WorldWideScience

Sample records for human everyday routines

  1. Routines and Concerns in Conduct of Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybholt, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the concept conduct of everyday life, namely routines and real life, as they are confronted with empirical observations. The observations are from a study of changes in the conduct of everyday life for individuals who attended a patient education course. The course...... was a part of their treatment after a hospitalisation with depression in a psychiatric ward. I use analysis of the main individual, Steven’s, conduct of everyday life and illustrate my points with models of conduct of everyday life made using beads. The conceptualisation of conduct of everyday life...... is expanded through three points. Firstly, cyclic routines can matter and fulfill life, which can support the ongoing discussion about the concept conduct of everyday life. Secondly, I show that, from a first person perspective, what matters in conduct of everyday life is more complex than what is possible...

  2. Contextualising renal patient routines: Everyday space-time contexts, health service access, and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuoid, Julia; Jowsey, Tanisha; Talaulikar, Girish

    2017-06-01

    Stable routines are key to successful illness self-management for the growing number of people living with chronic illness around the world. Yet, the influence of chronically ill individuals' everyday contexts in supporting routines is poorly understood. This paper takes a space-time geographical approach to explore the everyday space-time contexts and routines of individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We ask: what is the relationship between renal patients' space-time contexts and their ability to establish and maintain stable routines, and, what role does health service access play in this regard? We draw from a qualitative case study of 26 individuals with CKD in Australia. Data comprised self-reported two day participant diaries and semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was guided by an inductive-deductive approach. We examined the embeddedness of routines within the space-time contexts of participants' everyday lives. We found that participants' everyday space-time contexts were highly complex, especially for those receiving dialysis and/or employed, making routines difficult to establish and vulnerable to disruption. Health service access helped shape participants' everyday space-time contexts, meaning that incidences of unpredictability in accessing health services set-off 'ripple effects' within participants' space-time contexts, disrupting routines and making everyday life negotiation more difficult. The ability to absorb ripple effects from unpredictable health services without disrupting routines varied by space-time context. Implications of these findings for the deployment of the concept of routine in health research, the framing of patient success in self-managing illness, and health services design are discussed. In conclusion, efforts to understand and support individuals in establishing and maintaining routines that support health and wellbeing can benefit from approaches that contextualise and de

  3. Peak Oil and the Everyday Complexity of Human Progress Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Pruit

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The “big” story of human progress has polarizing tendencies featuring the binary options of progress or decline. I consider human progress narratives in the context of everyday life. Analysis of the “little” stories from two narrative environments focusing on peak oil offers a more complex picture of the meaning and contours of the narrative. I consider the impact of differential blog site commitments to peak oil perspectives and identify five narrative types culled from two narrative dimensions. I argue that the lived experience complicates human progress narratives, which is no longer an either/or proposition.

  4. Everyday robotic action: Lessons from human action control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eDe Kleijn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally-extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations.

  5. Understanding Smart Home Sensor Data for Ageing in Place Through Everyday Household Routines: A Mixed Method Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kasteren, Yasmin; Bradford, Dana; Zhang, Qing; Karunanithi, Mohan; Ding, Hang

    2017-06-13

    An ongoing challenge for smart homes research for aging-in-place is how to make sense of the large amounts of data from in-home sensors to facilitate real-time monitoring and develop reliable alerts. The objective of our study was to explore the usefulness of a routine-based approach for making sense of smart home data for the elderly. Maximum variation sampling was used to select three cases for an in-depth mixed methods exploration of the daily routines of three elderly participants in a smart home trial using 180 days of power use and motion sensor data and longitudinal interview data. Sensor data accurately matched self-reported routines. By comparing daily movement data with personal routines, it was possible to identify changes in routine that signaled illness, recovery from bereavement, and gradual deterioration of sleep quality and daily movement. Interview and sensor data also identified changes in routine with variations in temperature and daylight hours. The findings demonstrated that a routine-based approach makes interpreting sensor data easy, intuitive, and transparent. They highlighted the importance of understanding and accounting for individual differences in preferences for routinization and the influence of the cyclical nature of daily routines, social or cultural rhythms, and seasonal changes in temperature and daylight hours when interpreting information based on sensor data. This research has demonstrated the usefulness of a routine-based approach for making sense of smart home data, which has furthered the understanding of the challenges that need to be addressed in order to make real-time monitoring and effective alerts a reality.

  6. Routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Melser and Michie (1970), 135-151. Sacerdoti, Earl D, [1977], A structure for plans and behavior, Elsevier. * Sartre , Jean - Paul , [1976], Critique of...theorem proving to problem solving," Artificial Intelligence, 2 (3) 189-208. Fitts, Paul M and Michael I Posner, [1967], Human performance, Brooks/Cole...Laing, R D and A Esterson, [1964], Sanity, Madness, and the Family, Tavistock. Laird, John E, Paul Rosenbloom, and Allen Newell, [1984], Towards

  7. Human-Robot Teams in Entertainment and Other Everyday Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Fazli, Pooyan

    2009-01-01

    A new and relatively unexplored research direction in robotics systems is the coordination of humans and robots working as a team. In this paper, we focus upon problem domains and tasks in which multiple robots, humans and other agents are cooperating through coordination to satisfy a set of goals or to maximize utility. We are primarily interested in applications of human robot coordination in entertainment and other activities of daily life. We discuss the teamwork problem and propose an architecture to address this.

  8. Blaming, praising, and protecting our humanity: the implications of everyday dehumanization for judgments of moral status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Laham, Simon M; Wilson, Sam; Haslam, Nick; Koval, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Being human implies a particular moral status: having moral value, agency, and responsibility. However, people are not seen as equally human. Across two studies, we examine the consequences that subtle variations in the perceived humanness of actors or groups have for their perceived moral status. Drawing on Haslam's two-dimensional model of humanness and focusing on three ways people may be considered to have moral status - moral patiency (value), agency, or responsibility - we demonstrate that subtly denying humanness to others has implications for whether they are blamed, praised, or considered worthy of moral concern and rehabilitation. Moreover, we show that distinct human characteristics are linked to specific judgments of moral status. This work demonstrates that everyday judgments of moral status are influenced by perceptions of humanness.

  9. On the relevance of residual force enhancement for everyday human movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiberl, Wolfgang; Paternoster, Florian; Achatz, Florian; Schwirtz, Ansgar; Hahn, Daniel

    2013-08-09

    Although residual force enhancement (RFE), i.e. enhanced force after active muscle stretch, is shown to be present in voluntarily activated human muscles, its relevance for everyday human movement is still elusive. Natural human motion is mainly composed of voluntarily submaximally activated muscle contractions driving coordinated multi-joint movements. Up to now there has been no study that directly investigated the presence of RFE following stretch when performing a submaximal multi-joint movement. For this purpose, n=13 subjects performed feedback controlled bilateral leg extensions at the level of 30% maximum voluntary activation in a motor-driven leg press dynamometer. Isometric-eccentric-isometric and purely isometric contractions were arranged in a randomized experimental protocol. Kinematics, forces and muscular activity were measured using optical motion tracking, 3d force plates and EMG of 9 lower extremity muscles. ANOVA identified significant RFE of external reaction force, and knee extension and plantar flexion torque (calculated by inverse dynamics). Enhanced force and torque ranged between 3% and 22% and was present for up to 22s post-stretch. In spite of motor redundancy for solving a given task, no differences between contraction conditions were observed for any of the analyzed muscles, except for tibialis anterior. On the basis of our results, RFE is present in everyday alike human movement and might be an evolutionary optimization mechanism to enhance muscular performance at a given amount of energetic effort.

  10. Whose Job Is It? Everyday Routines and Quality of Life in Latino and Non-Latino Families of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Susan D.; Domínguez-Pareto, Irenka; Cohen, Shana R.; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that families construct daily routines that enable the household to function smoothly and promote family quality of life. However, we know little about how activities are distributed between parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability (ID), particularly in Latino families. To address this gap, we…

  11. Whose Job Is It? Everyday Routines and Quality of Life in Latino and Non-Latino Families of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Susan D.; Domínguez-Pareto, Irenka; Cohen, Shana R.; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that families construct daily routines that enable the household to function smoothly and promote family quality of life. However, we know little about how activities are distributed between parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability (ID), particularly in Latino families. To address this gap, we…

  12. Everyday Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2016-01-01

    to critically juxtapose the two concepts, everyday architecture and tectonics in this paper. We ask ourselves if everyday architecture can be qualified by means of general tectonic considerationsmethod and which strategies are needed to reveal its potential?. To aAnswerring theseese questions entails...... a clarification of concepts. Methodologically we pursue this clarification through a rereading of the essay: “Henri Lefebvre’s essay of 1972 entitled ‘The everyday and everydayness” by Henri Lefebvre (Lefebvre 1972).’ The essay offersing a general definition of the term related to everyday life...... as such and outlinea general definition of the aspects related to everyday life, how it can manifest itself in various cultural practices that can be discussed in relation to ‘everyday architecture’ and tectonic strategies or practices of tectonic methods. As such we propose the notion of ‘the everyday’ as a critical...

  13. Consuming technologies - developing routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Routines in daily life are crucial for consumption by households of energy and water and therefore knowledge of how routines develop and change is extremely relevant from a sustainable consumption perspective. Routines emerge, develop and change in close relation with different kinds of everyday ...

  14. Everyday Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Wegener, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how vocational teachers’ everyday practices can constitute innovative learning spaces that help students to experience engagement and commitment towards education and thus increase their possibilities for completing their studies despite notable...... difficulties. Design/methodology/approach – Based on two ethnographic field studies, we analyse vocational teaching situations in which teachers and students engage in daily remaking of the vocational educational training practice. It is argued that these everyday situations can be understood as innovative...... transformation of participation and practice. Findings – The exploration of teachers’ practicing new learning spaces sheds light on innovation potential embedded in everyday educational practices. The paper thus challenges the celebration of radical innovation and argues that innovation emerges from everyday...

  15. Telemedicine in interdisciplinary work practices: On an IT system that met the criteria for success set out by its sponsors, yet failed to become part of every-day clinical routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Roland

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information systems can play a key role in care innovations including task redesign and shared care. Many demonstration projects have presented evidence of clinical and cost effectiveness and high levels of patient satisfaction. Yet these same projects often fail to become part of everyday clinical routines. The aim of the paper is to gain insight into a common paradox that a technology can meet the criteria for success set out at the start of the project yet fail to become part of everyday clinical routines. Methods We evaluated a telecare service set up to reduce the workload of ophthalmologists. In this project, optometrists in 10 optical shops made digital images to detect patients with glaucoma which were further assessed by trained technicians in the hospital. Over a period of three years, we conducted interviews with the project team and the users about the workability of the system and its integration in practice. Beside the interviews, we analyzed record data to measure the quality of the images. We compared the qualitative accounts with these measurements. Results According to our measurements, the quality of the images was at least satisfactory in 90% of the cases, i.e. the images could be used to screen the patients – reducing the workload of the ophthalmologist considerably. However, both the ophthalmologist and the optometrists became increasingly dissatisfied respectively with the perceived quality of the pictures and the perceived workload. Through a detailed analysis of how the professionals discussed the quality of the pictures, we re-constructed how the notion of quality of the images and being a good professional were constructed and linked. The IT system transformed into a quality system and, at the same time, transformed the notions of being a good professional. While a continuous dialogue about the quality of the pictures became an emblem for the quality of care, this dialogue was hindered by the

  16. Economic impact of routine opt-out antenatal human immune deficiency virus screening: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, Everistus; Haigh, Carol; Duncan, Fiona; Fatoye, Francis

    2017-03-02

    To evaluate the economic impact of routine testing of human immune deficiency virus in antenatal settings. Many children are being infected with human immune deficiency virus through mother-to-child transmission of the virus. Most of these infections are preventable if the mothers' human immune deficiency virus status is identified in a timely manner and appropriate interventions put in place. Routine human immune deficiency virus testing is widely acclaimed as a strategy for universal access to human immune deficiency virus testing and is being adopted by developed and developing poor income countries without recourse to the economic impact. A systematic review of published articles. Extensive electronic searches for relevant journal articles published from 1998-2015 when countries began to implement routine antenatal HIV testing on their own were conducted in the following databases: Science Direct, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, JSTOR, CINAHL and PubMed with search terms as listed in Box 2. Manual searches were also performed to complement the electronic identification of high-quality materials. There were no geographical restrictions, but language was limited to English. Fifty-five articles were retrieved; however, ten were eligible and included in the review. The findings showed that many programmes involving routine human immune deficiency virus testing for pregnant women compared to the alternatives were cost-effective and cost saving. Data from the reviewed studies showed cost savings between $5,761.20-$3.69 million per case of previously undiagnosed maternal human immune deficiency virus-positive infection prevented. Overall, cost-effectiveness was strongly associated with the prevalence rate of human immune deficiency virus in the various settings. Routine human immune deficiency virus testing is both cost-effective and cost saving compared to the alternatives. However, there are wide variations in the methodological approaches to the studies. Adopting standard

  17. Modelling individual routines and spatio-temporal trajectories in human mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Pappalardo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Human mobility modelling is of fundamental importance in a wide range of applications, such as the developing of protocols for mobile ad hoc networks or for what-if analysis and simulation in urban ecosystems. Current generative models generally fail in accurately reproducing the individuals' recurrent daily schedules and at the same time in accounting for the possibility that individuals may break the routine and modify their habits during periods of unpredictability of variable duration. In this article we present DITRAS (DIary-based TRAjectory Simulator), a framework to simulate the spatio-temporal patterns of human mobility in a realistic way. DITRAS operates in two steps: the generation of a mobility diary and the translation of the mobility diary into a mobility trajectory. The mobility diary is constructed by a Markov model which captures the tendency of individuals to follow or break their routine. The mobility trajectory is produced by a model based on the concept of preferential exploration and pref...

  18. Creativity, Overinclusion, and Everyday Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottemiller, Dylan D.; Elliott, Colette Seter; Giovannetti, Tania

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between creative thinking and performance on routine, everyday tasks. Results were considered in light of past research on the putative relation between creativity and schizophrenia/psychotic thinking. Thirty healthy undergraduates completed the Alternative Uses Task, a measure of divergent thinking, and the 2 × 3…

  19. Everyday Tectonics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2016-01-01

    In general architectural practice many of the dwellings and workplaces, where we spend most of our time, are realized under an increasing economical pressure mainly controlled by the regime of the construction industry. The results; what we can call ‘everyday architecture’ may at large be conside......In general architectural practice many of the dwellings and workplaces, where we spend most of our time, are realized under an increasing economical pressure mainly controlled by the regime of the construction industry. The results; what we can call ‘everyday architecture’ may at large...... be considered as ordinary or as 'a-tectonic' made of poor materials, built at a fast pace, and poorly detailed - whereas advanced tectonic reflections are often considered as part of innovative high-end architecture. In general architectural practice many of the dwellings and workplaces, where we spend most...... such as our living spaces and workplaces they tend to be designed as mere rational frameworks rather than enriching spaces for residing. It is our observation that here a spatial utilization of the construction elements and careful detailing is particularly desirable. There is a basic need to change the way...

  20. Everyday Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Journal has been an important forum for discussing issues around cultural diversity. Articles on cultural diversity have been present in virtually every issue of the journal. These have ranged from conceptual pieces on cosmopolitanism, identity, dialogue, prejudice, pluralism, cultural and social capital and social inclusion, to articles embedded in empirical research on ethnic precincts and segregation in cities, experiences of religious minorities, immigrant entrepreneurs, and more. Over its five year history, the journal has also had themed editions on cultural diversity issues, including one on embracing diversity in sport, and another on the Chinese in Australian politics. The scope of this work has been wide, and authors have brought a range of disciplinary and methodological approaches to the journal.   The purpose of this paper is to draw together some of the work that has been published around cultural diversity, particularly relating to everyday experiences of cosmopolitanism and racism. Focusing on everyday social relations has been an important part of recent scholarship on cultural diversity in Australia (e.g. Wise and Velayutham 2009. In contrast to research framed around multicultural policy or mediated representations of diversity, the scholarship of the ‘everyday’ aims to explore people’s lived experiences and daily interactions with others.

  1. Everyday sexism

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Laura

    2014-01-01

    'If Caitlin Moran's How To Be A Womanis the fun-filled manual for female survival in the 21st century, everyday sexism is its more politicised sister' (Independent on Sunday). After experiencing a series of escalating sexist incidents, Laura Bates started theeveryday sexism projectand has gone on to write 'a pioneering analysis of modern day misogyny' (Telegraph). After an astounding response from the wide range of stories that came pouring in from all over the world, the project quickly became one of the biggest social media success stories of the internet. From being harassed and wolf-whistled at on the street, to discrimination in the workplace and serious sexual assault, it is clear that sexism had become normalised. But Bates inspires women to lead a real change and writes this 'extremely powerful book that could, and should, win hearts and minds right across the spectrum' (Financial Times). Often shocking, sometimes amusing and always poignant, everyday sexism is a protest against inequality and a manif...

  2. Psychology and the conduct of everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psychology and the Conduct of Everyday Life moves psychological theory and research practice out of the laboratory and into the everyday world. Drawing on recent developments across the social and human sciences, it examines how people live as active subjects within the contexts of their everyday...

  3. Envelope statistics of self-motion signals experienced by human subjects during everyday activities: Implications for vestibular processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriot, Jérome; Jamali, Mohsen; Cullen, Kathleen E; Chacron, Maurice J

    2017-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the brain's neural coding strategies are constrained by natural stimulus statistics. Here we investigated the statistics of the time varying envelope (i.e. a second-order stimulus attribute that is related to variance) of rotational and translational self-motion signals experienced by human subjects during everyday activities. We found that envelopes can reach large values across all six motion dimensions (~450 deg/s for rotations and ~4 G for translations). Unlike results obtained in other sensory modalities, the spectral power of envelope signals decreased slowly for low (2 Hz) temporal frequencies and thus was not well-fit by a power law. We next compared the spectral properties of envelope signals resulting from active and passive self-motion, as well as those resulting from signals obtained when the subject is absent (i.e. external stimuli). Our data suggest that different mechanisms underlie deviation from scale invariance in rotational and translational self-motion envelopes. Specifically, active self-motion and filtering by the human body cause deviation from scale invariance primarily for translational and rotational envelope signals, respectively. Finally, we used well-established models in order to predict the responses of peripheral vestibular afferents to natural envelope stimuli. We found that irregular afferents responded more strongly to envelopes than their regular counterparts. Our findings have important consequences for understanding the coding strategies used by the vestibular system to process natural second-order self-motion signals.

  4. Argiilma poeetika ja pidulik elu. The poetics of the everyday and festive life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Annus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates ways of writing about the everyday in contemporary life. It starts by posing the question of why literature thrives especially on violence and extraordinary events. If literature strives to speak to us through our experience of being in the world, and aims to help us understand our common human experience, should it not rather avoid the extraordinary? Without a doubt, a topic needs to captivate its writer no less than its reader--otherwise the writing and the reading would not take place at all. For perfectly understandable reasons, whenever literature proposes to face death, this implies that the given text is something to be taken seriously; it signifies that here one is dealing with existential matters, not just with the myriad small nothingnesses of the everyday. However, the present article analyzes a different way of intensifying the quotidian: turning the everyday into an experience of beauty. A writer can find moments of special importance from within the everyday, relieving the reader from the boredom of „nothing happens” by other means than through an encounter with death and the extraordinary. Through a close reading of several Estonian novels („Indigo” by Peeter Sauter and „Tõde ja õigus” by Anton Hansen Tammsaare, the article suggests that, instead of underlining the burdensome boredom of the everyday, literature has the potential, through the power of its imagery, to aestheticize the everyday, even against the conscious will of the writer. If the routine of the everyday involves the automatization of life and a loss of the intense feeling of being in the world, Heidegger reminds us that the work of art opens up being in the world as a whole – and art does so precisely by relying on the everyday, not on moments of extraordinary significance. Thus, art would imply the disappearance of the everyday as a locus of boredom, unfullfilment, obligation and repetition, and the replacement of the

  5. Encountering the Everyday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , as sociologists, need to take everyday life seriously. This is the objective of this book. Encountering the Everyday: An Introduction to the Sociologies of the Unnoticed provides the first comprehensive and updated globally applicable introduction to everyday life sociology for many years. The contributors...... present the theoretical, conceptual and methodological groundwork, historical developments and distinct perspectives of a variety of everyday life traditions and relate these to and exemplify them through actual empirical research. Encountering the Everyday contains introductions to ‘classical' everyday...... life traditions such as Chicago sociology, phenomenology, American pragmatism, symbolic interactionism, existentialism and critical everyday life sociologies, but also to the later developments by Erving Goffman, French everyday life thinkers, the ethnomethodologists, conversation analysts...

  6. Everyday Ethics: Reflections on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Gretchen B.; Rallis, Sharon F.

    2010-01-01

    This introductory article frames the contributions for this issue on everyday ethics--moments that demand moral considerations and ethical choices that researchers encounter. We discuss concerns raised within the research community about the tendency to observe merely obligatory ethical procedures as outlined in Human Subjects Review regulations.…

  7. Qualitative Inquiry in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    This book is a 'survival guide' for students and researchers who would like to conduct a qualitative study with limited resources. Brinkmann shows how everyday life materials such as books, television, the internet, the media and everyday conversations and interactions can help us to understand...... larger social issues. As living human beings in cultural worlds, we are constantly surrounded by 'data' that call for analysis, and as we cope with the different situations and episodes of our lives, we are engaged in understanding and interpreting the world as a form of qualitative inquiry. The book...... helps its reader develop a disciplined and analytic awareness informed by theory, and shows how less can be more in qualitative research. Each chapter introduces theoretical tools to think with, and demonstrates how they can be put to use in working concretely with everyday life materials....

  8. Routine HIV testing in Botswana: a population-based study on attitudes, practices, and human rights concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri D Weiser

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Botswana government recently implemented a policy of routine or "opt-out" HIV testing in response to the high prevalence of HIV infection, estimated at 37% of adults.We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward routine testing, correlates of HIV testing, and barriers and facilitators to testing, 11 months after the introduction of this policy. Most participants (81% reported being extremely or very much in favor of routine testing. The majority believed that this policy would decrease barriers to testing (89%, HIV-related stigma (60%, and violence toward women (55%, and would increase access to antiretroviral treatment (93%. At the same time, 43% of participants believed that routine testing would lead people to avoid going to the doctor for fear of testing, and 14% believed that this policy could increase gender-based violence related to testing. The prevalence of self-reported HIV testing was 48%. Adjusted correlates of testing included female gender (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9, higher education (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5-2.7, more frequent healthcare visits (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.7, perceived access to HIV testing (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.5, and inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.1. Individuals with stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV and AIDS were less likely to have been tested for HIV/AIDS (AOR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-0.9 or to have heard of routine testing (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.45-0.76. While experiences with voluntary and routine testing overall were positive, 68% felt that they could not refuse the HIV test. Key barriers to testing included fear of learning one's status (49%, lack of perceived HIV risk (43%, and fear of having to change sexual practices with a positive HIV test (33%.Routine testing appears to be widely supported and may reduce barriers to testing in Botswana. As routine testing is

  9. Robots, Industry 4.0 and Humans, or Why Assembly Work Is More than Routine Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Pfeiffer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article condenses the key findings of qualitative studies on assembly work. Grounded conceptually in considerations of the role of experiential knowledge and living labor capacity with regard to informal expertise and tacit knowledge, the empirical results challenge the dominant view of assembly work as routine tasks that could easily be replaced by robotics. The empirical basis comprised of 62 qualitative interviews in five assembly plants provides answers to two questions: Are there non-routine aspects to be found in assembly work today? What exactly is the nature of experience in assembly work? The detailed research results are presented in three steps: the first focuses on the role of the non-routine in core assembly tasks; the second discusses the important and increasing role played by interactive capabilities in assembly work to ensure high performance, quality, and a smooth material flow; and the third highlights the usually neglected role of assembly workers in processes of innovation and organizational learning. The concluding chapter discusses the findings from the perspective of new technological options in robotics, possible worker resistance and effects on employment.

  10. Partying as Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Østergaard, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    situates the event in everyday life. By drawing on Maffesoli's (1996) concept of ‘sociality' and Lincoln's (2005) concept of zoning the spatial and social logic of the house, partying is analysed using both qualitative and quantitative material. The analysis suggests that the consumption of alcohol (i...... to reaffirm friendship and is therefore an integrated part of adolescents' everyday life.  ...

  11. Everyday Ageing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald-Bolow, Nina Rose; Malmborg, Lone; Brandt, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Senior life in Copenhagen is lived in numerous ways. Through three seniors' stories from their everyday life, we give an insight into this diversity. We lookig into how they imagine a good senior life can unfold in Copenhagen today. The three senior lives portrayed here were part of the everyday ...

  12. Everyday ageing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald-Bolow, Nina Rose; Malmborg, Lone; Brandt, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Senior life in Copenhagen is lived in numerous ways. Through three seniors' stories from their everyday life, we give an insight into this diversity. We lookig into how they imagine a good senior life can unfold in Copenhagen today. The three senior lives portrayed here were part of the everyday ...

  13. Everyday Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    2011-01-01

    "Do what's best for kids!" The author's former principal said this often when they discussed media program needs. Media specialists can make media centers places where students and teachers want to be. This article looks at everyday, attainable, common sense best practices. These everyday best practices require time, energy, new ways of thinking,…

  14. Everyday Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    2011-01-01

    "Do what's best for kids!" The author's former principal said this often when they discussed media program needs. Media specialists can make media centers places where students and teachers want to be. This article looks at everyday, attainable, common sense best practices. These everyday best practices require time, energy, new ways of thinking,…

  15. Everyday Ageing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald-Bolow, Nina Rose; Malmborg, Lone; Brandt, Eva;

    2015-01-01

    Senior life in Copenhagen is lived in numerous ways. Through three seniors' stories from their everyday life, we give an insight into this diversity. We lookig into how they imagine a good senior life can unfold in Copenhagen today. The three senior lives portrayed here were part of the everyday ...

  16. Studying Normal, Everyday Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daren C. Brabham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Social media research has tended to focus on stand-out cases and has made use of big data methods to make claims about human experience and sociality. This commentary urges researchers to consider the everyday, normal experiences of most social media users, to consider the place of social media in a broader social context, and to consider marrying big data approaches with interviews and surveys of users.

  17. An analysis of human motion detection systems use during elder exercise routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gregory L; Havens, Timothy C; Rantz, Marilyn; Keller, James; Casanova Abbott, Carmen

    2010-03-01

    Human motion analysis provides motion pattern and body pose estimations. This study integrates computer-vision techniques and explores a markerless human motion analysis system. Using human-computer interaction (HCI) methods and goals, researchers use a computer interface to provide feedback about range of motion to users. A total of 35 adults aged 65 and older perform three exercises in a public gym while human motion capture methods are used. Following exercises, participants are shown processed human motion images captured during exercises on a customized interface. Standardized questionnaires are used to elicit responses from users during interactions with the interface. A matrix of HCI goals (effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction) and emerging themes are used to describe interactions. Sixteen users state the interface would be useful, but not necessarily for safety purposes. Users want better image quality, when expectations are matched satisfaction increases, and unclear meaning of motion measures decreases satisfaction.

  18. Interventions in everyday lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Ole

    2015-01-01

    clients change their everyday lives to overcome their troubles. They also highlight what it involves for clients to accomplish this. It is concluded that we need more research on how to understand intervention; on the interaction between interventions and clients’ conduct of their everyday life......The purpose of psychotherapy is to help clients address and overcome problems troubling them in their everyday lives. Therapy can therefore only work if clients include it in their ongoing lives to deal with their problems. Detailed, systematic research is needed on how clients do so...

  19. Every Kind of Everyday...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Lusty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of Michael Sheringham, Everyday Life: Theories and Practices from Surrealism to the Present (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006 and Kathleen Stewart, Ordinary Affects (Duke University Press, Durham and London, 2007

  20. Adaptation of human routines to support a robot's tasks planning and scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikanmäki, Antti; Feliu, Sandra T.; Röning, Juha

    2013-12-01

    Service robots usually share their workspace with people. Typically, a robot's tasks require knowing when and where people are, to be able to schedule requested tasks. Therefore, there exists the need to take into account the presence of humans when planning their actions and it is indispensable to have knowledge of robots' environments. It means in practice knowing when (time and events duration) and where (in workspace) a robot's tasks can be performed. This research paper takes steps towards obtaining of the spatial information required to execute software to plan tasks to be performed by a robot. With this aim, a program capable to define meaningful areas or zones in the robot workspace by the use of a clustering is created tied with statistically reasoned time slots when to perform each task. The software is tested using real data obtained from different cameras located along the corridors of CSE Department of University of Oulu.

  1. Conducting everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed...... by using materials from my ongoing Ph.D. project which is based on cultural-historical research traditions and critical psychological conceptualizations. The project is a qualitative study of 6 children, who for various reasons are defined as being children-at-risk. Due to concerns about their development......, they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across...

  2. Mathematics in everyday life

    CERN Document Server

    Haigh, John

    2016-01-01

    How does mathematics impact everyday events? The purpose of this book is to show a range of examples where mathematics can be seen at work in everyday life. From money (APR, mortgage repayments, personal finance), simple first and second order ODEs, sport and games (tennis, rugby, athletics, darts, tournament design, soccer, snooker), business (stock control, linear programming, check digits, promotion policies, investment), the social sciences (voting methods, Simpson’s Paradox, drug testing, measurements of inequality) to TV game shows and even gambling (lotteries, roulette, poker, horse racing), the mathematics behind commonplace events is explored. Fully worked examples illustrate the ideas discussed and each chapter ends with a collection of exercises. Everyday Mathematics supports other first year modules by giving students extra practice in working with calculus, linear algebra, geometry, trigonometry and probability. Secondary/high school level mathematics is all that is required for students to und...

  3. Conducting everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed......, they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across...... by using materials from my ongoing Ph.D. project which is based on cultural-historical research traditions and critical psychological conceptualizations. The project is a qualitative study of 6 children, who for various reasons are defined as being children-at-risk. Due to concerns about their development...

  4. Everyday Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    2010-01-01

    project takes a social psychological approach, combining quantitative and qualitative methods in a longitudinal study of family life. The knowledge interest of the project is the constitution of communality and individuality in everyday family life. This article presents the theoretical framework...... and the conceptualization of everyday family life of the social psychological research agenda in this field. The main line of argument is that ongoing modernization is synonymous with accelerated processes of detraditionalization and individualization. This calls for a re-conceptualisation of ‘the family’ which enables...... researchers to grasp both continuity and change. The article refers to everyday life studies and social psychology and argues that the term ‘family life’ my serve as one stepping stone for transgressing the dichotomy. Furthermore the article unfolds the implications of this framework for the research design...

  5. Making Everyday Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Simon

    practices. Specific heterogeneous configurations in mobility practices facilitate instrumental movement of family members, but can also engender care, quality time of togetherness, recreational and productive in-betweens, as well as sensorial and emotional experiences through the orchestration of affective......Based upon a qualitative PhD study of 11 families everyday mobility, this paper inquiries into the everyday mobility of families with children in the Greater Copenhagen Area and the role mobility plays in contributing to coping in the families’ everyday life. Drawing on Mobilities theory (Jensen...... 2013; Urry 2007) and family theory (Holdsworth 2013; Morgan 2011), it is argued that family mobility is far from only an instrumental phenomenon, displacing family members back and forth between activities and doings, but also a type of family practice (Morgan, 2011) carrying social and emotional...

  6. Everyday Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    2010-01-01

    What are the implications of ongoing processes of modernization and individualization for social relations in everyday life? This overall research question is the pivotal point in empirical studies at the Centre of Childhood-, Youth- and Family Life Research at Roskilde University. One research...... project takes a social psychological approach, combining quantitative and qualitative methods in a longitudinal study of family life. The knowledge interest of the project is the constitution of communality and individuality in everyday family life. This article presents the theoretical framework...... and the conceptualization of everyday family life of the social psychological research agenda in this field. The main line of argument is that ongoing modernization is synonymous with accelerated processes of detraditionalization and individualization. This calls for a re-conceptualisation of ‘the family’ which enables...

  7. A method for routine estimation of vitamin D activity in human and bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, M T; Koskinen, T; Ala-Houhala, M; Visakorpi, J K

    1984-01-01

    To estimate the antirachitic activity of human and bovine milk, we developed a modern biochemical method for determining vitamin D metabolites in milk. Vitamin D metabolites were assayed from milk whey and from whole milk. Milk whey yielded poor recovery of both endogenous and added vitamin D, suggesting a marked loss of vitamin D activity to milk fat during homogenization and separation of the milk whey. A method for assaying the vitamin D metabolites in whole milk involves 1) lipid extraction, 2) cold methanol and ether precipitation, 3) alkaline backwash to reduce the amount of interfering lipids, 4) an efficient reverse-phase preparative purification, 5) an additional silica purification for vitamin D, 6) an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography, and 7) separate sensitized protein-binding assays for vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The method for whole milk resulted in good recovery of added vitamin D, and levels of assayed metabolites and their calculated antirachitic activity agreed well with earlier reports, that is, about 10-50 IU of vitamin D activity per liter.

  8. Bringing Performance Art into Everyday Life Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    This position paper presents the concept of a tangible and modular interconnected “platform” for interactive digital artworks in everyday environments. Furthermore it presents a proposal for the study of human-human interaction through the use of digital systems embedded in these platforms. Finally...

  9. Everyday Aesthetics and Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Leddy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Everyday photographs as well as art photographs may be aesthetically appreciated.  Although this may be most obvious in the case of advertising  it is also true for amateur photographs.  Non-art photographs play an important role in our everyday lives and should not be neglected by aesthetics. That these photographs draw much of their value (often a very personal value from being associated with memories and musings does not make them non-aesthetic. I discuss these issues drawing on Clive Bell, Lyotard and Bourdieu with special emphasis placed such contemporary art photographers as Nan Goldin and Ed Burtynsky.

  10. Everyday Comfort Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffari, Svenja

    according to international building codes and standards, which are being based on engineering scientists' controlled experiments, classfiication and analysis. Since the last two decades, scholars from a diverse range of disciplines, such as sociology, anthropology, philosophy, adaptive engineering......, engineering scientists and practitioners still seem to struggle with the kinds of alternative processes and products that are needed to achieve sustainable comfort. This dissertation applies everyday practice-oriented design ethnography to a field that has traditionally been investigated by scientific...... as professional practice') in order to find design directions for scenarios for innovative, sustainable products that are based on people's everyday lives and interlinking 'comfort practices'....

  11. Breaking Routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Jørgensen, Frances

    2010-01-01

    On some level, innovation begins when the current way of doing things is questioned and alternatives are sought. In cognitive terms, this can be conceptualized as the point at which an agent breaks with existing routine and returns to planning and decision-making. Thus far, however, very little...

  12. Morality in everyday life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, W.; Wisneski, D.C.; Brandt, M.J.; Skitka, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The science of morality has drawn heavily on well-controlled but artificial laboratory settings. To study everyday morality, we repeatedly assessed moral or immoral acts and experiences in a large (N = 1252) sample using ecological momentary assessment. Moral experiences were surprisingly frequent

  13. Grief and everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2016-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how everyday practices among parents who suffer the loss of a child include the use of both analogue and digital means, both established media and materialities occasionally functioning as media in order to create meaning-making relations to the dead child, the bereaved ...

  14. Connecting to Everyday Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    construction and reproduction of cultural heritage creating novel connections between self and others and between past, present and future. We present experiences from a current research project, the Digital Natives exhibition, in which social media was designed as an integral part of the exhibition to connect...... issues of digital heritage with audiences’ everyday practices in a museum. We point to the fact the use of social media in museums not only challenge us to rethink the design of technology for museum experiences. Social media also challenge us to rethink conceptions of museums and cultural heritage......We suggest that social media can contribute to reconnecting audiences’ everyday practices to issues of cultural heritage in museum institutions. Social media can support the creation of dialogical spaces in the museum, both playful and reflective, that allow audiences to engage in the ongoing...

  15. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.

  16. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Trampe

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+ and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1 connector emotions (e.g., joy, which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2 provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude, which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3 distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment, which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.

  17. ETHNOSEMANTICS IN EVERYDAY SINGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Aniroh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Widely used in the world, English has grown to many varieties in which one of them is everyday Singlish. Singlish is a kind of English spoken by Singaporean com¬munities in informal situations. In everyday Singlish lexi¬cons not found in original English are ubiquitously used. The area of concern of etlinosemantics is the one with the appearance of the lexical semantics in a certain language. These lexicons have certain meanings, flavours and nu¬ances that make a language specific and unique. This is due to the fact that this specific lexicon use has a close connection with a particular culture and race. The study of eth¬noserr-antics in everyday Singlish shows that the unique¬ness is closely related with Singaporean cultures. There fore, the study of ethnosemanties which is explorable from local varieties will help understand the cultures, the charac¬teristics and the life of Singaporeans as a speech community.

  18. HIV testing among pregnant women living with HIV in India: are private healthcare providers routinely violating women's human rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Krupp, Karl; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Vaidya, Neha; Shaheen, Reshma; Philpott, Sean; Fisher, Celia

    2014-03-24

    In India, approximately 49,000 women living with HIV become pregnant and deliver each year. While the government of India has made progress increasing the availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services, only about one quarter of pregnant women received an HIV test in 2010, and about one-in-five that were found positive for HIV received interventions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Between February 2012 to March 2013, 14 HIV-positive women who had recently delivered a baby were recruited from HIV positive women support groups, Government of India Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers, and nongovernmental organizations in Mysore and Pune, India. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine their general experiences with antenatal healthcare; specific experiences around HIV counseling and testing; and perceptions about their care and follow-up treatment. Data were analyzed thematically using the human rights framework for HIV testing adopted by the United Nations and India's National AIDS Control Organization. While all of the HIV-positive women in the study received HIV and PMTCT services at a government hospital or antiretroviral therapy center, almost all reported attending a private clinic or hospital at some point in their pregnancy. According to the participants, HIV testing often occurred without consent; there was little privacy; breaches of confidentiality were commonplace; and denial of medical treatment occurred routinely. Among women living with HIV in this study, violations of their human rights occurred more commonly in private rather than public healthcare settings. There is an urgent need for capacity building among private healthcare providers to improve standards of practice with regard to informed consent process, HIV testing, patient confidentiality, treatment, and referral of pregnant women living with HIV.

  19. The Sociomateriality of Creativity in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the sociomateriality of creativity in everyday life. Whilst creativity research has traditionally been concerned with the intellectual and individual skills promoting creativity, such as the ability to apply divergent thinking, this author anchors creativity in social practice....... It is suggested that: (1) creativity is an everyday phenomenon resulting in continual processes of ‘‘making the world;’’ (2) there is a close relationship between human beings and material tools in the creativity process; and (3) there is a close relationship between continuity and renewal, meaning that materials...

  20. Intelligent Routines

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    “Intelligent Routines II: Solving Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry with Sage” contains numerous of examples and problems as well as many unsolved problems. This book extensively applies the successful software Sage, which can be found free online http://www.sagemath.org/. Sage is a recent and popular software for mathematical computation, available freely and simple to use. This book is useful to all applied scientists in mathematics, statistics and engineering, as well for late undergraduate and graduate students of above subjects. It is the first such book in solving symbolically with Sage problems in Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry. Plenty of SAGE applications are given at each step of the exposition.

  1. The Goal Circuit Model: A Hierarchical Multi-Route Model of the Acquisition and Control of Routine Sequential Action in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard P.; Ruh, Nicolas; Mareschal, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Human control of action in routine situations involves a flexible interplay between (a) task-dependent serial ordering constraints; (b) top-down, or intentional, control processes; and (c) bottom-up, or environmentally triggered, affordances. In addition, the interaction between these influences is modulated by learning mechanisms that, over time,…

  2. What is Everyday Life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    The notion of ‘everyday life’ (EDL) has found renewed analytical purchase in recent years and has become a widely used term in explorations of social life, moving all the way from studies of the family to the financial system. But what exactly is EDL and how can we understand it? This paper...... undertakes a preliminary investigation into how the term has been interpreted in various literatures. There are a wide variety of analytical takes on EDL and the objective is to utilize this preliminary discussion to provide the intellectual resources to deal with its connections to politics...

  3. When risk becomes invisible in the everyday life of day care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Anne Marie; Kristensen, Ole Steen

    2016-01-01

    and their life circumstances become invisible in the everyday life of day care. Due to defensive routines as well as an organizational culture that frames and creates a non-explicitly structured practice using intuitive processes, the problems of children at risk become invisible in the everyday life of day care...

  4. Bringing Performance Art into Everyday Life Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    This position paper presents the concept of a tangible and modular interconnected “platform” for interactive digital artworks in everyday environments. Furthermore it presents a proposal for the study of human-human interaction through the use of digital systems embedded in these platforms. Final...... a particular realization of this concept is proposed and discussed: A modular interconnected sensor system that mediates team based physical exercises in a fitness or rehabilitation training situation....

  5. Robotics research toward explication of everyday physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, Suguru

    1999-11-01

    It is commonly recognized now at the end of the 20th century that a general 6- or 7-degree-of-freedom robot equipped with an end-effector with simple structure is clumsy in performing a variety of ordinary tasks that a human encounters in his or her everyday life. In this paper, it is claimed that the clumsiness manifests the lack of knowledge of everyday physics. It is then shown that even dynamics of a set of dual fingers grasping and manipulating a rigid object are not yet formulated with the fingers' ends are covered by soft and deformable materials. By illustrating this typical problem of everyday physics, it is pointed out that explication of everyday physics in computational (or mathematical) languages is inevitable for consideration of how to endow a robot with dexterity and versatility. Once kinematics and dynamics involved in such everyday tasks are described, it is then possible to discover a simple but fine control structure without the need of much computation of kinematics and dynamics. Simplicity of the control structure implies robustness against parameter uncertainties, which eventually allows the control to perform tasks with dexterity and versatility by using visual or tactile sensing feedback. Thus, a key to uncover the hidden secret of dexterity is to characterize complicated dynamics of such a robotic task as seen when a set of multifingers with multijoints covered by deformable material interacts physically with objects or an environment. It is pointed out throughout the paper that some of the generic characteristics of dynamics that everyday physics encounters must be passivity, approximate Jacobian matrix of coordinates transformation, feedback loops from sensation to action, impedance matching, and static friction.

  6. Everyday-Oriented Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munnecke, Max

    The exploration of radical innovation has long been regarded as fundamental to business growth. In the 21st century, modern organisations increasingly seek to combine business innovation with the broader goal to confront social and environmental challenges. Vision projects are related phenomena...... which explore and map radical innovation opportunities within everyday activities. The aim of a vision project is to produce an innovation map that can empower an organisation to navigate between potential innovation opportunities and pro‐actively confront modern challenges for the benefit of people......, business, and society. The study addresses the concern that vision projects do not produce sufficient navigational innovation maps, and seeks to improve their quality by modelling a new methodological framework. The study was conducted as a series of four research cycles which modelled and experimented...

  7. Strategic and Everyday Innovative Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reff Pedersen, Anne; Brehm Johansen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    in making sense of innovative ideas in everyday practice. An empirical case is offered to demonstrate how two types of innovation narratives emerge: strategic and everyday narratives through involvement of spokespersons and employees. These findings suggest that an advanced understanding of the roles...

  8. Strategic and Everyday Innovative Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reff Pedersen, Anne; Brehm Johansen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    in making sense of innovative ideas in everyday practice. An empirical case is offered to demonstrate how two types of innovation narratives emerge: strategic and everyday narratives through involvement of spokespersons and employees. These findings suggest that an advanced understanding of the roles...

  9. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  10. The goal circuit model: a hierarchical multi-route model of the acquisition and control of routine sequential action in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Richard P.; Ruh, N.; Mareschal, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Human control of action in routine situations involves a flexible interplay between (a) task dependent serial ordering constraints, (b) top-down, or intentional, control processes and (c) bottom-up, or environmentally-triggered, affordances. Additionally, the interaction between these influences is modulated by learning mechanisms that, over time, appear to reduce the need for top-down control processes while still allowing those processes to intervene at any point if necessary or if desired....

  11. Everyday life through the eyes of ethnologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškareva Natal`ja L.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on some of the new and distinctive patterns of scientific discourse with special reference to the differences between ethnological research of ordinary life and history of everyday life as a part of "new social history". The author try to show the changing paradigms in humanities, reorganization of its problematic, new sociological (ethnometodological, interdisciplinary methods which were adopted in modern ethnology, as well as in the social history as a whole.

  12. Educational research on everyday life, education and their transformations in globalized contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.; Kryger, Niels

    2013-01-01

    are staged ever more as pedagogical and educational relations, practices of learning undergo transformations. The concept of everyday life is changing as daily routines and associated practices of learning are being transformed through processes caused by virtualization (social media, cell phones, lap......Educational research on everyday life, education and their transformations in globalized contexts Not only formal education but everyday life inside as well as outside institutions have always been central sites of learning for children and adults. However, as social relations in everyday life......-top computers) and rapid global flows of information, merchandise and people. Research on education as everyday life and everyday life as education therefore becomes increasingly relevant. In this special issue of Nordic Studies in Education we gather manuscripts that have been reworked into articles...

  13. Conduct of everyday life and social self-understanding after depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybholt, Lisbeth; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2015-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically explores critical psychological conceptualisations of conduct of everyday life and social self-understanding. The analysis of conduct of everyday life for people who have been hospitalized with depression shows experiences of doubleness. We understand...... doubleness as dilemmas, conflicts and contradictions in the conduct of everyday life. The case analysis of Steven serves to illustrate how cyclic routines can matter, fulfilling meaning in life and being both in conflict and contradiction to other concerns and aspects of meaning that vary over time....... The paper empirically how these kind of conflicts, dilemmas and contradictions are much more complex, than what is possible to grasp in Holzkamp's understanding of conduct of everyday life (Holzkamp, 1998), which tends to produce dualistic opposition between cyclic everyday conduct (such as everyday life...

  14. Educational research on everyday life, education and their transformations in globalized contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.; Kryger, Niels

    2013-01-01

    are staged ever more as pedagogical and educational relations, practices of learning undergo transformations. The concept of everyday life is changing as daily routines and associated practices of learning are being transformed through processes caused by virtualization (social media, cell phones, lap......Educational research on everyday life, education and their transformations in globalized contexts Not only formal education but everyday life inside as well as outside institutions have always been central sites of learning for children and adults. However, as social relations in everyday life......-top computers) and rapid global flows of information, merchandise and people. Research on education as everyday life and everyday life as education therefore becomes increasingly relevant. In this special issue of Nordic Studies in Education we gather manuscripts that have been reworked into articles...

  15. Qualitative Inquiry in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    This book is a 'survival guide' for students and researchers who would like to conduct a qualitative study with limited resources. Brinkmann shows how everyday life materials such as books, television, the internet, the media and everyday conversations and interactions can help us to understand...... helps its reader develop a disciplined and analytic awareness informed by theory, and shows how less can be more in qualitative research. Each chapter introduces theoretical tools to think with, and demonstrates how they can be put to use in working concretely with everyday life materials....

  16. Smartphones and hyper everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Amigo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present some results from our research on technological media convergence and everyday life. The results suggest that new changes would be happening on the space-temporal dimension of daily experience on people and in the way in which those give stability, structure and meaning to the intersubjective world, as a consequence of uses, appropriations and meanings about smartphones. We propose the concept of enriched everyday life or hyper everyday life in order to explain what we consider one of the principal transformations in daily life to people in the contemporary world related to the incorporation of smartphones.

  17. The Definition of Everyday Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Melchionne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to recent controversy in the aesthetics of everyday life with a succinct definition designed to clarify the domain of study. The article is intentionally designed for brevity and accessibility in order to facilitate usage.

  18. School Everyday Life in Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Ferraço

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at questioning school everyday life in images, based on intercessors and concepts from Deleuze and Guattari’s Philosophy of Difference. It is based on data-image-graffiti produced during investigations developed by us with public schools’ everyday life in the city of Vitória, ES, Brazil. The text claims that, in order to speak about school everyday life in images to favor the sudden, the production of meaning and the multiplicity of knowledge, it is necessary to invest in another research attitude - one that considers chaos, chance and permanent openness and complexity of school everyday life as forces to constitute an immanence plane and create concepts. The article affirms the idea of impossibility of choosing images that would be considered the most representative to speak about events in the schools.

  19. Reflexive fatherhood in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at fathering practices in Denmark, using the findings from a research project on everyday family life in Denmark. It takes a social psychological perspective and employs discursive psychology and theories about reflexive modernisation. It shows how fathers orient towards intimacy...... this analysis and discussion, the article offers a way to understand the complexities of fathering in everyday life from the perspective of fathers....

  20. Conversational routines in English convention and creativity

    CERN Document Server

    Aijmer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    It is surprising how much of everyday conversation consists of repetitive expressions such as 'thank you', 'sorry', would you mind?' and their many variants. However commonplace they may be, they do have important functions in communication.This thorough study draws upon original data from the London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English to provide a discoursal and pragmatic account of the more common expressions found in conversational routines, such as apologising, thanking, requesting and offering.The routines studied in this book range from conventionalized or idiomatized phrases t

  1. Immediate bromodeoxyuridine labelling of unseparated human bone marrow cells ex vivo is superior to labelling after routine laboratory processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P O; Mortensen, B T; Christensen, I J

    1998-01-01

    a reliable and reproducible technique for estimation of the fraction of cells that incorporated BrdUrd into DNA during S-phase. We have compared immediate BrdUrd labelling of unseparated bone marrow cells with the previously used labelling in the laboratory after routine separation of the mononuclear cells....... Bone marrow aspirates from seven lymphoma patients without bone marrow involvement were studied with these two methods. We found higher BrdUrd labelling indices (LI) in the mononuclear cells, when cells were labelled immediately. A large variation in LI was found between patients. Our results suggest...... that ex vivo BrdUrd labelling of bone marrow cells should be performed immediately after aspiration and before separation, because these data are closer to values reported from in vivo labelling with BrdUrd....

  2. Routine analysis of amphetamine class drugs as their naphthaquinone derivatives in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, D; Watson, I D; Stewart, M J

    1999-12-10

    We describe a simple HPLC method which is suitable for the routine confirmation of immunoassay positive amphetamine urine samples. The precolumn derivisation method employing sodium naphthaquinone-4-sulphonate was found to have adequate sensitivity, selectivity and precision for the measurement of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) at 500 microg/l cutoff level for confirmatory analysis of amphetamines in urine. The specificity of the method is enhanced by detecting the peaks at two different wavelengths. The ratios of the peak heights measured at the two wavelengths were different for each of the 5 amphetamines analysed. There was no interference from other phenylethylamine analogues that are commonly found in "over the counter" preparations. The HPLC method is compared to a commercial TLC system for detecting amphetamines in urine of drug abusers attending drug rehabilitation programmes. The HPLC confirmatory method described is a viable alternative to GC or to the more complex and costly GC-MS techniques for confirming amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA and MDEA in urine of drug abusers especially when used in a clinical care setting.

  3. Immediate bromodeoxyuridine labelling of unseparated human bone marrow cells ex vivo is superior to labelling after routine laboratory processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P O; Mortensen, B T; Christensen, I J

    1998-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in several disease conditions and during treatment of patients with for example cytokines. Labelling with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd), immunocytochemical staining with anti-BrdUrd antibody and analysis by flow cytometry provides a ...... that ex vivo BrdUrd labelling of bone marrow cells should be performed immediately after aspiration and before separation, because these data are closer to values reported from in vivo labelling with BrdUrd.......It is important to evaluate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in several disease conditions and during treatment of patients with for example cytokines. Labelling with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd), immunocytochemical staining with anti-BrdUrd antibody and analysis by flow cytometry provides...... a reliable and reproducible technique for estimation of the fraction of cells that incorporated BrdUrd into DNA during S-phase. We have compared immediate BrdUrd labelling of unseparated bone marrow cells with the previously used labelling in the laboratory after routine separation of the mononuclear cells...

  4. Small Talk: Children's Everyday `Molecule' Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Cheryl

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports on 6-11-year-old children's `sayings and doings' (Harré 2002) as they explore molecule artefacts in dialectical-interactive teaching interviews (Fleer, Cultural Studies of Science Education 3:781-786, 2008; Hedegaard et al. 2008). This sociocultural study was designed to explore children's everyday awareness of and meaning-making with cultural molecular artefacts. Our everyday world is populated with an ever increasing range of molecular or nanoworld words, symbols, images, and games. What do children today say about these artefacts that are used to represent molecular world entities? What are the material and social resources that can influence a child's everyday and developing scientific ideas about `molecules'? How do children interact with these cognitive tools when given expert assistance? What meaning-making is afforded when children are socially and materially assisted in using molecular tools in early chemical and nanoworld thinking? Tool-dependent discursive studies show that provision of cultural artefacts can assist and direct developmental thinking across many domains of science (Schoultz et al., Human Development 44:103-118, 2001; Siegal 2008). Young children's use of molecular artefacts as cognitive tools has not received much attention to date (Jakab 2009a, b). This study shows 6-11-year-old children expressing everyday ideas of molecular artefacts and raising their own questions about the artefacts. They are seen beginning to domesticate (Erneling 2010) the words, symbols, and images to their own purposes when given the opportunity to interact with such artefacts in supported activity. Discursive analysis supports the notion that using `molecules' as cultural tools can help young children to begin `putting on molecular spectacles' (Kind 2004). Playing with an interactive game (ICT) is shown to be particularly helpful in assisting children's early meaning-making with representations of molecules, atoms, and their chemical symbols.

  5. Human Upcyte Hepatocytes: Characterization of the Hepatic Phenotype and Evaluation for Acute and Long-Term Hepatotoxicity Routine Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, Laia; Gómez-Lechón, M José; López, Silvia; Guzmán, Carla; Castell, José V; Donato, M Teresa; Jover, Ramiro

    2016-07-01

    The capacity of human hepatic cell-based models to predict hepatotoxicity depends on the functional performance of cells. The major limitations of human hepatocytes include the scarce availability and rapid loss of the hepatic phenotype. Hepatoma cells are readily available and easy to handle, but are metabolically poor compared with hepatocytes. Recently developed human upcyte hepatocytes offer the advantage of combining many features of primary hepatocytes with the unlimited availability of hepatoma cells. We analyzed the phenotype of upcyte hepatocytes comparatively with HepG2 cells and adult primary human hepatocytes to characterize their functional features as a differentiated hepatic cell model. The transcriptomic analysis of liver characteristic genes confirmed that the upcyte hepatocytes expression profile comes closer to human hepatocytes than HepG2 cells. CYP activities were measurable and showed a similar response to prototypical CYP inducers than primary human hepatocytes. Upcyte hepatocytes also retained conjugating activities and key hepatic functions, e.g. albumin, urea, lipid and glycogen synthesis, at levels close to hepatocytes. We also investigated the suitability of this cell model for preclinical hepatotoxicity risk assessments using multiparametric high-content screening, as well as transcriptomics and targeted metabolomic analysis. Compounds with well-documented in vivo hepatotoxicity were screened after acute and repeated doses up to 1 week. The evaluation of complex mechanisms of cell toxicity, drug-induced steatosis and oxidative stress biomarkers demonstrated that, by combining the phenotype of primary human hepatocytes and the ease of handling of HepG2 cells, upcyte hepatocytes offer suitable properties to be potentially used for toxicological assessments during drug development.

  6. Immunohistochemical detection of the androgen receptor with monoclonal antibody F39.4 in routinely processed, paraffin-embedded human tissues after microwave pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, P J; Brinkmann, A O; Boersma, W J; Van der Kwast, T H

    1994-08-01

    We describe the immunohistochemical detection of the human androgen receptor (AR) in routinely processed, paraffin-embedded tissue with the monoclonal antibody (MAb) F39.4. Deparaffinized sections were heated in a microwave oven for antigen retrieval. A panel of human male- and female-derived tissues was investigated. We observed a nuclear staining pattern consistent with previous results on frozen sections. Moreover, we studied the possibility of detecting AR in prolonged formalin-fixed tissue and in paraffin-embedded archival material. After prolonged fixation times or long-term storage of paraffin-embedded tissue, the staining intensity for the AR did not deteriorate. Blocking experiments with the specific synthetic peptides demonstrated the specificity of this technique. We conclude that this method is specific, allows retrospective AR studies, and offers optimally preserved morphology.

  7. Implementation of a cost-effective HPLC/UV approach for routine medical quantification of memantine in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, Ekkehard; Koeber, Ralf; Klünemann, Hans-Hermann; Waimer, Reinhold; Köstlbacher, Anton; Wittmann, Markus; Brandl, Regina; Dörfelt, Anett; Jahner, Tatjana; Melchner, Doris

    2012-12-01

    In the near future, there will be no innovative drug principle for the treatment of dementia. Therefore, optimizing the efficacy of a drug is at present the most promising way to exploit its full pharmacological potential. A high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet assay for memantine in serum from demented patients has been developed and validated. The analytical procedure involves offline solid phase extraction cartridges. Because memantine molecules lack chromophoric π-electrons, a derivatization with dansyl chloride was required for detection by ultraviolet (UV) photometry. Analyses were performed on a Dionex high-performance liquid chromatography system with a Phenomenex Luna Phenyl-Hexyl analytical column and 0.02 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer/acetonitrile (40/60 V/V) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Dansylated memantine was detected at 218 nm; 2 more ultraviolet wavelengths at 254 nm and 336 nm were used as an overlay-control check. The retention time for dansylated memantine was 17.1 ± 0.2 minutes. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range from 5 to 160 ng/mL (n = 8/r² > 0.999). The method had an accuracy of >90%. Intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were preparation. The method is applicable under conditions of daily routine as has been demonstrated by application of the method to patient serum samples. The quantification of 29 samples showed that memantine concentrations suggested as "therapeutic" in the literature may only be reached by high doses of memantine.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination programmes parallel to current routine vaccination of young teenage girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, T.A.; Postma, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Since 2009, 12-year-old Dutch teenage girls are vaccinated against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The current uptake of HPV vaccination, being approximately 60% nowadays, is however comparatively low. Consequently, a large group of women are still at risk of developing HPV-induced

  9. Evolutionary Dynamics of Digitized Organizational Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the effects of increased digitization on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational routines. Do routines become more flexible, or more rigid, as the mix of digital technologies and human actors changes? What are the mechanisms that govern the evolution of routines? The dissertation theorizes about the effects of…

  10. Early determination of human immunodeficiency virus status by routine voluntary counseling and testing in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To reduce the burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the popularization of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT for early determination of human immunodeficiency virus status will be of immense benefit. Aim: To evaluate the uptake of voluntary counseling and testing and sero-prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among status naïve outpatients and self-presenting VCT clients in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in the period of May 2010 to April 2011 at the University of Benin teaching hospital, Benin City. Subjects who consented were included and screened for HIV. Pre and post-test counseling was done following the world health organization guidelines. Results: Out of 10,533 subjects (7783 outpatients and 2750 self-presenting VCT clients counseled for VCT, a total of 4651(44.2% subjects; (3971(51.0% outpatients and 680 (24.7% self-presenting VCT clients, consented and accepted HIV VCT. Overall HIV prevalence was 6.4%. 270 (6.8% outpatients and 29 (4.3% self-presenting VCT clients were HIV positive. HIV was significantly associated with female gender among the outpatients (P<0.001. Conclusion: VCT uptake was low; the sero-prevalence of HIV was high. The need to employ an expanded and more purpose oriented public enlightenment campaign on the usefulness of HIV VCT should be a priority for HIV control agencies in our area.

  11. Questionnaire-based evaluation of everyday competence in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kalisch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobias Kalisch1, Julia Richter3, Melanie Lenz1, Jan-Christoph Kattenstroth2, Izabela Kolankowska2, Martin Tegenthoff1, Hubert R Dinse21Department of Neurology, BG-Kliniken Bergmannsheil, 2Neural Plasticity Lab, Institute for Neuroinformatics, Department of Theoretical Biology, 3Faculty of Psychology, Department of Methods, Diagnostics and Evaluation, Ruhr-University Bochum, GermanyBackground: Gerontological research aims at understanding factors that are crucial for mediating “successful aging”. This term denotes the absence of significant disease and disabilities, maintenance of high levels of physical and cognitive function, and preservation of social and productive activities. Preservation of an active lifestyle is considered an effective means through which everyday competence can be attained. In this context, it is crucial to obtain ratings of modern day older adults’ everyday competence by means of appropriate assessments. Here, we introduce the Everyday Competence Questionnaire (ECQ, designed to assess healthy older adults' everyday competence.Methods: The ECQ includes 17 items, covering housekeeping, leisure activities, sports, daily routines, manual skills, subjective well-being, and general linguistic usage. The ECQ was administered to a population of 158 healthy subjects aged 60–91 years, who were divided into groups on the basis of their physical activity. These groups were community-dwelling subjects, those living independently and having a sedentary lifestyle, those living independently but characterized by a general lifestyle without any noteworthy physical activity, and those living independently and exercising regularly. Age, gender, and education levels were balanced between the groups.Results: Using the ECQ, we could identify and distinguish different everyday competence levels between the groups tested: Subjects characterized by an active lifestyle outperformed all other groups. Subjects characterized by a general

  12. Gross alpha and beta activity analyses in urine-a routine laboratory method for internal human radioactivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Zhao, Luqian; Qin, Hongran; Zhao, Meijia; Zhou, Yirui; Yang, Shuqiang; Su, Xu; Xu, Xiaohua

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to provide rapid results for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The authors hypothesized that valuable information could be obtained from gas proportional counter techniques by screening urine samples from potentially exposed individuals rapidly. Recommended gross alpha and beta activity screening methods generally employ gas proportional counting techniques. Based on International Standards Organization (ISO) methods, improvements were made in the evaporation process to develop a method to provide rapid results, adequate sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation and operator intervention for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The method described by an American National Standards Institute publication was used to calibrate the gas proportional counter, and urine samples from patients with or without radionuclide treatment were measured to validate the method. By improving the evaporation process, the time required to perform the assay was reduced dramatically. Compared with the reference data, the results of the validation samples were very satisfactory with respect to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities. The gas flow proportional counting method described here has the potential for radioactivity monitoring in the body. This method was easy, efficient, and fast, and its application is of great utility in determining whether a sample should be analyzed by a more complicated method, for example radiochemical and/or γ-spectroscopy. In the future, it may be used commonly in medical examination and nuclear emergency treatment.Health Phys. 106(5):000-000; 2014.

  13. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  14. The Everyday Condition of Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Afloroaei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The question I intend to answer is whether one can speak of a tacit metaphysics, not expressed conceptually, but nevertheless common. If the answer is positive and providing that it is specific to day-to-day life, such metaphysics may be called everyday metaphysics. To this end, I review the meaning of everyday life and its ambivalent character. Next, I present several milestones in the debate on the subject, from authors who have focused on a kind of usual, common or ‘natural’ metaphysics. Lastly, I formulate the idea under consideration, namely that everyday life implies or underlies a certain metaphysics. I note that it is an implicit metaphysics – not expressed formally – and rather free. Embraced in experience with a certain degree of freedom, it is recognisable by means of certain representations active in our mind, by the manner of speaking or of understanding and by the common forms of expression. Its vibrancy, concrete and relaxed character makes it highly evocative of the mental life of an era. It ensures a truly essential difference in our everyday mode of being.

  15. The arena of everyday life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butijn, C.A.A.; Ophem, van J.A.C.; Casimir, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In 'The arena of everyday life' nine authors look back and forward at developments in the sociology of consumers and households. Nine chapters show variety in the employed methods, from multivariate analyses of survey data to classical essays. The contributions are organised around four themes. In t

  16. Human-induced changes in landscape configuration influence individual movement routines: lessons from a versatile, highly mobile species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Camacho

    Full Text Available Landscape conversion by humans may have detrimental effects on animal populations inhabiting managed ecosystems, but human-altered areas may also provide suitable environments for tolerant species. We investigated the spatial ecology of a highly mobile nocturnal avian species-the red-necked nightjar (Caprimulgus ruficollis-in two contrastingly managed areas in Southwestern Spain to provide management recommendations for species having multiple habitat requirements. Based on habitat use by radiotagged nightjars, we created maps of functional heterogeneity in both areas so that the movements of breeding individuals could be modeled using least-cost path analyses. In both the natural and the managed area, nightjars used remnants of native shrublands as nesting sites, while pinewood patches (either newly planted or natural mature and roads were selected as roosting and foraging habitats, respectively. Although the fraction of functional habitat was held relatively constant (60.9% vs. 74.1% in the natural and the managed area, respectively, landscape configuration changed noticeably. As a result, least-cost routes (summed linear distances from nest locations to the nearest roost and foraging sites were three times larger in the natural than in the managed area (mean ± SE: 1356±76 m vs. 439±32 m. It seems likely that the increased proximity of functional habitats in the managed area relative to the natural one is underlying the significantly higher abundances of nightjars observed therein, where breeders should travel shorter distances to link together essential resources, thus likely reducing their energy expenditure and mortality risks. Our results suggest that landscape configuration, but not habitat availability, is responsible for the observed differences between the natural and the managed area in the abundance and movements of breeding nightjars, although no effect on body condition was detected. Agricultural landscapes could be moderately

  17. Photo-Interviewing to explore Everyday Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhave, Elise Bromann; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article sheds light on the potential and the limitations of photo-interviewing for the study of human occupation and in so doing, reflects the rapid growth in the use of participatory visual methods in a number of other disciplines. Using a study that explored first person perspecti......Abstract This article sheds light on the potential and the limitations of photo-interviewing for the study of human occupation and in so doing, reflects the rapid growth in the use of participatory visual methods in a number of other disciplines. Using a study that explored first person...... perspectives of participation in everyday occupations by people with osteoarthritis of the hand, the paper consid-ers methodological issues related to using participatory visual methods. Participants were asked to generate photographs depicting aspects of their lived experiences, which were then used for photo...... for communication and for generating knowledge of embodied everyday life experiences, despite the fact that there were found to be a number of methodological issues that require close consideration. It is argued that, when used appropriately, visual research methodologies may add to occupational science research...

  18. Revisiting Routine Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    What is a routine question? The focus of this paper is routine questions and time (in years) since a hitherto routine question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…

  19. Routines and Organizational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sangyoon; Becker, Markus; Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Routines have been perceived as a source of inertia in the process of organizational change. In this study, we suggest an overlooked, but prevalent, mechanism by which the inertial nature of routines helps, rather than hinders, organizational adaptation. Routine-level inertia plays a hidden role...... of generating and retaining useful variations in the process of organization-level adaptation. We demonstrate this mechanism by using a simple theoretical model which formalizes an organization as a configuration of inertial, interdependent routines, and the managerial process by which this configuration adapts...... by discussing how this advanced understanding of the role of routines helps elaborate the theory of economic evolution....

  20. Everyday Life as a Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lahey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how audience data are utilized in the tentative partnerships created between television and social media companies. Specially, it looks at the mutually beneficial relationship formed between the social media platform Twitter and television. It calls attention to how audience data are utilized as a way for the television industry to map itself onto the everyday lives of digital media audiences. I argue that the data-intensive monitoring of everyday life offers some measure of soft control over audiences in a digital media landscape. To do this, I explore “Social TV”—the relationships created between social media technologies and television—before explaining how Twitter leverages user data into partnerships with various television companies. Finally, the article explains what is fruitful about understanding the Twitter–television relationship as a form of soft control.

  1. Locus coeruleus and dopaminergic consolidation of everyday memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takeuchi, T.; Duszkiewicz, A.J.; Sonneborn, A.; Spooner, P.A.; Yamasaki, M.; Watanabe, M.; Smith, C.C.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Deisseroth, K.; Greene, R.W.; Morris, R.G.

    2016-01-01

    The retention of episodic-like memory is enhanced, in humans and animals, when something novel happens shortly before or after encoding. Using an everyday memory task in mice, we sought the neurons mediating this dopamine-dependent novelty effect, previously thought to originate exclusively from the

  2. Cyborgs in the Everyday: Masculinity and Biosensing Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gill; King, Emma; Kunkler, Ian; McLaren, Duncan

    2015-10-02

    An in vivo biosensor is a technology in development that will assess the biological activity of cancers to individualise external beam radiotherapy. Inserting such technology into the human body creates cybernetic organisms; a cyborg that is a human-machine hybrid. There is a gap in knowledge relating to patient willingness to allow automated technology to be embedded and to become cyborg. There is little agreement around what makes a cyborg and less understanding of the variation in the cyborgisation process. Understanding the viewpoint of possible beneficiaries addresses such gaps. There are currently three versions of 'cyborg' in the literature (i) a critical feminist STS concept to destabilise power inherent in dualisms, (ii) an extreme version of the human/machine in science-fiction that emphasises the 'man' in human and (iii) a prediction of internal physiological adaptation required for future space exploration. Interview study findings with 12 men in remission from prostate cancer show a fourth version can be used to describe current and future sub-groups of the population; 'everyday cyborgs'. For the everyday cyborg the masculine cyborg status found in the fictionalised human-machine related to issues of control of the cancer. This was preferred to the felt stigmatisation of being a 'leaker and bleeder'. The willingness to become cyborg was matched with a having to get used to the everyday cyborg's technological adaptations and risks. It is crucial to explore the everyday cyborg's sometimes ambivalent viewpoint. The everyday cyborg thus adds the dimension of participant voice currently missing in existing cyborg literatures and imaginations.

  3. Detection of high-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus in cervical swabs: routine use of the Digene Hybrid Capture assay and polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, M M

    2012-02-03

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are major causative agents in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, and more than twenty types are associated with its development. With the introduction of liquid-based preparation systems, it is envisaged that large-scale HPV testing will be established in the near future. Preliminary studies demonstrate the accessibility of these samples for DNA testing using both the Digene Hybrid Capture assay (DHCA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. This study aims to assess the validity and sensitivity of the DHCA system to detect high-risk HPV DNA, using two sets of HPV consensus primers (Gp5+\\/Gp6+ and MY09\\/MY11) in tandem with routine assessment of cervical smear and biopsy samples. Results indicate that the combination of DHCA and PCR detects more high-grade lesions than does the DHCA alone. DHCA-negative cases were categorised by subsequent PCR amplification into low-grade HPV-negative (12\\/16) cervical lesions and high-grade HPV-positive (7\\/9) cervical lesions. Gp5+\\/Gp6+ primers were less sensitive in detecting HPV-positive samples than was the MY09\\/MY11 primer set. These results support the use of high-risk HPV testing by DHCA, with subsequent analysis of DHCA-negative samples by PCR using the MY09\\/MY11 primers.

  4. Responding to Children's Everyday Transgressions in Chinese Working-Class Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how working-class mothers in the People's Republic of China respond to their young children's transgressions in everyday contexts. Twenty 4-year-old children and their mothers in a working-class neighbourhood were observed in their daily routines at home. When addressing children's transgressions and socialising desirable…

  5. Ambiguous pots: Everyday practice, migration and materiality. The case of medieval Baltic ware on the island of Bornholm (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Archaeologists routinely deal with the remains of everyday life. Yet the significance anddimensions of daily practices are rarely reflected upon. Merging Bourdieu’s theory of practice, recent theories of everyday life and the materiality approach in archaeology,this study addresses the potential ...... thepossible background to the introduction of the new pottery style, its significance for thelocal population of the island and above all the meanings these types of ceramics couldhave had for the immigrant Slavs......Archaeologists routinely deal with the remains of everyday life. Yet the significance anddimensions of daily practices are rarely reflected upon. Merging Bourdieu’s theory of practice, recent theories of everyday life and the materiality approach in archaeology,this study addresses the potential...

  6. Routines and Organizational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sangyoon; Becker, Markus; Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Routines have been perceived as a source of inertia in the process of organizational change. In this study, we suggest an overlooked, but prevalent, mechanism by which the inertial nature of routines helps, rather than hinders, organizational adaptation. Routine-level inertia plays a hidden role...... to cope with its task environment. In our nuanced perspective, inertia is not only a consequence of adaptation but also a source of adaptation. This logic is helpful to understand why reliable but apparently inertial organizations keep surviving and often exhibit outstanding performance. We conclude...

  7. Professional Knowledge and Everyday Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Camilla

    Professional care work in preschools in Denmark is faced with a knowledge crisis, due to increasing influence by regulations from state and market. As a consequence the professionals seem more inclined to focus on how to meet demands for documentation, rather than focusing on developing their pro......Professional care work in preschools in Denmark is faced with a knowledge crisis, due to increasing influence by regulations from state and market. As a consequence the professionals seem more inclined to focus on how to meet demands for documentation, rather than focusing on developing......, that are not traditionally valued, nor by “users” or the professionals themselves, into account. With inspiration from a Danish researcher of everyday life and her concept of ‘the unnoticed/unrecognized’ (det upåagtede) (Bech-Jørgensen 1994), this paper will discuss how understandings of professional identity...

  8. The Europeanisation of Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favell, Adrian; Recchi, Ettore; Solgaard Jensen, Janne

    2011-01-01

    process). Which cross-border practices are more likely to foster some form of identification with the EU – e.g., contacts with foreign friends and/or unwanted foreigners, periods of labour mobility abroad, business and tourist travel, or consumer relations with international companies? Under which...... contextual and individual conditions do these experiences promote a higher sensitivity to ‘Europe’ – rather than the ‘local’ or the ‘global’ – as an identity catalyst? Which social groups are more prone to adopt a European mindset in the wake of the Europeanisation of everyday life? In addressing......, we find that seldom are these concepts treated altogether specifying the link between spatially and culturally situated behaviours on the one hand and collective identifications and value orientations on the other. Moreover, few studies examine socio-cultural Europeanisation and supernational...

  9. Importance of Family Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Structure Your Child's Nighttime Routine . Weekends: Weekends are good times for family togetherness. You might go grocery shopping as a family, visit museums and zoos, do chores​ that everyone participates in, go on ...

  10. Routine sputum culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  11. Assessment of bioburden on human and animal tissues: part 2--results of testing of human tissue and qualification of a composite sample for routine bioburden determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, John B; Merritt, Karen; Gocke, David; Osborne, Joel

    2012-08-01

    A quantitative method was developed and validated to assess bioburden on tissue from human donors and to compare bioburden determination results to swab culture results from the same donor. An initial study with allograft tissue from 101 donors showed a wide range of bioburden levels; values from no colony-forming units (CFU) detected to >28,000 CFU were observed. Tissues from donors that had swab cultures negative for objectionable microorganisms generally had lower bioburden than tissues from donors where objectionable microorganisms were recovered by swab culturing. In a follow-up study with 1,445 donors, a wide range of bioburden levels was again observed on tissues from donors that were swab culture negative for objectionable microorganisms. Tissues from 885 (61%) of these donors had no recoverable bioburden (donors had recoverable bioburden which ranged from 1 to >24,000 CFU. Identification of bioburden isolates showed a diversity of genera and species. In compliance with the recent revision of the American Association of Tissue Banks K2.210 Standard, the quantitative bioburden determination method was validated with a composite tissue sample that contains bone and soft tissue sections tested together in one extraction vessel. A recovery efficiency of 68% was validated and the composite sample was shown to be representative of all of the tissues recovered from a donor. The use of the composite sample in conjunction with the quantitative bioburden determination method will facilitate an accurate assessment of the numbers and types of contaminating microorganisms on allografts prior to disinfection/sterilization. This information will ensure that disinfection/sterilization processes are properly validated and the capability of the overall allograft process is understood on a donor by donor basis.

  12. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  13. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  14. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  15. Rehabilitation of everyday memory deficits in paediatric brain injury: self-instruction and diary training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Joanna; Epps, Adrienne; Parry, Louise; Poole, Miriam; Lah, Suncica

    2011-04-01

    Memory problems that interfere with everyday living are frequently reported in children who have sustained acquired brain injury (ABI), but their nature and rehabilitation is under-researched. This study aimed to (1) determine neuropsychological correlates of everyday memory deficits in children with ABI, and (2) investigate the effectiveness of a newly developed programme for their rehabilitation. We assessed everyday memory, verbal memory, attention and behaviour in 15 children with ABI. The children attended the everyday memory rehabilitation programme: six weekly sessions that involved diary training, self-instruction training and case examples. At the onset we found that everyday memory problems were related to impaired attention and behavioural difficulties. On completion of the programme there was a significant increase in children's abilities to perform daily routines that demanded recall of information and events. In addition, children used diaries more frequently. Moreover, significant secondary gains were found in attention and mood (anxiety and depression). In conclusion, the results provided preliminary evidence that our six week programme could be effective in reducing everyday memory difficulties and improving psychological well-being in children with ABI.

  16. Remembering myth and ritual in the everyday tectonics of hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    2015-01-01

    When discussing tectonics, the book Studies in tectonic culture by Kenneth Frampton (2001) is often mentioned for linking the ethics of architecture with a focus on structural genius. Another reference is the paper The tell-the-tale detail by Marco Frascari (1984), which in addition to Frampton p...... for instance in the interior staging of meal situations can foster a more human-centred perspective in everyday tectonics....

  17. Soulful Technologies. Everyday Aesthetics and Images in New Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

     Samsung introduced last year a mobile phone called "Soul" made with a human touch and including itself a "magic touch". Through the analysis of Nokia mobile phone TV commercials I want to examine the function and form of digital technology in everyday images.  The mobile phone, its digital camer...... commercials and internet commercials for mobile phones from Nokia, or handheld computers, as Sony-Ericsson prefers to call them. Digital technology points towards not only a post-human condition, but also a forgotten pre-human condition.     ...

  18. The design of everyday things

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Don

    2013-01-01

    Even the smartest among us can feel inept as we fail to figure out which light switch or oven burner to turn on, or whether to push, pull, or slide a door. The fault, argues this ingenious—even liberating—book, lies not in ourselves, but in product design that ignores the needs of users and the principles of cognitive psychology. The problems range from ambiguous and hidden controls to arbitrary relationships between controls and functions, coupled with a lack of feedback or other assistance and unreasonable demands on memorization. The Design of Everyday Things shows that good, usable design is possible. The rules are simple: make things visible, exploit natural relationships that couple function and control, and make intelligent use of constraints. The goal: guide the user effortlessly to the right action on the right control at the right time. In this entertaining and insightful analysis, cognitive scientist Don Norman hails excellence of design as the most important key to regaining the competitive e...

  19. Motivation through Routine Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koth, Laurie J.

    2016-01-01

    This informed commentary article offers a simple, effective classroom management strategy in which the teacher uses routine documentation to motivate students both to perform academically and to behave in a manner consistent with established classroom rules and procedures. The pragmatic strategy is grounded in literature, free to implement,…

  20. Learning from Homeschooling Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a rare opportunity to look inside the homeschool and to observe the routines of homeschooling families from across the United States. With more than 1000 survey participants, and nine parents selected for interviews, the compiled data were analyzed through open coding techniques. Meaningful aspects that arose from the routines…

  1. Routine neonatal circumcision?

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, P. T.; Giacomantonio, M.

    1996-01-01

    Routine neonatal circumcision is still a controversial procedure. This article attempts to clarify some of the advantages and disadvantages of neonatal circumcision. The increased rate of penile cancer among uncircumcised men appears to justify the procedure, but that alone is not sufficient justification. The final decision on neonatal circumcision should be made by parents with balanced counsel from attending physicians.

  2. Memory for Routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, James A.; Rips, Lance J.

    1982-01-01

    Presents experiments which compare two theories of memory for routine events, one emphasizing temporal sequence of events, the other focusing on events' hierarchical structure or centrality. Findings suggest that sequence and centrality information may be computed as needed, rather than precompiled. (Author/BK)

  3. The values of landscape in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Micheel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing interest in landscapes and the values assigned to them can be observed in politics and planning as well as in people’s everyday life. However, discourses regarding space, spatial development and landscapes have been mainly examined from an elitist perspective. In my research, on the contrary, an everyday perspective has been adopted to develop insights into the way in which meanings and values are conferred to landscapes by the people who live in them. My approach emphasises the everyday perspective in order to deepen our understanding of the “social construction” (Berger and Luckmann 1967 of landscape.

  4. If not negotiation, then what? Gender equality and the organization of everyday life in Swedish couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Evertsson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Freed from the bonds of traditional gendered norms, responsibilities and obligations, it has been argued that negotiation is a key concept for understanding how modern couples organize their common life together. Interviews with Swedish couples cause us to question this assumption. In this article we argue that negotiations are relatively unusual in couple relationships. We found that couples seldom experience the reason, room space or need to negotiate. This can in part be understood from the perspective of seeing everyday life as a matter of practical coordination, i.e. as something we strive to master rather than something we try to change or critically reflect upon. We found that routines and rituals were a guiding force in how couples organize their everyday lives. “Doing gender”, “doing couple”, external circumstances and agreement were all central aspects in making the everyday lives of the couples we interviewed work.

  5. The materiality of everyday practices in urban greenspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2013-01-01

    . The question is also which roles green areas play in people’s lives and in the community. The study presented in this paper shows that urban green areas are included in everyday life as spaces for free time and for household flexibility. They serve a number of different social functions by providing spaces......This paper investigates how urban greenspace is integrated in everyday practices of urban populations. What are the social functions that green areas serve, and how do people interact with the materiality of urban greenspace – its bio-physical structures and its nature and landscape. The paper...... green areas are beneficial for human health. These studies do, however, not go into a broader understanding of the social significance of urban greenspace and its significance in people’s lives. The social functions of urban green areas are not limited to whatever good effects they have on public health...

  6. The materiality of everyday life in urban greenspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    health and wellbeing. The question is also which roles green areas play in people’s lives and in the community. The study presented in this paper shows that urban green areas are included in everyday life as spaces for free time and for household flexibility. They serve a number of different social......This paper investigates how urban greenspace is integrated in everyday practices of urban populations. What are the social functions that green areas serve, and how do people interact with the materiality of urban greenspace – its bio-physical structures and its nature and landscape. The paper...... that urban green areas are beneficial for human health. These studies do, however, not go into a broader understanding of the social significance of urban greenspace and its significance in people’s lives. The social functions of urban green areas are not limited to whatever good effects they have on public...

  7. The Sociomateriality of Creativity in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the sociomateriality of creativity in everyday life. Whilst creativity research has traditionally been concerned with the intellectual and individual skills promoting creativity, such as the ability to apply divergent thinking, this author anchors creativity in social practice...

  8. Feminism and the sociology of everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Ivana A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influences of feminist thought on sociological theory and research, refracted through the conceptualization of the sphere of everyday life. It is argued that there are important theoretical affinities between feminism and the sociology of everyday life, as it has developed since mid-20th century. Main feminist contributions to sociological study of everyday life are identified at two levels: substantive (the study of formerly neglected social phenomena, particularly the private sphere, and epistemological (the questioning of positivistic ideals of objective and neutral social science. The position of the feminist theorist Dorothy Smith is selected for a more detailed critical discussion. In the concluding part of the paper some controversial points in the feminist concept of the sociology of everyday life are indicated.

  9. Personal ways of handling everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Meinert

    structures of daily life, such as work schedules, transport itineraries, business opening hours, and calendars with workdays and weekends.  These structures order the activities of persons.  The project explores how persons conduct their everyday life in relation to such arrangements, by looking......While there has been repeated calls for Personality Psychology to study persons' behavior in real situations (for instance, Funder, 2001; Baumeister, Funder & Vohs, 2005), what persons actually do in their everyday lives is still a neglected area of research in Personality Psychology.  But studying...... behavior risks substituting a context-free personality with a personality bound to a single given situation - when persons actually move in and across different contexts in their everyday lives.  Therefore, this project studies "personality" from a different angle: Everyday situations are set within social...

  10. Everyday beliefs about food and health

    OpenAIRE

    Saher, Marieke

    2006-01-01

    The series of studies addresses several everyday beliefs about food and health from the perspective of everyday thinking and paranormal beliefs. They are "you are what you eat" beliefs, attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods, and belief in alternative medicine. The survey studies included from 239 to 3261 Finnish participants. It was found that food consumption can have far-stretching consequences for the impressions of the eater in a "you are what you eat" manner. The ...

  11. MUTUAL INFLUENCE OF PAINTING, THEATRE AND EVERYDAY LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Suvorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the works of Yu.M. Lotman, the author examines the process of interaction between painting and theater, and their mutual influence on the routine. The emphasis is on identifying the peculiarities of the interaction of theatre and painting in the period from the late XVIII – early XIX century. Theatre using expressive means of painting, created new forms of performing arts. The scenery becomes actors, not serving as a background for the actors. Acting technique was also being changed, the dynamics of the movements was changed into the static of dynamic postures. The identification of the scene and the picture led to the emergence of a new genre of "living paintings". Not only the art of painting influenced a theatre, creating new forms, but the theatre influenced painting too, creating a portrait typifying a model in accordance with the traditional theatrical characters. Gradually the boundary between art and commonplace had been crumbling, the theatre entered the life. It turned out that the theatricality of everyday life became the logical result of the considered process. Real life started to be considered as a performance that opened not only new possibilities in the prescribed range of permitted conduct, but also went beyond and was the legislator of individual behaviors, filled everyday reality with events, and thus, made a person free from the control of custom.

  12. Stability of 35 biochemical and immunological routine tests after 10 hours storage and transport of human whole blood at 21°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Linda O; Faber, Nina R; Moller, Mette F;

    2014-01-01

    thyroxine, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin M, orosomucoid, sodium, transferrin, and triglycerides met goals for imprecision, though they showed a minor, but statistically significant bias in results after storage. Cobalamin, folate, HDL-cholesterol, iron, phosphate, potassium, thyroid stimulating hormone...... and urate warranted concern, but only folate and phosphate showed deviations of clinical importance. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that whole blood in lithium-heparin or serum tubes stored for 10 h at 21 ± 1°C, may be used for routine analysis without restrictions for all investigated analytes but folate...... and phosphate....

  13. Changing academic identities in changing academic workplaces: learning from academics’ everyday professional writing practices

    OpenAIRE

    Lea, Mary R.; Stierer, Barry

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine issues of academic identity through the lens of academics’ everyday workplace writing, offering a complementary perspective to those already evident in the higher education research literature. Motivated by an interest in the relationship between routine writing and aspects of professional practice, we draw on data from interviews with 30 academics across three different universities. Our discussion is illustrated with excerpts from interview data, and is organised ...

  14. Blighted Spaces and the Politics of Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available While a great deal is known about the demographic and historical trends that shape the built environment of American cities, much less is known about the politics of everyday life among residents who continue to live in postindustrial neighborhoods. This study seeks to compensate for the current gaps in academic research by conducting spatially informed ethnography in a North Philadelphia community. Specifically, the study will explore the issue of urban "blight" from a cultural geography perspective, primarily by looking at the ways in which "blighted" spaces shape everyday life, and everyday life in turn shapes and produces the spatial environment. In response to these concerns, my study poses the questions: What would it mean to focus on the ways in which human agency, imagination, and subjectivity are shaped by "blighted" geographical locations? What would it mean to pay ethnographic attention to how subjects in given historical conditions are shaped by "blighted" spaces, as well as how they respond to these spaces in culturally specific ways? By incorporating critical interdisciplinary approaches, this study offers a new way of looking at the various practices of daily life - including flexible, informal economic activities and post-welfare related "lifestyles" of resistance. Through the lens of spatial ethnography, the study seeks to elucidate the ways in which postindustrial space interacts with culture, poverty and addiction; as well as the ways in which users continue to appropriate postindustrial spaces in culturally meaningful ways under the aegis of the semi-welfare state.

  15. Moving out of the laboratory: does nicotine improve everyday attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusted, J M; Caulfield, D; King, L; Goode, A

    2000-11-01

    The most robust demonstrations of the nicotine-related performance effects on human cognitive processes are seen in tasks that measure attention. If nicotine does have some potential for enhancing attention, the obvious question to ask is whether the effects demonstrated in the laboratory hold any significance for real-life performance. This paper describes three studies that compare the effects in smokers of a single own brand cigarette on laboratory tests of attention and on everyday analogues of these laboratory tasks. In the laboratory measures of sustained attention and in the everyday analogue, performance advantages were registered in the smoking condition. These benefits were observed in smokers who abstained for a self-determined period of not less than 2 h. The studies were unable to replicate previous research reporting positive effects of smoking on a laboratory task of selective attention, the Stroop task. Small but significant improvements in performance were registered in the everyday analogues, which involved sustaining attention in a dual task situation, a telephone directory search task and a map search task. In addition, smokers showed a significant colour-naming decrement for smoking-related stimuli in the Stroop task. This attentional bias towards smoking-related words occurred independent of whether they had abstained or recently smoked an own brand cigarette. The effect is discussed in terms of the two-component model of processing bias for emotionally valenced stimuli.

  16. Brain structure links everyday creativity to creative achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenfeng; Chen, Qunlin; Tang, Chaoying; Cao, Guikang; Hou, Yuling; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Although creativity is commonly considered to be a cornerstone of human progress and vital to all realms of our lives, its neural basis remains elusive, partly due to the different tasks and measurement methods applied in research. In particular, the neural correlates of everyday creativity that can be experienced by everyone, to some extent, are still unexplored. The present study was designed to investigate the brain structure underlying individual differences in everyday creativity, as measured by the Creative Behavioral Inventory (CBI) (N=163). The results revealed that more creative activities were significantly and positively associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) in the regional premotor cortex (PMC), which is a motor planning area involved in the creation and selection of novel actions and inhibition. In addition, the gray volume of the PMC had a significant positive relationship with creative achievement and Art scores, which supports the notion that training and practice may induce changes in brain structures. These results indicate that everyday creativity is linked to the PMC and that PMC volume can predict creative achievement, supporting the view that motor planning may play a crucial role in creative behavior.

  17. CHR -- Character Handling Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

    This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

  18. Everyday Learning in the Kitchen. Everyday Learning Series. Volume 2, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Jo

    2004-01-01

    The "Everyday Learning" series has been developed to focus attention on the everyday ways in which children can be supported in their growth and development. Many of one's earliest memories are likely to be about time spent in the kitchen. Licking the bowl, setting the table, doing the dishes, chatting about the day, eating a meal,…

  19. Everyday Learning about Maths. Everyday Learning Series. Volume 3, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jenni; Neal, Denise

    2005-01-01

    The "Everyday Learning" series has been developed to focus attention on the everyday ways in which children can be supported in their growth and development. It is for all those who are involved in children's development and learning, including people caring for young children in their own or others' homes, such as parents, grandparents…

  20. Everyday Learning about Imagination. Everyday Learning Series. Volume 3, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Lyn

    2005-01-01

    The "Everyday Learning" series has been developed to focus attention on the everyday ways in which children can be supported in their growth and development. It is for all those who are involved in children's development and learning, including people caring for young children in their own or others' homes, such as parents, grandparents…

  1. Comparison of the quantitative performances and measurement uncertainty estimates obtained during method validation versus routine applications of a novel hydrophilic interaction chromatography method for the determination of cidofovir in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, F; Hubert, C; Demarche, S; De Bleye, C; Dispas, A; Jost, M; Frankenne, F; Ceccato, A; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph

    2012-01-05

    Method validation is essential to ensure that an analytical method is fit for its intended purpose. Additionally, it is advisable to estimate measurement uncertainty in order to allow a correct interpretation of the results generated by analytical methods. Measurement uncertainty can be efficiently estimated during method validation as a top-down approach. However, method validation predictions of the quantitative performances of the assay and estimations of measurement uncertainty may be far away from the real performances obtained during the routine application of this assay. In this work, the predictions of the quantitative performances and measurement uncertainty estimations obtained from a method validation are compared to those obtained during routine applications of a bioanalytical method. For that purpose, a new hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) method was used. This method was developed for the determination of cidofovir, an antiviral drug, in human plasma. Cidofovir (CDV) is a highly polar molecule presenting three ionizable functions. Therefore, it is an interesting candidate for determination by HILIC mode. CDV is an acyclic cytidine monophosphate analog that has a broad antiviral spectrum and is currently undergoing evaluation in clinical trials as a topical agent for treatment of papillomavirus infections. The analytical conditions were optimized by means of design of experiments approach in order to obtain robust analytical conditions. These ones were absolutely necessary to enable the comparisons mentioned above. After a sample clean-up by means of solid phase extraction, the chromatographic analysis was performed on bare silica stationary phase using a mixture of acetonitrile-ammonium hydrogen carbonate (pH 7.0; 20mM) (72:28, v/v) as mobile phase. This newly developed bioanalytical method was then fully validated according to FDA (Food and Drug Administration) requirements using a total error approach that guaranteed that each future

  2. Erving Goffman and Everyday Life Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary social life is marked by increasing levels of physical movement of people, goods and symbols. Within this context much theoretical activity points at notions of globalisation and the network society (e.g. Castells 1996). Such macro-theoretical interpretations capture only parts...... of the meaning of contemporary mobility. In this chapter the thesis is that by exploring contemporary mobility practices in an everyday life context applying theories and concepts coined by Erving Goffman a much richer sociological vocabulary emerges. The chapter contains a re-reading of Goffman...... with the ambition of showing a vocabulary that makes the macro-societal conditions for contemporary mobility comprehensible from the vantage point of the ‘little practices' of everyday life. The exploration of everyday life mobility using Goffman as guide makes us see that waiting in line for the bus, riding...

  3. The Third Tear in Everyday Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Mandoki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although totally overlooked by mainstream aesthetic theory, various paths were nevertheless left open for addressing everyday aesthetics, a natural yet surprisingly controversial topic. Why they were never taken until recently, when the theme of everyday aesthetics is now becoming fashionable, can be explained not only by the obvious fact of philosophical aesthetics’ restrictive focal point on art but, among other reasons, by a kind of fetishism that demands an object of recognized value for legitimating an aesthetic inquiry. This new popularity entails, however, certain theoretical risks such as clinging to traditional art-centric and beauty-centric categories to explain the everyday and borrowing their concepts uncritically. In this paper I will examine some of these paths and risks with special emphasis on current events which exude aesthetics throughout their pores and require attention from this discipline.

  4. Everyday activities for people with dementia in residential aged care: associations with person-centredness and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, David; Petersson, Lisa; Sjogren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Sandman, Per-Olof

    2014-12-01

    Providing everyday activities is central to high quality residential aged care, but further research is needed on the association between activity participation, person-centred care and quality of life. To explore the point-prevalence of participation in everyday activities for residents with dementia within a national sample of Swedish residential aged care units and to explore if residents participating in everyday activities lived in more person-centred units and/or had higher quality of life as compared to residents not participating in everyday activities. A cross-sectional design was used to collect valid and reliable questionnaire data on activity participation, unit person-centredness and quality of life in a sample of residents in residential aged care (n = 1266). Only 18% of residents participated in everyday activities such as making coffee, setting or clearing the table, cleaning or watering plants, 62% participated in outdoor walks, 27% participated in parlour games, and 14% and 13% participated in excursions and church visits, respectively. Those residents who had participated in everyday activities lived in more person-centred units, had significantly higher quality of life and higher cognitive scores as compared to those residents who had not participated in everyday activities. Even though the prevalence of resident participation in everyday activities was low, resident participation was significantly associated with unit person-centredness and resident quality of life. It seems that everyday activities that are routine and commonplace to residential aged care can be potent nursing interventions for promoting resident quality of life. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Hedonism and the choice of everyday activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquet, Maxime; Quoidbach, Jordi; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Desseilles, Martin; Gross, James J

    2016-08-30

    Most theories of motivation have highlighted that human behavior is guided by the hedonic principle, according to which our choices of daily activities aim to minimize negative affect and maximize positive affect. However, it is not clear how to reconcile this idea with the fact that people routinely engage in unpleasant yet necessary activities. To address this issue, we monitored in real time the activities and moods of over 28,000 people across an average of 27 d using a multiplatform smartphone application. We found that people's choices of activities followed a hedonic flexibility principle. Specifically, people were more likely to engage in mood-increasing activities (e.g., play sports) when they felt bad, and to engage in useful but mood-decreasing activities (e.g., housework) when they felt good. These findings clarify how hedonic considerations shape human behavior. They may explain how humans overcome the allure of short-term gains in happiness to maximize long-term welfare.

  6. Designing self-care for everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo; Nunes, Francisco; Grönvall, Erik

    2014-01-01

    -care and mediate the relationship between patients (and caregivers) and the condition. However, these technologies often disregard the complexity of the settings in which they are used and fail to become integrated in everyday life. In this workshop we will discuss how to design self-care technologies...... that are in harmony with people's everyday life. Therefore, we invite designers, researchers and practitioners to participate in a full-day workshop in which we will reflect on each other's work, and do a design exercise with patients and caregivers....

  7. Everyday Life, Sensuality, and Body Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Charlotte

    1987-01-01

    present an empirical study of women whose everyday lives were radically disrupted. Finally, recent trends in body culture will be discussed and evaluated from a feminist point of view. Thus, viewed from the perspective of sport, the purpose of this essay is to offer new approaches to the subject of sport...... life, just as sensual resistance arises from this level. Proceeding from a view of women's everyday life, current contradictions, which leave room for a hitherto concealed sensuality will be outlined. In order to elucidate these contradictory trends as well as traces of another sensuality, I shall...

  8. Interdisciplinary collaboration experiences in creating an everyday rehabilitation model: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moe A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aud Moe,1,2 Hildfrid V Brataas1,2 1Faculty of Health Science, Nord University, Steinkjer, Nord-Trøndelag, 2Center of Care Research, Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Nord-Trøndelag, Norway Background: When functional impairment occurs, assistance to achieve self-help can lead to qualitatively more active everyday life for recipients and better use of community resources. Home-based everyday rehabilitation is a new interdisciplinary service for people living at home. Rehabilitation involves meeting the need for interprofessional services, interdisciplinary collaboration, and coordination of services. Everyday rehabilitation is a service that requires close interdisciplinary cooperation. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about employees' experiences with establishing a new multidisciplinary team and developing a team-based work model. Method: The study had a qualitative design using two focus group interviews with a newly established rehabilitation team. The sample consisted of an occupational therapist, two care workers with further education in rehabilitation, a nurse, a physiotherapist, and a project leader. Data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results: The data highlight three phases: a planning phase (ten meetings over half a year, a startup phase of trials of interdisciplinary everyday rehabilitation in practice (2 months, and a third period specifying and implementing an everyday rehabilitation model (6 months. During these phases, three themes emerged: 1 team creation and design of the service, 2 targeted practical trials, and 3 equality of team members and combining interdisciplinary methods. Conclusion: The team provided information about three processes: developing work routines and a revised team-based flow chart, developing team cooperation with integrated trans- and interdisciplinary collaboration, and working with external exchange. There is more need for secure network solutions. Keywords: everyday rehabilitation

  9. Routine Tests in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection caused by bacteria that can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Chorionic Villus Sampling: A procedure in ... A sexually transmitted infection that may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and arthritis. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A ...

  10. Routine Tests in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during pregnancy? Diagnostic tests for birth defects include amniocentesis , chorionic villus sampling , and a targeted ultrasound exam. ... damaged by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Amniocentesis: A procedure in which a needle is used ...

  11. Everyday Inclusive Web Design: An Activity Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Website accessibility is a problem that affects millions of people with disabilities. While most current accessibility initiatives target government or commercial sites, a growing segment of online content is being created by non-professionals. This content is often inaccessible to users with disabilities. Everyday inclusive Web…

  12. The Neural Correlates of Everyday Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, F.; Muhlert, N.; Butler, C. R.; Benattayallah, A.; Zeman, A. Z.

    2011-01-01

    We used a novel automatic camera, SenseCam, to create a recognition memory test for real-life events. Adapting a "Remember/Know" paradigm, we asked healthy undergraduates, who wore SenseCam for 2 days, in their everyday environments, to classify images as strongly or weakly remembered, strongly or weakly familiar or novel, while brain activation…

  13. Architecture – a mirror of everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of a research project that analyses trends in the last 100 years of housing architecture. The research project intends to show how changing norms have altered our views on housing, and how the development of new forms of everyday life and lifestyle has led to fundamental changes...

  14. The Creative Pathways of Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two studies of how the conduct of life in itself can be a creative act. Very often, creativity research is concerned with the study of what enables people to express themselves creatively or aesthetically or to produce creative ideas and products. Creativity as it arises in the mundane processes of everyday life is, however,…

  15. Foucault's Heterotopia and Children's Everyday Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Sara

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Foucault's notion of "heterotopia"--real places but which exist unto themselves, such as a floating ship. Considers data on children's use of computer and video games to apply "heterotopia" to children's everyday social lives. Argues that childhood is subject to increasing boundaries, and that children create "other" spaces through…

  16. Everyday meal preparation for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase

    2016-01-01

    When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal preparat......When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal...... in everyday life. Furthermore getting the appropriate and nutritious food will be a step in the right direction regarding prevention of malnutrition. The aim of this project is to develop a guide to increase the possibility for people with dementia to continue everyday life through participating in meal...... preparation. The guide includes ideas for constructing recipes, methods for planning and guiding the process and examples of utensils that can increase the ability to cook in the persons own home or in an institutionalized setting. This supports the person with dementia both nutritionally, cognitively...

  17. Ethnic and Nationality Stereotypes in Everyday Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Mary E.; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a demonstration of stereotype use in everyday language that focuses on common phrases reflecting stereotypic beliefs about ethnic groups or nationalities. The exercise encourages students' discussion of stereotype use. Students read 13 common phrases from the English language and stated whether they had used each phrase and…

  18. Ethnic and Nationality Stereotypes in Everyday Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Mary E.; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a demonstration of stereotype use in everyday language that focuses on common phrases reflecting stereotypic beliefs about ethnic groups or nationalities. The exercise encourages students' discussion of stereotype use. Students read 13 common phrases from the English language and stated whether they had used each phrase and…

  19. Does Formal Environmental Knowledge Inform the Everyday ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is a vital factor in promoting environmental responsibility, this study focused on the way learners ... make links between their formal environmental knowledge and everyday practices. The study ... Learning about the environment focuses on key environmental knowledge ..... Cape Town: South African Institute of Distance.

  20. Making Choices about Everyday Care (for Families)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to each of you. Recognizing and communicating your personal values about everyday care enables you and your family ... not keep a person from expressing life-long values and wishes for care now and in the future. Even if serious memory problems affect work and home life, or lead to changes in ...

  1. Investigating how everyday people experience security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg

    experiences that everyday users of technology encounter. The background for introducing this method is a project under the heading of IT Security for Citizens, which bridges between research competencies in HCI and security. In this project we develop methods and concepts to analyze digital signature systems...

  2. Everyday life for users of electric wheelchairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Camilla Blach; Sørensen, Bodil; Jochumsen, Bente Würtz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how users of electric wheelchairs experience their everyday life and how their electric wheelchairs influence their daily occupation. Occupation is defined as a personalized dynamic interaction between person, task and environment, and implies the value...

  3. The Creative Pathways of Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two studies of how the conduct of life in itself can be a creative act. Very often, creativity research is concerned with the study of what enables people to express themselves creatively or aesthetically or to produce creative ideas and products. Creativity as it arises in the mundane processes of everyday life is, however,…

  4. Measuring everyday functional competence using the Rasch assessment of everyday activity limitations (REAL) item bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, Martijn A.H.; Ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald E.; van de Laar, Mart A.F.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Traditional patient-reported physical function instruments often poorly differentiate patients with mild-to-moderate disability. We describe the development and psychometric evaluation of a generic item bank for measuring everyday activity limitations in outpatient populations. Study

  5. Everyday solutions for everyday problems: how mental health systems can support recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Mike

    2012-07-01

    People who experience mental illness can be viewed as either fundamentally different than, or fundamentally like, everyone else in society. Recovery-oriented mental health systems focus on commonality. In practice, this involves an orientation toward supporting everyday solutions for everyday problems rather than providing specialist treatments for mental illness-related problems. This change is evident in relation to help offered with housing, employment, relationships, and spirituality. Interventions may contribute to the process of striving for a life worth living, but they are a means, not an end. Mental health systems that offer treatments in support of an individual's life goals are very different than those that treat patients in their best interests. The strongest contribution of mental health services to recovery is to support everyday solutions to everyday problems.

  6. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  7. 'Gonna make yer gorgeous': Everyday transformation, resistance and belonging in the care-based hair salon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard; Campbell, Sarah; Keady, John

    2016-05-01

    This paper makes a contribution to an emerging debate on dementia and citizenship through a focus on the everyday experiences of women living with dementia and in receipt of care. In particular, a link is drawn between hairdressing and citizenship in the context of dementia care. Informed by a wider debate over the importance of an emplaced, embodied and performative approach to citizenship, the authors highlight the way that intersecting forms of resistance unfold in the salon. The Hair and Care project, as the name implies, focused upon hair care and styling in the context of a wider consideration of appearance and how it is managed and what it means for people living with dementia. With a focus upon the routine, mundane and thereby often unproblematised aspects of everyday life in/with care, the discussion draws together two key ideas concerned with the interplay of power and resistance: Essed's (1991) theory of 'everyday discrimination' and Scott's (1985) notion of 'everyday resistance'. The findings illuminate the creative and collective forms of agency exercised by older women living with dementia, in the context of their relationships with one another and with the hairdressers whose services and support inspire their loyalty and patronage. Findings from the study point to the link between (inter-)personal practices of appearance management and a wider set of social conditions that are manifest in the on-going struggle over time, space and bodies in dementia care.

  8. Routine outcome measures in Norway: Only partly implemented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Torleif

    2015-01-01

    Norway has not had any strategy exclusively for the implementation of routine outcome measurement in the mental health services, but some efforts have been made as part of strategies for a national patient register and quality indicators. Fifteen years after the decision to make the rating of the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) mandatory at admission and discharge of each treatment episode in adult mental health services, this is still not fully implemented. An unknown and probably very low proportion of mental health services use GAF as a routine outcome measure in everyday clinical practice. Well-established electronic patient records in the mental health services and established procedures for reporting routine data to the National Patient Register should make it possible to collect and use routine outcome data. Implementation of routine outcome measurement in mental health services must be done with due emphasis on the critical steps in the various phases of the implementation process. The regional health authorities have a key role in establishing electronic systems that make relevant outcome measurements available in a seamless way for clinicians as well as for patients, and by contributing to a culture where quality and outcome are valued and given priority.

  9. Everyday Memory in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Luen; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Lai, Hsuan-An

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have deficits in working memory, but little is known about the everyday memory of these children in real-life situations. We investigated the everyday memory function in children with DCD, and explored the specific profile of everyday memory across different domains. Nineteen children with…

  10. Silence as a Response to Everyday Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Across the world, existing research indicates that many women respond with silence to marital abuse. This article offers an ethnographic investigation of the social and psychic forces behind Vietnamese women’s silencing of violence and a theoretical exploration of how the psychoanalytic concept...... of fantasy—understood as unconscious or subconscious mental processes—may contribute to the analysis of everyday violence and psychic distress. Distinguishing between what I term deliberate and subconscious silence, I explore the role that fantasy plays when Vietnamese women silently endure intimate partner...... violence. Closer ethnographic attention to the fantasy-constructions that sustain day-to-day lives can, I argue, strengthen the capacity of anthropology to comprehend how systems of everyday violence are upheld and rendered socially invisible....

  11. Erving Goffman and Everyday Life Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary social life is marked by increasing levels of physical movement of people, goods and symbols. Within this context much theoretical activity points at notions of globalisation and the network society (e.g. Castells 1996). Such macro-theoretical interpretations capture only parts...... the subway, biking to work or the freeway commute are by no means neither just instrumental practices of getting from A to B, nor are they trivial acts of physical displacement. Goffman's insights into the ‘little practices' of social life substantiates that contemporary everyday life mobility is produced...... by and re-producing culture and social norms. Goffman's concepts provide us with a rich vocabulary describing how the everyday life mobility in the contemporary city is regulated formally and informally. Clearly Goffman's immediate applicability is more relevant in ‘micro mobility' studies than...

  12. Investigating how everyday people experience security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg

    In this paper I propose a method for analyzing everyday people's experiences with IT-security. I furthermore report how I applied the method. The proposal is motivated by work of other researchers and their efforts to get beyond secure behavior, and to get an insight in secure or insecure...... experiences that everyday users of technology encounter. The background for introducing this method is a project under the heading of IT Security for Citizens, which bridges between research competencies in HCI and security. In this project we develop methods and concepts to analyze digital signature systems...... and security sensible systems in a broad sense, from the point of view of contemporary CHI. The project includes literature studies of usable security, as well as empirical investigations and design work. This paper reports on my method to target user experiences of and with security technology....

  13. Dietary education must fit into everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folmann Hempler, Nana; Nicic, Sara; Ewers, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary......BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of diabetes among South Asian populations in European countries partially derives from unhealthy changes in dietary patterns. Limited studies address perspectives of South Asian populations with respect to utility of diabetes education in everyday life. This study...... diabetes education. Data analysis was systematic and was based on grounded theory principles. RESULTS: Participants described the process of integrating and utilizing dietary education in everyday life as challenging. Perceived barriers of the integration and utilization included a lack of a connection...

  14. Problem gaming in an everyday perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Anne Mette; Karlsen, Faltin; Gregersen, Andreas Lindegaard

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ”video game addiction” has gradually replaced the depiction of violence in video games as a key issue of concern among parents and professionals. The concept refers to situations where (predominantly) young (predominantly) men neglect other activities in their everyday lives in order...... neurophysiology or clinical psychology does sufficiently describe it. Accordingly, the aim is to redefine the concept theoretically and empirically and to question simple causal relationship such as the direct link between gameplay patterns and addiction. The panel will introduce everyday life, family and youth...... of the diagnostic criteria of video game addiction from Fisher's (1994) DSM-IV-JV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Juvenile Arcade Video Game) to the American Psychiatric Association's (2013) Internet Gaming Disorder. The abstract components of the concept of video game addiction are traced over time...

  15. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

    OpenAIRE

    Clare AM Sutherland; Rowley, Lauren E.; Amoaku, Unity T.; Ella eDaguzan; Kate A Kidd-Rossiter; Ugne eMaceviciute; Young, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying “ambient image” face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big ...

  16. Everyday cognition in prodromal Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet K; Kim, Ji-In; Downing, Nancy; Farias, Sarah; Harrington, Deborah L; Long, Jeffrey D; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of daily functions affected by cognitive loss in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD) is necessary in practice and clinical trials. We evaluated baseline and longitudinal sensitivity of the Everyday Cognition (ECog) scales in prodromal HD and compared self- and companion-ratings. Everyday cognition was self-assessed by 850 participants with prodromal HD and 768 companions. We examined internal structure using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on baseline data. For longitudinal analysis, we stratified participants into Low, Medium, and High disease progression groups. We examined ECog scores for group differences and participant-and-companion differences using linear mixed effects regression (LMER). Comparison with the Total Functional Capacity (TFC) scale was made. CFA revealed good fit of a 5-factor model having a global factor (total score), and subfactors (subscales) of memory, language, visuospatial perception, and executive function. At study entry, participants and companions in the Medium and High groups reported significantly worsened everyday cognition as well as significant functional decline over time. Losses became more pronounced and participant and companion ratings diverged as individuals progressed. TFC showed significant functional loss over time in the High group but not in the Medium group. Disease progression is associated with reduced self- and companion-reported everyday cognition in prodromal HD participants who are less than 13 years to estimated motor onset. Our findings suggest companion ratings are more sensitive than participants' for detecting longitudinal change in daily cognitive function. ECog appears more sensitive to specific functional changes in the prodrome of HD than the TFC. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

    OpenAIRE

    Clare AM Sutherland; Lauren E Rowley; Unity T Amoaku; Ella eDaguzan; Kate A Kidd-Rossiter; Ugne eMaceviciute; Andrew W Young

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying “ambient image” face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big ...

  18. Activity and meaning-making in everyday life of people with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Karen; Johannessen, Helle; Josephsson, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore and understand how people with advanced cancer create meaning and handle everyday life through activity. Methods: A purposive sample of seven participants was recruited from a larger study. Data were collected through qualitative interviews and participant....... A narrative of “being healthy although ill” provided an arena for exploring the contrast between simultaneously feeling well and severely ill. Further emplotment of activities in “routines and continuity” was identified as a means to provide a safe, familiar framework stimulating participants’ everyday agency....... “My little Mecca” was identified as a narrative reflecting the activity of life-confirming experiences and taking time out. Significance of results: The identified narratives performed and told in daily life may guide the development of palliative care services to support people with advanced cancer...

  19. When risk becomes invisible in the everyday life of day care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Anne Marie; Kristensen, Ole Steen

    2016-01-01

    Both the identification of children at risk in day care and multidisciplinary collaboration with other professions have a political focus. This study was designed as an organizational field study and attempts to establish a coherent practice of multidisciplinary collaboration between day care...... and their life circumstances become invisible in the everyday life of day care. Due to defensive routines as well as an organizational culture that frames and creates a non-explicitly structured practice using intuitive processes, the problems of children at risk become invisible in the everyday life of day care...... and social services. This article focuses on the mono-professional pedagogical identification of children at risk as well as on the underlying process of professional reasoning. Interviews with day care staff are analysed and the findings give reason to assume that central aspects of the children at risk...

  20. Everyday Citizenship: Identity Claims and Their Reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Hopkins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Citizenship involves being able to speak and be heard as a member of the community. This can be a formal right (e.g., a right to vote. It can also be something experienced in everyday life. However, the criteria for being judged a fellow member of the community are multiple and accorded different weights by different people. Thus, although one may self-define alongside one’s fellows, the degree to which these others reciprocate depends on the weight they give to various membership criteria. This suggests we approach everyday community membership in terms of an identity claims-making process in which first, an individual claims membership through invoking certain criteria of belonging, and second, others evaluate that claim. Pursuing this logic we report three experiments investigating the reception of such identity-claims. Study 1 showed that in Scotland a claim to membership of the national ingroup was accepted more if couched in terms of place of birth and ancestry rather than just in terms of one’s subjective identification. Studies 2 and 3 showed that this differential acceptance mattered for the claimant’s ability to be heard as a community member. We discuss the implications of these studies for the conceptualization of community membership and the realization of everyday citizenship rights.

  1. Connecting school science and students' everyday lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Blakely Katelin

    Science education faces two major challenges: the perceived relevance of science to people's everyday live and ensuring that all students can obtain high quality science instruction. This dissertation explores how making connections between school science and students' everyday lives can lead to higher quality science education. It explores how a class of 4 th grade students makes connections between school science and their everyday lives. Drawing on a sociocultural perspective, I conceptualize learning as entering into a community of practice. I investigate how the affordances and constraints of three activities shaped students' opportunities to learn. In particular, I examine when and how students and teachers drew on students' funds of knowledge and created hybrid spaces. To this end, I examine (1) the object of the activity -- the task and its' parameters, and (2) the participation framework -- how the students and teacher are positioned in the activity and the discourse structures. I discuss how the object of the activity and the participation framework and the interaction between the two aspects provided opportunities for the students and teacher to make connections between students' funds of knowledge and school science and merge them to create hybrid spaces. I conclude with a discussion of the themes that arose from the study and the implications for teaching and learning.

  2. Update: Routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components, January 2011-June 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report contains an update through June 2016 of the results of routine screening for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among civilian applicants for military service and among members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces. During the surveillance period, annual seroprevalences among civilian applicants for military service peaked in 2015 (0.31 per 1,000 tested), up 29% from 2014 (0.24 per 1,000 tested). Seroprevalences among Marine Corps reservists, Navy active component service members, and Navy reservists also peaked in 2015. In the Army National Guard and the reserve component of the Marine Corps, full-year seroprevalences have trended upward since 2011. Overall (January 2011-June 2016) seroprevalences were highest for Army reservists, Army National Guard members, Navy active component members, and Navy reservists. Among active and reserve component service members, seroprevalences continue to be higher among Army and Navy members and males than their respective counterparts.

  3. Autobiographical Memory Sharing in Everyday Life: Characteristics of a Good Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jacqueline M.; Bluck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Storytelling is a ubiquitous human activity that occurs across the lifespan as part of everyday life. Studies from three disparate literatures suggest that older adults (as compared to younger adults) are (a) less likely to recall story details, (b) more likely to go off-target when sharing stories, and, in contrast, (c) more likely to receive…

  4. Autobiographical Memory Sharing in Everyday Life: Characteristics of a Good Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jacqueline M.; Bluck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Storytelling is a ubiquitous human activity that occurs across the lifespan as part of everyday life. Studies from three disparate literatures suggest that older adults (as compared to younger adults) are (a) less likely to recall story details, (b) more likely to go off-target when sharing stories, and, in contrast, (c) more likely to receive…

  5. Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Heimriks, Koen H.

    We discuss the microfoundations of routines and capabilities, including why a microfoundations view is needed and how it may inform work on organizational and competitive heterogeneity. Building on extant research, we identify three primary categories of micro-level components underlying routines...

  6. Evaluation of unconstrained optimization routines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazareth, L.; Schlick, F.

    1977-01-01

    Different approaches to evaluating optimization routines are discussed, and a particular method which uses parameterized test problems is described. This approach is illustrated through a simple case study of three well-known unconstrained optimization routines applied to three parameterized test problems. The results are displayed as a set of graphs. 3 figures.

  7. Digital technologies, participatory learning and the transformation of students’ conduct of everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraube, Ernst

    expanding human activities, they are also powerful socio-political “forms of life” (Langdon Winner) transforming fundamentally the practice of teaching and learning as well as the students’ conduct of everyday life. The paper explores the meaning of digital learning spaces at universities (especially...... Roskilde University) focusing on their implications for the learning processes and conduct of life of students. Based on a conceptual inclusion of the learning subjects and their conduct of everyday life into the research and a discussion of the analytical concepts of defensive versus expansive learning...

  8. On Hanging Laundry: The Place of Beauty in Managing Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Rautio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of my empirical research in the field of education discussed in this paper consist of letters produced through correspondence. I asked the participants to write about beauty in their everyday lives, giving substance to the concept as freely as they could. In this paper it is only the letters of one participant, Laura, which I limit my attention to. The aim is to find out what kind of place beauty, as defined and used by herself, holds in the managing of her everyday life. The concept of beauty is virtually missing from educational research or is misguidedly restricted only to formal art education. Beauty being for Laura an occasional checking of direction in relation to changes both in the context of her everyday life and in herself as a person sheds light to the relevance of beauty at the constitutive and perceptual level of growing as a human being.

  9. Understanding Teachers' Routines to Inform Classroom Technology Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Pengcheng; Bakker, Saskia; Eggen, Berry

    2017-01-01

    Secondary school teachers have quite busy and complex routines in their classrooms. However, present classroom technologies usually require focused attention from teachers while being interacted with, which restricts their use in teachers' daily routines. Peripheral interaction is a human-computer interaction style that aims to enable interaction…

  10. 42 CFR 493.841 - Standard; Routine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Routine chemistry. 493.841 Section 493.841 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.841 Standard; Routine chemistry. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80 percent...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1267 - Standard: Routine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Routine chemistry. 493.1267 Section 493.1267 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1267 Standard: Routine chemistry. For blood gas analyses, the laboratory must perform the...

  12. Living with Risk in Everyday Life - A Comparative Analysis on Handling and Reflecting Risk in Everyday Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elverdam, Beth; Hoel Felde, Lina Klara

    phones; chemicals in a nursery; elevated cholesterol was combined to analyse the concept of risk in everyday life. In-depth qualitative interviews with 46 people made it possible to analyse a general perception of risk in everyday life. Interviews were analysed using a phenomenological thematical content...... analysis. Results: Although risk is communicated in the media and by health personnel, and thus has a general presence in society, participants in everyday life place risk at the periphery of life. Risk is not part of their everyday reflections. When risk manifests itself in everyday life, it is reflected...

  13. The institutionalization of a routine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian

    2008-01-01

    The theoretical ambition in this paper is to contribute to institutionalism, and the literature on organizational routines, by allotting a precise role to the context and the material. Through a theoretical discussion of several perspectives on organizational routines, I argue that materiality-wh...... of production. I argue that the negotiation of these changes during test production is the fulcrum in the routinization of the production procedure. It is through these identity shifts that the valve is both reified, and rendered producible and applicable in the customer world....

  14. Personality and the Conduct of Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present a theory of persons that is rooted in the way persons conduct their everyday lives. The approach and the key concepts in the theory are presented in the second, central part of the paper. This theoretical approach to personhood is unusual. Current...... research on personality recognizes that personality must be studied in the interplay between person-situation-behavior. In the first part of the paper I present some of the core issues in those studies. The theoretical approach aims at resolving these issues. These issues are one of the two major sources...

  15. Everyday decolonization: living a decolonizing queer politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah; Holmes, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    This article is a joint exploration of what decolonization looks like in everyday interactions within our partnerships, families, and friendships on unceded Coast Salish territories. Stories from the authors--two cisgender queer women, one of whom is Indigenous and one of whom is a White settler--highlight intimate practices of allyship and decolonization that are often made invisible when activism is seen as only taking place in "public" spaces such as community coalitions. The tensions and possibilities within these intimate geographies of allyship comprise a decolonial queer praxis that is materialized in the spatial relations of our homes and families.

  16. Everyday cryptography fundamental principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Keith M

    2012-01-01

    Cryptography is a vital technology that underpins the security of information in computer networks. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the role that cryptography plays in providing information security for technologies such as the Internet, mobile phones, payment cards, and wireless local area networks. Focusing on the fundamental principles that ground modern cryptography as they arise in modern applications, it avoids both an over-reliance on transient currenttechnologies and over-whelming theoretical research.Everyday Cryptography is a self-contained and widely accessible in

  17. The materiality of everyday life in urban greenspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    This paper investigates how urban greenspace is integrated in everyday practices of urban populations. What are the social functions that green areas serve, and how do people interact with the materiality of urban greenspace – its bio-physical structures and its nature and landscape. The paper...... reports from a recent empirical study in the city of Copenhagen, Denmark, and it seeks to unfold and qualify concepts of lifestyle and practice, i.e. concepts by which sociological studies can capture and understand patterns of actions in people’s daily lives and life courses. A number of studies show...... that urban green areas are beneficial for human health. These studies do, however, not go into a broader understanding of the social significance of urban greenspace and its significance in people’s lives. The social functions of urban green areas are not limited to whatever good effects they have on public...

  18. Everyday life; Lived Experiences and Designed Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Michelle; Helms, Niels Henrik; Dræbel, Tania Aase

    2016-01-01

    Everyday life; Lived Experiences and Designed Learning: Students knowledge cultures and epistemic trajectories in a range of professional bachelor educations Helms, N.H., Vestbo, M., Steenfeldt, V.O., Dræbel, T.A., Hansen, T.A.E., Storm, H., and Schmidt, L.S.K. (University College Zealand) In thi...... contributes to knowledge about how students translate and transform knowledge in various ways and how they establish professional competencies and identities and about the potential coherence between portfolio pedagogies and other educational activities.......Everyday life; Lived Experiences and Designed Learning: Students knowledge cultures and epistemic trajectories in a range of professional bachelor educations Helms, N.H., Vestbo, M., Steenfeldt, V.O., Dræbel, T.A., Hansen, T.A.E., Storm, H., and Schmidt, L.S.K. (University College Zealand......) In this panel the use of different methodological approaches to answer questions about students’ knowledge cultures and epistemic trajectories is discussed. The context is qualitative empirical educational studies in a range of professional bachelor educations; Nursing, Social Education and Nutrition and Health...

  19. Uncertainty Regarding Waste Handling in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Ewert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available According to our study, based on interviews with households in a residential area in Sweden, uncertainty is a cultural barrier to improved recycling. Four causes of uncertainty are identified. Firstly, professional categories not matching cultural categories—people easily discriminate between certain categories (e.g., materials such as plastic and paper but not between others (e.g., packaging and “non-packaging”. Thus a frequent cause of uncertainty is that the basic categories of the waste recycling system do not coincide with the basic categories used in everyday life. Challenged habits—source separation in everyday life is habitual, but when a habit is challenged, by a particular element or feature of the waste system, uncertainty can arise. Lacking fractions—some kinds of items cannot be left for recycling and this makes waste collection incomplete from the user’s point of view and in turn lowers the credibility of the system. Missing or contradictory rules of thumb—the above causes seem to be particularly relevant if no motivating principle or rule of thumb (within the context of use is successfully conveyed to the user. This paper discusses how reducing uncertainty can improve recycling.

  20. Metaphor and analogy in everyday problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Lucas A; Landau, Mark J

    2016-11-01

    Early accounts of problem solving focused on the ways people represent information directly related to target problems and possible solutions. Subsequent theory and research point to the role of peripheral influences such as heuristics and bodily states. We discuss how metaphor and analogy similarly influence stages of everyday problem solving: Both processes mentally map features of a target problem onto the structure of a relatively more familiar concept. When individuals apply this structure, they use a well-known concept as a framework for reasoning about real world problems and candidate solutions. Early studies found that analogy use helped people gain insight into novel problems. More recent research on metaphor goes further to show that activating mappings has subtle, sometimes surprising effects on judgment and reasoning in everyday problem solving. These findings highlight situations in which mappings can help or hinder efforts to solve problems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:394-405. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1407 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  1. New technology in everyday life - social processes and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    In the environmental debate it is increasingly acknowledged that our way of life has profound environmental consequences. Therefore, it becomes ever more important to focus on and to understand how everyday life is formed and how it changes over time. Changing technology constitutes an important...... aspect both of changes in everyday life and of the environmental impact of everyday-life activities. Technological change is often seen as an important part of the solutions to environmental problems, however, when technological change is seen from the perspective of everyday life, this image becomes...... more complex. In this paper technological changes are explored from the perspective of consumption and everyday life, and it is argued that environmental impacts arise through the interplay of technology, consumption and everyday life. Firstly, because technological renewals form integral parts...

  2. Everyday life and habits in connection to technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Natalie Madeleine; Jørgensen, Anna Neerup; Majchrzak, Izabela; Lauridsen, Line Hoffmeyer; Arabi, Sara Albu; Joensen, Saskia van Dam; Nielsen, Simone Barnekow

    2015-01-01

    Our project concerns the topics everyday life and habits in connection to technology. With the focal point on everyday life and habits, we branch out to subjects concerning a modern life with technology and what that entails for our everyday life and habits. In our project we will delve into a thorough explanation on what everyday life is and how it is connected to habits, how a habit becomes an addiction and how those subjects are related to way we use technology in the Western society i...

  3. Update: routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components, January 2010-June 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report contains an update through June 2015 of the results of routine screening for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among civilian applicants for military service and among members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces. Seroprevalences among civilian applicants in 2014 and the first half of 2015 (0.21 and 0.22 per 1,000 tested, respectively) were markedly lower than in 2012 (0.28 per 1,000 tested). In nearly every component of every military service, seroprevalences in 2014 and 2015 were either lower than, or relatively similar to, prevalences in prior years; however, in the Army National Guard, seroprevalences increased each year and approximately doubled from 2010 (0.18 per 1,000 tested) to 2014-2015 (0.36-0.39 per 1,000 tested). Among active and reserve component service members, seroprevalences continue to be higher among Army and Navy members and males than their respective counterparts.

  4. Update: Routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components, January 2009-June 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report contains an update through June 2014 of the results of routine screening for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among civilian applicants for military service and among members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces. Seroprevalences among civilian applicants in 2013 and the first half of 2014 (0.19 and 0.15 per 1,000 tested, respectively) were markedly lower than in 2012 (0.27 per 1,000 tested). In nearly every component of every service, seroprevalences in 2013 and 2014 were either similar or lower than in prior years; however, in the Army National Guard, seroprevalences increased each year and approximately doubled from 2010 (0.18 per 1,000 tested) to 2013-2014 (0.35-0.41 per 1,000 tested). Among active and reserve component service members, seroprevalences continue to be higher among Army and Navy members and males than their respective counterparts.

  5. Expertise in Everyday Nurse–Patient Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Macdonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of nursing activity is embedded in what is considered to be everyday conversation. These conversations are important to health professionals because communication can affect health outcomes, and they are important to patients who want to know they are being heard and cared for. How do nurses talk with patients and what are the features of effective communication in practice? In this exploratory study, two expert nurses recorded conversations with patients during domiciliary visits. Linguistic discourse analysis, informed by contextual knowledge of domiciliary nursing shows the nurses skillfully used small talk to support their clinical work. In their conversations, nurses elicit specific information, normalize unpleasant procedures, manage the flow of the interaction, and strengthen the therapeutic relationship. Small talk can be big talk in achieving nursing goals. Critically reflecting on recorded clinical interactions can be a useful method of professional development and a way of demonstrating nursing expertise.

  6. Expertise in Everyday Nurse–Patient Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Macdonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of nursing activity is embedded in what is considered to be everyday conversation. These conversations are important to health professionals because communication can affect health outcomes, and they are important to patients who want to know they are being heard and cared for. How do nurses talk with patients and what are the features of effective communication in practice? In this exploratory study, two expert nurses recorded conversations with patients during domiciliary visits. Linguistic discourse analysis, informed by contextual knowledge of domiciliary nursing shows the nurses skillfully used small talk to support their clinical work. In their conversations, nurses elicit specific information, normalize unpleasant procedures, manage the flow of the interaction, and strengthen the therapeutic relationship. Small talk can be big talk in achieving nursing goals. Critically reflecting on recorded clinical interactions can be a useful method of professional development and a way of demonstrating nursing expertise.

  7. Doing everyday occupations both conceals and reveals the phenomenon of being aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright-St Clair, Valerie A; Kerse, Ngaire; Smythe, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    The phenomenon of ageing is so commonplace that it is ordinarily taken-for-granted, with little call to question its meaning. Of importance to occupational therapists is the recent appeal to understand older adults' ordinary ways of everyday living. The aim of this interpretive phenomenological study was to understand the meaning of 'being aged' through the everyday experiences of those who are long-lived. The writings of two philosophers, Hans-Georg Gadamer and Martin Heidegger, guided the study's design and research methods. Being aged in the context of everyday living was the phenomenon of interest. Individual interviews were conducted with 15 community-dwelling New Zealand elders: four Maori aged 71-93 years and 11 non-Maori aged 80-97 years. Stories of going about daily occupations and particular moments in the day were elicited during conversational-style interviews. Hermeneutic methods and phenomenological reflection were used to analyse the data. Two overarching notions were illuminated. The ordinary ways of 'being in the every day', such as having a routine and a familiar purposefulness, conceal being aged. In contrast, 'experiencing the unaccustomed', such as suddenly noticing an unaccustomed weakness or oldness, in the midst of doing deeply familiar occupations is an announcing of being aged. CONCLUSIONS and As such, engaging in everyday, familiar occupations holds the potential to both conceal and reveal the phenomenon of being aged. These results point to the importance of illuminating the lived experience of occupational engagement as a fruitful way of informing occupation-focussed practice. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2010 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.

  8. Switching Between Everyday and Scientific Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blown, Eric J.; Bryce, Tom G. K.

    2016-07-01

    The research reported here investigated the everyday and scientific repertoires of children involved in semi-structured, Piagetian interviews carried out to check their understanding of dynamic astronomical concepts like daytime and night-time. It focused on the switching taking place between embedded and disembedded thinking; on the imagery which subjects referred to in their verbal dialogue and their descriptions of drawings and play-dough models of the Earth, Sun and Moon; and it examined the prevalence and character of animism and figurative speech in children's thinking. Five hundred and thirty-nine children (aged 3-18) from Wairarapa in New Zealand (171 boys and 185 girls) and Changchun in China (99 boys and 84 girls) took part in the study. Modified ordinal scales for the relevant concept categories were used to classify children's responses and data from each age group (with numbers balanced as closely as practicable by culture and gender) analysed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample tests (at an alpha level of 0.05). Although, in general, there was consistency of dynamic concepts within and across media and their associated modalities in keeping with the theory of conceptual coherence (see Blown and Bryce 2010; Bryce and Blown 2016), there were several cases of inter-modal and intra-modal switching in both cultures. Qualitative data from the interview protocols revealed how children switch between everyday and scientific language (in both directions) and use imagery in response to questioning. The research indicates that children's grasp of scientific ideas in this field may ordinarily be under-estimated if one only goes by formal scientific expression and vocabulary.

  9. Switching Between Everyday and Scientific Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blown, Eric J.; Bryce, Tom G. K.

    2017-06-01

    The research reported here investigated the everyday and scientific repertoires of children involved in semi-structured, Piagetian interviews carried out to check their understanding of dynamic astronomical concepts like daytime and night-time. It focused on the switching taking place between embedded and disembedded thinking; on the imagery which subjects referred to in their verbal dialogue and their descriptions of drawings and play-dough models of the Earth, Sun and Moon; and it examined the prevalence and character of animism and figurative speech in children's thinking. Five hundred and thirty-nine children (aged 3-18) from Wairarapa in New Zealand (171 boys and 185 girls) and Changchun in China (99 boys and 84 girls) took part in the study. Modified ordinal scales for the relevant concept categories were used to classify children's responses and data from each age group (with numbers balanced as closely as practicable by culture and gender) analysed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample tests (at an alpha level of 0.05). Although, in general, there was consistency of dynamic concepts within and across media and their associated modalities in keeping with the theory of conceptual coherence (see Blown and Bryce 2010; Bryce and Blown 2016), there were several cases of inter-modal and intra-modal switching in both cultures. Qualitative data from the interview protocols revealed how children switch between everyday and scientific language (in both directions) and use imagery in response to questioning. The research indicates that children's grasp of scientific ideas in this field may ordinarily be under-estimated if one only goes by formal scientific expression and vocabulary.

  10. Relationship between everyday use cosmetics and female breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduracka, Ewa; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof; Gajos, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Data of the European Cancer Registries indicate that the incidence of breast cancer, which is the most common cancer among women, tends to increase not only in postmenopausal but also in very young women. The potential causes of breast cancer are genetic predisposition, long -term hormonal replacement therapy, alcohol, environmental pollution, and possibly modern lifestyle. The controversial results of several studies suggest that certain everyday-use products (including cosmetic ingredients) may be linked to breast cancer. Some of these ingredients, such as ethylene oxide, have recently been classified by the International Agency for Research for Cancer as carcinogenic and mutagenic to humans, with sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity for breast cancer. Other ingredients, such as xenoestrogens, are chemicals which have an estrogen -like effect or disrupt the normal metabolism of the natural estrogen and thus act as carcinogens. Some of them have been shown to result in DNA damage in animal and human mammary epithelial cells and, therefore, have the potential to generate genomic instability in the breast tissue. Examples of xenoestrogens with such properties include parabens, aluminium salts, phthalates, or bisophenol A. No sufficient epidemiological data on humans have been published so far, and the effects of a mixture of chemicals to which women are exposed during lifetime on the incidence of breast cancer have not been investigated. However, the results of the available studies emphasize the need for analysis of adverse environmental factors, which, in addition to a genetic predisposition and natural aging, may contribute to the increased incidence of breast cancer.

  11. Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Tippo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Heimericks, Koen H.;

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the Special Issue and discusses the microfoundations of routines and capabilities, including why a microfoundations view is needed and how it may inform work on organizational and competitive heterogeneity. Building on extant research, we identify three primary categories...

  12. Toddlers Master Everyday Activities in Kindergarten: A Gender Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meland, Aud Torill; Kaltvedt, Elsa Helen; Reikerås, Elin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses how 2-year olds cope with various everyday activities as observed by kindergarten staff from a gender perspective. Everyday activities are part of the daily pedagogical life in a kindergarten and are linked to situations such as meals, dressing and undressing, grooming and potty/toilet training. Data were collected through…

  13. Rediscovering nature in everyday settings: or how to create healthy environments and healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Cecily J; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Townsend, Mardie

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated that half of the world's population now live in urban environments. Urban living necessitates a removal from nature, yet evidence indicates that contact with nature is beneficial for human health. In fact, everyday urban places, such as where people live, study, and work, provide opportunities to bring nature back into cities to contribute to positive, healthy environments for people and to foster the human-nature connection. The inclusion of more nature in cities could have additional environmental benefits, such as habitat provision and improving the environmental performance of built environments. In the context of climate change, outcomes such as these assume further importance. This article explores how common urban places can foster links between people and nature, and generate positive health and well-being outcomes. We achieve this by exploring nature in the everyday settings of schools and residential housing.

  14. Routine Design for Mechanical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkop, Axel; Laudwein, Norbert; Maasen, Rudiger

    1995-01-01

    COMIX (configuration of mixing machines) is a system that assists members of the EKATO Sales Department in designing a mixing machine that fulfills the requirements of a customer. It is used to help the engineer design the requested machine and prepare an offer that's to be submitted to the customer. comix integrates more traditional software techniques with explicit knowledge representation and constraint propagation. During the process of routine design, some design decisions have to be mad...

  15. Splenic rupture following routine colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Tabraze; Leung, Edmund; McArdle, Kirsten; Pathak, Rajiv; Dalmia, Sanjay

    2010-10-01

    Splenic rupture is a life-threatening condition characterized by internal hemorrhage, often difficult to diagnose. Colonoscopy is a gold standard routine diagnostic test to investigate patients with gastrointestinal symptoms as well as to those on the screening program for colorectal cancer. Splenic injury is seldomly discussed during consent for colonoscopy, as opposed to colonic perforation, as its prevalence accounts for less than 0.1%. A 66-year-old Caucasian woman with no history of collagen disorder was electively admitted for routine colonoscopy for surveillance of adenoma. She was admitted following the procedure for re-dosing of warfarin, which was stopped prior to the colonoscopy. The patient was found collapsed on the ward the following day with clinical shock and anemia. Computed tomography demonstrated grade 4 splenic rupture. Immediate blood transfusion and splenectomy was required. Splenic rupture following routine colonoscopy is extremely rare. Awareness of it on this occasion saved the patient's life. Despite it being a rare association, the seriousness warrants inclusion in all information leaflets concerning colonoscopy and during its consent.

  16. Bringing the Everyday Life into Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Pasman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— To successfully design and engineer solutions for today’s and tomorrow’s rapidly changing and expanding global contexts, in which people are confronted with new opportunities and challenges each day, engineering programs should be training their students to become broad based professionals, who are aware of the actual needs, values and behaviors of the people that use their solutions in their everyday life, work or play. This article argues that in order to built such an awareness, engineering students should acquire direct, first-hand experiences of real people in real contexts. It presents a number of techniques that can be used to gain such experiences. Each technique is briefly described and illustrated with examples from our Industrial Design Engineering program. Knowledge, skills and attitude that are acquired through the use of the techniques are listed and reflected upon. Finally, our experiences with implementing the techniques into our program are discussed in view of their relevance for other engineering programs.

  17. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Clare A M; Rowley, Lauren E; Amoaku, Unity T; Daguzan, Ella; Kidd-Rossiter, Kate A; Maceviciute, Ugne; Young, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying "ambient image" face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling.

  18. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare AM Sutherland

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers’ faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1,000 highly varying ‘ambient image’ face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling.

  19. Just a routine operation: a critical discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, G; Smith, M B

    2016-05-01

    This article has summarised a critical discussion of the human factors that contributed to the death of a patient from a failure to respond appropriately to a 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. The contributory factors included the clinical team's inability to communicate, prioritise tasks and demonstrate effective leadership and assertive followership. The film Just a routine operation has now been in circulation for several years. When a system is designed and introduced with the intention of making a change to clinical practice, it can quickly become just another component of an organisation's architecture and complacency around its use can develop. This article has been written specifically for perioperative practitioners to renew the debate around the human factors that contribute to patient harm. By critically discussing Just a routine operation and attempting to review why the incident occurred, this article has attempted to emphasise that some of the conditions and behaviours that contributed to the death of Elaine Bromiley may be latent within our organisations and teams, and may continue to contribute to failures that affect patient safety.

  20. Impact of therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral drugs in routine clinical management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and related health care costs: a real-life study in a large cohort of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrone V

    2014-07-01

    that TDM had been used in 143 of these patients, among whom adherence with therapy was significantly higher than among those in whom TDM had not been used (94% versus 78%. In TDM-controlled patients, the mean length of HIV-related hospitalization stay and mean cost of hospitalization were significantly reduced with respect to those observed in the group in which TDM had not been used (7.21 days versus 29.47 days and €293 versus €688, respectively.Conclusion: Inclusion of TDM as part of routine clinical optimization of drug dosing in HIV-infected patients is associated with higher adherence to therapy, reduced length of hospitalization stay, and reduced cost of illness.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, therapeutic drug monitoring, health care costs

  1. Explanation, motivation and question posing routines in university mathematics teachers' pedagogical discourse: a commognitive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viirman, Olov

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the teaching practices used by university mathematics teachers when lecturing, a topic within university mathematics education research which is gaining an increasing interest. In the study, a view of mathematics teaching as a discursive practice is taken, and Sfard's commognitive framework is used to investigate the teaching practices of seven Swedish university mathematics teachers on the topic of functions. The present paper looks at the discourse of mathematics teaching, presenting a categorization of the didactical routines into three categories - explanation, motivation and question posing routines. All of these are present in the discourses of all seven teachers, but within these general categories, a number of different sub-categories of routines are found, used in different ways and to different extent by the various teachers. The explanation routines include known mathematical facts, summary and repetition, different representations, everyday language, and concretization and metaphor; the motivation routines include reference to utility, the nature of mathematics, humour and result focus; and the question posing routines include control questions, asking for facts, enquiries and rhetorical questions. This categorization of question posing routines, for instance, complements those already found in the literature. In addition to providing a valuable insight into the teaching of functions at the university level, the categorizations presented in the study can also be useful for investigating the teaching of other mathematical topics.

  2. The concept Conduct of Everyday Life in relation to toddlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed......, they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across...

  3. Benner's remnants: culture, tradition and everyday understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, John

    2002-06-01

    Benner's account of meaning and embodiment in nursing depends on a theory which she has never fully articulated, although she makes numerous allusions to it. Behind the background of shared meanings hovers something called 'culture', which provides each individual with meaning, determines what counts as real for her, and actively hands down interpretation-laden practices. This view is based, Benner claims, on the Heideggerian assumption that the meaning and organization of a culture precedes individual meaning-giving activity. I explore Benner's implicit view of culture, drawing on her published work over 15 years, and offer an appraisal of it. In doing so, I attempt to make sense of some rather strange remarks Benner has recently made about 'remnants' of Cartesian and Kantian thinking being found in the everyday understandings of people with asthma. The concept of culture is developed with reference to both Benner's own work and that of the anthropologist, Clifford Geertz, whose work she frequently cites. Having identified the principal tenets of what we might conveniently call the Benner-Geertz theory, I proceed to interrogate the theory, using the recent anthropological literature -- and, in particular, materialist attacks on the idea of culture as a system of meanings -- in order to cast doubt on it. I also review, very briefly, an alternative way of understanding 'culture', which is not vulnerable to the same criticisms. Benner's implicit theory of culture is revealed, somewhat ironically, as an inverted form of Cartesian dualism. Its intellectual provenance is not Heidegger, who appears to reject it, but the sort of American sociology associated with Talcott Parsons. As a corollary, it is suggested that Benner's 'remnants' analogy cannot be justified, and that the idea of Cartesian and Kantian concepts permeating Western culture, infecting both the providers and receivers of health care, is a myth.

  4. Wittgenstein jako socjolog codzienności [Wittgenstein as sociologist of everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Gurczynska-Sady

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The question I would like to ask in this aritcle is: what is the source of human behaviour in everyday life? The question belongs to the field of philosophical anthropology and can be formulated also as following: what it the subject of human behaviour? The answer to this question seems to be obvious. Who if not the individual himself could be an animator of the things he does? Especially when we think of his everyday activities. In what other contexts, if not in the private sphere, human behavior would seem more dependent on the man himself? Setting up this question I tried to refute these obvious. I try to demonstrate that the source of human behavior has nothing to do with so called individual human will. I try to show that the meanings attach to human actions do not depend on an individal, even if it they take place "in the privacy of somebody's home”. I will try to prove it using Ludwig Wittgenstein's remarks concerning the voluntary and involuntary movements and Goffman's remark on human condition as an actor.

  5. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation ...... often mentioned post-human condition....

  6. Locus coeruleus and dopaminergic consolidation of everyday memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tomonori; Duszkiewicz, Adrian J.; Sonneborn, Alex; Spooner, Patrick A.; Yamasaki, Miwako; Watanabe, Masahiko; Smith, Caroline C.; Fernández, Guillén; Deisseroth, Karl; Greene, Robert W.; Morris, Richard G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retention of episodic-like memory is enhanced, in humans and animals, when something novel happens shortly before or after encoding. Using an everyday memory task in mice, we sought the neurons mediating this dopamine-dependent novelty effect, previously thought to originate exclusively from the tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing (TH+) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We report that neuronal firing in the locus coeruleus (LC) is especially sensitive to environmental novelty, LC-TH+ neurons project more profusely than VTA-TH+ neurons to the hippocampus, optogenetic activation of LC-TH+ neurons mimics the novelty effect, and this novelty-associated memory enhancement is unaffected by VTA inactivation. Surprisingly, two effects of LC-TH+ photoactivation are sensitive to hippocampal D1/D5 receptor blockade and resistant to adrenoceptors blockade – memory enhancement and long lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in CA1 ex vivo. Thus, LC-TH+ neurons can mediate post-encoding memory enhancement in a manner consistent with possible co-release of dopamine in hippocampus. PMID:27602521

  7. Living with Risk in Everyday Life - A Comparative Analysis on Handling and Reflecting Risk in Everyday Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elverdam, Beth; Hoel Felde, Lina Klara

    Introduction: Preventing different kinds of health risks is central to general practice, yet little is understood of the mechanisms people use in handling risk. Aim: To analyze how people handle risk in everyday life. Methods: A comparative study on risk in; earth pollution; radiation from mobile...... and actions taken. Risk is handled and returned to the periphery of life.  Handling risk is a multilayered ongoing process fluctuating between and along contexts in everyday life. The process relates to specific benchmarks anchored in everyday life and biography. Markers used are sickness, bodily and familial...

  8. International Society of Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM)-ITS reference DNA barcoding database--the quality controlled standard tool for routine identification of human and animal pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinyi, Laszlo; Serena, Carolina; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Arabatzis, Michael; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Vu, Duong; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Arthur, Ian; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Giraldo, Alejandra; da Cunha, Keith Cassia; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Hendrickx, Marijke; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; de Azevedo Melo, Analy Salles; Merseguel, Karina Bellinghausen; Khan, Aziza; Parente Rocha, Juliana Alves; Sampaio, Paula; da Silva Briones, Marcelo Ribeiro; e Ferreira, Renata Carmona; de Medeiros Muniz, Mauro; Castañón-Olivares, Laura Rosio; Estrada-Barcenas, Daniel; Cassagne, Carole; Mary, Charles; Duan, Shu Yao; Kong, Fanrong; Sun, Annie Ying; Zeng, Xianyu; Zhao, Zuotao; Gantois, Nausicaa; Botterel, Françoise; Robbertse, Barbara; Schoch, Conrad; Gams, Walter; Ellis, David; Halliday, Catriona; Chen, Sharon; Sorrell, Tania C; Piarroux, Renaud; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Pais, Célia; de Hoog, Sybren; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Toriello, Conchita; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Delhaes, Laurence; Stubbe, Dirk; Dromer, Françoise; Ranque, Stéphane; Guarro, Josep; Cano-Lira, Jose F; Robert, Vincent; Velegraki, Aristea; Meyer, Wieland

    2015-05-01

    Human and animal fungal pathogens are a growing threat worldwide leading to emerging infections and creating new risks for established ones. There is a growing need for a rapid and accurate identification of pathogens to enable early diagnosis and targeted antifungal therapy. Morphological and biochemical identification methods are time-consuming and require trained experts. Alternatively, molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, a powerful and easy tool for rapid monophasic identification, offer a practical approach for species identification and less demanding in terms of taxonomical expertise. However, its wide-spread use is still limited by a lack of quality-controlled reference databases and the evolving recognition and definition of new fungal species/complexes. An international consortium of medical mycology laboratories was formed aiming to establish a quality controlled ITS database under the umbrella of the ISHAM working group on "DNA barcoding of human and animal pathogenic fungi." A new database, containing 2800 ITS sequences representing 421 fungal species, providing the medical community with a freely accessible tool at http://www.isham.org/ and http://its.mycologylab.org/ to rapidly and reliably identify most agents of mycoses, was established. The generated sequences included in the new database were used to evaluate the variation and overall utility of the ITS region for the identification of pathogenic fungi at intra-and interspecies level. The average intraspecies variation ranged from 0 to 2.25%. This highlighted selected pathogenic fungal species, such as the dermatophytes and emerging yeast, for which additional molecular methods/genetic markers are required for their reliable identification from clinical and veterinary specimens.

  9. The impact of everyday racism on the occupations of African Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagan, Brenda L; Etowa, Josephine

    2009-10-01

    Occupational therapy has increasingly explored the impact of cultural differences on occupations but has not yet begun to explore the impact of racism on human occupation. This study with 50 African Canadian women used mixed methods to explore the effects of racism on their occupational experiences. Women aged 40-65 were interviewed in-depth about everyday experiences with racism and overall well-being. Three standardized instruments assessed frequency and stressfulness of race-related experiences. Everyday racism had subtle, almost intangible, impacts, shaping women's engagement with and the meaning of leisure, productive, and caring occupations. As occupational therapy increasingly attends to issues of cultural difference, it is critical to also attend to racism. This means learning to ask thoughtful questions about how racism may shape clients' occupations. Attention to this aspect of the social environment will enhance practice with African-heritage clients and clients from other racial minority groups.

  10. Simultaneous extraction and determination of monoamine neurotransmitters in human urine for clinical routine testing based on a dual functional solid phase extraction assisted by phenylboronic acid coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoguang Sunny; Li, Shu; Kellermann, Gottfried

    2017-02-10

    The major monoamine neurotransmitters, serotonin (5-HT) and catecholamines (i.e., norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)), are critical to the nervous system function, and imbalances of the neurotransmitters have been connected to a variety of diseases, making their measurement useful in a clinical setting. A simple, rapid, robust, sensitive, and specific LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of urinary serotonin and catecholamines with low cost, which is ideal for routine clinical applications. A simple extraction from complex urine was accomplished using tailored solid phase extraction incorporating phenylboronic acid complexation on a 96-well HLB microplate for the sample extraction and resulted in significantly improved throughput, selectivity, and extraction recovery. Compared to 1-10 mL of urine typically used, this method required only 10 μL. A rapid chromatographic elution with a total cycle time of 6 min per sample compared to reported run times of 19-75 min was achieved on a PFP column. The sensitivity of l and 2 ng mL(-1) for the detection of low abundant E and NE combined with the high coverage of 1024 ng mL(-1) for DA enabled the multi-analyte detection of these biogenic amines in a single run. Good linearity (2.0-512, 1.0-512, 4.0-1024, and 4.0-1024 ng mL(-1) for NE, E, DA, and 5-HT, respectively), accuracy (87.6-104.0%), precision (≤8.0%), extraction recovery (69.6-103.7%), and matrix effect (87.1-113.1% for catecholamines and 63.6-71.4% for 5-HT) were obtained. No autosampler carryover was observed. The analytes were stable for 5 days at 20 °C, 14 days at 4 °C, and 30 days at -20 °C and five freeze-thaw cycles. The easy sample preparation, rapid LC, and multi-analyte MS detection allow two 96-well plates of samples to be extracted within 2 h and analyzed on an LC-MS/MS system within 24 h. The applicability and reliability of the assay were demonstrated by

  11. Essential Tremor (ET): Coping Tips for Everyday Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several marathons each year, raising funds and awareness. ET is a life-altering condition that makes everyday ... tremor. In order to assist people who have ET in continuing to live full, meaningful lives, the ...

  12. Everyday technology use among older adults in Sweden and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patomella, Ann-Helen; Kottorp, Anders; Ferreira, Manuela; Rosenberg, Lena; Uppgard, Brittmari; Nygård, Louise

    2017-04-07

    Technology use is relevant for engaging in everyday occupations and aging in place and difficulties might limit participation. The aim of the present study was two-fold: to investigate the internal scale validity of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ) in a matched Portuguese and a Swedish sample of older adults without known cognitive impairments and to compare everyday technology use (i.e., the relevance of Everyday Technology (ET) and perceived difficulty of using ET). The Rasch rating scale model was used to investigate the psychometric properties of the data from the two countries. Analyses were then used to compare the samples. There is evidence of internal scale and person response validity in the Swedish and Portuguese ETUQ datasets. The Swedish sample demonstrated almost 25% more ETs to be relevant, as compared to the Portuguese sample (p older adults in these European countries in relation to ET use in the home and society.

  13. Social pedagogy in children´s everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Ida

    2016-01-01

    on a German version of Critical Psychology and discusses how to understand social pedagogy in relation to the support of children’s conduct of everyday life. In general parents coordinate their children´s everyday lives, but for the case of children in out-of-home care, the responsibility of care...... and leisure time. The paper contributes to discussions of how to define and understand social pedagogy and argues that a central focus in social pedagogy should be to create possibilities of participation in society and to support children´s agency in their everyday life across different contexts. The paper...... concludes that for children in out-of-home care their possibilities of learning how to conduct their everyday lives are closely related to the ways professionals cooperate across contexts and that puts inter-professional cooperation at the core of social pedagogy....

  14. A Semiotic Approach to Food and Ethics in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how food can be analysed in terms of signs and codes of everyday life, and especially how food can be used to express ethical concerns. The paper investigates the potential of a semiotic conceptual analysis: How can the semiotic approach be used to analyse...... expressions of ethics and food ethics in everyday life? The intention is to explore from a theoretical point of view and with constructed cases, how semiotics can be used to analyse the role of food as an expression of ethics in everyday life among families, friends and colleagues: How do foodstuffs function...... as signs of ethics in everyday life? How is food used to send signals about care and concern? How are the signs of food ethics perceived? It is concluded that analysing ethical considerations with respect to food with the help of the semiotic model can show us perspectives that otherwise would be difficult...

  15. Young children and their conduct of everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt; Røn Larsen, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The article presents findings from a practice research project dealing with the everyday life of 0–2 year olds across family and different day-care settings. From a critical psychological perspective, it explores three related issues: Young children's conduct of everyday life in and across...... different institutional settings; professional pedagogical work related to supporting children's conduct of everyday life, and finally, the restricted political and bureaucratic conditions for exactly these forms of pedagogical practice. The article addresses the theoretical challenge of understanding...... children through their conduct of everyday life in the field of tension between being someone who is dependent on others, being taken care of and arranged for – and, at the same time, someone who is actively participating, arranging and contributing to the reproduction and change of the collective life...

  16. Making a difference: ethical consumption and the everyday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew; Raisborough, Jayne

    2010-06-01

    Our everyday shopping practices are increasingly marketed as opportunities to 'make a difference' via our ethical consumption choices. In response to a growing body of work detailing the ways in which specific alignments of 'ethics' and 'consumption' are mediated, we explore how 'ethical' opportunities such as the consumption of Fairtrade products are recognized, experienced and taken-up in the everyday. The 'everyday' is approached here via a specially commissioned Mass Observation directive, a volunteer panel of correspondents in the UK. Our on-going thematic analysis of their autobiographical accounts aims to explore a complex unevenness in the ways 'ordinary' people experience and negotiate calls to enact their ethical agency through consumption. Situating ethical consumption, moral obligation and choice in the everyday is, we argue, important if we are to avoid both over-exaggerating the reflexive and self-conscious sensibilities involved in ethical consumption, and, adhering to a reductive understanding of ethical self-expression.

  17. New State Policies and Everyday Life in Danish Kindergartens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Jan

    This presentation discusses significant changes in Danish policies on preschool curriculum and their effects on everyday life in kindergarten. This change is often conceptualized as neoliberal governance and consists of an increased focus on learning, documentation and evaluation. Grounded...

  18. Social psychology. Comment on "Morality in everyday life".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkle, Manuel C

    2015-05-15

    In examining morality in everyday life, Hofmann et al. (Reports, 12 September 2014, p. 1340) conclude that being the target of (im)moral deeds impacts happiness, whereas committing them primarily affects one's sense of purpose. I point to shortcomings in the analyses and interpretations and caution that, based on the methodological approach, conclusions about everyday life relationships between morality and happiness/purpose are premature. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Accounting for Medication Particularities: Designing for Everyday Medication Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dalgaard, Lea Gulstav; Grönvall, Erik; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2013-01-01

    Several projects have shown that self-management of medication in private homes can be challenging. Many projects focused on specific illness-related approaches (e.g. diabetes) or practical issues such as how to handle medication while travelling. However, designing for everyday medication management involves more than just specific illness-related strategies and should take into account the broad set of activities conforming people’s everyday life. This study investigates how older adults ma...

  20. Connecting science to everyday experiences in preschool settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Anita

    2014-06-01

    In this paper I discuss the challenges of teaching science concepts and discourse in preschool in light of the study conducted by Kristina Andersson and Annica Gullberg. I then suggest a complementary approach to teaching science at this level from the perspective of social construction of knowledge based on Vygotsky's theory (1934/1987). In addition, I highlight the importance of the relational aspect of knowing using feminist standpoint theory (Harding 2004). I also draw from feminist research on preservice elementary teachers' learning of science to further underscore the connection between learning content and everyday experiences. Combining these research strands I propose that science needs to be grounded in everyday experiences. In this regard, the idea is similar to the choices made by the teachers in the study conducted by Andersson and Gullberg but I also suggest that the everyday experiences chosen for teaching purposes be framed appropriately. In and of itself, the complexity of everyday experiences can be impediment for learning as these researchers have demonstrated. Such complexities point to the need for framing of everyday experiences (Goffman 1974) so that children can do science and construct meaning from their actions. In the conclusion of my discussion of science and its discourse in preschool settings, I provide examples of everyday experiences and their framings that have the potential for engaging children and their teachers in science.

  1. Everyday politics, social practices and movement networks: daily life in Barcelona's social centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Luke

    2015-06-01

    The relations between everyday life and political participation are of interest for much contemporary social science. Yet studies of social movement protest still pay disproportionate attention to moments of mobilization, and to movements with clear organizational boundaries, tactics and goals. Exceptions have explored collective identity, 'free spaces' and prefigurative politics, but such processes are framed as important only in accounting for movements in abeyance, or in explaining movement persistence. This article focuses on the social practices taking place in and around social movement spaces, showing that political meanings, knowledge and alternative forms of social organization are continually being developed and cultivated. Social centres in Barcelona, Spain, autonomous political spaces hosting cultural and educational events, protest campaigns and alternative living arrangements, are used as empirical case studies. Daily practices of food provisioning, distributing space and dividing labour are politicized and politicizing as they unfold and develop over time and through diverse networks around social centres. Following Melucci, such latent processes set the conditions for social movements and mobilization to occur. However, they not only underpin mobilization, but are themselves politically expressive and prefigurative, with multiple layers of latency and visibility identifiable in performances of practices. The variety of political forms - adversarial, expressive, theoretical, and routinized everyday practices, allow diverse identities, materialities and meanings to overlap in movement spaces, and help explain networks of mutual support between loosely knit networks of activists and non-activists. An approach which focuses on practices and networks rather than mobilization and collective actors, it is argued, helps show how everyday life and political protest are mutually constitutive.

  2. Global longitudinal strain: a useful everyday measurement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A King

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Herceptin (Trastuzumab is a widely used and effective drug for the treatment of Her2+ breast cancer but its cardiotoxic side effects require regular monitoring by echocardiography. A 10% reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction can lead to suspension of treatment and therefore has significant implications for patient prognosis in terms of cardiac and cancer outcomes. Assessment of LV function by conventional 2D biplane method of discs (2DEF has limitations in accuracy and reproducibility. Global longitudinal strain (GLS is becoming more widely available and user friendly. It has been shown to demonstrate myocardial damage earlier in treatment than 2DEF, allowing the option of pharmacological intervention at a pre-clinical stage and preventing the interruption of Herceptin. This study compares the reproducibility of GLS with that of 2DEF in a routine clinical environment. Fifty echocardiograms performed on female patients undergoing Herceptin treatment were used to measure both 2DEF and GLS within the recommended standard appointment time of 40 min. The data were re-measured (blind by the same operator a minimum of 14 days later to determine intra-operator variation. These data were also measured by a second operator (blind, to assess inter-operator variation. Analysis by direct comparison, intra-class correlation (ICC, coefficient of variation (CV and Bland–Altman plots demonstrated that GLS is a more reproducible measurement than 2DEF. This is important to prevent clinical decisions being erroneously based on variation in operator measurement. The investigation also shows that with advances in machine software this is a practical addition to routine assessment rather than merely a research tool.

  3. Methods to study everyday use of products in households: The Wageningen Mouthing Study as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbekkers, L P

    2001-04-01

    Several methods exist to study human behaviour in everyday life: e.g. an oral or written interview, measurement of physical variables and observation. All of them have their advantages and disadvantages, which are described in this paper. When a clear picture of actual human behaviour and information about an entire activity are required, for example to assess risks of exposure to chemical substances, it is best to use a combination of available methods. In this way the advantages of all methods can be combined. This was done in the Wageningen mouthing study of which some results are presented.

  4. 'Chasing for Water': Everyday Practices of Water Access in Peri-Urban Ashaiman, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Peloso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent reports suggesting that access to improved sources of drinking water is rising in Ghana, water access remains a daily concern for many of those living in the capital region. Throughout the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA, the urban poor manage uncertainty and establish themselves in the city by leveraging a patchwork system of basic services that draws importantly from informal systems and supplies. This paper takes a case study approach, using evidence gathered from two-months of fieldwork in a peri-urban informal settlement on the fringe of Accra, to explore everyday practices involved in procuring water for daily needs that routinely lead residents outside of the official water supply system. Findings from this case study demonstrate that respondents make use of informal water services to supplement or 'patch up' gaps left by the sporadic water flow of the official service provider, currently Ghana Water Company Ltd. (GWCL. Basic water access is thus constructed through an assemblage of coping strategies and infrastructures. This analysis contributes to understandings of heterogeneity in water access by attending to the everyday practices by which informality is operationalised to meet the needs of the urban poor, in ways that may have previously been overshadowed. This research suggests, for example, that although water priced outside of the official service provider is generally higher per unit, greater security may be obtained from smaller repetitive transactions as well as having the flexibility to pursue multiple sources of water on a day-to-day basis.

  5. Routine screening for postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiopoulos, A M; Bryan, T L; Wollan, P; Yawn, B P

    2001-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common and often overlooked condition. Validated screening tools for PPD exist but are not commonly used. We present the 1-year outcome of a project to implement universal PPD screening at the 6-week postpartum visit. Universal screening with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was implemented in all community postnatal care sites. One-year outcome assessments (diagnosis and treatment of PPD) were completed for a sample of the women screened using medical record review of all care they received during the first year postpartum. Sixty-eight (20%) of the 342 women whose medical records were reviewed had been given a documented diagnosis of postpartum depression, resulting in an estimated population rate of 10.7%. Depression was diagnosed in 35% of the women with elevated EPDS scores (> or =10) compared with 5% of the women with low EPDS scores (<10) in the first year postpartum. Treatment was provided for all women diagnosed with depression, including drug therapy for 49% and counseling for 78%. Four women were hospitalized for depression. Some degree of suicidal ideation was noted on the EPDS by 48 women but acknowledged in the chart of only 10 women, including 1 with an immediate hospitalization. The rate of diagnosis of postpartum depression in this community increased from 3.7% before the routine use of EPDS screening to 10.7% following screening. A high EPDS score was predictive of a diagnosis of postpartum depression, and the implementation of routine EPDS screening at 6 weeks postpartum was associated with an increase in the rate of diagnosed postpartum depression in this community.

  6. Jumping off and being careful: children's strategies of risk management in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pia Haudrup; Mikkelsen, Miguel Romero

    2008-01-01

    and games and routine pushing and shoving at school. In looking after themselves, children negotiate rules of participation and they safeguard personal and collective interests. Gender differences in these processes are addressed and discussed. The article argues that risk engagement is an important......This article addresses the complexity of children's risk landscapes through an ethnography of 10- to 12-year-old Danish children. The data revealed how children individually and collectively engaged with risk in their everyday activities. The children assessed risks in relation to their perceptions...... of their health as strength and control, negotiated the conditions of playing, and attuned their responses to situations of potential social and physical conflict. In the paper this risk engagement is illustrated in a variety of contexts: children's decisions to wear or not to wear a bicycle helmet; playing...

  7. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a program...

  8. Routines Are the Foundation of Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Robin Rawlings; Allanson, Patricia Bolton; Notar, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Classroom management is the key to learning. Routines are the foundation of classroom management. Students require structure in their lives. Routines provide that in all of their life from the time they awake until the time they go to bed. Routines in a school and in the classroom provide the environment for learning to take place. The paper is…

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Routinely available cotrimoxazole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-12-07

    Dec 7, 2004 ... mortality of HIV-infected infants in developing countries,' and the demonstration ..... Ikeogu MO, Wolf B, Mathe S. Pulmonary manifestations in HIV seropositivity and ... Natural history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

  10. When Danish industry relocates – globalisation in an everyday perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Karlskov Skyggebjerg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When Danish companies move their production abroad, it is often verbalised as a tragedy with focus on the loss of production workplaces in Denmark. This article instead examines what explicitly happens when a company relocates. Based on a study of Royal Copenhagen’s relocation to Thailand as well as a study of a number of Danish companies’ production units in China (Grundfos, RMG Steel, MCI and Fiberline, the focus of this article is on relocation in an everyday perspective with special emphasis on communication, transfer of competencies, company culture and differences in culture.It is concluded – inspired by actor-network theory – that relocation is a complicated process which is not concluded with the opening of a new factory. Many different actor types play significant roles in relation to the manner in which the relocation is carried out in practice; both in the short term during the actual relocation process and in the long term when the relocation has become commonplace. Among the key actor types are human actors such as cultural bridge builders, but not least material actors such as raw materials and buildings as well as immaterial actors such as ‘Danishness’ and ‘the history of the company’. The many actor types indicate, among other, that the dream of relocating becoming a simple process - providing working procedures and products are documented and described to an adequate degree - must be rejected.This article draws inspiration from theories and research about knowledge (transfer, differences in culture, companies’ (historical narratives and recent materiality studies. Methodically, this article is based on two interview based contemporary documentary studies.

  11. User modeling and adaptation for daily routines providing assistance to people with special needs

    CERN Document Server

    Martín, Estefanía; Carro, Rosa M

    2013-01-01

    User Modeling and Adaptation for Daily Routines is motivated by the need to bring attention to how people with special needs can benefit from adaptive methods and techniques in their everyday lives. Assistive technologies, adaptive systems and context-aware applications are three well-established research fields. There is, in fact, a vast amount of literature that covers HCI-related issues in each area separately. However, the contributions in the intersection of these areas have been less visible, despite the fact that such synergies may have a great impact on improving daily living.Presentin

  12. The association between short periods of everyday life activities and affective states: a replication study using ambulatory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBossmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regularly conducted exercise programs effectively influence affective states. Studies suggest that this is also true for short bouts of physical activity of ten minutes or less. Accordingly, everyday life activities of short duration might be used to regulate affective states. However, this association has rarely been studied in reference to unstructured activities in ongoing real-life situations. The current study examined the influence of various everyday life activities on three dimensions of mood (valence, calmness, energetic arousal in a predominantly inactive sample. Ambulatory Assessment (AA was used to investigate the association between actual physical activity (aPA and affective states during the course of one day. Seventy-seven students ages 19 - 30 participated in the study. aPA was assessed with accelerometers, and affective state assessments were conducted hourly using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was specially designed for AA. Multilevel analyses indicated that the mood dimensions energetic arousal (p = .001 and valence (p = .005 were positively influenced by the intensity of the activity carried out in the ten minutes prior to the assessment. As their activity increased, the participants’ positive feelings and energetic arousal increased. However, the students’ calmness was not affected by their activity levels. The findings highlight the importance of integrating short activity intervals of 10 minutes or less into everyday life routines to improve affective states.

  13. The Association between Short Periods of Everyday Life Activities and Affective States: A Replication Study Using Ambulatory Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossmann, Thomas; Kanning, Martina; Koudela-Hamila, Susanne; Hey, Stefan; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Regularly conducted exercise programs effectively influence affective states. Studies suggest that this is also true for short bouts of physical activity (PA) of 10 min or less. Accordingly, everyday life activities of short duration might be used to regulate affective states. However, this association has rarely been studied in reference to unstructured activities in ongoing real-life situations. The current study examined the influence of various everyday life activities on three dimensions of mood (valence, calmness, energetic arousal) in a predominantly inactive sample. Ambulatory Assessment (AA) was used to investigate the association between actual PA and affective states during the course of 1 day. Seventy-seven students ages 19-30 participated in the study. PA was assessed with accelerometers, and affective state assessments were conducted hourly using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was specially designed for AA. Multilevel analyses indicated that the mood dimensions energetic arousal (p = 0.001) and valence (p = 0.005) were positively influenced by the intensity of the activity carried out in the 10-min prior to the assessment. As their activity increased, the participants' positive feelings and energetic arousal increased. However, the students' calmness was not affected by their activity levels. The findings highlight the importance of integrating short activity intervals of 10 min or less into everyday life routines to improve affective states.

  14. Routine-Generating and Regenerative Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Mari

    2010-01-01

    The research discussed in this article focuses on workplace learning in industrial manufacturing work. Everyday work episodes contributing to workplace learning are investigated in four companies operating in the Finnish and Swedish package-supplier sectors. The research adopts a qualitative, interpretive approach. Interviews with employees and…

  15. Making Sense Bringing Everyday Life at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas; Gleerup, Janne; Nielsen, Birger Steen

    Inspired by contemporary work life studies on making sense at work this paper elaborates on using Critical Utopian Action Research as methodology for enabling shared learning spaces in which citizens and professionals can conjoin around discussions of deeper human aspirations enabled through...

  16. The concept Conduct of Everyday Life in relation to toddlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed...... by using materials from my ongoing Ph.D. project which is based on cultural-historical research traditions and critical psychological conceptualizations. The project is a qualitative study of 6 children, who for various reasons are defined as being children-at-risk. Due to concerns about their development......, they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across...

  17. Young children’s perspectives researched from everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    The paper discusses methodological issues in relation to researching young (0-4 year) children’s first person’s perspectives. Drawing on a recent Danish study of children’s compound everyday life across day care contexts and family life, I argue that focusing on the children’s gazes and bodily......-Holzkamp 1991]. This theoretical juxtaposition contributes by linking children’s experiences and emotional feelings to concrete social situations in everyday life. These theoretical discussions contribute to methodological considerations in relation to doing situated analysis of preverbal children’s first...... person perspectives. The empirical data stem from participant observations of 6 Young children in their everyday life contexts....

  18. Can practice theory inspire studies of ICTs in everyday life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Røpke, Inge

    2010-01-01

    a new ‘normality’ in everyday life: the expectations and conventions regarding a normal home’s necessary ‘infrastructure’ and the ordinary gear for a normal way of life are changing, and the changes are proceeding rapidly. This chapter takes a closer look at the construction of a new normality...... in everyday life and discusses how this development can be studied from the perspective of practice theory. We show how a practice theory approach shifts the analytic focus away from the consumption of ICT as such and toward the practices that integrate ICT as one element among many others. Thereby......, a practice theory approach helps us to avoid the risk of ending up with a ‘media-centric’ understanding of the use of new media and adds interesting details and subtleties to the study of the construction of a new normality in everyday life. Our application of practice theory in the study...

  19. The Management of Difference in Everyday School Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottelson, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The paper will present and discuss our field study of everyday life in a Danish fifth grade classroom. Our aim has been to observe, describe and analyze those everyday practices in the classroom that ultimately result in offering students different positions, identities and opportunities...... for participation. Our goal is to create knowledge about the way difference is constructed and managed in schools. How is the concept of ‘difference’ conceived of, produced and reproduced through everyday practices and how is the management of difference embedded in school culture. Further our goal is to create...... knowledge about the consequences that occur for different students as a result of specific ways of managing differences by teachers....

  20. Accounting for Medication Particularities: Designing for Everyday Medication Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Lea Gulstav; Grönvall, Erik; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2013-01-01

    Several projects have shown that self-management of medication in private homes can be challenging. Many projects focused on specific illness-related approaches (e.g. diabetes) or practical issues such as how to handle medication while travelling. However, designing for everyday medication...... management involves more than just specific illness-related strategies and should take into account the broad set of activities conforming people’s everyday life. This study investigates how older adults manage their medication in everyday life. To inform the design of pervasive healthcare medication...... management systems (PHMMS), the study calls for attention to medication-specific particularities that account for: according to need medication, the heterogeneous care network, the substitute medication, the medication informational order, the shared responsibility and the adjustment of medication intake...

  1. Sensors for everyday life healthcare settings

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Swain, Akshya

    2017-01-01

    Sensors were developed to detect and quantify structures and functions of human body as well as to gather information from the environment in order to optimize the efficiency, cost-effectiveness and quality of healthcare services as well as to improve health and quality of life. This book offers an up-to-date overview of the concepts, modeling, technical and technological details and practical applications of different types of sensors. It also discusses the trends for the next generation of sensors and systems for healthcare settings. It is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the field of healthcare technologies, as well as academics and industry professionals involved in developing sensing systems for human body structures and functions, and for monitoring activities and health.

  2. Interverntion, evidence-based research and everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Ole

    2011-01-01

    for evidence-based research and practice, I argue that, while psychological interventions are primarily meant to work in people’s everyday lives, how interventions do so is barely addressed and poorly captured. Evidence-based research, as currently conceived, is an obstacle to overcome this shortcoming...... in clients’ everyday lives and point out consequences for reconceptualizing psychological intervention.......Intervention is a key concept in the technology of psychology and it plays a decisive role in evidence-based research. But analyses of this concept are remarkably sparse. Based on a critical analysis of the conception of intervention in the American Psychological Association’s guidelines...

  3. Can practice theory inspire studies of ICTs in everyday life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Røpke, Inge

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, rich countries have witnessed a proliferation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in everyday life. ICT equipment is thus one of the fastest growing categories of consumer goods. The widespread adoption of ICT equipment can be seen as an element in constructing......, a practice theory approach helps us to avoid the risk of ending up with a ‘media-centric’ understanding of the use of new media and adds interesting details and subtleties to the study of the construction of a new normality in everyday life. Our application of practice theory in the study...

  4. Visual Culture, Art Education and the everyday: hybridisms and paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ribeiro Meira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Art education in school faces instigating and provocative challenges, for instance, the teacher confronts: how to work with everyday issues and images. In the art field, Visual Culture can point to approximations between life, its paradoxes, the everyday, its hybridism and school, with its challenges. In considering the possibilities of teaching art, we discuss the contributions of authors such as: Merleau-Ponty, Nicolas Bourriaud, Michel Maffesoli, and also, Edgar Morin, who calls for the necessity for complex thinking when thinking about a complex reality of crossed borders, hybridisms, uncertainty and contradictions that, for this very reason, permit rich dialogues between art, education and culture.

  5. Satisfaction in everyday life for frail 85-years old adults:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, A; Petersen, Janne; Avlund, K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether social relations, continuity, self-determination, and use of own resources are associated with everyday life satisfaction among 85-year-old adults with physical disabilities. The population includes 187 frail men and women from the longitudinal......) feel able to manage their own lives; (4) do not live alone; and (5) have not lately lost close friends. Lack of everyday life satisfaction is associated with (1) using home-care services and (2) living in an institution. The findings stress the importance of helping old persons stay active...

  6. Everyday calculus discovering the hidden math all around us

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, Oscar E

    2014-01-01

    Calculus. For some of us, the word conjures up memories of ten-pound textbooks and visions of tedious abstract equations. And yet, in reality, calculus is fun, accessible, and surrounds us everywhere we go. In Everyday Calculus, Oscar Fernandez shows us how to see the math in our coffee, on the highway, and even in the night sky. Fernandez uses our everyday experiences to skillfully reveal the hidden calculus behind a typical day's events. He guides us through how math naturally emerges from simple observations-how hot coffee cools down, for example-and in discussions of over fifty familia

  7. Parental employment, family routines and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia M

    2012-12-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) data from kindergarten through eighth grade, this paper investigate the relationships among maternal employment, family routines and obesity. More hours worked by the mother tend to be negatively related to positive routines like eating meals as a family or at regular times, or having family rules about hours of television watched. Many of these same routines are significantly related to the probability of being obese, implying that family routines may be a mechanism by which maternal employment intensity affects children's obesity. However, inclusion of family routines in the obesity regression does not appreciably change the estimated effect of maternal employment hours. Thus, the commonly estimated deleterious effect of maternal employment on children's obesity cannot be explained by family routines, leaving the exact mechanisms an open question for further exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Everyday practices at the medical ward: a 16-month ethnographic field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Axel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern hospital care should ostensibly be multi-professional and person-centred, yet it still seems to be driven primarily by a hegemonic, positivistic, biomedical agenda. This study aimed to describe the everyday practices of professionals and patients in a coronary care unit, and analyse how the routines, structures and physical design of the care environment influenced their actions and relationships. Methods Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted over a 16-month period (between 2009 and 2011 by two researchers working in parallel in a Swedish coronary care unit. Observations, informal talks and formal interviews took place with registered nurses, assistant nurses, physicians and patients in the coronary care unit. The formal interviews were conducted with six registered nurses (five female, one male including the chief nurse manager, three assistant nurses (all female, two cardiologists and three patients (one female, two male. Results We identified the structures that either promoted or counteracted the various actions and relationships of patients and healthcare professionals. The care environment, with its minimalistic design, strong focus on routines and modest capacity for dialogue, restricted the choices available to both patients and healthcare professionals. This resulted in feelings of guilt, predominantly on the part of the registered nurses. Conclusions The care environment restricted the choices available to both patients and healthcare professionals. This may result in increased moral stress among those in multi-professional teams who work in the grey area between biomedical and person-centred care.

  9. On reflexivity and the conduct of the self in everyday life: reflections on Bourdieu and Archer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Sadiya; Hogan, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    This article provides a critique of the concept of reflexivity in social theory today and argues against the tendency to define agency exclusively in terms of reflexivity. Margaret Archer, in particular, is highlighted as a key proponent of this thesis. Archer argues that late modernity is characterized by reflexivity but, in our view, this position neglects the impact of more enduring aspects of agency, such as the routinization of social life and the role of the taken-for-granted. These concepts were pivotal to Bourdieu and Giddens' theorization of everyday life and action and to Foucault's understanding of technologies of the self. We offer Bourdieu's habitus as a more nuanced approach to theorizing agency, and provide an alternative account of reflexivity. Whilst accepting that reflexivity is a core aspect of agency, we argue that it operates to a backdrop of the routinization of social life and operates from within and not outside of habitus. We highlight the role of the breach in reflexivity, suggesting that it opens up a critical window for agents to initiate change. The article suggests caution in over-ascribing reflexivity to agency, instead arguing that achieving reflexivity and change is a difficult and fraught process, which has emotional and moral consequences. The effect of this is that people often prefer the status quo, rather than to risk change and uncertainty. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  10. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  11. The Nature and Meaning of Body Concepts in Everyday Language and Theoretical Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollio, Howard R; Finn, Mike; Custer, Morgun

    2016-06-01

    Within phenomenological philosophy four topics, (1) Body, (2) Time, (3) Others and the Social Order and (4) World serve as the major contexts in which human perception, action and reflection take place. At present only three of these domains have been studied from an empirical perspective, leaving Body as the one domain requiring further analysis. Given this state of affairs, the purpose of the present study is to determine the everyday and theoretical meanings of body. To accomplish this task participants coded randomly selected body- related words into groups on the basis of having similar meanings. Once these groupings were established they were then evaluated by statistical clustering and multidimensional scaling procedures. Results indicated that it was possible to define the everyday meaning of the human experience of the human body in terms of the following set of themes: (1) inside/outside, (2) visible/not visible, (3) vitality and activity, (4) instrument and object and (5) appearance and self-expression. Concerns about the representativeness of the words studied led to the development and use of individual word pools from which a set of 50 partially different words was randomly selected for each participant. Results indicated little difference between themes produced in the present study when compared with those of an earlier study. The specific themes derived from the present study were then related to embodiment issues as reflected in the philosophical writings of Merleau-Ponty, the psycholinguistic analyses of Lakoff and Johnson and experimental psychology.

  12. Changing Family Practices with Assistive Technology: MOBERO Improves Morning and Bedtime Routines for Children with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Müller, Jörg; Marshall, Paul;

    ’ frustration levels. Additionally, use of MOBERO was associated with a 16.5% reduction in core ADHD symptoms and an 8.3% improvement in the child’s sleep habits, both measured by standardized questionnaires. Our study highlights the potential of assistive technologies to change the everyday practices......Families of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often report morning and bedtime routines to be stressful and frustrating. Through a design process involving domain professionals and families we designed MOBERO, a smartphone-based system that assists families...... in establishing healthy morning and bedtime routines with the aim to assist the child in becoming independent and lowering the parents’ frustration levels. In a two-week intervention with 13 children with ADHD and their families, MOBERO significantly improved children’s independence and reduced parents...

  13. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  14. Everyday practices of humanitarian aid: tsunami response in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernando, U.; Hilhorst, D.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article underlines the importance of grounding the analysis of humanitarian aid in an understanding of everyday practice. It presents ethnographic vignettes illustrating three aspects of aid response in Sri Lanka following the tsunami disaster in 2004. The first deals with the nature of humanit

  15. Developing the Competence to Lead in Everyday Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Anja Overgaard; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses how leaders help one another develop their ability to lead in everyday situations through collaborative work in learning groups, focusing on the interaction between theory and practice. The theme is how the understanding of course assignments and approaches changes during...

  16. ICT in everyday life - the role of the user

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, V.A.J.; Lieshout, M.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The history of innovation processes related to information and communication technologies (ICT) is an interesting mix of both massive market failures and successful and even groundbreaking innovations with the potential to bring about radical shifts in everyday life. To forecast these successes or f

  17. Subjective Acceleration of Time Experience in Everyday Life across Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R.

    2015-01-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608;…

  18. Academic Buoyancy: Towards an Understanding of Students' Everyday Academic Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2008-01-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult…

  19. Responsibility for Racism in the Everyday Talk of Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the attributions of responsibility for racism in the everyday talk of secondary school students. It draws on focus groups with a cross section of students from different ethnic backgrounds in three, very different, secondary schools. In these focus groups, students deploy six different, sometimes contradictory, racialised…

  20. Cross-cultural differences in emotion suppression in everyday interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huwae, Sylvia; Schaafsma, Juliëtte

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that in collectivistic cultures, people tend to suppress their emotions more than in individualistic cultures. Little research, however, has explored cross-cultural differences in emotion regulation in everyday interactions. Using a daily social interaction method, we exam

  1. Everyday urban public space : Turkish immigrant women's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ünlü Yücesoy, E.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the use, experience, and appropriation of everyday urban public spaces by Turkish immigrant women living in Enschede, the Netherlands. Based on the two premises of conceptualizing the urban public space as a social construct and of valorizing users as social actors, the main obj

  2. (ImPossible Conversations? Activism, Childhood and Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti-Melissa Nolas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers an analytical exploration and points of connection between the categories of activism, childhood and everyday life. We are concerned with the lived experiences of activism and childhood broadly defined and especially with the ways in which people become aware, access, orient themselves to, and act on issues of common concern; in other words what connects people to activism. The paper engages with childhood in particular because childhood remains resolutely excluded from practices of public life and because engaging with activism from the marginalized position of children’s everyday lives provides an opportunity to think about the everyday, lived experiences of activism. Occupying a space ‘before method’, the paper engages with autobiographical narratives of growing up in the Communist left in the USA and the historical events of occupying Greek schools in the 1990s. These recounted experiences offer an opportunity to disrupt powerful categories currently in circulation for thinking about activism and childhood. Based on the analysis it is argued that future research on the intersections of activism, childhood and everyday life would benefit from exploring the spatial and temporal dimension of activism, to make visible the unfolding biographical projects of activists and movements alike, while also engaging with the emotional configurations of activists’ lives and what matters to activists, children and adults alike.

  3. A Re-evaluation of Dee in“Everyday Use”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏祖贵

    2013-01-01

    Dee, in“Everyday Use”, is portrayed as a negative character. Nevertheless, some critics suggest to re-interpret her for some reasonable causes. By using close-reading, this article try to re-evaluate Dee so to evalue Alice Walker ’s valuable devotion in character depiction.

  4. Subjective acceleration of time experience in everyday life across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R

    2015-12-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608; Study 2: N = 398), participants completed a web-based version of the day reconstruction method. In Study 3 (N = 392) participants took part in a newly developed tomorrow construction method, a web-based experimental method for assessing everyday life plans. Results confirmed that older adults' subjective interpretation of everyday episodes is that these episodes pass more quickly compared with younger adults. The subjective acceleration of time experience in old age was more pronounced during productive activities than during regenerative-consumptive activities. The age differences were partly related to limited time remaining in life. In addition, subjective acceleration of time experience was associated with positive evaluations of everyday activities. Findings suggest that subjective acceleration of time in older adults' daily lives reflects an adaptation to limitations in time remaining in life. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Learning to Compute: Computerization and Ordinary, Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    This study utilizes the basic framework of classical sociology as a foundation for examining the intersection of the structural history of the computer revolution with ordinary, everyday life. Just as the classical forefathers of modern sociology--Marx, Durkheim, and Weber--attempted to understand their eras of structural transformation, this…

  6. Teaching about Energy: From Everyday to Scientific Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Robin

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge in designing a teaching programme on energy is in deciding how best to deal with the differences in how the word "energy" is used and understood in everyday discourse and in science. Many of the most important decisions and choices about energy matters, both for individuals and society, can be adequately understood from…

  7. Physical Attractiveness, Opportunity, and Success in Everyday Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulford, Matthew; Orbell, John; Shatto, Catherine; Stockard, Jean

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the role of perceived physical attractiveness in everyday exchange. Indicates that decisions to enter into play and to cooperate with others is directly related to individuals' perceptions of others' attractiveness, but that individuals' perceptions of their own attractiveness affects men's and women's decisions differently. Suggests…

  8. Everyday risk taking as a function of regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, Melvyn R. W.; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Veldstra, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty is an inherent aspect of everyday life. However, faced with uncertainty, some individuals take risks more eagerly than others. Regulatory focus theory may explain such differences because risky behavior may arise naturally from the eagerness of promotion focused individuals, while safe b

  9. Dual Sensory Loss and Its Impact on Everyday Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark; Horowitz, Amy; Su, Ya-ping

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation of dual and single sensory impairments, within the context of cognitive function, by using the framework of everyday competence in terms of the probability of difficulty with specific personal and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs, respectively). Design and Methods: The Longitudinal…

  10. How GPs implement clinical guidelines in everyday clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk Le, Jette; Hansen, Helle P; Riisgaard, Helle

    2015-01-01

    . OBJECTIVE: To investigate how GPs implement clinical guidelines in everyday clinical practice and how implementation approaches differ between practices. METHODS: Individual semi-structured open-ended interviews with seven GPs who were purposefully sampled with regard to gender, age and practice form...

  11. Youth, Life, and Politics: Examining the Everyday in Comparative Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuoste, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The traditional way of introducing comparative politics to freshmen, which is through the study of institutions, is contrasted with an alternative approach. An everyday-politics approach compares the daily struggles of global youth--how they cope in times of peace and war, and with issues of wealth and poverty, identity, education and employment,…

  12. AMSTERDAM-NIJMEGEN EVERYDAY LANGUAGE TEST - CONSTRUCTION, RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BLOMERT, L; KEAN, ML; KOSTER, C; SCHOKKER, J

    1994-01-01

    The Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT) is designed to measure, first, the level of verbal communicative abilities of aphasic patients and, second, changes in these abilities over time. The level of communicative effectiveness is determined by the adequacy of bringing a message across.

  13. Pierre in the lab’s everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahane Claudine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available I shall evoke, through some memories of the pioneers years of the Grenoble Astrophysics Group, how Pierre played a decisive role in the lab’s everyday life, as a computer wizard, as an insatiable inquiring mind and as an always careful and warm colleague.

  14. Re/Thinking Critical Thinking: The Seductions of Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Kal

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that both critical thinking and obstacles to successful critical thinking are most commonly found in the activities of everyday life. Argues for a connective criticism approach that does not assume critical means adversarial and acknowledges that critical thinking can be used as a means of opening worlds of meaning. (KS)

  15. Learning to Compute: Computerization and Ordinary, Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    This study utilizes the basic framework of classical sociology as a foundation for examining the intersection of the structural history of the computer revolution with ordinary, everyday life. Just as the classical forefathers of modern sociology--Marx, Durkheim, and Weber--attempted to understand their eras of structural transformation, this…

  16. Responsibility for Racism in the Everyday Talk of Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the attributions of responsibility for racism in the everyday talk of secondary school students. It draws on focus groups with a cross section of students from different ethnic backgrounds in three, very different, secondary schools. In these focus groups, students deploy six different, sometimes contradictory, racialised…

  17. Mapping the brain's metaphor circuitry: metaphorical thought in everyday reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoff, George

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the basics of metaphorical thought and language from the perspective of Neurocognition, the integrated interdisciplinary study of how conceptual thought and language work in the brain. The paper outlines a theory of metaphor circuitry and discusses how everyday reason makes use of embodied metaphor circuitry.

  18. On Everyday Stress and Coping Strategies among Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Elementary school students are confronted with a variety of everyday challenges ranging from comprehension obstacles to interpersonal conflict. Learning to cope effectively with moments of tension is an important part of a child's education because adaptation to stress is likely to influence academic and developmental success. However,…

  19. Transforming Teaching and Learning: Embedding ICT into Everyday Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, R.; Armstrong, V.; Barnes, S.; Brawn, R.; Breeze, N.; Gall, M.; Matthewman, S.; Olivero, F.; Taylor, A.; Triggs, P.; Wishart, J.; John, P.

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on socio-cultural theory, this paper describes how teams of teachers and researchers have developed ways of embedding information and communications technology (ICT) into everyday classroom practices to enhance learning. The focus is on teaching and learning across a range of subjects: English, history, geography, mathematics, modern…

  20. University Students' Understanding of Thermal Physics in Everyday Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Helen; Sharma, Manjula Devi

    2012-01-01

    Thermal physics is in the realm of everyday experience, underlies current environmental concerns, and underpins studies in sciences, health and engineering. In the state of NSW in Australia, the coverage of thermal topics in high school is minimal, and, hence, so is the conceptual understanding of students. This study takes a new approach at…

  1. ICT in everyday life - the role of the user

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, V.A.J.; Lieshout, M.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The history of innovation processes related to information and communication technologies (ICT) is an interesting mix of both massive market failures and successful and even groundbreaking innovations with the potential to bring about radical shifts in everyday life. To forecast these successes or f

  2. Image acts and visual communities: everyday nationalism in contemporary Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kuryel

    2015-01-01

    In the dissertation entitled "Image Acts and Visual Communities: Contemporary Nationalism in Turkey", I investigate the image politics of nationalist practices in everyday life by focusing on contemporary Turkey and tracking the way images of the nation travel through a variety of fields. I depart f

  3. Personalized nutrition advice : an everyday-life perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents societal preconditions for Personalized Nutrition Advice (PNA) that result from an everyday-life perspective on this innovative approach. Generally, PNA is regarded as promising, because it provides users with highly specific information on individual health risks and benefits o

  4. Everyday life, schizophrenia and narratives of illness experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    llen Cristina Ricci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper presents a narrative review of the literature on the everyday life of people diagnosed with the schizophrenia spectrum, from their narratives about the illness experience, published as articles in indexed journals. The narrative reviews start from broad issues with data sources and selection of articles that may contain some bias, seeking to develop a contextual and theoretical theme. Objective: The main objective is to indicate how narrative studies on the everyday life and experience of schizophrenia are presented in the national and international scenario; the most relevant authors; how the everyday life concept is described; type of studies performed and the possible contributions to the health/disease/care in mental health care process. Method: We sought the breadth of the researched material, appropriation, and organization of it. We reported the findings in quantitative terms on the subject to then present an overview of the selected papers. We aimed to know those who present the everyday life experienced by people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Results: Considering the seven databases used during this review, we selected 281 papers, 90% of them were international and just under one-third (82 papers report/describe and value their narrative in the first person about the illness experience. Conclusão: We discuss the relevance and responsibility of mental health research centered on the experience, the current sciences scenario, and the dialogues with singularities, and regarding the different experiences of illness in the Brazilian sociocultural context

  5. Neurobiology of Everyday Communication: What Have We Learned From Music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; White-Schwoch, Travis

    2016-06-09

    Sound is an invisible but powerful force that is central to everyday life. Studies in the neurobiology of everyday communication seek to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying sound processing, their stability, their plasticity, and their links to language abilities and disabilities. This sound processing lies at the nexus of cognitive, sensorimotor, and reward networks. Music provides a powerful experimental model to understand these biological foundations of communication, especially with regard to auditory learning. We review studies of music training that employ a biological approach to reveal the integrity of sound processing in the brain, the bearing these mechanisms have on everyday communication, and how these processes are shaped by experience. Together, these experiments illustrate that music works in synergistic partnerships with language skills and the ability to make sense of speech in complex, everyday listening environments. The active, repeated engagement with sound demanded by music making augments the neural processing of speech, eventually cascading to listening and language. This generalization from music to everyday communications illustrates both that these auditory brain mechanisms have a profound potential for plasticity and that sound processing is biologically intertwined with listening and language skills. A new wave of studies has pushed neuroscience beyond the traditional laboratory by revealing the effects of community music training in underserved populations. These community-based studies reinforce laboratory work highlight how the auditory system achieves a remarkable balance between stability and flexibility in processing speech. Moreover, these community studies have the potential to inform health care, education, and social policy by lending a neurobiological perspective to their efficacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Generalization and Alternatives of Kaprekar's Routine

    CERN Document Server

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2010-01-01

    We extend Kaprekar's Routine for a large class of applications. We also give particular examples of this generalization as alternatives to Kaprekar's Routine and Number. Some open questions about the length of the iterations until reaching either zero or a constant or a cycle, and about the length of the cycles are asked at the end.

  7. Organisational sensemaking, strategy, structuring and routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate

    2001-01-01

    my focus will, more specifically, be on how sensemaking processes are transformed into strategy and policies to be applied in daily routines, especially sales/marketing strategy routines. By acquiring a broader comprehension of the structuring and strategising processes the intent is to improve...

  8. 10 CFR 1017.20 - Routine access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Routine access. 1017.20 Section 1017.20 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.20 Routine access. (a) Authorized... access to the UCNI, subject to limitations in paragraph (b) of this section, and who may...

  9. Unlearning Established Organizational Routines--Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, Marlena; O'Connor, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this two-part paper is to develop a process model of unlearning established organizational routines. The model traces the interactions among three unlearning sub-processes: ostensive aspects of initial destabilization of an established routine; performative aspects of ongoing discarding-from-use of old behaviors and…

  10. Mood disorders and handling of daily routine in patients with diabetes melitus type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margitsa Skopelitou

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was the meditation of stressful and depressive disorders and their relation to the halding of daily routine to patients with diabetes melitus type II. Material and method: 310 patients with diabetes mellitus type II took part in the study during programmed glucose control in Diabetological centers of Attica. Data have been collected with a form which concludes the questionnaire Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results: The sample has been comprised by 174(56% women and 136(44% men with middle age the 61, 7 years. The participants that esteem ¨too hard¨ until ¨impacticable¨ the arrangement of everyday life two to five higher stress level and 1,5 to 5 higher depression level, in relation to those that regard as easy the problems arrangement (p<0.001. The summary of people with thoughts or attempts of suicide reached 13%, whereas the 23% of the sample states that they’re not happy. The arrangement of everyday problems seems to be hard as for men (14% just like as women (37,9%. Conclusions: Anxiety and depression are strongly connected with the non satisfactory arrangement of routine problems, the selfdestencive behavior and the andelightment.

  11. Splintering of Tourism Market: New Appearing Forms of Cultural Tourism as a Consequence of Changes in Everyday Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Jelinčić, Daniela Angelina

    2009-01-01

    Within the concept of cultural tourism, this article defines relatively new concepts of creative and hobby tourism, which are detected as recent niche markets. Cultural tourism is a narrow specialized market, while creative and hobby tourism relate to even more specialized segments. Even these specialized forms of tourism have their market whose growth is very probable taking into account changes in everyday work as well as changes in the values of human activity in general. These changes ref...

  12. How to measure kyphosis in everyday clinical practice: a reliability study on different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Negrini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The sagittal plane measures have a relevant role both in Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) and in Hyperkyphosis (HK) management. Nevertheless, clinical tools for everyday use are scarce and not adequately studied. To assess the repeatability of different methods for the collection of the sagittal profile of patients with spinal deformities during everyday clinics. We performed 4 different studies in 4 different populations of AIS and HK patients. In the first study we reported the normative data and measurement error of the plumbline measures in a general population of 180 adolescents. In the second study we compared the sagittal distances from the plumbline of C7, T12, L3, and Sagittal Index (SI = C7+L3) with the measures of the Video Rasterstereography at the same levels and the angles of kyphosis and lordosis in 100 AIS patients. In the third study we evaluated the intra and inter-rater repeatability and the measurement error of kyphosis and lordosis angles measured with the Inclimed in 100 AIS patients. In the last study we evaluated the repeatability of the sagittal distances from the plumbline, by using a 1 mm change instead of 5 mm in a population of 40 patients. repeatability has been evaluated according to Bland and Altman, to identify the limits of variation that are clinically significant. Results. Study 1: the normative data were: females: 34 ± 11 mm for C7; 34 ± 15 mm for L3, males: 34 ± 10 mm for C7; 48 ± 10 mm for L3;. Study 2: a coefficient of correlation was calculated in order to compare measures. Study 3: the k value for Inclimed varied from fair to good. Study 4: the repeatability was fair for this measure. Some clinical instruments are now available for sagittal plane assessment in AIS and hyperkyphosis. The results of the present study report the limits during measurements in a clinical setting of parameters that are routinely collected by some clinicians.

  13. 77 FR 41993 - Privacy Act of 1974; Proposed New Routine Use-HUD's Routine Use Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act of 1974; Proposed New Routine Use--HUD's Routine Use Inventory AGENCY... routine uses; and (3) reduce cost and duplication of effort in the publication and maintenance of HUD's.../DEPT-63 Secretary's Correspondence Control System. HUD/DEPT-64 Congregate Housing Services Program Data...

  14. [Routine application of HLA class II oligotyping. Value of automatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillat-Zucman, S; Bach, J F

    1992-12-02

    HLA class II typing by DNA amplification and hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotides has led to an improvement of the overall typing accuracy. In an attempt to apply this procedure to a large-scale analysis, we sought to implement an automation system using the Biomek 1,000 robotic work-station. This system allows a rapid preparation of many consecutive samples and avoids the risk of human errors. It is now routinely used in several laboratories.

  15. From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: Towards a unified theory of musical emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juslin, Patrik N.

    2013-09-01

    The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a ‘paradox’, namely that music - an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life - can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both ‘everyday emotions’ and ‘aesthetic emotions’. The revised framework - referred to as BRECVEMA - includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a ‘musical event’ (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical ‘appreciation emotions’ such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either ‘everyday emotions’ or ‘aesthetic emotions’.

  16. From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: towards a unified theory of musical emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juslin, Patrik N

    2013-09-01

    The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a 'paradox', namely that music--an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life--can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both 'everyday emotions' and 'aesthetic emotions'. The revised framework--referred to as BRECVEMA--includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a 'musical event' (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical 'appreciation emotions' such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either 'everyday emotions' or 'aesthetic emotions'.

  17. Quantifying biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts: an integrative methodological approach from the behavioral sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portell M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mariona Portell,1 M Teresa Anguera,2 Antonio Hernández-Mendo,3 Gudberg K Jonsson4 1Department of Psychobiology and Methodology of Health Sciences, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain; 2Department of Methodology of Behavioral Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department Social Psychology, Social Anthropology, Social Work and Social Services, University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain; 4Human Behavior Laboratory, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland Abstract: Contextual factors are crucial for evaluative research in psychology, as they provide insights into what works, for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects, and why. Studying behavior in context, however, poses numerous methodological challenges. Although a comprehensive framework for classifying methods seeking to quantify biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts was recently proposed, this framework does not contemplate contributions from observational methodology. The aim of this paper is to justify and propose a more general framework that includes observational methodology approaches. Our analysis is rooted in two general concepts: ecological validity and methodological complementarity. We performed a narrative review of the literature on research methods and techniques for studying daily life and describe their shared properties and requirements (collection of data in real time, on repeated occasions, and in natural settings and classification criteria (eg, variables of interest and level of participant involvement in the data collection process. We provide several examples that illustrate why, despite their higher costs, studies of behavior and experience in everyday contexts offer insights that complement findings provided by other methodological approaches. We urge that observational methodology be included in classifications of research methods and techniques for studying everyday behavior and advocate a renewed

  18. Updates: Routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    During routine testing of civilian applicants for U.S. military service, the overall seroprevalence of antibodies to HIV-1 in 2011 was the second lowest of any year since 1990. Among members of the active components of the U.S. Army, HIV-1 seroprevalences were higher during 2008 to 2011 than in recent prior years. Among members of the active components of the U.S. Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps, the Marine Corps Reserve, and the Army National Guard, HIV-1 seroprevalences have slightly declined or remained relatively stable for at least ten years. In the reserve components of most service branches, it is difficult to discern long-term trends because of instability of seroprevalences in the relatively small numbers of reserve component members tested each year. Monitoring of HIV-1 seroprevalences can help target and focus prevention initiatives. The recent repeal of the Don't Ask Don't Tell policy has created opportunities for prevention messages targeted to men who have sex with men.

  19. Growing Everyday Multiculturalism: Practice-Based Learning of Chinese Immigrants through Community Gardens in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongxia; Walter, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    While official rhetoric of multiculturalism claims to value cultural diversity, everyday multiculturalism focuses on how people of diverse cultural backgrounds live together in their everyday lives. Research on everyday multiculturalism has documented ways through which people negotiate senses, sensibilities, emotionality, and relationality across…

  20. The Academic and the Everyday: Investigating the Overlap in Mature Undergraduates' Information-Seeking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Lisa M.

    2002-01-01

    This study explored information-seeking behavior of mature undergraduates at a Canadian university based on the study of everyday life information seeking (ELIS). Findings include the role of social and cultural capital, ways that everyday and academic contexts inform one another, and the importance of not separating the everyday from other life…

  1. Constipation is casting a shadow over everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvistholm, Nina; Munch, Lene; Kjærgaard Danielsen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    and four qualitative. Three main themes crystallised from the results of the included studies: bodily experiences, everyday life shadowed by constipation and adverse psychological effects. Conclusion Constipation among older people was connected to subjective and comprehensive experiences. It had....... Background Constipation is a common and overlooked problem with an impact on everyday life, especially among older people. Older people seem to have individual preconceptions on constipation which can influence the strategies used to prevent and treat constipation. Design A systematic review, integrating...... studies. Search terms included constipation, elderly, aged, elderly people, aged people, quality of life, patient experience, patient perspective, meaning, emotion, psychological. Reference lists were searched manually. Results A total of nine studies were included in the review, five quantitative...

  2. FACTORS FORMING RELATIONSHIPS AND EVERYDAY RUSSIAN AND BELARUSIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Nodarievich Tuzhba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. It consists in the analysis of the factors influencing the process of interaction, the nature of relationships and everyday life of the Russian and Belarusian communities. Methodology. Use the ideas of the system, interactionist, phenomenological and socio-psychological approaches. The empirical base totaled questionnaire data of the Russian population of the Krasnodar Territory; secondary analysis of sociological data of Russian and Belarusian research teams on studies. Results. Identified and analyzed factors of relationships and the culture of everyday life, especially their impact on the processes of interaction between Russian and Belarusian ethnic communities. Practical implications. Knowledge of the factors and content of the mutual influence of ethnic and cultural practices of the ethnic communities of Belarus and Russia will help to predict the interaction processes contribute to their consolidation and integration.

  3. Psychological perspectives on children's conduct of everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Røn Larsen, Maja

    2015-01-01

    meaning to a psychology for children and their development. By addressing development as person's activities and involvement in a collective, shared everyday life, the authors emphasize the relations between the context and the person as a dialectical relation of developing through the process of gaining...... access, influencing and contributing to the collective, social life conditions. In this way, the discussions of the text are dealing with some of the fundamental theoretical debates about persons and their social lives. The discussions in this special issue is anchored in the Nordic, pedagogical...... pedagogical area. Conclusively this text resumes the different articles in the special issues, their theme, intentions, main points and contributions to the development of the concepts of children's conduct of everyday life....

  4. Borders in Europe: From history to everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Bassols

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This article reflects on European borders and their everyday dynamics from a cross-border perspective. The article begins with a discussion of recent events that question current border policies in the European Union, reviews the literature on borders and border territories, and finally moves on to a discussion of the everyday effects of cross-border practices on the inhabitants of border spaces. Occasional reference is made to borders in the Americas to complete the picture of this topic. Although the issue of security is indeed relevant, we focus on the economic and social dimensions of cooperation. Three aspects are essential for border residents who attempt to use the advantages of the territories for their global nature: work, shopping, and place of residence. In conclusion, there has been a tendency toward the softening of borders and greater integration of border zones in the European Union.

  5. Emotion regulation through listening to music in everyday situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Myriam V; Ryf, Stefan; Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2012-01-01

    Music is a stimulus capable of triggering an array of basic and complex emotions. We investigated whether and how individuals employ music to induce specific emotional states in everyday situations for the purpose of emotion regulation. Furthermore, we wanted to examine whether specific emotion-regulation styles influence music selection in specific situations. Participants indicated how likely it would be that they would want to listen to various pieces of music (which are known to elicit specific emotions) in various emotional situations. Data analyses by means of non-metric multidimensional scaling revealed a clear preference for pieces of music that were emotionally congruent with an emotional situation. In addition, we found that specific emotion-regulation styles might influence the selection of pieces of music characterised by specific emotions. Our findings demonstrate emotion-congruent music selection and highlight the important role of specific emotion-regulation styles in the selection of music in everyday situations.

  6. Navigating Violence: Fear and Everyday Life in Colombia and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Berents

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Violence and insecurity are often read as totalising narratives of communities in parts of Latin America, flattening the complexity of everyday life and the responses of occupants who suffer from fear. In this article we draw on ethnographic research undertaken in los Altos de Cazuca Colombia and in San Luis Potosi Mexico. While both sites are distinct locations with different historic, economic, social and political contexts they share features of communities affected by violence and insecurity: distrust of institutions of the state; rationalisations for managing violence in daily life; and narratives of fear that appear woven through the fabric of conversations. However, fear and violence are not all-encompassing experiences and individuals in both these communities describe practices of navigation of violence that draw on positive communal experiences. This article explores how, in these communities where violence comes to be expected but never normalised, people navigate their everyday lives.

  7. Theorizing Small Children’s Conduct of Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn Larsen, Maja; Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    The aim of this paper is to relate the concept conduct of everyday life to small children (ages 0 to 3 years). The paper will contribute to the understanding of small children’s common and shared lives in day care or public nursery, as well as their developmental and social learning processes...... their societal settings. Furthermore, we conduct interviews with the adults in the child’s various societal settings. We work within a theoretical framework developed in German-Danish critical psychology, as well as the ethnographic tradition deriving from Jean Lave (Dreier, 2008; Holzkamp, 2013, in press; Lave...... the specific meanings of these societal arrangements and how the youngest children develop their conduct of everyday life in the transitions across home and institutional arrangements as nursery or day care (Haavind, 2011). Discussion Theme: Debates on the social-historical condition of Psychology...

  8. The materiality of everyday practices in urban greenspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how urban greenspace is integrated in everyday practices of urban populations. What are the social functions that green areas serve, and how do people interact with the materiality of urban greenspace – its bio-physical structures and its nature and landscape. The paper...... reports from a recent empirical study in the city of Copenhagen, Denmark, and it seeks to unfold and qualify concepts of lifestyle and practice, i.e. concepts by which sociological studies can capture and understand patterns of actions in people’s daily lives and life courses. Particularly it seeks...... to include an understanding of the role of materiality in the analyses of social practices. Inspired by actor-network theory the paper proposes to analyse the role of urban greenspace in everyday practices as actant functions performed by the greenspace and its elements. A number of studies show that urban...

  9. Genre, the organization of knowledge and everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. From the point of view of genre theory, this paper explains how the organization of knowledge can be understood as an articulation of everyday communication with and in digital media. I argue that, with genre, a theoretical frame can be offered to cast the organization of knowledge...... as a communicative activity in everyday life. Method. This is a text-based argument which pulls together different sources for developing and discussing the contention. Analysis. I will start out with some brief reflections on digital media and communicative interaction. From there I will look into some steps...... theory can be used as a way of understanding the organization of knowledge as a communicative activity. Conclusions. This paper concludes with a brief discussion of where the developed argument leads knowledge organization research for the future. It suggests the kinds of questions, critiques...

  10. Satisfaction in everyday life for frail 85-years old adults:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, A; Petersen, Janne; Avlund, K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether social relations, continuity, self-determination, and use of own resources are associated with everyday life satisfaction among 85-year-old adults with physical disabilities. The population includes 187 frail men and women from the longitudinal...... study of the 1914 population in Glostrup, Copenhagen. Participants were all interviewed in their homes by an occupational therapist. Findings provide evidence that frail older adults more frequently express satisfaction with their daily lives when they (1) are occupied as usual; (2) have friends; (3......) feel able to manage their own lives; (4) do not live alone; and (5) have not lately lost close friends. Lack of everyday life satisfaction is associated with (1) using home-care services and (2) living in an institution. The findings stress the importance of helping old persons stay active...

  11. Everyday engineering an ethnography of design and innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Everyday Engineering was written to help future engineers understand what they are going to be doing in their everyday working lives, so that they can do their work more effectively and with a broader social vision. It will also give sociologists deeper insights into the sociotechnical world of engineering. The book consists of ethnographic studies in which the authors, all trained in both engineering and sociology, go into the field as participant-observers. The sites and types of engineering explored include mechanical design in manufacturing industries, instrument design, software debugging, environmental management within companies, and the implementation of a system for separating household waste.The book is organized in three parts. The first part introduces the complexity of technical practices. The second part enters the social and cultural worlds of designers to grasp their practices and motivations. The third part examines the role of writing practices and graphical representation. The epilogue uses...

  12. Material and emotional movements of everyday school life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén Rasmussen, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    's memories of physical and emotional movements across and within space we are given a chance to sense the dynamics, the simultaneous regularity and unpredictability of everyday school life. It offers a chance to sense some of the intensities that makes up the specificity of the complex universe of the school......: Belgian primary schools, 1880-1940. History of Education, 30(2), 129-140. Massumi, B. (2002). Parables for the Virtual. Movement, Affect, Sensation. Durham/London: Duke University Press....

  13. Material and emotional movements of everyday school life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén Rasmussen, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    's memories of physical and emotional movements across and within space we are given a chance to sense the dynamics, the simultaneous regularity and unpredictability of everyday school life. It offers a chance to sense some of the intensities that makes up the specificity of the complex universe of the school......: Belgian primary schools, 1880-1940. History of Education, 30(2), 129-140. Massumi, B. (2002). Parables for the Virtual. Movement, Affect, Sensation. Durham/London: Duke University Press....

  14. Everyday Use人物分析兼论其主题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小娟

    2014-01-01

    Everyday Use中,Maggie and Dee虽是出生于同一家庭的俩姐妹,但由于种种原因而形成的身体和心理方面的差异极大.本文着重分析了这两个人物的差异,并探讨了其主题.

  15. Everyday Nationhood: Theorising Culture, Identity and Belonging after Banal Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Skey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Published in 1995, Michael Billig’s Banal Nationalism is the fourth most cited text on nationalism and arguably the most influential book on the topic in the last two decades. Focusing on contemporary and everyday expressions of nationhood, the study marked a profound shift away from previous attempts to map the transformation to an era of nations and the association of nationalism with political violence, civil conflict and extremist movements. Billig’s arguments have been picked up by schol...

  16. Taking medicine at home - create a routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000613.htm Taking medicine at home - create a routine To use the ... teeth. Find Ways to Help You Remember Your Medicines You can: Set the alarm on your clock, ...

  17. Observations of Everyday Biodiversity: a New Perspective for Conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Caroline Prevot-Julliard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Public involvement is one of the keys to achieving biodiversity conservation goals. Increasing public involvement in conservation activities requires investigation into what makes people more aware of nature, especially in an ordinary and local context, in their everyday lives. Among the initiatives developed to increase the public's awareness of conservation issues and individual environmental practices, citizen-science programs are based on an invitation to observe and survey nature. In our study, we examined the consequences of participation in a participative citizen-science program that takes place in an everyday-life context on individuals' knowledge and beliefs about biodiversity. This program, the French Garden Butterflies Watch, is addressed to the non-scientifically literate public and is run by the French National Museum of Natural History (MNHN. We examined the ways increased knowledge or strengthened beliefs or ideas about biodiversity can foster pro-conservation attitudes and behavior. We explored how repeated interactions with nature influence the development of knowledge in this area, and how these repeated observations of biodiversity become integrated into complex cognitive processes over time and space. We showed that repeated observations of nature can increase individual knowledge and beliefs. Our results brought out three important conclusions: (1 conservation issues must be integrated into a wider network of social relationships; (2 observing everyday nature often makes people consider its functional and evolutionary characteristics; and (3 scientific knowledge seems necessary to help people to develop their own position on ecosystems.

  18. Meeting everyday water needs--a company's contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, D

    2004-01-01

    As a packaged consumer goods company serving mass markets around the world for household and personal hygiene products, laundry detergents and foods, Unilever's business is inextricably linked with consumers' interest in meeting their everyday water needs. Once the basic need for drinking water is met, almost all other "everyday" water needs derive from consumption associated with the type of products Unilever sells. Use of some of these products, such as basic toilet soap, involve "actual" water consumption; others, such as margarine, concern "virtual" water consumption through agricultural production. Global scenarios for water and sanitation present a major challenge to long-term business strategies that assume sustained economic growth particularly in emerging and developing markets. Responsibility for finding and delivering solutions lies with all major actors in society. For companies such as Unilever, a priority is to help break the link between economic development on the one hand, and increased water use and water degradation on the other. Water catchment level perspectives are central to realising this vision. Unilever uses such a framework, building an experience-based model that demonstrates how a "consumer" company can engage in meeting everyday water needs with a sustained positive impact.

  19. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markes, B.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-10

    This document provides the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) and the Project Hanford Management Contractor.(PHMC) a schedule in accordance with the WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance` and BHI- EE-02, Environmental Requirements, of monitoring and sampling routines for the Near-Field Monitoring (NFM) program during calendar year (CY) 1997. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Near-Field Monitoring. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Near- Field Monitoring and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1998. The outside perimeter road surveys of 200 East and West Area and the rail survey from the 300 Area to Columbia Center will be performed in the year 2000 per agreement with Department of Energy. Richland Field Office. This schedule does not discuss staffing needs, nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines. Personnel performing routines to meet this schedule shall communicate any need for assistance in completing these routines to Radiological Control management and Near-Field Monitoring. After each routine survey is completed, a copy of the survey record, maps, and data sheets will be forwarded to Near-Field Monitoring. These routine surveys will not be considered complete until this documentation is received. At the end of each month, the ERC and PHMC radiological control organizations shall forward a copy of the Routine

  20. Improving care coordination using organisational routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prætorius, Thim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to systematically apply theory of organisational routines to standardised care pathways. The explanatory power of routines is used to address open questions in the care pathway literature about their coordinating and organising role, the way they change and can be replicated, the way they are influenced by the organisation and the way they influence health care professionals. Theory of routines is systematically applied to care pathways in order to develop theoretically derived propositions. Care pathways mirror routines by being recurrent, collective and embedded and specific to an organisation. In particular, care pathways resemble standard operating procedures that can give rise to recurrent collective action patterns. In all, 11 propositions related to five categories are proposed by building on these insights: care pathways and coordination, change, replication, the organisation and health care professionals. Research limitations/implications - The paper is conceptual and uses care pathways as illustrative instances of hospital routines. The propositions provide a starting point for empirical research. The analysis highlights implications that health care professionals and managers have to consider in relation to coordination, change, replication, the way the organisation influences care pathways and the way care pathways influence health care professionals. Originality/value - Theory on organisational routines offers fundamental, yet unexplored, insights into hospital processes, including in particular care coordination.

  1. Integrating mobile-phone based assessment for psychosis into people’s everyday lives and clinical care: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmier-Claus Jasper E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade policy makers have emphasised the importance of healthcare technology in the management of long-term conditions. Mobile-phone based assessment may be one method of facilitating clinically- and cost-effective intervention, and increasing the autonomy and independence of service users. Recently, text-message and smartphone interfaces have been developed for the real-time assessment of symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. Little is currently understood about patients’ perceptions of these systems, and how they might be implemented into their everyday routine and clinical care. Method 24 community based individuals with non-affective psychosis completed a randomised repeated-measure cross-over design study, where they filled in self-report questions about their symptoms via text-messages on their own phone, or via a purpose designed software application for Android smartphones, for six days. Qualitative interviews were conducted in order to explore participants’ perceptions and experiences of the devices, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Three themes emerged from the data: i the appeal of usability and familiarity, ii acceptability, validity and integration into domestic routines, and iii perceived impact on clinical care. Although participants generally found the technology non-stigmatising and well integrated into their everyday activities, the repetitiveness of the questions was identified as a likely barrier to long-term adoption. Potential benefits to the quality of care received were seen in terms of assisting clinicians, faster and more efficient data exchange, and aiding patient-clinician communication. However, patients often failed to see the relevance of the systems to their personal situations, and emphasised the threat to the person centred element of their care. Conclusions The feedback presented in this paper suggests that patients are conscious of the

  2. Review: Michalis Kontopodis & Jörg Niewöhner (Eds.) (2010). Das Selbst als Netzwerk. Zum Einsatz von Körpern und Dingen im Alltag [The Self as Network: On Everyday Uses of Bodies and Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In the investigation of human everyday life, the significance of the material still tends to be neglected. The anthology edited by KONTOPODIS and NIEWÖHNER presents contributions that draw on relational-materialist concepts in order to praxiographically study how both human and non-human agents...... transform (mostly biomedical) everyday practices. This review attempts to connect these material-semiotic descriptions to a critical psychological perspective. It highlights how the contributions' focus on material things' actions is valuable for further unraveling the human-world relationship. Meanwhile...

  3. Review: Michalis Kontopodis & Jörg Niewöhner (Eds.) (2010). Das Selbst als Netzwerk. Zum Einsatz von Körpern und Dingen im Alltag [The Self as Network: On Everyday Uses of Bodies and Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In the investigation of human everyday life, the significance of the material still tends to be neglected. The anthology edited by KONTOPODIS and NIEWÖHNER presents contributions that draw on relational-materialist concepts in order to praxiographically study how both human and non-human agents t...

  4. Subjective refraction: the mechanism underlying the routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, W F

    2007-11-01

    The routine of subjective refraction is usually understood, explained and taught in terms of the relative positions of line or point foci and the retina. This paper argues that such an approach makes unnecessary and sometimes invalid assumptions about what is actually happening inside the eye. The only assumption necessary in fact is that the subject is able to guide the refractionist to (or close to) the optimum power for refractive compensation. The routine works even in eyes in which the interval of Sturm does not behave as supposed; it would work, in fact, regardless of the structure of the eye. The idealized subjective refraction routine consists of two steps: the first finds the best sphere (the stigmatic component) and the second finds the remaining Jackson cross-cylinder (the antistigmatic component). The model makes use of the concept of symmetric dioptric power space. The second part of the refraction routine can be performed with Jackson cross-cylinders alone. However, it is usually taught and practiced using spheres, cylinders and Jackson cross-cylinders in a procedure that is not easy to understand and learn. Recognizing that this part of the routine is equivalent to one involving Jackson cross-cylinders only allows one to teach and understand the procedure more naturally and easily.

  5. Problematic alcohol use among individuals with HIV: relations with everyday memory functioning and HIV symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Fogler, Kethera A; Newcomb, Michael E; Trafton, Jodie A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2014-07-01

    Problematic alcohol use has been shown to negatively impact cognitive functions germane to achieving optimal HIV health outcomes. The present study, a secondary data analysis, examined the impact of problematic alcohol use on aspects of everyday memory functioning in a sample of 172 HIV-infected individuals (22 % female; Mage = 48.37 years, SD = 8.64; 39 % Black/non-Hispanic). Additionally, we tested whether self-reported memory functioning explained the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. Results indicated that problematic patterns of alcohol use were associated with lower total memory functioning, retrieval (e.g., recall-difficulty) and memory for activity (e.g., what you did yesterday) and greater HIV symptom severity. Memory functioning mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. However, the direction of this relation was unclear as HIV symptom severity also mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and memory functioning. Findings highlight the importance of integrated care for HIV and alcohol use disorders and suggest that routine alcohol and cognitive screenings may bolster health outcomes among this vulnerable population.

  6. Everyday (in)equality at home: complex constructions of gender in South African families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Rebecca; Ratele, Kopano

    2016-01-01

    High rates of violence and HIV have been documented within the South African context. Constructions of masculinity and femininity that position men as dominant and highly sexually active and women as subordinate and acquiescent have been found to contribute towards gender inequality. This inequality is in turn related to negative health consequences, specifically violence against women, children, and other men, as well as sexual risk. Within this context it becomes important to explore how problematic constructions of gender are being (re)produced and how these constructions are being challenged. Families have been identified as key sites in which gender is both constructed and enacted on a daily basis and it is within this space that children are first exposed to notions of gender. This article draws from a study that was intended to expand on the limited understandings of the ways in which gender (in)equality is constructed and conveyed within the context of South African families on an everyday basis. Children and parents in 18 families from a range of different material and cultural backgrounds were interviewed about the meanings and practices of gender within their homes. Data were analysed using a Foucauldian discourse analysis. The data reveal how problematic constructions of masculinity and femininity are (re)produced but also challenged within a range of different families. Gender and gender (in)equality are therefore routinely accomplished in complex ways. These findings have important implications for promoting gender equality and therefore for disrupting violence and sexual risk as gendered health issues.

  7. Mingling, observing, and lingering: everyday public spaces and their implications for well-being and social relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell, Vicky; Dines, Nick; Gesler, Wil; Curtis, Sarah

    2008-09-01

    The rejuvenation of public spaces is a key policy concern in the UK. Drawing on a wide literature and on qualitative research located in a multi-ethnic area of East London, this paper explores their relationship to well-being and social relations. It demonstrates that ordinary spaces are a significant resource for both individuals and communities. The beneficial properties of public spaces are not reducible to natural or aesthetic criteria, however. Social interaction in spaces can provide relief from daily routines, sustenance for people's sense of community, opportunities for sustaining bonding ties or making bridges, and can influence tolerance and raise people's spirits. They also possess subjective meanings that accumulate over time and can contribute to meeting diverse needs. Different users of public spaces attain a sense of well- being for different reasons: the paper calls for policy approaches in which the social and therapeutic properties of a range of everyday spaces are more widely recognised and nurtured.

  8. Improving care coordination using organisational routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Thim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This conceptual article systematically applies theory of organisational routines to standardised care pathways. The explanatory power of routines is used to address open questions in the care pathway literature about their coordinating and organising role, the way they change and can......: care pathways and (a) coordination, (b) change, (c) replication, (d) the organisation and (e) health care professionals. Research limitations/implications: The article is conceptual and uses care pathways as illustrative instances of hospital routines. The propositions provide a starting point...... for empirical research. Practical implications: The analysis highlights implications that health care professionals and managers have to consider in relation to coordination, change, replication, the way the organisation influences care pathways and the way care pathways influence health care professionals...

  9. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.

  10. Active stereo vision routines using PRISM-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonisse, Hendrick J.

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes work in progress on a set of visual routines and supporting capabilities implemented on the PRISM-3 real-time vision system. The routines are used in an outdoor robot retrieval task. The task requires the robot to locate a donor agent -- a Hero2000 -- which holds the object to be retrieved, to navigate to the donor, to accept the object from the donor, and return to its original location. The routines described here will form an integral part of the navigation and wide-area search tasks. Active perception is exploited to locate the donor using real-time stereo ranging directed by a pan/tilt/verge mechanism. A framework for orchestrating visual search has been implemented and is briefly described.

  11. Ragnar Rommetveit's Approach to Everyday Spoken Dialogue from Within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Sabine; O'Connell, Daniel C

    2016-04-01

    The following article presents basic concepts and methods of Ragnar Rommetveit's (born 1924) hermeneutic-dialogical approach to everyday spoken dialogue with a focus on both shared consciousness and linguistically mediated meaning. He developed this approach originally in his engagement of mainstream linguistic and psycholinguistic research of the 1960s and 1970s. He criticized this research tradition for its individualistic orientation and its adherence to experimental methodology which did not allow the engagement of interactively established meaning and understanding in everyday spoken dialogue. As a social psychologist influenced by phenomenological philosophy, Rommetveit opted for an alternative conceptualization of such dialogue as a contextualized, partially private world, temporarily co-established by interlocutors on the basis of shared consciousness. He argued that everyday spoken dialogue should be investigated from within, i.e., from the perspectives of the interlocutors and from a psychology of the second person. Hence, he developed his approach with an emphasis on intersubjectivity, perspectivity and perspectival relativity, meaning potential of utterances, and epistemic responsibility of interlocutors. In his methods, he limited himself for the most part to casuistic analyses, i.e., logical analyses of fictitious examples to argue for the plausibility of his approach. After many years of experimental research on language, he pursued his phenomenologically oriented research on dialogue in English-language publications from the late 1980s up to 2003. During that period, he engaged psycholinguistic research on spoken dialogue carried out by Anglo-American colleagues only occasionally. Although his work remained unfinished and open to development, it provides both a challenging alternative and supplement to current Anglo-American research on spoken dialogue and some overlap therewith.

  12. Organizational routines, innovation, and flexibility: the application of narrative networks to dynamic workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gillian R; Lee, Charlotte P; Dourish, Paul

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how current visual representations of organizational and technological processes do not fully account for the variability present in everyday practices. We further demonstrate how narrative networks can augment these representations to indicate potential areas for successful or problematic adoption of new technologies and potential needs for additional training. We conducted a qualitative study of the processes and routines at a major academic medical center slated to be supported by the development and installation of a new comprehensive HIT system. We used qualitative data collection techniques including observations of the activities to be supported by the new system and interviews with department heads, researchers, and both clinical and non-clinical staff. We conducted a narrative network analysis of these data by choosing exemplar processes to be modeled, selecting and analyzing narrative fragments, and developing visual representations of the interconnection of these narratives. Narrative networks enable us to view the variety of ways work has been and can be performed in practice, influencing our ability to design for innovation in use. Narrative networks are a means for analyzing and visualizing organizational routines in concert with more traditional requirements engineering, workflow modeling, and quality improvement outcome measurement. This type of analysis can support a deeper and more nuanced understanding of how and why certain routines continue to exist, change, or stop entirely. At the same time, it can illuminate areas in which adoption may be slow, more training or communication may be needed, and routines preferred by the leadership are subverted by routines preferred by the staff. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Examination of the Circle Spline Routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, R. M.; Jaeger, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Circle Spline routine is currently being used for generating both two and three dimensional spline curves. It was developed for use in ESCHER, a mesh generating routine written to provide a computationally simple and efficient method for building meshes along curved surfaces. Circle Spline is a parametric linear blending spline. Because many computerized machining operations involve circular shapes, the Circle Spline is well suited for both the design and manufacturing processes and shows promise as an alternative to the spline methods currently supported by the Initial Graphics Specification (IGES).

  14. Absorptive routines and international patent performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E. García-Muiña

    2017-04-01

    We enrich the treatment of the absorptive capacity phases including the moderating effects between routines associated to the traditional potential-realized absorptive capacities. Taking into account external knowledge search strategies, the deeper external relationships, the better transference and appropriation of specific external knowledge. Nevertheless, when the moderating role of assimilation is included, cooperation agreements appear as the most efficient source of external knowledge. Finally, we show that technological tools let firms store and structure the information making easier its use for international patenting. This positive effect is reinforced in the presence of exploitation routines, since technological knowledge will better fit to the industry's key factors of success.

  15. Practical wisdom, understanding of coherence and competencies for everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this article is the subject home economics education in the primary and lower secondary school in the 21st century. Practical wisdom, understanding of coherence and competencies for everyday life are suggested as aims of home economics education. It is argued that these elements should...... and experiencing the profession   [1] Bildung is the German word for education, but it is used as a pedagogical term in English literature as it has another and more specific meaning than the word education. The word in Danish is dannelse....

  16. Repositioning news and public connection in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Joëlle; Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    academic discussions surrounding these shifts are often explored in terms of normative ideals ascribed to political systems or civic cultures, we propose to reposition the debate by departing from the practices and preferences of the news user instead. Therefore, we deconstruct and translate the concept...... of public connection into four dimensions that emphasize people’s lived experiences: inclusiveness, engagement, relevance, and constructiveness. Situating these in an everyday life framework, this article advances a user-based perspective that considers the role of news for people in digital societies...

  17. Developing the Competence to Lead in Everyday Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    leaders’ participation in a module on personal leadership development, which is part of a master’s degree in public governance. The analytic framework concentrates on the work in learning groups as an integrated part of this module, and particularly on the development of learning relationships by viewing......This chapter discusses how leaders help one another develop their ability to lead in everyday situations through collaborative work in learning groups, focusing on the interaction between theory and practice. The theme is how the understanding of course assignments and approaches changes during...

  18. The importance of respite in everyday life of young carers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Due, Pernille

    carers' well-being. Material and methods: The analysis will be based on data from a large representative survey among Danish 13-19 year olds, conducted in October 2016. Data will be collected by electronic questionnaires completed during a school lesson. Serious parental illness will be measured by self......Objective: In this presentation, we will focus on the opportunity of respite for young carers created by the environment, e.g. through organized leisure activities. Furthermore, the objective of this study is to analyze the association between the opportunity of respite in everyday life and young...

  19. Green, Yellow and Red risk perception in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, A; DunnGalvin, A; Nielsen, D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents have the highest risk for food allergy-related fatalities. Our main aim was to investigate the level of risk in everyday social situations as perceived by adolescents/young adults with peanut allergy, their families and their friends. METHODS: The web-based 'Colours Of Risks......' (COR) questionnaire was completed by 70 patients (aged 12-23 years), 103 mothers and fathers, 31 siblings (aged 12-26 years), and 42 friends (aged 12-24 years). COR deals with six main contexts (home, school/university, work, visiting/social activities, special occasions/parties, and vacations), each...

  20. ReHandle: towards integrating physical rehabilitation in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagalkot, Naveen L.; Sokoler, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    an integration of the rehab activities with the everyday activities of senior citizens. We expect that our articulation of the emerging ReHandle design space will be informative and inspirational for the interaction design and HCI community exploring the role of digital technology for successful rehabilitation......In this paper we present ReHandle, an emerging design space currently inhabited and shaped by three different design sketches. We describe how the three sketches point to three possible dimensions for exploring the role of digital technology in facilitating self-monitoring; aimed at promoting...

  1. Piety, aspiration, and everyday life in Muslim Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kloos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Sylva Frisk, Submitting to God: Women and Islam in urban Malaysia. Copenhagen: NIAS, 2009, xvii + 216 pp. ISBN: 9788776940485. Price: GBP 16.99 (paperback.Johan Fischer, Proper Islamic consumption: Shopping among the Malays in modern Malaysia. Copenhagen: NIAS, 2008, xix + 258 pp. ISBN:978877694-317, price: GBP 40.00 (paperback; 9788776940324, GBP 17.99 (paperback; 9788776945220, GBP 25.99 (ebook.Nina Nurmila, Women, Islam and everyday life: Renegotiating polygamy in Indonesia. Abindon: Routledge, 2009, xvii + 197 pp. ISBN: 9780415468022, price: GBP 90.00 (hardback; 9780415673877, GBP: 26.00 (paperback; 9780203878545, GBP 80.00 (ebook.

  2. Everyday burden of musculoskeletal conditions among villagers in rural Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Hartvigsen, Jan; Myburgh, Corrie

    2016-01-01

    for the consequences and significance of musculoskeletal burden related to 3 themes: (i) hard work for traditional lives; (ii) bearing the load of a rugged landscape; and, (iii) caring for others with disrupted lives. Physical labour with musculoskeletal symptoms had economic and subsistence consequences. The loss...... of independence and social identity to fulfil traditional roles held meaning as significance. Outmigration for wage labour and other shifts in family structure compounded everyday musculoskeletal burden. CONCLUSION: Uncovering burden is an important first step to address musculoskeletal care needs in developing...

  3. Searching for Ethics and Responsibility in Everyday Life Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

    2014-01-01

    Living an everyday life among other people entails evaluating their behavior according to our own ideas about what is right and wrong – good or bad. And living according to our own ethics in a mobile risk society entails ambivalences and opens up the issue of responsibility. This article discusses...... how moral and ethical considerations are always part of individual’s interaction with others, exemplified through the experiences of being a cyclist in Copenhagen. The article finalizes by touching upon the role of social sciences whom for a long time has learned to ignore or reject ethical and thus...

  4. Splintering of tourism market: new appearing forms of cultural tourism as a consequence of changes in everyday lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelincić, Daniela Angelina

    2009-03-01

    Within the concept of cultural tourism, this article defines relatively new concepts of creative and hobby tourism, which are detected as recent niche markets. Cultural tourism is a narrow specialized market, while creative and hobby tourism relate to even more specialized segments. Even these specialized forms of tourism have their market whose growth is very probable taking into account changes in everyday work as well as changes in the values of human activity in general. These changes reflect also the sector of tourism, which is obvious in the ever growing splintering of tourism market as well as of tourism forms. The article reviews theoretical concepts of cultural, creative and hobby tourism as to prepare the basis for applied tourist programmes. It looks into the history of cultural tourism as to see what changes occurred and brought it to life. Changes that have taken place in everyday lives of people and the impact of everyday free time activities on tourism are also analysed. Further splintering of the cultural tourism sector is noticed and cultural tourism sub-forms are detected by analysing some of the leading home style and creativity magazines. The article also proposes possible application of push/pull factors to creative/hobby tourism.

  5. Men's Everyday Health Care: Practices, Tensions and Paradoxes, and Masculinities in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Nina

    2017-01-01

    My interest is in how masculinities are enacted and implicated in different care repertoires. Drawing on Mol's notion of "logic of care," I illustrate that in Denmark some men's care practices are an integral part of their life projects, and so they target both the human body, and sociality and relationality, as everyday care. In this way, men enact, embody, and weave together a self- and other-directed "caring masculinity" with practices of autonomy, self-discipline, and the aestheticization of male bodies. Contesting and enriching familiar framings of men's health care and masculinities, I draw attention to the value of considering practices of health care beyond individualized experiences, and of acknowledging the complex patterns of masculinity in health and illness.

  6. Emotion, Embodied Mind and the Therapeutic Aspects of Musical Experience in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan van der Schyff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for music to function as a force for bio-cognitive organisation is considered in clinical and everyday contexts. Given the deeply embodied nature of such therapeutic responses to music, it is argued that cognitivist approaches may be insufficient to fully explain music’s affective power. Following this, an embodied approach is considered, where the emotional-affective response to music is discussed in terms of primary bodily systems and the innate cross-modal perceptive capacities of the embodied human mind. It is suggested that such an approach may extend the largely cognitivist view taken by much of contemporary music psychology and philosophy of music by pointing the way towards a conception of musical meaning that begins with our most primordial interactions with the world.

  7. Interpreted consultations as 'business as usual'? An analysis of organisational routines in general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Voisey, Christopher; Robb, Nadia

    2007-09-01

    UK general practices operate in an environment of high linguistic diversity, because of recent large-scale immigration and of the NHS's commitment to provide a professional interpreter to any patient if needed. Much activity in general practice is co-ordinated and patterned into organisational routines (defined as repeated patterns of interdependent actions, involving multiple actors, bound by rules and customs) that tend to be stable and to persist. If we want to understand how general practices are responding to pressures to develop new routines, such as interpreted consultations, we need to understand how existing organisational routines change. This will then help us to address a second question, which is how the interpreted consultation itself is being enacted and changing as it becomes routinised (or not) in everyday general practice. In seeking answers to these two questions, we undertook a qualitative study of narratives of interpreted primary care consultations in three London boroughs with large minority ethnic populations. In 69 individual interviews and two focus groups, we sought accounts of interpreted consultations from service users, professional interpreters, family member interpreters, general practitioners, practice nurses, receptionists, and practice managers. We asked participants to tell us both positive and negative stories of their experiences. We analysed these data by searching for instances of concepts relating to the organisational routine, the meaning of the interpreted consultation to the practice, and the sociology of medical work. Our findings identified a number of general properties of the interpreted consultation as an organisational routine, including the wide variation in the form of adoption, the stability of the routine, the adaptability of the routine, and the strength of the routine. Our second key finding was that this variation could be partly explained by characteristics of the practice as an organisation, especially

  8. The (Proper) Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    Sidney Winter (2011), Brian Pentland (2011), and Geoffrey Hodgson and Thorbjørn Knudsen (2011) take issue with the arguments in Teppo Felin and Nicolai J. Foss (2011), along with more generally critiquing the ‘microfoundations project’ related to routines and capabilities. In this rejoinder we...

  9. Value of routine polysomnography in bariatric surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Raaff, C.A.L.; Pierik, A.S.; Coblijn, U.K.; de Vries, N.; Bonjer, H.J.; van Wagensveld, B.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), present in 60–70 % of bariatric surgery patients, is a potentially life-threatening condition when not detected and managed appropriately. The best available method to identify the severity of OSA is polysomnography. However, routine polysomnography

  10. On the stability of numerical integration routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, K.; Willems, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Numerical integration methods for the solution of initial value problems for ordinary vector differential equations may be modelled as discrete time feedback systems. The stability criteria discovered in modern control theory are applied to these systems and criteria involving the routine, the step size and the differential equation are derived. Linear multistep, Runge-Kutta, and predictor-corrector methods are all investigated.

  11. Detecting asymptomatic coronary artery disease using routine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    Sep 1, 1990 ... ramp filter. Orthogonal reconstructions of the ... regarded as an end-point for the purpose of the algorithm and all patients were routinely ... years (mean 59 years) and the group consisted of 28 men and 4 women. Four patients ...

  12. Value of routine dengue diagnosis in endemic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayukekbong, James Ayukepi; Oyero, Olufunmilayo G; Nnukwu, Samuel Ekpesu; Mesumbe, Henry Nzike; Fobisong, Cajetang Nkong

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most common arthropod-borne viral diseases in humans and it is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is thought to account for 400 million cases annually among approximately 3.97 billion people at risk of infection in 128 endemic countries. Despite the global prevalence of the disease, the availability of a vaccine is limited in most countries in the endemic areas. Most endemic countries in South America, South East Asia and Africa serve as attractive touristic sites for people from non-endemic countries who become infected and export the virus to dengue-free regions. Dengue fever typically resembles malaria and in endemic countries most cases of dengue are treated as presumptive malaria. Consequently, routine dengue diagnosis among persons with fever will offer early treatment and reduce the burden of the disease. Also, routine testing among travellers from endemic countries will reduce importation and prevent the geographical expansion of dengue. In this essay, we seek to highlight the usefulness of routine dengue testing in endemic countries. PMID:28239567

  13. Everyday moral reasoning in the governmentality of HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Rangel, J; Adam, Barry D

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the sociology of morality, this article analyses the social contexts, discourses and ethno-methods of everyday life that shape real-world decisions of gay men around HIV prevention. Through an analysis of the predominant narratives in an online public forum created for an HIV prevention campaign, this article explores the ways in which homosexually active men engage in everyday moral reasoning and challenge a neoliberal moral order of risk and responsibility. The article concludes that gay and bisexual men engage in forms of practical morality with their sexual partners and imagine larger communities of interest, love, companionship and pleasure. At the same time, they draw heavily from discourses on individual and rational responsibility, as well as narratives of romance and community, that shape forms of moral selfhood. Risk management techniques that are grounded in notions of rational choice and that are insensitive to the emotional worlds that these men inhabit create situations of risk avoidance but also inadvertently open them to new forms of vulnerability.

  14. Manual Wheelchair Use: Bouts of Mobility in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Eve Sonenblum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to describe how people move about in manual wheelchairs (MWCs during everyday life by evaluating bouts of mobility or continuous periods of movement. Methods. A convenience sample of 28 MWC users was recruited. Participants' everyday mobility was measured using a wheel-mounted accelerometer and seat occupancy switch for 1-2 weeks. Bouts of mobility were recorded and characterized. Results. Across 29,200 bouts, the median bout lasted 21 seconds and traveled 8.6 m at 0.43 m/s. 85% of recorded bouts lasted less than 1 minute and traveled less than 30 meters. Participants' daily wheelchair activity included 90 bouts and 1.6 km over 54 minutes. Average daily occupancy time was 11 hours during which participants wheeled 10 bouts/hour and spent 10% of their time wheeling. Spearman-Brown Prophecy analysis suggested that 7 days were sufficient to achieve a reliability of 0.8 for all bout variables. Conclusions. Short, slow bouts dominate wheelchair usage in a natural environment. Therefore, clinical evaluations and biomechanical research should reflect this by concentrating on initiating movement, maneuvering wheelchairs, and stopping. Bouts of mobility provide greater depth to our understanding of wheelchair use and are a more stable metric (day-to-day than distance or time wheeled.

  15. Women's patterns of everyday occupations and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Christina; Eklund, Mona; Sundh, Valter; Thundal, Kajsa-Lena; Spak, Fredrik

    2012-05-01

    Earlier studies on women's health and drinking and the contemporary associated risk factors have highlighted the need for more complex approaches in understanding the pathways into women's problem drinking. Research, from both social science and from occupational therapy models, has underlined the importance of deconstructing the often dichotomized way of investigating women's daily lives (such as in paid and unpaid work or in work and leisure) when discussing factors from the daily life environment and their impact on health issues. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between women's patterns of everyday occupation and alcohol consumption using the broader concept of occupation from occupational therapy models. This was a cross-sectional study from the latest wave (2000) of a population-based project, Women and Alcohol in Gothenburg (WAG). The study group consisted of 851 women, aged 20-55 years. Using an individually oriented method, two-step clustering, three distinct patterns of everyday occupations were identified. Significant associations with problematic alcohol consumption were found in the clusters, characterized by lower engagement in leisure activities and a larger amount of spare time. The need for new preventive approaches, including investigating the importance of having engaging leisure activities, is discussed.

  16. EVERYDAY QUR’AN DI ERA POST-KONSUMERISME MUSLIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Endy Saputro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to give a preliminary draft to formulate an innovative concept in the Qur’anic studies world in the age of post-consumerism Muslim. Recent studies on tug of war between globalization and religion have been identifying salient social transformation in some parts of Muslim world, such as the rise of new (media religious authority, religious commodification trends, varieties of Islamic consumption, the emergence of public Islam and so forth. Apart from these recent scholarships, which successfully grasp the globalization’s influence toward religion (Islam, this paper offers the concept of everyday Qur’an as an alternative basic approach of understanding the cultures of Qur’an in this changing (Muslim world and at the same time, seeking to briefly explain its emerging issues. Some exemplary issues then have analytically discussed to reflect how the proposed theory applied. Thus, everyday Qur’an can contribute the discourse of cultures based technology in the context of Qur’anic Studies. 

  17. Psychometric evaluation of a new assessment of the ability to manage technology in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Nygård, Louise; Kottorp, Anders

    2011-03-01

    Technology increasingly influences the everyday lives of most people, and the ability to manage technology can be seen as a prerequisite for participation in everyday occupations. However, knowledge of the ability and skills required for management of technology is sparse. This study aimed to validate a new observation-based assessment, the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META). The META has been developed to assess the ability to manage technology in everyday life. A sample of 116 older adults with and without cognitive impairment were observed and interviewed by the use of the META when managing their everyday technology at home. The results indicate that the META demonstrates acceptable person response validity and technology goodness-of-fit. Additionally, the META can separate individuals with higher ability from individuals with lower ability to manage everyday technology. The META can be seen as a complement to existing ADL assessment techniques and is planned to be used in both research and practice.

  18. Sounds like a Narcissist: Behavioral Manifestations of Narcissism in Everyday Life

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzman, Nicholas S.; Vazire, Simine; Mehl, Matthias R

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about narcissists’ everyday behavior. The goal of this study was to describe how narcissism is manifested in everyday life. Using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), we obtained naturalistic behavior from participants’ everyday lives. The results suggest that the defining characteristics of narcissism that have been established from questionnaire and laboratory-based studies are borne out in narcissists’ day-to-day behaviors. Narcissists do indeed behave in more extra...

  19. Exploring parents everyday life and emotion work related to school-home cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krab, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    The paper will be based on an ongoing Ph.D. project using a critical ethnographic approach following families with children who experience difficulties in school in their everyday life. The project purpose is to explore parents perspectiv and everyday life. The paper will highlight a number of ex...... of examples of parents experience with school-home relations and discuss methodological challenges in researching everyday life practices and discuss how emotionwork – and management are connected to social differentierings processes in education...

  20. Victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in daily routines in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in routines. METHODS The 8,170 subjects of both sexes (49.9% women and 50.1% men aged between 12 and 60 years, selected from a proportional stratified sampling, participated in this study. The measuring instrument was an adaptation of the National Survey on Victimization and Perception of Public Security. Chi-square tests were performed. RESULTS The results show significant differences on victimization and sex regarding perception of insecurity, restrictions on everyday activities, and protection measures. 13.1% of those interviewed claimed to have been victims of a crime in the past 12 months. 52.7% of women considered their municipality as unsafe or very unsafe. In the case of men, this percentage was 58.2%. Female victims reported significant restrictions in everyday activities when compared to non-victims. In relation to men, the percentage of victims with a high restriction of activities was higher in male victims than non-victims. In the group of victimized women, the segment of women who opted for increased measures of protection against crime was larger than expected, while those of non-victims who took less protective measures was lower than expected. These same results were observed in the group of men. CONCLUSIONS The experience of victimization implies a greater perception of insecurity. However, the climate of insecurity is widespread in a large number of citizens. Gender differences in a high-crime environment show the importance of investigating in depth the roles of both genders in the perception of insecurity and changes in routines.

  1. Victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in daily routines in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, María Elena; Martínez-Ferrer, Belén; Vera, Alejandro; Bahena, Alejandro; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in routines. METHODS The 8,170 subjects of both sexes (49.9% women and 50.1% men) aged between 12 and 60 years, selected from a proportional stratified sampling, participated in this study. The measuring instrument was an adaptation of the National Survey on Victimization and Perception of Public Security. Chi-square tests were performed. RESULTS The results show significant differences on victimization and sex regarding perception of insecurity, restrictions on everyday activities, and protection measures. 13.1% of those interviewed claimed to have been victims of a crime in the past 12 months. 52.7% of women considered their municipality as unsafe or very unsafe. In the case of men, this percentage was 58.2%. Female victims reported significant restrictions in everyday activities when compared to non-victims. In relation to men, the percentage of victims with a high restriction of activities was higher in male victims than non-victims. In the group of victimized women, the segment of women who opted for increased measures of protection against crime was larger than expected, while those of non-victims who took less protective measures was lower than expected. These same results were observed in the group of men. CONCLUSIONS The experience of victimization implies a greater perception of insecurity. However, the climate of insecurity is widespread in a large number of citizens. Gender differences in a high-crime environment show the importance of investigating in depth the roles of both genders in the perception of insecurity and changes in routines. PMID:27706373

  2. Probability and statistics with integrated software routines

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Probability & Statistics with Integrated Software Routines is a calculus-based treatment of probability concurrent with and integrated with statistics through interactive, tailored software applications designed to enhance the phenomena of probability and statistics. The software programs make the book unique.The book comes with a CD containing the interactive software leading to the Statistical Genie. The student can issue commands repeatedly while making parameter changes to observe the effects. Computer programming is an excellent skill for problem solvers, involving design, prototyping, data gathering, testing, redesign, validating, etc, all wrapped up in the scientific method.See also: CD to accompany Probability and Stats with Integrated Software Routines (0123694698)* Incorporates more than 1,000 engaging problems with answers* Includes more than 300 solved examples* Uses varied problem solving methods

  3. External Agents' Effect on Routine Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busse Hansen, Nicolai

    over others. In producing an action, the relevant next action is projected. However the relevant next action is projected in a specific way and if this is not taken in to account then the routine becomes disrupted. Another core aspect is the notion of deontics that lends itself towards describing who...... and affiliation are central to how routines are maintained but also susceptible to disruption in case of mis- management. Also the paper contributes with a more fine-tuned understanding of action in terms of them being organized in accordance with preference, which basically means that some actions are preferred...... has the rights to constrict the relevant next action. As it is shown, the major portion of this resides on part of the interviewers. The added value of this endeavor is showing how detailed analyses of face-to-face interac- tion can provide a step towards a more detailed understanding of the social...

  4. The Ergonomics audit as an everyday factor in safe and efficient working

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.G. (Commission of the European Community (Luxembourg). ECSC Ergonomics Programme)

    1992-09-01

    Several of the ECSC Ergonomics Programmes have incorporated the concepts of risk perception and hazard awareness in a wider framework of human error to develop an Ergonomics Based Human Error Audit. The article describes the Audit and its application to a locomotive haulage route in an underground coal mine. A current project (7250/12/025) will in the course of its work develop the Audit into a system which can be used routinely by non-specialist staff. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Primary culture media for routine urine processing.

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, J C; Lucia, B; Clark, E.; Berman, M.; Goldstein, J.; D'Amato, R F

    1982-01-01

    It has been recommended that routine microbiological processing of urine specimens include quantitative plating onto blood agar medium along with a selective and differential agar such as MacConkey agar for gram-negative organisms. Few data have been published to justify this combination. To evaluate the validity of this recommendation 2,553 midstream, clean-voided urine samples were quantitatively plated onto blood agar, MacConkey agar, and colistin-nalidixic acid agar, which is a selective ...

  6. Perception of everyday sounds: a developmental study of a free sorting task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Berland

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The analysis of categorization of everyday sounds is a crucial aspect of the perception of our surrounding world. However, it constitutes a poorly explored domain in developmental studies. The aim of our study was to understand the nature and the logic of the construction of auditory cognitive categories for natural sounds during development. We have developed an original approach based on a free sorting task (FST. Indeed, categorization is fundamental for structuring the world and cognitive skills related to, without having any need of the use of language. Our project explored the ability of children to structure their acoustic world, and to investigate how such structuration matures during normal development. We hypothesized that age affects the listening strategy and the category decision, as well as the number and the content of individual categories. DESIGN: Eighty-two French children (6-9 years, 20 teenagers (12-13 years, and 24 young adults participated in the study. Perception and categorization of everyday sounds was assessed based on a FST composed of 18 different sounds belonging to three a priori categories: non-linguistic human vocalizations, environmental sounds, and musical instruments. RESULTS: Children listened to the sounds more times than older participants, built significantly more classes than adults, and used a different strategy of classification. We can thus conclude that there is an age effect on how the participants accomplished the task. Analysis of the auditory categorization performed by 6-year-old children showed that this age constitutes a pivotal stage, in agreement with the progressive change from a non-logical reasoning based mainly on perceptive representations to the logical reasoning used by older children. In conclusion, our results suggest that the processing of auditory object categorization develops through different stages, while the intrinsic basis of the classification of sounds is already

  7. The everyday elasticity of compliance in a symptomless disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felde, Lina Hoel

    2011-01-01

    Medically, compliance refers to the extent to which a patient's response to medical advice coincides with doctors' orders. Rather than this absolute standard, this article treats compliance as an institutionally available discourse continually figured in practice. The aim of this article...... and now' in the present from one episode to the next. Present-bound conditions create, from moment to moment, a temporal limbo that challenges and conditions the participants' constructions of compliance. Using three contexts as examples, this article empirically demonstrates how people with a symptomless...... give-and-take. This elasticity of compliance reveals a reflexive critique of medical compliance as a moral standard and leads us to discuss how people are adequately compliant in everyday moral contexts. Copyright © Equinox Publishing Ltd....

  8. Consumer decision making regarding a "green" everyday product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Jørgensen, Anne-Katrine; Sandager, Sara

    2012-01-01

    to elevate consumer involvement in the choice of the product. However, there is a lack of research investigating whether adding such a “green” product attribute actually makes any difference to how consumers make choices. Does the way in which consumers make decisions about groceries change when both “green......One of the techniques marketers use to convert low-involvement products into high-involvement ones is adding an important product feature. A case in point is the common practice of adding a “green” or environmentally friendly product feature to an everyday product, something which is often assumed......” and conventional alternatives are available? Does it make them deliberate more or do they just develop another, simple choice heuristic? Based on observation and follow-up interviews of consumers at the milk counter in two supermarkets which stock both organic (a “green” attribute) and conventional milk...

  9. The Value of Art and Culture in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juncker, Beth; Balling, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the earliest forms of mass media, the dichotomy of mass culture/popular arts and high culture/fine art has been a topic of debate. The discussion has focused on the value and use of different art forms and on different notions on and attitudes to the purpose of art. The concept...... of cultural democracy has developed as a way to acknowledge and support a variety of cultural activities. Despite attempts to develop a broader understanding of culture and to acknowledge different ways of participating in and experiencing and valuing art and culture, cultural policy still seems to reproduce...... the dichotomies between high and popular culture, and to value the first over the latter. Art and culture are rarely understood as an independent way to experiences, meaning creation and values in everyday life. In this article, we would argue for an expanded understanding of cultural democracy, which not only...

  10. Social media and everyday language use among Copenhagen youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Andreas

    The dissertation concerns the role of social media in young peoples’ everyday lives and it addresses how social media can be approached from a sociolinguistic and ethnographic perspective. My research is driven by an interest in how the complexity and mobility of linguistic and social resources...... carried out online ethnography by following the adolescents’ activities on Facebook. In the dissertation I pursue the topics of social media and sociolinguistic normativity and social media, semiotic resources and popular culture. Regarding the first thematic direction I find that social network sites...... are not free or unregulated orthographic spaces as depicted in public discourses on youth and social media, that linguistic and social normativity is polycentrically organized and that spoken and written discourse should not be separated in accounts of enregisterment in contemporary societies. Regarding...

  11. Kindergarten children’s digitized conduct of everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    The relation between a child’s everyday life and digital media technologies is complex and complicated. To what extent children think them subjectively relevant for their lives and subsequently use meanings transmitted by domesticated technologies in the contexts they live in/with and move through...... be valuable for understanding this relationship in such a two-sided manner. However, studies building on an agential-realist perspective often neglect that children face concrete dilemmas when trying to integrate digital media technologies into institutionalized practices. These dilemmas persist over time...... and tackle contradictory demands in the institution. Hence the paper makes the fundamental argument that the children’s particular actions are directed towards something more general, towards possibilities and limitations for contributing to the kindergarten practice via their technology-related meanings...

  12. Scaling Up Connections: Everyday Cosmopolitanism, Complexity Theory & Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Onyx

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the key questions of contemporary society is how to foster and develop social interactions which will lead to a strong and inclusive society, one which accounts for the diversity inherent in local communities, whether that diversity be based on differences in interest or diversity in language and culture. The purpose of this paper is to examine three concepts which are used in the exploration of social interactions to suggest ways in which the interplay of these concepts might provide a richer understanding of social interactions. The three concepts are everyday cosmopolitanism, complexity theory and social capital. Each provides a partial approach to explanations of social interactions. Through focussing on social networking as a significant example of social interactions, we will demonstrate how the concepts can be linked and this linking brings potential for a clearer understanding of the processes through which this inclusive society may develop.

  13. Micro-Valences: Affective valence in neutral everyday objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eLebrecht

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Affective valence influences both our cognition and our perception of the world. Indeed, the speed and quality with which we recognize objects in a visual scene can vary dramatically depending on its affective content. However, affective processing of visual objects has been typically studied using only stimuli with strong affective valences (e.g., guns or roses. Here we explore whether affective valence must be strong or obvious to exert an effect on our perception. We conclude that the majority of objects carry some affective valence (micro-valences and, thus, nominally neutral objects are not really neutral. Functionally, the perception of valence in everyday objects facilitates perceptually-driven choice behavior, decision-making, and affective responses.

  14. Practical wisdom, understanding of coherence and competencies for everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2009-01-01

    and interviews, followed by an action research approach, is reported. The work was further used for developing text books for home economics education in the primary and lower secondary school with the following titles: Home Economics in words and actions and Home Economics in thoughts, words and actions......The focus of this article is the subject home economics education in the primary and lower secondary school in the 21st century. Practical wisdom, understanding of coherence and competencies for everyday life are suggested as aims of home economics education. It is argued that these elements should...... be included as part of general education and ‘Bildung' [1] in late modern society. This article raises the following questions: what, how and why should these elements be included.   A literature research and developmental work within two home economics classes over two years commencing with observations...

  15. Infants' understanding of everyday social interactions: a dual process account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Melinder, Annika

    2010-02-01

    Six- and 12-month-old infant's eye movements were recorded as they observed feeding actions being performed in a rational or non-rational manner. Twelve-month-olds fixated the goal of these actions before the food arrived (anticipation); the latency of these gaze shifts being dependent (r=.69) on infants life experience being feed. In addition, 6- and 12-month-olds dilated their pupil during observation of non-rational feeding actions. This effect could not be attributed to light differences or differences in familiarity, but was interpreted to reflect sympathetic-like activity and arousal caused by a violation of infant's expectations about rationality. We argue that evaluation of rationality requires less experience than anticipations of action goals, suggesting a dual process account of preverbal infants' everyday action understanding.

  16. Surviving Violence in Everyday Life: A Communicative Approach to Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Elaine

    2017-02-17

    In this narrative review, the author synthesizes the literature on homelessness across various disciplines (e.g., public health, social work, sociology, and communication) to demonstrate how the experiences of homelessness can be created, maintained, and reinforced through communication, including interpersonal interactions and public discourse. By conceptualizing homelessness as a culturally constructed and socially situated phenomenon, the author examines (a) the complex conceptualization of homelessness, (b) everyday violence faced by people who are homeless, and (c) coping strategies of people who are homeless. In summary, homelessness is a complex social phenomenon, involving tensions between individuals, families, and social systems, all of which are situated in the larger sociocultural and sociopolitical contexts of a specific time and place.

  17. Assimilating Dokdo: The Islets in Korean Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Palmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty over the Tokto Islets is heatedly contested between South Korea and Japan. The Korean government and citizenry have responded to this dispute by inserting the islets into their national collective memory in multifarious ways in an attempt to strengthen their nation’s claim to Tokto. The islets are included in the material culture and public memory of the nation in ways that make them part of everyday life for millions of Koreans. Korea’s claim to Tokto is currently taught in schools, presented in museums, found in popular songs, and exploited by businesses for profit. The deeper Tokto becomes entrenched in Korean society, the less likely a compromise can be reached with Japan over the islets.

  18. Endless everyday images: links and excesses in digital image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia do Amaral Leão

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzed the relationships and communication links between overproduced images on digital media and their carriers. I start from the hypothesis that the way we look, record, save and access images have been deeply modified with the advent of digital cameras and ‘phone cameras’ – encouraging an addictive behavior for pictures. The method was based on interviews with ten informers – the images’ carriers, who let us conclude that we are overproducing pictures as information. In this context arise the producers of endless everyday pictures, here named ‘photomaniacs’, who give birth two kinds of images: the circulatory infoimages and the everyday infoimages. Overproduced digital images transform devices in our magnifiers of memory and oblivion, undoing the way we compile, save or file – and operating in cumulative, disordered, small and private stock of images. Thus, we try to saturate our most superficial memory, that generates schizophrenic pictures when operates on excess. However, even if the way is only technological, we must remember that the body is the living organism suitable to pictures, the place where we hold deep bonding relations. Over this body surface, images survive impregnated of meanings, links, belonging and healing. The research was based on the theories of communication links of Boris Cyrulnik, Jose Ângelo Gaiarsa and Ashley Montagu, besides the works on images and schizophrenia of Nise da Silveira and Leo Navratil. The research also activated the central European stream of Cultural Semiotics, specially the theories of images proposed by Aby Warburg, Walter Benjamin, Dietmar Kamper, Norval Baitello Junior, Hans Belting and Vilém Flusser.

  19. Developing Young Children's Self-Regulation through Everyday Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Ida Rose

    2011-01-01

    Every child is different. Some have difficulty expressing their ideas verbally. Some struggle to get along with peers or follow classroom routines. In each case, however, one thing is the same: improved learning and behavior requires strong self-regulation skills. Children develop foundational skills for self-regulation in the first five years of…

  20. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  1. Do everyday problems of people with chronic illness interfere with their disease management? Chronic Disease epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Houtum, Lieke; Rijken, Mieke; Groenewegen, Petrus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Being chronically ill is a continuous process of balancing the demands of the illness and the demands of everyday life. Understanding how everyday life affects self-management might help to provide better professional support. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of

  2. Everyday Matters in Science and Mathematics: Studies of Complex Classroom Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo, Ed.; Rosebery, Ann S., Ed.; Solomon, Jesse, Ed.; Warren, Beth, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book re-examines the dichotomy between the everyday and the disciplinary in mathematics and science education, and explores alternatives to this opposition from points of view grounded in the close examination of complex classroom events. It makes the case that students' everyday experience and knowledge in their entire manifold forms matter…

  3. Cognitive Ability as a Resource for Everyday Functioning among Older Adults Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, Vera; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigated the role of cognitive resources in the everyday functioning of 121 older adults who were visually impaired and 150 sighted older adults, with a mean age of 82 years. Cognitive performance and everyday functioning were most strongly related in the group who were visually impaired. The authors…

  4. Book Review: John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke (2007) (eds) Everyday Politics of the World Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Michael Stewart

    2009-01-01

    Book Review: John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke (2007) (eds) Everyday Politics of the World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 254pp. Udgivelsesdato: 2009......Book Review: John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke (2007) (eds) Everyday Politics of the World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 254pp. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  5. The lived experience of engaging in everyday occupations in persons with mild to moderate aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Tuuli; Johansson, Ulla

    2013-10-01

    Impairment of language ability, aphasia, can cause barriers to communication and hence impact on participation in many life situations. This study aimed to describe and explore how persons with aphasia following stroke experience engaging in everyday occupations. Six persons from Southwest Finland who had aphasia due to stroke one to four years previously were interviewed for the study. A modified form of the empirical phenomenological psychological method was used for data analysis. Three main characteristics of experiences of engaging in everyday occupations were identified: (1) encountering new experiences in everyday occupations, (2) striving to handle everyday occupations and (3) going ahead with life. The participants had experienced an altering life-world. Engagement in occupations affected their perceptions of competence and identity, and experiences of belonging and well-being. It was also through engagement in everyday occupations that they had discovered and learnt to handle changes in their everyday life. Aphasia can have a long-term impact on engagement in everyday occupations and participation in society, but conversely, engagement in meaningful occupations can also contribute to adaptation to disability and life changes. Aphasia can have a long-term impact on engagement in everyday occupations and participation in society. Health care professionals need to determine what clients with aphasia think about their occupations and life situations in spite of difficulties they may have verbalizing their thoughts. Experiences of engaging in meaningful occupations can help clients with aphasia in reconstructing their life stories, thereby contributing to adaptation to disability and life changes.

  6. Expanding the conduct of everyday life concept for psychological media research with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    2013-01-01

    , the article shows how the concept is fruitful for investigating how kindergarten children use media technologies for conducting their everyday lives in the mutually shared kindergarten practice. Finally, it argues that the concept needs to be expanded in order to comprehensively grasp the intersubjective...... and material mediatedness of an everyday life with media technologies....

  7. Everyday movement and use of the arms: Relationship in children with hemiparesis differs from adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Brad; Uswatte, Gitendra; Vogtle, Laura; Byrom, Ezekiel; Barman, Joydip

    2015-01-01

    In adults with hemiparesis amount of movement of the more-affected arm is related to its amount of use in daily life. In children, little is known about everyday arm use. This report examines the relationships between everyday movement of the more-affected arm and its (a) everyday use and (b) motor capacity in children with hemiparesis. Participants were 28 children with a wide range of upper-extremity hemiparesis subsequent to cerebral palsy due to pre- or peri-natal stroke. Everyday movement of the more-affected arm was assessed by putting accelerometers on the children's forearms for three days. Everyday use of that arm and its motor capacity were assessed with the Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised and Pediatric Arm Function Test, respectively. Intensity of everyday movement of the more-affected arm was correlated with its motor capacity (rs ≥ 0.52, ps ≤ 0.003). However, everyday movement of that arm was not correlated with its everyday use (rs ≤ 0.30, ps ≥ $ 0.126). In children with upper-extremity hemiparesis who meet the study intake criteria amount of movement of the more-affected arm in daily life is not related to its amount to use, suggesting that children differ from adults in this respect.

  8. MagicMirror: designing for transitions as they play out in everyday physical rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagalkot, Naveen L.; Sokoler, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    in designing for the transition between exercising at the rehab centre and at home; and also between minute everyday transitions while exercising itself. We invoke the notions of collaborative articulation and piggybacking on everyday artefacts and practices as the way to design for these transitions. Finally...

  9. Do everyday problems of people with chronic illness interfere with their self-management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, L. van; Rijken, M.; Groenewegen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Being chronically ill is a continuous process of balancing the demands of the illness and the demands of everyday life. Understanding how everyday life affects self-management might help to provide better professional support. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of e

  10. Sociodemographic Characteristics Associated with the Everyday Health Information Literacy of Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Noora; Ek, Stefan; Niemelä, Raimo; Korpelainen, Raija; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Everyday health information literacy refers to the competencies needed to find relevant information, evaluate its reliability, and use it to make decisions concerning health in everyday life. More evidence is needed of the determinants of health information literacy to better understand how it is acquired and through which mechanisms…

  11. Everyday life and health concepts among blue collar female workers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magne, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The article introduces a perspective on health of women with low level of education in terms of the organisation of their everyday life. The aim is to demonstrate the ways in which the women’s concept of health is contingent upon the conditions encountered in everyday life. A qualitative study...

  12. Un dia en la vida: The Everyday Activities of Young Children from Central American Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Nicole; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the everyday activities of young children from low-income Central American (CA) immigrant families. From the perspective that everyday activities propel children's development of culturally and contextually valued behaviours and skills, 48 mothers were interviewed regarding the activities that are available…

  13. Everyday Mathematics®. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated November 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Everyday Mathematics®" curriculum aims to provide students in prekindergarten through grade 6 with multiple opportunities to learn math concepts and practice skills. Since the release of the WWC's 2010 Everyday Mathematics report, the curriculum continues to be widely used and evaluated. This updated review includes 30 studies that…

  14. Entrepreneurship as Everyday Practice: Towards a Personalized Pedagogy of Enterprise Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenker, Per; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe; Korsgaard, Steffen; Muller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the perspective of "entrepreneurship as an everyday practice" in education, the authors conceptualize opportunities as arising from the everyday practice of individuals. Opportunities are thus seen as emanating from the individual entrepreneur's ability to disclose anomalies and disharmonies in their personal life. The paper illustrates…

  15. Un dia en la vida: The Everyday Activities of Young Children from Central American Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Nicole; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the everyday activities of young children from low-income Central American (CA) immigrant families. From the perspective that everyday activities propel children's development of culturally and contextually valued behaviours and skills, 48 mothers were interviewed regarding the activities that are available…

  16. Entrepreneurship as Everyday Practice: Towards a Personalized Pedagogy of Enterprise Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenker, Per; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe; Korsgaard, Steffen; Muller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the perspective of "entrepreneurship as an everyday practice" in education, the authors conceptualize opportunities as arising from the everyday practice of individuals. Opportunities are thus seen as emanating from the individual entrepreneur's ability to disclose anomalies and disharmonies in their personal life. The paper illustrates…

  17. Between the International and the Everyday : Geopolitics and Imaginaries of Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David

    2016-01-01

    The connection between the everyday and the international has received increasing attention in critical IR in recent years. As many contributions aim to rethink the international in terms of the everyday, the mundane and the ordinary become a site of geopolitical analysis. The paper’s central idea i

  18. Brief Sexual Histories and Routine HIV/STD Testing by Medical Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Yzette; Castellanos, Ted; Barrow, Roxanne Y.; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Caine, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Clinicians who routinely take patient sexual histories have the opportunity to assess patient risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and make appropriate recommendations for routine HIV/STD screenings. However, less than 40% of providers conduct sexual histories with patients, and many do not receive formal sexual history training in school. After partnering with a national professional organization of physicians, we trained 26 (US and US territory-based) practicing physicians (58% female; median age=48 years) regarding sexual history taking using both in-person and webinar methods. Trainings occurred during either a 6-h onsite or 2-h webinar session. We evaluated their post-training experiences integrating sexual histories during routine medical visits. We assessed use of sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. All participating physicians reported improved sexual history taking and increases in documented sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. Four themes emerged from the qualitative evaluations: (1) the need for more sexual history training; (2) the importance of providing a gender-neutral sexual history tool; (3) the existence of barriers to routine sexual histories/testing; and (4) unintended benefits for providers who were conducting routine sexual histories. These findings were used to develop a brief, gender-neutral sexual history tool for clinical use. This pilot evaluation demonstrates that providers were willing to utilize a sexual history tool in clinical practice in support of HIV/STD prevention efforts. PMID:24564387

  19. Cost-utility of routine cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryynänen Olli-Pekka

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If decisions on health care spending are to be as rational and objective as possible, knowledge on cost-effectiveness of routine care is essential. Our aim, therefore, was to evaluate the cost-utility of routine cataract surgery in a real-world setting. Methods Prospective assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL of patients undergoing cataract surgery. 219 patients (mean (SD age 71 (11 years entering cataract surgery (in 87 only first eye operated, in 73 both eyes operated, in 59 first eye had been operated earlier filled in the 15D HRQoL questionnaire before and six months after operation. Direct hospital costs were obtained from a clinical patient administration database and cost-utility analysis performed from the perspective of the secondary care provider extrapolating benefits of surgery to the remaining statistical life-expectancy of the patients. Results Mean (SD utility score (on a 0–1 scale increased statistically insignificantly from 0.82 (0.13 to 0.83 (0.14. Of the 15 dimensions of the HRQoL instrument, only seeing improved significantly after operation. Mean utility score improved statistically significantly only in patients reporting significant or major preoperative seeing problems. Of the subgroups, only those whose both eyes were operated during follow-up showed a statistically significant (p Conclusion Mean utility gain after routine cataract surgery in a real-world setting was relatively small and confined mostly to patients whose both eyes were operated. The cost of cataract surgery per quality-adjusted life year gained was much higher than previously reported and associated with considerable uncertainty.

  20. Social Representations of Hero and Everyday Hero: A Network Study from Representative Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keczer, Zsolt; File, Bálint; Orosz, Gábor; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    The psychological investigation of heroism is relatively new. At this stage, inductive methods can shed light on its main aspects. Therefore, we examined the social representations of Hero and Everyday Hero by collecting word associations from two separate representative samples in Hungary. We constructed two networks from these word associations. The results show that the social representation of Hero is more centralized and it cannot be divided into smaller units. The network of Everyday Hero is divided into five units and the significance moves from abstract hero characteristics to concrete social roles and occupations exhibiting pro-social values. We also created networks from the common associations of Hero and Everyday Hero. The structures of these networks show a moderate similarity and the connections are more balanced in case of Everyday Hero. While heroism in general can be the source of inspiration, the promotion of everyday heroism can be more successful in encouraging ordinary people to recognize their own potential for heroic behavior.

  1. CPU timing routines for a CONVEX C220 computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    The timing routines available on the CONVEX C220 computer system in the Structural Mechanics Division (SMD) at NASA Langley Research Center are examined. The function of the timing routines, the use of the timing routines in sequential, parallel, and vector code, and the interpretation of the results from the timing routines with respect to the CONVEX model of computing are described. The timing routines available on the SMD CONVEX fall into two groups. The first group includes standard timing routines generally available with UNIX 4.3 BSD operating systems, while the second group includes routines unique to the SMD CONVEX. The standard timing routines described in this report are /bin/csh time,/bin/time, etime, and ctime. The routines unique to the SMD CONVEX are getinfo, second, cputime, toc, and a parallel profiling package made up of palprof, palinit, and palsum.

  2. Radiation dose monitoring in the clinical routine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guberina, Nika [UK Essen (Germany). Radiology

    2017-04-15

    Here we describe the first clinical experiences regarding the use of an automated radiation dose management software to monitor the radiation dose of patients during routine examinations. Many software solutions for monitoring radiation dose have emerged in the last decade. The continuous progress in radiological techniques, new scan features, scanner generations and protocols are the primary challenge for radiation dose monitoring software systems. To simulate valid dose calculations, radiation dose monitoring systems have to follow current trends and stay constantly up-to-date. The dose management software is connected to all devices at our institute and conducts automatic data acquisition and radiation dose calculation. The system incorporates 18 virtual phantoms based on the Cristy phantom family, estimating doses in newborns to adults. Dose calculation relies on a Monte Carlo simulation engine. Our first practical experiences demonstrate that the software is capable of dose estimation in the clinical routine. Its implementation and use have some limitations that can be overcome. The software is promising and allows assessment of radiation doses, like organ and effective doses according to ICRP 60 and ICRP 103, patient radiation dose history and cumulative radiation doses. Furthermore, we are able to determine local diagnostic reference doses. The radiation dose monitoring software systems can facilitate networking between hospitals and radiological departments, thus refining radiation doses and implementing reference doses at substantially lower levels.

  3. Understanding health through social practices: performance and materiality in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Cecily Jane

    2015-01-01

    The importance of recognising structure and agency in health research to move beyond methodological individualism is well documented. To progress incorporating social theory into health, researchers have used Giddens' and Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social practice to understand relationships between agency, structure and health. However, social practice theories have more to offer than has currently been capitalised upon. This article delves into contemporary theories of social practice as used in consumption and sustainability research to provide an alternative, and more contextualised means, of understanding and explaining human action in relation to health and wellbeing. Two key observations are made. Firstly, the latest formulations of social practice theory distinguish moments of practice performance from practices as persistent entities across time and space, allowing empirical application to explain practice histories and future trajectories. Secondly, they emphasise the materiality of everyday life, foregrounding things, technologies and other non-humans that cannot be ignored in a technologically dependent social world. In concluding, I argue the value of using contemporary social practice theories in health research is that they reframe the way in which health outcomes can be understood and could inform more effective interventions that move beyond attitudes, behaviour and choices.

  4. Remembrance of Things Future: Prospective Memory in Laboratory, Workplace, and Everyday Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dismukes, R. Key

    2010-01-01

    In this review, oriented to the human factors community, I will summarize and provide a perspective on recent research and theory on prospective memory. This will not be an exhaustive review of literature, which is already available in two excellent recent books that provide a wealth of detail on the current state of experimental research (Kliegel, McCaniel, & Einstein, 2008; McDaniel & Einstein, 2007; also see Brandimonte, Einstein, & McDaniel, 1996, for a still relevant overview of the field as it was emerging). Rather, I will explore the limits of existing experimental paradigms and theory, Vvilich, in my opinion, fail to capture some critical aspects of performance outside the laboratory. I will also review the relatively few studies in workplace and everyday settings and will discuss several studies that attempt to bridge between the bulk of experimental studies and these few naturalistic studies. Finally, I will describe countermeasures that can reduce vulnerability to forgetting to perform intended tasks, and I will propose a research agenda that would extend existing experimental and theoretical approaches and would support human factors practitioners by generating information on a wide range of issues relevant to prospective memory performance in natural settings.

  5. A Lifelog Browser for Visualization and Search of Mobile Everyday-Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Sung Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices can now handle a great deal of information thanks to the convergence of diverse functionalities. Mobile environments have already shown great potential in terms of providing customized service to users because they can record meaningful and private information continually for long periods of time. The research for understanding, searching and summarizing the everyday-life of human has received increasing attention in recent years due to the digital convergence. In this paper, we propose a mobile life browser, which visualizes and searches human's mobile life based on the contents and context of lifelog data. The mobile life browser is for searching the personal information effectively collected on his/her mobile device and for supporting the concept-based searching method by using concept networks and Bayesian networks. In the experiments, we collected the real mobile log data from three users for a month and visualized the mobile lives of the users with the mobile life browser developed. Some tests on searching tasks confirmed that the result using the proposed concept-based searching method is promising.

  6. Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss

  7. Ascaris lumbricoides: To Expect the Unexpected during a Routine Colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Kalyan; Makker, Jasbir S; Remy, Prospere

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a common nematode infecting humans worldwide with increased prevalence in tropical and subtropical areas of less developed countries. Recently, it has been estimated that over one billion individuals are infected with ascariasis worldwide with 7% in USA. Although most of these cases are due to increasing immigration and travel outside America it is worth recognizing that prevalence of ascariasis is high in southeastern parts of USA due to their temperate climate. Infections of A. lumbricoides are largely asymptomatic, and hence a large population of people carrying this worm remains undetected for years until they develop some symptoms. Due to a large group of asymptomatic individuals with intestinal ascariasis, these worms are occasionally and unexpectedly identified during routine endoscopic procedures. Here, we present a case of an intestinal ascariasis found during routine colonoscopy in an African-American man from the Bronx with perianal itching. He denied any history of travel outside USA but reported frequent visits to South Carolina. This case illustrates the fact that ascariasis should be suspected even if immigration or travel outside USA is not involved. It should be suspected even in cases of travel within USA to the south east where endemic cases are reported.

  8. Ascaris lumbricoides: To Expect the Unexpected during a Routine Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Kanneganti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides is a common nematode infecting humans worldwide with increased prevalence in tropical and subtropical areas of less developed countries. Recently, it has been estimated that over one billion individuals are infected with ascariasis worldwide with 7% in USA. Although most of these cases are due to increasing immigration and travel outside America it is worth recognizing that prevalence of ascariasis is high in southeastern parts of USA due to their temperate climate. Infections of A. lumbricoides are largely asymptomatic, and hence a large population of people carrying this worm remains undetected for years until they develop some symptoms. Due to a large group of asymptomatic individuals with intestinal ascariasis, these worms are occasionally and unexpectedly identified during routine endoscopic procedures. Here, we present a case of an intestinal ascariasis found during routine colonoscopy in an African-American man from the Bronx with perianal itching. He denied any history of travel outside USA but reported frequent visits to South Carolina. This case illustrates the fact that ascariasis should be suspected even if immigration or travel outside USA is not involved. It should be suspected even in cases of travel within USA to the south east where endemic cases are reported.

  9. Routine Discovery of Complex Genetic Models using Genetic Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason H; Hahn, Lance W; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Thornton, Tricia A; White, Bill C

    2004-02-01

    Simulation studies are useful in various disciplines for a number of reasons including the development and evaluation of new computational and statistical methods. This is particularly true in human genetics and genetic epidemiology where new analytical methods are needed for the detection and characterization of disease susceptibility genes whose effects are complex, nonlinear, and partially or solely dependent on the effects of other genes (i.e. epistasis or gene-gene interaction). Despite this need, the development of complex genetic models that can be used to simulate data is not always intuitive. In fact, only a few such models have been published. We have previously developed a genetic algorithm approach to discovering complex genetic models in which two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence disease risk solely through nonlinear interactions. In this paper, we extend this approach for the discovery of high-order epistasis models involving three to five SNPs. We demonstrate that the genetic algorithm is capable of routinely discovering interesting high-order epistasis models in which each SNP influences risk of disease only through interactions with the other SNPs in the model. This study opens the door for routine simulation of complex gene-gene interactions among SNPs for the development and evaluation of new statistical and computational approaches for identifying common, complex multifactorial disease susceptibility genes.

  10. Using Science and the Internet as Everyday Classroom Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Eric

    1999-01-01

    The Everyday Classroom Tools project developed a K-6 inquiry-based curriculum to bring the tools of scientific inquiry, together with the Internet, into the elementary school classroom. Our curriculum encourages students and teachers to experience the adventure of science through investigation of the world around us. In this project, experts in computer science and astronomy at SAO worked closely with teachers and students in Massachusetts elementary schools to design and model activities which are developmentally appropriate, fulfill the needs of the curriculum standards of the school district, and provide students with a chance to experience for themselves the joy and excitement of scientific inquiry. The results of our efforts are embodied in the Threads of Inquiry, a series of free-flowing dialogues about inquiry-inspiring investigations that maintain a solid connection with our experience and with one another. These investigations are concerned with topics such as the motion of the Earth, shadows, light, and time. Our work emphasizes a direct hands-on approach through concrete experience, rather than memorization of facts.

  11. The Everyday Moral Judge - Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, André; Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants' descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived.

  12. Predicting hearing aid microphone preference in everyday listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Brian E; Surr, Rauna K; Cord, Mary T; Dyrlund, Ole

    2004-05-01

    Seventeen hearing-impaired adults were fit with omnidirectional/directional hearing aids, which they wore during a four-week trial. For each listening situation encountered in daily living during a total of seven days, participants selected the preferred microphone mode and described the listening situation in terms of five environmental variables, using a paper and pencil form. Results indicated that hearing-impaired adults typically spend the majority of their active listening time in situations with background noise present and surrounding the listener, and the signal source located in front and relatively near. Microphone preferences were fairly evenly distributed across listening situations but differed depending on the characteristics of the listening environment. The omnidirectional mode tended to be preferred in relatively quiet listening situations or, in the presence of background noise, when the signal source was relatively far away. The directional mode tended to be preferred when background noise was present and the signal source was located in front of and relatively near the listener. Results suggest that knowing only signal location and distance and whether background noise is present or absent, omnidirectional/directional hearing aids can be set in the preferred mode in most everyday listening situations. These findings have relevance for counseling patients when to set manually switchable omnidirectional/directional hearing aids in each microphone mode, as well as for the development of automatic algorithms for selecting omnidirectional versus directional microphone processing.

  13. Reducing Energy Waste through Eco-Aware Everyday Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan López-de-Armentia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Society wastes much more energy than it should. This produces tons of unnecessary CO2 emissions. This is partly due to the inadequate use of electrical devices given the intangible and invisible nature of energy. This misuse of devices and energy unawareness is particularly relevant in public spaces (offices, schools, hospitals and so on, where people use electrical appliances, but they do not directly pay the invoice to energy providers. Embedding intelligence within public, shared appliances, transforming them into Eco-aware things, is valuable to reduce a proportion of the unnecessarily consumed energy. To this end, we present a twofold approach for better energy efficiency in public spaces: (1 informing persuasively to concerned users about the misuse of electronic appliances; (2 Customizing the operating mode of this everyday electrical appliances as a function of their real usage pattern. To back this approach, a capsule-based coffee machine placed in a research laboratory has been augmented. This device is able to continuously collect its usage pattern to offer feedback to coffee consumers about the energy wasting and also, to intelligently adapt its operation to reduce wasted energy. To this aim, several machine learning approaches are compared and evaluated to forecast the next-day device usage.

  14. The Design of Everyday Hate: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Aumer-Ryan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history artists, poets, and writers have been interested in the nature of hate. Scientists from a variety of disciplines have also attempted to unravel its mysteries. Yet in spite of abundant theorizing and research, most modern scholars still complain that little is known about this complex emotion. In this study, a new approach has been taken. Following Heider’s (1958 observation that scientists can often learn a great deal by exploring people’s “common-sense” or “naïve psychologies,” students at the University of Texas and participants from a number of Internet sites were interviewed regarding their perceptions of the nature of emotion. Using grounded theory and employing mixed-method analyses (qualitative and quantitative, four questions were explored: (1 What do people mean by hate? (2 Whom do they hate? (3 Why do people hate the people they do? (4 How do people attempt to deal with such feelings? From participants’ answers, a theory concerning everyday hate was generated.

  15. Psychotherapeutic Methods of Coping with Stress in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol TURAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an inevitable part of life. Knowing the ways of coping with stress are necessary to preserve our mental and physical health and to maintain good social and/or occupational func-tioning in daily life activities. Different ways of coping with stress have been developed throughout history. Various type of therapies offer quite effective remedies for coping with stress in everyday life. Among psychotherapeutic treatments cognitive behavioral therapy which involves teaching stressful individuals to develop coping strategies have yielded very promising results. It is helpful to determine first whether stress source can be changed, several therapeutic approaches may then be used. Lazarus and Folkman have identified two major approaches for coping with stress so-called “problem-focused” and “emotion-focused”. In “problem-focused” approaches targets are acquiring time management, self-monitoring, prob-lem-solving skills, while in “emotion-focused” approaches, through ways of accepting or re-jecting of stress associated negative emotions, or reconciling with these emotions, the target is learning how to keep emotions under control. “Problem-focused” and “emotion-focused” approaches may independently be used effectively in appropriate cases, their simultaneous practice may increase chances of successful treatment. Apart from these methods, psychody-namic therapy may be indicated in some cases

  16. Casual information visualization: depictions of data in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousman, Zachary; Stasko, John; Mateas, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Information visualization has often focused on providing deep insight for expert user populations and on techniques for amplifying cognition through complicated interactive visual models. This paper proposes a new subdomain for infovis research that complements the focus on analytic tasks and expert use. Instead of work-related and analytically driven infovis, we propose Casual Information Visualization (or Casual Infovis) as a complement to more traditional infovis domains. Traditional infovis systems, techniques, and methods do not easily lend themselves to the broad range of user populations, from expert to novices, or from work tasks to more everyday situations. We propose definitions, perspectives, and research directions for further investigations of this emerging subfield. These perspectives build from ambient information visualization [32], social visualization, and also from artistic work that visualizes information [41]. We seek to provide a perspective on infovis that integrates these research agendas under a coherent vocabulary and framework for design. We enumerate the following contributions. First, we demonstrate how blurry the boundary of infovis is by examining systems that exhibit many of the putative proper ties of infovis systems, but perhaps would not be considered so. Second, we explore the notion of insight and how, instead of a monolithic definition of insight, there may be multiple types, each with particular characteristics. Third, we discuss design challenges for systems intended for casual audiences. Finally we conclude with challenges for system evaluation in this emerging subfield.

  17. Optimal Placement of Accelerometers for the Detection of Everyday Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewar Finlay

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an investigation to determine the optimal placement of accelerometers for the purpose of detecting a range of everyday activities. The paper investigates the effect of combining data from accelerometers placed at various bodily locations on the accuracy of activity detection. Eight healthy males participated within the study. Data were collected from six wireless tri-axial accelerometers placed at the chest, wrist, lower back, hip, thigh and foot. Activities included walking, running on a motorized treadmill, sitting, lying, standing and walking up and down stairs. The Support Vector Machine provided the most accurate detection of activities of all the machine learning algorithms investigated. Although data from all locations provided similar levels of accuracy, the hip was the best single location to record data for activity detection using a Support Vector Machine, providing small but significantly better accuracy than the other investigated locations. Increasing the number of sensing locations from one to two or more statistically increased the accuracy of classification. There was no significant difference in accuracy when using two or more sensors. It was noted, however, that the difference in activity detection using single or multiple accelerometers may be more pronounced when trying to detect finer grain activities. Future work shall therefore investigate the effects of accelerometer placement on a larger range of these activities.

  18. Eating behaviors and negative affect in college women's everyday lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Kristin E; Scott, Stacey B; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research seeks to understand the relationship between mood and eating behaviors. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) methods provide a method for assessing these processes in natural settings. We used EMA to examine the relationship between mood and eating behaviors in everyday life among women with subclinical disordered eating behaviors. Participants (N = 127, age M = 19.6 years, BMI M = 25.5) completed five daily EMA reports on palmtop computers for 1 week. Assessments included measures of negative affect (NA) and eating-related behavior during eating (eating large amounts of food, loss of control over eating, and restricting food intake) and noneating episodes (skip eating to control weight/shape). Time-lagged multilevel models tested mood-eating behavior relationships. Higher NA did not precede any unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors. However, NA was higher when women reported eating large quantities of food, losing control over eating, and restricting food intake during their most recent eating episode, but not after skipping eating to control weight/shape. These findings elucidate the processes in daily life that may influence the development and maintenance of unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors that, in turn, can inform interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Episiotomy, must be a routine procedure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar María Clara

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The episiotomia as an obstetric procedure had it first roots at the start of the 18th century, when Stephen mentions how Old made for the first time the episiotomia for extremely difficult delivery. Since 1920 until today its used as a routine procedure of routine in primigestantes. Goals: Comparing the presence of some obstetric complications in nuliparas women after practicing either or not the episiotomia mediolateral. Methodology: The work was donde in the Carlos Holmes Trujillo hospital, that covers the attention of low risk deliveries it south eastern part of the city. An experimental design was made in the one that were selected two different groups of gestantes. The muestra was conformed by 34 patients for the group control (who received the rutinary management of making episiotomia and 30 patients for the experimental group (the ones that didn’t received the routine episiotomia. Results and discussion: The harm perception was a much more intense in thr control group with significatively different status; the pain was qualify form modered to severe. In none of the groups were presented desgarros (grade III and IV circumstances that can be related with the homogeneity that presented the groups according to the different variables associated with this factor, no matter what were some of them presented desgarros in grade I and II in the experimental group occurred in its mayority in the deliveries attended by the less experimented people. The harm associated with episiotomy valued in ten days post delivery were more in the control group against the experimental group, especially difficult to sit downand fear the restart sexual activity, finding frequencies until four timesigher in the control group, circumstances that can affect the process of cicatrisation in the partner relation. This findings are related with the surgical incision and the disagreement things produced in the puerperium. When evaluating the presence of

  20. Participation after acquired brain injury: Associations with everyday technology and activities in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahpour, Mandana; Kottorp, Anders; Nygård, Louise; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2015-01-01

    The development of the information society has led to increased use of everyday technology and changed the conditions for participation. Enabling participation in everyday life situations is an important rehabilitation goal after acquired brain injury (ABI). Identifying factors associated with individuals' experienced participation and problems therein is therefore essential. This study aimed at exploring the relationship between perceived difficulty in everyday technology use, perceived ability in the activities of daily living (ADL), and perceived participation, and participation problems in persons with ABI. Eighty-one persons with ABI participated in the study and were assessed by the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire, the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire, and the ADL taxonomy. Findings showed that the combined model of difficulty in everyday technology (ET) use, ADL ability, and the interaction between them explained both participation in various domains of everyday life, and also overall level of perceived participation and the perceived problems. The findings underscore the importance of evaluating individuals' ability in both ET use and ADL after ABI to increase the probability of explaining these persons' participation in desired everyday life situations and, also, for rehabilitation design.

  1. Adiponectin as a routine clinical biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Ken; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a protein synthesized and secreted predominantly by adipocytes into the peripheral blood. However, circulating adiponectin level is inversely related with body weight, especially visceral fat accumulation. The mechanism of this paradoxical relation remains obscure. Low circulating adiponectin concentrations (hypoadiponectinemia; metabolic syndrome, hyperuricemia), atherosclerosis (coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease), sleep apnea, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, gastritis and gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, pancreatitis, osteoporosis, and cancer (endometrial cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, leukemia, colon cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer). On the other hand, hyperadiponectinemia is associated with cardiac, renal and pulmonary diseases. This review article focuses on the significance of adiponectin as a clinical biomarker of obesity-related diseases. Routine measurement of adiponectin in patients with lifestyle-related diseases is highly recommended.

  2. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Markes, B.M.; McKinney, S.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) a schedule of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) program during calendar year (CY) 1995. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Near-Field Monitoring. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Near-Field Monitoring and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995.

  3. Is routine histopathology of tonsil specimen necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agida S Adoga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tonsillar diseases are common in paediatric and adult otolaryngological practice. These diseases require tonsillectomy. Specimens are subjected to histopathology routinely in my institution for fear of infections and tumour without consideration for risk factors. The financial burden is on the patients and waste of histopathologist′s man hour because other specimens are left un-attended. This study aims to find out the necessity of routine histopathology of tonsil specimens. Materials and Methods : A 2 year retrospective review of the histopathological results of two (paediatric and adult groups of 61 patients managed for tonsillar diseases at the ENT UNIT of Jos University Teaching Hospital from July 2005 to June, 2007. Data extracted included biodata, clinical features and histopathological diagnosis. Result : The 61 patients comprise 35 children and 26 adults. The youngest and oldest paediatric patients were 1 year and 3 months and 16 years respectively, a range of 1 year 3 months to 16 years. The youngest and oldest adults were 17 and 50 years with a range of 17-50 years. Groups mean ages were 5.1 and 28.5 years. The gender ratios were 1:2.7 and 1:1.9 respectively. One adult was HIV positive. The histopathological diagnosis were chronic nonspecific tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, follicular tonsillitis in 23(38.3%, chronic suppurative tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, lymphoid hyperplasia in 18(30.0% and lymphoma in 1(1.0% respectively. Conclusion : Histopathologic request for tonsillectomy specimens should be based on certain risk factors with consideration of the cost to patients and to spare the histopathologist′s man hour.

  4. ROUTINE IMMUNIZATION IN INDIA: A PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Taneja

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Immunization Programme is possibly the longest and one of the biggest public health intervention measures undertaken in India. To improve immunization coverage in the country various initiatives have been undertaken since the inception of the programme in 1985; key inputs being strengthening and expanding the cold chain system, establishing a network of outreach immunization sites, alternate vaccine delivery model, capacity building of health functionaries and medical officers and intensified polio control measures. Introduction of new and underutilized vaccines, drafting of the national vaccine policy, tracking of beneficiaries through the Maternal and Child Tracking system are some of the recent developments. However in spite of more than 25 years since inception the programme is still adversely impacted by challenges across key thematic areas of programme management, cold chain and vaccine management, recording and reporting and injection safety. To further strengthen and improve service delivery 2012-13 has been declared as the “Year of Intensification of Routine Immunization” with the objective of improving immunization coverage rates across poor performing districts and states so as to attain Global Immunization Vision and Strategy goals of 90% coverage at national and more than 80% coverage at district level. Key activities planned during the year include sustained advocacy at all levels, improved communication and social mobilization, robust and regular program reviews, comprehensive microplanning, strengthening cold chain and vaccine logistics system, special catch up rounds through immunization weeks, piloting the teeka express, improved surveillance systems, strengthened partnerships and operational research activities. The current review pertains to the existing scenario of Universal Immunization Program in the country with impetus on the existing challenges, progress achieved till date as a result of various

  5. Attitude and perceptions of women on routine antenatal ultrasound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitude and perceptions of women on routine antenatal ultrasound ... 16 (34.7%) felt that ultrasound should only be done on the doctor's request. ... df=2, P=0.00) were significantly, more favourably disposed to routine scan in pregnancy.

  6. Molecular imaging through 1H MRS and MRSI in everyday routine: Improvements in various clinical applications and parameter optimization of spectroscopic imaging sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatopis, Anastasios; Benekos, Odysseas; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios; Valais, Ioannis; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Kelekis, Nikolaos

    2007-02-01

    In the era of molecular imaging, in vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) are impacting dramatically upon virtually all areas of clinical medicine. MRS and MRSI should be able to identify key biochemical changes, much before the tumour becomes detectable by other functional imaging methods that mainly rely upon single markers that are not entirely sensitive or specific for malignant activity. Combined with other imaging techniques a rapidly advancing modality like MRI offer the ability to estimate the presence of metabolites yields much information regarding tissue. Molecular imaging through magnetic resonance could be potentially suited for screening and repeated monitoring since it entails no exposure to ionizing radiation. Incorporation of these tools in clinical practice is, however, limited due to the considerable amount of user intervention. In this work, various acquisition parameters and their effects in spectrum quality are investigated. In order to assess the quality of various spectroscopic techniques (2D and multi-slice MRSI, multiple echo SI), a series of experiments were conducted using a standard solution. The application of water and fat suppression techniques and their compatibility with other parameters were also investigated. The stability of the equipment, the appearance of errors and artifacts and the reproducibility of the results were also examined to obtain useful conclusions for the interaction of acquisition parameters. All the data were processed with specialized computer software (jMRUI 2.2) to analyze various aspects of the measurements and quantify various parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), peak height and j-modulation. The experience acquired from the conducted experiments was successfully applied in acquisition parameter optimization and improvement of clinical applications (two dimensional (2D) MRSI of prostate, brain and muscle MRS) by significantly improving the spectrum quality, SNR (up to 75%), spatial resolution in 2D MRSI, water and fat suppression and in some cases reducing exam times (up to 60%).

  7. Impact of self-reported multiple chemical sensitivity on everyday life: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Brorson, Stig; Rasmussen, Alice;

    2009-01-01

    on everyday life are limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of MCS on everyday life, strategies for managing the condition, and experiences with healthcare management. METHODS: A focus group study was conducted, including two interviews with a sample of six women and six men between 27 and 78 years of age......, a duration of MCS of at least 1 year, and with different occupational conditions. RESULTS: MCS may severely influence different aspects of everyday life, including lifestyle, social relations, and occupational conditions. Avoiding common airborne chemicals was the most prevalent coping strategy, which...

  8. Energy impacts of ICT – Insights from an everyday life perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Haunstrup Christensen, Toke

    2012-01-01

    The environmental implications of information and communication technology (ICT) have been the subject of study since the early 1990s. Although previous research covers energy issues quite extensively, the treatment of the energy impacts of ICT integration in everyday life is still inadequate...... consumption considerably. The findings do not suggest that the integration of ICT in everyday practices inherently results in a more energy-intensive everyday life. ICTs have a great potential for reducing energy consumption, but the realisation of this depends on the wider economic and political conditions....

  9. Towards Service Robots for Everyday Environments Recent Advances in Designing Service Robots for Complex Tasks in Everyday Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Zöllner, Marius; Bischoff, Rainer; Burgard, Wolfram; Haschke, Robert; Hägele, Martin; Lawitzky, Gisbert; Nebel, Bernhard; Plöger, Paul; Reiser, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    People have dreamed of machines, which would free them from unpleasant, dull, dirty and dangerous tasks and work for them as servants, for centuries if not millennia. Service robots seem to finally let these dreams come true. But where are all these robots that eventually serve us all day long, day for day? A few service robots have entered the market: domestic and professional cleaning robots, lawnmowers, milking robots, or entertainment robots. Some of these robots look more like toys or gadgets rather than real robots. But where is the rest? This is a question, which is asked not only by customers, but also by service providers, care organizations, politicians, and funding agencies. The answer is not very satisfying. Today’s service robots have their problems operating in everyday environments. This is by far more challenging than operating an industrial robot behind a fence. There is a comprehensive list of technical and scientific problems, which still need to be solved. To advance the state of the art...

  10. Rituals and Routines: Supporting Infants and Toddlers and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Linda; Petersen, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The words "routine" and "ritual" are sometimes used interchangeably. Yet there are some important differences. Routines are repeated, predictable events that provide a foundation for the daily tasks in a child's life. Teachers can create a predictable routine in early childhood settings for infants and toddlers, and they can individualize those…

  11. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  12. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, § 493.1267...

  13. Libraries as 'everyday' settings: the Glasgow MCISS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Sandy; Coburn, Jonathan; Lacey, Marion; McKee, Martin J; Hill, Carol

    2016-03-22

    A settings-based approach is now well-established in health promotion, initially undertaken in conventional places like schools and workplaces, but more recently being expressed in a wider range of what Torp et al. call 'everyday' settings. In this context, libraries have emerged as another potential setting whose ubiquity and accessibility suggests that they may be particularly effective in addressing health inequalities. Drawing on a case study-the Glasgow Macmillan Cancer Information and Support Services Library project-this paper reports on the potential for seeing 'libraries as settings' and in the context of a set of associated theoretical resources, specifically scrutinizes the nature of initiative implementation. Data were drawn from multiple sources: semi-structured interviews and focus groups with strategic partners and stakeholders, operational staff, project volunteers, service users and members of the general public. Qualitative data were complemented by quantitative insights from surveys with members of the partnership, libraries staff and volunteers. Despite some concerns associated with potentially hostile cultural and financial contexts that might threaten longer term sustainability, insights suggested that in pragmatic terms, the project was attracting sizable 'footfall' and successfully addressing a range of needs. Additionally, the formal implementation processes associated with project implementation were considered to have been highly successful in embedding the model into the library culture. In summary, there is evidence that libraries have the potential to be considered as supportive settings and could act as a model for an emergent vision of what libraries do. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Law in the Everyday Lives of Transnational Families: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty De Hart

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction of this special issue on “Law in the everyday lives of transnational families”, we argue that in the socio-legal literature on transnationalism and transnational legal process, ordinary people as actors are missing. On the other hand, what is missing from the abundant literature on transnational families, is law, or are ordinary people. In this special issue, we look at how transnational families as legal actors are part of transnational legal processes and how transnational families meet with different types of legal rules that mingle with and influence the personal and private sphere of family life. We specific look at three issues that come up in this context: the power of law, how transnational family members use law and the role of networks and family. En la introducción del número especial sobre “Derecho en el día a día de las familias trasnacionales”, defendemos que en la literatura sociojurídica sobre trasnacionalismo y procesos legales trasnacionales, no se contemplan las personas corrientes como actores. Por otro lado, lo que falta en la abundante literatura sobre familias trasnacionales es el derecho, o son las personas corrientes. En este número especial se analiza cómo las familias trasnacionales, en el papel de actores legales, son parte de procesos legales trasnacionales, y cómo las familias trasnacionales cumplen diferentes tipos de normas legales que atienden a, e influyen en la esfera personal y privada de la vida familiar. Específicamente, se contemplan tres aspectos que surgen en este contexto: el poder del derecho, cómo usan los miembros de las familias trasnacionales el derecho y el papel de las redes de conocidos y el derecho.

  15. Ecological modelling: from the biosphere to the everyday data gathering; filling the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchetti, Rosalba; Marsili, David; Galleni, Lodovico

    2004-01-01

    Biosphere, according to many authors, can be considered as a system characterised by control mechanisms, which allow the maintenance of its stability. If the Biosphere is a complex object, the coming out of the equilibrium will have as a result a rapid change which cannot be controlled and whose results cannot be foresighted. Modelling is, for this reason, desperately needed. A general mathematical modelling suggested that the Biosphere evolution be characterised by periods of stability and instability, which are related to the connections between its components. These components, both living and not living, are connected by feedback relationships maintaining stability. From this model a general ecosystem modelling was developed which was first applied to a very peculiar situation i.e. that of the hydro-thermal marine vents. The hydrothermal ecosystem is, anyway, a very peculiar one and it can be considered also a micro-biosphere with its own sources of energy not related to sun radiation. For this reason it was possible to make a correlation between these very peculiar ecosystems and the Biosphere. More difficult it is to relate the modelling of the light depending ecosystems, which are, on the contrary, of great interest because they are directly linked to the Biosphere and objects of quite everyday data gathering. Usually the description of ecosystems, which is proposed by the everyday operative task of collecting data, and which represents the widest source of data for modelling, is related to the quality of waters or air. In this way we have to find tools correlating the data routinely investigated and the general model proposed. Here we present the other side of the approach, a local investigation of the qualities of water, with the hope to make a proposal for the ecologists to carry on their job also taking into consideration the problem of ecosystems modelling. An evaluation study of the environmental condition of Fine River, based on the E.B.I. method

  16. Routine (non-religious) neonatal circumcision and bodily integrity: a transatlantic dialogue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the current debate about the pros and cons of routine (non-religious) neonatal circumcision (RNC), the emphasis is on medical justifications for the practice. Questions of human rights also are widely discussed. However, even if the alleged medical benefits of RNC were to outweigh the harms and r

  17. Children's Everyday Learning by Assuming Responsibility for Others: Indigenous Practices as a Cultural Heritage Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, David Lorente

    2015-01-01

    This chapter uses a comparative approach to examine the maintenance of Indigenous practices related with Learning by Observing and Pitching In in two generations--parent generation and current child generation--in a Central Mexican Nahua community. In spite of cultural changes and the increase of Western schooling experience, these practices persist, to different degrees, as a Nahua cultural heritage with close historical relations to the key value of cuidado (stewardship). The chapter explores how children learn the value of cuidado in a variety of everyday activities, which include assuming responsibility in many social situations, primarily in cultivating corn, raising and protecting domestic animals, health practices, and participating in family ceremonial life. The chapter focuses on three main points: (1) Cuidado (assuming responsibility for), in the Nahua socio-cultural context, refers to the concepts of protection and "raising" as well as fostering other beings, whether humans, plants, or animals, to reach their potential and fulfill their development. (2) Children learn cuidado by contributing to family endeavors: They develop attention and self-motivation; they are capable of responsible actions; and they are able to transform participation to achieve the status of a competent member of local society. (3) This collaborative participation allows children to continue the cultural tradition and to preserve a Nahua heritage at a deeper level in a community in which Nahuatl language and dress have disappeared, and people do not identify themselves as Indigenous.

  18. The ethics of everyday practice in primary medical care: responding to social health inequities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Victoria J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and structural inequities shape health and illness; they are an everyday presence within the doctor-patient encounter yet, there is limited ethical guidance on what individual physicians should do. This paper draws on a study that explored how doctors and their professional associations ought to respond to the issue of social health inequities. Results Some see doctors as bound by a notion of care that is blind to a patient's social position, while others respond to this issue through invoking notions of justice and human rights where access to care is a prime focus. Both care and justice orientations however conceal important tensions linked to the presence of bioethical principles underpinning these. Other normative ethical theories like deontology, virtue ethics and utilitarianism do not provide adequate guidance on the problem of social health inequities either. Conclusion This paper explores if Bauman's notion of "forms of togetherness" provides the basis of a relational ethical theory that can help to develop a response to social health inequities of relevance to individual physicians. This theory goes beyond silence on the influence of social position of health and avoids amoral regulatory approaches to monitoring equity of care provision.

  19. The ethics of everyday practice in primary medical care: responding to social health inequities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Social and structural inequities shape health and illness; they are an everyday presence within the doctor-patient encounter yet, there is limited ethical guidance on what individual physicians should do. This paper draws on a study that explored how doctors and their professional associations ought to respond to the issue of social health inequities. Results Some see doctors as bound by a notion of care that is blind to a patient's social position, while others respond to this issue through invoking notions of justice and human rights where access to care is a prime focus. Both care and justice orientations however conceal important tensions linked to the presence of bioethical principles underpinning these. Other normative ethical theories like deontology, virtue ethics and utilitarianism do not provide adequate guidance on the problem of social health inequities either. Conclusion This paper explores if Bauman's notion of "forms of togetherness" provides the basis of a relational ethical theory that can help to develop a response to social health inequities of relevance to individual physicians. This theory goes beyond silence on the influence of social position of health and avoids amoral regulatory approaches to monitoring equity of care provision. PMID:20438627

  20. Floor Sensing System Using Laser Reflectivity for Localizing Everyday Objects and Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonseok Pyo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new method of measuring the position of everyday objects and a robot on the floor using distance and reflectance acquired by laser range finder (LRF. The information obtained by this method is important for a service robot working in a human daily life environment. Our method uses only one LRF together with a mirror installed on the wall. Moreover, since the area of sensing is limited to a LRF scanning plane parallel to the floor and just a few centimeters above the floor, the scanning covers the whole room with minimal invasion of privacy of a resident, and occlusion problem is mitigated by using mirror. We use the reflection intensity and position information obtained from the target surface. Although it is not possible to identify all objects by additionally using reflection values, it would be easier to identify unknown objects if we can eliminate easily identifiable objects by reflectance. In addition, we propose a method for measuring the robot’s pose using the tag which has the encoded reflection pattern optically identified by the LRF. Our experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Floor sensing system using laser reflectivity for localizing everyday objects and robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Yoonseok; Hasegawa, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Tokuo; Kurazume, Ryo; Morooka, Ken'ichi

    2014-04-24

    This paper describes a new method of measuring the position of everyday objects and a robot on the floor using distance and reflectance acquired by laser range finder (LRF). The information obtained by this method is important for a service robot working in a human daily life environment. Our method uses only one LRF together with a mirror installed on the wall. Moreover, since the area of sensing is limited to a LRF scanning plane parallel to the floor and just a few centimeters above the floor, the scanning covers the whole room with minimal invasion of privacy of a resident, and occlusion problem is mitigated by using mirror. We use the reflection intensity and position information obtained from the target surface. Although it is not possible to identify all objects by additionally using reflection values, it would be easier to identify unknown objects if we can eliminate easily identifiable objects by reflectance. In addition, we propose a method for measuring the robot's pose using the tag which has the encoded reflection pattern optically identified by the LRF. Our experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. The ethics of everyday practice in primary medical care: responding to social health inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furler, John S; Palmer, Victoria J

    2010-05-03

    Social and structural inequities shape health and illness; they are an everyday presence within the doctor-patient encounter yet, there is limited ethical guidance on what individual physicians should do. This paper draws on a study that explored how doctors and their professional associations ought to respond to the issue of social health inequities. Some see doctors as bound by a notion of care that is blind to a patient's social position, while others respond to this issue through invoking notions of justice and human rights where access to care is a prime focus. Both care and justice orientations however conceal important tensions linked to the presence of bioethical principles underpinning these. Other normative ethical theories like deontology, virtue ethics and utilitarianism do not provide adequate guidance on the problem of social health inequities either. This paper explores if Bauman's notion of "forms of togetherness" provides the basis of a relational ethical theory that can help to develop a response to social health inequities of relevance to individual physicians. This theory goes beyond silence on the influence of social position of health and avoids amoral regulatory approaches to monitoring equity of care provision.

  3. Reasoning Exercises in Assisted Living: a cluster randomized trial to improve reasoning and everyday problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kristine Williams,1 Ruth Herman,2 Daniel Bontempo3 1College of Nursing, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 2School of Nursing, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 3The Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies, University of Kansas, Dole Human Development Center, Lawrence, KS, USA Purpose of the study: Assisted living (AL residents are at risk for cognitive and functional declines that eventually reduce their ability to care for themselves, thereby triggering nursing home placement. In developing a method to slow this decline, the efficacy of Reasoning Exercises in Assisted Living (REAL, a cognitive training intervention that teaches everyday reasoning and problem-solving skills to AL residents, was tested. Design and methods: At thirteen randomized Midwestern facilities, AL residents whose Mini Mental State Examination scores ranged from 19–29 either were trained in REAL or a vitamin education attention control program or received no treatment at all. For 3 weeks, treated groups received personal training in their respective programs. Results: Scores on the Every Day Problems Test for Cognitively Challenged Elders (EPCCE and on the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS showed significant increases only for the REAL group. For EPCCE, change from baseline immediately postintervention was +3.10 (P<0.01, and there was significant retention at the 3-month follow-up (d=2.71; P<0.01. For DAFS, change from baseline immediately postintervention was +3.52 (P<0.001, although retention was not as strong. Neither the attention nor the no-treatment control groups had significant gains immediately postintervention or at follow-up assessments. Post hoc across-group comparison of baseline change also highlights the benefits of REAL training. For EPCCE, the magnitude of gain was significantly larger in the REAL group versus the no-treatment control group immediately postintervention (d=3.82; P<0.01 and at the 3-month

  4. An Individualized and Everyday Life Approach to Cognitive Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-N. Levaux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effectiveness of an individualized and everyday approach to cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia was examined in a case study. Method. After cognitive and functional assessment, concrete objectives were targeted for the person’s everyday complaints. Strategies were constructed based on an analysis of the cognitive profile, daily life functioning, and processes involved in activities. They included a memory strategy for reading, a diary to compensate memory difficulties, and working memory exercises to improve immediate processing of information when reading and following conversations. Efficacy was assessed with outcome measures. Results. The program had beneficial effects on the person’s cognitive and everyday functioning, which persisted at a 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. Findings provide suggestive evidence that an individualized and everyday approach may be a useful alternative in order to obtain a meaningfully lasting transfer of training to daily life, compared to the nomothetic ones which dominate the field.

  5. An individualized and everyday life approach to cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia: a case illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaux, M-N; Fonteneau, B; Larøi, F; Offerlin-Meyer, I; Danion, J-M; Van der Linden, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The effectiveness of an individualized and everyday approach to cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia was examined in a case study. Method. After cognitive and functional assessment, concrete objectives were targeted for the person's everyday complaints. Strategies were constructed based on an analysis of the cognitive profile, daily life functioning, and processes involved in activities. They included a memory strategy for reading, a diary to compensate memory difficulties, and working memory exercises to improve immediate processing of information when reading and following conversations. Efficacy was assessed with outcome measures. Results. The program had beneficial effects on the person's cognitive and everyday functioning, which persisted at a 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. Findings provide suggestive evidence that an individualized and everyday approach may be a useful alternative in order to obtain a meaningfully lasting transfer of training to daily life, compared to the nomothetic ones which dominate the field.

  6. Promoting the Everyday: Pro-Sharia Advocacy and Public Relations in Ontario, Canada's "Sharia Debate"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennifer A Selby

    2013-01-01

    .... Instead, I argue that the "Sharia Debate" served as a catalyst for mainstream conservative Muslim groups in Ontario to develop public relations apparatuses that better facilitate the perspectives of everyday religious conservatives in the public sphere.

  7. What Einstein didn't know scientific answers to everyday questions

    CERN Document Server

    Wolke, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    From simple (How do magnets work?) to complex (Where does uranium get its energy?), this volume offers intriguing insights into scientific facts. Definitive accounts of workings behind everyday phenomena include related do-it-yourself experiments.

  8. Translation and pilot validation of the Danish version of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Kaptain, Rina Juel; Kottorp, Anders

    2016-01-01

    evidence in relation to response processes, internal scale validity and precision in measures. Results: After collapsing some scale step categories used in the ETUQ, a reduced number of items (n=40) demonstrated acceptable goodness-of-fit to the Rasch model. This reduced number of items demonstrated......Background: The use of everyday technologies has grown rapidly during the last decades and become an increasing part of people’s everyday life, and also now include the use of e-health technologies that are used on a daily basis for persons living with chronic health conditions, e.g., chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are however no validated assessments targeting the competence to use everyday- and e-health technology for these people. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the validity of the Danish version of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ) in a sample...

  9. Routine polysomnography in an epilepsy monitoring unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew C L; Costello, Craig A; White, Elise J; Smit, Michelle; Carino, John; Strawhorn, Andrew; Jackson, Brianna; Kwan, Patrick; French, Christopher R; Yerra, S Raju; Tan, K Meng; O'Brien, Terence J; Goldin, Jeremy

    2013-08-01

    Up to 13% of patients with epilepsy have moderate or severe sleep-disordered breathing, in particular obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a disorder associated with reduced quality of life, worsened seizure control, and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Combining video-EEG monitoring with polysomnography (VPSG) provides the opportunity to diagnose clinically significant OSA as well as relate the occurrence of seizures and the epilepsy diagnosis to the presence and severity of sleep-disordered breathing. We have established routine VPSG in our inpatient video-EEG monitoring unit and present our findings in 87 patients. Clinically significant sleep-disordered breathing was diagnosed in 19 of 87 (22%) patients. Patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) had poorer sleep quality compared to patients with epilepsy and those with neither diagnosis, whereas the prevalence of clinically significant sleep-disordered breathing in patients with PNES (29%) did not differ significantly compared to patients with epilepsy (21%) and those with neither diagnosis (22%). The differences in sleep quality are not explained by differences in body mass index (BMI) or anti-epileptic drug (AED) effects.

  10. CULA: hybrid GPU accelerated linear algebra routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, John R.; Price, Daniel K.; Spagnoli, Kyle E.; Paolini, Aaron L.; Kelmelis, Eric J.

    2010-04-01

    The modern graphics processing unit (GPU) found in many standard personal computers is a highly parallel math processor capable of nearly 1 TFLOPS peak throughput at a cost similar to a high-end CPU and an excellent FLOPS/watt ratio. High-level linear algebra operations are computationally intense, often requiring O(N3) operations and would seem a natural fit for the processing power of the GPU. Our work is on CULA, a GPU accelerated implementation of linear algebra routines. We present results from factorizations such as LU decomposition, singular value decomposition and QR decomposition along with applications like system solution and least squares. The GPU execution model featured by NVIDIA GPUs based on CUDA demands very strong parallelism, requiring between hundreds and thousands of simultaneous operations to achieve high performance. Some constructs from linear algebra map extremely well to the GPU and others map poorly. CPUs, on the other hand, do well at smaller order parallelism and perform acceptably during low-parallelism code segments. Our work addresses this via hybrid a processing model, in which the CPU and GPU work simultaneously to produce results. In many cases, this is accomplished by allowing each platform to do the work it performs most naturally.

  11. Lunate chondromalacia: evaluation of routine MRI sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordalo-Rodrigues, Marcelo; Schweitzer, Mark; Bergin, Diane; Culp, Randall; Barakat, Mohamed S

    2005-05-01

    Chondromalacia is a commonly encountered abnormality at arthroscopy and may be responsible for significant clinical symptoms and disability. In the wrist, the most common location for chondromalacia is the lunate bone. Consequently, we sought to study the accuracy of clinical MRI in the assessment of lunate articular cartilage. MR images of 34 patients who underwent arthroscopy and had an MRI examination within 1 month of surgery were evaluated by two reviewers for the presence and location of lunate cartilage defects and subchondral edema. Lunate cartilage defects were seen on MRI in 10 of the 13 patients with chondromalacia, but these defects were also incorrectly noted in three of 21 of patients without chondromalacia. The visible locations for cartilage defects were the ulnar aspect of the proximal lunate bone (n = 3), radial aspect of the proximal lunate bone (n = 4), ulnar aspect of the distal lunate bone (n = 2), and radial aspect of the distal lunate bone (n = 1). Subchondral marrow edema was observed in six of the 10 patients with chondromalacia seen on MRI; in all six patients, the edema was seen in the same quadrant as the cartilage defect. Marrow edema was detected in one patient without chondromalacia. We conclude that lunate chondromalacia can be accurately assessed using routine MRI sequences, although there are occasional false-positive interpretations.

  12. Merging ultrasound in the intensive care routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Daniel J; Shemesh, Iftach

    2013-11-01

    Goal-oriented ultrasound examination is gaining a place in the intensive care unit. Some protocols have been proposed but the applicability of ultrasound as part of a routine has not been studied. To assess the influence of ultrasound performed by intensive care physicians. This retrospective descriptive clinical study was performed in a medical-surgical intensive care unit of a university-affiliated general hospital. Data were collected from patients undergoing ultrasound examinations performed by a critical care physician during the period 2010 to June 2011. A total of 299 ultrasound exams were performed in 113 mechanically ventilated patients (70 males, mean age 65 years). Exams included trans-cranial Doppler (n = 24), neck evaluation before tracheostomy (n = 15), chest exam (n = 83), focuse cardiac echocardiography (n = 60), abdominal exam (n = 41), and comprehensive screening at patient admission (n = 30). Ultrasound was used to guide invasive procedures for vascular catheter insertion (n = 42), pleural fluid drainage (n = 24), and peritoneal fluid drainage (n = 7). One pneumothorax was seen during central venous line insertion but no complications were observed after pleural or abdominal drainage. The ultrasound study provided good quality visualization in 86% (258 of 299 exams) and was a diagnostic tool that induced a change in treatment in 58% (132 of 226 exams). Bedside ultrasound examinations performed by critical care physicians provide an important adjunct to diagnostic and therapeutic performance, improving quality of care and patient safety.

  13. Do everyday problems of people with chronic illness interfere with their disease management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houtum, Lieke; Rijken, Mieke; Groenewegen, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Being chronically ill is a continuous process of balancing the demands of the illness and the demands of everyday life. Understanding how everyday life affects self-management might help to provide better professional support. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of everyday life on self-management. The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent problems in everyday life interfere with the self-management behaviour of people with chronic illness, i.e. their ability to manage their illness. To estimate the effects of having everyday problems on self-management, cross-sectional linear regression analyses with propensity score matching were conducted. Data was used from 1731 patients with chronic disease(s) who participated in a nationwide Dutch panel-study. One third of people with chronic illness encounter basic (e.g. financial, housing, employment) or social (e.g. partner, children, sexual or leisure) problems in their daily life. Younger people, people with poor health and people with physical limitations are more likely to have everyday problems. Experiencing basic problems is related to less active coping behaviour, while experiencing social problems is related to lower levels of symptom management and less active coping behaviour. The extent of everyday problems interfering with self-management of people with chronic illness depends on the type of everyday problems encountered, as well as on the type of self-management activities at stake. Healthcare providers should pay attention to the life context of people with chronic illness during consultations, as patients' ability to manage their illness is related to it.

  14. Carbon calculators as a tool for a low-carbon everyday life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2012-01-01

    The number of Internet-based carbon calculators that estimate personal carbon footprints has been growing in recent years. This article discusses the roles that these calculators can play in changing everyday practices and how users evaluate them. The study builds on results from a questionnaire...... suggests designing Internet-based carbon calculators that actively engage users in collective actions instead of primarily presenting individualistic interventions. Finally, we show that users are different with respect to which of their everyday practices...

  15. Pronounced Impairment of Everyday Skills and Self-Care in Posterior Cortical Atrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Shakespeare, T. J.; Yong, K. X.; Foxe, D.; Hodges, J.; Crutch, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visual dysfunction and parietal, occipital, and occipitotemporal atrophy. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of PCA and typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) on everyday functional abilities and neuropsychiatric status. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory-Revised was given to carers of 32 PCA and 71 tAD patients. PCA patients showed significantly greater impairment in everyday skills and sel...

  16. Validation of the everyday technology use questionnaire in a Japanese context.

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Kottorp, Anders; Tanemura, Rumi; Asaba, Eric; Nagao, Toru; Noda, Kazue; Sagara, Jiro; Bontje, Peter; Rosenberg, Lena; Nygård, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective The Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ), which evaluates the perceived relevance of and the perceived ability in everyday technology (ET) use, has demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties in Swedish studies of older adults. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the ETUQ in a Japanese context in older Japanese adults. Methods A sample of older Japanese adults (n = 164) including persons with (n = 32) and without ...

  17. Doing Memory, Doing Identity. Politics of the Everyday in Contemporary Global Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Michalis Kontopodis; Vincenzo Matera

    2010-01-01

    The special issue Doing Memory, Doing Identity: Politics of the Everyday in Contemporary Global Communities draws on anthropological theory, performance studies, feminism, post-colonial studies and other theoretical traditions for an insightful examination of the everyday practices of doing memory. A series of ethnographies and qualitative studies from locations as diverse as Italy, Norway, Greece, France, Brazil and China complement profound theoretical analyses to investigate the multiple ...

  18. SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE IN THE CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON SENSE AND EVERYDAY LIFE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Sergeevna Sagalaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that changes in everyday life act as a cultural phenomenon, and the aim of social knowledge must be projection of total universal features to individual features. The author notes that among the components of everyday life and experience, as well as everyday ideology, there are social ideas as a kind of subjective constructs designed to rationalize and interpret the vital reality. The article defines the common sense as the totality of views on the world, skills, and forms of thinking, developed and used by the individual in daily practical life. Social knowledge in the coordinates of everyday life experience and common sense is determined by the fact that modern everyday life is a phenomenon devoid of statics. Daily life is a certain spiritual and social integrity of the mental and material, a constant attribute of social life, unfolding in a social and cultural space and time in such areas as the everyday life, work and leisure with the help of various types and forms of activityrelated manifestations.

  19. 'Patient participation' in everyday activities in special care units for persons with dementia in Norwegian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, Ann Karin; Larsson, Maria; Athlin, Elsy

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore 'patient participation' in everyday activities for persons with dementia living in special care units in nursing homes. Studies about how 'patient participation' appears in the context of special care units for persons with dementia are lacking. The study has an explorative design. Grounded theory was chosen. Data collection was carried out by means of open observations and additional conversations with residents and personnel. Simultaneously, data analysis was performed with open, axial and selective coding. The findings showed that 'patient participation' concerned 'A matter of presence' as the core category. The other categories described as 'presence of personnel' and 'presence of residents', were strongly connected to the core category as well as to each other. Presence of personnel comprised three levels; being there in body, which required physical presence; being there in mind, which required presence with all senses based on knowledge and competence; and being there in morality which was understood as being fully present, as it was based on humanistic values and included the two other levels. Presence of residents comprised 'ability and wish' and 'adaptation'. The presence of the personnel had a huge impact on the ability and will to participate of the residents. Organizational conditions concerning leadership, amount of personnel and routines as well as housing conditions concerning architecture and shared accommodation, could stimulate or hinder 'patient participation'. The study highlighted the great impact of the personnel's presence in body, mind and morality on the participation capacity of the residents. The great importance of the nurse leaders was stressed, as they were responsible for organizational issues and served as role models. Group supervision of the personnel and their leaders would be an implication to propose, as these kinds of reflection groups offer opportunities to reflect on values, actions and

  20. Toward clinical genomics in everyday medicine: perspectives and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Susan K; Hultner, Michael L; Jacob, Howard J; Ledbetter, David H; McCarthy, Jeanette J; Ball, Michael; Beckman, Kenneth B; Belmont, John W; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Christman, Michael F; Cosgrove, Andy; Damiani, Stephen A; Danis, Timothy; Delledonne, Massimo; Dougherty, Michael J; Dudley, Joel T; Faucett, W Andrew; Friedman, Jennifer R; Haase, David H; Hays, Tom S; Heilsberg, Stu; Huber, Jeff; Kaminsky, Leah; Ledbetter, Nikki; Lee, Warren H; Levin, Elissa; Libiger, Ondrej; Linderman, Michael; Love, Richard L; Magnus, David C; Martland, AnneMarie; McClure, Susan L; Megill, Scott E; Messier, Helen; Nussbaum, Robert L; Palaniappan, Latha; Patay, Bradley A; Popovich, Bradley W; Quackenbush, John; Savant, Mark J; Su, Michael M; Terry, Sharon F; Tucker, Steven; Wong, William T; Green, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Precision or personalized medicine through clinical genome and exome sequencing has been described by some as a revolution that could transform healthcare delivery, yet it is currently used in only a small fraction of patients, principally for the diagnosis of suspected Mendelian conditions and for targeting cancer treatments. Given the burden of illness in our society, it is of interest to ask how clinical genome and exome sequencing can be constructively integrated more broadly into the routine practice of medicine for the betterment of public health. In November 2014, 46 experts from academia, industry, policy and patient advocacy gathered in a conference sponsored by Illumina, Inc. to discuss this question, share viewpoints and propose recommendations. This perspective summarizes that work and identifies some of the obstacles and opportunities that must be considered in translating advances in genomics more widely into the practice of medicine.

  1. TO READ, WRITE AND TELL: WAYS TO BE TEACHER IN SCHOOL EVERYDAY IN LOMBA GRANDE/RS (1940-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edimar Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to characterize the possible and invented ways and (re invented to provide teacher / to multigrade classes in rural Lomba Grande neighborhood of Novo Hamburgo/RS from 1940 to 1950. This is a study of history of education, and that relies on documentary analysis and narrative records of teachers whose teaching career has been developed in public schools. From the 1940s there was an increase in the number of schools in the city of Novo Hamburgo, effect of rural depopulation and political context of the period, especially in areas of German colonization. Throughout the analysis from the perspective of cultural history is evident in the appearance of the acquired knowledge in practice in everyday routines and cultural experiences accumulated by the subjects. Teachers who have drawn remember example of his teachers to plan and conduct their classes in the early days of teaching. In this sense, the possible way to be a teacher was to master the minimum knowledge of primary school. Due to the difficulties of getting the teacher to rural areas, the practice of appointing "to teach reading, writing and arithmetic" was a common feature in this place. In addition to the in-service training courses and building a professional culture was consolidated from mediations among the most experienced teachers with those just beginning their careers.

  2. Racial identification, knowledge, and the politics of everyday life in an Arizona science classroom: A linguistic ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Brendan Harold

    This dissertation is a linguistic ethnography of a high school Astronomy/Oceanography classroom in southern Arizona, where an exceptionally promising, novice, white science teacher and mostly Mexican-American students confronted issues of identity and difference through interactions both related and unrelated to science learning. Through close analysis of video-recorded, naturally-occurring interaction and rich ethnographic description, the study documents how a teacher and students accomplished everyday classroom life, built caring relationships, and pursued scientific inquiry at a time and in a place where nationally- and locally-circulating discourses about immigration and race infused even routine interactions with tension and uncertainty. In their talk, students appropriated elements of racializing discourses, but also used language creatively to "speak back" to commonsense notions about Mexicanness. Careful examination of science-related interactions reveals the participants' negotiation of multiple, intersecting forms of citizenship (i.e., cultural and scientific citizenship) in the classroom, through multidirectional processes of language socialization in which students and the teacher regularly exchanged expert and novice roles. This study offers insight into the continuing relevance of racial, cultural, and linguistic identity to students' experiences of schooling, and sheds new light on classroom discourse, teacher-student relationships, and dimensions of citizenship in science learning, with important implications for teacher preparation and practice.

  3. The Effect of Engagement in Everyday Occupations, Role Overload and Social Support on Health and Life Satisfaction among Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Avrech Bar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the founding assumptions underlying the health professions is the belief that there is a strong relationship between engagement in occupations, health, and wellbeing. The ability to perform everyday occupations (occupational performance has a positive effect on health and wellbeing. However, there is also conflicting evidence indicating that participation in multiple roles or in certain occupations may lead to poorer health. Therefore, there is a need to better understand this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to examine three possible theoretical models to explain mothers’ health and life satisfaction from the perspective of their occupational performance, their role load, and their social support. 150 married mothers, ages of 25–45, who had at least one child between the ages of one to ten years, participated in the study. Data were collected by using seven self-report questionnaires. The models were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The results show that social support has a direct effect on mothers’ physical health and life satisfaction and an indirect effect, mediated through the occupational performance variables, on mothers’ mental health and life satisfaction. Role overload does not affect mothers’ health and life satisfaction. These results suggest that mothers could benefit from health programs that help them manage their occupational routines. Such programs should focus on improving the mother’s occupational performance and adapting her social environment to fit her occupational needs.

  4. Telling stories from everyday practice, an opportunity to see a bigger picture: a participatory action research project about developing discharge planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Pia; Springett, Jane; Blomqvist, Kerstin

    2009-11-01

    In spite of laws, rules and routines, findings from Swedish as well as international research show that discharge planning is not a simple matter. There is considerable knowledge about discharge planning, but the quality of the actual process in practice remains poor. With this in mind, a research and developmental health and social care network decided to use participation action research to explore the discharge planning situation in order to generate new ideas for development. This paper reports on the research process and the findings about our enhanced understanding about the discharge planning situation. Story dialogue method was used. The method is based on stories from everyday practice. The stories are used as 'triggers' to ask probing questions in a dialog and structured form. Local theory is developed to help the participants to find solutions for action in the practice. Our findings were that the discharge planning situation could be seen as a system including three interconnected areas: patient participation, practitioners' competence and organizational support. To reach good quality in discharge planning, all these three issues need to be developed, but not only as routines and forms. Rather, when developing a discharge planning situation, a system where relational aspects such as confidence and continuity are essential and thus needs to be considered. To achieve a change, the core problem needs to be clarified. When the issue is complex, the solution needs to consider the bigger picture and not just the parts. Telling stories from everyday practice, and to systematically reflect and analyse those in interprofessional groups can create opportunities for enhanced understanding, as well as be a vehicle for future change of practice.

  5. Review: Michalis Kontopodis & Jörg Niewöhner (Eds. (2010. Das Selbst als Netzwerk. Zum Einsatz von Körpern und Dingen im Alltag [The Self as Network: On Everyday Uses of Bodies and Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Alexander Chimirri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the investigation of human everyday life, the significance of the material still tends to be neglected. The anthology edited by KONTOPODIS and NIEWÖHNER presents contributions that draw on relational-materialist concepts in order to praxiographically study how both human and non-human agents transform (mostly biomedical everyday practices. This review attempts to connect these material-semiotic descriptions to a critical psychological perspective. It highlights how the contributions' focus on material things' actions is valuable for further unraveling the human-world relationship. Meanwhile it questions whether the underlying conceptual framework allows for an emancipatory science which strives for transformations that reach beyond the mere descriptive level. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120270

  6. Residents' engagement in everyday activities and its association with thriving in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Sabine; Lindkvist, Marie; Wimo, Anders; Juthberg, Christina; Bergland, Ådel; Edvardsson, David

    2017-08-01

    To describe the prevalence of everyday activity engagement for older people in nursing homes and the extent to which engagement in everyday activities is associated with thriving. Research into residents' engagement in everyday activities in nursing homes has focused primarily on associations with quality of life and prevention and management of neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, the mere absence of symptoms does not necessarily guarantee experiences of well-being. The concept of thriving encapsulates and explores experiences of well-being in relation to the place where a person lives. A cross-sectional survey. A national survey of 172 Swedish nursing homes (2013-2014). Resident (n = 4831) symptoms, activities and thriving were assessed by staff using a study survey based on established questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, simple and multiple linear regression, and linear stepwise multiple regression were performed. The most commonly occurring everyday activities were receiving hugs and physical touch, talking to relatives/friends and receiving visitors, having conversation with staff not related to care and grooming. The least commonly occurring everyday activities were going to the cinema, participating in an educational program, visiting a restaurant and doing everyday chores. Positive associations were found between activity engagement and thriving, where engagement in an activity program, dressing nicely and spending time with someone the resident likes had the strongest positive association with resident thriving. Engagement in everyday activities can support personhood and thriving and can be conceptualized and implemented as nursing interventions to enable residents to thrive in nursing homes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. As good as the real thing? Performance differences for live versus recorded stimuli in an everyday listening task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    subjects listened to recordings presented via headphones and to the live presentation of wooden dowels of various lengths being dropped on a linoleum floor behind the screen. The subjects were asked to produce estimates of the rod lengths by positioning a moveable surface in such a way that it corresponded......In an attempt to understand the influence of stimulus presentation method for a typical everyday listening task, test subject performance in a dropped-rod length-estimate experiment was compared for three cases: 1) live presentation of stimuli, 2) playback of binaural stimuli as recorded from...... an acoustic head and torso simulator, and 3) diotic presentation of monaurally recorded stimuli. Live presentation of stimuli has already been used by C. Carello, et al. [Psychological Science 9, 211-214 (1998)] to demonstrate that humans can hear reasonably well the length of wooden dowels dropped onto hard...

  8. As good as the real thing? Performance differences for live versus recorded stimuli in an everyday listening task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    subjects listened to recordings presented via headphones and to the live presentation of wooden dowels of various lengths being dropped on a linoleum floor behind the screen. The subjects were asked to produce estimates of the rod lengths by positioning a moveable surface in such a way that it corresponded......In an attempt to understand the influence of stimulus presentation method for a typical everyday listening task, test subject performance in a dropped-rod length-estimate experiment was compared for three cases: 1) live presentation of stimuli, 2) playback of binaural stimuli as recorded from...... an acoustic head and torso simulator, and 3) diotic presentation of monaurally recorded stimuli. Live presentation of stimuli has already been used by C. Carello, et al. [Psychological Science 9, 211-214 (1998)] to demonstrate that humans can hear reasonably well the length of wooden dowels dropped onto hard...

  9. Extending Beyond Qualitative Interviewing to Illuminate the Tacit Nature of Everyday Occupation: Occupational Mapping and Participatory Occupation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Suzanne; Rudman, Debbie Laliberte

    2015-07-01

    The study of human occupation requires a variety of methods to fully elucidate its complex, multifaceted nature. Although qualitative approaches have commonly been used within occupational therapy and occupational science, we contend that such qualitative research must extend beyond the sole use of interviews. Drawing on qualitative methodological literature, we discuss the limits of interview methods and outline other methods, particularly visual methods, as productive means to enhance qualitative research. We then provide an overview of our critical ethnographic study that used narrative, visual, and observational methods to explore the occupational transitions experienced by immigrants to Canada. We describe our use of occupational mapping and participatory occupation methods and the contributions of these combined methods. We conclude that adopting a variety of methods can enable a deeper understanding of the tacit nature of everyday occupation, and is key to advancing knowledge regarding occupation and to informing occupational therapy practice.

  10. ORGANIZATIONAL ROUTINES IN RUSSIAN COMPANIES: REVIEW OF PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Valieva

    2014-01-01

    Results of the first stage of the researches conducted in 2012-2013 are presented in article. Researches are connected with studying of transformational processes intra corporate of managemetn practices in the Russian companies and their subsequent institutionalization. Preliminary results showed that in the companies there is a standard set of organizational routines which part are information, and administrative routines, routines of the power of the founder, genetic, institutional and d...

  11. Towards wearable attention-aware systems in everyday environments

    OpenAIRE

    Toyama, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Attention-awareness is a key topic for the upcoming generation of computer-human interaction. A human moves his or her eyes to visually attends to a particular region in a scene. Consequently, he or she can process visual information rapidly and efficiently without being overwhelmed by vast amount of information from the environment. Such a physiological function called visual attention provides a computer system with valuable information of the user to infer his or her activity and the surro...

  12. Rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism prevention after major orthopedic surgery: translating trial data into routine clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyer-Westendorf J

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jan Beyer-Westendorf,1 Patrick Mouret,2 Alexander GG Turpie3 1Thrombosis Research and Angiology, Dresden University Clinic, Dresden, Germany; 2Orthopedic Clinic, Klinikum Frankfurt Höchst GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany; 3Department of Medicine, General Division, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: An established standard of care for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery has been subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin. The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban has demonstrated superior efficacy and similar safety to all tested regimens of enoxaparin in large Phase III clinical studies of venous thromboembolism prevention after elective hip and knee arthroplasty. Despite regulatory approval of rivaroxaban for this indication, concerns remain among physicians regarding its optimal and effective use in routine clinical practice. Real-life studies, such as XAMOS and ORTHO-TEP, are providing physicians with more information on the routine use of rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism prevention after orthopedic surgery, helping to establish its safety and effectiveness in everyday clinical care. Among the most important issues are the risk of bleeding complications, wound healing, timing of first dose, impact of type of anesthesia on thromboprophylaxis effectiveness, patient comorbidities and comedication use, periprocedural management, associated costs, and clinical outcomes in trauma-related fractures. Many of these issues are difficult to study in randomized, double-blind, Phase III trials, and can be assessed more readily using real-life data. In particular, real-life or noninterventional studies lack many of the strict inclusion and exclusion criteria associated with Phase III trials and involve unselected patients who often present with significant comorbidities or comedication use. Keywords: anticoagulants, arthroplasty, orthopedics, rivaroxaban, thrombosis

  13. Modeling Routinization in Games: An Information Theory Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner, Simon; Pichlmair, Martin; Hecher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    -time, discrete-space Markov chains and information theory to measure the actual error between the dynamically trained models and the player interaction. Preliminary research supports the hypothesis that Markov chains can be effectively used to model routinization in games. A full study design is presented......Routinization is the result of practicing until an action stops being a goal-directed process. This paper formulates a definition of routinization in games based on prior research in the fields of activity theory and practice theory. Routinization is analyzed using the formal model of discrete...

  14. ORGANIZATIONAL ROUTINES IN RUSSIAN COMPANIES: REVIEW OF PRACTICES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olga Valieva

    2014-01-01

    ..., genetic, institutional and development routines. During research statistically significant connection between types of organizational structures, the sizes of the organization, information processing and administrative practices is established...

  15. Modeling Routinization in Games: An Information Theory Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner, Simon; Pichlmair, Martin; Hecher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Routinization is the result of practicing until an action stops being a goal-directed process. This paper formulates a definition of routinization in games based on prior research in the fields of activity theory and practice theory. Routinization is analyzed using the formal model of discrete......-time, discrete-space Markov chains and information theory to measure the actual error between the dynamically trained models and the player interaction. Preliminary research supports the hypothesis that Markov chains can be effectively used to model routinization in games. A full study design is presented...

  16. Development of a virtual reality assessment of everyday living skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Stacy A; Davis, Vicki G; Atkins, Alexandra S; Krishnan, K Ranga R; Fox, Kolleen H; Harvey, Philip D; Keefe, Richard S E

    2014-04-23

    Cognitive impairments affect the majority of patients with schizophrenia and these impairments predict poor long term psychosocial outcomes.  Treatment studies aimed at cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia not only require demonstration of improvements on cognitive tests, but also evidence that any cognitive changes lead to clinically meaningful improvements.  Measures of "functional capacity" index the extent to which individuals have the potential to perform skills required for real world functioning.  Current data do not support the recommendation of any single instrument for measurement of functional capacity.  The Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) is a novel, interactive gaming based measure of functional capacity that uses a realistic simulated environment to recreate routine activities of daily living. Studies are currently underway to evaluate and establish the VRFCAT's sensitivity, reliability, validity, and practicality. This new measure of functional capacity is practical, relevant, easy to use, and has several features that improve validity and sensitivity of measurement of function in clinical trials of patients with CNS disorders.

  17. The routine use of antibiotics to promote animal growth does little to benefit protein undernutrition in the developing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collignon, P.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Braam, P.

    2005-01-01

    Some persons argue that the routine addition of antibiotics to animal feed will help alleviate protein undernutrition in developing countries by increasing meat production. In contrast, we estimate that, if all routine antibiotic use in animal feed were ceased, there would be negligible effects...... in these countries. Poultry and pork production are unlikely to decrease by more than 2%. Average daily protein supply would decrease by no more than 0.1 g per person (or 0.2% of total protein intake). Eliminating the routine use of in-feed antibiotics will improve human and animal health, by reducing...... the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria....

  18. Support Routines for In Situ Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert G.; Pariser, Oleg; Yeates, Matthew C.; Lee, Hyun H.; Lorre, Jean

    2013-01-01

    This software consists of a set of application programs that support ground-based image processing for in situ missions. These programs represent a collection of utility routines that perform miscellaneous functions in the context of the ground data system. Each one fulfills some specific need as determined via operational experience. The most unique aspect to these programs is that they are integrated into the large, in situ image processing system via the PIG (Planetary Image Geometry) library. They work directly with space in situ data, understanding the appropriate image meta-data fields and updating them properly. The programs themselves are completely multimission; all mission dependencies are handled by PIG. This suite of programs consists of: (1)marscahv: Generates a linearized, epi-polar aligned image given a stereo pair of images. These images are optimized for 1-D stereo correlations, (2) marscheckcm: Compares the camera model in an image label with one derived via kinematics modeling on the ground, (3) marschkovl: Checks the overlaps between a list of images in order to determine which might be stereo pairs. This is useful for non-traditional stereo images like long-baseline or those from an articulating arm camera, (4) marscoordtrans: Translates mosaic coordinates from one form into another, (5) marsdispcompare: Checks a Left Right stereo disparity image against a Right Left disparity image to ensure they are consistent with each other, (6) marsdispwarp: Takes one image of a stereo pair and warps it through a disparity map to create a synthetic opposite- eye image. For example, a right eye image could be transformed to look like it was taken from the left eye via this program, (7) marsfidfinder: Finds fiducial markers in an image by projecting their approximate location and then using correlation to locate the markers to subpixel accuracy. These fiducial markets are small targets attached to the spacecraft surface. This helps verify, or improve, the

  19. German Anxiety Barometer—Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties. PMID:27667977

  20. German Anxiety Barometer-Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties.