, increase crew productivity and, thus, uniquely contribute to overall mission success. I will discuss how fundamental physics research and emerging technologies may not only further reduce the risks of space travel, but also increase the crew mobility, enhance safety and increase the value of space exploration in the near future.

  9. Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Wireless Technologies and Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.; Lansdowne, Chatwin

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionics architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. The AAE project team includes members from most NASA centers and from industry. This paper provides an overview of recent AAE efforts, with particular emphasis on the wireless technologies being evaluated under AES to support human spaceflight.

  10. Targeting Cislunar Near Rectilinear Halo Orbits for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob; Lee, David E.; Whitley, Ryan J.; Bokelmann, Kevin A.; Davis, Diane C.; Berry, Christopher F.

    2017-01-01

    Part of the challenge of charting a human exploration space architecture is finding locations to stage missions to multiple destinations. To that end, a specific subset of Earth-Moon halo orbits, known as Near Rectilinear Halo Orbits (NRHOs) are evaluated. In this paper, a systematic process for generating full ephemeris based ballistic NRHOs is outlined, different size NRHOs are examined for their favorability to avoid eclipses, the performance requirements for missions to and from NRHOs are calculated, and disposal options are evaluated. Combined, these studies confirm the feasibility of cislunar NRHOs to enable human exploration in the cislunar proving ground.

  11. Are Engineering and Social Justice (Incommensurable? A Theoretical Exploration of Macro-Sociological Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon A. Leydens

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree to which engineering and social justice as fields of practice are (incommensurable remains an open question. To illuminate important dimensions of that question, we explore intersections between those fields and two macro-sociological frameworks. Those theoretical frameworks—structural functionalism and social conflict—represent contrasting perspectives on how society should be organized. Specifically, we reveal conceptual alignments between structural functionalism and engineering/engineering education and between social conflict and social justice. Those alignments suggest some salient potential catalysts for tensions between engineering and social justice and provide a useful ideological mirror for reflection by all who are committed to the engineering profession and/or to social justice.

  12. Exploring the link between PPM implementation and company success in achieving strategic goals: an empirical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosthuizen, Chiara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Organisations are constantly under pressure to innovate and grow by successfully executing their business strategies. The ever-increasing rate of change in technology has implications for product lifecycles, cost pressures, expectations of higher quality, and a larger variety of products and services. These trends result in mounting pressures and a huge increase in complexity, as the drivers of technology must be managed to achieve a competitive advantage. Project portfolio management (PPM is a solution for unravelling the complexities of multi-projects. In theory, PPM assists an organisation to achieve this competitive advantage through implementing its business strategy, balancing its portfolios, maximising value, and ensuring resource adequacy. There is, however, a lack of empirical evidence on the use and success of PPM approaches in South Africa. This article presents a framework that lays the foundation of an empirical study that will aim to explore the link between PPM implementation and company success in achieving strategic objectives. We base our framework on the factors of good practice in PPM, which include 1 single-project-level characteristics and activities; 2 multi-project- level characteristics and activities; 3 the link between projects and strategy process; and 4 availability and quality of project information.

  13. Building a Biopsychosocial Conceptual Framework to Explore Pressure Ulcer Pain for Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junglyun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although pressure ulcers are a prevalent condition, pain associated with pressure ulcers is not fully understood. Indeed, previous studies do not shed light on the association between pressure ulcer stages and the experience of pain. Especially, pain characteristics of suspected deep tissue injury, which is a new category that was recently added by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, are yet unknown. This is concerning because the incidence of pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients has increased exponentially over the last two decades, and health care providers are struggling to ensure providing adequate care. Thus, in order to facilitate the development of effective interventions, this paper presents a conceptual framework to explore pressure ulcer pain in hospitalized patients. The concepts were derived from a biopsychosocial model of pain, and the relationships among each concept were identified through a literature review. Major propositions are presented based on the proposed conceptual framework, which integrates previous research on pressure ulcer pain, to ultimately improve understanding of pain in hospitalized patients with pressure ulcers.

  14. Building a Biopsychosocial Conceptual Framework to Explore Pressure Ulcer Pain for Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junglyun; Ahn, Hyochol; Lyon, Debra E; Stechmiller, Joyce

    2016-01-08

    Although pressure ulcers are a prevalent condition, pain associated with pressure ulcers is not fully understood. Indeed, previous studies do not shed light on the association between pressure ulcer stages and the experience of pain. Especially, pain characteristics of suspected deep tissue injury, which is a new category that was recently added by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, are yet unknown. This is concerning because the incidence of pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients has increased exponentially over the last two decades, and health care providers are struggling to ensure providing adequate care. Thus, in order to facilitate the development of effective interventions, this paper presents a conceptual framework to explore pressure ulcer pain in hospitalized patients. The concepts were derived from a biopsychosocial model of pain, and the relationships among each concept were identified through a literature review. Major propositions are presented based on the proposed conceptual framework, which integrates previous research on pressure ulcer pain, to ultimately improve understanding of pain in hospitalized patients with pressure ulcers.

  15. Exploring Occupational and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity in Firefighters: A Theoretical Framework and Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BongKyoo Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Firefighters and police officers have the third highest prevalence of obesity among 41 male occupational groups in the United States (US. However, few studies have examined the relationship of firefighter working conditions and health behaviors with obesity. This paper presents a theoretical framework describing the relationship between working conditions, health behaviors, and obesity in firefighters. In addition, the paper describes a detailed study plan for exploring the role of occupational and behavioral risk factors in the development of obesity in firefighters enrolled in the Orange County Fire Authority Wellness Fitness Program. The study plan will be described with emphasis on its methodological merits: adopting a participatory action research approach, developing a firefighter-specific work and health questionnaire, conducting both a cross-sectional epidemiological study using the questionnaire and a sub-study to assess the validity of the questionnaire with dietary intake and physical activity measures, and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the body mass index as an obesity measure in comparison to skinfold-based percent body fat. The study plan based on a theoretical framework can be an essential first step for establishing effective intervention programs for obesity among professional and voluntary firefighters.

  16. A unified software framework for deriving, visualizing, and exploring abstraction networks for ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Christopher; Geller, James; Perl, Yehoshua; Musen, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Software tools play a critical role in the development and maintenance of biomedical ontologies. One important task that is difficult without software tools is ontology quality assurance. In previous work, we have introduced different kinds of abstraction networks to provide a theoretical foundation for ontology quality assurance tools. Abstraction networks summarize the structure and content of ontologies. One kind of abstraction network that we have used repeatedly to support ontology quality assurance is the partial-area taxonomy. It summarizes structurally and semantically similar concepts within an ontology. However, the use of partial-area taxonomies was ad hoc and not generalizable. In this paper, we describe the Ontology Abstraction Framework (OAF), a unified framework and software system for deriving, visualizing, and exploring partial-area taxonomy abstraction networks. The OAF includes support for various ontology representations (e.g., OWL and SNOMED CT's relational format). A Protégé plugin for deriving “live partial-area taxonomies” is demonstrated. PMID:27345947

  17. Exploring occupational and behavioral risk factors for obesity in firefighters: a theoretical framework and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bongkyoo; Schnall, Peter; Dobson, Marnie; Israel, Leslie; Landsbergis, Paul; Galassetti, Pietro; Pontello, Andria; Kojaku, Stacey; Baker, Dean

    2011-12-01

    Firefighters and police officers have the third highest prevalence of obesity among 41 male occupational groups in the United States (US). However, few studies have examined the relationship of firefighter working conditions and health behaviors with obesity. This paper presents a theoretical framework describing the relationship between working conditions, health behaviors, and obesity in firefighters. In addition, the paper describes a detailed study plan for exploring the role of occupational and behavioral risk factors in the development of obesity in firefighters enrolled in the Orange County Fire Authority Wellness Fitness Program. The study plan will be described with emphasis on its methodological merits: adopting a participatory action research approach, developing a firefighter-specific work and health questionnaire, conducting both a cross-sectional epidemiological study using the questionnaire and a sub-study to assess the validity of the questionnaire with dietary intake and physical activity measures, and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the body mass index as an obesity measure in comparison to skinfold-based percent body fat. The study plan based on a theoretical framework can be an essential first step for establishing effective intervention programs for obesity among professional and voluntary firefighters.

  18. DDESC: Dragon database for exploration of sodium channels in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanovic Aleksandar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium channels are heteromultimeric, integral membrane proteins that belong to a superfamily of ion channels. The mutations in genes encoding for sodium channel proteins have been linked with several inherited genetic disorders such as febrile epilepsy, Brugada syndrome, ventricular fibrillation, long QT syndrome, or channelopathy associated insensitivity to pain. In spite of these significant effects that sodium channel proteins/genes could have on human health, there is no publicly available resource focused on sodium channels that would support exploration of the sodium channel related information. Results We report here Dragon Database for Exploration of Sodium Channels in Human (DDESC, which provides comprehensive information related to sodium channels regarding different entities, such as "genes and proteins", "metabolites and enzymes", "toxins", "chemicals with pharmacological effects", "disease concepts", "human anatomy", "pathways and pathway reactions" and their potential links. DDESC is compiled based on text- and data-mining. It allows users to explore potential associations between different entities related to sodium channels in human, as well as to automatically generate novel hypotheses. Conclusion DDESC is first publicly available resource where the information related to sodium channels in human can be explored at different levels. This database is freely accessible for academic and non-profit users via the worldwide web http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/ddesc.

  19. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Martin; Muniyandi, Manivannan; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Jung; Krause, Frank; Mueller, Stephanie; Srinivasan, Mandayam A

    2014-01-01

    The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these "explorative stops" (ES) during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: (a) between mean exploration time and duration of ES, (b) between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and (c) the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Five different Experiments were used. The first two Experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A) and of common objects (B). In Experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For Experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D) and real (E) sunken reliefs. In each Experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For Experiment A: 329.50 ms, Experiment B: 67.47 ms, Experiment C: 189.92 ms, Experiment D: 186.17 ms and Experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.

  20. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGrunwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these explorative stops (ES during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: a between mean exploration time and duration of ES, b between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and c the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different experiments were used. The first two experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A and of common objects (B. In experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D and real (E sunken reliefs. Results: In each experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For experiment A: 329.50 ms, experiment B: 67.47 ms, experiment C: 189.92 ms, experiment D: 186.17 ms and experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.

  1. A conceptual framework to evaluate human-wildlife interactions within coupled human and natural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita T. Morzillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscape characteristics affect human-wildlife interactions. However, there is a need to better understand mechanisms that drive those interactions, particularly feedbacks that exist between wildlife-related impacts, human reaction to and behavior as a result of those impacts, and how land use and landscape characteristics may influence those components within coupled human and natural systems. Current conceptual models of human-wildlife interactions often focus on species population size as the independent variable driving those interactions. Such an approach potentially overlooks important feedbacks among and drivers of human-wildlife interactions that result from mere wildlife presence versus absence. We describe an emerging conceptual framework that focuses on wildlife as a driver of human behavior and allows us to better understand linkages between humans, wildlife, and the broader landscape. We also present results of a pilot analysis related to our own ongoing study of urban rodent control behavior to illustrate one application of this framework within a study of urban landscapes.

  2. NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near

  3. A large human centrifuge for exploration and exploitation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.W.A. van Loon; J.P. Baeyens; J. Berte; S. Blanc; L. ter Braak; K. Bok; J. Bos; R. Boyle; N. Bravenoer; M. Eekhoff; A. Chouker; G. Clement; P. Cras; E. Cross; M.A. Cusaud; M. De Angelis; C. de Dreu; T. Delavaux; R. Delfos; C. Poelma; P. Denise; D. Felsenberg; K. Fong; C. Fuller; S. Grillner; E. Groen; J. Harlaar; M. Heer; N. Heglund; H. Hinghofer-Szalkay; N. Goswami; M. Hughes-Fulford; S. Iwase; J.M. Karemaker; B. Langdahl; D. Linarsson; C. Lüthen; M. Monici; E. Mulder; M. Narici; P. Norsk; W. Paloski; G.K. Prisk; M. Rutten; P. Singer; D. Stegeman; A. Stephan; G.J.M. Stienen; P. Suedfeld; P. Tesch; O. Ullrich; R. van den Berg; P. Van de Heyning; A. Delahaye; J. Veyt; L. Vico; E. Woodward; L.R. Young; F. Wuyts

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses concepts regarding the development of an Altered Gravity Platform (AGP) that will serve as a research platform for human space exploration. Space flight causes a multitude of physiological problems, many of which are due to gravity level transitions. Going from Earth’s gravity t

  4. Global Exploration Roadmap Derived Concept for Human Exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Ryan; Landgraf, Markus; Sato, Naoki; Picard, Martin; Goodliff, Kandyce; Stephenson, Keith; Narita, Shinichiro; Gonthier, Yves; Cowley, Aiden; Hosseini, Shahrzad; hide

    2017-01-01

    Taking advantage of the development of Mars-forward assets in cislunar space, a human lunar surface concept is proposed to maximize value for both lunar exploration and future deep space missions. The human lunar surface missions will be designed to build upon the cislunar activities that precede them, providing experience in planetary surface operations that cannot be obtained in cislunar space. To enable a five-mission limited campaign to the surface of the Moon, two new elements are required: a human lunar lander and a mobile surface habitat. The human lunar lander will have been developed throughout the cislunar phase from a subscale demonstrator and will consist of a descent module alongside a reusable ascent module. The reusable ascent module will be used for all five human lunar surface missions. Surface habitation, in the form of two small pressurized rovers, will enable 4 crew to spend up to 42 days on the lunar surface.

  5. Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toyokawa

    Full Text Available The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate "information scroungers" may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a "multi-armed bandit" problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental "dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas" successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence.

  6. Landscape fragmentation and pollinator movement within agricultural environments: a modelling framework for exploring foraging and movement ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A. Rands

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator decline has been linked to landscape change, through both habitat fragmentation and the loss of habitat suitable for the pollinators to live within. One method for exploring why landscape change should affect pollinator populations is to combine individual-level behavioural ecological techniques with larger-scale landscape ecology. A modelling framework is described that uses spatially-explicit individual-based models to explore the effects of individual behavioural rules within a landscape. The technique described gives a simple method for exploring the effects of the removal of wild corridors, and the creation of wild set-aside fields: interventions that are common to many national agricultural policies. The effects of these manipulations on central-place nesting pollinators are varied, and depend upon the behavioural rules that the pollinators are using to move through the environment. The value of this modelling framework is discussed, and future directions for exploration are identified.

  7. Felix: A Topology based Framework for Visual Exploration of Cosmic Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Shivshankar, Nithin; Natarajan, Vijay; van de Weygaert, Rien; Bos, E G Patrick; Rieder, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The large-scale structure of the universe is comprised of virialized blob-like clusters, linear filaments, sheet-like walls and huge near empty three-dimensional voids. Characterizing the large scale universe is essential to our understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The density range of clusters, walls and voids are relatively well separated, when compared to filaments, which span a relatively larger range. The large scale filamentary network thus forms an intricate part of the cosmic web. In this paper, we describe Felix, a topology based framework for visual exploration of filaments in the cosmic web. The filamentary structure is represented by the ascending manifold geometry of the 2-saddles in the Morse-Smale complex of the density field. We generate a hierarchy of Morse-Smale complexes and query for filaments based on the density ranges at the end points of the filaments. The query is processed efficiently over the entire hierarchical Morse-Smale complex, allowing for interactive visu...

  8. Micro-Logistics Analysis for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, William; Stromgren, Chel; Galan, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, logistics analysis for space missions has focused on the delivery of elements and goods to a destination. This type of logistics analysis can be referred to as "macro-logistics". While the delivery of goods is a critical component of mission analysis, it captures only a portion of the constraints that logistics planning may impose on a mission scenario. The other component of logistics analysis concerns the local handling of goods at the destination, including storage, usage, and disposal. This type of logistics analysis, referred to as "micro-logistics", may also be a primary driver in the viability of a human lunar exploration scenario. With the rigorous constraints that will be placed upon a human lunar outpost, it is necessary to accurately evaluate micro-logistics operations in order to develop exploration scenarios that will result in an acceptable level of system performance.

  9. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  10. Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Saike; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel; Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace.

  11. Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saike He

    Full Text Available Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace.

  12. Data Prospecting Framework - a new approach to explore "big data" in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Rushing, J.; Lin, A.; Kuo, K.

    2012-12-01

    Due to advances in sensors, computation and storage, cost and effort required to produce large datasets have been significantly reduced. As a result, we are seeing a proliferation of large-scale data sets being assembled in almost every science field, especially in geosciences. Opportunities to exploit the "big data" are enormous as new hypotheses can be generated by combining and analyzing large amounts of data. However, such a data-driven approach to science discovery assumes that scientists can find and isolate relevant subsets from vast amounts of available data. Current Earth Science data systems only provide data discovery through simple metadata and keyword-based searches and are not designed to support data exploration capabilities based on the actual content. Consequently, scientists often find themselves downloading large volumes of data, struggling with large amounts of storage and learning new analysis technologies that will help them separate the wheat from the chaff. New mechanisms of data exploration are needed to help scientists discover the relevant subsets We present data prospecting, a new content-based data analysis paradigm to support data-intensive science. Data prospecting allows the researchers to explore big data in determining and isolating data subsets for further analysis. This is akin to geo-prospecting in which mineral sites of interest are determined over the landscape through screening methods. The resulting "data prospects" only provide an interaction with and feel for the data through first-look analytics; the researchers would still have to download the relevant datasets and analyze them deeply using their favorite analytical tools to determine if the datasets will yield new hypotheses. Data prospecting combines two traditional categories of data analysis, data exploration and data mining within the discovery step. Data exploration utilizes manual/interactive methods for data analysis such as standard statistical analysis and

  13. Kindergarten Teachers' Conceptual Framework on the Ozone Layer Depletion. Exploring the Associative Meanings of a Global Environmental Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskolia, Maria; Flogaitis, Evgenia; Papageorgiou, Evgenia

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted among Greek kindergarten teachers aiming to explore their conceptual frameworks on a major environmental issue of our times: the ozone layer depletion. The choice of this particular issue was premised on its novelty, complexity and abstractness which present teachers with difficulties in its teaching. A free…

  14. Kindergarten Teachers' Conceptual Framework on the Ozone Layer Depletion. Exploring the Associative Meanings of a Global Environmental Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskolia, Maria; Flogaitis, Evgenia; Papageorgiou, Evgenia

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted among Greek kindergarten teachers aiming to explore their conceptual frameworks on a major environmental issue of our times: the ozone layer depletion. The choice of this particular issue was premised on its novelty, complexity and abstractness which present teachers with difficulties in its teaching. A free…

  15. Prospects for Learning in River Management: Exploring the Initial Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in a Swedish River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundmark, Carina; Jonsson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    This case study explores the initial implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the Lule River basin, Sweden, examining how and to what extent administrative procedures enable learning through dialogue and stakeholder collaboration. Theorising on adaptive co-management and social learning is used to structure what is to be learnt,…

  16. Blogs and Social Network Sites as Activity Systems: Exploring Adult Informal Learning Process through Activity Theory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Gyeong Mi; Lee, Romee

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to explore adult user activities and informal learning processes as reflected in their blogs and social network sites (SNS). Using the assumption that a web-based space is an activity system in which learning occurs, typical features of the components were investigated and each activity system then…

  17. Understanding Children's Curiosity and Exploration through the Lenses of Lewin's Field Theory: On Developing an Appraisal Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chak, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Uses Lewin's field theory as a framework to appraise children's momentary state of curiosity and exploratory behavior. Discusses two levels of analysis: child-stimulus situation and child-stimulus-adult situation. Argues that a parent can be a barrier hindering a child's exploration, or a facilitator to remove barriers. (Author/SD)

  18. Development cooperation in water and sanitation: is it based on the human rights framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Heller, Léo

    2017-07-01

    The water and sanitation sector is verifiably receiving increased attention and funding through international development cooperation. Not least because of the way that it affects incentives and institutions in partner countries, development cooperation can have either positive or negative effects on human rights though. The consolidated frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation is becoming linked to the international community's coordinated development efforts, as evidenced notably in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, a review of major funders' official policies for development cooperation in the sector suggests that many only partially endorse the frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation. An observation of development cooperation flows to the sector allows the hypothesis to be advanced that worldwide inequalities in access to these services may be reduced through a full and clear application of the human rights framework in development cooperation activities. The article presents findings of this research and explores key stakes for development cooperation in the water and sanitation sector that are relevant for their ability to either negatively or positively contribute to the realization of human rights. Resumen El sector de agua y saneamiento ha recibido creciente atención y financiación a través de la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo. La cooperación para el desarrollo puede tener efectos tanto positivos cuanto negativos sobre los derechos humanos. El hito que consolida los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están articulados a esfuerzos de cooperación para el desarrollo promovidos por la comunidad internacional, como se evidencia en la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible. Sin embargo, una revisión de las políticas oficiales de los principales financiadores del sector sugiere que muchos de ellos aprueban solo parcialmente los hitos de los derechos humanos al agua y el

  19. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Mercury and Saturn Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed. Unique elements of the local planetary environments are discussed and included in the analyses and assessments. Using historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many way. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed.

  20. Towards human exploration of space: The THESEUS review series on immunology research priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jean-Pol, Frippiat; Crucian, Brian E; de Quervain, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    to maintain immune homeostasis under such challenges. In the framework of the THESEUS project whose aim was to develop an integrated life sciences research roadmap regarding human space exploration, experts working in the field of space immunology, and related disciplines, established a questionnaire sent......Dysregulation of the immune system occurs during spaceflight and may represent a crew health risk during exploration missions because astronauts are challenged by many stressors. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the biology of immune modulation under spaceflight conditions in order to be able...... to scientists around the world. From the review of collected answers, they deduced a list of key issues and provided several recommendations such as a maximal exploitation of currently available resources on Earth and in space, and to increase increments duration for some ISS crew members to 12 months or longer...

  1. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  2. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  3. A Unified Probabilistic Framework for Dose–Response Assessment of Human Health Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Slob, Wout

    2015-01-01

    Background When chemical health hazards have been identified, probabilistic dose–response assessment (“hazard characterization”) quantifies uncertainty and/or variability in toxicity as a function of human exposure. Existing probabilistic approaches differ for different types of endpoints or modes-of-action, lacking a unifying framework. Objectives We developed a unified framework for probabilistic dose–response assessment. Methods We established a framework based on four principles: a) indiv...

  4. Integration of the Explorer Test Setup into the EuDAQ-Framework for Test-Beam Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, Heiko Christian

    2013-01-01

    This is a short summary of my work done at CERN as my Summer Student Project, for the integration of a pixel sensor, the Explorer, into the test-beam framework for the EuDET telescope at DESY. The EuDAQ-Framework requires the software integration of the data readout of the sensor to make an easy analysis of the test-beam data possible. This software will be used during test-beam measurements later this year and can furthermore be easily adapted to different chip architectures.

  5. Global human rights frameworks applicable to LGBTI migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Shana Tabak; Rachel Levitan

    2013-01-01

    Although no international legal instrument exists to specifically protect the human rights of LGBTI individuals, over recent years international legal bodies have interpreted basic human rights provisions to apply to LGBTI populations.

  6. Global human rights frameworks applicable to LGBTI migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Tabak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although no international legal instrument exists to specifically protect the human rights of LGBTI individuals, over recent years international legal bodies have interpreted basic human rights provisions to apply to LGBTI populations.

  7. Exploring the implications of social change for human development: perspectives, issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have investigated the implications of social change for human development from different perspectives. The studies published in this special section were conducted within Greenfield's theoretical framework (2009). The findings concerning links between specific sociodemographic features (e.g., commercial activities, schooling) and individual cognition and social behaviour are particularly interesting because they tap the underlying forces that drive human development. To further understand the issues in these studies and in the field, a pluralist-constructive perspective is discussed, which emphasises the integration of diverse values and practices in both Western and non-Western societies and its effects on the development of sophisticated competencies in individual adaptation to the changing global community. In addition, several issues are highlighted and some suggestions are provided for future explorations in this field.

  8. Exploring host-microbiota interactions in animal models and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Aleksandar D; Howitt, Michael R; Garrett, Wendy S

    2013-04-01

    The animal and bacterial kingdoms have coevolved and coadapted in response to environmental selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. The meta'omics revolution in both sequencing and its analytic pipelines is fostering an explosion of interest in how the gut microbiome impacts physiology and propensity to disease. Gut microbiome studies are inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on approaches and technical skill sets from the biomedical sciences, ecology, and computational biology. Central to unraveling the complex biology of environment, genetics, and microbiome interaction in human health and disease is a deeper understanding of the symbiosis between animals and bacteria. Experimental model systems, including mice, fish, insects, and the Hawaiian bobtail squid, continue to provide critical insight into how host-microbiota homeostasis is constructed and maintained. Here we consider how model systems are influencing current understanding of host-microbiota interactions and explore recent human microbiome studies.

  9. Integrated Network Architecture for Sustained Human and Robotic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Gary; Cesarone, Robert; Deutsch, Leslie; Edwards, Charles; Soloff, Jason; Ely, Todd; Cook, Brian; Morabito, David; Hemmati, Hamid; Piazolla, Sabino; hide

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Enterprise is planning a series of human and robotic missions to the Earth's moon and to Mars. These missions will require communication and navigation services. This paper1 sets forth presumed requirements for such services and concepts for lunar and Mars telecommunications network architectures to satisfy the presumed requirements. The paper suggests that an inexpensive ground network would suffice for missions to the near-side of the moon. A constellation of three Lunar Telecommunications Orbiters connected to an inexpensive ground network could provide continuous redundant links to a polar lunar base and its vicinity. For human and robotic missions to Mars, a pair of areostationary satellites could provide continuous redundant links between Earth and a mid-latitude Mars base in conjunction with the Deep Space Network augmented by large arrays of 12-m antennas on Earth.

  10. A Conceptual Framework for Representing Human Behavior Characteristics in a System of Systems Agent-Based Survivability Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    distribution is unlimited. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR REPRESENTING HUMAN BEHAVIOR CHARACTERISTICS IN A SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS AGENT-BASED SURVIVABILITY...27411 -0001 ABSTRACT A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR REPRESENTING HUMAN BEHAVIOR CHARACTERISTICS IN A SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS AGENT-BASED SURVIVABILITY SIMULATION...TITLE AND SUBTITLE A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR REPRESENTING HUMAN BEHAVIOR CHARACTERISTICS IN A SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS AGENT-BASED SURVIVABILITY

  11. Groundbreaking Mars Sample Return for Science and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara; Draper, David; Eppler, Dean; Treiman, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Partnerships between science and human exploration have recent heritage for the Moon (Lunar Precursor Robotics Program, LPRP) and nearearth objects (Exploration Precursor Robotics Program, xPRP). Both programs spent appreciable time and effort determining measurements needed or desired before human missions to these destinations. These measurements may be crucial to human health or spacecraft design, or may be desired to better optimize systems designs such as spacesuits or operations. Both LPRP and xPRP recommended measurements from orbit, by landed missions and by sample return. LPRP conducted the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) missions, providing high-resolution visible imagery, surface and subsurface temperatures, global topography, mapping of possible water ice deposits, and the biological effects of radiation [1]. LPRP also initiated a landed mission to provide dust and regolith properties, local lighting conditions, assessment of resources, and demonstration of precision landing [2]. This mission was canceled in 2006 due to funding shortfalls. For the Moon, adequate samples of rocks and regolith were returned by the Apollo and Luna programs to conduct needed investigations. Many near-earth asteroids (NEAs) have been observed from the Earth and several have been more extensively characterized by close-flying missions and landings (NEAR, Hayabusa, Rosetta). The current Joint Robotic Precursor Activity program is considering activities such as partnering with the New Frontiers mission OSIRIS-Rex to visit a NEA and return a sample to the Earth. However, a strong consensus of the NEO User Team within xPRP was that a dedicated mission to the asteroid targeted by humans is required [3], ideally including regolith sample return for more extensive characterization and testing on the Earth.

  12. Exploring the existence and potential underpinnings of dog-human and horse-human attachment bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elyssa; DeAraugo, Jodi; Bennett, Pauleen; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    This article reviews evidence for the existence of attachment bonds directed toward humans in dog-human and horse-human dyads. It explores each species' alignment with the four features of a typical attachment bond: separation-related distress, safe haven, secure base and proximity seeking. While dog-human dyads show evidence of each of these, there is limited alignment for horse-human dyads. These differences are discussed in the light of the different selection paths of domestic dogs and horses as well as the different contexts in which the two species interact with humans. The role of emotional intelligence in humans as a potential mediator for human-animal relationships, attachment or otherwise, is also examined. Finally, future studies, which may clarify the interplay between attachment, human-animal relationships and emotional intelligence, are proposed. Such avenues of research may help us explore the concepts of trust and bonding that are often said to occur at the dog-human and horse-human interface.

  13. Desert RATS 2011: Near-Earth Asteroid Human Exploration Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Chappel, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) 2011 field test involved the planning and execution of a series of exploration scenarios under operational conditions similar to those that would be expected during a human exploration mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA). The focus was on understanding the operations tempo during simulated NEA exploration and the implications of communications latency and limited data bandwidth. Anchoring technologies and sampling techniques were not evaluated due to the immaturity of those technologies and the inability to meaningfully test them at D-RATS. Reduced gravity analogs and simulations are being used to fully evaluate Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) and extravehicular (EVA) operations and interactions in near-weightlessness at a NEA as part of NASA s integrated analogs program. Hypotheses were tested by planning and performing a series of 1-day simulated exploration excursions comparing test conditions all of which involved a single Deep Space Habitat (DSH) and either zero, one, or two MMSEVs; three or four crewmembers; one of two different communications bandwidths; and a 100-second roundtrip communications latency between the field site and Houston. Excursions were executed at the Black Point Lava Flow test site with a Mission Control Center and Science Support Room at Johnson Space Center (JSC) being operated with 100-second roundtrip communication latency to the field. Crews were composed of astronauts and professional field geologists and teams of Mission Operations, Science, and Education & Public Outreach (EPO) experts also supported the mission simulations each day. Data were collected separately from the Crew, Mission Operations, Science, and EPO teams to assess the test conditions from multiple perspectives. For the operations tested, data indicates practically significant benefits may be realized by including at least one MMSEV and by including 4 versus 3 crewmembers in the NEA exploration

  14. Strategic Human Resource Development in Hospitality Crisis Management: A Conceptual Framework for Food and Beverage Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Ala`a Nimer AbuKhalifeh; Ahmad Puad Mat Som; Ahmad Rasmi AlBattat

    2013-01-01

    Crisis management has been a largely unnoticed territory in human resource development. Despite the increased impact of organizational crises on individual and organizational performance, it remains to be an issue that must be recognized and addressed. This paper reviews the current literature on hotel industry crisis management, its progression and effective crisis management framework. Garavan`s strategic human resource model as a guiding framework is discussed to help understand the variou...

  15. A Software Framework for Coordinating Human-Robot Teams Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robots are expected to fulfill an important role in manned exploration operations. They can reduce the risk of crew EVA and improve crew productivity on routine...

  16. A Software Framework for Coordinating Human-Robot Teams Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robots are expected to fulfill an important role in manned exploration operations. They will perform precursor missions to pre-position resources for manned...

  17. Exploring Frameworks to Integrate Globalization, Mission, and Higher Education: Case Study Inquiry at Two Higher Education Institutions in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Jacqueline N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the merits of three conceptual frameworks that emerged from a synthesis of literature related to globalization, mission, and higher education. The first framework, higher education and mission, included three frames: important, not important, and emergent. The second framework, globalization and higher…

  18. Exploring Frameworks to Integrate Globalization, Mission, and Higher Education: Case Study Inquiry at Two Higher Education Institutions in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Jacqueline N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the merits of three conceptual frameworks that emerged from a synthesis of literature related to globalization, mission, and higher education. The first framework, higher education and mission, included three frames: important, not important, and emergent. The second framework, globalization and higher…

  19. Psychological Coercion in Human Trafficking: An Application of Biderman's Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susie B; Fehrenbacher, Anne E; Eisenman, David P

    2015-09-01

    This study examined coercive conditions experienced by trafficked persons in the context of Biderman's theory of coercion. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 adult women trafficked into Los Angeles County, from 10 countries, for domestic work and/or sex work. Participants described health problems they experienced in relation to their trafficking experience and their perceptions of conditions that caused health problems. Utilizing a framework analysis approach, we analyzed themes using Biderman's framework. Participants reported experiencing the range of nonphysical coercive tactics outlined by Biderman, including isolation, monopolization of perception, induced debility or exhaustion, threats, occasional indulgences, demonstration of omnipotence, degradation, and enforcement of trivial demands. Our analysis demonstrates how these coercion tactics reinforced the submission of trafficked persons to their traffickers even in the absence of physical force or restraints. Such psychological abuse creates extreme stress that can lead to acute and chronic, physical and mental health problems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Human Exploration of the Solar System by 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ronald J.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that the U.S., in concert with private entities and international partners, set itself on a course to accomplish human exploration of the solar system by the end of this century. This is a strikingly bold vision intended to revitalize the aspirations of HSF in service to the security, economic, and scientific interests of the nation. Solar system distance and time scales impose severe requirements on crewed space transportation systems, however, and fully realizing all objectives in support of this goal will require a multi-decade commitment employing radically advanced technologies - most prominently, space habitats capable of sustaining and protecting life in harsh radiation environments under zero gravity conditions and in-space propulsion technologies capable of rapid deep space transits with earth return, the subject of this paper. While near term mission destinations such as the moon and Mars can be accomplished with chemical propulsion and/or high power SEP, fundamental capability constraints render these traditional systems ineffective for solar system wide exploration. Nuclear based propulsion and alternative energetic methods, on the other hand, represent potential avenues, perhaps the only viable avenues, to high specific power space transport evincing reduced trip time, reduced IMLEO, and expanded deep space reach. Here, very long term HSF objectives for solar system wide exploration are examined in relation to the advanced propulsion technology solution landscape including foundational science, technical/engineering challenges, and developmental prospects.

  1. ENGINES: exploring single nucleotide variation in entire human genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Antonio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation ultra-sequencing technologies are starting to produce extensive quantities of data from entire human genome or exome sequences, and therefore new software is needed to present and analyse this vast amount of information. The 1000 Genomes project has recently released raw data for 629 complete genomes representing several human populations through their Phase I interim analysis and, although there are certain public tools available that allow exploration of these genomes, to date there is no tool that permits comprehensive population analysis of the variation catalogued by such data. Description We have developed a genetic variant site explorer able to retrieve data for Single Nucleotide Variation (SNVs, population by population, from entire genomes without compromising future scalability and agility. ENGINES (ENtire Genome INterface for Exploring SNVs uses data from the 1000 Genomes Phase I to demonstrate its capacity to handle large amounts of genetic variation (>7.3 billion genotypes and 28 million SNVs, as well as deriving summary statistics of interest for medical and population genetics applications. The whole dataset is pre-processed and summarized into a data mart accessible through a web interface. The query system allows the combination and comparison of each available population sample, while searching by rs-number list, chromosome region, or genes of interest. Frequency and FST filters are available to further refine queries, while results can be visually compared with other large-scale Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP repositories such as HapMap or Perlegen. Conclusions ENGINES is capable of accessing large-scale variation data repositories in a fast and comprehensive manner. It allows quick browsing of whole genome variation, while providing statistical information for each variant site such as allele frequency, heterozygosity or FST values for genetic differentiation. Access to the data mart

  2. Dynamic, Interactive and Visual Analysis of Population Distribution and Mobility Dynamics in an Urban Environment Using the Mobility Explorer Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Peters-Anders

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which a mobile data source can be utilised to generate new information intelligence for decision-making in smart city planning processes. In this regard, the Mobility Explorer framework is introduced and applied to the City of Vienna (Austria by using anonymised mobile phone data from a mobile phone service provider. This framework identifies five necessary elements that are needed to develop complex planning applications. As part of the investigation and experiments a new dynamic software tool, called Mobility Explorer, has been designed and developed based on the requirements of the planning department of the City of Vienna. As a result, the Mobility Explorer enables city stakeholders to interactively visualise the dynamic diurnal population distribution, mobility patterns and various other complex outputs for planning needs. Based on the experiences during the development phase, this paper discusses mobile data issues, presents the visual interface, performs various user-defined analyses, demonstrates the application’s usefulness and critically reflects on the evaluation results of the citizens’ motion exploration that reveal the great potential of mobile phone data in smart city planning but also depict its limitations. These experiences and lessons learned from the Mobility Explorer application development provide useful insights for other cities and planners who want to make informed decisions using mobile phone data in their city planning processes through dynamic visualisation of Call Data Record (CDR data.

  3. A Human Sensor Network Framework in Support of Near Real Time Situational Geophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulov, O.; Price, A.; Smith, J. A.; Halem, M.

    2013-12-01

    The area of Disaster Management is well established among Federal Agencies such as FEMA, EPA, NOAA and NASA. These agencies have well formulated frameworks for response and mitigation based on near real time satellite and conventional observing networks for assimilation into geophysical models. Forecasts from these models are used to communicate with emergency responders and the general public. More recently, agencies have started using social media to broadcast warnings and alerts to potentially affected communities. In this presentation, we demonstrate the added benefits of mining and assimilating the vast amounts of social media data available from heterogeneous hand held devices and social networks into established operational geophysical modeling frameworks as they apply to the five cornerstones of disaster management - Prevention, Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Recovery. Often, in situations of extreme events, social media provide the earliest notification of adverse extreme events. However, various forms of social media data also can provide useful geolocated and time stamped in situ observations, complementary to directly sensed conventional observations. We use the concept of a Human Sensor Network where one views social media users as carrying field deployed "sensors" whose posts are the remotely "sensed instrument measurements.' These measurements can act as 'station data' providing the resolution and coverage needed for extreme event specific modeling and validation. Here, we explore the use of social media through the use of a Human Sensor Network (HSN) approach as another data input source for assimilation into geophysical models. Employing the HSN paradigm can provide useful feedback in near real-time, but presents software challenges for rapid access, quality filtering and transforming massive social media data into formats consistent with the operational models. As a use case scenario, we demonstrate the value of HSN for disaster management

  4. 78 FR 42805 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration Operations Committee; Research... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Research Subcommittee of the Human Exploration and Operations Committee (HEOC) of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports...

  5. A Theoretical Framework for Human and Veterinary Medical Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In their practice, physicians and veterinarians need to resort to an array of ethical competences. As a teaching topic, however, there is no accepted gold standard for human medical ethics, and veterinary medical ethics is not yet well established. This paper provides a reflection on the underlying aims of human and veterinary medical ethics…

  6. Patient safety in light of the human rights framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBUQUERQUE, Aline

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to draw up a theoretical contribution to sustain the view that patient safety is interconnected with the obligation of States to preserve the lives of their citizens and that patient safety is an expression of the right to health, from the perspective of interna-tional human rights, comprising the human rights treaties and international jurisprudence emanating from human rights bodies located at the United Nations, the Inter-American Human Rights System and the European Human Rights System. With the aim of developing the patient safety based on the right to life and the right to health, we have adopted a biblio-graphical and a documentary research, highlighting the review and analysis of reports and decisions made by human rights organs. In conclusion, the right to safe healthcare, derived from the right to life and the right to health, should be subject to state regulations, that is, we argue that the state should establish a certain cast of general measures of patient safety, in order to explicit the right to safe healthcare, as one of the human rights of the patient. Indeed, the implementation of a patient safety culture is a State obligation; its disregard in defining it as a result of a legislative, public policy or budget lack, involves an international human rights violation.

  7. A Human Capabilities Framework for Evaluating Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a human capabilities approach for evaluating student learning and the social and pedagogical arrangements that support equality in capabilities for all students. It outlines the focus on valuable beings and doings in the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen, and Martha Nussbaum's capabilities focus on human flourishing.…

  8. Exploring human disease using the Rat Genome Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Shimoyama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rattus norvegicus, the laboratory rat, has been a crucial model for studies of the environmental and genetic factors associated with human diseases for over 150 years. It is the primary model organism for toxicology and pharmacology studies, and has features that make it the model of choice in many complex-disease studies. Since 1999, the Rat Genome Database (RGD; http://rgd.mcw.edu has been the premier resource for genomic, genetic, phenotype and strain data for the laboratory rat. The primary role of RGD is to curate rat data and validate orthologous relationships with human and mouse genes, and make these data available for incorporation into other major databases such as NCBI, Ensembl and UniProt. RGD also provides official nomenclature for rat genes, quantitative trait loci, strains and genetic markers, as well as unique identifiers. The RGD team adds enormous value to these basic data elements through functional and disease annotations, the analysis and visual presentation of pathways, and the integration of phenotype measurement data for strains used as disease models. Because much of the rat research community focuses on understanding human diseases, RGD provides a number of datasets and software tools that allow users to easily explore and make disease-related connections among these datasets. RGD also provides comprehensive human and mouse data for comparative purposes, illustrating the value of the rat in translational research. This article introduces RGD and its suite of tools and datasets to researchers – within and beyond the rat community – who are particularly interested in leveraging rat-based insights to understand human diseases.

  9. Exploring human disease using the Rat Genome Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulederkind, Stanley J. F.; De Pons, Jeff; Nigam, Rajni; Smith, Jennifer R.; Tutaj, Marek; Petri, Victoria; Hayman, G. Thomas; Wang, Shur-Jen; Ghiasvand, Omid; Thota, Jyothi; Dwinell, Melinda R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rattus norvegicus, the laboratory rat, has been a crucial model for studies of the environmental and genetic factors associated with human diseases for over 150 years. It is the primary model organism for toxicology and pharmacology studies, and has features that make it the model of choice in many complex-disease studies. Since 1999, the Rat Genome Database (RGD; http://rgd.mcw.edu) has been the premier resource for genomic, genetic, phenotype and strain data for the laboratory rat. The primary role of RGD is to curate rat data and validate orthologous relationships with human and mouse genes, and make these data available for incorporation into other major databases such as NCBI, Ensembl and UniProt. RGD also provides official nomenclature for rat genes, quantitative trait loci, strains and genetic markers, as well as unique identifiers. The RGD team adds enormous value to these basic data elements through functional and disease annotations, the analysis and visual presentation of pathways, and the integration of phenotype measurement data for strains used as disease models. Because much of the rat research community focuses on understanding human diseases, RGD provides a number of datasets and software tools that allow users to easily explore and make disease-related connections among these datasets. RGD also provides comprehensive human and mouse data for comparative purposes, illustrating the value of the rat in translational research. This article introduces RGD and its suite of tools and datasets to researchers – within and beyond the rat community – who are particularly interested in leveraging rat-based insights to understand human diseases. PMID:27736745

  10. Preventing violence and reinforcing human security: a rights-based framework for top-down and bottom-up action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaerulf, Finn; Barahona, Rodrigo

    2010-05-01

    This article explores the violence reduction potential in the intersection between health, criminal justice, and development. It emphasizes public health, rule of law, and equality-driven socioeconomic development as principal concerns in preventing violence. In parts of Latin America, violence has become a serious public health and security problem. Prior studies have explored the risk factors associated with violence as well as experiences in its prevention. These studies and existing approaches to violence prevention provide evidence on where to direct attention and build prevention efforts. This article argues for integrated community-driven and national interventions to create cooperative national- local linkages and embed international human rights law at the national and local levels. Nations struggling with violence should be encouraged to apply an integrated framework to prevent violence and reinforce human security.

  11. Human health and the water environment: using the DPSEEA framework to identify the driving forces of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-15

    There is a growing awareness of global forces that threaten human health via the water environment. A better understanding of the dynamic between human health and the water environment would enable prediction of the significant driving forces and effective strategies for coping with or preventing them. This report details the use of the Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework to explore the linkage between water-related diseases and their significant driving forces. The DPSEEA frameworks indicate that a select group of driving forces, including population growth, agriculture, infrastructure (dams and irrigation), and climate change, is at the root cause of key global disease burdens. Construction of the DPSEEA frameworks also allows for the evaluation of public health interventions. Sanitation was found to be a widely applicable and effective intervention, targeting the driver/pressure linkage of most of the water-related diseases examined. Ultimately, the DPSEEA frameworks offer a platform for constituents in both the health and environmental fields to collaborate and commit to a common goal targeting the same driving forces.

  12. Integrating women's human rights into global health research: an action framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Donna; Kapungu, Chisina; Khare, Manorama H; Lewis, Yvonne; Barlow-Mosha, Linda

    2010-11-01

    This article uses Scale of Change theory as a framework to guide global health researchers to synergistically target women's health outcomes in the context of improving their right to freedom, equity, and equality of opportunities. We hypothesize that health researchers can do so through six action strategies. These strategies include (1) becoming fully informed of women's human rights directives to integrate them into research, (2) mainstreaming gender in the research, (3) using the expertise of grass roots women's organizations in the setting, (4) showcasing women's equity and equality in the organizational infrastructure, (5) disseminating research findings to policymakers in the study locale to influence health priorities, and (6) publicizing the social conditions that are linked to women's diseases. We explore conceptual and logistical dilemmas in transforming a study using these principles and also provide a case study of obstetric fistula reduction in Nigeria to illustrate how these strategies can be operationalized. Our intent is to offer a feasible approach to health researchers who, conceptually, may link women's health to social and cultural conditions but are looking for practical implementation strategies to examine a women's health issue through the lens of their human rights.

  13. A hierarchical framework for understanding human-human interactions in video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangho; Aggarwal, J. K.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding human behavior in video is essential in numerous applications including smart surveillance, video annotation/retrieval, and human-computer interaction. However, recognizing human interactions is a challenging task due to ambiguity in body articulation, variations in body size and appearance, loose clothing, mutual occlusion, and shadows. In this paper we present a framework for recognizing human actions and interactions in color video, and a hierarchical graphical model that unifies multiple-level processing in video computing: pixel level, blob level, object level, and event level. A mixture of Gaussian (MOG) model is used at the pixel level to train and classify individual pixel colors. A relaxation labeling with attribute relational graph (ARG) is used at the blob level to merge the pixels into coherent blobs and to register inter-blob relations. At the object level, the poses of individual body parts are recognized using Bayesian networks (BNs). At the event level, the actions of a single person are modeled using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The results of the object-level descriptions for each person are juxtaposed along a common timeline to identify an interaction between two persons. The linguistic 'verb argument structure' is used to represent human action in terms of triplets. A meaningful semantic description in terms of is obtained. Our system achieves semantic descriptions of positive, neutral, and negative interactions between two persons including hand-shaking, standing hand-in-hand, and hugging as the positive interactions, approaching, departing, and pointing as the neutral interactions, and pushing, punching, and kicking as the negative interactions.

  14. A Simulation Framework for Exploring Socioecological Dynamics and Sustainability of Settlement Systems Under Stress in Ancient Mesopotamia and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, J. H.; Altaweel, M. R.

    2007-12-01

    The presentation will describe an object-oriented, agent-based simulation framework being used to help answer longstanding questions regarding the development trajectories and sustainability of ancient Mesopotamian settlement systems. This multidisciplinary, multi-model framework supports explicit, fine-scale representations of the dynamics of key natural processes such as crop growth, hydrology, and weather, operating concurrently with social processes such as kinship-driven behaviors, farming and herding practices, social stratification, and economic and political activities carried out by social agents that represent individual persons, households, and larger-scale organizations. The framework has allowed us to explore the inherently coupled dynamics of modeled settlements and landscapes that are undergoing diverse social and environmental stresses, both acute and chronic, across multi-generational time spans. The simulation framework was originally used to address single-settlement scenarios, but has recently been extended to begin to address settlement system sustainability issues at sub-regional to regional scale, by introducing a number of new dynamic mechanisms, such as the activities of nomadic communities, that manifest themselves at these larger spatial scales. The framework is flexible and scalable and has broad applicability. It has, for example, recently been adapted to address agroeconomic sustainability of settlement systems in modern rural Thailand, testing the resilience and vulnerability of settled landscapes in the face of such perturbations as large-scale political interventions, global economic shifts, and climate change.

  15. Mission Opportunities for Human Exploration of Nearby Planetary Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    We characterize mission profiles for human expeditions to near-Earth asteroids, Venus, and Mars. Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are the closest destinations beyond cis-lunar space and present a compelling target with capabilities already under development by NASA and its partners. We present manned NEO mission options that would require between 90 days and one year. We next consider planetary flyby missions for Venus along the lines of plans that were first drafted during the Apollo program for human exploration of Venus. We also characterize a Mars flyby, and a double-flyby variant that would include close passes to both Venus and Mars. Finally, we consider orbital missions to Venus and Mars with capability for rendezvous with Phobos or Deimos. This would be a truly new class of mission for astronauts and could serve as a precursor to a human landing on Mars. We present launch opportunities, transit time, requisite {\\Delta}V, and approximate radiation environment parameters for each mission class. We find that {\\...

  16. Human and Robotic Mission to Small Bodies: Mapping, Planning and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffian, Ara V.; Bellerose, Julie; Beyer, Ross A.; Archinal, Brent; Edwards, Laurence; Lee, Pascal; Colaprete, Anthony; Fong, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the requirements, performs a gap analysis and makes a set of recommendations for mapping products and exploration tools required to support operations and scientific discovery for near- term and future NASA missions to small bodies. The mapping products and their requirements are based on the analysis of current mission scenarios (rendezvous, docking, and sample return) and recommendations made by the NEA Users Team (NUT) in the framework of human exploration. The mapping products that sat- isfy operational, scienti c, and public outreach goals include topography, images, albedo, gravity, mass, density, subsurface radar, mineralogical and thermal maps. The gap analysis points to a need for incremental generation of mapping products from low (flyby) to high-resolution data needed for anchoring and docking, real-time spatial data processing for hazard avoidance and astronaut or robot localization in low gravity, high dynamic environments, and motivates a standard for coordinate reference systems capable of describing irregular body shapes. Another aspect investigated in this study is the set of requirements and the gap analysis for exploration tools that support visualization and simulation of operational conditions including soil interactions, environment dynamics, and communications coverage. Building robust, usable data sets and visualisation/simulation tools is the best way for mission designers and simulators to make correct decisions for future missions. In the near term, it is the most useful way to begin building capabilities for small body exploration without needing to commit to specific mission architectures.

  17. Using Pareto optimality to explore the topology and dynamics of the human connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena-Koenigsberger, Andrea; Goñi, Joaquín; Betzel, Richard F; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Griffa, Alessandra; Hagmann, Patric; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Sporns, Olaf

    2014-10-05

    Graph theory has provided a key mathematical framework to analyse the architecture of human brain networks. This architecture embodies an inherently complex relationship between connection topology, the spatial arrangement of network elements, and the resulting network cost and functional performance. An exploration of these interacting factors and driving forces may reveal salient network features that are critically important for shaping and constraining the brain's topological organization and its evolvability. Several studies have pointed to an economic balance between network cost and network efficiency with networks organized in an 'economical' small-world favouring high communication efficiency at a low wiring cost. In this study, we define and explore a network morphospace in order to characterize different aspects of communication efficiency in human brain networks. Using a multi-objective evolutionary approach that approximates a Pareto-optimal set within the morphospace, we investigate the capacity of anatomical brain networks to evolve towards topologies that exhibit optimal information processing features while preserving network cost. This approach allows us to investigate network topologies that emerge under specific selection pressures, thus providing some insight into the selectional forces that may have shaped the network architecture of existing human brains.

  18. Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Brian F.; Robinson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing effort named HESTIA (Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement), led at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to promote a cross-subsystem approach to developing Mars-enabling technologies with the ultimate goal of integrated system optimization. HESTIA also aims to develop the infrastructure required to rapidly test these highly integrated systems at a low cost. The initial focus is on the common fluids architecture required to enable human exploration of mars, specifically between life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) subsystems. An overview of the advancements in both integrated technologies, in infrastructure, in simulation, and in modeling capabilities will be presented, as well as the results and findings of integrated testing,. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth), minimization of surface hardware and commodities is paramount. Hardware requirements can be minimized by reduction of equipment performing similar functions though for different subsystems. If hardware could be developed which meets the requirements of both life support and ISRU it could result in the reduction of primary hardware and/or reduction in spares. Minimization of commodities to the surface of mars can be achieved through the creation of higher efficiency systems producing little to no undesired waste, such as a closed-loop life support subsystem. Where complete efficiency is impossible or impractical, makeup commodities could be manufactured via ISRU. Although, utilization of ISRU products (oxygen and water) for crew consumption holds great promise of reducing demands on life support hardware, there exist concerns as to the purity and transportation of commodities. To date, ISRU has been focused on production rates and purities for

  19. Addressing Human System Risks to Future Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, W. H.; Francisco, D. R.; Davis, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is contemplating future human exploration missions to destinations beyond low Earth orbit, including the Moon, deep-space asteroids, and Mars. While we have learned much about protecting crew health and performance during orbital space flight over the past half-century, the challenges of these future missions far exceed those within our current experience base. To ensure success in these missions, we have developed a Human System Risk Board (HSRB) to identify, quantify, and develop mitigation plans for the extraordinary risks associated with each potential mission scenario. The HSRB comprises research, technology, and operations experts in medicine, physiology, psychology, human factors, radiation, toxicology, microbiology, pharmacology, and food sciences. Methods: Owing to the wide range of potential mission characteristics, we first identified the hazards to human health and performance common to all exploration missions: altered gravity, isolation/confinement, increased radiation, distance from Earth, and hostile/closed environment. Each hazard leads to a set of risks to crew health and/or performance. For example the radiation hazard leads to risks of acute radiation syndrome, central nervous system dysfunction, soft tissue degeneration, and carcinogenesis. Some of these risks (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) could affect crew health or performance during the mission, while others (e.g., carcinogenesis) would more likely affect the crewmember well after the mission ends. We next defined a set of design reference missions (DRM) that would span the range of exploration missions currently under consideration. In addition to standard (6-month) and long-duration (1-year) missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), these DRM include deep space sortie missions of 1 month duration, lunar orbital and landing missions of 1 year duration, deep space journey and asteroid landing missions of 1 year duration, and Mars orbital and landing missions of 3 years duration. We then

  20. ISRU in the Context of Future European Human Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. M.; Tomatis, C.

    2002-01-01

    ISRU or In-Situ Resource Utilisation is the use of Martian resources to manufacture, typically, life support consumables (e.g. water, oxygen, breathing buffer gases), and propellant for a return journey to Earth. European studies have shown that some 4kg of reaction mass must be launched to LEO to send 1kg payload to Mars orbit, with landing on the Mars surface reducing payload mass still further. This results in very high transportation costs to Mars, and still higher costs for returning payloads to Earth. There is therefore a major incentive to reduce payload mass for any form of Mars return mission (human or otherwise) by generating consumables on the surface. ESA through its GSTP programme has been investigating the system level design of a number of mission elements as potential European contributions to an international human Mars exploration mission intended for the 2020-2030 timeframe. One of these is an ISRU plant, a small chemical factory to convert feedstock brought from Earth (hydrogen), and Martian atmospheric gases (CO2 and trace quantities of nitrogen and argon) into methane and oxygen propellant for Earth return and life support consumables, in advance of the arrival of astronauts. ISRU technology has been the subject of much investigation around the world, but little detailed research or system level studies have been reported in Europe. Furthermore, the potential applicability of European expertise, technology and sub- system studies to Martian ISRU is not well quantified. Study work covered in this paper has compared existing designs (e.g. NASA's Design Reference Mission, DLR and Mars Society studies) with the latest ESA derived requirements for human Mars exploration, and has generated a system level ISRU design. This paper will review and quantify the baseline chemical reactions essential for ISRU, including CO2 collection and purification, Sabatier reduction of CO2 with hydrogen to methane and water, and electrolysis of water in the context of

  1. Integrated Framework for Understanding Relationship Between Human Error and Aviation Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锡东

    2009-01-01

    Introducing a framework for understanding the relationship between human error and aviation safety from mul-tiple perspectives and using multiple models. The first part of the framework is the perspective of individual operator using the information processing model. The second part is the group perspective with the Crew Re-source Management (CRM) model. The third and final is the organization perspective using Reason's Swiss cheese model. Each of the perspectives and models has been in existence for a long time, but the integrated framework presented allows a systematic understanding of the complex relationship between human error and aviation safety, along with the numerous factors that cause or influence error. The framework also allows the i-dentification of mitigation measures to systematically reduce human error and improve aviation safety.

  2. Poverty and the violation of human rights: a proposed conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The paper proposes a conceptual framework linking the causes of poverty with the causes of human rights violations. Both are presented as outcomes of a cascading chain of determinants grouped as immediate, underlying, and basic causes. The framework will make situation analyses focused on poverty and human rights better adjusted to the reality on the ground. It is also the first step in using the human rights-based approach, now an established methodology being used by a growing number of health and development practitioners and seen by the United Nations system as the way forward. The framework also provides guidance to communities in identifying, in a participatory way, causes of the problems that affect them. The framework is presented in a diagram format followed by a list of the major determinants in each causal level.

  3. Exploring the Split and Join Capabilities of a Robotic Collective Movement Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Navarro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The splitting and joining capabilities of a previously designed framework for the collective movement of mobile robots are studied. This framework is implemented in a distributed manner among the robots and allows scalability with increasing number of robots. It is expandable with new functionalities through the inclusion of new modules. Splitting functionality is created by including a new module, while joining does not need new structures. A total of 130 systematic experiments, grouped in six different sets, were undertaken to test the splitting and joining functions of the framework, yielding results in which robots behaved as expected. Four of the sets correspond to experiments in simulation using up to 40 robots. The remaining sets use eight real robots.

  4. Exploring Life Support Architectures for Evolution of Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Stambaugh, Imelda C.

    2015-01-01

    Life support system architectures for long duration space missions are often explored analytically in the human spaceflight community to find optimum solutions for mass, performance, and reliability. But in reality, many other constraints can guide the design when the life support system is examined within the context of an overall vehicle, as well as specific programmatic goals and needs. Between the end of the Constellation program and the development of the "Evolvable Mars Campaign", NASA explored a broad range of mission possibilities. Most of these missions will never be implemented but the lessons learned during these concept development phases may color and guide future analytical studies and eventual life support system architectures. This paper discusses several iterations of design studies from the life support system perspective to examine which requirements and assumptions, programmatic needs, or interfaces drive design. When doing early concept studies, many assumptions have to be made about technology and operations. Data can be pulled from a variety of sources depending on the study needs, including parametric models, historical data, new technologies, and even predictive analysis. In the end, assumptions must be made in the face of uncertainty. Some of these may introduce more risk as to whether the solution for the conceptual design study will still work when designs mature and data becomes available.

  5. Human age estimation framework using different facial parts

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Y. El Dib; Hoda M. Onsi

    2011-01-01

    Human age estimation from facial images has a wide range of real-world applications in human computer interaction (HCI). In this paper, we use the bio-inspired features (BIF) to analyze different facial parts: (a) eye wrinkles, (b) whole internal face (without forehead area) and (c) whole face (with forehead area) using different feature shape points. The analysis shows that eye wrinkles which cover 30% of the facial area contain the most important aging features compared to internal face and...

  6. Exploring Enterprise Systems and Management Control in the Information Society: Developing a Conceptual Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Rohde, Carsten; Rom, Anders

    Society is evolving from the industrial society towards the information society where information technology plays a crucial role. Few IT innovations have had as much impact on business organizations in the past years as Enterprise Systems (ES). These systems affect most functions...... between ES and management control. We describe the changes taking place in companies operating in the information society, describe and define management control and review existing research on the relationship between management control and enterprise systems. We criticize existing management control...... frameworks for not recognizing the significance of information, communication and risk control in today's operating environment. Finally, we propose a framework for viewing management control in the information society....

  7. SLS-Derived Lab: Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2014-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in work and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Robotic missions have successfully demonstrated transportation, entry, landing and surface operations but for human missions there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) are the unanswered questions concerning long-duration exploration beyond low-earth-orbit. The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside earth's protective geo-magnetic field they cannot be resolved on the earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at the relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 meter and 4.3 meter diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit Habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems, solutions are not obvious, and require integrated, iterative, and multi-disciplinary development. A lunar

  8. The Evolution of Mission Architectures for Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, S. F.

    1995-01-01

    Defining transportation architectures for the human exploration of the Moon is a complex task due to the multitude of mission scenarios available. The mission transportation architecture recently proposed for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) was not designed from carefully predetermined mission requirements and goals, but evolved from an initial set of requirements, which were continually modified as studies revealed that some early assumptions were not optimal. This paper focuses on the mission architectures proposed for FLO and investigates how these transportation architectures evolved. A comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the three distinct mission architectures are discussed, namely (1) Lunar Orbit Rendezvous, (2) staging from the Cislunar Libration Point, and (3) direct to the lunar surface. In addition, several new and revolutionary architectures are discussed.

  9. The Evolution of Mission Architectures for Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, S. F.

    1995-01-01

    Defining transportation architectures for the human exploration of the Moon is a complex task due to the multitude of mission scenarios available. The mission transportation architecture recently proposed for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) was not designed from carefully predetermined mission requirements and goals, but evolved from an initial set of requirements, which were continually modified as studies revealed that some early assumptions were not optimal. This paper focuses on the mission architectures proposed for FLO and investigates how these transportation architectures evolved. A comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the three distinct mission architectures are discussed, namely (1) Lunar Orbit Rendezvous, (2) staging from the Cislunar Libration Point, and (3) direct to the lunar surface. In addition, several new and revolutionary architectures are discussed.

  10. Developing Alternative Frameworks for Exploring Intercultural Learning: A Critique of Hofstede's Cultural Difference Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Paola; Wiesemes, Rolf; Murphy, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Hofstede's model of cultural difference has been used widely for exploring aspects of culture in educational settings. In this paper, we review Hofstede's model and explore some of its limitations, particularly in relation to the field of higher education. These limitations include an oversimplification of cultural differences, inconsistencies…

  11. Human Outer Solar System Exploration via Q-Thruster Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. Kent; White, Harold G.

    2014-01-01

    Propulsion technology development efforts at the NASA Johnson Space Center continue to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QThruster), a form of electric propulsion. Through the use of electric and magnetic fields, a Q-thruster pushes quantum particles (electrons/positrons) in one direction, while the Qthruster recoils to conserve momentum. This principle is similar to how a submarine uses its propeller to push water in one direction, while the submarine recoils to conserve momentum. Based on laboratory results, it appears that continuous specific thrust levels of 0.4 - 4.0 N/kWe are achievable with essentially no onboard propellant consumption. To evaluate the potential of this technology, a mission analysis tool was developed utilizing the Generalized Reduced Gradient non-linear parameter optimization engine contained in the Microsoft Excel® platform. This tool allowed very rapid assessments of "Q-Ship" minimum time transfers from earth to the outer planets and back utilizing parametric variations in thrust acceleration while enforcing constraints on planetary phase angles and minimum heliocentric distances. A conservative Q-Thruster specific thrust assumption (0.4 N/kWe) combined with "moderate" levels of space nuclear power (1 - 2 MWe) and vehicle specific mass (45 - 55 kg/kWe) results in continuous milli-g thrust acceleration, opening up realms of human spaceflight performance completely unattainable by any current systems or near-term proposed technologies. Minimum flight times to Mars are predicted to be as low as 75 days, but perhaps more importantly new "retro-phase" and "gravity-augmented" trajectory shaping techniques were revealed which overcome adverse planetary phasing and allow virtually unrestricted departure and return opportunities. Even more impressively, the Jovian and Saturnian systems would be opened up to human exploration with round-trip times of 21 and 32 months respectively including 6 to 12 months of

  12. A scenario framework to explore the future migration and adaptation in deltas: A multi-scale and participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Abiy S.; Nicholls, Robert J.; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Cazcarro, Ignacio; Fernandes, Jose A.; Hill, Chris T.; Hutton, Craig W.; Kay, Susan; Lawn, Jon; Lazar, Attila N.; Whitehead, Paul W.

    2017-04-01

    Coastal deltas are home for over 500 million people globally, and they have been identified as one of the most vulnerable coastal environments during the 21st century. They are susceptible to multiple climatic (e.g., sea-level rise, storm surges, change in temperature and precipitation) and socio-economic (e.g., human-induced subsidence, population and urbanisation changes, GDP growth) drivers of change. These drivers also operate at multiple scales, ranging from local to global and short- to long-term. This highlights the complex challenges deltas face in terms of both their long-term sustainability as well as the well-being of their residents and the health of ecosystems that support the livelihood of large (often very poor) population under uncertain changing conditions. A holistic understanding of these challenges and the potential impacts of future climate and socio-economic changes is central for devising robust adaptation policies. Scenario analysis has long been identified as a strategic management tool to explore future climate change and its impacts for supporting robust decision-making under uncertainty. This work presents the overall scenario framework, methodology, and processes adopted for the development of scenarios in the DECCMA* project. DECCMA is analysing the future of three deltas in South Asia and West Africa: (i) the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta (Bangladesh/India), (ii) the Mahanadi delta (India), and (iii) the Volta delta (Ghana). This includes comparisons between these three deltas. Hence, the scenario framework comprises a multi-scale hybrid approach, with six levels of scenario considerations: (i) global (climate change, e.g., sea-level rise, temperature change; and socio-economic assumptions, e.g., population and urbanisation changes, GDP growth); (ii) regional catchments (e.g., river flow modelling), (iii) regional seas (e.g., fisheries modelling), (iv) regional politics (e.g., transboundary disputes), (v) national (e.g., socio

  13. Linking the strategic importance of ICT with investment in business-ICT alignment: an explorative framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Cumps; S. Viaene; G. Dedene

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a framework that can be used by organizations as a positioning instrument to think of business-ICT alignment decisions in light of the strategic importance of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in their organization. We make a distinction between organizatio

  14. When the Mannequin Dies, Creation and Exploration of a Theoretical Framework Using a Mixed Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Shreepada; Miller, Karen H; Berkenbosch, John W; McKinley, Tara F; Boland, Kimberly A; Brown, Seth A; Calhoun, Aaron W

    2016-06-01

    Controversy exists in the simulation community as to the emotional and educational ramifications of mannequin death due to learner action or inaction. No theoretical framework to guide future investigations of learner actions currently exists. The purpose of our study was to generate a model of the learner experience of mannequin death using a mixed methods approach. The study consisted of an initial focus group phase composed of 11 learners who had previously experienced mannequin death due to action or inaction on the part of learners as defined by Leighton (Clin Simul Nurs. 2009;5(2):e59-e62). Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory to generate a list of relevant themes that were further organized into a theoretical framework. With the use of this framework, a survey was generated and distributed to additional learners who had experienced mannequin death due to action or inaction. Results were analyzed using a mixed methods approach. Forty-one clinicians completed the survey. A correlation was found between the emotional experience of mannequin death and degree of presession anxiety (P framework. Using the previous approach, we created a model of the effect of mannequin death on the educational and psychological state of learners. We offer the final model as a guide to future research regarding the learner experience of mannequin death.

  15. College Choice and the University Brand: Exploring the Consumer Decision Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Amber L.; Heckert, Alex; Yerger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Branding in higher education has become increasingly used as a mechanism of differentiation among competitors to attract prospective students. Although branding in higher education is a common phenomenon, little work has been done assessing the college selection process using a brand choice framework. This paper aims to fill the gap by…

  16. Teacher Stress and Pupil Behaviour Explored through a Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using the psychological framework of rational-emotive behaviour therapy, the principal aim of this study was to establish whether irrational beliefs, self-efficacy or pupil behaviour predicted teacher reports of stress. A secondary aim was to establish whether these variables, in addition to teachers' verbal feedback to pupils in class, predicted…

  17. Computational Thinking in High School Science Classrooms: Exploring the Science "Framework" and "NGSS"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneider, Cary; Stephenson, Chris; Schafer, Bruce; Flick, Larry

    2014-01-01

    A "Framework for K-12 Science Education" identified eight practices as "essential elements of the K-12 science and engineering curriculum" (NRC 2012, p. 49). Most of the practices, such as Developing and Using Models, Planning and Carrying Out Investigations, and Analyzing and Interpreting Data, are well known among science…

  18. College Choice and the University Brand: Exploring the Consumer Decision Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Amber L.; Heckert, Alex; Yerger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Branding in higher education has become increasingly used as a mechanism of differentiation among competitors to attract prospective students. Although branding in higher education is a common phenomenon, little work has been done assessing the college selection process using a brand choice framework. This paper aims to fill the gap by…

  19. Teacher Stress and Pupil Behaviour Explored through a Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using the psychological framework of rational-emotive behaviour therapy, the principal aim of this study was to establish whether irrational beliefs, self-efficacy or pupil behaviour predicted teacher reports of stress. A secondary aim was to establish whether these variables, in addition to teachers' verbal feedback to pupils in class, predicted…

  20. Human Space Exploration: The Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission in ways that promote leadership in space and economic expansion on the new frontier. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed, to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. The Vision commits NASA and the nation to an agenda of exploration that also includes robotic exploration and technology development, while building on lessons learned over 50 years of hard-won experience. Why the Moon? Many questions about the Moon's potential resources and how its history is linked to that of Earth were spurred by the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment for extended expeditions. The Moon also will serve as a training ground before embarking on the longer, more difficult trip to Mars. NASA plans to build a lunar outpost at one of the lunar poles, learn to live off the land, and reduce dePendence on Earth for longer missions. America needs to extend its ability to survive in hostile environments close to our home planet before astronauts will reach Mars, a planet very much like Earth. NASA has worked with scientists to define lunar exploration goals and is addressing the opportunities for a range of scientific study on Mars. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on common hardware, shared knowledge, and unique experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I

  1. Environmental effects of human exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell

    Aerospace engineers use the term Environment to designate a set of externally imposed bound-ary conditions under which a device must operate. Although the parameters may be time-varying, the engineer thinks of the operating environment as being fixed. Any effect the device might have on the environment generally is neglected. In the case where the device is intended to measure the environment, its effect on the measured quantities must be considered. For example, a magnetometer aboard a spacecraft must be extended on a boom to minimize the disturbing influence of the spacecraft on the magnetic field, particularly if the field is weak. In contrast, Environment has taken on political and even ethical connotations in modern Western society, referring to human-induced alterations to those aspects of the terrestrial environment that are required for a healthy and productive life. The so-called Green Movement takes preservation of the environment as its mantra. Scientists are at the center of the debate on environmental issues. However, the concern of scientists over irreversible consequences of hu-man activity extend beyond ecology to preservation of cultural artifacts and to effects that alter the ability to conduct investigations such as light pollution in astronomy. The policy of Planetary Protection applied to science and exploration missions to other bodies in the solar system arises from the concern for deleterious effects in terrestrial ecology from hypothetical extraterrestrial life forms as well as overprints of extraterrestrial environments by terrestrial biology. Some in the scientific community are advocating extension of the planetary protection concept beyond exobiology to include fragile planetary environments by might be permanently altered by human activity e.g., the lunar exosphere. Beyond the scientific community, some environmentalists argue against any changes to the Moon at all, including formation of new craters or the alteration of the natural

  2. Implementation of the international and regional human rights framework for the elimination of female genital mutilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, M.J.; Desiderio, Rene

    2014-01-01

    A human rights approach to FGM places the practice within a broader social justice agenda — one that emphasizes the responsibilities of governments to ensure realization of the full spectrum of women’s and girls’ rights. In order to place FGM within a human rights framework, it is critical to know m

  3. A Conceptual Framework over Contextual Analysis of Concept Learning within Human-Machine Interplays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    This research provides a contextual description concerning existential and structural analysis of ‘Relations’ between human beings and machines. Subsequently, it will focus on conceptual and epistemological analysis of (i) my own semantics-based framework [for human meaning construction] and of (...

  4. Understanding and Responding to Youth Substance Use: The Contribution of a Health and Human Rights Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Plafker, Karen; Smith-Estelle, Allison

    2001-01-01

    Describes a health and human rights framework for conceptualizing and responding to the causes and consequences of youth substance use, reviewing international and national efforts to address youth substance use and discussing the intersection between health and human rights. A methodology for modeling vulnerability in relation to harmful…

  5. A conceptual framework for the study of human ecosystems in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward T.A. Pickett; William R. Burch; Shawn E. Dalton; Timothy W. Foresman; J. Morgan Grove; Rowan. Rowntree

    1997-01-01

    The need for integrated concepts, capable of satisfying natural and social scientists and supporting integrated research, motivates a conceptual framework for understanding the role of humans in ecosystems. The question is how to add humans to the ecological models used to understand urban ecosystems. The ecosystem concept can serve as the basis, but specific social...

  6. The Relationship between Work Readiness Skills, Career Self-efficacy and Career Exploration among Engineering Graduates: A Proposed Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Iftikhar Makki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial revolution and globalization expect graduates to be skilled and equipped before getting into the workplace. However, engineering graduates often find it hard to explore their career due to their skill deficiencies, as well as low self-belief. In fact, the difficulties graduates face at the entry level of career negatively affects their level of confidence. The present study discusses several employability skill sets from existing studies and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates engineering graduates’ work readiness skills, career self-efficacy and career exploration. More specifically, the objective of this study is to conceptualize the interrelationship between work readiness skills, career self-efficacy and career exploration. Recommendations for future research are also proposed.

  7. A LARGE HUMAN CENTRIFUGE FOR EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack J.W.A. van Loon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses concepts regarding the development of an Altered Gravity Platform (AGP that will serve as a research platform for human space exploration. Space flight causes a multitude of physiological problems, many of which are due to gravity level transitions. Going from Earth's gravity to microgravity generates fluid shifts, space motion sickness, cardiovascular deconditioning among other changes, and returning to a gravity environment again puts the astronauts under similar stressors. A prolonged stay in microgravity provokes additional deleterious changes such as bone loss, muscle atrophy and loss of coordination or specific psychological stresses. To prepare for future manned space exploration missions, a ground-based research test bed for validating countermeasures against the deleterious effects of g-level transitions is needed. The proposed AGP is a large rotating facility (diameter > 150 m, where gravity levels ranging from 1.1 to 1.5g are generated, covering short episodes or during prolonged stays of weeks or even months. On this platform, facilities are built where a crew of 6 to 8 humans can live autonomously. Adaptation from 1 g to higher g levels can be studied extensively and monitored continuously. Similarly, re-adaptation back to 1 g, after a prolonged period of altered g can also be investigated. Study of the physiological and psychological adaptation to changing g-levels will provide instrumental and predictive knowledge to better define the ultimate countermeasures that are needed for future successful manned space exploration missions to the Moon, Mars and elsewhere. The AGP initiative will allow scientific top experts in Europe and worldwide to investigate the necessary scientific, operational, and engineering inputs required for such space missions. Because so many different physiological systems are involved in adaptation to gravity levels, a multidisciplinary approach is crucial. One of the final and crucial

  8. Microbial Impact on Success of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Groves, T. O.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify microbiological risks associated with space exploration and identify potential countermeasures available. Identification of microbial risks associated with space habitation requires knowledge of the sources and expected types of microbial agents. Crew data along with environmental data from water, surfaces, air, and free condensate are utilized in risk examination. Data from terrestrial models are also used. Microbial risks to crew health include bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Adverse effects of microbes include: infections, allergic reactions, toxin production, release of volatiles, food spoilage, plant disease, material degradation, and environmental contamination. Risk is difficult to assess because of unknown potential changes in microbes (e.g., mutation) and the human host (e.g., immune changes). Prevention of adverse microbial impacts is preferred over remediation. Preventative measures include engineering measures (e.g., air filtration), crew microbial screening, acceptability standards, and active verification by onboard monitoring. Microbiological agents are important risks to human health and performance during space flight and risks increase with mission duration. Acceptable risk level must be defined. Prevention must be given high priority. Careful screening of crewmembers and payloads is an important element of any risk mitigation plan. Improved quantitation of microbiological risks is a high priority.

  9. Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration: Conclusions from Four Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya L. Le Blanc; John O' Hara; Jeffrey C. Joe; April M. Whaley; Heather Medema

    2013-11-01

    The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) research project is investigating how advanced technologies that are planned for Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMR) will affect the performance and the reliability of the plant from a human factors and human performance perspective. The HAC research effort investigates the consequences of allocating functions between the operators and automated systems. More specifically, the research team is addressing how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. Oxstrand et al. (2013 - March) describes the efforts conducted by the researchers to identify the research needs for HAC. The research team reviewed the literature on HAC, developed a model of HAC, and identified gaps in the existing knowledge of human-automation collaboration. As described in Oxstrand et al. (2013 – June), the team then prioritized the research topics identified based on the specific needs in the context of AdvSMR. The prioritization was based on two sources of input: 1) The preliminary functions and tasks, and 2) The model of HAC. As a result, three analytical studies were planned and conduced; 1) Models of Teamwork, 2) Standardized HAC Performance Measurement Battery, and 3) Initiators and Triggering Conditions for Adaptive Automation. Additionally, one field study was also conducted at Idaho Falls Power.

  10. Integrating Human Factors into Crew Exploration Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Campbell, paul

    2007-01-01

    With NASA's new Vision for Exploration to send humans beyond Earth orbit, it is critical to consider the human as a system that demands early and continuous user involvement, and an iterative prototype/test/redesign process. Addressing human-system interface issues early on can be very cost effective even cost reducing when performed early in the design and development cycle. To achieve this goal within Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Project Office, human engineering (HE) team is formed. Key tasks are to apply HE requirements and guidelines to hardware/software, and provide HE design, analysis and evaluation of crew interfaces. Initial activities included many practice-orientated evaluations using low-fidelity CEV mock-ups. What follows is a description of such evaluations that focused on a HE requirement regarding Net Habitable Volume (NHV). NHV is defined as the total remaining pressurized volume available to on-orbit crew after accounting for the loss of volume due to deployed hardware and structural inefficiencies which decrease functional volume. The goal of the NHV evaluations was to develop requirements providing sufficient CEV NHV for crewmembers to live and perform tasks in support of mission goals. Efforts included development of a standard NHV calculation method using computer models and physical mockups, and crew/ stakeholder evaluations. Nine stakeholders and ten crewmembers participated in the unsuited evaluations. Six crewmembers also participated in a suited evaluation. The mock-up was outfitted with volumetric representation of sub-systems such as seats, and stowage bags. Thirteen scenarios were developed to represent mission/crew tasks and considered to be primary volume drivers (e.g., suit donning) for the CEV. Unsuited evaluations included a structured walkthrough of these tasks. Suited evaluations included timed donning of the existing launch and entry suit to simulate a contingency scenario followed by doffing/ stowing of the suits. All mockup

  11. Validation of a Culturally Appropriate Social Capital Framework to Explore Health Conditions in Canadian First Nations Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Elias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An earlier study of our research group formulated a conceptual framework of social capital for First Nation communities and developed a culturally appropriate instrument for its measurement. We tested this instrument further with the Manitoba (Canada First Nations Regional Health Survey, 2003. Using data from this survey, we investigated the bonding dimension of the social capital conceptual framework, with a total sample of 2,765 First Nations individuals living in 24 Manitoba First Nations communities. Twenty seven Likert-scale survey questions measured aspects of bonding social capital, socially-invested resources, ethos,and networks. Validation analyses included an evaluation of internal consistency, factor analyses to explore how well the items clustered together into the components of the social capital framework, and the ability of the items to discriminate across the communities represented in the sample. Cronbach’s Alpha was computed on the 27 scale items, producing an Alpha of 0.84 indicating high internal consistency. The factor analyses produced five distinct factors with a total explained variance of 54.3%. Lastly, a one-way analysis of variancerun by community produced highly significant F-ratios between the groups on all twenty-seven bonding items. The culturally-sensitive items included in the social capital framework were found to be an appropriate tool to measure bonding aspects among Manitoba First Nations communities. Research and policy implications are discussed.

  12. Exploring synergies between human rights and public health ethics: A whole greater than the sum of its parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fields of human rights and public health ethics are each concerned with promoting health and elucidating norms for action. To date, however, little has been written about the contribution that these two justificatory frameworks can make together. This article explores how a combined approach may make a more comprehensive contribution to resolving normative health issues and to advancing a normative framework for global health action than either approach made alone. We explore this synergy by first providing overviews of public health ethics and of international human rights law relevant to health and, second, by articulating complementarities between human rights and public health ethics. Discussion We argue that public health ethics can contribute to human rights by: (a reinforcing the normative claims of international human rights law, (b strengthening advocacy for human rights, and (c bridging the divide between public health practitioners and human rights advocates in certain contemporary health domains. We then discuss how human rights can contribute to public health ethics by contributing to discourses on the determinants of health through: (a definitions of the right to health and the notion of the indivisibility of rights, (b emphasis on the duties of states to progressively realize the health of citizens, and (c recognition of the protection of human rights as itself a determinant of health. We also discuss the role that human rights can play for the emergent field of public health ethics by refocusing attention on the health and illness on marginalized individuals and populations. Summary Actors within the fields of public health, ethics and human rights can gain analytic tools by embracing the untapped potential for collaboration inherent in such a combined approach.

  13. The power problematic: exploring the uncertain terrains of political ecology and the resilience framework

    OpenAIRE

    Micah L. Ingalls; Richard C Stedman

    2016-01-01

    Significant and growing concerns relating to global social and environmental conditions and processes have raised deep questions relating to the ability of traditional governance regimes to manage for the complexities of social-ecological systems. The resilience framework provides a more dynamic approach to system analysis and management, emphasizing nonlinearity, feedbacks, and multiscalar engagement along the social-ecological nexus. In recent years, however, a number of scholars and practi...

  14. Exploring new frontiers in statistical physics with a new, parallel Wang-Landau framework

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Thomas; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2013-01-01

    Combining traditional Wang-Landau sampling for multiple replica systems with an exchange of densities of states between replicas, we describe a general framework for simulations on massively parallel Petaflop supercomputers. The advantages and general applicability of the method for simulations of complex systems are demonstrated for the classical 2D Potts spin model featuring a strong first-order transition and the self-assembly of lipid bilayers in amphiphilic solutions in a continuous model.

  15. Exploring new frontiers in statistical physics with a new, parallel Wang-Landau framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P.

    2014-03-01

    Combining traditional Wang-Landau sampling for multiple replica systems with an exchange of densities of states between replicas, we describe a general framework for simulations on massively parallel Petaflop supercomputers. The advantages and general applicability of the method for simulations of complex systems are demonstrated for the classical 2D Potts spin model featuring a strong first-order transition and the self-assembly of lipid bilayers in amphiphilic solutions in a continuous model.

  16. Exploring new frontiers in statistical physics with a new, parallel Wang-Landau framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Thomas [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Li, Ying Wai [ORNL; Wuest, Thomas [Swiss Federal Research Institute, Switzerland; Landau, David P [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2014-01-01

    Combining traditional Wang Landau sampling for multiple replica systems with an exchange of densities of states between replicas we describe a general framework for simulations on massively parallel Petaflop supercomputers. The advantages and general applicability of the method for simulations of complex systems are demonstrated for the classical 2D Potts spin model featuring a strong first-order transition and the self-assembly of lipid bilayers in amphiphilic solutions in a continuous model.

  17. Exploring the Framework Hydrophobicity and Flexibility of ZIF-8: From Biofuel Recovery to Hydrocarbon Separations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ke

    2013-11-07

    The framework hydrophobicity and flexibility of ZIF-8 are investigated by a detailed adsorption and diffusion study of a series of probe molecules including ethanol, 1-butanol, water, hexane isomers, xylene isomers, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. The prospects for using ZIF-8 in biofuel recovery and hydrocarbon separations are discussed in terms of adsorption or kinetic selectivities. ZIF-8 shows extremely low water vapor uptakes and is especially suitable for vapor phase butanol-based biofuel recovery. The extraordinary framework flexibility of ZIF-8 is demonstrated by the adsorption of hydrocarbon molecules that are much larger than its nominal pore size, such as m-xylene, o-xylene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. The calculation of corrected diffusion coefficients reveals an interesting spectrum of promising kinetic hydrocarbon separations by ZIF-8. These findings confirm that a molecular sieving effect tends to occur in the sorbate molecular size range of 4-6 Å rather than around the nominal ZIF-8 pore size of 3.4 Å, due to its surprising framework flexibility. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Human age estimation framework using different facial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y. El Dib

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human age estimation from facial images has a wide range of real-world applications in human computer interaction (HCI. In this paper, we use the bio-inspired features (BIF to analyze different facial parts: (a eye wrinkles, (b whole internal face (without forehead area and (c whole face (with forehead area using different feature shape points. The analysis shows that eye wrinkles which cover 30% of the facial area contain the most important aging features compared to internal face and whole face. Furthermore, more extensive experiments are made on FG-NET database by increasing the number of missing pictures in older age groups using MORPH database to enhance the results.

  19. SLS-Derived Lab- Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand M.; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in the works and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Transportation, entry, landing, and surface operations have been successfully demonstrated for robotic missions. However, for human missions, there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), are the unanswered questions concerning long duration exploration Beyond low Earth Orbit (BEO). The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside of earth's protective geo-magnetic field, they cannot be resolved on Earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at a relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 m and 4.3 m diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems. The solutions to these problems are not obvious; they require integrated, iterative

  20. Human Space Exploration and Human Space Flight: Latency and the Cognitive Scale of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Dan; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    The role of telerobotics in space exploration as placing human cognition on other worlds is limited almost entirely by the speed of light, and the consequent communications latency that results from large distances. This latency is the time delay between the human brain at one end, and the telerobotic effector and sensor at the other end. While telerobotics and virtual presence is a technology that is rapidly becoming more sophisticated, with strong commercial interest on the Earth, this time delay, along with the neurological timescale of a human being, quantitatively defines the cognitive horizon for any locale in space. That is, how distant can an operator be from a robot and not be significantly impacted by latency? We explore that cognitive timescale of the universe, and consider the implications for telerobotics, human space flight, and participation by larger numbers of people in space exploration. We conclude that, with advanced telepresence, sophisticated robots could be operated with high cognition throughout a lunar hemisphere by astronauts within a station at an Earth-Moon Ll or L2 venue. Likewise, complex telerobotic servicing of satellites in geosynchronous orbit can be carried out from suitable terrestrial stations.

  1. Exploring cost-benefit analysis of research, development and innovation infrastructures: an evaluation framework

    CERN Document Server

    Florio, Massimo; Pancotti, Chiara; Sirtori, Emanuela; Vignetti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results and the lessons learned on how to apply ex-ante CBQ for major RDI infrastructures by a team of economists and scientists at the University of Milan and CSIL during a three-year research project supported by a EIBURS grant of the European Investment Bank Institute. Albeit the comprehensive conceptual framework presented in the paper builds on principles firmly rooted in CBA tradition, their application to the RDI sector is still in its infancy. So far, the model has been applied on two cases in physics involving particle accelerators (the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN and the National Centre for Oncological Treatment, CNAO, in Italy).

  2. Visual exploration and analysis of human-robot interaction rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Boyles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel interaction paradigm for the visual exploration, manipulation and analysis of human-robot interaction (HRI) rules; our development is implemented using a visual programming interface and exploits key techniques drawn from both information visualization and visual data mining to facilitate the interaction design and knowledge discovery process. HRI is often concerned with manipulations of multi-modal signals, events, and commands that form various kinds of interaction rules. Depicting, manipulating and sharing such design-level information is a compelling challenge. Furthermore, the closed loop between HRI programming and knowledge discovery from empirical data is a relatively long cycle. This, in turn, makes design-level verification nearly impossible to perform in an earlier phase. In our work, we exploit a drag-and-drop user interface and visual languages to support depicting responsive behaviors from social participants when they interact with their partners. For our principal test case of gaze-contingent HRI interfaces, this permits us to program and debug the robots' responsive behaviors through a graphical data-flow chart editor. We exploit additional program manipulation interfaces to provide still further improvement to our programming experience: by simulating the interaction dynamics between a human and a robot behavior model, we allow the researchers to generate, trace and study the perception-action dynamics with a social interaction simulation to verify and refine their designs. Finally, we extend our visual manipulation environment with a visual data-mining tool that allows the user to investigate interesting phenomena such as joint attention and sequential behavioral patterns from multiple multi-modal data streams. We have created instances of HRI interfaces to evaluate and refine our development paradigm. As far as we are aware, this paper reports the first program manipulation paradigm that integrates visual programming

  3. Exploring the impact of climate on human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Arai, Yasumichi; Willcox, D Craig; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of physical geographic factors and climate conditions on human longevity. The centenarian rate (CR) in 2005 was computed for Japan's 47 prefectures, whose geography and climate vary greatly. Several pathways, such as excess winter mortality, land use and agricultural production, possibly linking physical and climate factors with extreme longevity, were explored. The probability of becoming a centenarian varies significantly among the Japanese prefectures. In particular, the computation of CR(70) demonstrated that the actual probability for individuals 70 years old in 1975 of becoming centenarians in 2005 was 3 times higher, on average, in Okinawa, both for males and females, than in Japan as a whole. About three quarters of the variance in CR(70) for females and half for males is explained by the physical environment and land use, even when variations in the level of socio-economic status between prefectures are controlled. Our analysis highlighted two features which might have played an important role in the longevity observed in Okinawa. First, there is virtually no winter in Okinawa. For instance, the mean winter temperature observed in 2005 was 17.2°C. Second, today, there is almost no rice production in Okinawa compared to other parts of Japan. In the past, however, production was higher in Okinawa. If we consider that long term effects of harsh winters can contribute to the mortality differential in old age and if we consider that food availability in the first part of the 20th century was mainly dependent on local production, early 20th century birth cohorts in Okinawa clearly had different experiences in terms of winter conditions and in terms of food availability compared to their counterparts in other parts of Japan. This work confirms the impact of climate conditions on human longevity, but it fails to demonstrate a strong association between longevity and mountainous regions and/or air quality.

  4. Quality of IT service delivery — Analysis and framework for human error prevention

    KAUST Repository

    Shwartz, L.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of reducing the occurrence of Human Errors that cause service interruptions in IT Service Support and Delivery operations. Analysis of a large volume of service interruption records revealed that more than 21% of interruptions were caused by human error. We focus on Change Management, the process with the largest risk of human error, and identify the main instances of human errors as the 4 Wrongs: request, time, configuration item, and command. Analysis of change records revealed that the humanerror prevention by partial automation is highly relevant. We propose the HEP Framework, a framework for execution of IT Service Delivery operations that reduces human error by addressing the 4 Wrongs using content integration, contextualization of operation patterns, partial automation of command execution, and controlled access to resources.

  5. Exploring Formative Assessment in Primary School Classrooms: Developing a Framework of Actions and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Panayiotis; James, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The importance of formative assessment in facilitating student learning has been well established in the literature. However, defining and implementing formative assessment in classroom settings is a rather complicated task. The aim of this study is to explore formative assessment, as implemented in primary classrooms in Cyprus, and develop a…

  6. Americans Create Hybrid Spaces in Costa Rica: A Framework for Exploring Cultural and Linguistic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the ways in which English-speaking immigrants negotiate new linguistic and cultural landscapes. I examine immigration and intercultural communication in a more complex and nuanced manner by researching the ways in which expatriates or "high-end" immigrants relocate and interact with host cultures. I conducted 11 months of…

  7. Evaluation of Human and AutomationRobotics Integration Needs for Future Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Adelstein, Bernard D.; Ellis, Stephen; Chang, Mai Lee; Howard, Robert

    2016-01-01

    NASA employs Design Reference Missions (DRMs) to define potential architectures for future human exploration missions to deep space, the Moon, and Mars. While DRMs to these destinations share some components, each mission has different needs. This paper focuses on the human and automation/robotic integration needs for these future missions, evaluating them with respect to NASA research gaps in the area of space human factors engineering. The outcomes of our assessment is a human and automation/robotic (HAR) task list for each of the four DRMs that we reviewed (i.e., Deep Space Sortie, Lunar Visit/Habitation, Deep Space Habitation, and Planetary), a list of common critical HAR factors that drive HAR design.

  8. Measuring the way forward in Haiti: grounding disaster relief in the legal framework of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasing, Amanda M; Moses, P Scott; Satterthwaite, Margaret L

    2011-07-14

    This article provides results from an online survey of humanitarian workers and volunteers that was conducted in May and June 2010. The purpose of the survey was to understand how the humanitarian aid system adopts or incorporates human rights into its post-natural disaster work and metrics. Data collected from Haiti suggest that humanitarians have embraced a rights-based approach but that they do not agree about how this is defined or about what standards and indicators can be considered rights-based. This disagreement may reveal that humanitarians are aware of a mismatch between the rights-based approach to post-disaster humanitarian work and the legal framework of human rights. Using participation and accountability as examples, this article identifies and examines this mismatch and suggests that the humanitarian aid system should more fully embrace engagement with the human rights framework. To do so, the article concludes, humanitarian actors and the human rights community should have an open dialogue about the development of metrics that accurately reflect and monitor adherence to the legal framework of human rights. This would allow the humanitarian aid system to ensure its interventions enhance the capacity of the disaster-affected state to fulfill its human rights obligations, and would allow humanitarian and human rights actors alike to measure the impact of such interventions on the realization of human rights in post-natural disaster settings.

  9. Incremental Scheduling Engines for Human Exploration of the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  10. Towards a complete description of grasping kinematics: a framework for quantifying human grasping and manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiushi; Santello, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for tracking both human hand kinematics and object contour during grasping task. The framework is based on modeling the object as point cloud and the use of marker-based tracking. We introduce how to estimate contact sites on both the hand and object, hand enclosing space, and graspable features from recorded data. Two experiments were performed to 1) verify the accuracy of contact site estimation (less than 5 mm), and 2) validate the feature extraction. Our approach can provide significant insight into how humans plan grasping and manipulation based on object recognition.

  11. Modeling Regional Dynamics of Human-Rangifer Systems: a Framework for Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Berman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical models of interaction between wild and domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus; caribou in North America can help explain observed social-ecological dynamics of arctic hunting and husbandry systems. Different modes of hunting and husbandry incorporate strategies to mitigate effects of differing patterns of environmental uncertainty. Simulations of simple models of harvested wild and domestic herds with density-dependent recruitment show that random environmental variation produces cycles and crashes in populations that would quickly stabilize at a steady state with nonrandom parameters. Different husbandry goals lead to radically different long-term domestic herd sizes. Wild and domestic herds are typically ecological competitors but social complements. Hypothesized differences in ecological competition and diverse human livelihoods are explored in dynamic social-ecological models in which domestic herds competitively interact with wild herds. These models generate a framework for considering issues in the evolution of Human-Rangifer Systems, such as state-subsidized herding and the use of domestic herds for transportation support in hunting systems. Issues considered include the role of geographic factors, markets for Rangifer products, state-subsidized herding, effects of changes in husbandry goals on fate of wild herds, and how environmental shocks, herd population cycles, and policy shifts might lead to system state changes. The models also suggest speculation on the role of geographic factors in the failure of reindeer husbandry to take hold in the North American Arctic. The analysis concludes with suggested empirical strategies for estimating parameters of the model for use in comparative studies across regions of the Arctic.

  12. A mars communication constellation for human exploration and network science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Francesco; Simonetto, Andrea; Martini, Roberto; Lavagna, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of exploiting a small spacecrafts constellation around Mars to ensure a complete and continuous coverage of the planet, for the purpose of supporting future human and robotic operations and taking advantage of optical transmission techniques. The study foresees such a communications mission to be implemented at least after 2020 and a high data-rate requirement is imposed for the return of huge scientific data from massive robotic exploration or to allow video transmissions from a possible human outpost. In addition, the set-up of a communication constellation around Mars would give the opportunity of exploiting this multi-platform infrastructure to perform network science, that would largely increase our knowledge of the planet. The paper covers all technical aspects of a feasibility study performed for the primary communications mission. Results are presented for the system trade-offs, including communication architecture, constellation configuration and transfer strategy, and the mission analysis optimization, performed through the application of a multi-objective genetic algorithm to two models of increasing difficulty for the low-thrust trajectory definition. The resulting communication architecture is quite complex and includes six 530 kg spacecrafts on two different orbital planes, plus one redundant unit per plane, that ensure complete coverage of the planet’s surface; communications between the satellites and Earth are achieved through optical links, that allow lower mass and power consumption with respect to traditional radio-frequency technology, while inter-satellite links and spacecrafts-to-Mars connections are ensured by radio transmissions. The resulting data-rates for Earth-Mars uplink and downlink, satellite-to-satellite and satellite-to-surface are respectively 13.7 Mbps, 10.2 Mbps, 4.8 Mbps and 4.3 Mbps, in worst-case. Two electric propulsion modules are foreseen, to be placed on a C3˜0 escape orbit with two

  13. Proposing a Universal Framework for Resilience: Optimizing Risk and Combating Human Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arunima

    2017-04-01

    In the recent years we have seen a massive impact of loss created to urban settlements and critical infrastructure as a result of disasters. The disaster risk associates itself vulnerabilities and many complexities which can disrupt the functioning of human society. The uncertain loss created by disasters can present unforeseeable risk which remain unaccounted to human understanding. It is imperative to note that human urbanization and development is correlated with human vulnerabilities and challenges posed by disasters. Disaster risks are aggravated by improper planning of cities, weak framework for urban governance and regulatory regimes and lack of equalities amongst the citizens. The international agenda on disaster risk reduction talks about increasing losses due to disasters associated with development and urbanization. The United Nations announced that the year 1990 was the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. In relation to this, the "Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action" was adopted at the first United Nations World Conference on Disaster Reduction. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission coordinated the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in 2005 where the Hyogo Framework for Action was adopted. The Hyogo Framework for Action: Building the resilience of communities to disaster was adopted by 168 nations after the massive loss caused by Indian ocean tsunami in 2005. The Hyogo Framework proposes to focus on implementation of risk and reliability system to shield disasters, proposes global scientific and community platform for disaster prevention and mitigation etc. The early warning system and its importance as an effective tool for reduction of human vulnerabilities for disaster management was majorly emphasized. It is imperative to highlight that resilience framework is important in order to minimize cost of disruption caused to critical infrastructure and to

  14. Comparative Human Health Impact Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials in the Framework of Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransman, Wouter; Buist, Harrie; Kuijpers, Eelco; Walser, Tobias; Meyer, David; Zondervan-van den Beuken, Esther; Westerhout, Joost; Klein Entink, Rinke H; Brouwer, Derk H

    2017-07-01

    For safe innovation, knowledge on potential human health impacts is essential. Ideally, these impacts are considered within a larger life-cycle-based context to support sustainable development of new applications and products. A methodological framework that accounts for human health impacts caused by inhalation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in an indoor air environment has been previously developed. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) evaluate the feasibility of applying the CF framework for NP exposure in the workplace based on currently available data; and (ii) supplement any resulting knowledge gaps with methods and data from the life cycle approach and human risk assessment (LICARA) project to develop a modified case-specific version of the framework that will enable near-term inclusion of NP human health impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study involving nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2 ). The intent is to enhance typical LCA with elements of regulatory risk assessment, including its more detailed measure of uncertainty. The proof-of-principle demonstration of the framework highlighted the lack of available data for both the workplace emissions and human health effects of ENMs that is needed to calculate generalizable characterization factors using common human health impact assessment practices in LCA. The alternative approach of using intake fractions derived from workplace air concentration measurements and effect factors based on best-available toxicity data supported the current case-by-case approach for assessing the human health life cycle impacts of ENMs. Ultimately, the proposed framework and calculations demonstrate the potential utility of integrating elements of risk assessment with LCA for ENMs once the data are available. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. BigExcel : a web-based framework for exploring big data in Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This research was pursued through an Amazon Web Services Education Research Grant. The first author was the recipient of an Erasmus Mundus scholarship. This paper argues that there are three fundamental challenges that need to be overcome in order to foster the adoption of big data technologies in non-computer science related disciplines: addressing issues of accessibility of such technologies for non-computer scientists, supporting the ad hoc exploration of large data sets with minimal ef...

  16. Exploring Horizon 2020: opportunities for CERN under the new EU Framework Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Agnes Szeberenyi

    2014-01-01

    December marked the end of the EU Framework Programme 7 (FP7), which ran between 2007 and 2013. During these seven years, CERN's involvement was very fruitful. The Organization participated in 87 EU projects - out of which CERN was the coordinating institute for 36 projects - with a corresponding European Commission (EC) funding of more than €110 million. This ranked CERN in the top 50 out of more than 15,000 FP7 participants.   CERN's involvement in FP7 projects. CERN was primarily involved in the FP7 pillars: Research Infrastructures (14 projects), e-Infrastructures (20 projects), Marie Curie actions (28 projects) and ERC grants (9 projects). In terms of proposal success rate and received EU funding, CERN's involvement in the Marie Curie actions programme was the most successful. Half of the total EC funding received at CERN was obtained through Marie Curie actions to train and improve the mobility of scientists and engineers at different stages of their ca...

  17. Mass spectra-based framework for automated structural elucidation of metabolome data to explore phytochemical diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio eMatsuda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel framework for automated elucidation of metabolite structures in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS metabolome data was constructed by integrating databases. High-resolution tandem mass spectra data automatically acquired from each metabolite signal were used for database searches. Three distinct databases, KNApSAcK, ReSpect, and the PRIMe standard compound database, were employed for the structural elucidation. The outputs were retrieved using the CAS metabolite identifier for identification and putative annotation. A simple metabolite ontology system was also introduced to attain putative characterization of the metabolite signals. The automated method was applied for the metabolome data sets obtained from the rosette leaves of 20 Arabidopsis accessions. Phenotypic variations in novel Arabidopsis metabolites among these accessions could be investigated using this method.

  18. A Brief Exploration on the Frameworks for Sorting Naxi Dongba Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jiehong

    2015-01-01

    Dongba literature refers to those documents recorded in Naxi pictographs or Dongba characters, including Dongba religious scriptures and folk or secular literature ( such as land con-tracts, accounting books, letters, or songbooks, etc.) .In looking at the past one hundred years'of history of collating Dongba literature, we can say that there are considerable achievements.However, there are also a lot of regrets.These regrets have a causal relation with the research framework formed within specific historical conditions. Speaking more specifically, the two orientations, “histori-cal” and “literary”, have had a deep impact on sorting Dongba literature.A review or reflection on these two research orientations will be beneficial for sorting Dongba literature in a more scientific and reasonable manner.Moreover, it will also pro-vide a good reference for sorting the ancient litera-ture of other ethnic groups.

  19. Salty or Sweet: Exploring the Challenges of Groundwater Salinization Within a Sustainability Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.; Tate, E.

    2012-12-01

    In semi-arid to arid landscapes under intensive irrigation, groundwater salinization can be a persistent and critical problem, leading to reduced agricultural productivity, limited access to fresh drinking water, and ultimately desertification. It is estimated that in India alone, problems of salinity are now affecting over 6 million hectares of agricultural land. In villages of the Mewat district of Haryana in Northern India, subsistence-level farming is the primary source of income, and farming families live under serious threat from increasing salinity levels, both in terms of crop production and adequate supplies of drinking water. The Institute for Rural Research and Development (IRRAD), a non-governmental organization (NGO) working in Mewat, has taken an innovative approach in this area to problems of groundwater salinization, using check dams and rainwater harvesting ponds to recharge aquifers in the freshwater zones of upstream hill areas, and to create freshwater pockets within the saline groundwater zones of down-gradient areas. Initial, pilot-scale efforts have led to apparent success in raising groundwater levels in freshwater zones and changing the dynamics of encroaching groundwater salinity, but the expansion of such efforts to larger-scale restoration is constrained by the availability of adequate resources. Under such resource constraints, which are typical of international development work, it becomes critical to utilize a decision-analysis framework to quantify both the immediate and long-term effectiveness and sustainability of interventions by NGOs such as IRRAD. In the present study, we have developed such a framework, linking the climate-hydrological dynamics of monsoon driven systems with village-scale socio-economic attributes to evaluate the sustainability of current restoration efforts and to prioritize future areas for intervention. We utilize a multi-dimensional metric that takes into account both physical factors related to water

  20. DescribeX: A Framework for Exploring and Querying XML Web Collections

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzolo, Flavio

    2008-01-01

    This thesis introduces DescribeX, a powerful framework that is capable of describing arbitrarily complex XML summaries of web collections, providing support for more efficient evaluation of XPath workloads. DescribeX permits the declarative description of document structure using all axes and language constructs in XPath, and generalizes many of the XML indexing and summarization approaches in the literature. DescribeX supports the construction of heterogeneous summaries where different document elements sharing a common structure can be declaratively defined and refined by means of path regular expressions on axes, or axis path regular expression (AxPREs). DescribeX can significantly help in the understanding of both the structure of complex, heterogeneous XML collections and the behaviour of XPath queries evaluated on them. Experimental results demonstrate the scalability of DescribeX summary refinements and stabilizations (the key enablers for tailoring summaries) with multi-gigabyte web collections. A com...

  1. Exploring behavioural determinants relating to health professional reporting of medication errors: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqubaisi, Mai; Tonna, Antonella; Strath, Alison; Stewart, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Effective and efficient medication reporting processes are essential in promoting patient safety. Few qualitative studies have explored reporting of medication errors by health professionals, and none have made reference to behavioural theories. The objective was to describe and understand the behavioural determinants of health professional reporting of medication errors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This was a qualitative study comprising face-to-face, semi-structured interviews within three major medical/surgical hospitals of Abu Dhabi, the UAE. Health professionals were sampled purposively in strata of profession and years of experience. The semi-structured interview schedule focused on behavioural determinants around medication error reporting, facilitators, barriers and experiences. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF; a framework of theories of behaviour change) was used as a coding framework. Ethical approval was obtained from a UK university and all participating hospital ethics committees. Data saturation was achieved after interviewing ten nurses, ten pharmacists and nine physicians. Whilst it appeared that patient safety and organisational improvement goals and intentions were behavioural determinants which facilitated reporting, there were key determinants which deterred reporting. These included the beliefs of the consequences of reporting (lack of any feedback following reporting and impacting professional reputation, relationships and career progression), emotions (fear and worry) and issues related to the environmental context (time taken to report). These key behavioural determinants which negatively impact error reporting can facilitate the development of an intervention, centring on organisational safety and reporting culture, to enhance reporting effectiveness and efficiency.

  2. 78 FR 20696 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Research... and fact-finding with respect to the research activities within the Human Exploration and Operations... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Research Subcommittee of the Human...

  3. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 2: A Cognitive Framework to Support HRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    This is the second of two papers that discuss the literature review conducted as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) effort to develop a hybrid human reliability analysis (HRA) method in response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020. This review was conducted with the goal of strengthening the technical basis within psychology, cognitive science and human factors for the hybrid HRA method being proposed. An overview of the literature review approach and high-level structure is provided in the first paper, whereas this paper presents the results of the review. The psychological literature review encompassed research spanning the entirety of human cognition and performance, and consequently produced an extensive list of psychological processes, mechanisms, and factors that contribute to human performance. To make sense of this large amount of information, the results of the literature review were organized into a cognitive framework that identifies causes of failure of macrocognition in humans, and connects those proximate causes to psychological mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that can lead to the failure. This cognitive framework can serve as a tool to inform HRA. Beyond this, however, the cognitive framework has the potential to also support addressing human performance issues identified in Human Factors applications.

  4. Impacts of Launch Vehicle Fairing Size on Human Exploration Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon; Collins, Tim; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Polsgrove, Tara

    2017-01-01

    presents the results of the analyses performed, the potential changes to mission architectures and campaigns that result, and the general trends that are more broadly applicable to any element design or mission planning for human exploration.

  5. Global health rights: Employing human rights to develop and implement the Framework Convention on Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Lance; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2013-06-14

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) represents an important idea for addressing the expanding array of governance challenges in global health. Proponents of the FCGH suggest that it could further the right to health through its incorporation of rights into national laws and policies, using litigation and community empowerment to advance rights claims and prominently establish the right to health as central to global health governance. Building on efforts to expand development and influence of the right to health through the implementation of the FCGH, in this article we find that human rights correspondingly holds promise in justifying the FCGH. By employing human rights as a means to develop and implement the FCGH, the existing and evolving frameworks of human rights can complement efforts to reform global health governance, with the FCGH and human rights serving as mutually reinforcing bases of norms and accountability in global health.

  6. The contamination impact of human exploration to a subterranean environment and the implications for further crewed space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuko, Stefan; Rettberg, Petra; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Laura; Koskinen, Kaisa

    2016-07-01

    The quest of exploring and looking for life in new places is a human desire since centuries. Nowadays, we are not only looking on planet Earth any more, but our endeavours focus on nearby planets in our solar system. It is therefore of great importance to preserve the extra-terrestrial environment and not to contaminate it with terrestrial / human associated bacteria. At this point in time we are not able to send crewed missions to other planets; however, analysing the impact of human exploration on environments is of great planetary protection concern. This can be achieved by obtaining samples from a subterranean environment, where only expert speleologists have access and the human impact is considered very low. For this study, astronauts participating in the 2014 ESA CAVES (Cooperative Adventure for Valuing and Exercising human behaviour and performance Skills) training course, obtained samples from deep within a subterranean environment and returned them to the laboratory for molecular microbial analysis. The diversity of the returned soil samples was analysed by molecular means such as clone library and next-generation sequencing (NGS). It was found that humans have an immense impact on the microbial diversity in the environment. Although the cave system is sparsely entered by humans, a high relative abundance of Staphylococcus spp. and Propionibacteria spp., organisms that are characteristic for human skin, have been recovered. Some samples even showed the presence of human gut associated methanogenic archaea, Methanomassiliicoccus spp. The obtained data from this investigation indicate that human exploration is strongly polluting an environment and may lead to false-positive sign of life on other planets. It is therefore imperative to increase our awareness to this problem as well as work towards new protocols to protect a pristine extraterrestrial environment during exploration.

  7. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  8. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  9. Strategies for Prospecting and Extracting Water on Mars for Long-Term Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolley, R. J.; Saikia, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    We aim to develop a specific set of criteria to classify water reserves on Mars, and to design water prospecting and extraction systems for various human landing sites using a requirements-driven framework.

  10. Architectural Exploration of MPSoC Designs Based on an FPGA Emulation Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Del; Pablo, G.; Atienza, David; Magan, Ivan; Flores, Javier G.; Perez, Esther A.; Mendias, Jose M.; Benini, Luca; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    With the growing complexity in consumer embedded products and the improvements in process technology, Multi-Processor System-On-Chip (MPSoC) architectures have become widespread. These new systems are very complex to design as they must execute multiple complex real-time applications (e.g. video processing, or videogames), while meeting several additional design constraints (e.g. energy consumption or time-to-market). Thus, in order to explore all the possible HW-SW configurations in a MPSoC,...

  11. Evolutionary interrogation of human biology in well-annotated genomic framework of rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Jian; Liu, Chu-Jun; Yu, Peng; Zhong, Xiaoming; Chen, Jia-Yu; Yang, Xinzhuang; Peng, Jiguang; Yan, Shouyu; Wang, Chenqu; Zhu, Xiaotong; Xiong, Jingwei; Zhang, Yong E; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Li, Chuan-Yun

    2014-05-01

    With genome sequence and composition highly analogous to human, rhesus macaque represents a unique reference for evolutionary studies of human biology. Here, we developed a comprehensive genomic framework of rhesus macaque, the RhesusBase2, for evolutionary interrogation of human genes and the associated regulations. A total of 1,667 next-generation sequencing (NGS) data sets were processed, integrated, and evaluated, generating 51.2 million new functional annotation records. With extensive NGS annotations, RhesusBase2 refined the fine-scale structures in 30% of the macaque Ensembl transcripts, reporting an accurate, up-to-date set of macaque gene models. On the basis of these annotations and accurate macaque gene models, we further developed an NGS-oriented Molecular Evolution Gateway to access and visualize macaque annotations in reference to human orthologous genes and associated regulations (www.rhesusbase.org/molEvo). We highlighted the application of this well-annotated genomic framework in generating hypothetical link of human-biased regulations to human-specific traits, by using mechanistic characterization of the DIEXF gene as an example that provides novel clues to the understanding of digestive system reduction in human evolution. On a global scale, we also identified a catalog of 9,295 human-biased regulatory events, which may represent novel elements that have a substantial impact on shaping human transcriptome and possibly underpin recent human phenotypic evolution. Taken together, we provide an NGS data-driven, information-rich framework that will broadly benefit genomics research in general and serves as an important resource for in-depth evolutionary studies of human biology.

  12. The Ecological Marine Units Project as a Framework for Collaborative Data Exploration, Distribution, and Knowledge Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Dawn; Sayre, Roger; Breyer, Sean; Butler, Kevin; VanGraafeiland, Keith; Goodin, Kathy; Kavanaugh, Maria; Costello, Mark; Cressie, Noel; Basher, Zeenatul; Harris, Peter; Guinotte, John

    2017-04-01

    A data-derived, ecological stratification-based ecosystem mapping approach was recently demonstrated by Sayre et al. for terrestrial ecosystems, resulting in a standardized map of nearly 4000 global ecological land units (ELUs) at a base spatial resolution of 250 m. The map was commissioned by the Group on Earth Observations for eventual use by the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), and was also a contribution to the Climate Data Initiative of US President Barack Obama. We now present a similar environmental stratification approach for extending a global ecosystems map into the oceans through the delineation of analog global ecological marine units (EMUs). EMUs are comprised of a global point mesh framework, created from over 52 million points from NOAA's World Ocean Atlas with a spatial resolution of ¼ by ¼ degree ( 27 x 27 km at the equator) at varying depths and a temporal resolution that is currently decadal. Each point carries attributes of chemical and physical oceanographic structure (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate) that are likely drivers of many marine ecosystem responses. We used a k-means statistical clustering algorithm to identify physically distinct, relatively homogenous, volumetric regions within the water column (the EMUs). Backwards stepwise discriminant analysis determined if all of six variables contributed significantly to the clustering, and a pseudo F-statistic gave us an optimum number of clusters worldwide at 37. Canonical discriminant analysis verified that all 37 clusters were significantly different from one another. A major intent of the EMUs is to support marine biodiversity conservation assessments, economic valuation studies of marine ecosystem goods and services, and studies of ocean acidification and other impacts (e.g., pollution, resource exploitation, etc.). As such, they represent a rich geospatial accounting framework for these types of studies, as well as for

  13. A Conceptual Framework for Planning Systemic Human Adaptation to Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter W; Hanna, Elizabeth G

    2015-08-31

    Human activity is having multiple, inter-related effects on ecosystems. Greenhouse gas emissions persisting along current trajectories threaten to significantly alter human society. At 0.85 °C of anthropogenic warming, deleterious human impacts are acutely evident. Additional warming of 0.5 °C-1.0 °C from already emitted CO₂ will further intensify extreme heat and damaging storm events. Failing to sufficiently address this trend will have a heavy human toll directly and indirectly on health. Along with mitigation efforts, societal adaptation to a warmer world is imperative. Adaptation efforts need to be significantly upscaled to prepare society to lessen the public health effects of rising temperatures. Modifying societal behaviour is inherently complex and presents a major policy challenge. We propose a social systems framework for conceptualizing adaptation that maps out three domains within the adaptation policy landscape: acclimatisation, behavioural adaptation and technological adaptation, which operate at societal and personal levels. We propose that overlaying this framework on a systems approach to societal change planning methods will enhance governments' capacity and efficacy in strategic planning for adaptation. This conceptual framework provides a policy oriented planning assessment tool that will help planners match interventions to the behaviours being targeted for change. We provide illustrative examples to demonstrate the framework's application as a planning tool.

  14. The Human Nervous System: A Framework for Teaching and the Teaching Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The teaching brain is a new concept that mirrors the complex, dynamic, and context-dependent nature of the learning brain. In this article, I use the structure of the human nervous system and its sensing, processing, and responding components as a framework for a re-conceptualized teaching system. This teaching system is capable of responses on an…

  15. The Human Nervous System: A Framework for Teaching and the Teaching Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The teaching brain is a new concept that mirrors the complex, dynamic, and context-dependent nature of the learning brain. In this article, I use the structure of the human nervous system and its sensing, processing, and responding components as a framework for a re-conceptualized teaching system. This teaching system is capable of responses on an…

  16. A Human Capital Framework for a Stronger Teacher Workforce. Advancing Teaching--Improving Learning. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Jeannie; Martinez, Krissia; Nordstrum, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Building a stronger teacher workforce requires the thoughtful orchestration of multiple processes working together in a human capital system. This white paper presents a framework that can be used to take stock of current efforts to enhance the teacher workforce in school districts or educational organizations, as well as their underlying theories…

  17. The Use of Ethical Frameworks for Implementing Science as a Human Endeavour in Year 10 Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Siew Fong; Dawson, Vaille

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on the use of ethical frameworks as a pedagogical model for socio-scientific education in implementing the "Science as a Human Endeavour" (SHE) strand of the Australian Curriculum: Science in a Year 10 biology class in a Christian college in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Using a case study approach, a mixed…

  18. Exploration of LWFA Parameter Regimes Using Truncated Azimuthal Modal Geometry in the OSIRIS Simulation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Asher

    2014-10-01

    In plasma based accelerators (LWFA and PWFA), the methods of injecting high quality electron bunches into the accelerating wakefield is of utmost importance for various applications. Numerous particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are conducted in order to study various methods of injection and the ideal parameters thereof. 2D slab-geometry simulations are computationally inexpensive, but they are quantitatively, and sometimes even qualitatively inaccurate. One method for reducing the computational load of a 3D simulation is by utilizing a truncated azimuthal mode expansion into the OSIRIS simulation framework. Comparison with 3D LWFA simulations shows a great degree of consistency in the characteristics of the self-trapped beam. In addition, higher order cylindrical modes may capture effects such as beam hosing and asymmetric spot size modulation. With this highly efficient 2D-hybrid algorithm it is possible to simulate parameter regimes and scaling laws that are difficult to do in a full 3D Cartesian simulation. Relativistic spot-size self-focusing, which cannot be accurately described in a 2D slab geometry, is also studied.

  19. Proposing a Framework for Exploration of Crime Data Using Web Structure and Content Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shahraki Moghaddam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to propose a framework and implement High-level architecture of a scalable universal crawler to maintenance the reliability gap and present the evaluation process of forensic data analysis criminal suspects. In Law enforcement agencies, criminal web data provide appropriate and anonymous information. Pieces of information implemented the digital data in the forensic analysis to accused social networks but the assessment of these information pieces is so difficult. In fact, the operator manually should pull out the suitable information from the text in the website and find the links and classify them into a database structure. In consequent, the set is ready to implement a various criminal network evaluation tools for testing. As a result, this procedure is not efficient because it has many errors and the quality of obtaining the analyzed data is based on the expertise and experience of the investigator subsequently the reliability of the tests is not constant. Therefore, the better result just comes from the knowledgeable operator. The objectives of this study is to show the process of investigating the criminal suspects of forensic data analysis to maintenance the reliability gap by proposing a structure and applying High-level architecture of a scalable universal crawler.

  20. Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration Leading to Human Exploration: Results from the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, Mark L.; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper will provide a summary and analysis of the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop all-day session on "Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration, Leading to Human Exploration", held at Fucino Space Center, Italy on June 12th, 2015. The session was primarily intended to explore how robotic missions and robotics technologies more generally can help lead to human exploration missions. The session included a wide range of presentations that were roughly grouped into (1) broader background, conceptual, and high-level operations concepts presentations such as the International Space Exploration Coordination Group Roadmap, followed by (2) more detailed narrower presentations such as rover autonomy and communications. The broader presentations helped to provide context and specific technical hooks, and helped lay a foundation for the narrower presentations on more specific challenges and technologies, as well as for the discussion that followed. The discussion that followed the presentations touched on key questions, themes, actions and potential international collaboration opportunities. Some of the themes that were touched on were (1) multi-agent systems, (2) decentralized command and control, (3) autonomy, (4) low-latency teleoperations, (5) science operations, (6) communications, (7) technology pull vs. technology push, and (8) the roles and challenges of operations in early human architecture and mission concept formulation. A number of potential action items resulted from the workshop session, including: (1) using CCSDS as a further collaboration mechanism for human mission operations, (2) making further contact with subject matter experts, (3) initiating informal collaborative efforts to allow for rapid and efficient implementation, and (4) exploring how SpaceOps can support collaboration and information exchange with human exploration efforts. This paper will summarize the session and provide an overview of the above subjects as they emerged from the SpaceOps 2015

  1. A Framework for Evaluating the Effects of Degraded Digital I and C Systems on Human Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara,J.; Gunther, B.; Hughes, N.; Barnes, V.

    2009-04-09

    New and advanced reactors will use integrated digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems to support operators in their monitoring and control functions. Even though digital systems are typically highly reliable, their potential for degradation or failure could significantly affect operator situation awareness and performance and, consequently, impact plant safety. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a research project to investigate the effects of degraded I&C systems on human performance and plant operations. The ultimate objective of this project is to develop the technical basis for human factors review guidance for conditions of degraded I&C, including complete failure. Based on the results of this effort, NRC will determine the need for developing new guidance or revising NUREG-0800, NUREG-0711, NUREG-0700 and other pertinent NRC review guidance. This paper reports on the first phase of the research, the development of a framework for linking degraded I&C system conditions to human performance. The framework consists of three levels: I&C subsystems, human-system interfaces, and human performance. Each level is composed of a number of discrete elements. This paper will describe the elements at each level and their integration. In the next phase of the research, the framework will be used to systematically investigate the human performance consequences of various classes of failures.

  2. DAME: A Distributed Data Mining & Exploration Framework within the Virtual Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Brescia, M; D'Abrusco, R; Laurino, O; Longo, G

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, many scientific areas share the same broad requirements of being able to deal with massive and distributed datasets while, when possible, being integrated with services and applications. In order to solve the growing gap between the incremental generation of data and our understanding of it, it is required to know how to access, retrieve, analyze, mine and integrate data from disparate sources. One of the fundamental aspects of any new generation of data mining software tool or package which really wants to become a service for the community is the possibility to use it within complex workflows which each user can fine tune in order to match the specific demands of his scientific goal. These workflows need often to access different resources (data, providers, computing facilities and packages) and require a strict interoperability on (at least) the client side. The project DAME (DAta Mining & Exploration) arises from these requirements by providing a distributed WEB-based data mining infrastruct...

  3. How much cryosphere model complexity is just right? Exploration using the conceptual cryosphere hydrology framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Thomas M.; Hill, David F.; Sharp, Kendra V.

    2016-09-01

    Making meaningful projections of the impacts that possible future climates would have on water resources in mountain regions requires understanding how cryosphere hydrology model performance changes under altered climate conditions and when the model is applied to ungaged catchments. Further, if we are to develop better models, we must understand which specific process representations limit model performance. This article presents a modeling tool, named the Conceptual Cryosphere Hydrology Framework (CCHF), that enables implementing and evaluating a wide range of cryosphere modeling hypotheses. The CCHF represents cryosphere hydrology systems using a set of coupled process modules that allows easily interchanging individual module representations and includes analysis tools to evaluate model outputs. CCHF version 1 (Mosier, 2016) implements model formulations that require only precipitation and temperature as climate inputs - for example variations on simple degree-index (SDI) or enhanced temperature index (ETI) formulations - because these model structures are often applied in data-sparse mountain regions, and perform relatively well over short periods, but their calibration is known to change based on climate and geography. Using CCHF, we implement seven existing and novel models, including one existing SDI model, two existing ETI models, and four novel models that utilize a combination of existing and novel module representations. The novel module representations include a heat transfer formulation with net longwave radiation and a snowpack internal energy formulation that uses an approximation of the cold content. We assess the models for the Gulkana and Wolverine glaciated watersheds in Alaska, which have markedly different climates and contain long-term US Geological Survey benchmark glaciers. Overall we find that the best performing models are those that are more physically consistent and representative, but no single model performs best for all of our model

  4. Exploring Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Urban Human Mobility Hotspots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Xiping; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Lu, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding human mobility patterns provides us with knowledge about human mobility in an urban context, which plays a critical role in urban planning, traffic management and the spread of disease...

  5. The roles of humans and robots in exploring the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, W. W.

    2004-07-01

    Historically, advocates of solar system exploration have disagreed over whether program goals could be entirely satisfied by robotic missions. Scientists tend to argue that robotic exploration is most cost-effective. However, the human space program has a great deal of support in the general public, thereby enabling the scientific element of exploration to be larger than it might be as a stand-alone activity. A comprehensive strategy of exploration needs a strong robotic component complementing and supporting human missions. Robots are needed for precursor missions, for crew support on planetary surfaces, and for probing dangerous environments. Robotic field assistants can provide mobility, access to scientific sites, data acquisition, visualization of the environment, precision operations, sample acquisition and analysis, and expertise to human explorers. As long as space exploration depends on public funds, space exploration must include an appropriate mix of human and robotic activity.

  6. Exploring the Capacity of Water Framework Directive Indices to Assess Ecosystem Services in Fluvial and Riparian Systems: Towards a Second Implementation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Abarca, M. R.; Santos-Martín, F.; Martín-López, B.; Sánchez-Montoya, M. M.; Suárez Alonso, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    We explored the capacity of the biological and hydromorphological indices used in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) to assess ecosystem services by evaluating the ecological status of Spanish River Basins. This analysis relies on an exhaustive bibliography review which showed scientific evidence of the interlinkages between some ecosystem services and different hydromorphological and biological elements which have been used as indices in the WFD. Our findings indicate that, of a total of 38 ecosystem services analyzed, biological and hydromorphological indices can fully evaluate four ecosystem services. In addition, 18 ecosystem services can be partly evaluated by some of the analyzed indices, while 11 are not related with the indices. While Riparian Forest Quality was the index that was able to assess the largest number of ecosystem services ( N = 12), the two indices of macrophytes offered very poor guarantees. Finally, biological indices related to diatoms and aquatic invertebrates and the Fluvial Habitat Index can be related with 7, 6, and 6 ecosystem services, respectively. Because the WFD indices currently used in Spain are not able to assess most of the ecosystem services analyzed, we suggest that there is potential to develop the second phase of the WFD implementation taking this approach into consideration. The incorporation of the ecosystem services approach into the WFD could provide the framework for assess the impacts of human activities on the quality of fluvial ecosystems and could give insights for water and watershed management in order to guarantee the delivery of multiple ecosystem services.

  7. A Model-based Framework for Risk Assessment in Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems. This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions. Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  8. REENGINEERING THE SUPPLY CHAIN HUMAN DIMENSIONS USING SIX-SIGMA FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Mishra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The greatest continuing area of weakness in management practice is to evaluate human dimensions. The aim of this research is to evaluate the human dimensions which can prove for successful implementation of Six- sigma through teams. This paper discusses the available dimensions of supply chain management (SCM practices in literature and develops an integrated framework (6 sigma +SCM based upon ten human dimensions of SCM practice ( (i Self management, (ii Participation, (iii Flexibility, (iv Training, (v Managerial support, (vi Communication and cooperation, (vii Feedback and reward, (viii Leadership, (ix Information sharing and (x Process improvement orientation . The framework has been used to analyze the performance of teams based upon the above dimensions which helps in improving the performance. Various performance metrics i.e. Sigma level (within and sigma (overall, yield, Cp and Cpk have been calculated to find out the scope for improvement with respect to SCM dimensions based upon team characteristics.

  9. A framework to support human factors of automation in railway intelligent infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashi, Nastaran; Wilson, John R; Golightly, David; Sharples, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Technological and organisational advances have increased the potential for remote access and proactive monitoring of the infrastructure in various domains and sectors - water and sewage, oil and gas and transport. Intelligent Infrastructure (II) is an architecture that potentially enables the generation of timely and relevant information about the state of any type of infrastructure asset, providing a basis for reliable decision-making. This paper reports an exploratory study to understand the concepts and human factors associated with II in the railway, largely drawing from structured interviews with key industry decision-makers and attachment to pilot projects. Outputs from the study include a data-processing framework defining the key human factors at different levels of the data structure within a railway II system and a system-level representation. The framework and other study findings will form a basis for human factors contributions to systems design elements such as information interfaces and role specifications.

  10. The Legal Framework Of Human Rights Crime As An Extraordinary Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Siswadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research reviews the legal framework of human rights crime as an extraordinary crime as an approach in the settlement of criminal cases. The outcomes of the research indicate that modern human rights law developed out of customs and theories that established the rights of the individual in relation to the state. Disagreements regarding human rights violations which can only be done by the state and its agents or can also be done by non-government units still exist at the moment. As it turns out in practice however it has certain weaknesses particularly in legislation concerning serious crimes of human rights both as ius constituendum and ius constitutum still needs to be improved especially in the implementation of human rights on judiciary system. Therefore serious crimes against human rights are included as an extraordinary crime. The handling of the cases was incredible and special has become a logical consequence to be included as an extraordinary crime.

  11. Exploring Child Play within the Framework of Cultural-Historical Psychology: Experience and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Elkoninova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper reconstructs the history of the problem of the development of mind on the example of child play. It reveals how researchers from the cultural-historical school of thought explored the developmental function of play, recorded quantitative leaps in its development and attempted to reconstruct it — from the works of L.S. Vygotsky and his followers (activity approach to role play: A.N. Leontiev, D.B. Elkonin, N.Ya. Mikhaylenko, N.A. Korotkova and others to the works of researchers who studied the very act of development in play (L.I. Elkoninova, T.V. Bazhanova, K.O. Yuryeva. It is argued that the concept of the cultural form of play that contains the Challenge (limited by possibilities of action, by risk and the Response to it serves as a foundation not only for role-playing games, but also for games with rules and computer games too. The Challenge is associated with action which transforms the situation of acting and is typical of all forms of play that are required to tie together everything that is separated in an everyday behavior of a child.

  12. A multivariate framework to explore firms’ internationalization patterns: the role of individual heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinuccia Calia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the internationalization pattern of firms and its relationship with firms’ heterogeneity. Besides the more traditional exports and Foreign Direct Investments (FDI, we consider various forms of non-equity internationalization. The use of a Multivariate Probit Model allows us to assess the associations among the choices driving the firms’ internationalization strategy as a whole and, at the same time, to avoid a priori assumptions on the internationalization patterns. From the empirical evidence, two main results emerge. At first, we observe that Italian firms jointly adopt various internalization forms, others than exports and FDI, conditionally to characteristics of the firms. The hypothesis reported in literature of a complementary or subsidiary relationship between exports and FDI is then confirmed also for non-equity internationalization forms. Secondly, we find that the heterogeneity of firms, measured by a large range of variables, has an important role in defining the choice of firms on the patterns of internalization. Thus in this context, we endorse the emerging opinion asserting that various dimensions other than productivity are relevant

  13. A framework to explore the visual brain in glaucoma with lessons from models and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Yeni H; Gupta, Neeru

    2015-12-01

    Vision loss in glaucoma is associated with death of retinal ganglion cells. High intraocular pressure is a major risk factor for vision loss from glaucoma, and lowering eye pressure is the goal of all available medical and surgical treatments. Taking a bold step forward, the restoration of vision after severe glaucoma damage is a new Audacious Goal established by National Eye Institute (Sieving, 2012). This means that retinal ganglion cell repair, and replacement, must be considered in the context of visual function restoration. To restore visual function, retinal ganglion cells, after long-distance axonal growth and guidance, should connect to specific target neurons in subcortical visual structures. At the time of the establishment of these connections, the fate of target cells is critical along with the health of retinal ganglion cells. In fact, several lines of evidence demonstrate glaucomatous neural degeneration occurs throughout the central visual system where most information processing takes place. Evidence from multiple studies in experimental glaucoma models, human autopsy cases and neuroimaging studies point to the degeneration of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus, a subcortical hub of functional connectivity between the eye and the visual cortex. Maintaining and re-establishing connections of retinal ganglion cells to target neurons in major visual structures is a key endpoint for regenerative medicine strategies. This paper critically reviews studies of visual brain changes in man and experimental animal models, and discusses key factors in the experimental design that are relevant to restoring vision loss in human disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research.

  15. Health and human rights: a statistical measurement framework using household survey data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesonga, Ronald; Owino, Abraham; Ssekiboobo, Agnes; Atuhaire, Leonard; Jehopio, Peter

    2015-05-03

    Health is intertwined with human rights as is clearly reflected in the right to life. Promotion of health practices in the context of human rights can be accomplished if there is a better understanding of the level of human rights observance. In this paper, we evaluate and present an appraisal for a possibility of applying household survey to study the determinants of health and human rights and also derive the probability that human rights are observed; an important ingredient into the national planning framework. Data from the Uganda National Governance Baseline Survey were used. A conceptual framework for predictors of a hybrid dependent variable was developed and both bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques employed. Multivariate post estimation computations were derived after evaluations of the significance of coefficients of health and human rights predictors. Findings, show that household characteristics of respondents considered in this study were statistically significant (p human rights observance. For example, a unit increase of respondents' schooling levels results in an increase of about 34% level of positively assessing human rights observance. Additionally, the study establishes, through the three models presented, that household assessment of health and human rights observance was 20% which also represents how much of the entire continuum of human rights is demanded. Findings propose important evidence for monitoring and evaluation of health in the context human rights using household survey data. They provide a benchmark for health and human rights assessments with a focus on international and national development plans to achieve socio-economic transformation and health in society.

  16. 77 FR 44613 - Notice of Availability of the External Review Draft of Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... AGENCY Notice of Availability of the External Review Draft of Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment... health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision making processes at the EPA. The... established history of conducting human health risk assessments. The Framework is intended to foster increased...

  17. Exploring the intramolecular phosphorylation sites in human Chk2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte B; Larsen, Martin R; Boldyreff, Brigitte;

    2008-01-01

    A comparative biochemical analysis was performed using recombinant human protein kinase Chk2 (checkpoint kinase 2) expressed in bacteria and insect cells. Dephosphorylated, inactive, recombinant human Chk2 could be reactivated in a concentration-dependent manner. Despite distinct time....... Mass spectrometric analyses of human recombinant Chk2 isolated from bacteria and insect cells showed distinct differences. The number of phosphorylated residues in human recombinant Chk2 isolated from bacteria was 16, whereas in the case of the recombinant human Chk2 from insect cells it was 8. Except...... for phosphorylated amino acid T378 which was not found in the Chk2 isolated from bacteria, all other phosphorylated residues identified in human Chk2 from insect cells were present also in Chk2 from bacteria....

  18. A conceptual connectivity framework for understanding geomorphic change in human-impacted fluvial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Keesstra, Saskia; Maroulis, Jerry

    2017-04-01

    Human-induced landscape change is difficult to predict due to the complexity inherent in both geomorphic and social systems as well as due to emerging coupling relationships between them. To better understand system complexity and system response to change, connectivity has become an important research paradigm within various disciplines including geomorphology, hydrology and ecology. With the proposed conceptual connectivity framework on geomorphic change in human-impacted fluvial systems a cautionary note is flagged regarding the need (i) to include and to systematically conceptualise the role of different types of human agency in altering connectivity relationships in geomorphic systems and (ii) to integrate notions of human-environment interactions to connectivity concepts in geomorphology to better explain causes and trajectories of landscape change. Underpinned by case study examples, the presented conceptual framework is able to explain how geomorphic response of fluvial systems to human disturbance is determined by system-specific boundary conditions (incl. system history, related legacy effects and lag times), vegetation dynamics and human-induced functional relationships (i.e. feedback mechanisms) between the different spatial dimensions of connectivity. It is further demonstrated how changes in social systems can trigger a process-response feedback loop between social and geomorphic systems that further governs the trajectory of landscape change in coupled human-geomorphic systems.

  19. Exploring Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Urban Human Mobility Hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiping Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mobility patterns provides us with knowledge about human mobility in an urban context, which plays a critical role in urban planning, traffic management and the spread of disease. Recently, the availability of large-scale human-sensing datasets enables us to analyze human mobility patterns and the relationships between humans and their living environments on an unprecedented spatial and temporal scale to improve decision-making regarding the quality of life of citizens. This study aims to characterize the urban spatial-temporal dynamic from the perspective of human mobility hotspots by using mobile phone location data. We propose a workflow to identify human convergent and dispersive hotspots that represent the status of human mobility in local areas and group these hotspots into different classes according to clustering their temporal signatures. To illustrate our proposed approach, a case study of Shenzhen, China, has been conducted. Six typical spatial-temporal patterns in the city are identified and discussed by combining the spatial distribution of these identified patterns with urban functional areas. The findings enable us to understand the human dynamics in a different area of the city, which can serve as a reference for urban planning and traffic management.

  20. 77 FR 6825 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY... Administration announces a meeting of the Human Exploration and Operations Committee of the NASA Advisory Council..., 300 E Street SW., Washington, DC 20546, 202-358-2245; bette.siegel@nasa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  1. The human rights framework, the school and healthier eating among young people: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Engesveen, Kaia; Afflerbach, Thorsten; Barnekow, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    To give an account of provisions in the framework of international human rights and intergovernmental policy agreements in relation to eating at school and discuss how these provisions could be invoked to ensure healthy eating at school. A review of provisions in the international and European human rights frameworks and policy documents was performed in order to identify evidence and examples of provisions implying responsibilities of the school as a public service provider to ensure healthy eating. The review of the human rights and policy texts showed that there are a large number of provisions that can be invoked in support of measures at school which can contribute to ensuring healthier eating as well as better education supporting such measures. The international frameworks of human rights and intergovernmental policy agreements should be invoked and translated into concrete strategies, policies, regulations and accountability mechanisms at national, regional, local and school levels. Ensuring healthy eating should be a top priority among all stakeholders in and around the school environment since it is a good investment in children's short- and long-term health and educational achievements.

  2. A Conceptual Framework for Planning Systemic Human Adaptation to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter W.; Hanna, Elizabeth G.

    2015-01-01

    Human activity is having multiple, inter-related effects on ecosystems. Greenhouse gas emissions persisting along current trajectories threaten to significantly alter human society. At 0.85 °C of anthropogenic warming, deleterious human impacts are acutely evident. Additional warming of 0.5 °C–1.0 °C from already emitted CO2 will further intensify extreme heat and damaging storm events. Failing to sufficiently address this trend will have a heavy human toll directly and indirectly on health. Along with mitigation efforts, societal adaptation to a warmer world is imperative. Adaptation efforts need to be significantly upscaled to prepare society to lessen the public health effects of rising temperatures. Modifying societal behaviour is inherently complex and presents a major policy challenge. We propose a social systems framework for conceptualizing adaptation that maps out three domains within the adaptation policy landscape: acclimatisation, behavioural adaptation and technological adaptation, which operate at societal and personal levels. We propose that overlaying this framework on a systems approach to societal change planning methods will enhance governments’ capacity and efficacy in strategic planning for adaptation. This conceptual framework provides a policy oriented planning assessment tool that will help planners match interventions to the behaviours being targeted for change. We provide illustrative examples to demonstrate the framework’s application as a planning tool. PMID:26334285

  3. A Conceptual Framework for Planning Systemic Human Adaptation to Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Tait

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human activity is having multiple, inter-related effects on ecosystems. Greenhouse gas emissions persisting along current trajectories threaten to significantly alter human society. At 0.85 °C of anthropogenic warming, deleterious human impacts are acutely evident. Additional warming of 0.5 °C–1.0 °C from already emitted CO2 will further intensify extreme heat and damaging storm events. Failing to sufficiently address this trend will have a heavy human toll directly and indirectly on health. Along with mitigation efforts, societal adaptation to a warmer world is imperative. Adaptation efforts need to be significantly upscaled to prepare society to lessen the public health effects of rising temperatures. Modifying societal behaviour is inherently complex and presents a major policy challenge. We propose a social systems framework for conceptualizing adaptation that maps out three domains within the adaptation policy landscape: acclimatisation, behavioural adaptation and technological adaptation, which operate at societal and personal levels. We propose that overlaying this framework on a systems approach to societal change planning methods will enhance governments’ capacity and efficacy in strategic planning for adaptation. This conceptual framework provides a policy oriented planning assessment tool that will help planners match interventions to the behaviours being targeted for change. We provide illustrative examples to demonstrate the framework’s application as a planning tool.

  4. Exploring human autonomy effectiveness: Project logic and its effects on individual autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); M.R. Muñiz Castillo (Mirtha)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe have proposed elsewhere an alternative analytical framework for project evaluation and a criterion of ‘human autonomy effectiveness’ to examine the effects of aid projects on the lives, opportunities and capacities of participants (Muñiz Castillo & Gasper, 2009). A project is human-au

  5. Exploration of Human Rights by Chinese Communist Pioneers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU SHUANGXI

    2011-01-01

    The Communist Party of China (CPC) ascended the stage of history holding high the banner of human fights.From the moment of its establishment,the Party has inscribed manifestly on its banner the principle of striving for human fights for the public.

  6. Solar Power System Evaluated for the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2000-01-01

    The electric power system is a crucial element of any mission for the human exploration of the Martian surface. The bulk of the power generated will be delivered to crew life support systems, extravehicular activity suits, robotic vehicles, and predeployed in situ resource utilization (ISRU) equipment. In one mission scenario, before the crew departs for Mars, the ISRU plant operates for 435 days producing liquefied methane and oxygen for ascent-stage propellants and water for crew life support. About 200 days after ISRU production is completed, the crew arrives for a 500-day surface stay. In this scenario, the power system must operate for a total of 1130 days (equivalent to 1100 Martian "sols"), providing 400 MW-hr of energy to the ISRU plant and up to 18 kW of daytime user power. A photovoltaic power-generation system with regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage has been under study at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The conceptual power system is dominated by the 4000- m2 class photovoltaic array that is deployed orthogonally as four tent structures, each approximately 5 m on a side and 100-m long. The structures are composed of composite members deployed by an articulating mast, an inflatable boom, or rover vehicles, and are subsequently anchored to the ground. Array panels consist of thin polymer membranes with thin-film solar cells. The array is divided into eight independent electrical sections with solar cell strings operating at 600 V. Energy storage is provided by regenerative fuel cells based on hydrogen-oxygen proton exchange membrane technology. Hydrogen and oxygen reactants are stored in gaseous form at 3000 psi, and the water produced is stored at 14.7 psi. The fuel cell operating temperature is maintained by a 40-m2 deployable pumped-fluid loop radiator that uses water as the working fluid. The power management and distribution (PMAD) architecture features eight independent, regulated 600-Vdc channels. Power management and

  7. Teaching exploration and practice of the human body structure course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng LI; Ming-feng CHEN; Wen-long DING

    2015-01-01

    In the 21 st century,the medical model has transformed from the biological model to the biopsycho-social medical model. The transformation of medical model raises higher requirements for the training of medical staff. Comprehensive promotion of the reform of medical education has become the consensus and trend,which breeds the integrated medical teaching that is based on modules and organ systems. As one of eight integrated modules,the human body structure course of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine introduces morphological structures of normal human organs according to function systems( such as locomotor system,digestive system,angiological system,and nervous system) of human organs and parts of human body. This course endeavors to integrate theories with practices,contents of disciplines of basic medicine,and basic medicine with clinical medicine. The human body structure course combines basic medicine with clinical medicine and is an important part of medical science.

  8. Teachers' Pedagogical Perspectives and Teaching Practices on Human Rights in Cyprus: An Empirical Exploration and Implications for Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Constadina; Charalambous, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study that explored the understandings of human rights, pedagogical perspectives and practices in human rights teaching of three Greek-Cypriot elementary teachers. The study revealed some significant challenges in human rights teaching that seemed to be common for all three participating teachers. First, all of…

  9. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  10. A framework for adaptive monitoring of the cumulative effects of human footprint on biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A Cole; Huggard, David; Bayne, Erin; Schieck, Jim; Sólymos, Péter; Muhly, Tyler; Farr, Dan; Boutin, Stan

    2014-06-01

    Effective ecological monitoring is imperative in a human-dominated world, as our ability to manage functioning ecosystems will depend on understanding biodiversity responses to anthropogenic impacts. Yet, most monitoring efforts have either been narrowly focused on particular sites, species and stressors - thus inadequately considering the cumulative effects of multiple, interacting impacts at scales of management relevance - or too unfocused to provide specific guidance. We propose a cumulative effects monitoring framework that integrates multi-scaled surveillance of trends in biodiversity and land cover with targeted evaluation of hypothesized drivers of change. The framework is grounded in a flexible conceptual model and uses monitoring to generate and test empirical models that relate the status of diverse taxonomic groups to the nature and extent of human "footprint" and other landscape attributes. An adaptive cycle of standardized sampling, model development, and model evaluation provides a means to learn about the system and guide management. Additional benefits of the framework include standardized data on status and trend for a wide variety of biodiversity elements, spatially explicit models for regional planning and scenario evaluation, and identification of knowledge gaps for complementary research. We describe efforts to implement the framework in Alberta, Canada, through the Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute, and identify key challenges to be addressed.

  11. A framework for advanced methods of control of human-induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Paul

    2012-04-01

    The vibration serviceability of civil engineering structures under human dynamic excitation is becoming ever more critical with the design and redevelopment of structures with reduced mass, stiffness and damping. A large number of problems have been reported in floors, footbridges, sports stadia, staircases and other structures. Unfortunately, the range of options available to fix such problems are very limited and are primarily limited to structural modification or the implementation of passive vibration control measures, such as tuned mass dampers. This paper presents the initial development of a new framework for advanced methods of control of humaninduced vibrations in civil engineering structures. This framework includes both existing passive methods of vibration control and more advanced active, semi-active and hybrid control techniques, which may be further developed as practical solutions for these problems. Through the use of this framework, rational decisions as to the most appropriate technologies for particular human vibration problems may be made and pursued further. This framework is also intended to be used in the design of new civil engineering structures, where advanced control technologies may be used both to increase the achievable slenderness and to reduce the amount of construction materials used and hence their embodied energy. This will be an ever more important consideration with the current drive for structures with reduced environmental impact.

  12. Exploring the Cytoskeleton During Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawe, Vanesa Y.; Chemes, Héctor

    Understanding the cellular events during fertilization in mammals is a major challenge that can contribute to the improvement of future infertility treatments in humans and reproductive performance in farm animals. Of special interest is the role of the oocyte and sperm cytoskeleton during the initial interaction between gametes. The aim of this chapter is to describe methods for studying cytoskeletal features during in vitro fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in humans. The following protocols will provide a detailed description of how to perform immunodetection and imaging of human eggs, zygotes, and sperm by fluorescence (confocal and epifluorescence) and electron microscopy.

  13. Human-Robot Site Survey and Sampling for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Edwards, Laurence; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Kunz, Clayton; Lee, Susan Y.; Park, Eric; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Ackner, Nir

    2006-01-01

    NASA is planning to send humans and robots back to the Moon before 2020. In order for extended missions to be productive, high quality maps of lunar terrain and resources are required. Although orbital images can provide much information, many features (local topography, resources, etc) will have to be characterized directly on the surface. To address this need, we are developing a system to perform site survey and sampling. The system includes multiple robots and humans operating in a variety of team configurations, coordinated via peer-to-peer human-robot interaction. In this paper, we present our system design and describe planned field tests.

  14. A Centralized Processing Framework for Foliage Penetration Human Tracking in Multistatic Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A complete centralized processing framework is proposed for human tracking using multistatic radar in the foliage-penetration environment. The configuration of the multistatic radar system is described. Primary attention is devoted to time of arrival (TOA estimation and target localization. An improved approach that takes the geometrical center as the TOA estimation of the human target is given. The minimum mean square error paring (MMSEP approach is introduced for multi-target localization in the multistatic radar system. An improved MMSEP algorithm is proposed using the maximum velocity limitation and the global nearest neighbor criterion, efficiently decreasing the computational cost of MMSEP. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the centralized processing framework.

  15. Taking a "Giant Tour" to Explore the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Helping children to visualise what is inside them and how their bodies work can be a challenge, since teachers are often reliant on secondary sources or investigations that can only measure outward signs (such as pulse rate). Another way is to involve the children in an imaginative role-play exercise where they explore the insides of a…

  16. Organizational Effectiveness: Exploring What It Means in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abston, Kristie A.; Stout, Vickie J.

    2006-01-01

    The literature on organizational effectiveness was reviewed to explore the various definitions and terminology used as well as to identify the criteria, correlates, theories and/or models, and measurement/assessment methods. AHRD Conference Proceedings for 2004 and 2005 were analyzed for usage of the phrase. Results indicated that researchers and…

  17. Climate change: The need for a human rights agenda within a framework of shared human security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis edited volume publishes as a special issue of the quarterly social science journal Social Research, a collection of articles on Human Rights and the Global Economy. The topics addressed are Human Rights and Economy Policy; Global Poverty and the Obligations of Rich Countries; Human

  18. A Framework for Human-like Behavior in an Immersive Virtual World

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijk, Fons; Van Broeck, Sigurd; Dareau, Claude; Ravenet, Brian; Ochs, Magalie; Apostolakis, Konstantinos; Daras, Petros; Monaghan, David; O''Connor, Noel E.; Wall, Julie; Izquierdo, Ebroul

    2013-01-01

    Just as readers feel immersed when the story line adheres to their experiences, users will more easily feel immersed in a virtual environment if the behavior of the characters in that environment adheres to their expectations, based on their life-long observations in the real world. This paper introduces a framework that allows authors to establish natural, human-like behavior, physical interaction and emotional engagement of characters living in a virtual environment. Represented by realisti...

  19. Framework for national and multicultural research on the impact of human rights violations in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Introduction: This framework examines the scope of problems and attempts to achieve a shared approach to research on monitoring, assessment and intervention strategies applicable to children, families and communities. It comprises three main components: 1. monitoring, 2. assessment and diagnosis, 3...... of such research in the widest possible manner, an increased public awareness of the situation of children in crisis is created which will hopefully contribute to the transformation of conditions which condone the violation of Human Rights of children...

  20. A tiered assessment framework to evaluate human health risk of contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Ben K; Melwani, Aroon R; Bay, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that contain bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (United States) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective to protect human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on 2 key questions: 1) do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? and 2) is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes 3 tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion.

  1. Safety Characteristics in System Application Software for Human Rated Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA and its industry and international partners are embarking on a bold and inspiring development effort to design and build an exploration class space system. The space system is made up of the Orion system, the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) system. All are highly coupled together and dependent on each other for the combined safety of the space system. A key area of system safety focus needs to be in the ground and flight application software system (GFAS). In the development, certification and operations of GFAS, there are a series of safety characteristics that define the approach to ensure mission success. This paper will explore and examine the safety characteristics of the GFAS development.

  2. Framework for combining REACH and national regulations to obtain equal protection levels of human health and the environment in different countries - Comparative study of Denmark and Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for a systems approach to protect the environment and human health by taking into account differences in the cumulative risks of total human exposure in a territorial context. To this end the measures that are available and that can...... be included in REACH exposure scenarios in order to obtain territorially relevant chemical safety assessments (CSAs) were explored. The advantage of linking the REACH exposure scenarios with background environmental quality data reported under other national regulations is discussed. The main question is how...

  3. Destination Deimos: A Design Reference Architecture for Initial Human Exploration of the Mars System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, James S.; Adamo, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    The two biggest challenges to successful human operations in interplanetary space are flight dynamics, constrained by the cold hard physics of the rocket equation, and bioastronautics, the psychophysiological realities of human adaptation, or lack thereof, to the deep space environment. Without substantial innovation in project/mission architecture and vehicle design, human exploration of the Mars system could be problematic for decades. Although a human landing on Mars is inevitable, humans-in-the-loop telerobotic exploration from the outer Martian moon Deimos is the best way to begin. Precursor robotic missions for reconnaissance and local site preparation will be required.

  4. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  5. Supporting Human Activities - Exploring Activity-Centered Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bardram, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore an activity-centered computing paradigm that is aimed at supporting work processes that are radically different from the ones known from office work. Our main inspiration is healthcare work that is characterized by an extreme degree of mobility, many interruptions, ad...... objects. We also present an exploratory prototype design and first implementation and present some initial results from evaluations in a healthcare environment....

  6. [Affective computing--a mysterious tool to explore human emotions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Honghong; Dou, Yi; Hou, Yongjie; Li, Changwu

    2013-12-01

    Perception, affection and consciousness are basic psychological functions of human being. Affection is the subjective reflection of different kinds of objects. The foundation of human being's thinking is constituted by the three basic functions. Affective computing is an effective tool of revealing the affectiveness of human being in order to understand the world. Our research of affective computing focused on the relation, the generation and the influent factors among different affections. In this paper, the affective mechanism, the basic theory of affective computing, is studied, the method of acquiring and recognition of affective information is discussed, and the application of affective computing is summarized as well, in order to attract more researchers into this working area.

  7. Exploring human breast milk composition by NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praticò, Giulia; Capuani, Giorgio; Tomassini, Alberta; Baldassarre, Maria Elisabetta; Delfini, Maurizio; Miccheli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Breast milk is a complex fluid evolutionarily adapted to satisfy the nutritional requirements of growing infants. In addition, milk biochemical and immunological components protect newborns against infective agents in the new environment. Human milk oligosaccharides, the third most abundant component of breast milk, are believed to modulate the microbiota composition, thus influencing a wide range of physiological processes of the infant. Human milk also contains a number of other bioactive compounds, the functional role of which has not yet been clearly elucidated. In this scenario, NMR-based metabolic profiling can provide a rapid characterisation of breast milk composition, thus allowing a better understanding of its nutritional properties.

  8. Documentation: International Legal Human Rights Framework -- Human Rights and the Institutionalisation of ASEAN: An Ambiguous Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Rathgeber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the ASEAN Charter of 2007 heralded an era of improved democracy, human rights protection and good governance in accordance with the rule of law, the reality on the ground tells a different story. While all of the trappings of a human rights mechanism are in place, the normative and protective capacity of the regime is ambiguous at best. The adoption of core international human rights treaties by ASEAN member states presents an ambiguous picture, one which reveals significant variations between the ten countries. The purported institutionalisation of international human rights standards since 2007 in the region via the creation of an ASEAN human rights mechanism in that year is betrayed by the poor condition of actual protection of human rights at the national and regional level. The article analyses the situation on the ground in light of the normative obligations and aspirations of the states.

  9. Retrospect to Human Deep Space Exploration History and Its Prospect in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Peijian; Peng Jing

    2006-01-01

    The definition, goal and impacts of deep space exploration are summarized. After a retrospect to past deep exploration activities of human being to date, both recent deep space missions and future missions in 5 years are also listed. There are also brief introductions about the future strategic plans of NASA, ESA,RAKA, JAXA and ISRO. Then authors analyze some important features of global deep space exploration scheme. Key technologies of deep space exploration are also determined. The status of China deep exploration plan is introduced including CE-1 lunar orbiter, the subsequent China Lunar Exploration Program, especially proposal for the second stage of China Lunar Exploration Program, Mars exploration program of China with Russia Kuafu mission, Hard X-Ray Modulated Telescope, Space Solar Telescope. At the end, some suggestions for China future deep space exploration are made.

  10. NASA'S Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: An international approach toward bringing science and human exploration together for mutual benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and explora-tion, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and community development. The institute is a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdis-ciplinary, research-focused collaborations. Its relative-ly large domestic teams work together along with in-ternational partners in both traditional and virtual set-tings to bring disparate approaches together for mutual benefit. This talk will describe the research efforts of the nine domestic teams that constitute the U.S. com-plement of the Institute and how it is engaging the in-ternational science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships. The Institute is centered on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars. It focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science cen-tered around all airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study reported here will represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Mar-tian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environ-ments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. The technical focus ranges from investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies. SSERVI enhances the widening knowledgebase of planetary research by acting as a bridge between several differ-ent groups and bringing together researchers from the scientific and exploration communities, multiple disci-plines across the full range of planetary sciences, and domestic and

  11. Exploring human brain lateralization with molecular genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francks, Clyde

    2015-11-01

    Lateralizations of brain structure and motor behavior have been observed in humans as early as the first trimester of gestation, and are likely to arise from asymmetrical genetic-developmental programs, as in other animals. Studies of gene expression levels in postmortem tissue samples, comparing the left and right sides of the human cerebral cortex, have generally not revealed striking transcriptional differences between the hemispheres. This is likely due to lateralization of gene expression being subtle and quantitative. However, a recent re-analysis and meta-analysis of gene expression data from the adult superior temporal and auditory cortex found lateralization of transcription of genes involved in synaptic transmission and neuronal electrophysiology. Meanwhile, human subcortical mid- and hindbrain structures have not been well studied in relation to lateralization of gene activity, despite being potentially important developmental origins of asymmetry. Genetic polymorphisms with small effects on adult brain and behavioral asymmetries are beginning to be identified through studies of large datasets, but the core genetic mechanisms of lateralized human brain development remain unknown. Identifying subtly lateralized genetic networks in the brain will lead to a new understanding of how neuronal circuits on the left and right are differently fine-tuned to preferentially support particular cognitive and behavioral functions. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Exploring the Relevance of Holocaust Education for Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Can Holocaust education be considered a tool for human rights education? If so, to what extent? These questions elicit discussions among a wide range of educators, and interest among politicians, educational planners, and ministries in charge of memorials. At first glance the obvious answer seems to be yes; both educators and students have strong…

  13. NASA Planetary Science Division Vision 2050 Through Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, P. Y.

    2017-02-01

    Next 34 years PSD should play the role of the 21st century-version Lewis and Clark expedition to gather critical information about carefully chosen target celestial bodies in our solar system. PSD missions and human missions will benefit each other.

  14. PyramidalExplorer: A New Interactive Tool to Explore Morpho-Functional Relations of Human Pyramidal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toharia, Pablo; Robles, Oscar D; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; Makarova, Julia; Galindo, Sergio E; Rodriguez, Angel; Pastor, Luis; Herreras, Oscar; DeFelipe, Javier; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This work presents PyramidalExplorer, a new tool to interactively explore and reveal the detailed organization of the microanatomy of pyramidal neurons with functionally related models. It consists of a set of functionalities that allow possible regional differences in the pyramidal cell architecture to be interactively discovered by combining quantitative morphological information about the structure of the cell with implemented functional models. The key contribution of this tool is the morpho-functional oriented design that allows the user to navigate within the 3D dataset, filter and perform Content-Based Retrieval operations. As a case study, we present a human pyramidal neuron with over 9000 dendritic spines in its apical and basal dendritic trees. Using PyramidalExplorer, we were able to find unexpected differential morphological attributes of dendritic spines in particular compartments of the neuron, revealing new aspects of the morpho-functional organization of the pyramidal neuron.

  15. Shared molecular and functional frameworks among five complex human disorders: a comparative study on interactomes linked to susceptibility genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Menon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (gwas are invaluable in revealing the common variants predisposing to complex human diseases. Yet, until now, the large volumes of data generated from such analyses have not been explored extensively enough to identify the molecular and functional framework hosting the susceptibility genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the relationships among five neurodegenerative and/or autoimmune complex human diseases (Parkinson's disease--Park, Alzheimer's disease--Alz, multiple sclerosis--MS, rheumatoid arthritis--RA and Type 1 diabetes--T1D by characterising the interactomes linked to their gwas-genes. An initial study on the MS interactome indicated that several genes predisposing to the other autoimmune or neurodegenerative disorders may come into contact with it, suggesting that susceptibility to distinct diseases may converge towards common molecular and biological networks. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed pathway enrichment analyses on each disease interactome independently. Several issues related to immune function and growth factor signalling pathways appeared in all autoimmune diseases, and, surprisingly, in Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, the paired analyses of disease interactomes revealed significant molecular and functional relatedness among autoimmune diseases, and, unexpectedly, between T1D and Alz. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The systems biology approach highlighted several known pathogenic processes, indicating that changes in these functions might be driven or sustained by the framework linked to genetic susceptibility. Moreover, the comparative analyses among the five genetic interactomes revealed unexpected genetic relationships, which await further biological validation. Overall, this study outlines the potential of systems biology to uncover links between genetics and pathogenesis of complex human disorders.

  16. A human rights-based approach to farmworker health: an overarching framework to address the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Athena K

    2017-09-26

    Migrant and seasonal workers have a right to the highest attainable standard of health. Unfortunately, these farmworkers face a multitude of challenges. They are employed in one of the most dangerous industries and face serious occupational health risks while positioned at the bottom of the social hierarchy. They often lack formal education and training, English language proficiency, legal status, access to information, and equitable opportunities to health and healthcare. This paper will explore the international human rights conventions that support farmworkers' right to health and healthcare in the United States. International human rights may provide a valuable legal framework that could be used to advocate on behalf of farmworkers and address the social determinants of health. Therefore, a Human Rights-Based Approach to Farmworker Health will be presented along with recommendations for how to advance health and access to healthcare among this population. Fostering the health and well-being of migrant and seasonal farmworkers is critical to advancing equity, social justice, and maintaining the workforce required to meet production needs and safeguard the economic competitiveness of the industry.

  17. Metrological analysis of the human foot: 3D multisensor exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Potosi, A.; Meneses Fonseca, J.; León Téllez, J.

    2011-08-01

    In the podiatry field, many of the foot dysfunctions are mainly generated due to: Congenital malformations, accidents or misuse of footwear. For the treatment or prevention of foot disorders, the podiatrist diagnoses prosthesis or specific adapted footwear, according to the real dimension of foot. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire 3D information of foot with 360 degrees of observation. As alternative solution, it was developed and implemented an optical system of threedimensional reconstruction based in the principle of laser triangulation. The system is constituted by an illumination unit that project a laser plane into the foot surface, an acquisition unit with 4 CCD cameras placed around of axial foot axis, an axial moving unit that displaces the illumination and acquisition units in the axial axis direction and a processing and exploration unit. The exploration software allows the extraction of distances on three-dimensional image, taking into account the topography of foot. The optical system was tested and their metrological performances were evaluated in experimental conditions. The optical system was developed to acquire 3D information in order to design and make more appropriate footwear.

  18. Belonging, occupation, and human well-being: an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2014-02-01

    Researchers identify the importance of belonging to human well-being and provide evidence-based support for occupation as a medium for expressing and achieving a sense of belonging and connectedness. The purpose of this article is to highlight the imperative for occupational therapy theory and practice to address occupations concerned with belonging needs. Dominant occupational therapy models emphasise doing self-care, productive, and leisure occupations, thereby ignoring occupations undertaken to contribute to the well-being of others, occupations that foster connections to nature and ancestors, collaborative occupations, and those valued for their social context and potential to strengthen social roles. Belonging, connectedness, and interdependence are positively correlated with human well-being, are prioritized by the majority of the world's people, and inform the meanings attributed to and derived from the occupations of culturally diverse people. If occupational therapy is to address meaningful occupations, attention should be paid to occupations concerned with belonging, connecting, and contributing to others.

  19. A theoretical framework for early human studies: uncertainty, intervention ensembles, and boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmelman Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clinical development of novel therapeutics begins with a coordinated sequence of early phase clinical trials. Such early human studies confront a series of methodological and ethical challenges. In what follows, I propose a theoretical framework for early human studies aimed at informing the negotiation of these challenges. At the outset of clinical development, researchers confront a virtually undifferentiated landscape of uncertainty with respect to three variables: outcomes, their probability of occurrence, and operation dimensions needed to effectuate favorable outcomes. Early human trials transform this uncertain landscape into one where there are grounds for belief about risk and benefit for various combined operation dimensions. To accomplish this, studies set out with two aims. First, they identify a set of operation dimensions that, when combined as a package (intervention ensemble, elicits a reasonable probability of a target outcome. Second, they define the boundaries of dimension values within an intervention ensemble. This latter aim entails exposing at least some volunteers in early studies to treatments that are inactive or excessive. I provide examples that illustrate the way early human studies discover and delimit intervention ensembles, and close by offering some implications of this framework for ethics, methodology, and efficiency in clinical development of new interventions.

  20. Approach to technology prioritization in support of moon initiatives in the framework of ESA exploration technology roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleina, Sara Cresto; Viola, Nicole; Fusaro, Roberta; Saccoccia, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    Exploration technology roadmaps have been developed by ESA in the past few years and the latest edition has been released in 2015. Scope of these technology roadmaps, elaborated in consultation with the different ESA stakeholders (e.g. European Industries and Research Entities), is to provide a powerful tool for strategic, programmatic and technical decisions in support of the European role within an International Space Exploration context. In the context of preparation for possible future European Moon exploration initiatives, the technology roadmaps have been used to highlight the role of technology within Missions, Building Blocks and Operational Capabilities of relevance. In particular, as part of reference missions to the Moon that would fit in the time frame 2020 to 2030, ESA has addressed the definition of lunar surface exploration missions in line with its space exploration strategy, with the common mission goals of returning samples from the Moon and Mars and expanding human presence to these destinations in a step-wise approach. The roadmaps for the procurement of technologies required for the first mission elements of the above strategy have been elaborated through their main building blocks, i.e. Visual navigation, Hazard detection and avoidance; Sample acquisition, processing and containment system; Surface mobility elements; Tele-robotic and autonomous control systems; and Storable propulsion modules and equipment. Technology prioritization methodologies have been developed in support of the ESA Exploration Technology Roadmaps, in order to provide logical and quantitative instruments to verify choices of prioritization that can be carried out based on important, but non-quantitative factors. These methodologies, which are thoroughly described in the first part of the paper, proceed through subsequent steps. First, technology prioritization's criteria are selected; then decision trees are developed to highlight all feasible paths of combination of

  1. Boots on Mars: Earth Independent Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Josephine; Gill, Tracy R.; Ellis, Kim Gina

    2017-01-01

    This package is for the conduct of a workshop during the International Space University Space Studies Program in the summer of 2017 being held in Cork, Ireland. It gives publicly available information on NASA and international plans to move beyond low Earth orbit to Mars and discusses challenges and capabilities. This information will provide the participants a basic level of insight to develop a response on their perceived obstacles to a future vision of humans on Mars.

  2. Exploring possible human influences on the evolution of Darwin's finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León, Luis Fernando; Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Bermingham, Eldredge; Podos, Jeffrey; Herrel, Anthony; Hendry, Andrew P

    2011-08-01

    Humans are an increasingly common influence on the evolution of natural populations. Potential arenas of influence include altered evolutionary trajectories within populations and modifications of the process of divergence among populations. We consider this second arena in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos, Ecuador. Our study compared the G. fortis population at a relatively undisturbed site, El Garrapatero, to the population at a severely disturbed site, Academy Bay, which is immediately adjacent to the town of Puerto Ayora. The El Garrapatero population currently shows beak size bimodality that is tied to assortative mating and disruptive selection, whereas the Academy Bay population was historically bimodal but has lost this property in conjunction with a dramatic increase in local human population density. We here evaluate potential ecological-adaptive drivers of the differences in modality by quantifying relationships between morphology (beak and head dimensions), functional performance (bite force), and environmental characteristics (diet). Our main finding is that associations among these variables are generally weaker at Academy Bay than at El Garrapatero, possibly because novel foods are used at the former site irrespective of individual morphology and performance. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the rugged adaptive landscapes promoting and maintaining diversification in nature can be smoothed by human activities, thus hindering ongoing adaptive radiation.

  3. Exploring the ICF-CY as a framework to inform transition programs from pediatric to adult healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Laura R; McPherson, Amy C; Maxwell, Joanne; Lindsay, Sally

    2017-05-23

    To explore the utility of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY) for informing transition-related programs for youth with chronic conditions moving into adult healthcare settings, using an exemplar spina bifida program. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 53 participants (9 youth and 11 parents who participated in a spina bifida transition program, 12 young adults who did not, 12 clinicians, and 9 key informants involved in development/implementation). Interview transcripts were thematically analyzed, and then further coded using ICF-CY domain codes. ICF-CY domains captured many key areas regarding individuals" transitions to adult care and adult functioning, but did not fully capture concepts of transition program experience, independence, and parents" role. The ICF-CY framework captures some experiences of transitions to adult care, but should be considered in conjunction with other models that address issues outside of the domains covered by the ICF-CY.

  4. Human Exploration on the Moon, Mars and NEOs: PEX.2/ICEUM12B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    The session COSPAR-16-PEX.2: "Human Exploration on the Moon, Mars and NEOs", co-sponsored by Commissions B, F will include solicited and contributed talks and poster/interactive presentations. It will also be part of the 12th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon ICEUM12B from the ILEWG ICEUM series started in 1994. It will address various themes and COSPAR communities: - Sciences (of, on, from) the Moon enabled by humans - Research from cislunar and libration points - From robotic villages to international lunar bases - Research from Mars & NEOs outposts - Humans to Phobos/Deimos, Mars and NEOS - Challenges and preparatory technologies, field research operations - Human and robotic partnerships and precursor missions - Resource utilisation, life support and sustainable exploration - Stakeholders for human exploration One half-day session will be dedicated to a workshop format and meetings/reports of task groups: Science, Technology, Agencies, Robotic village, Human bases, Society & Commerce, Outreach, Young Explorers. COSPAR has provided through Commissions, Panels and Working Groups (such as ILEWG, IMEWG) an international forum for supporting and promoting the robotic and human exploration of the Moon, Mars and NEOS. Proposed sponsors : ILEWG, ISECG, IKI, ESA, NASA, DLR, CNES, ASI, UKSA, JAXA, ISRO, SRON, CNSA, SSERVI, IAF, IAA, Lockheed Martin, Google Lunar X prize, UNOOSA

  5. Multidisciplinary framework for human reliability analysis with an application to errors of commission and dependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriere, M.T.; Luckas, W.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wreathall, J. [Wreathall (John) and Co., Dublin, OH (United States); Cooper, S.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Reston, VA (United States); Bley, D.C. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Ramey-Smith, A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-08-01

    Since the early 1970s, human reliability analysis (HRA) has been considered to be an integral part of probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Nuclear power plant (NPP) events, from Three Mile Island through the mid-1980s, showed the importance of human performance to NPP risk. Recent events demonstrate that human performance continues to be a dominant source of risk. In light of these observations, the current limitations of existing HRA approaches become apparent when the role of humans is examined explicitly in the context of real NPP events. The development of new or improved HRA methodologies to more realistically represent human performance is recognized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a necessary means to increase the utility of PRAS. To accomplish this objective, an Improved HRA Project, sponsored by the NRC`s Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), was initiated in late February, 1992, at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop an improved method for HRA that more realistically assesses the human contribution to plant risk and can be fully integrated with PRA. This report describes the research efforts including the development of a multidisciplinary HRA framework, the characterization and representation of errors of commission, and an approach for addressing human dependencies. The implications of the research and necessary requirements for further development also are discussed.

  6. Human relationships: an exploration of loneliness and touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playfair, Catherine

    The aim of this article is to provide a cursory review of some of the literature relating to loneliness, existentialism and touch. With reference to the critical incident analysis (see Box 1), a reflection on the learning that has been achieved both intrapersonally and interpersonally will also be provided. A consideration of how exactly this experience of structured reflection may be used to enhance and develop practice will also be explored. The review will analyze the key concepts of loneliness, existentialism, the therapeutic relationship and touch within the realms of nursing practice, specifically in relation to death and dying. This article seeks to highlight the importance of having an understanding of loneliness in nursing, particularly when caring for patients who are dying.

  7. An Integrated Human System Interaction (HSI) Framework for Human-Agent Team Collaboration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As space missions become more complex and as mission demands increase, robots, human-robot mixed initiative teams and software autonomy applications are needed to...

  8. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Rockström

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic pressures on the Earth System have reached a scale where abrupt global environmental change can no longer be excluded. We propose a new approach to global sustainability in which we define planetary boundaries within which we expect that humanity can operate safely. Transgressing one or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or even catastrophic due to the risk of crossing thresholds that will trigger non-linear, abrupt environmental change within continental- to planetary-scale systems. We have identified nine planetary boundaries and, drawing upon current scientific understanding, we propose quantifications for seven of them. These seven are climate change (CO2 concentration in the atmosphere

  9. Revolutionary Concepts of Radiation Shielding for Human Exploration of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Hathaway, D. H.; Grugel, R. N.; Watts, J. W.; Parnell, T. A.; Gregory, J. C.; Winglee, R. M.

    2005-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum covers revolutionary ideas for space radiation shielding that would mitigate mission costs while limiting human exposure, as studied in a workshop held at Marshall Space Flight Center at the request of NASA Headquarters. None of the revolutionary new ideas examined for the .rst time in this workshop showed clear promise. The workshop attendees felt that some previously examined concepts were de.nitely useful and should be pursued. The workshop attendees also concluded that several of the new concepts warranted further investigation to clarify their value.

  10. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Rockström, Johan; Steffen, Will

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic pressures on the Earth System have reached a scale where abrupt global environmental change can no longer be excluded. We propose a new approach to global sustainability in which we define planetary boundaries within which we expect that humanity can operate safely. Transgressing one...... or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or even catastrophic due to the risk of crossing thresholds that will trigger non-linear, abrupt environmental change within continental- to planetary-scale systems. We have identified nine planetary boundaries and, drawing upon current scientific...... background weathering of P); global freshwater use (system change (

  11. The Role of Lunar Development in Human Exploration of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1999-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system can be said to have begun with the Apollo landings on the Moon. The Apollo Project was publicly funded with the narrow technical objective of landing human beings on the Moon. The transportation and life support systems were specialized technical designs, developed in a project management environment tailored to that objective. Most scenarios for future human exploration assume a similar long-term commitment of public funds to a narrowly focused project managed by a large, monolithic organization. Advocates of human exploration of space have not yet been successful in generating the political momentum required to initiate such a project to go to the Moon or to Mars. Alternative scenarios of exploration may relax some or all of the parameters of organizational complexity, great expense, narrow technical focus, required public funding, and control by a single organization. Development of the Moon using private investment is quite possibly a necessary condition for alternative scenarios to succeed.

  12. A Human Exploration Zone on the East Rim of Hellas Basin, Mars: Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Z. E.; Newsom, H. E.

    2015-10-01

    This abstract highlights a previously unexplored area in the Hellas Planitia region of Mars. The exploration zone proposed offers scientifically compelling regions of interest, as well as abundant resources for reoccurring human missions.

  13. Early childhood development in Rwanda: a policy analysis of the human rights legal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Scott, Kirstin W; Harward, Sardis H

    2016-01-12

    Early childhood development (ECD) is a critical period that continues to impact human health and productivity throughout the lifetime. Failing to provide policies and programs that support optimal developmental attainment when such services are financially and logistically feasible can result in negative population health, education and economic consequences that might otherwise be avoided. Rwanda, with its commitment to rights-based policy and program planning, serves as a case study for examination of the national, regional, and global human rights legal frameworks that inform ECD service delivery. In this essay, we summarize key causes and consequences of the loss of early developmental potential and how this relates to the human rights legal framework in Rwanda. We contend that sub-optimal early developmental attainment constitutes a violation of individuals' rights to health, education, and economic prosperity. These rights are widely recognized in global, regional and national human rights instruments, and are guaranteed by Rwanda's constitution. Recent policy implementation by several Rwandan ministries has increased access to health and social services that promote achievement of full developmental potential. These ECD-centric activities are characterized by an integrated approach to strengthening the services provided by several public sectors. Combining population level activities with those at the local level, led by local community health workers and women's councils, can bolster community education and ensure uptake of ECD services. Realization of the human rights to health, education, and economic prosperity requires and benefits from attention to the period of ECD, as early childhood has the potential to be an opportunity for expedient intervention or the first case of human rights neglect in a lifetime of rights violations. Efforts to improve ECD services and outcomes at the population level require multisector collaboration at the highest echelons

  14. Exploration of Multifocal Rod Electroretinograms Recording in Human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changzheng Chen; Lezheng Wu; De-Zheng Wu; Shixian Long; Jiongji Liang; Futian Jiang; Libing Jiang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To test the feasibility of recording rod multifocal electroretinograms (ERG) in humans and observe appropriate recording conditions.Methods: Multifocal rod ERG were recorded using a stimulus array of 61 equalsized hexagons in two normal subjects after the dark adaptation. Flashes were blue (W47B). Blank frames between two successive flashes of hexagons varied from 0 to 14. Length of the m-sequence, bandwidth, flash frequency, flash intensities and background intensities were changed to obtain appropriate recording conditions for the clinical use.Results:Multifocal rod ERG were clearly recordable and well formed. They had an early implicit time, very small negative wave and a late implicit time, large positive wave. The positive wave was bimodal, whose timing and waveform were similar to the full-field rod ERG. The local response amplitudes can be suppressed with increase in flash frequency or background intensity, decrease in flash intensity or the size of stimulus elements.Conclusions: Multifocal rod ERG can be recorded in human and can provide topographical maps of retinal function that have clinical usage. 212-1 m-sequence length, 3F blank frames and 3~ 300 Hz bandwidth were suggested to appropriate recording conditions.

  15. Exploring the world of human development and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red-Horse, Kristy; Drake, Penelope M; Fisher, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Susan Fisher has spent her career studying human development, proteomics, and the intersection between the two. When she began studying human placentation, there had been extensive descriptive studies of this fascinating organ that intertwines with the mother's vasculature during pregnancy. Susan can be credited with numerous major findings on the mechanisms that regulate placental cytotrophoblast invasion. These include the discovery that cytotrophoblasts undergo vascular mimicry to insert themselves into uterine arteries, the finding that oxygen tension greatly effects placentation, and identifying how these responses go awry in pregnancy complications such as preeclamsia. Other important work has focused on the effect of post-translational modifications such as glycosylation on bacterial adhesion and reproduction. Susan has also forayed into the world of proteomics to identify cancer biomarkers. Because her work is truly groundbreaking, many of these findings inspire research in other laboratories around the world resulting in numerous follow up papers. Likewise, her mentoring and support inspires young scientists to go on and make their own important discoveries. In this interview, Susan shares what drove her science, how she continued to do important research while balancing other aspects of life, and provides insights for the next generation.

  16. Becoming Earth Independent: Human-Automation-Robotics Integration Challenges for Future Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.

    2016-01-01

    Future exploration missions will require NASA to integrate more automation and robotics in order to accomplish mission objectives. This presentation will describe on the future challenges facing the human operator (astronaut, ground controllers) as we increase the amount of automation and robotics in spaceflight operations. It will describe how future exploration missions will have to adapt and evolve in order to deal with more complex missions and communication latencies. This presentation will outline future human-automation-robotic integration challenges.

  17. Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Ongoing Efforts in Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Hames, Kevin L.; Vitalpur, Sharada V.; Woodman, Keith L.

    2014-01-01

    The field of Avionics is advancing far more rapidly in terrestrial applications than in spaceflight applications. Spaceflight Avionics are not keeping pace with expectations set by terrestrial experience, nor are they keeping pace with the need for increasingly complex automation and crew interfaces as we move beyond Low Earth Orbit. NASA must take advantage of the strides being made by both space-related and terrestrial industries to drive our development and sustaining costs down. This paper describes ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionic architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. The AAE project team includes members from most NASA centers, and from industry. It is our intent to develop a common core avionic system that has standard capabilities and interfaces, and contains the basic elements and functionality needed for any spacecraft. This common core will be scalable and tailored to specific missions. It will incorporate hardware and software from multiple vendors, and be upgradeable in order to infuse incremental capabilities and new technologies. It will maximize the use of reconfigurable open source software (e.g., Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Core Flight Software (CFS)). Our long-term focus is on improving functionality, reliability, and autonomy, while reducing size, weight, and power. Where possible, we will leverage terrestrial commercial capabilities to drive down development and sustaining costs. We will select promising technologies for evaluation, compare them in an objective manner, and mature them to be available for future programs. The remainder of this paper describes our approach, technical areas of emphasis, integrated test experience and results as of mid-2014, and future plans. As a part of the AES

  18. A New Presentation and Exploration of Human Cerebral Vasculature Correlated with Surface and Sectional Neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Thirunavuukarasuu, Arumugam; Volkau, Ihar; Marchenko, Yevgen; Aminah, Bivi; Gelas, Arnaud; Huang, Su; Lee, Looi Chow; Liu, Jimin; Ng, Ting Ting; Nowinska, Natalia G.; Qian, Guoyu Yu; Puspitasari, Fiftarina; Runge, Val M.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing complexity of human body models enabled by advances in diagnostic imaging, computing, and growing knowledge calls for the development of a new generation of systems for intelligent exploration of these models. Here, we introduce a novel paradigm for the exploration of digital body models illustrating cerebral vasculature. It enables…

  19. Pesticides and human diabetes: a link worth exploring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, K

    2013-11-01

    It is no exaggeration to claim that the 'diabetes epidemic' has become a 'runaway train' causing huge health and economic consequences, especially in the developing nations. Traditionally, the risk factors for diabetes have largely focused on genetics and lifestyle. Great emphasis is placed on lifestyle measures and finding novel pharmacological treatment options to combat diabetes, but there is increasing evidence linking environmental pollutants, especially pesticides, to the development of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Pesticide use has increased dramatically worldwide and the effects of pesticides on glucose metabolism are too significant for a possible diabetogenic link to be dismissed. The aim of this review article was to assess the links between pesticides and human diabetes with the goal of stimulating further research in this area. © 2013 The Author. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  20. Analyzing and sense making of human factors in the Malaysian radiation and nuclear emergency planning framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, A. H. A.; Rozan, M. Z. A.; Deris, S.; Ibrahim, R.; Abdullah, W. S. W.; Rahman, A. A.; Yunus, M. N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of current Radiation and Nuclear Emergency Planning Framework (RANEPF) simulator emphasizes on the human factors to be analyzed and interpreted according to the stakeholder's tacit and explicit knowledge. These human factor criteria are analyzed and interpreted according to the "sense making theory" and Disaster Emergency Response Management Information System (DERMIS) design premises. These criteria are corroborated by the statistical criteria. In recent findings, there were no differences of distributions among the stakeholders according to gender and organizational expertise. These criteria are incrementally accepted and agreed the research elements indicated in the respective emergency planning frameworks and simulator (i.e. 78.18 to 84.32, p-value human factors criteria in the associated analyses and theoretical perspectives to be further acomodated in the future simulator development. This development is in conjunction with the proposed hypothesis building of the process factors and responses diagram. We proposed that future work which implies the additional functionality of the simulator, as strategized, condensed and concise, comprehensive public disaster preparedness and intervention guidelines, to be a useful and efficient computer simulation.

  1. Coupling infectious diseases, human preventive behavior, and networks--a conceptual framework for epidemic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liang; Yang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Human-disease interactions involve the transmission of infectious diseases among individuals and the practice of preventive behavior by individuals. Both infectious diseases and preventive behavior diffuse simultaneously through human networks and interact with one another, but few existing models have coupled them together. This article proposes a conceptual framework to fill this knowledge gap and illustrates the model establishment. The conceptual model consists of two networks and two diffusion processes. The two networks include: an infection network that transmits diseases and a communication network that channels inter-personal influence regarding preventive behavior. Both networks are composed of same individuals but different types of interactions. This article further introduces modeling approaches to formulize such a framework, including the individual-based modeling approach, network theory, disease transmission models and behavioral models. An illustrative model was implemented to simulate a coupled-diffusion process during an influenza epidemic. The simulation outcomes suggest that the transmission probability of a disease and the structure of infection network have profound effects on the dynamics of coupled-diffusion. The results imply that current models may underestimate disease transmissibility parameters, because human preventive behavior has not been considered. This issue calls for a new interdisciplinary study that incorporates theories from epidemiology, social science, behavioral science, and health psychology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analyzing and sense making of human factors in the Malaysian radiation and nuclear emergency planning framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, A. H. A., E-mail: amyhamijah@gmail.com, E-mail: amyhamijah@nm.gov.my [Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK), Pengkalan Chepa, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia); Rozan, M. Z. A., E-mail: drmohdzaidi@gmail.com; Ibrahim, R. [Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Deris, S. [Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK), Pengkalan Chepa, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia); Abdullah, W. S. W.; Yunus, M. N. M. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, A. A. [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The evolution of current Radiation and Nuclear Emergency Planning Framework (RANEPF) simulator emphasizes on the human factors to be analyzed and interpreted according to the stakeholder’s tacit and explicit knowledge. These human factor criteria are analyzed and interpreted according to the “sense making theory” and Disaster Emergency Response Management Information System (DERMIS) design premises. These criteria are corroborated by the statistical criteria. In recent findings, there were no differences of distributions among the stakeholders according to gender and organizational expertise. These criteria are incrementally accepted and agreed the research elements indicated in the respective emergency planning frameworks and simulator (i.e. 78.18 to 84.32, p-value <0.05). This paper suggested these human factors criteria in the associated analyses and theoretical perspectives to be further acomodated in the future simulator development. This development is in conjunction with the proposed hypothesis building of the process factors and responses diagram. We proposed that future work which implies the additional functionality of the simulator, as strategized, condensed and concise, comprehensive public disaster preparedness and intervention guidelines, to be a useful and efficient computer simulation.

  3. A Bayesian framework for human body pose tracking from depth image sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Youding; Fujimura, Kikuo

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of accurate and robust tracking of 3D human body pose from depth image sequences. Recovering the large number of degrees of freedom in human body movements from a depth image sequence is challenging due to the need to resolve the depth ambiguity caused by self-occlusions and the difficulty to recover from tracking failure. Human body poses could be estimated through model fitting using dense correspondences between depth data and an articulated human model (local optimization method). Although it usually achieves a high accuracy due to dense correspondences, it may fail to recover from tracking failure. Alternately, human pose may be reconstructed by detecting and tracking human body anatomical landmarks (key-points) based on low-level depth image analysis. While this method (key-point based method) is robust and recovers from tracking failure, its pose estimation accuracy depends solely on image-based localization accuracy of key-points. To address these limitations, we present a flexible Bayesian framework for integrating pose estimation results obtained by methods based on key-points and local optimization. Experimental results are shown and performance comparison is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. A Framework for Geometric Reasoning About Human Figures and Factors in Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, Terri L.

    1999-07-20

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be perfectly valid operations, but in reality some operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. For example, the use of a ratchet may be reasoned feasible for an assembly operation; however, when a hand is placed on the tool the operation is no longer feasible, perhaps because of inaccessibility, insufficient strength or human interference with assembly components. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications, however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem, HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning which allows engineers to quickly verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. This paper presents a framework for integrating geometry-based assembly planning algorithms with commercially available human figure modeling software packages. Experimental results to selected applications along with lessons learned are presented.

  5. Synthetic and Receptor Signaling Explorations of the Mitragyna Alkaloids: Mitragynine as an Atypical Molecular Framework for Opioid Receptor Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruegel, Andrew C; Gassaway, Madalee M; Kapoor, Abhijeet; Váradi, András; Majumdar, Susruta; Filizola, Marta; Javitch, Jonathan A; Sames, Dalibor

    2016-06-01

    Mu-opioid receptor agonists represent mainstays of pain management. However, the therapeutic use of these agents is associated with serious side effects, including potentially lethal respiratory depression. Accordingly, there is a longstanding interest in the development of new opioid analgesics with improved therapeutic profiles. The alkaloids of the Southeast Asian plant Mitragyna speciosa, represented by the prototypical member mitragynine, are an unusual class of opioid receptor modulators with distinct pharmacological properties. Here we describe the first receptor-level functional characterization of mitragynine and related natural alkaloids at the human mu-, kappa-, and delta-opioid receptors. These results show that mitragynine and the oxidized analogue 7-hydroxymitragynine, are partial agonists of the human mu-opioid receptor and competitive antagonists at the kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. We also show that mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are G-protein-biased agonists of the mu-opioid receptor, which do not recruit β-arrestin following receptor activation. Therefore, the Mitragyna alkaloid scaffold represents a novel framework for the development of functionally biased opioid modulators, which may exhibit improved therapeutic profiles. Also presented is an enantioselective total synthesis of both (-)-mitragynine and its unnatural enantiomer, (+)-mitragynine, employing a proline-catalyzed Mannich-Michael reaction sequence as the key transformation. Pharmacological evaluation of (+)-mitragynine revealed its much weaker opioid activity. Likewise, the intermediates and chemical transformations developed in the total synthesis allowed the elucidation of previously unexplored structure-activity relationships (SAR) within the Mitragyna scaffold. Molecular docking studies, in combination with the observed chemical SAR, suggest that Mitragyna alkaloids adopt a binding pose at the mu-opioid receptor that is distinct from that of classical opioids.

  6. The SAM framework: modeling the effects of management factors on human behavior in risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D M; Paté-Cornell, M E

    1996-08-01

    Complex engineered systems, such as nuclear reactors and chemical plants, have the potential for catastrophic failure with disastrous consequences. In recent years, human and management factors have been recognized as frequent root causes of major failures in such systems. However, classical probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) techniques do not account for the underlying causes of these errors because they focus on the physical system and do not explicitly address the link between components' performance and organizational factors. This paper describes a general approach for addressing the human and management causes of system failure, called the SAM (System-Action-Management) framework. Beginning with a quantitative risk model of the physical system, SAM expands the scope of analysis to incorporate first the decisions and actions of individuals that affect the physical system. SAM then links management factors (incentives, training, policies and procedures, selection criteria, etc.) to those decisions and actions. The focus of this paper is on four quantitative models of action that describe this last relationship. These models address the formation of intentions for action and their execution as a function of the organizational environment. Intention formation is described by three alternative models: a rational model, a bounded rationality model, and a rule-based model. The execution of intentions is then modeled separately. These four models are designed to assess the probabilities of individual actions from the perspective of management, thus reflecting the uncertainties inherent to human behavior. The SAM framework is illustrated for a hypothetical case of hazardous materials transportation. This framework can be used as a tool to increase the safety and reliability of complex technical systems by modifying the organization, rather than, or in addition to, re-designing the physical system.

  7. Strengthening the human rights framework to protect breastfeeding: a focus on CEDAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtry, Judith

    2015-01-01

    continues to be inadequately addressed in international human rights law on women. A comparison is made with CRC and its subsequent elaborations. Increasing recognition of the need to protect, promote and support breastfeeding within the framework of CRC but not that of CEDAW suggests that breastfeeding is regarded primarily as a children's rights issue but only minimally as a women's rights issue. The human rights framework requires strengthening in every direction to protect, promote and support breastfeeding. Discussion is needed regarding whether a separate strengthening of the international human rights framework on women is required with regard to breastfeeding.

  8. Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-09-30

    the Ohio River Valley corridor in the Appalachian Basin, which underlies large concentrations of CO{sub 2} emission sources. In addition, some wells in the Michigan basin are included. Assessment of the geologic and petrophysical properties of zones of interest has been conducted. Although a large number of formations have been evaluated across the geologic column, the primary focus has been on evaluating the Cambrian sandstones (Mt. Simon, Rose Run, Kerbel) and carbonates layers (Knox Dolomite) as well as on the Silurian-Devonian carbonates (Bass Island, Salina) and sandstones (Clinton, Oriskany, Berea). Factors controlling the development of porosity and permeability, such as the depositional setting have been explored. In northern Michigan the Bass Islands Dolomite appears to have favorable reservoir development. In west central Michigan the St. Peter sandstone exhibits excellent porosity in the Hart and Feuring well and looks promising. In Southeastern Kentucky in the Appalachian Basin, the Batten and Baird well provided valuable data on sequestration potential in organic shales through adsorption. In central and eastern Ohio and western West Virginia, the majority of the wells provided an insight to the complex geologic framework of the relatively little known Precambrian through Silurian potential injection targets. Although valuable data was acquired and a number of critical data gaps were filled through this effort, there are still many challenges ahead and questions that need answered. The lateral extent to which favorable potential injection conditions exist in most reservoirs is still generally uncertain. The prolongation of the characterization of regional geologic framework through partnership would continue to build confidence and greatly benefit the overall CO{sub 2} sequestration effort.

  9. Intermittent auscultation versus continuous fetal monitoring: exploring factors that influence birthing unit nurses' fetal surveillance practice using theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patey, Andrea M; Curran, Janet A; Sprague, Ann E; Francis, Jill J; Driedger, S Michelle; Légaré, France; Lemyre, Louise; Pomey, Marie-Pascale A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-09-25

    Intermittent Auscultation (IA) is the recommended method of fetal surveillance for healthy women in labour. However, the majority of women receive continuous electronic monitoring. We used the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to explore the views of Birthing Unit nurses about using IA as their primary method of fetal surveillance for healthy women in labour. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we interviewed a convenience sample of birthing unit nurses throughout Ontario, Canada to elicit their views about fetal surveillance. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were content analysed using the TDF and themes were framed as belief statements. Domains potentially key to changing fetal surveillance behaviour and informing intervention design were identified by noting the frequencies of beliefs, content, and their reported influence on the use of IA. We interviewed 12 birthing unit nurses. Seven of the 12 TDF domains were perceived to be key to changing birthing unit nurses' behaviour The nurses reported that competing tasks, time constraints and the necessity to multitask often limit their ability to perform IA (domains Beliefs about capabilities; Environmental context and resources). Some nurses noted the decision to use IA was something that they consciously thought about with every patient while others stated it their default decision as long as there were no risk factors (Memory, attention and decision processes, Nature of behaviour). They identified positive consequences (e.g. avoid unnecessary interventions, mother-centered care) and negative consequences of using IA (e.g. legal concerns) and reported that the negative consequences can often outweigh positive consequences (Beliefs about consequences). Some reported that hospital policies and varying support from care teams inhibited their use of IA (Social influences), and that support from the entire team and hospital management would likely increase their use (Social

  10. Assessing the Relationship Between Human Well-being and Ecosystem Services: A Review of Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Agarwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the most impoverished populations, we critically review and synthesise key themes from dominant frameworks for assessing the relationship between well-being and ecosystem services in developing countries. This requires a differentiated approach to conceptualising well-being that appropriately reflects the perspectives of the poorest-those most directly dependent on ecosystem services, and their vulnerability to external and policy-driven environmental change. The frameworks analysed draw upon environmental sciences, economics, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, and were selected on the basis of their demonstrated or potential ability to illustrate the relationship between environmental change and human well-being, as well as their prevalence in real world applications. Thus, the synthesis offered here is informed by the various theoretical, methodological, and hermeneutical contributions from each field to the notion of well-being. The review highlights several key dimensions that should be considered by those interested in understanding and assessing the impact of environmental change on the well-being of the world′s poorest people: the importance of interdisciplinary consideration of well-being, the need for frameworks that integrate subjective and objective aspects of well-being, and the central importance of context and relational aspects of well-being. The review is of particular interest to those engaged in the post-2015 development agenda.

  11. Crabby Interactions: Fifth Graders Explore Human Impact on the Blue Crab Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Tonya D.; McCollough, Cherie A.; Moore, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a two-day lesson in which fifth-grade students took on the role of marine biology scientists, using their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to explore human impact on the blue crab ecosystem. The purpose of "Crabby Interactions" was to help students understand the impact of human activities on the local…

  12. Seeking Asylum: Adolescents Explore the Crossroads of Human Rights Education and Cosmopolitan Critical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerly-Bean, Judith; Bean, Thomas; Alnajjar, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school (grade 6-8) students' understanding and interpretation of human rights issues with local and global implications as they engaged in the process of creating a film after reading print and multimedia texts and participating in human rights education activities. As the students explored…

  13. Seeking Asylum: Adolescents Explore the Crossroads of Human Rights Education and Cosmopolitan Critical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerly-Bean, Judith; Bean, Thomas; Alnajjar, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school (grade 6-8) students' understanding and interpretation of human rights issues with local and global implications as they engaged in the process of creating a film after reading print and multimedia texts and participating in human rights education activities. As the students explored…

  14. Crabby Interactions: Fifth Graders Explore Human Impact on the Blue Crab Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Tonya D.; McCollough, Cherie A.; Moore, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a two-day lesson in which fifth-grade students took on the role of marine biology scientists, using their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to explore human impact on the blue crab ecosystem. The purpose of "Crabby Interactions" was to help students understand the impact of human activities on the local…

  15. The DWAN Framework: Application of a Web Annotation Framework for the General Humanities to the Domain of Language Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Shkaravska, Olha; Goosen, Twan; Broeder, Daan; Windhouwer, Menzo; Roth, Stephanie; Olsson, Olof; Chair), Nicoletta Calzolari (Conference; Choukri, Khalid; Declerck, Thierry; Loftsson, Hrafn; Maegaard, Bente; Mariani, Joseph; Moreno, Asuncion; Odijk, Jan; Piperidis, Stelios

    2014-01-01

    Researchers share large amounts of digital resources, which offer new chances for cooperation. Collaborative annotation systems are meant to support this. Often these systems are targeted at a specific task or domain, e.g., annotation of a corpus. The DWAN framework for web annotation is generic and

  16. Innovative Technologies for Human Exploration: Opportunities for Partnerships and Leveraging Novel Technologies External to NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jason; Mullins, Carie; Graham, Rachael; Williams-Byrd, Julie; Reeves, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Human spaceflight organizations have ambitious goals for expanding human presence throughout the solar system. To meet these goals, spaceflight organizations have to overcome complex technical challenges for human missions to Mars, Near Earth Asteroids, and other distant celestial bodies. Resolving these challenges requires considerable resources and technological innovations, such as advancements in human health and countermeasures for space environments; self-sustaining habitats; advanced power and propulsion systems; and information technologies. Today, government space agencies seek cooperative endeavors to reduce cost burdens, improve human exploration capabilities, and foster knowledge sharing among human spaceflight organizations. This paper looks at potential opportunities for partnerships and spin-ins from economic sectors outside the space industry. It highlights innovative technologies and breakthrough concepts that could have significant impacts on space exploration and identifies organizations throughout the broader economy that specialize in these technologies.

  17. An Extended Framework for Measuring the Information Capacity of the Human Motor System

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Teemu

    2011-01-01

    Fitts' law is a fundamental tool in understanding the capacity of the human motor system. It measures information throughput in terms of the tradeoff between the speed and accuracy of motor responses. Although immensely popular, the paradigm in which Fitts' law is the principal keystone is confined to relatively simple responses in strictly prescribed stimulus-response conditions. Our goal is to generalize the framework into completely unconstrained movement. The proposed new metric is based on a subject's ability to accurately reproduce a learned movement pattern. It can accommodate recorded movement of any duration and composition, and involving contributions of any part of the body. We demonstrate the proposed method by analyzing publicly available motion capture data. Possible applications include human-computer interaction, sports science, and clinical diagnosis.

  18. Crew systems: integrating human and technical subsystems for the exploration of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, M. M.; Harrison, A. A.; Summit, J.

    1994-01-01

    Space exploration missions will require combining human and technical subsystems into overall "crew systems" capable of performing under the rigorous conditions of outer space. This report describes substantive and conceptual relationships among humans, intelligent machines, and communication systems, and explores how these components may be combined to complement and strengthen one another. We identify key research issues in the combination of humans and technology and examine the role of individual differences, group processes, and environmental conditions. We conclude that a crew system is, in effect, a social cyborg, a living system consisting of multiple individuals whose capabilities are extended by advanced technology.

  19. Peer-to-Peer Human-Robot Interaction for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2004-01-01

    NASA has embarked on a long-term program to develop human-robot systems for sustained, affordable space exploration. To support this mission, we are working to improve human-robot interaction and performance on planetary surfaces. Rather than building robots that function as glorified tools, our focus is to enable humans and robots to work as partners and peers. In this paper. we describe our approach, which includes contextual dialogue, cognitive modeling, and metrics-based field testing.

  20. International Frameworks Dealing with Human Risk Assessment of Combined Exposure to Multiple Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of harmonised terminology and frameworks for the human risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals (“chemical mixtures” is an important area for EFSA and a number of activities have already been undertaken, i.e. in the fields of pesticides and contaminants. The first step prior to a risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals is problem formulation defining the relevant exposure, hazard and population to be considered. In practice, risk assessment of multiple chemicals is conducted using a tiered approach for exposure assessment, hazard assessment and risk characterisation. Higher tiers require increasing knowledge about the group of chemicals under assessment and the tiers can range from tier 0 (default values, data poor situation to tier 3 (full probabilistic models. This scientific report reviews the terminology, methodologies and frameworks developed by national and international agencies for the human risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals and provides recommendations for future activities at EFSA in this area.

  1. A modelling framework to evaluate human-induced alterations of network sediment connectivity and quantify their unplanned adverse impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzi, S.; Schmitt, R. J. P.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2016-12-01

    World-wide human-induced alterations of sediment transport, e.g. due to dams, sand and gravel mining along rivers and channel maintenance, translated into geomorphic changes, which have had major effects on ecosystem integrity, human livelihoods, ultimately negatively impacting also on the expected benefit from building water infrastructures. Despite considerable recent advances in modelling basin-scale hydrological and geomorphological processes, our ability to quantitatively simulate network sediment transport, foresee effects of alternative scenarios of human development on fluvial morpho-dynamics, and design anticipatory planning adaptation measures is still limited. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of a novel modelling framework called CASCADE (CAtchment SEdiment Connectivity And Delivery (Schmitt et al., 2016)) to characterize sediment connectivity at the whole river network scale, predict the disturbing effect of dams on the sediment transport, and quantify the associated loss with respect to the level of benefits that provided the economic justification for their development. CASCADE allows tracking the fate of a sediment from its source to its multiple sinks across the network. We present the results from two major, transboundary river systems (3S and Red River) in South-East Asia. We first discuss the ability of CASCADE to properly represent sediment connectivity at the network scale using available remote sensing data and information from monitoring networks. Secondly, we assess the impacts on sediment connectivity induced by existing and planned dams in the 3S and Red River basins and compare these alterations with revenues in terms of hydropower production. CASCADE outputs support a broader understanding of sediment connectivity tailored for water management issues not yet available, and it is suitable to enrich assessments of food-energy-water nexus. The model framework can be embedded into the design of optimal siting and sizing of water

  2. Engineering humanized antibody framework sequences for optimal site-specific conjugation of cytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidel, Jared L; Albone, Earl F; Cheng, Xin; Vaessen, Benjamin; Jacob, Sara; Milinichik, Andrew Z; Verdi, Arielle; Kline, J Bradford; Grasso, Luigi

    The prevailing techniques used to generate antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) involve random conjugation of the linker-drug to multiple lysines or cysteines in the antibody. Engineering natural and non-natural amino acids into an antibody has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy to produce homogeneous ADC products with defined drug-to-antibody ratios. We recently reported an efficient residue-specific conjugation technology (RESPECT) where thiol-reactive payloads can be efficiently conjugated to a native unpaired cysteine in position 80 (C80) of rabbit light chains. Deimmunizing the rabbit variable domains through humanization is necessary to reduce the risk of anti-drug antibody responses in patients. However, we found that first-generation humanized RESPECT ADCs showed high levels of aggregation and low conjugation efficiency. We correlated these negative properties to the phenylalanine at position 83 present in most human variable kappa frameworks. When position 83 was substituted with selected amino acids, conjugation was restored and aggregation was reduced to levels similar to the chimeric ADC. This engineering strategy allows for development of second-generation humanized RESPECT ADCs with desirable biopharmaceutical properties.

  3. Wearable Sensor Data Classification for Human Activity Recognition Based on an Iterative Learning Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Davila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The design of multiple human activity recognition applications in areas such as healthcare, sports and safety relies on wearable sensor technologies. However, when making decisions based on the data acquired by such sensors in practical situations, several factors related to sensor data alignment, data losses, and noise, among other experimental constraints, deteriorate data quality and model accuracy. To tackle these issues, this paper presents a data-driven iterative learning framework to classify human locomotion activities such as walk, stand, lie, and sit, extracted from the Opportunity dataset. Data acquired by twelve 3-axial acceleration sensors and seven inertial measurement units are initially de-noised using a two-stage consecutive filtering approach combining a band-pass Finite Impulse Response (FIR and a wavelet filter. A series of statistical parameters are extracted from the kinematical features, including the principal components and singular value decomposition of roll, pitch, yaw and the norm of the axial components. The novel interactive learning procedure is then applied in order to minimize the number of samples required to classify human locomotion activities. Only those samples that are most distant from the centroids of data clusters, according to a measure presented in the paper, are selected as candidates for the training dataset. The newly built dataset is then used to train an SVM multi-class classifier. The latter will produce the lowest prediction error. The proposed learning framework ensures a high level of robustness to variations in the quality of input data, while only using a much lower number of training samples and therefore a much shorter training time, which is an important consideration given the large size of the dataset.

  4. Wearable Sensor Data Classification for Human Activity Recognition Based on an Iterative Learning Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Juan Carlos; Cretu, Ana-Maria; Zaremba, Marek

    2017-06-07

    The design of multiple human activity recognition applications in areas such as healthcare, sports and safety relies on wearable sensor technologies. However, when making decisions based on the data acquired by such sensors in practical situations, several factors related to sensor data alignment, data losses, and noise, among other experimental constraints, deteriorate data quality and model accuracy. To tackle these issues, this paper presents a data-driven iterative learning framework to classify human locomotion activities such as walk, stand, lie, and sit, extracted from the Opportunity dataset. Data acquired by twelve 3-axial acceleration sensors and seven inertial measurement units are initially de-noised using a two-stage consecutive filtering approach combining a band-pass Finite Impulse Response (FIR) and a wavelet filter. A series of statistical parameters are extracted from the kinematical features, including the principal components and singular value decomposition of roll, pitch, yaw and the norm of the axial components. The novel interactive learning procedure is then applied in order to minimize the number of samples required to classify human locomotion activities. Only those samples that are most distant from the centroids of data clusters, according to a measure presented in the paper, are selected as candidates for the training dataset. The newly built dataset is then used to train an SVM multi-class classifier. The latter will produce the lowest prediction error. The proposed learning framework ensures a high level of robustness to variations in the quality of input data, while only using a much lower number of training samples and therefore a much shorter training time, which is an important consideration given the large size of the dataset.

  5. The Work Compatibility Improvement Framework: an integrated perspective of the human-at-work system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash; Salem, Sam; Karwowski, Waldemar; Paez, Omar; Tuncel, Setenay

    2007-01-15

    The industrial revolution demonstrated the limitations of a pure mechanistic approach towards work design. Human work is now seen as a complex entity that involves different scientific branches and blurs the line between mental and physical activities. Job design has been a traditional concern of applied psychology, which has provided insight into the interaction between the individual and the work environment. The goal of this paper is to introduce the human-at-work system as a holistic approach to organizational design. It postulates that the well-being of workers and work outcomes are issues that need to be addressed jointly, moving beyond traditional concepts of job satisfaction and work stress. The work compatibility model (WCM) is introduced as an engineering approach that seeks to integrate previous constructs of job and organizational design. The WCM seeks a balance between energy expenditure and replenishment. The implementation of the WCM in industrial settings is described within the context of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. A sample review of six models (motivation-hygiene theory; job characteristics theory; person-environment fit; demand-control model; and balance theory) provides the foundation for the interaction between the individual and the work environment. A review of three workload assessment methods (position analysis questionnaire, job task analysis and NASA task load index) gives an example of the foundation for the taxonomy of work environment domains. Previous models have sought to identify a balance state for the human-at-work system. They differentiated between the objective and subjective effects of the environment and the worker. An imbalance between the person and the environment has been proven to increase health risks. The WCM works with a taxonomy of 12 work domains classified in terms of the direct (acting) or indirect (experienced) effect on the worker. In terms of measurement, two quantitative methods are proposed

  6. Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

  7. Scientific Goals and Objectives for the Human Exploration of Mars: 1. Biology and Atmosphere/Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Garvin, J. B.; Anbar, A. D.; Beaty, D. W.; Bell, M. S.; Clancy, R. T.; Cockell, C. S.; Connerney, J. E.; Doran, P. T.; Delory, G.; Dickson, J. T.; Elphic, R. C.; Eppler, D. B.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Head, J. W.; Helper, M.; Gruener, J. E.; Heldmann, J.; Hipkin, V.; Lane, M. D.; Levy, J.; Moersch, J.; Ori, G. G.; Peach, L.; Poulet, F.

    2008-01-01

    To prepare for the exploration of Mars by humans, as outlined in the new national vision for Space Exploration (VSE), the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG), chartered by NASA's Mars Exploration Program (MEP), formed a Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG), in March 2007. HEM-SAG was chartered to develop the scientific goals and objectives for the human exploration of Mars based on the Mars Scientific Goals, Objectives, Investigations, and Priorities.1 The HEM-SAG is one of several humans to Mars scientific, engineering and mission architecture studies chartered in 2007 to support NASA s plans for the human exploration of Mars. The HEM-SAG is composed of about 30 Mars scientists representing the disciplines of Mars biology, climate/atmosphere, geology and geophysics from the U.S., Canada, England, France, Italy and Spain. MEPAG selected Drs. James B. Garvin (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) and Joel S. Levine (NASA Langley Research Center) to serve as HEMSAG co-chairs. The HEM-SAG team conducted 20 telecons and convened three face-to-face meetings from March through October 2007. The management of MEP and MEPAG were briefed on the HEM-SAG interim findings in May. The HEM-SAG final report was presented on-line to the full MEPAG membership and was presented at the MEPAG meeting on February 20-21, 2008. This presentation will outline the HEM-SAG biology and climate/atmosphere goals and objectives. A companion paper will outline the HEM-SAG geology and geophysics goals and objectives.

  8. Developing a Framework for Prediction of Human Performance Capability Using Ensemble Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Singh Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment of new personnel is one of the most essential business processes which affect the quality of human capital within any company. It is highly essential for the companies to ensure the recruitment of right talent to maintain a competitive edge over the others in the market. However IT companies often face a problem w hile recruiting new people for their ongoing projects due to lack of a proper framework that defines a criteria for the selection process. In this paper we aim to develop a framewor k that would allow any project manager to take the right decision for selecting new talent by correlating performance parameters with the other domain-specific attributes of the candidates. Also, another important motivation behind this project is to check the validity of the select ion procedure often followed by various big companies in both public and private sectors which focus only on academic scores, GPA/grades of students from colleges and other academic backgr ounds. We test if such a decision will produce optimal results in the industry or is there a need for change that offers a more holistic approach to recruitment of new talent in the softwa re companies. The scope of this work extends beyond the IT domain and a similar procedure can be adopted to develop a recruitment framework in other fields as well. Data-mining tech niques provide useful information from the historical projects depending on which the hiring-m anager can make decisions for recruiting high-quality workforce. This study aims to bridge t his hiatus by developing a data-mining framework based on an ensemble-learning technique t o refocus on the criteria for personnel selection. The results from this research clearly d emonstrated that there is a need to refocus on the selection-criteria for quality objectives.

  9. To supplement or not to supplement: a metabolic network framework for human nutritional supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Nogiec

    Full Text Available Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology.

  10. The watershed as a conceptual framework for the study of environmental and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolok, Alan S; Beseler, Cheryl L; Chen, Xun-Hong; Shea, Patrick J

    2009-02-18

    The watershed provides a physical basis for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, environmental health and human health. Current attempts to establish such linkages are limited by environmental and epidemiological constraints. Environmental limitations include difficulties in characterizing the temporal and spatial dynamics of agricultural runoff, in fully understanding the degradation and metabolism of these compounds in the environment, and in understanding complex mixtures. Epidemiological limitations include difficulties associated with the organization of risk factor data and uncertainty about which measurable endpoints are most appropriate for an agricultural setting. Nevertheless, it is our contention that an adoption of the watershed concept can alleviate some of these difficulties. From an environmental perspective, the watershed concept helps identify differences in land use and application of agrichemicals at a level of resolution relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiological perspective, the watershed concept places data into a construct with environmental relevance. In this perspectives paper, we discuss how the watershed can provide a conceptual framework for studies in environmental and human health.

  11. Towards a framework for assessment and management of cumulative human impacts on marine food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Halpern, Benjamin S; Michel, Loïc N; Gobert, Sylvie; Sini, Maria; Boudouresque, Charles-François; Gambi, Maria-Cristina; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Lejeune, Pierre; Montefalcone, Monica; Pergent, Gerard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Velimirov, Branko; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Abadie, Arnaud; Coll, Marta; Guidetti, Paolo; Micheli, Fiorenza; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-08-01

    Effective ecosystem-based management requires understanding ecosystem responses to multiple human threats, rather than focusing on single threats. To understand ecosystem responses to anthropogenic threats holistically, it is necessary to know how threats affect different components within ecosystems and ultimately alter ecosystem functioning. We used a case study of a Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) food web and expert knowledge elicitation in an application of the initial steps of a framework for assessment of cumulative human impacts on food webs. We produced a conceptual seagrass food web model, determined the main trophic relationships, identified the main threats to the food web components, and assessed the components' vulnerability to those threats. Some threats had high (e.g., coastal infrastructure) or low impacts (e.g., agricultural runoff) on all food web components, whereas others (e.g., introduced carnivores) had very different impacts on each component. Partitioning the ecosystem into its components enabled us to identify threats previously overlooked and to reevaluate the importance of threats commonly perceived as major. By incorporating this understanding of system vulnerability with data on changes in the state of each threat (e.g., decreasing domestic pollution and increasing fishing) into a food web model, managers may be better able to estimate and predict cumulative human impacts on ecosystems and to prioritize conservation actions. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Unsupervised learning framework for large-scale flight data analysis of cockpit human machine interaction issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Abhishek B.

    As the level of automation within an aircraft increases, the interactions between the pilot and autopilot play a crucial role in its proper operation. Issues with human machine interactions (HMI) have been cited as one of the main causes behind many aviation accidents. Due to the complexity of such interactions, it is challenging to identify all possible situations and develop the necessary contingencies. In this thesis, we propose a data-driven analysis tool to identify potential HMI issues in large-scale Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) dataset. The proposed tool is developed using a multi-level clustering framework, where a set of basic clustering techniques are combined with a consensus-based approach to group HMI events and create a data-driven model from the FOQA data. The proposed framework is able to effectively compress a large dataset into a small set of representative clusters within a data-driven model, enabling subject matter experts to effectively investigate identified potential HMI issues.

  13. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, Addendum #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G. (Editor); Watts Kevin D. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    This report serves as the second Addendum to NASA-SP-2009-566, "Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0." The data and descriptions contained within this Addendum capture some of the key assessments and studies produced since publication of the original document, predominately covering those conducted from 2009 through 2012. The assessments and studies described herein are for the most part independent stand-alone contributions. Effort has not been made to assimilate the findings to provide an updated integrated strategy. That is a recognized future effort. This report should not be viewed as constituting a formal plan for the human exploration of Mars.

  14. A Unified Multiscale Field/Network/Agent Based Modeling Framework for Human and Ecological Health Risk Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A conceptual framework is presented for multiscale field/network/agent-based modeling to support human and ecological health risk assessments. This framework is based on the representation of environmental dynamics in terms of interacting networks, agents that move across different networks, fields representing spatiotemporal distributions of physical properties, rules governing constraints and interactions, and actors that make decisions affecting the state of the system. Different determini...

  15. Human factors research as part of a Mars exploration analogue mission on Devon Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsted, Kim; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Griofa, Marc Ó.; Bishop, Sheryl; Lapierre, Judith

    2010-06-01

    Human factors research is a critical element of space exploration as it provides insight into a crew's performance, psychology and interpersonal relationships. Understanding the way humans work in space-exploration analogue environments permits the development and testing of countermeasures for and responses to potential hazardous situations, and can thus help improve mission efficiency and safety. Analogue missions, such as the one described here, have plausible mission constraints and operational scenarios, similar to those that a real Mars crew would experience. Long duration analogue studies, such as those being conducted at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) on Devon Island, Canada, offer an opportunity to study mission operations and human factors in a semi-realistic environment, and contribute to the design of missions to explore the Moon and Mars. The FMARS XI Long Duration Mission (F-XI LDM) was, at four months, the longest designed analogue Mars mission conducted to date, and thus provides a unique insight into human factors issues for long-duration space exploration. Here, we describe the six human factors studies that took place during F-XI LDM, and give a summary of their results, where available. We also present a meta-study, which examined the impact of the human-factors research itself on crew schedule and workload. Based on this experience, we offer some lessons learnt: some aspects (perceived risk and crew motivation, for example) of analogue missions must be realistic for study results to be valid; human factors studies are time-consuming, and should be fully integrated into crew schedules; and crew-ground communication and collaboration under long-term exploration conditions can present serious challenges.

  16. The Ozone Widget Framework: towards modularity of C2 human interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellar, David Benjamin; Vega, Laurian C.

    2012-05-01

    The Ozone Widget Framework (OWF) is a common webtop environment for distribution across the enterprise. A key mission driver for OWF is to enable rapid capability delivery by lowering time-to-market with lightweight components. OWF has been released as Government Open Source Software and has been deployed in a variety of C2 net-centric contexts ranging from real-time analytics, cyber-situational awareness, to strategic and operational planning. This paper discusses the current and future evolution of OWF including the availability of the OZONE Marketplace (OMP), useractivity driven metrics, and architecture enhancements for accessibility. Together, OWF is moving towards the rapid delivery of modular human interfaces supporting modern and future command and control contexts.

  17. Fighting the Monster: Applying the Host Damage Framework to Human Central Nervous System Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil A. Panackal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The host damage-response framework states that microbial pathogenesis is a product of microbial virulence factors and collateral damage from host immune responses. Immune-mediated host damage is particularly important within the size-restricted central nervous system (CNS, where immune responses may exacerbate cerebral edema and neurological damage, leading to coma and death. In this review, we compare human host and therapeutic responses in representative nonviral generalized CNS infections that induce archetypal host damage responses: cryptococcal menigoencephalitis and tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients, pneumococcal meningitis, and cerebral malaria. Consideration of the underlying patterns of host responses provides critical insights into host damage and may suggest tailored adjunctive therapeutics to improve disease outcome.

  18. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literature Review and Systems Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Conley, Cassie; Siegel, Bette

    2015-01-01

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literature review of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current 'state of knowledge'. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection.

  19. An evaluation framework for Health Information Systems: human, organization and technology-fit factors (HOT-fit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Maryati Mohd; Kuljis, Jasna; Papazafeiropoulou, Anastasia; Stergioulas, Lampros K

    2008-06-01

    The realization of Health Information Systems (HIS) requires rigorous evaluation that addresses technology, human and organization issues. Our review indicates that current evaluation methods evaluate different aspects of HIS and they can be improved upon. A new evaluation framework, human, organization and technology-fit (HOT-fit) was developed after having conducted a critical appraisal of the findings of existing HIS evaluation studies. HOT-fit builds on previous models of IS evaluation--in particular, the IS Success Model and the IT-Organization Fit Model. This paper introduces the new framework for HIS evaluation that incorporates comprehensive dimensions and measures of HIS and provides a technological, human and organizational fit. Literature review on HIS and IS evaluation studies and pilot testing of developed framework. The framework was used to evaluate a Fundus Imaging System (FIS) of a primary care organization in the UK. The case study was conducted through observation, interview and document analysis. The main findings show that having the right user attitude and skills base together with good leadership, IT-friendly environment and good communication can have positive influence on the system adoption. Comprehensive, specific evaluation factors, dimensions and measures in the new framework (HOT-fit) are applicable in HIS evaluation. The use of such a framework is argued to be useful not only for comprehensive evaluation of the particular FIS system under investigation, but potentially also for any Health Information System in general.

  20. Development of a conceptual framework to guide a program of research exploring nurse-to-nurse communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Jane M

    2012-06-01

    Research in nursing informatics has been described as problem based rather than theory guided. Furthermore, few examples exist in the literature where the process of theory development is described. This article describes a process used to develop a conceptual framework that supports a theory-driven program of research in nursing informatics. The conceptual framework combines Symbolic Interaction Theory and Information Theory. Constructs of Symbolic Interaction Theory (mind, self, and society) and Information Theory (entropy, negentropy, redundancy, probability, and noise) were then organized according to Gerbner's Communication Model. Theory derivation was the method used for organizing abstract constructs and reducing them to a measurable level. Theory derivation was supplemented with initial research findings. The measurable or middle-range constructs were then organized in a meaningful manner for conceptual framework development. The use of theory derivation to develop a conceptual framework to support theory-driven nursing informatics research will be discussed. The framework entitled "Effective Nurse-to-Nurse Communication" that guides a program of research will then be presented.

  1. Leveraging HIV-related human rights achievements through a Framework Convention on Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Kent; Eba, Patrick; Sigurdson, Jason; Thomson, Kate; Timberlake, Susan

    2013-06-14

    Although AIDS remains a leading cause of death, especially in low- and middle-income countries, the movement to address it has greatly contributed to changing the world's response to health challenges. By fusing activism, political leadership, domestic and international investment, and accountability for results, the course of the epidemic has been radically shifted. People living with HIV and others directly affected by the epidemic have exerted immense leadership since the first days of the response: they have fought to end discrimination on the basis of sero-status, gender, sexual orientation, disability, migration status, drug use, or participation in sex work. Some of this mobilization has taken the form of strategic litigation, drawing human rights down into concrete demands and defining social, health, legal, and economic policy. The global AIDS response has shown that at the core of health lie considerations of social justice, human rights, and accountability. As momentum builds for a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), we believe there is an opportunity to take stock of lessons learned from the response to HIV and ensure that they are replicated and institutionalized in an eventual Convention. We argue that the most critical aspect to the success of the HIV response has been the leadership and activism of civil society. Conventions do not lead to results on their own, and there should be every expectation that the FCGH will be no different. Success requires active monitoring of progress and shortcomings, combined with political and social mobilization to expand investment and access to the services and underlying conditions that protect and advance health. While the FCGH must make civil society support and engagement an indispensable principle, the AIDS movement can contribute substantive content and mobilization for its adoption. A broad international legal framework for health can help address some of the key legal, policy, regulatory, and

  2. Innovation and HRM: Towards an Integrated Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leede, de Jan; Looise, Jan Kees

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the connection between innovation (management) and human resource management. Much has been written about the both concepts separately, but there is no integrated conceptual framework available for the combination of the two. Our goal here is to develop such a framework. We do th

  3. HExpoChem: a systems biology resource to explore human exposure to chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Kalhauge, Christian Gram

    2013-01-01

    of computational biology approaches are needed to assess the health risks of chemical exposure. Here we present HExpoChem, a tool based on environmental chemicals and their bioactivities on human proteins with the objective of aiding the qualitative exploration of human exposure to chemicals. The chemical......Summary: Humans are exposed to diverse hazardous chemicals daily. Although an exposure to these chemicals is suspected to have adverse effects on human health, mechanistic insights into how they interact with the human body are still limited. Therefore, acquisition of curated data and development......–protein interactions have been enriched with a quality-scored human protein–protein interaction network, a protein–protein association network and a chemical–chemical interaction network, thus allowing the study of environmental chemicals through formation of protein complexes and phenotypic outcomes enrichment...

  4. Implementation of Safety and Human-Rating on Lockheed Martin's Crew Exploration Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemisch, Michael K.

    2005-12-01

    Lockheed Martin leads an industry and academic team to develop requirements and the design of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) in support of the United States' Vision for Space Exploration. This paper discusses the safety and human-rating requirements, challenges, and approaches taken by the team focusing on safety and human-rating design decisions and trade- offs. Examples of these requirements are failure- tolerance, crew abort/escape, "design for minimum risk", computer-based control, all reviewed by a new NASA human-rating process. NASA allowed contractors freedom in the approaches they could pursue, which offered the opportunity for safety and human-rating goals to influence the basic concepts and major design decisions made early in the program, which drive the major safety features (and limitations) of the CEV project. The paper discusses the method developed by Lockheed Martin, HazComp, to evaluate hazards of proposed concept options, without the benefit of detailed design data used to provide a hazard-based "safety figure of merit" and substantiating data to the trade study decision process. The importance of a well- developed preliminary hazard analysis to support these evaluations is discussed. Major NASA safety and human-rating requirements and their evolution are also discussed along with issues, concerns and recommendations for future human space exploration safety requirements and safety focus.

  5. An Exploration on the Cultural Causes for the Framework of “ The Other” in Western Reports on Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xinhui

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, Tibet has been one of the main items on the agenda in western re-ports on China .In many media reports , there is a highly homogenized “stereotype”.While defining and retelling the history and present status of Ti-bet, the western media has mixed a collective un-conscious imagination and assumptions derived from western culture . The special operational mechanism mentioned above is defined as a news-framework of “the other”.“Stereotypes” objec-tively correspond to a people ’ s psychological ex-pectations on the culture of “the other”, and make the outsider ’ s understanding to the “heter-ogeneous” culture which was originally isolated from each other become relatively easy .The west-ern’ s media construction on Tibet is just such a typical example . Due to the application of the news-framework of “the other”, what the media ’ s presentation of the “authenticity” to the audi-ence is not equal to the objective truth , but a kind of artificial construction based on political benefit , economic competition and cultural tradition . Be-cause they live within a different cultural scene , westerners hold a traditional European imperialistic view of Tibet, and this mentality has a direct in-fluence on the modern westerners ’ understanding of the Tibet issue . On the one hand , within the public opinion of the West , Tibet is a holy land full of aesthetic imagination .This vision and fan-tasy is triggered by the literature which is promoted a kind of value orientation of absolutism in the western religious context .On the other hand , the image of Tibet in the western media is not only part of realistic portrayal of Tibet , but also a projection of the desire of western culture , and it reflects a strong mentality of orientalism . 1.The Mentality of Orientalism in the“Shangri-La Scenario” The 20th century is a turning point in theprocess of when the westerners ’ contempt and rejectionof Tibet changed to one which

  6. Elasticity in ecosystem services: exploring the variable relationship between ecosystems and human well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M. Daw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of "ecosystem service elasticity" (ES elasticity that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and

  7. The ambiguity of human ashes: Exploring encounters with cremated remains in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, B.M.H.P.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores cremation and disposal practices in the Netherlands, focusing on the attitudes and experiences of bereaved Dutch people in relation to cremated remains. In academic and professional narratives, human ashes are commonly described as “important,” as “sacred,” and as a vehicle to

  8. Guides to Sustainable Connections? Exploring Human-Nature Relationships among Wilderness Travel Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimwood, Bryan S. R.; Haberer, Alexa; Legault, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores and critically interprets the role wilderness travel may play in fostering environmental sustainability. The paper draws upon two qualitative studies that sought to understand human-nature relationships as experienced by different groups of wilderness travel leaders in Canada. According to leaders involved in the studies,…

  9. Shijun Ma: keeping on exploring new areas to meet the challenge of human and social demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le Kang; Ming Li

    2011-01-01

    @@ Professor Shijun Ma (1915-1991) is a renowned Chinese ecologist.Shijun, literally in Chinese, means the finest horse,which also perfectly describes his academic lifc 50 years of non-stop traveling and exploring new areas, from insects to human being, from experimental science to systematic science, from ecology to environmental science, and from nature to society.

  10. Human Body Explorations: Hands-On Investigations of What Makes Us Tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalumuck, Karen E.

    This book presents science activities on the human body with materials that can be purchased in a grocery store or pharmacy. Each activity includes an explorer and facilitator guide. Activities include: (1) "Naked Egg"; (2) "Cellular Soap Opera"; (3) "Acid in Your Stomach"; (4) "How Much Do You C?"; (5)…

  11. 76 FR 63663 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Status Space Launch System/Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Status Overall Human Exploration and Operations (HEO) Mission Directorate Status Status of Commercial Orbital Transportation Services and Commercial... will need to show valid, officially-issued picture identification such as a driver's license to...

  12. Space Resources Development: The Link Between Human Exploration and the Long-Term Commercialization of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2000-01-01

    In a letter to the NASA Administrator, Dan Goldin, in January of 1999, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) stated the following . OMB recommends that NASA consider commercialization in a broader context than the more focused efforts to date on space station and space shuttle commercialization. We suggest that NASA examine architectures that take advantage of a potentially robust future commercial infrastructure that could dramatically lower the cost of future human exploration." In response to this letter, the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise launched the BEDS Technology & Commercialization Initiative (HTCI) to link technology and system development for human exploration with the commercial development of space to emphasize the "D" (Development) in BEDS. The development of technologies and capabilities to utilize space resources is the first of six primary focus areas in this program. It is clear that Space Resources Development (SRD) is key for both long-term human exploration of our solar system and to the long-term commercialization of space since: a) it provides the technologies, products, and raw materials to support efficient space transportation and in-space construction and manufacturing, and b) it provides the capabilities and infrastructure to allow outpost growth, self-sufficiency, and commercial space service and utility industry activities.

  13. Exploring the Strategic Role of Human Resource Development in Organizational Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Hutchins, Holly M.; Garavan, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Crisis management has been a largely overlooked territory in human resource development (HRD) despite the increasingly recognized impact of organizational crises on the individual and organizational performance. This article explores the strategic role of HRD in the context of organizational crisis management using Garavan's strategic HRD model as…

  14. Space Resource Utilization: Near-Term Missions and Long-Term Plans for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of all major space faring nations is to explore space: from the Earth with telescopes, with robotic probes and space telescopes, and with humans. For the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this pursuit is captured in three important strategic goals: 1. Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for life elsewhere, 2. Extend and sustain human activities across the solar system (especially the surface of Mars), and 3. Create innovative new space technologies for exploration, science, and economic future. While specific missions and destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative for NASA that it foster the development and implementation of new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) is the development of technologies and systems to identify, extract, and use resources in space instead of bringing everything from Earth. To reduce the development and implementation costs for space resource utilization, often called In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), it is imperative to work with terrestrial mining companies to spin-in/spin-off technologies and capabilities, and space mining companies to expand our economy beyond Earth orbit. In the last two years, NASA has focused on developing and implementing a sustainable human space exploration program with the ultimate goal of exploring the surface of Mars with humans. The plan involves developing technology and capability building blocks critical for sustained exploration starting with the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion crew spacecraft and utilizing the International Space Station as a springboard into the solar system. The evolvable plan develops and expands human exploration in phases starting with missions that are reliant on Earth, to performing ever more challenging and

  15. A Theoretical Framework for Serious Game Design: Exploring Pedagogy, Play and Fidelity and Their Implications for the Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that digital games can provide an engaging, motivating and "fun" experience for students. However an entertaining game does not necessarily constitute a meaningful, valuable learning experience. For this reason, experts espouse the importance of underpinning serious games with a sound theoretical framework which…

  16. Employee Engagement and Leadership: Exploring the Convergence of Two Frameworks and Implications for Leadership Development in HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, Brad; Herd, Ann Mogan

    2012-01-01

    As the use of workplace knowledge economies increases and emerging motivational-state variables such as employee engagement become more widely used, current frameworks of leadership are undergoing changes in perspective and practice. Moreover, while shifts in workplace dynamics have occurred in practice for some time, scholars are now calling for…

  17. Faculty Perceptions about Teaching Online: Exploring the Literature Using the Technology Acceptance Model as an Organizing Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Nancy Pope; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Moss, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    Academic leaders can better implement institutional strategic plans to promote online programs if they understand faculty perceptions about teaching online. An extended version of a model for technology acceptance, or TAM2 (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000), provided a framework for surveying and organizing the research literature about factors that…

  18. Employee Engagement and Leadership: Exploring the Convergence of Two Frameworks and Implications for Leadership Development in HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, Brad; Herd, Ann Mogan

    2012-01-01

    As the use of workplace knowledge economies increases and emerging motivational-state variables such as employee engagement become more widely used, current frameworks of leadership are undergoing changes in perspective and practice. Moreover, while shifts in workplace dynamics have occurred in practice for some time, scholars are now calling for…

  19. Exploring a Framework for Professional Development in Curriculum Innovation: Empowering Teachers for Designing Context-Based Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Machiel J.; De Jong, Onno; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Involving teachers in early stages of context-based curriculum innovations requires a professional development programme that actively engages teachers in the design of new context-based units. This study considers the implementation of a teacher professional development framework aiming to investigate processes of professional development. The…

  20. Decision Analysis Methods Used to Make Appropriate Investments in Human Exploration Capabilities and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Hay, Jason; Reeves, John D.; Craig, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. Through pioneering, NASA seeks to address national goals to develop the capacity for people to work, learn, operate, live, and thrive safely beyond Earth for extended periods of time. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Prudent investments in capability and technology developments, based on mission need, are critical for enabling a campaign of human exploration missions. There are a wide variety of capabilities and technologies that could enable these missions, so it is a major challenge for NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to make knowledgeable portfolio decisions. It is critical for this pioneering initiative that these investment decisions are informed with a prioritization process that is robust and defensible. It is NASA's role to invest in targeted technologies and capabilities that would enable exploration missions even though specific requirements have not been identified. To inform these investments decisions, NASA's HEOMD has supported a variety of analysis activities that prioritize capabilities and technologies. These activities are often based on input from subject matter experts within the NASA community who understand the technical challenges of enabling human exploration missions. This paper will review a variety of processes and methods that NASA has used to prioritize and rank capabilities and technologies applicable to human space exploration. The paper will show the similarities in the various processes and showcase instances were customer specified priorities force modifications to the process. Specifically

  1. Exploring disability from the perspective of adults living with HIV/AIDS: Development of a conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayoumi Ahmed M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy, in developed countries HIV increasingly is perceived as a long-term illness. Individuals may experience health-related consequences of HIV and its associated treatments, a concept that may be termed disability. To date, a comprehensive framework for understanding the health-related consequences experienced by people living with HIV has not been developed. The purpose of this research was to develop a conceptual framework of disability from the perspective of adults living with HIV. Methods We conducted four focus groups and 15 face-to-face interviews with 38 adults living with HIV. We asked participants to describe their health-related challenges, their physical, social and psychological areas of life affected, and impact on their overall health. We analyzed data using grounded theory techniques. We also conducted two validity check focus groups with seven returning participants. Results Disability was conceptualized by participants as multi-dimensional and episodic characterized by unpredictable periods of wellness and illness. The Episodic Disability Framework consisted of three main components: a dimensions of disability that included symptoms and impairments, difficulties carrying out day-to-day activities, challenges to social inclusion, and uncertainty that may fluctuate on a daily basis and over the course of living with HIV, b contextual factors that included extrinsic factors (social support and stigma and intrinsic factors (living strategies and personal attributes that may exacerbate or alleviate disability, and c triggers that initiate momentous or major episodes of disability such as receiving an HIV diagnosis, starting or changing medications, experiencing a serious illness, and suffering a loss of others. Conclusion The Episodic Disability Framework considers the variable nature of disability, acknowledges uncertainty as a key component, describes

  2. A Systematic Review Exploring the Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation as a Framework for Chronic Health Condition Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougas, Michelle E; Hayden, Jill A; McGrath, Patrick J; Huguet, Anna; Rozario, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Theory is often recommended as a framework for guiding hypothesized mechanisms of treatment effect. However, there is limited guidance about how to use theory in intervention development. We conducted a systematic review to provide an exemplar review evaluating the extent to which use of theory is identified and incorporated within existing interventions. We searched electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE from inception to May 2014. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for registered protocols, reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and conducted a citation search in Web of Science. We included peer-reviewed publications of interventions that referenced the social cognitive theory of self-regulation as a framework for interventions to manage chronic health conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility. We contacted all authors of included studies for information detailing intervention content. We describe how often theory mechanisms were addressed by interventions, and report intervention characteristics used to address theory. Of 202 articles that reported using the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, 52% failed to incorporate self-monitoring, a main theory component, and were therefore excluded. We included 35 interventions that adequately used the theory framework. Intervention characteristics were often poorly reported in peer-reviewed publications, 21 of 35 interventions incorporated characteristics that addressed each of the main theory components. Each intervention addressed, on average, six of eight self-monitoring mechanisms, two of five self-judgement mechanisms, and one of three self-evaluation mechanisms. The self-monitoring mechanisms 'Feedback' and 'Consistency' were addressed by all interventions, whereas the self-evaluation mechanisms 'Self-incentives' and 'External rewards' were addressed by six and four interventions, respectively. The present review establishes that

  3. The Need for Analogue Missions in Scientific Human and Robotic Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, K. J.; Mendell, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing challenges of planetary missions, and especially with the prospect of human exploration of the moon and Mars, the need for earth-based mission simulations has never been greater. The current focus on science as a major driver for planetary exploration introduces new constraints in mission design, planning, operations, and technology development. Analogue missions can be designed to address critical new integration issues arising from the new science-driven exploration paradigm. This next step builds on existing field studies and technology development at analogue sites, providing engineering, programmatic, and scientific lessons-learned in relatively low-cost and low-risk environments. One of the most important outstanding questions in planetary exploration is how to optimize the human and robotic interaction to achieve maximum science return with minimum cost and risk. To answer this question, researchers are faced with the task of defining scientific return and devising ways of measuring the benefit of scientific planetary exploration to humanity. Earth-based and spacebased analogue missions are uniquely suited to answer this question. Moreover, they represent the only means for integrating science operations, mission operations, crew training, technology development, psychology and human factors, and all other mission elements prior to final mission design and launch. Eventually, success in future planetary exploration will depend on our ability to prepare adequately for missions, requiring improved quality and quantity of analogue activities. This effort demands more than simply developing new technologies needed for future missions and increasing our scientific understanding of our destinations. It requires a systematic approach to the identification and evaluation of the categories of analogue activities. This paper presents one possible approach to the classification and design of analogue missions based on their degree of fidelity in ten

  4. 391 Ways to Explore Arts and Humanities Careers: Classroom Activities in Dance, Music, Theater and Media, Visual Arts and Crafts, Writing, Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mary Lewis; And Others

    One of a series of 11 arts and humanities career exploration guides for grade 7-12 teachers, counselors, and students, this curriculum guide is intended to help teachers help students explore arts and humanities careers in regular grade 7-12 arts and humanities courses. Focus throughout the four sections is on augmenting, rather than replacing,…

  5. A GIS framework for the assessment of tick impact on human health in a changing climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Estrada-Peña

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A framework to evaluate the impact of ticks on human health under various scenarios of climate change is proposed. The purpose is not to provide a comprehensive plan (e.g. the economic impact of ticks on human society is not included, instead we wish to describe a series of indices that would be helpful by obtaining homogeneous comparisons of impact and vulnerability exerted by ticks in different regions, countries or continents, using normalized sets of population, vegetation, climate and physical attributes of the territory. Three tick species, i.e. Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Hyalomma marginatum, have been traced over the territory of Spain to further explain the computation of these indices. The discussion is based on tick habitat suitability, used as a measure of the abiotic (climate fitness of the habitat for the species in question, and the sensitivity of each tick species to the rate of change of habitat suitability with respect to climate change. The impact is the rate of change in habitat suitability weighted with a fuzzy logic function evaluating the total number of people in an area, percent of rural population and accessibility of the geographical divisions (expressed as hexagons with a 10 km radius used in the study. The different climate scenarios evaluated in relation to ticks show that the north-western part of Spain would suffer the greatest impact in case the mean temperature would increase, while the Mediterranean region would suffer the highest impact if temperatures decreased. Vulnerability, based on the sanitary structure of the territory and on the impact on human activities due to the change in tick distribution and abundance, is proposed as a measure of adaptation of society to these climate scenarios. The cost is evaluated as a function of land use and tick habitat suitability in a buffer zone surrounding each geographic division. All indices proposed have been obtained by search of common and

  6. Human Health and Performance Considerations for Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will describe the human health and performance issues that are anticipated for the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEA). Humans are considered a system in the design of any such deep-space exploration mission, and exploration of NEA presents unique challenges for the human system. Key factors that define the mission are those that are strongly affected by distance and duration. The most critical of these is deep-space radiation exposure without even the temporary shielding of a nearby large planetary body. The current space radiation permissible exposure limits (PEL) restrict mission duration to 3-10 months depending on age and gender of crewmembers and stage of the solar cycle. Factors that affect mission architecture include medical capability; countermeasures for bone, muscle, and cardiovascular atrophy during continuous weightlessness; restricted food supplies; and limited habitable volume. The design of a habitat that can maintain the physical and psychological health of the crew and support mission operations with limited intervention from Earth will require an integrated research and development effort by NASA s Human Research Program, engineering, and human factors groups. Limited abort and return options for an NEA mission are anticipated to have important effects on crew psychology as well as influence medical supplies and training requirements of the crew. Other important factors are those related to isolation, confinement, communication delays, autonomous operations, task design, small crew size, and even the unchanging view outside the windows for most of the mission. Geological properties of the NEA will influence design of sample handling and containment, and extravehicular activity capabilities including suit ports and tools. A robotic precursor mission that collects basic information on NEA surface properties would reduce uncertainty about these aspects of the mission as well as aid in design of mission architecture and

  7. Frameworks matter: ecosocial and health and human rights perspectives on disparities in women's health--the case of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N; Gruskin, S

    2001-01-01

    Frameworks matter. To understand, intervene in, and improve the health of girls and women requires more than just good intentions and an eclectic list of "risk factors" or policy prescriptions, even if dressed up in notions of "gender." In this article, we present two frameworks-ecosocial and health and human rights-that, if considered singly and in combination, we believe could prove useful to furthering work on understanding and addressing societal patterns of health, disease, and well-being. After explicitly summarizing our theoretical stances, we sketch the kinds of questions these frameworks invite us to consider, with reference to a particular case example: women and tuberculosis. By taking on the challenge of articulating and applying our frameworks, separately and in relation to each other, we hope to deepen understanding and generate new ideas that can make a difference for the health of girls and women.

  8. Exploring the Three-dimensional Framework of Knowledge Service in the field of Library and Information Science(LIS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yuefen; ZHANG; Beibei; WU; Tingting

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the society and economy has stimulated the development of Knowledge Service(KS),making it an indispensable solution to address future challenges facing libraries and information institutions.However at present,academic research on knowledge service is falling short and its definition is far from clear and complete.As such,this article proposes the Three-dimensional Framework Knowledge Service(TdFKS)for libraries and information institutions based on the knowledge value chain model.By making reliability analysis and mean value analysis of a questionnaire survey result,the article clarifies the structure of the three-dimensional framework and verifies the rationality of the TdFKS.

  9. Using the OESP Framework to Explore the Performance of Large Firms Facing Globalisation: Findings from Interviews with Top Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Manshor, Syed Mahadzir

    2006-01-01

    Adaptation is a crucial challenge on large firm performance, and an important theme in the strategy and organisation theory. This study develops and tests a dynamic perspective on strategic fit. However, research into large firms performance has been limited to frameworks that are linear, static and its coverage is too constricted. On the other hand, OESP concept looks more promising and covers the issues facing large firms performance internally and externally. However, the lack of understa...

  10. Exploration of the structural features and magnetic behaviour in a novel 3-dimensional interpenetrating Co(II)-based framework

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumyabrata Goswami; Amit Kumar Mondal; Sanjit Konar

    2015-02-01

    A new Co(II)-based three-dimensional (3D) framework having the molecular formula [Co(C4O4)(4-bpmh))H2O)2]n·2nH2O·2nMeOH·(1)(4-bpmh = N, N-bis-pyridin-4-ylmethylene-hydrazine) has been synthesized using a mixed ligand system and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, single crystal X-ray diffraction and variable temperature magnetic study. The framework is constructed by the bridging squarate (C4O2−4) and N, N-bis-pyridin-4-ylmethylene-hydrazine (4-bpmh) ligands and interpenetration of the 2D grid-like frameworks at definite angles gives rise to 2D→3D inclined polycatenation with sql/Shubnikov tetragonal plane net topology. Extensive non-covalent interactions (H-bonding as well as $\\cdots$ interactions) are also observed which stabilises the 3D arrangement. Additionally, complex 1 contains 1D channels of large dimensions (10.91 × 11.78 Å2) that runs along the b-axis. Variable temperature DC magnetic susceptibility study reveals dominant spin–orbit coupling effect typical of the 4T1g ground state of octahedral high-spin Co(II) ion at a higher temperature range.

  11. Performance of humans vs. exploration algorithms on the Tower of London Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Fimbel

    Full Text Available The Tower of London Test (TOL used to assess executive functions was inspired in Artificial Intelligence tasks used to test problem-solving algorithms. In this study, we compare the performance of humans and of exploration algorithms. Instead of absolute execution times, we focus on how the execution time varies with the tasks and/or the number of moves. This approach used in Algorithmic Complexity provides a fair comparison between humans and computers, although humans are several orders of magnitude slower. On easy tasks (1 to 5 moves, healthy elderly persons performed like exploration algorithms using bounded memory resources, i.e., the execution time grew exponentially with the number of moves. This result was replicated with a group of healthy young participants. However, for difficult tasks (5 to 8 moves the execution time of young participants did not increase significantly, whereas for exploration algorithms, the execution time keeps on increasing exponentially. A pre-and post-test control task showed a 25% improvement of visuo-motor skills but this was insufficient to explain this result. The findings suggest that naive participants used systematic exploration to solve the problem but under the effect of practice, they developed markedly more efficient strategies using the information acquired during the test.

  12. Lunar Polar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) as a Stepping Stone for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2013-01-01

    A major emphasis of NASA is to extend and expand human exploration across the solar system. While specific destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative that NASA create new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) are the development of technologies and approaches for advanced robotics, power, propulsion, habitats, life support, and especially, space resource utilization systems. Space resources and how to use them, often called In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can have a tremendous beneficial impact on robotic and human exploration of the Moon, Mars, Phobos, and Near Earth Objects (NEOs), while at the same time helping to solve terrestrial challenges and enabling commercial space activities. The search for lunar resources, demonstration of extraterrestrial mining, and the utilization of resource-derived products, especially from polar volatiles, can be a stepping stone for subsequent human exploration missions to other destinations of interest due to the proximity of the Moon, complimentary environments and resources, and the demonstration of critical technologies, processes, and operations. ISRU and the Moon: There are four main areas of development interest with respect to finding, obtaining, extracting, and using space resources: Prospecting for resources, Production of mission critical consumables like propellants and life support gases, Civil engineering and construction, and Energy production, storage, and transfer. The search for potential resources and the production of mission critical consumables are the primary focus of current NASA technology and system development activities since they provide the greatest initial reduction in mission mass, cost, and risk. Because of the proximity of the Moon, understanding lunar resources and developing, demonstrating, and implementing lunar ISRU

  13. In-Space Assembly Capability Assessment for Potential Human Exploration and Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Arney, Dale C.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Chai, Patrick R.; Hutchinson, Craig D.; Stafford, Matthew A.; Moses, Robert W.; Dempsey, James A.; Rodgers, Erica M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Human missions to Mars present several major challenges that must be overcome, including delivering multiple large mass and volume elements, keeping the crew safe and productive, meeting cost constraints, and ensuring a sustainable campaign. Traditional methods for executing human Mars missions minimize or eliminate in-space assembly, which provides a narrow range of options for addressing these challenges and limits the types of missions that can be performed. This paper discusses recent work to evaluate how the inclusion of in-space assembly in space mission architectural concepts could provide novel solutions to address these challenges by increasing operational flexibility, robustness, risk reduction, crew health and safety, and sustainability. A hierarchical framework is presented to characterize assembly strategies, assembly tasks, and the required capabilities to assemble mission systems in space. The framework is used to identify general mission system design considerations and assembly system characteristics by assembly strategy. These general approaches are then applied to identify potential in-space assembly applications to address each challenge. Through this process, several focus areas were identified where applications of in-space assembly could affect multiple challenges. Each focus area was developed to identify functions, potential assembly solutions and operations, key architectural trades, and potential considerations and implications of implementation. This paper helps to identify key areas to investigate were potentially significant gains in addressing the challenges with human missions to Mars may be realized, and creates a foundation on which to further develop and analyze in-space assembly concepts and assembly-based architectures.

  14. A Systematic Review Exploring the Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation as a Framework for Chronic Health Condition Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Tougas

    Full Text Available Theory is often recommended as a framework for guiding hypothesized mechanisms of treatment effect. However, there is limited guidance about how to use theory in intervention development.We conducted a systematic review to provide an exemplar review evaluating the extent to which use of theory is identified and incorporated within existing interventions. We searched electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE from inception to May 2014. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for registered protocols, reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and conducted a citation search in Web of Science. We included peer-reviewed publications of interventions that referenced the social cognitive theory of self-regulation as a framework for interventions to manage chronic health conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility. We contacted all authors of included studies for information detailing intervention content. We describe how often theory mechanisms were addressed by interventions, and report intervention characteristics used to address theory.Of 202 articles that reported using the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, 52% failed to incorporate self-monitoring, a main theory component, and were therefore excluded. We included 35 interventions that adequately used the theory framework. Intervention characteristics were often poorly reported in peer-reviewed publications, 21 of 35 interventions incorporated characteristics that addressed each of the main theory components. Each intervention addressed, on average, six of eight self-monitoring mechanisms, two of five self-judgement mechanisms, and one of three self-evaluation mechanisms. The self-monitoring mechanisms 'Feedback' and 'Consistency' were addressed by all interventions, whereas the self-evaluation mechanisms 'Self-incentives' and 'External rewards' were addressed by six and four interventions, respectively. The present review

  15. How to learn about teaching: An evolutionary framework for the study of teaching behavior in humans and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Michelle Ann

    2015-01-01

    The human species is more reliant on cultural adaptation than any other species, but it is unclear how observational learning can give rise to the faithful transmission of cultural adaptations. One possibility is that teaching facilitates accurate social transmission by narrowing the range of inferences that learners make. However, there is wide disagreement about how to define teaching, and how to interpret the empirical evidence for teaching across cultures and species. In this article I argue that disputes about the nature and prevalence of teaching across human societies and nonhuman animals are based on a number of deep-rooted theoretical differences between fields, as well as on important differences in how teaching is defined. To reconcile these disparate bodies of research, I review the three major approaches to the study of teaching - mentalistic, culture-based, and functionalist - and outline the research questions about teaching that each addresses. I then argue for a new, integrated framework that differentiates between teaching types according to the specific adaptive problems that each type solves, and apply this framework to restructure current empirical evidence on teaching in humans and nonhuman animals. This integrative framework generates novel insights, with broad implications for the study of the evolution of teaching, including the roles of cognitive constraints and cooperative dilemmas in how and when teaching evolves. Finally, I propose an explanation for why some types of teaching are uniquely human, and discuss new directions for research motivated by this framework.

  16. 77 FR 56202 - Notification of an External Peer Review Meeting for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... AGENCY Notification of an External Peer Review Meeting for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk... external peer review meeting. SUMMARY: The EPA Office of the Science Advisor announces that Versar, Inc., a... attend this peer review meeting as an observer. Time will be set aside for observers to give brief...

  17. Design Considerations for Spacecraft Operations During Uncrewed Dormant Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Antol, Jeff; Jefferies, Sharon; Goodliff, Kandyce; Williams, Phillip; Ambrose, Rob; Sylvester, Andre; Anderson, Molly; Dinsmore, Craig; Hoffman, Stephen; Lawrence, James; Seibert, Marc; Schier, Jim; Frank, Jeremy; Alexander, Leslie; Ruff, Gary; Soeder, Jim; Guinn, Joseph; Stafford, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Subject matter experts from NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) are currently studying a human exploration campaign that involves deployment of assets for planetary exploration. This study, called the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) study, explores options with solar electric propulsion as a central component of the transportation architecture. This particular in-space transportation option often results in long duration transit to destinations. The EMC study is also investigating deployed human rated systems like landers, habitats, rovers, power systems and ISRU system to the surface of Mars, which also will involve long dormant periods when these systems are staged on the surface. In order to enable the EMC architecture, campaign and element design leads along with system and capability development experts from HEOMD's System Maturation Team (SMT) have identified additional capabilities, systems and operation modes that will sustain these systems especially during these dormant phases of the mission. Dormancy is defined by the absence of crew and relative inactivity of the systems. For EMC missions, dormant periods could range from several months to several years. Two aspects of uncrewed dormant operations are considered herein: (1) the vehicle systems that are placed in a dormant state and (2) the autonomous vehicle systems and robotic capabilities that monitor, maintain, and repair the vehicle and systems. This paper describes the mission stages of dormancy operations, phases of dormant

  18. Stress, Cognition, and Human Performance: A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    The following literature review addresses the effects of various stressors on cognition. While attempting to be as inclusive as possible, the review focuses its examination on the relationships between cognitive appraisal, attention, memory, and stress as they relate to information processing and human performance. The review begins with an overview of constructs and theoretical perspectives followed by an examination of effects across attention, memory, perceptual-motor functions, judgment and decision making, putative stressors such as workload, thermals, noise, and fatigue and closes with a discussion of moderating variables and related topics. In summation of the review, a conceptual framework for cognitive process under stress has been assembled. As one might imagine, the research literature that addresses stress, theories governing its effects on human performance, and experimental evidence that supports these notions is large and diverse. In attempting to organize and synthesize this body of work, I was guided by several earlier efforts (Bourne & Yaroush, 2003; Driskell, Mullen, Johnson, Hughes, & Batchelor, 1992; Driskell & Salas, 1996; Haridcock & Desmond, 2001; Stokes & Kite, 1994). These authors should be credited with accomplishing the monumental task of providing focused reviews in this area and their collective efforts laid the foundation for this present review. Similarly, the format of this review has been designed in accordance with these previous exemplars. However, each of these previous efforts either simply reported general findings, without sufficient experimental illustration, or narrowed their scope of investigation to the extent that the breadth of such findings remained hidden from the reader. Moreover, none of these examinations yielded an architecture that adequately describes or explains the inter-relations between information processing elements under stress conditions.

  19. Humanities data in R exploring networks, geospatial data, images, and text

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering book teaches readers to use R within four core analytical areas applicable to the Humanities: networks, text, geospatial data, and images. This book is also designed to be a bridge: between quantitative and qualitative methods, individual and collaborative work, and the humanities and social scientists. Exploring Humanities Data Types with R does not presuppose background programming experience. Early chapters take readers from R set-up to exploratory data analysis (continuous and categorical data, multivariate analysis, and advanced graphics with emphasis on aesthetics and facility). Everything is hands-on: networks are explained using U.S. Supreme Court opinions, and low-level NLP methods are applied to short stories by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. The book’s data, code, appendix with 100 basic programming exercises and solutions, and dedicated website are valuable resources for readers. The methodology will have wide application in classrooms and self-study for the humanities, but also for use...

  20. Beyond Sensation Seeking: A Conceptual Framework for Individual Differences in Psychostimulant Drug Effects in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tara L

    2017-02-01

    Psychostimulant addiction is an important, relapsing condition for which there is no effective pharmacological treatment. Countering this problem requires an understanding of the specific risk factors that predispose individuals to initial misuse of these drugs. Healthy individuals display marked individual differences in emotional, behavioral and brain responses to low and moderate doses of stimulant drugs. These between-person differences have been most often studied using personality measures of sensation seeking. However, a growing body of work in healthy adults indicates potentially unique sources of variance in these responses that are related to four dissociable personality domains: extraversion, fearlessness, impulsivity and absorption. These four domains are empirically dissociable and can serve as endophenotypic markers of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin function in healthy individuals. The relationship between normal variation in these traits and the pharmacological effects of these drugs is here proposed as a framework for better understanding the specific sources of between-person variation in stimulant drug effects on mood, behavior and brain responses in healthy humans.

  1. Parent-offspring conflict theory: an evolutionary framework for understanding conflict within human families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Gabriel L; Del Giudice, Marco; Ellis, Bruce J

    2011-07-01

    Decades of research demonstrate that conflict shapes and permeates a broad range of family processes. In the current article, we argue that greater insight, integration of knowledge, and empirical achievement in the study of family conflict can be realized by utilizing a powerful theory from evolutionary biology that is barely known within psychology: parent-offspring conflict theory (POCT). In the current article, we articulate POCT for psychological scientists, extend its scope by connecting it to the broader framework of life history theory, and draw out its implications for understanding conflict within human families. We specifically apply POCT to 2 instances of early mother-offspring interaction (prenatal conflict and weaning conflict); discuss the effects of genetic relatedness on behavioral conflict between parents, children, and their siblings; review the emerging literature on parent-offspring conflict over the choice of mates and spouses; and examine parent-offspring conflict from the perspective of imprinted genes. This review demonstrates the utility of POCT, not only for explaining what is known about conflict within families but also for generating novel hypotheses, suggesting new lines of research, and moving us toward the "big picture" by integrating across biological and psychological domains of knowledge.

  2. Robotic Reconnaissance Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic reconnaissance missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near- Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the direction of the Human Exploration and Operations Missions Directorate (HEOMD), given NASA's recent interest in NEAs and the Martian moons as potential human destinations [1]. The action team

  3. Exploring Middle School Students' Representational Competence in Science: Development and Verification of a Framework for Learning with Visual Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Christine Diane

    Scientific knowledge is constructed and communicated through a range of forms in addition to verbal language. Maps, graphs, charts, diagrams, formulae, models, and drawings are just some of the ways in which science concepts can be represented. Representational competence---an aspect of visual literacy that focuses on the ability to interpret, transform, and produce visual representations---is a key component of science literacy and an essential part of science reading and writing. To date, however, most research has examined learning from representations rather than learning with representations. This dissertation consisted of three distinct projects that were related by a common focus on learning from visual representations as an important aspect of scientific literacy. The first project was the development of an exploratory framework that is proposed for use in investigations of students constructing and interpreting multimedia texts. The exploratory framework, which integrates cognition, metacognition, semiotics, and systemic functional linguistics, could eventually result in a model that might be used to guide classroom practice, leading to improved visual literacy, better comprehension of science concepts, and enhanced science literacy because it emphasizes distinct aspects of learning with representations that can be addressed though explicit instruction. The second project was a metasynthesis of the research that was previously conducted as part of the Explicit Literacy Instruction Embedded in Middle School Science project (Pacific CRYSTAL, http://www.educ.uvic.ca/pacificcrystal). Five overarching themes emerged from this case-to-case synthesis: the engaging and effective nature of multimedia genres, opportunities for differentiated instruction using multimodal strategies, opportunities for assessment, an emphasis on visual representations, and the robustness of some multimodal literacy strategies across content areas. The third project was a mixed

  4. Towards a developmental ethology: exploring Deleuze's contribution to the study of health and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Cameron

    2010-11-01

    This article explores the work of French thinker Gilles Deleuze and argues for the application of his central ideas to the study of health and human development. Deleuze's work furnishes a host of ontological and epistemological resources for such analysis, ushering in new methods and establishing new objects of inquiry. Of principal interest are the inventive conceptualizations of affect, multiplicity and relationality that Deleuze proposes, and the novel reading of subjectivity that these concepts support. This article introduces a developmental ethology in exploring Deleuze's contributions to the study of human development and its varied courses and processes. Taken from a Deleuzean perspective, human development will be characterized as a discontinuous process of affective and relational encounters. It will be argued further that human development is advanced in the provision of new affective sensitivities and new relational capacities. This course is broadly consistent with existing approaches to human development--particularly those associated with Amartya Sen's capabilities model--with the considerable advantage of offering a more viable working theory of the ways in which developmental capacities are acquired, cultivated and maintained. A provisional research agenda consistent with this developmental ethology is offered by way of conclusion.

  5. Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for NASA's Deep Space Human Exploration Missions 2016-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James C.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has embarked on an endeavor that will enable humans to explore deep space, with the ultimate goal of sending humans to Mars. This journey will require significant developments in a wide range of technical areas, as resupply is unavailable in the Mars transit phase and early return is not possible. Additionally, mass, power, volume, and other resources must be minimized for all subsystems to reduce propulsion needs. Among the critical areas identified for development are life support systems, which will require increases in reliability and reductions in resources. This paper discusses current and planned developments in the area of carbon dioxide removal to support crewed Mars-class missions.

  6. The Inclusion of Children with ASD: Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a Theoretical Framework to Explore Peer Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Sara; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study used the Theory of Planned Behaviour to explore the attitudes, behavioural intentions and behaviour of 318 mainstream primary school children in an urban East London borough towards peers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Pupils were presented with a vignette about a hypothetical peer with ASD then completed self-report…

  7. Exploring "Halaqah" as Research Method: A Tentative Approach to Developing Islamic Research Principles within a Critical "Indigenous" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farah

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a traditional Islamic pedagogy known as "halaqah" as a potentially useful authentic research method and contributes to discourses about critical and indigenous research methodologies through an analysis of Islamization of Knowledge and other "critical indigenous" movements amongst Muslims. Islamic research…

  8. Exploring "Halaqah" as Research Method: A Tentative Approach to Developing Islamic Research Principles within a Critical "Indigenous" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farah

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a traditional Islamic pedagogy known as "halaqah" as a potentially useful authentic research method and contributes to discourses about critical and indigenous research methodologies through an analysis of Islamization of Knowledge and other "critical indigenous" movements amongst Muslims. Islamic research…

  9. The Inclusion of Children with ASD: Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a Theoretical Framework to Explore Peer Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Sara; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study used the Theory of Planned Behaviour to explore the attitudes, behavioural intentions and behaviour of 318 mainstream primary school children in an urban East London borough towards peers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Pupils were presented with a vignette about a hypothetical peer with ASD then completed self-report…

  10. Modeling and Simulation for Exploring Human-Robot Team Interaction Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean; Bruemmer, David Jonathon; Davis, Midge Lee

    2001-12-01

    Small-sized and micro-robots will soon be available for deployment in large-scale forces. Consequently, the ability of a human operator to coordinate and interact with largescale robotic forces is of great interest. This paper describes the ways in which modeling and simulation have been used to explore new possibilities for human-robot interaction. The paper also discusses how these explorations have fed implementation of a unified set of command and control concepts for robotic force deployment. Modeling and simulation can play a major role in fielding robot teams in actual missions. While live testing is preferred, limitations in terms of technology, cost, and time often prohibit extensive experimentation with physical multi-robot systems. Simulation provides insight, focuses efforts, eliminates large areas of the possible solution space, and increases the quality of actual testing.

  11. Mate choice and human stature: homogamy as a unified framework for understanding mating preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Raymond, Michel; Godelle, Bernard; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-08-01

    Assortative mating for human height has long attracted interest in evolutionary biology, and the phenomenon has been demonstrated in numerous human populations. It is often argued that mating preferences generate this pattern, but other processes can also induce trait correlations between mates. Here, we present a methodology tailored to quantify continuous preferences based on choice experiments between pairs of stimuli. In particular, it is possible to explore determinants of interindividual variations in preferences, such as the height of the chooser. We collected data from a sample of 200 individuals from France. Measurements obtained show that the perception of attractiveness depends on both the height of the stimuli and the stature of the individual who judged them. Therefore, this study demonstrates that homogamy is present at the level of preferences for both sexes. We also show that measurements of the function describing this homogamy are concordant with several distinct mating rules proposed in the literature. In addition, the quantitative approach introduced here fulfills metrics that can be used to compare groups of individuals. In particular, our results reveal an important disagreement between sexes regarding height preferences in the context of mutual mate choice. Finally, both women and men prefer individuals who are significantly taller than average. All major findings are confirmed by a reanalysis of previously published data.

  12. Preserving human potential as freedom: a framework for regulating epigenetic harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazal

    2010-01-01

    this type of harm. This article argues that it is imperative to initiate a regulatory framework to address epigenetic risk from specific substances even if conclusive proof of disease causation cannot be established. Shifting the burden of generating epigenetic risk data to producers of suspected harmful substances serves as a start. As information concerning epigenetic risks accrues, the regulatory response should evolve concurrently. As part of a dynamic policy-making approach our goals need to encompass the following: (i) promotion of knowledge in the scientific, legal, and public domains; (ii) assessment and modification of current regulations to address preventable risk; and (iii) an overarching commitment to protect human capabilities in an equitable manner.

  13. Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars--III: studies of system reliability and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, W. W.; Heydorn, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission do not now exist nor has any self-consistent program plan been proposed to acquire them. In particular, the lack of an Abort-to-Earth capability implies that critical mission systems must perform reliably for 3 years or must be maintainable and repairable by the crew. As has been previously argued, a well-planned program of human exploration of the Moon would provide a context within which to develop the appropriate technologies because a lunar expedition incorporates many of the operational elements of a Mars expedition. Initial lunar expeditions can be carried out at scales consistent with the current experience base but can be expanded in any or all operational phases to produce an experience base necessary to successfully and safely conduct human exploration of Mars. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Resource Utilization, Science, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Friedensen, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and planetary defence. Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. With respect to planetary defence, in 2005 the U.S. Congress directed NASA to implement a survey program to detect, track, and characterize NEAs equal or greater than 140 m in diameter in order to access the threat from such objects to the Earth. The current goal of this survey is to achieve 90% completion of objects equal or greater than 140 m in diameter by 2020.

  15. Optimal humanization of 1B4, an anti-CD18 murine monoclonal antibody, is achieved by correct choice of human V-region framework sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, I I; Kawka, D W; DeMartino, J A; Daugherty, B L; Elliston, K O; Alves, K; Bush, B L; Cameron, P M; Cuca, G C; Davies, P

    1993-04-01

    The murine anti-CD18 mAb 1B4 has been humanized using CDR grafting. Three VH (Gal, Jon, and New) and two VL (Rei and Len) human frameworks, whose selection was based exclusively on their sequence identity with m1B4, were used to construct five human gamma 4/kappa recombinant antibodies: Gal/Rei, Gal/Len, Jon/Rei, and New/Rei, and a "hemichimeric" antibody pairing the VH of m1B4 with grafted Rei. Each of these h1B4 constructs completely inhibited the binding of m1B4 to activated human leukocytes with avidities (IC50) ranging from 1.5 to 8.0 nM, compared to 0.5 nM for m1B4. Replacement of three VH residues in the best VH framework, Gal, with the corresponding m1B4 "packing" (nonsolvent exposed) residues gave an h1B4 (mutant Gal/Rei) with the same avidity as m1B4. Avidity correlated with overall percent identity between the human and murine VH frameworks and, in particular, with conservation of "packing" residues. Rei and Len VL frameworks proved to be interchangeable. Further characterization showed that the Gal/Rei prototype was equipotent to m1B4 in blocking adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes to human vascular endothelium in vitro, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte extravasation into C5a-injected rabbit or monkey skin sites. Dual-label immunofluorescence microscopy of bone marrow cells with Gal/Rei h1B4 and m1B4 demonstrated that the fine specificity of the combining sites had not been altered by humanization. Reduced immunogenicity was demonstrated in rhesus monkeys that tolerated weekly treatment with h1B4 for 6 wk, whereas m1B4 induced profound anaphylaxis at 3 wk. Anti-1B4 titers in h1B4-treated rhesus were 50 to 66% lower and developed 1 wk later than in m1B4-treated monkeys. Crucially, the anti-h1B4 antibodies were anti-idiotypic while the anti-m1B4 antibodies were directed against constant and framework regions. We conclude that sequence identity searches are sufficient to identify suitable human frameworks for CDR-grafting of m1B4

  16. The English «Teaching Excellence Framework» and Professionalising Teaching and Learning in Research-Intensive Universities: An Exploration of Opportunities, Challenges, Rewards and Values from a Recent Empirical Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Wendy; Hilli, Angelique

    2016-01-01

    ... of a «Teaching Excellence Framework» for universities. This paper examines and contextualises the current important policy debates and then presents some preliminary findings from a recent empirical case study which explored how research-intensive...

  17. Exploring end user adoption and maintenance of a telephone-based physical activity counseling service for individuals with physical disabilities using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasone, Jennifer R; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P; Pila, Eva; Lamontagne, Marie-Eve; Cummings, Isabelle; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Routhier, François

    2017-06-01

    In Canada, two counseling services are offered to facilitate physical activity participation among persons with physical disabilities, yet both have encountered concerns related to the recruitment and retainment of clients. The purpose of this paper is to explore factors related to service adoption among nonusers, and the barriers and facilitators to maintaining service participation among adopters. Individuals who had never enrolled in the services (nonusers, n = 13) as well as current/previous service clients (adopters, n = 26) participated in interviews based on the Theoretical Domains Framework. Transcripts were subjected to deductive thematic analysis according to participant group. Fifteen themes relating to service adoption within 10 of the 12 theoretical domains were identified for nonusers, while 23 themes relating to maintenence of service participation were identified across all 12 theoretical domains for adopters. The findings provide strategies to improve recruitment, adoption, and retention of clients in counseling services and to enhance the experiences of targeted service users. Implications for Rehabiliation Peer support and education for equipment use should be built into physical activity programs to encourage participation among persons with physical disabilities. Programs that encourage physical activity among individuals with disabilities should be designed by practitioners to be responsive to a variety of needs, which are addressed in the program's advertisements and offerings. The Theoretical Domains Framework is a useful framework for providing valuable insight about clients' experiences of adoption and maintenance of a behavior change service, suggesting merit in other rehabilitation settings.

  18. A Qualitative Exploration of the DIGCOMP Digital Competence Framework: Attitudes of students, academics and administrative staff in the health faculty of a UK HEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Evangelinos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports upon findings of a series of semi-structured interviews with students, academics and administrative staff from a health care faculty in a UK Higher Education Institution (HEI. Exploring their experiences of mapping to the EU DIGCOMP Digital Competence Framework, a hermeneutic lens enables a more nuanced approach to attitudes towards Digital Competence (DC. One of the eight lifelong learning key-competences required for managers, doctors, nurses and other health-related professionals, DC is crucial to professional development. Defined by 14 themes, the findings express the participants’ experiences, knowledge and level of comprehension of the subject. Our findings indicate students are conflating digital social media skills with their skills for the workplace, resulting in over-confidence; academics raising concerns about work/private life balance offered by the affordances of handheld devices; administrative staff that are far more confident and managing a range of technology’s effectively. The research further reveals that the DIGICOMP framework is applicable as a generic framework for professional practice.

  19. Exploring the complementarity of THz pulse imaging and DCE-MRIs: Toward a unified multi-channel classification and a deep learning framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, X-X; Zhang, Y; Cao, J; Wu, J-L; Hadjiloucas, S

    2016-12-01

    We provide a comprehensive account of recent advances in biomedical image analysis and classification from two complementary imaging modalities: terahertz (THz) pulse imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The work aims to highlight underlining commonalities in both data structures so that a common multi-channel data fusion framework can be developed. Signal pre-processing in both datasets is discussed briefly taking into consideration advances in multi-resolution analysis and model based fractional order calculus system identification. Developments in statistical signal processing using principal component and independent component analysis are also considered. These algorithms have been developed independently by the THz-pulse imaging and DCE-MRI communities, and there is scope to place them in a common multi-channel framework to provide better software standardization at the pre-processing de-noising stage. A comprehensive discussion of feature selection strategies is also provided and the importance of preserving textural information is highlighted. Feature extraction and classification methods taking into consideration recent advances in support vector machine (SVM) and extreme learning machine (ELM) classifiers and their complex extensions are presented. An outlook on Clifford algebra classifiers and deep learning techniques suitable to both types of datasets is also provided. The work points toward the direction of developing a new unified multi-channel signal processing framework for biomedical image analysis that will explore synergies from both sensing modalities for inferring disease proliferation.

  20. NEEMO 15: Evaluation of human exploration systems for near-Earth asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2013-08-01

    The NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 15 mission was focused on evaluating techniques for exploring near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). It began with a University of Delaware autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) systematically mapping the coral reef for hundreds of meters surrounding the Aquarius habitat. This activity is akin to the type of "far-field survey" approach that may be used by a robotic precursor in advance of a human mission to a NEA. Data from the far-field survey were then examined by the NEEMO science team and follow-up exploration traverses were planned, which used Deepworker single-person submersibles. Science traverses at NEEMO 15 were planned according to a prioritized list of objectives developed by the science team. These objectives were based on review and discussion of previous related marine science research, including previous marine science saturation missions conducted at the Aquarius habitat. AUV data were used to select several areas of scientific interest. The Deepworker science traverses were then executed at these areas of interest during 4 days of the NEEMO 15 mission and provided higher resolution data such as coral species distribution and mortality. These traverses are analogous to the "near-field survey" approach that is expected to be performed by a Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) during a human mission to a NEA before extravehicular activities (EVAs) are conducted. In addition to the science objectives that were pursued, the NEEMO 15 traverses provided an opportunity to test newly developed software and techniques. Sample collection and instrument deployment on the NEA surface by EVA crew would follow the "near-field survey" in a human NEA mission. Sample collection was not necessary for the purposes of the NEEMO science objectives; however, the engineering and operations objectives during NEEMO 15 were to evaluate different combinations of vehicles, crew members, tools, and equipment that could be

  1. Exploring Conceptual Frameworks of Models of Atomic Structures and Periodic Variations, Chemical Bonding, and Molecular Shape and Polarity: A Comparison of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students with High and Low Levels of Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore students' conceptual frameworks of models of atomic structure and periodic variations, chemical bonding, and molecular shape and polarity, and how these conceptual frameworks influence their quality of explanations and ability to shift among chemical representations. This study employed a purposeful sampling…

  2. Human missions to Mars enabling technologies for exploring the red planet

    CERN Document Server

    Rapp, Donald

    2016-01-01

    A mission to send humans to explore the surface of Mars has been the ultimate goal of planetary exploration since the 1950s, when von Braun conjectured a flotilla of 10 interplanetary vessels carrying a crew of at least 70 humans. Since then, more than 1,000 studies were carried out on human missions to Mars, but after 60 years of study, we remain in the early planning stages. The second edition of this book now includes an annotated history of Mars mission studies, with quantitative data wherever possible. Retained from the first edition, Donald Rapp looks at human missions to Mars from an engineering perspective. He divides the mission into a number of stages: Earth’s surface to low-Earth orbit (LEO); departing from LEO toward Mars; Mars orbit insertion and entry, descent and landing; ascent from Mars; trans-Earth injection from Mars orbit and Earth return. For each segment, he analyzes requirements for candidate technologies. In this connection, he discusses the status and potential of a wide range of el...

  3. Human cortical θ during free exploration encodes space and predicts subsequent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Joseph; Plank, Markus; Lynch, Gary; Halgren, Eric; Poizner, Howard

    2013-09-18

    Spatial representations and walking speed in rodents are consistently related to the phase, frequency, and/or amplitude of θ rhythms in hippocampal local field potentials. However, neuropsychological studies in humans have emphasized the importance of parietal cortex for spatial navigation, and efforts to identify the electrophysiological signs of spatial navigation in humans have been stymied by the difficulty of recording during free exploration of complex environments. We resolved the recording problem and experimentally probed brain activity of human participants who were fully ambulant. On each of 2 d, electroencephalography was synchronized with head and body movement in 13 subjects freely navigating an extended virtual environment containing numerous unique objects. θ phase and amplitude recorded over parietal cortex were consistent when subjects walked through a particular spatial separation at widely separated times. This spatial displacement θ autocorrelation (STAcc) was quantified and found to be significant from 2 to 8 Hz within the environment. Similar autocorrelation analyses performed on an electrooculographic channel, used to measure eye movements, showed no significant spatial autocorrelations, ruling out eye movements as the source of STAcc. Strikingly, the strength of an individual's STAcc maps from day 1 significantly predicted object location recall success on day 2. θ was also significantly correlated with walking speed; however, this correlation appeared unrelated to STAcc and did not predict memory performance. This is the first demonstration of memory-related, spatial maps in humans generated during active spatial exploration.

  4. Proactive Integration of Planetary Protection Needs Into Early Design Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine

    Planetary protection (PP) policies established by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science have been in force effectively for five decades, ensuring responsible exploration and the integrity of science activities, for both human and robotic missions in the Solar System beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). At present, operations on most bodies in the solar system are not constrained by planetary protection considerations because they cannot be contaminated by Earth life in ways that impact future space exploration. However, operations on Mars, Europa, and Enceladus, which represent locations with biological potential, are subject to strict planetary protection constraints for missions of all types because they can potentially be contaminated by organisms brought from Earth. Forward contamination control for robotic missions is generally accomplished through a combination of activities that reduce the bioload of microbial hitchhikers on outbound spacecraft prior to launch. Back contamination control for recent robotic missions has chiefly been accomplished by selecting sample-return targets that have little or no potential for extant life (e.g., cometary particles returned by Stardust mission). In the post-Apollo era, no human missions have had to deal with planetary protection constraints because they have never left Earth orbit. Future human missions to Mars, for example, will experience many of the challenges faced by the Apollo lunar missions, with the added possibility that astronauts on Mars may encounter habitable environments in their exploration or activities. Current COSPAR PP Principles indicate that safeguarding the Earth from potential back contamination is the highest planetary protection priority in Mars exploration. While guidelines for planetary protection controls on human missions to Mars have been established by COSPAR, detailed engineering constraints and processes for implementation of these guidelines have not

  5. Exploring Human Mobility Patterns Based on Location Information of US Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2011-01-01

    A range of early studies have been conducted to illustrate human mobility patterns using different tracking data, such as dollar notes, cell phones and taxicabs. Here, we explore human mobility patterns based on massive tracking data of US flights. Both topological and geometric properties are examined in detail. We found that topological properties, such as traffic volume (between airports) and degree of connectivity (of individual airports), including both in- and outdegrees, follow a power law distribution but not a geometric property like travel lengths. The travel lengths exhibit an exponential distribution rather than a power law with an exponential cutoff as previous studies illustrated. We further simulated human mobility on the established topologies of airports with various moving behaviors and found that the mobility patterns are mainly attributed to the underlying binary topology of airports and have little to do with other factors, such as moving behaviors and geometric distances. Apart from the ...

  6. Human Mission to Asteroids in the Context of Future Space Exploration Studies .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messidoro, P.; Fenoglio, F.; Pasquinelli, M.; Gottlieb, J.

    The final goal, for the foreseeable future, of the Human Exploration of the Solar System is to land a crew on the Mars Surface (and to bring it back). A wide array of capabilities has to be developed and demonstrated before attempting such a risky endeavor; intermediate steps are therefore needed, also to comply with budget constraints. Human missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and specifically Asteroids (NEAs) are among the most suitable candidates, thanks to high scientific interest, good opportunities for testing technologies and crew operations, and to mature Earth protection capabilities. In the following, a review of existing NEA Human mission concepts is provided and a new one, characterized by the exploitation of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion to reduce overall lift-off mass, is proposed.

  7. A human rights view on access to controlled substances for medical purposes under the international drug control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gispen, Marie Elske C

    2013-11-05

    The world is confronted with a major public health deficit caused by poor access to controlled essential medicines under the international drug control framework. This is affecting millions of patients on a daily basis and resulting in numerous human rights violations. The present review contextualises this deficit from a human rights perspective. Drug control efforts are informed by a twofold objective stemming from the double nature of scheduled substances: free access for medical purposes should be ensured, though non-medical use of substances such as opium should be restricted. The international drug control framework is, in theory, based on this twofold notion, however at the level of interpretation, monitoring, and implementation, a one-sided emphasis is demonstrated. By tracing a parallel between the obligations of states under the international drug control framework and those that derive from human rights law, the review shows that the two systems seem incoherent and conflicting in nature and flags the importance of cross-disciplinary research into drug control and human rights.

  8. An Analysis of Adolescent Content in South Africa's Contraception Policy Using a Human Rights Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Steyn, Petrus; Shilubane, Tlangelani; Pleaner, Melanie

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate whether the updated South African national contraception policy and guidelines adequately address the needs of adolescents. We used the World Health Organization (WHO) guidance and recommendations on ensuring human rights in the provision of contraceptive information and services as an analytic framework. We assessed the South African policy in relation to each WHO summary recommendation. Specifically, we determined where normative guidance pertaining to adolescents is present and whether it is adequate, normative guidance pertaining to all populations but not specifically adolescents is present, or normative guidance for that recommendation is missing from the policy. We developed an analytic table to discuss with coauthors and draw conclusions. We found specific guidance for adolescents relating to 6/9 WHO summary recommendations and 11/24 subrecommendations. Adolescents are highlighted throughout the policy as being at risk for discrimination or coercion, and laws protecting the rights of adolescents are cited. Confidentiality of services for young people is emphasized, and youth-friendly services are described as a key element of service delivery. Areas to strengthen include the need for normative guidance ensuring both availability of contraceptive information and services for young people and adolescent participation in development of community programs and services. South Africa's contraception policy and guidelines are comprehensive and forward looking. Nevertheless, there are gaps that may leave adolescents vulnerable to discrimination and coercion and create barriers to accessing contraceptive services. These findings provide insight for the revision and development of adolescent health policies in South Africa and other settings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. A hybrid CPU-GPU accelerated framework for fast mapping of high-resolution human brain connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Du, Haixiao; Xia, Mingrui; Ren, Ling; Xu, Mo; Xie, Teng; Gong, Gaolang; Xu, Ningyi; Yang, Huazhong; He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches has provided a unique opportunity for understanding the patterns of the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain (referred to as the human brain connectome). Currently, there is a very large amount of brain imaging data that have been collected, and there are very high requirements for the computational capabilities that are used in high-resolution connectome research. In this paper, we propose a hybrid CPU-GPU framework to accelerate the computation of the human brain connectome. We applied this framework to a publicly available resting-state functional MRI dataset from 197 participants. For each subject, we first computed Pearson's Correlation coefficient between any pairs of the time series of gray-matter voxels, and then we constructed unweighted undirected brain networks with 58 k nodes and a sparsity range from 0.02% to 0.17%. Next, graphic properties of the functional brain networks were quantified, analyzed and compared with those of 15 corresponding random networks. With our proposed accelerating framework, the above process for each network cost 80∼150 minutes, depending on the network sparsity. Further analyses revealed that high-resolution functional brain networks have efficient small-world properties, significant modular structure, a power law degree distribution and highly connected nodes in the medial frontal and parietal cortical regions. These results are largely compatible with previous human brain network studies. Taken together, our proposed framework can substantially enhance the applicability and efficacy of high-resolution (voxel-based) brain network analysis, and have the potential to accelerate the mapping of the human brain connectome in normal and disease states.

  10. A hybrid CPU-GPU accelerated framework for fast mapping of high-resolution human brain connectome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Recently, a combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches has provided a unique opportunity for understanding the patterns of the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain (referred to as the human brain connectome. Currently, there is a very large amount of brain imaging data that have been collected, and there are very high requirements for the computational capabilities that are used in high-resolution connectome research. In this paper, we propose a hybrid CPU-GPU framework to accelerate the computation of the human brain connectome. We applied this framework to a publicly available resting-state functional MRI dataset from 197 participants. For each subject, we first computed Pearson's Correlation coefficient between any pairs of the time series of gray-matter voxels, and then we constructed unweighted undirected brain networks with 58 k nodes and a sparsity range from 0.02% to 0.17%. Next, graphic properties of the functional brain networks were quantified, analyzed and compared with those of 15 corresponding random networks. With our proposed accelerating framework, the above process for each network cost 80∼150 minutes, depending on the network sparsity. Further analyses revealed that high-resolution functional brain networks have efficient small-world properties, significant modular structure, a power law degree distribution and highly connected nodes in the medial frontal and parietal cortical regions. These results are largely compatible with previous human brain network studies. Taken together, our proposed framework can substantially enhance the applicability and efficacy of high-resolution (voxel-based brain network analysis, and have the potential to accelerate the mapping of the human brain connectome in normal and disease states.

  11. TripAdvisor^{N-D}: A Tourism-Inspired High-Dimensional Space Exploration Framework with Overview and Detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Julia EunJu; Mueller, Klaus

    2013-02-01

    Gaining a true appreciation of high-dimensional space remains difficult since all of the existing high-dimensional space exploration techniques serialize the space travel in some way. This is not so foreign to us since we, when traveling, also experience the world in a serial fashion. But we typically have access to a map to help with positioning, orientation, navigation, and trip planning. Here, we propose a multivariate data exploration tool that compares high-dimensional space navigation with a sightseeing trip. It decomposes this activity into five major tasks: 1) Identify the sights: use a map to identify the sights of interest and their location; 2) Plan the trip: connect the sights of interest along a specifyable path; 3) Go on the trip: travel along the route; 4) Hop off the bus: experience the location, look around, zoom into detail; and 5) Orient and localize: regain bearings in the map. We describe intuitive and interactive tools for all of these tasks, both global navigation within the map and local exploration of the data distributions. For the latter, we describe a polygonal touchpad interface which enables users to smoothly tilt the projection plane in high-dimensional space to produce multivariate scatterplots that best convey the data relationships under investigation. Motion parallax and illustrative motion trails aid in the perception of these transient patterns. We describe the use of our system within two applications: 1) the exploratory discovery of data configurations that best fit a personal preference in the presence of tradeoffs and 2) interactive cluster analysis via cluster sculpting in N-D.

  12. Exploring the "what if?" in geology through a RESTful open-source framework for cloud-based simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Jens; Robertson, Jess

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Our framework consist of two layers: (a) a ground-truth layer that contains geological models, which can be statistically based on historical operations data, and (b) a network of RESTful synthetic sensor microservices which can query the ground-truth for underlying properties and produce a simulated measurement to a control layer, which could be a database or LIMS, a machine learner or a companies' existing data infrastructure. Ground truth data are generated by an implicit geological model which serves as a host for nested models of geological processes as smaller scales. Our two layers are implemented using Flask and Gunicorn, which are open source Python web application framework and server, the PyData stack (numpy, scipy etc) and Rabbit MQ (an open-source queuing library). Sensor data is encoded using a JSON-LD version of the SensorML and Observations and Measurements standards. Containerisation of the synthetic sensors using Docker and CoreOS allows rapid and scalable deployment of large numbers of sensors, as well as sensor discovery to form a self-organized dynamic network of sensors. Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the

  13. Exploring Charge Transport in Guest Molecule Infiltrated Cu3(BTC)2 Metal Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Francois Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Stavila, Vitalie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Allendorf, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this Exploratory Express project was to expand the understanding of the physical properties of our recently discovered class of materials consisting of metal-organic frameworks with electroactive ‘guest’ molecules that together form an electrically conducting charge-transfer complex (molecule@MOF). Thin films of Cu3(BTC)2 were grown on fused silica using solution step-by-step growth and were infiltrated with the molecule tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The infiltrated MOF films were extensively characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and thermoelectric properties. Thermopower measurements on TCNQ@Cu3(BTC)2 revealed a positive Seebeck coefficient of ~400 μV/k, indicating that holes are the primary carriers in this material. The high value of the Seebeck coefficient and the expected low thermal conductivity suggest that molecule@MOF materials may be attractive for thermoelectric power conversion applications requiring low cost, solution-processable, and non-toxic active materials.

  14. The Health Belief Model as an explanatory framework in communication research: exploring parallel, serial, and moderated mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christina L; Jensen, Jakob D; Scherr, Courtney L; Brown, Natasha R; Christy, Katheryn; Weaver, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The Health Belief Model (HBM) posits that messages will achieve optimal behavior change if they successfully target perceived barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, and threat. While the model seems to be an ideal explanatory framework for communication research, theoretical limitations have limited its use in the field. Notably, variable ordering is currently undefined in the HBM. Thus, it is unclear whether constructs mediate relationships comparably (parallel mediation), in sequence (serial mediation), or in tandem with a moderator (moderated mediation). To investigate variable ordering, adults (N = 1,377) completed a survey in the aftermath of an 8-month flu vaccine campaign grounded in the HBM. Exposure to the campaign was positively related to vaccination behavior. Statistical evaluation supported a model where the indirect effect of exposure on behavior through perceived barriers and threat was moderated by self-efficacy (moderated mediation). Perceived barriers and benefits also formed a serial mediation chain. The results indicate that variable ordering in the Health Belief Model may be complex, may help to explain conflicting results of the past, and may be a good focus for future research.

  15. Effects of isolation and confinement on humans-implications for manned space explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, J I; Choukèr, A

    2016-06-15

    Human psychology and physiology are significantly altered by isolation and confinement. In light of planned exploration class interplanetary missions, the related adverse effects on the human body need to be explored and defined as they have a large impact on a mission's success. Terrestrial space analogs offer an excellent controlled environment to study some of these stressors during a space mission in isolation without the complex environment of the International Space Station. Participants subjected to these space analog conditions can encounter typical symptoms ranging from neurocognitive changes, fatigue, misaligned circadian rhythm, sleep disorders, altered stress hormone levels, and immune modulatory changes. This review focuses on both the psychological and the physiological responses observed in participants of long-duration spaceflight analog studies, such as Mars500 or Antarctic winter-over. They provide important insight into similarities and differences encountered in each simulated setting. The identification of adverse effects from confinement allows not only the crew to better prepare for but also to design feasible countermeasures that will help support space travelers during exploration class missions in the future. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Low-Latency Teleoperations for Human Exploration and Evolvable Mars Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, Mark; Wright, Michael; Arney, Dale; Gershman, Bob; Stillwagen, Fred; Bobskill, Marianne; Johnson, James; Shyface, Hilary; Larman, Kevin; Lewis, Ruthan; Bleacher, Jake; Gernhardt, Mike; Mueller, Rob; Sanders, Gerald; Watts, Kevin; Eigenbrode, Jen; Garry, Brent; Freeh, Joshua; Manzella, David; Hack, Kurt; Aranyos, Tom

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been analyzing a number of mission concepts and activities that involve low-latency telerobotic (LLT) operations. One mission concept that will be covered in this presentation is Crew-Assisted Sample Return which involves the crew acquiring samples (1) that have already been delivered to space, and or acquiring samples via LLT from orbit to a planetary surface and then launching the samples to space to be captured in space and then returned to the earth with the crew. Both versions of have key roles for low-latency teleoperations. More broadly, the NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign is exploring a number of other activities that involve LLT, such as: (a) human asteroid missions, (b) PhobosDeimos missions, (c) Mars human landing site reconnaissance and site preparation, and (d) Mars sample handling and analysis. Many of these activities could be conducted from Mars orbit and also with the crew on the Mars surface remotely operating assets elsewhere on the surface, e.g. for exploring Mars special regions and or teleoperating a sample analysis laboratory both of which may help address planetary protection concerns. The operational and technology implications of low-latency teleoperations will be explored, including discussion of relevant items in the NASA Technology Roadmap and also how previously deployed robotic assets from any source could subsequently be used by astronauts via LLT.

  17. Recognising Effective Legal Protection to People Smuggled at Sea, by Reviewing the EU Legal Framework on Human Trafficking and Solidarity between Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Ventrella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The death toll of migrants at sea is on the increase. The EU and its Member States are not addressing the situation by widening the EU legal framework on human trafficking to persons smuggled at sea. People smuggled at sea are extremely vulnerable at the hands of their smugglers and suffer serious abuse of their human rights from their journeys through the desert, on the boats and when they reach their final destination. They become victims of human trafficking and they should not be neglected anymore by the EU and its Member States. However, all EU proposals lack of concreteness as Member States do not want to support and host migrants at sea on their territories. They are reluctant to launch solidarity between each other as requested by the Lisbon Treaty and by doing this, they are indirectly responsible for the death of many migrants at sea and for the abuse of their human rights. This article proposes alternatives to explore that could change the situation if Member States show their willingness to cooperate with each other.

  18. Assessing the Biohazard Potential of Putative Martian Organisms for Exploration Class Human Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmflash, David; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey; Fox, George E.; McKay, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Exploration Class missions to Mars will require precautions against potential contamination by any native microorganisms that may be incidentally pathogenic to humans. While the results of NASA's Viking biology experiments of 1976 have been generally interpreted as inconclusive for surface organisms, the possibility of native surface life has never been ruled out and more recent studies suggest that the case for biological interpretation of the Viking Labeled Release data may now be stronger than it was when the experiments were originally conducted. It is possible that, prior to the first human landing on Mars, robotic craft and sample return missions will provide enough data to know with certainty whether or not future human landing sites harbor extant life forms. However, if native life is confirmed, it will be problematic to determine whether any of its species may present a medical risk to astronauts. Therefore, it will become necessary to assess empirically the risk that the planet contains pathogens based on terrestrial examples of pathogenicity and to take a reasonably cautious approach to bio-hazard protection. A survey of terrestrial pathogens was conducted with special emphasis on those pathogens whose evolution has not depended on the presence of animal hosts. The history of the development and implementation of Apollo anticontamination protocol and recent recommendations of the NRC Space Studies Board regarding Mars were reviewed. Organisms can emerge in nature in the absence of indigenous animal hosts and both infectious and non-infectious human pathogens are theoretically possible on Mars. The prospect of Martian surface life, together with the existence of a diversity of routes by which pathogenicity has emerged on Earth, suggests that the possibility of human pathogens on Mars, while low, is not zero. Since the discovery and study of Martian life can have long-term benefits for humanity, the risk that Martian life might include pathogens should not

  19. Robotic Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration and planetary defense. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. These data can also be applied for gaining an understanding of pertinent small body physical characteristics that would also be beneficial for formulating future impact mitigation procedures. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the

  20. "Semi-straight sort of sex": class and gay community attachment explored within a framework of older homosexually active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, M J; Kippax, S; Smith, G

    1998-01-01

    Gay Community Attachment has proved a significant predictor of successful behavior change among gay-identifying men in response to HIV/AIDS. Related work at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, indicated that attachment to gay community is not a simple issue; rather, complex issues of sexual identity formation, the constraints of social inequality and localized sexual cultures inhibit the process of attachment and, therefore, successful HIV prevention. This paper discusses some of the findings from close-focus (qualitative) research on older homosexually active men which explore in depth the dynamic whereby these men attached themselves to gay community in terms of an analysis of class, generation, and the interplay with self-construction and masculinity.

  1. Can your country make you sick? Multi-level explorations of population health and human rights in a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating health and human rights from a socio-epidemiological perspective is emerging. Still there is a noticeable paucity of research that empirically links population health to human rights concerns. In this thesis, three examples relevant to human rights are explored. We investigate

  2. Can your country make you sick? Multi-level explorations of population health and human rights in a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating health and human rights from a socio-epidemiological perspective is emerging. Still there is a noticeable paucity of research that empirically links population health to human rights concerns. In this thesis, three examples relevant to human rights are explored. We investigate

  3. Vision of Space Exploration Possibilities and limits of a human space conquest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev

    Few generations of a schoolboys, which later become active and productive space researchers, have been brought up on a science fiction books. These books told us about travels to other Galaxies with velocities larger then velocity of light, meetings with friendly aliens (necessarily with communistic mentalities in Soviet Union books), star wars with ugly space monsters (in the western hemisphere books), etc. Beginning of Space age (4/10/1957) opened the door to a magic box, full of scientific discoveries, made mostly by robotic satellites and spacecraft. However, already the first human space trips clearly demonstrated that space is vigorously hostile to a human beings. Space medicine during the years since Gagarin flight, made an outstanding progress in supporting human presence at orbital stations, but the radiation hazards and problem of hypomagnetism are still opened and there is no visible path to their solution. So the optimistic slogan of 60-ies “Space is Our Place” is not supported by an almost half a century practice. Space never will be a comfortable place for soft and vulnerable humans? There is a general consensus that man will be on Mars during this century (or even its first part). This is very difficult but task it seems to be realistic after the significant advance of modern technologies will be made. But, is there any real need for humans to travel beyond the Mars orbit or to the inner regions of the Solar system? Will the age of Solar system exploration comes to its logical as it was described by Stanislav Lem in his famous book “Return from stars”? The author of this talk has more questions than answers, and thinks that PEX1 Panel on Exploration is just a right place to discuss these usually by passed topics.

  4. Martian Surface Boundary Layer Characterization: Enabling Environmental Data for Science, Engineering and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, C.

    2000-01-01

    For human or large robotic exploration of Mars, engineering devices such as power sources will be utilized that interact closely with the Martian environment. Heat sources for power production, for example, will use the low ambient temperature for efficient heat rejection. The Martian ambient, however, is highly variable, and will have a first order influence on the efficiency and operation of all large-scale equipment. Diurnal changes in temperature, for example, can vary the theoretical efficiency of power production by 15% and affect the choice of equipment, working fluids, and operating parameters. As part of the Mars Exploration program, missions must acquire the environmental data needed for design, operation and maintenance of engineering equipment including the transportation devices. The information should focus on the variability of the environment, and on the differences among locations including latitudes, altitudes, and seasons. This paper outlines some of the WHY's, WHAT's and WHERE's of the needed data, as well as some examples of how this data will be used. Environmental data for engineering design should be considered a priority in Mars Exploration planning. The Mars Thermal Environment Radiator Characterization (MTERC), and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiments planned for early Mars landers are examples of information needed for even small robotic missions. Large missions will require proportionately more accurate data that encompass larger samples of the Martian surface conditions. In achieving this goal, the Mars Exploration program will also acquire primary data needed for understanding Martian weather, surface evolution, and ground-atmosphere interrelationships.

  5. Martian Surface Boundary Layer Characterization: Enabling Environmental Data for Science, Engineering and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, C.

    2000-01-01

    For human or large robotic exploration of Mars, engineering devices such as power sources will be utilized that interact closely with the Martian environment. Heat sources for power production, for example, will use the low ambient temperature for efficient heat rejection. The Martian ambient, however, is highly variable, and will have a first order influence on the efficiency and operation of all large-scale equipment. Diurnal changes in temperature, for example, can vary the theoretical efficiency of power production by 15% and affect the choice of equipment, working fluids, and operating parameters. As part of the Mars Exploration program, missions must acquire the environmental data needed for design, operation and maintenance of engineering equipment including the transportation devices. The information should focus on the variability of the environment, and on the differences among locations including latitudes, altitudes, and seasons. This paper outlines some of the WHY's, WHAT's and WHERE's of the needed data, as well as some examples of how this data will be used. Environmental data for engineering design should be considered a priority in Mars Exploration planning. The Mars Thermal Environment Radiator Characterization (MTERC), and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiments planned for early Mars landers are examples of information needed for even small robotic missions. Large missions will require proportionately more accurate data that encompass larger samples of the Martian surface conditions. In achieving this goal, the Mars Exploration program will also acquire primary data needed for understanding Martian weather, surface evolution, and ground-atmosphere interrelationships.

  6. Issues of exploration: human health and wellbeing during a mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. J.; Bassingthwaighte, J. B.; Charles, J. B.; Kushmerick, M. J.; Newman, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    Today, the tools are in our hands to enable us to travel away from our home planet and become citizens of the solar system. Even now, we are seriously beginning to develop the robust infrastructure that will make the 21st century the Century of Space Travel. But this bold step must be taken with due concern for the health, safety and wellbeing of future space explorers. Our long experience with space biomedical research convinces us that, if we are to deal effectively with the medical and biomedical issues of exploration, then dramatic and bold steps are also necessary in this field. We can no longer treat the human body as if it were composed of muscles, bones, heart and brain acting independently. Instead, we must lead the effort to develop a fully integrated view of the body, with all parts connected and fully interacting in a realistic way. This paper will present the status of current (2000) plans by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute to initiate research in this area of integrative physiology and medicine. Specifically, three example projects are discussed as potential stepping stones towards the ultimate goal of producing a digital human. These projects relate to developing a functional model of the human musculoskeletal system and the heart. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring Visual Evidence of Human Impact on the Environment with Planetary-Scale Zoomable Timelapse Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, R.; Egge, M.; Dille, P. S.; O'Donnell, G. D.; Herwig, C.

    2016-12-01

    Visual evidence ignites curiosity and inspires advocacy. Zoomable imagery and video on a planetary scale provides compelling evidence of human impact on the environment. Earth Timelapse places the observable impact of 30+ years of human activity into the hands of policy makers, scientists, and advocates, with fluidity and speed that supports inquiry and exploration. Zoomability enables compelling narratives and ready apprehension of environmental changes, connecting human-scale evidence to regional and ecosystem-wide trends and changes. Leveraging the power of Google Earth Engine, join us to explore 30+ years of Landset 30m RGB imagery showing glacial retreat, agricultural deforestation, irrigation expansion, and the disappearance of lakes. These narratives are enriched with datasets showing planetary forest gain/loss, annual cycles of agricultural fires, global changes in the health of coral reefs, trends in resource extraction, and of renewable energy development. We demonstrate the intuitive and inquiry-enabling power of these planetary visualizations, and provide instruction on how scientists and advocates can create and share or contribute visualizations of their own research or topics of interest.

  8. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy as a Counter-Measure for Human Exploration of Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, S.; Roach, A.-N.; Ramsahai, S.; Kim, B. C.; Fitzgerald, W.; Riley, D. A.; Gonda, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    Human exploration of deep space depends, in part, on our ability to counter severe/invasive disorders that astronauts experience in space environments. The known symptoms include hematological/cardiac abnormalities,bone and muscle losses, immunodeficiency, neurological disorders, and cancer. Exploiting the extraordinary plasticity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which differentiate not only to all types of blood cells, but also to various tissues, we have advanced a hypothesis that ome of the space-caused disorders maybe amenable to hematopoietis stem cell therapy(HSCT) so as to maintain promote human exploration of deep space. Using mouse models of human anemia beta-thaiassemia) as well as spaceflight (hindlimb unloading system), we have obtained feasibility results of HSCT for space anemia, muscle loss, and immunodeficiency. For example, in the case of HSCT for muscle loss, the beta-galactosidese marked HSCs were detected in the hindlimbs of unloaded mouse following transplantation by -X-gal wholemaunt staining procedure. Histochemicaland physical analyses indicated structural contribution of HSCs to the muscle. HSCT for immunodeficiency was investigated ising beta-galactosidese gene-tagged Escherichia coli as the infectious agent. Results of the X-gal staining procedure indicated the rapeutic role of the HSCT. To facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs were optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

  9. Visual exploration patterns of human figures in action: an eye tracker study with art paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Daniela; Morganti, Francesca; Cipresso, Pietro; Ruggi, Simona; Riva, Giuseppe; Gilli, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Art exploration is a complex process conditioned by factors at different levels and includes both basic visual principles and complex cognitive factors. The human figure is considered a critical factor attracting the attention in art painting. Using an eye-tracking methodology, the goal of this study was to explore different elements of the human figure performing an action (face and body parts in action) in complex social scenes characterized by different levels of social interaction between agents depicted in scenes (individual vs. social). The sample included 44 laypersons, and the stimuli consisted of 10 fine art paintings representing the figurative style of classical art. The results revealed different scanning patterns of the human figure elements related to the level of social interaction of agents depicted in the scene. The agents' face attracted eye movements in social interaction scenes while the agents' body parts attracted eye movements only when the agents were involved in individual actions. These processes were confirmed specifically in participants with high empathic abilities who became immediately fixated on faces to develop a mimetic engagement with other agents. Future studies integrating other measures would help confirm the results obtained and strengthen their implication for embodiment processes.

  10. Potential Applications for Radioisotope Power Systems in Support of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) for space applications have powered over 27 U.S. space systems, starting with Transit 4A and 4B in 1961, and more recently with the successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in August 2012. RPS enable missions with destinations far from the Sun with faint solar flux, on planetary surfaces with dense or dusty atmospheres, and at places with long eclipse periods where solar array sizes and energy storage mass become impractical. RPS could also provide an enabling capability in support of human exploration activities. It is envisioned that with the higher power needs of most human mission concepts, a high efficiency thermal-to-electric technology would be required such as the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ASRG). The ASRG should be capable of a four-fold improvement in efficiency over traditional thermoelectric RPS. While it may be impractical to use RPS as a main power source, many other applications could be considered, such as crewed pressurized rovers, in-situ resource production of propellants, back-up habitat power, drilling, any mobile or remote activity from the main base habitat, etc. This paper will identify potential applications and provide concepts that could be a practical extension of the current ASRG design in providing for robust and flexible use of RPS on human exploration missions.

  11. Exploring the human body space: A geographical information system based anatomical atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barbeito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical atlases allow mapping the anatomical structures of the human body. Early versions of these systems consisted of analogical representations with informative text and labeled images of the human body. With computer systems, digital versions emerged and the third and fourth dimensions were introduced. Consequently, these systems increased their efficiency, allowing more realistic visualizations with improved interactivity and functionality. The 4D atlases allow modeling changes over time on the structures represented. The anatomical atlases based on geographic information system (GIS environments allow the creation of platforms with a high degree of interactivity and new tools to explore and analyze the human body. In this study we expand the functions of a human body representation system by creating new vector data, topology, functions, and an improved user interface. The new prototype emulates a 3D GIS with a topological model of the human body, replicates the information provided by anatomical atlases, and provides a higher level of functionality and interactivity. At this stage, the developed system is intended to be used as an educational tool and integrates into the same interface the typical representations of surface and sectional atlases.

  12. The University Rover Challenge: A competition highlighting Human and Robotic partnerships for exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather; Duncan, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The University Rover Challenge began in 2006 with 4 American college teams competing, now in it's 10th year there are 63 teams from 12 countries registered to compete for the top rover designed to assist humans in the exploration of Mars. The Rovers compete aided by the University teams in four tasks (3 engineering and 1 science) in the Mars analog environment of the Utah Southern Desert in the United States. In this presentation we show amazing rover designs with videos demonstrating the incredible ingenuity, skill and determination of the world's most talented college students. We describe the purpose and results of each of the tasks: Astronaut Assistant, Rover Dexterity, Terrain maneuvering, and Science. We explain the evolution of the competition and common challenges faced by the robotic explorers

  13. Asteroid Redirect Mission - Next Major stepping-stone to Human Exploration of NEOs and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    In response to NASA's Asteroid Initiative, an Asteroid Redirect and Robotic Mission (ARRM) is being studied by a NASA cohort, led by JPL, to enable the capture a multi-ton boulder from the surface of a Near-Earth Asteroid and return it to cislunar space for subsequent human and robotic exploration. The mission would boost our understanding of NEOs and develop technological capabilities for Planetary Defense, shall a NEO come up on a collision course. The benefits of this mission can extend our capabilities to explore farther into space, as well as create a new commercial sector in Space Mining, which would make materials in Space available for our use. ARRM would leverage and advance current knowledge of higher-efficiency propulsion systems with a new Solar Electric Propulsion demonstration (similar to that on the Dawn spacecraft) to be incorporated into future Mars Missions.

  14. Foundational Methane Propulsion Related Technology Efforts, and Challenges for Applications to Human Exploration Beyond Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas; Klem, Mark; McRight, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Current interest in human exploration beyond earth orbit is driving requirements for high performance, long duration space transportation capabilities. Continued advancement in photovoltaic power systems and investments in high performance electric propulsion promise to enable solar electric options for cargo delivery and pre-deployment of operational architecture elements. However, higher thrust options are required for human in-space transportation as well as planetary descent and ascent functions. While high thrust requirements for interplanetary transportation may be provided by chemical or nuclear thermal propulsion systems, planetary descent and ascent systems are limited to chemical solutions due to their higher thrust to weight and potential planetary protection concerns. Liquid hydrogen fueled systems provide high specific impulse, but pose challenges due to low propellant density and the thermal issues of long term propellant storage. Liquid methane fueled propulsion is a promising compromise with lower specific impulse, higher bulk propellant density and compatibility with proposed in-situ propellant production concepts. Additionally, some architecture studies have identified the potential for commonality between interplanetary and descent/ascent propulsion solutions using liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellants. These commonalities may lead to reduced overall development costs and more affordable exploration architectures. With this increased interest, it is critical to understand the current state of LOX/LCH4 propulsion technology and the remaining challenges to its application to beyond earth orbit human exploration. This paper provides a survey of NASA's past and current methane propulsion related technology efforts, assesses the accomplishments to date, and examines the remaining risks associated with full scale development.

  15. The ambiguity of human ashes: Exploring encounters with cremated remains in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    This article explores cremation and disposal practices in the Netherlands, focusing on the attitudes and experiences of bereaved Dutch people in relation to cremated remains. In academic and professional narratives, human ashes are commonly described as "important," as "sacred," and as a vehicle to continue intense and physical relationships with the dead. Based on quantitative and qualitative data this article illustrates the ambiguity of such relationships. It highlights the diverse experiences, unexpected challenges, and moral obligations that can be evoked by the deceased's ashes, where the latter are seen as embedded in material practices and entangled in social relationships.

  16. Modern Gemini-Approach to Technology Development for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold

    2010-01-01

    In NASA's plan to put men on the moon, there were three sequential programs: Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. The Gemini program was used to develop and integrate the technologies that would be necessary for the Apollo program to successfully put men on the moon. We would like to present an analogous modern approach that leverages legacy ISS hardware designs, and integrates developing new technologies into a flexible architecture This new architecture is scalable, sustainable, and can be used to establish human exploration infrastructure beyond low earth orbit and into deep space.

  17. A U.S. perspective on the human exploration and expansion on the planet Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Connolly, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA perspective on the human exploration of Mars is presented which is based on the fundamental background available from the many previous studies. A hypothetical architecture of the Mars surface system is described which represents the complete spectrum of envisioned activities. Using the Strategic Implementation Architecture it is possible to construct a thoughtful roadmap which would enable a logical and flexible evolution of missions. Based on that architecture a suite of Martian surface elements is proposed to provide increasing levels of capability to the maturing infrastructure.

  18. Macaques in farms and folklore: exploring the human-nonhuman primate interface in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Erin P; Priston, Nancy E C

    2010-09-01

    The island of Sulawesi is an ecologically diverse and anthropogenically complex region in the Indonesian archipelago; it is home to multiple macaque species and a key locus of human-nonhuman primate interconnections. Here, we review the ethnoprimatology of Sulawesi by exploring two primary domains of the human-macaque interface: overlapping resource use and cultural perceptions of macaques. Crop raiding is the primary form of overlapping resource use. While the raiding of cacao plantations predominates in Central and South Sulawesi, subsistence crops (e.g., sweet potato and maize) are most vulnerable on Buton, Southeast Sulawesi. Despite this overlap levels of conflict are generally low, with farmers showing considerable tolerance. This tolerance can be explained by positive perceptions of the macaques despite their crop raiding behavior, and the finding that in some areas macaques figure prominently in local folklore, hence affording them protection. These findings provide some hope for the future management and conservation of these endemic macaques.

  19. An exploration in the will psychology of Otto Rank: human intentionality and individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, Masayo

    2012-12-01

    The author explores the meaning and the importance of the will in Rank's relation-based self-creative, self-constructive psychology and argues for the consideration of the concept of the will in psychoanalysis. The paper shows that Rank's concept of the will explains what gives a human being the impetus to choose an action, positive or negative. When validated by the other, this will, the power of intention, enables a person to create his/her unique individuality. The paper reviews Rank's definition of will and traces the evolution of his ideas of intentionality in his writings. Further, the author discusses how Rank attempts to capture the subtle movements of the human mind as suffused with struggles and dynamic interplay between external and internal forces.

  20. How perceptions of community environment influence health behaviours: using the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity Framework as a mechanism for exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwendyk, L M; Belon, A P; Vallianatos, H; Raine, K D; Schopflocher, D; Spence, J C; Plotnikoff, R C; Nykiforuk, C I

    2016-09-01

    Overweight and obesity are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and environmental factors that affect physical activity and healthy eating. Nevertheless, little has been reported on people's perceptions of those factors. Addressing this critical gap and community partner needs, this study explored how people perceived the influence of micro- and macroenvironmental factors on physical activity and healthy eating. Community partners wanted the study results in a format that would be readily and easily used by local decision makers. We used photovoice to engage 35 community members across four municipalities in Alberta, Canada, and to share their narratives about their physical activity and healthy eating. A combination of inductive and deductive analysis categorized data by environmental level (micro vs. macro) and type (physical, political, economic, and sociocultural), guided by the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity Framework. Participants conceptualized health-influencing factors more broadly than physical activity and healthy eating to include "community social health." Participants spoke most often about the influence of the microenvironment (n = 792 ANGELO Framework coding tallies) on their physical activity, healthy eating and community social health in comparison to the macroenvironment (n = 93). Photovoice results provided a visual narrative to community partners and decision makers about how people's ability to make healthy choices can be limited by macroenvironmental forces beyond their control. Focussing future research on macro- and microenvironmental influences and localized community social health can inform practice by providing strategies on how to implement healthy changes within communities, while ensuring that research and interventions echo diverse people's perceptions.