WorldWideScience

Sample records for human event repository

  1. Rolling Deck to Repository III: Shipboard Event Logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. L.; Arko, R.; Miller, S. P.; Dorsk, A.; McCue, S.; Fisichella, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    Data gathered during NSF-supported scientific research cruises represent an important component of the overall oceanographic data collection. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) pilot project aims to improve access to basic shipboard data and ultimately reduce the work required to provide that access. Improved access will be achieved through identification of best practices for shipboard data management, identification of standard metadata and data products from research cruises, development of metadata schemas to describe a research cruise, and development of a prototype data discovery system that could be used by the entire NSF-supported academic research fleet. Shoreside data managers will work collaboratively with ship technicians and vessel operators to develop approaches that scale from smaller coastal vessels to larger open ocean research vessels. One of the coordinated subprojects within the R2R project will focus on development of a shipboard event logging system that would incorporate best practice guidelines, a metadata schema and new and existing applications to generate a scientific sampling event log in the form of a digital text file. A cruise event logging system enables researchers to record digitally all scientific sampling events and assign a unique event identifier to each entry. Decades of work conducted within large coordinated ocean research programs (JGOFS, GLOBEC, WOCE and RIDGE) have shown that creation of a shipboard sampling event log can facilitate greatly the subsequent integration of data sets from individual investigators. In addition to providing a quick way to determine what types of data might have been collected during a cruise, the sampling event log can be used to visualize the relationship, both temporally and geospatially, between the diverse types of sampling events conducted during a research cruise. Research questions in marine ecology or modeling projects are inherently multi-disciplinary and require access to a variety

  2. Event-Driven Interoperability Framework For Interoperation In E-Learning Information Systems - Monitored Repository

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, Milen

    2006-01-01

    M.Petrov "Event-Driven Interoperability Framework For Interoperation In E-Learning Information Systems - Monitored Repository", IADAT-e2006, 3rd International Conference on Education, Barcelona (Spain), July 12-14, 2006, ISBN: 84-933971-9-9, pp.198 - pp.202

  3. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Research Cruise Event Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Stolp, L.; Dubois, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific event logs, used by the science party to record scientific sampling events that occur during a research cruise, have been used in various ways for decades. An event log is very important for documenting the occurrence of a sampling event and its location, time, relative sequence, and related details. Event logging, done well, can provide important documentation about scientific data collected during a cruise, and enable more efficient use of those data by cruise participants and future researchers. When the resultant event log is a digital data file, with content generated programmatically and controlled by term vocabularies, it becomes an even more valuable addition to the full complement of data sets generated during the cruise. However, such a tool is only effective if it is used. Through field testing, several key factors were identified that encourage the use of such a tool: the ability to customize the tool to represent the science implementation plan, proposed sampling scheme, cruise personnel and instrumentation; the ability to retrieve date, time and location data automatically from the shipboard network and the ability to enter events quickly and from any location on the ship. This presentation provides an overview of both the current version 1 and soon to be released version 2 of the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) research cruise Event Logger system. The R2R Event Logger application is built upon a pre-existing, open-source, weblog product called ELOG (ELOG URL: http://midas.psi.ch/elog/). We provide an oceanographer's view of the full process by which: 1) the R2R Event Logger application is configured and tested to meet the unique needs of a research cruise; 2) the R2R project works with the ship operator to install the Event Logger on the ship designated for the cruise, 3) the Event Logger is configured to automatically retrieve location, time, and other pertinent information from the shipboard network; 4) a copy of the event log file is

  4. Preliminary analyses of scenarios for potential human interference for repositories in three salt formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary analyses of scenarios for human interference with the performance of a radioactive waste repository in a deep salt formation are presented. The following scenarios are analyzed: (1) the U-Tube Connection Scenario involving multiple connections between the repository and the overlying aquifer system; (2) the Single Borehole Intrusion Scenario involving penetration of the repository by an exploratory borehole that simultaneously connects the repository with overlying and underlying aquifers; and (3) the Pressure Release Scenario involving inflow of water to saturate any void space in the repository prior to creep closure with subsequent release under near lithostatic pressures following creep closure. The methodology to evaluate repository performance in these scenarios is described and this methodology is applied to reference systems in three candidate formations: bedded salt in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas; bedded salt in the Paradox Basin, Utah; and the Richton Salt Dome, Mississippi, of the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin.

  5. The future of event-level information repositories, indexing, and selection in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Dimitrov, G; Doherty, T; Gallas, E; Hrivnac, J; Malon, D; Nairz, A; Nowak, M; Quilty, D; Sorokoletov, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zhang, Q

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS maintains a rich corpus of event-by-event information that provides a global view of virtually all of the billions of events the collaboration has seen or simulated, along with sufficient auxiliary information to navigate to and retrieve data for any event at any production processing stage. This unique resource has been employed for a range of purposes, from monitoring, statistics, anomaly detection, and integrity checking to event picking, subset selection, and sample extraction. Recent years of data-taking provide a foundation for assessment of how this resource has and has not been used in practice, of the uses for which it should be optimized, of how it should be deployed and provisioned for scalability to future data volumes, and of the areas in which enhancements to functionality would be most valuable. \

  6. The future of event-level information repositories, indexing, and selection in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Dimitrov, G; Doherty, T; Gallas, E; Hrivnac, J; Malon, D; Nairz, A; Nowak, M; Quilty, D; Sorokoletov, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zhang, Q

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS maintains a rich corpus of event-by-event information that provides a global view of virtually all of the billions of events the collaboration has seen or simulated, along with sufficient auxiliary information to navigate to and retrieve data for any event at any production processing stage. This unique resource has been employed for a range of purposes, from monitoring, statistics, anomaly detection, and integrity checking to event picking, subset selection, and sample extraction. Recent years of data-taking provide a foundation for assessment of how this resource has and has not been used in practice, of the uses for which it should be optimized, of how it should be deployed and provisioned for scalability to future data volumes, and of the areas in which enhancements to functionality would be most valuable. \

  7. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL IMAGE REPOSITORIES FOR VIRTUAL RECONSTRUCTION IN THE FIELD OF DIGITAL HUMANITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Maiwald

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical photographs contain high density of information and are of great importance as sources in humanities research. In addition to the semantic indexing of historical images based on metadata, it is also possible to reconstruct geometric information about the depicted objects or the camera position at the time of the recording by employing photogrammetric methods. The approach presented here is intended to investigate (semi- automated photogrammetric reconstruction methods for heterogeneous collections of historical (city photographs and photographic documentation for the use in the humanities, urban research and history sciences. From a photogrammetric point of view, these images are mostly digitized photographs. For a photogrammetric evaluation, therefore, the characteristics of scanned analog images with mostly unknown camera geometry, missing or minimal object information and low radiometric and geometric resolution have to be considered. In addition, these photographs have not been created specifically for documentation purposes and so the focus of these images is often not on the object to be evaluated. The image repositories must therefore be subjected to a preprocessing analysis of their photogrammetric usability. Investigations are carried out on the basis of a repository containing historical images of the Kronentor ("crown gate" of the Dresden Zwinger. The initial step was to assess the quality and condition of available images determining their appropriateness for generating three-dimensional point clouds from historical photos using a structure-from-motion evaluation (SfM. Then, the generated point clouds were assessed by comparing them with current measurement data of the same object.

  8. Photogrammetric Analysis of Historical Image Repositories for Virtual Reconstruction in the Field of Digital Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald, F.; Vietze, T.; Schneider, D.; Henze, F.; Münster, S.; Niebling, F.

    2017-02-01

    Historical photographs contain high density of information and are of great importance as sources in humanities research. In addition to the semantic indexing of historical images based on metadata, it is also possible to reconstruct geometric information about the depicted objects or the camera position at the time of the recording by employing photogrammetric methods. The approach presented here is intended to investigate (semi-) automated photogrammetric reconstruction methods for heterogeneous collections of historical (city) photographs and photographic documentation for the use in the humanities, urban research and history sciences. From a photogrammetric point of view, these images are mostly digitized photographs. For a photogrammetric evaluation, therefore, the characteristics of scanned analog images with mostly unknown camera geometry, missing or minimal object information and low radiometric and geometric resolution have to be considered. In addition, these photographs have not been created specifically for documentation purposes and so the focus of these images is often not on the object to be evaluated. The image repositories must therefore be subjected to a preprocessing analysis of their photogrammetric usability. Investigations are carried out on the basis of a repository containing historical images of the Kronentor ("crown gate") of the Dresden Zwinger. The initial step was to assess the quality and condition of available images determining their appropriateness for generating three-dimensional point clouds from historical photos using a structure-from-motion evaluation (SfM). Then, the generated point clouds were assessed by comparing them with current measurement data of the same object.

  9. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes.

  10. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  11. NIH Data Sharing Repositories

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of NIH-supported repositories that accept submissions of appropriate scientific research data from biomedical researchers. It includes resources that...

  12. The Genomic Observatories Metadatabase (GeOMe): A new repository for field and sampling event metadata associated with genetic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, John; Gaither, Michelle R; Ewing, Rodney; Bird, Christopher E; Davies, Neil; Meyer, Christopher; Riginos, Cynthia; Toonen, Robert J; Crandall, Eric D

    2017-08-01

    The Genomic Observatories Metadatabase (GeOMe, http://www.geome-db.org/) is an open access repository for geographic and ecological metadata associated with biosamples and genetic data. Whereas public databases have served as vital repositories for nucleotide sequences, they do not accession all the metadata required for ecological or evolutionary analyses. GeOMe fills this need, providing a user-friendly, web-based interface for both data contributors and data recipients. The interface allows data contributors to create a customized yet standard-compliant spreadsheet that captures the temporal and geospatial context of each biosample. These metadata are then validated and permanently linked to archived genetic data stored in the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI's) Sequence Read Archive (SRA) via unique persistent identifiers. By linking ecologically and evolutionarily relevant metadata with publicly archived sequence data in a structured manner, GeOMe sets a gold standard for data management in biodiversity science.

  13. NeuroVault.org: A web-based repository for collecting and sharing unthresholded statistical maps of the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jacek Gorgolewski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we present NeuroVault — a web based repository that allows researchers to store, share, visualize, and decode statistical maps of the human brain. NeuroVault is easy to use and employs modern web technologies to provide informative visualization of data without the need to install additional software. In addition, it leverages the power of the Neurosynth database to provide cognitive decoding of deposited maps. The data are exposed through a public REST API enabling other services and tools to take advantage of it. NeuroVault is a new resource for researchers interested in conducting meta- and coactivation analyses.

  14. An approach to 'dynamic--DDD (defined daily dose) monitoring' to reduce adverse clinical outcomes and increase patient safety: information repositories and event triggers in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Esat N

    2011-01-01

    The goal of every effort and actions/interventions in almost all healthcare settings throughout the world's health systems -primary care, inpatient, outpatient encounters, diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, peri-operative settings- is and has been to achieve a well defined outcome (a kind of improvement in health status of the patient under consideration, an observable and significant change(s) in selected set(s) of clinical parameters confirmed by laboratory results and pathology findings, improvements in clinical outcomes). Clinical inefficiencies, in this context, should be addressed very systematically and scientifically. This is achieved through a continuously monitoring approach to adverse drug events based on information repositories and evidence-based rule sets. For monitoring drug-related outcomes and clinical outcomes in general, the concept of DDD (Defined Daily Dose) compliance is explained in this article to eliminate and avoid adverse clinical outcomes.

  15. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  16. Impact assessment of ionizing radiation on human and non-human biota from the vicinity of a near-surface radioactive waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedveckaite, T; Gudelis, A; Vives i Batlle, J

    2013-05-01

    This work describes the radiological assessment of the near-surface Maisiagala radioactive waste repository (Lithuania) over the period 2005-2012, with focus on water pathways and special emphasis on tritium. The study includes an assessment of the effect of post-closure upgrading, the durability of which is greater than 30 years. Both human and terrestrial non-human biota are considered, with local low-intensity forestry and small farms being the area of concern. The radiological exposure was evaluated using the RESRAD-OFFSITE, RESRAD-BIOTA and ERICA codes in combination with long-term data from a dedicated environmental monitoring programme. All measurements were performed at the Lithuanian Institute of Physics as part of this project. It is determined that, after repository upgrading, radiological exposure to humans are significantly lower than the human dose constraint of 0.2 mSv/year valid in the Republic of Lithuania. Likewise, for non-human biota, dose rates are below the ERICA/PROTECT screening levels. The potential annual effective inhalation dose that could be incurred by the highest-exposed human individual (which is due to tritiated water vapour airborne release over the most exposed area) does not exceed 0.1 μSv. Tritium-labelled drinking water appears to be the main pathway for human impact, representing about 83 % of the exposure. Annual committed effective dose (CED) values for members of the public consuming birch sap as medical practice are calculated to be several orders of magnitude below the CEDs for the same location associated with drinking of well water. The data presented here indicate that upper soil-layer samples may not provide a good indication of potential exposure to terrestrial deep-rooted trees, as demonstrated by an investigation of stratified (3)H in soil moisture, expressed on a wet soil mass basis, in an area with subsurface contamination.

  17. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  18. Integration and Cooperation in the Next Golden Age of Human Space Flight Data Repositories: Tools for Retrospective Analysis and Future Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.; Fitts, M.; Wear, M.; VanBaalen, M.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA transitions from the Space Shuttle era into the next phase of space exploration, the need to ensure the capture, analysis, and application of its research and medical data is of greater urgency than at any other previous time. In this era of limited resources and challenging schedules, the Human Research Program (HRP) based at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) recognizes the need to extract the greatest possible amount of information from the data already captured, as well as focus current and future research funding on addressing the HRP goal to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. To this end, the Science Management Office and the Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch within the HRP and the Space Medicine Division have been working to make both research data and clinical data more accessible to the user community. The Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA), the research repository housing data and information regarding the physiologic effects of microgravity, and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health Repository (LSAH-R), the clinical repository housing astronaut data, have joined forces to achieve this goal. The task of both repositories is to acquire, preserve, and distribute data and information both within the NASA community and to the science community at large. This is accomplished via the LSDA s public website (http://lsda.jsc.nasa.gov), which allows access to experiment descriptions including hardware, datasets, key personnel, mission descriptions and a mechanism for researchers to request additional data, research and clinical, that is not accessible from the public website. This will result in making the work of NASA and its partners available to the wider sciences community, both domestic and international. The desired outcome is the use of these data for knowledge discovery, retrospective analysis, and planning

  19. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  20. Social impacts of hazardous and nuclear facilities and events: Implications for Nevada and the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository; [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenburg, W.R. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Carter, L.F.; Willard, W. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Lodwick, D.G. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States); Hardert, R.A. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Levine, A.G. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Sociology; Kroll-Smith, S. [New Orleans Univ., LA (United States); Couch, S.R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Edelstein, M.R. [Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Social impacts of a nuclear waste repository are described. Various case studies are cited such as Rocky Flats Plant, the Feed Materials Production Center, and Love Canal. The social impacts of toxic contamination, mitigating environmental stigma and loss of trust are also discussed.

  1. Repository Sealing Program Plan: repository in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Coons, W.E.; Meyer, D.

    1983-01-01

    The isolation of nuclear wastes in deep, mined repositories will require the sealing of all penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes into or nearby the repository. This Repository Sealing Program Plan describes the technical programs required to complete seal designs for a repository in salt prior to license application in 1988. The plan examines the current schematic seal designs for a repository in salt and identifies seven major technical programs which are required to advance the designs to the status required for licensing: (1) update designs to incorporate site-specific geologic and hydrologic characteristics; (2) reference designs to site-specific repository designs; (3) develop site-specific performance requirements; (4) salt consolidation testing and modeling; (5) materials development; (6) design analyses; (7) verification testing. Scedules for each of these programs are keyed to governing seal design and ONWI milestones. Conceptual seal designs will be completed in FY 84 and preliminary seal designs in FY 87.

  2. NIMH Repository and Genomics Resources (RGR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIMH Repository and Genomics Resource (RGR) stores biosamples, genetic, pedigree and clinical data collected in designated NIMH-funded human subject studies. The...

  3. Project SAFE. Microbial features, events and processes in the Swedish final repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Karsten [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    The waste disposed of in the Swedish final repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste (SFR) typically contains large amounts of organic substances. This waste thus constitutes a possible source of energy and nutrients for microorganisms. Microbes can degrade the waste to degradation products, which to a varying degree may create problems if the process is significant. The environment for microbial life in the SFR is, however, unique since it cannot be compared to any environment to which microbes have adapted naturally over millions of years. Most similar to the SFR are waste dumps and landfills. In those, microbes degrade the waste and form degradation products. The experience from such 'analogues' and from research performed under repository-like conditions may provide useful clues about the microbial processes which may occur in the repository. Microbes have the ability to degrade bitumen, used to solidify some wastes, but this degradation is very slow under anaerobic conditions. Bitumen degradation will, therefore, not influence the safety of the SFR. However, some microbes can produce acids that could influence concrete stability, particularly in the presence of oxygen. The future SFR environment is anaerobic, which suggests that acid production is a very unlikely problem. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have the ability to produce sulphide, which may act as a corrosive on metals. Under specific conditions, with the local groundwater flow close to a metal surface and with dissolved organic material from the repository, pitting corrosion of metal canisters is a potential threat. This process appears to require conditions fairly atypical of the SFR, however. Large groups of microorganisms can use hydrogen as a source of energy, thereby contributing to the decrease of this gas mainly formed from water during the anaerobic corrosion of metals. Cellulose is an excellent substrate for many microorganisms and it will be the dominating carbon and

  4. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures.

  5. The Human Gene Mutation Database: building a comprehensive mutation repository for clinical and molecular genetics, diagnostic testing and personalized genomic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenson, Peter D; Mort, Matthew; Ball, Edward V; Shaw, Katy; Phillips, Andrew; Cooper, David N

    2014-01-01

    The Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD®) is a comprehensive collection of germline mutations in nuclear genes that underlie, or are associated with, human inherited disease. By June 2013, the database contained over 141,000 different lesions detected in over 5,700 different genes, with new mutation entries currently accumulating at a rate exceeding 10,000 per annum. HGMD was originally established in 1996 for the scientific study of mutational mechanisms in human genes. However, it has since acquired a much broader utility as a central unified disease-oriented mutation repository utilized by human molecular geneticists, genome scientists, molecular biologists, clinicians and genetic counsellors as well as by those specializing in biopharmaceuticals, bioinformatics and personalized genomics. The public version of HGMD (http://www.hgmd.org) is freely available to registered users from academic institutions/non-profit organizations whilst the subscription version (HGMD Professional) is available to academic, clinical and commercial users under license via BIOBASE GmbH.

  6. Human Rights Event Detection from Heterogeneous Social Media Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Neill, Daniel B

    2015-03-01

    Human rights organizations are increasingly monitoring social media for identification, verification, and documentation of human rights violations. Since manual extraction of events from the massive amount of online social network data is difficult and time-consuming, we propose an approach for automated, large-scale discovery and analysis of human rights-related events. We apply our recently developed Non-Parametric Heterogeneous Graph Scan (NPHGS), which models social media data such as Twitter as a heterogeneous network (with multiple different node types, features, and relationships) and detects emerging patterns in the network, to identify and characterize human rights events. NPHGS efficiently maximizes a nonparametric scan statistic (an aggregate measure of anomalousness) over connected subgraphs of the heterogeneous network to identify the most anomalous network clusters. It summarizes each event with information such as type of event, geographical locations, time, and participants, and provides documentation such as links to videos and news reports. Building on our previous work that demonstrates the utility of NPHGS for civil unrest prediction and rare disease outbreak detection, we present an analysis of human rights events detected by NPHGS using two years of Twitter data from Mexico. NPHGS was able to accurately detect relevant clusters of human rights-related tweets prior to international news sources, and in some cases, prior to local news reports. Analysis of social media using NPHGS could enhance the information-gathering missions of human rights organizations by pinpointing specific abuses, revealing events and details that may be blocked from traditional media sources, and providing evidence of emerging patterns of human rights violations. This could lead to more timely, targeted, and effective advocacy, as well as other potential interventions.

  7. Epilepsy: Extreme Events in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnertz, Klaus

    The analysis of Xevents arising in dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom represents a challenge for many scientific fields. This is especially true for the open, dissipative, and adaptive system known as the human brain. Due to its complex structure, its immense functionality, and — as in the case of epilepsy — due to the coexistence of normal and abnormal functions, the brain can be regarded as one of the most complex and fascinating systems in nature. Data gathered so far show that the epileptic process exhibits a high spatial and temporal variability. Small, specific, regions of the brain are responsible for the generation of focal epileptic seizures, and the amount of time a patient spends actually having seizures is only a small fraction of his/her lifetime. In between these Xevents large parts of the brain exhibit normal functioning. Since the occurrence of seizures usually can not be explained by exogenous factors, and since the brain recovers its normal state after a seizure in the majority of cases, this might indicate that endogenous nonlinear (deterministic and/or stochastic) properties are involved in the control of these Xevents. In fact, converging evidence now indicates that (particularly) nonlinear approaches to the analysis of brain activity allow us to define precursors which, provided sufficient sensitivity and specificity can be obtained, might lead to the development of patient-specific seizure anticipation and seizure prevention strategies.

  8. Biospecimen Repository Access and Data Sharing (BRADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BRADS is a repository for data and biospecimens from population health research initiatives and clinical or interventional trials designed and implemented by NICHD’s...

  9. Repository Rodeo Redux

    CERN Document Server

    Anez, Melissa; Donohue, Tim; Fyson, Will; Simko, Tibor; Wilcox, David

    2017-01-01

    You’ve got more repository questions and we’ve got more answers! Last year’s Repository Rodeo panel was a huge success, so we’re taking the show on the road to Brisbane for OR2017. Join representatives from the DSpace, Eprints, Fedora, Hydra, and Islandora communities as we (briefly) explain what each of our repositories actually does. We'll also talk about the directions of our respective technical and community developments, and related to the conference theme of Open: Innovation Knowledge Repositories, offer brief observations about the latest, most promising and/or most surprising innovations in our space. This panel will be a great opportunity for newcomers to Open Repositories to get a crash course on the major repository options and meet representatives from each of their communities. After a brief presentation from each representative, we'll open the session up for questions from the audience.

  10. CAED Document Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions, and...

  11. Administrative Data Repository (ADR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Administrative Data Repository (ADR) was established to provide support for the administrative data elements relative to multiple categories of a person entity...

  12. Human Auditory Processing: Insights from Cortical Event-related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra P. Key

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human communication and language skills rely heavily on the ability to detect and process auditory inputs. This paper reviews possible applications of the event-related potential (ERP technique to the study of cortical mechanisms supporting human auditory processing, including speech stimuli. Following a brief introduction to the ERP methodology, the remaining sections focus on demonstrating how ERPs can be used in humans to address research questions related to cortical organization, maturation and plasticity, as well as the effects of sensory deprivation, and multisensory interactions. The review is intended to serve as a primer for researchers interested in using ERPs for the study of the human auditory system.

  13. Human Error Assessmentin Minefield Cleaning Operation Using Human Event Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajiakbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Human error is one of the main causes of accidents. Due to the unreliability of the human element and the high-risk nature of demining operations, this study aimed to assess and manage human errors likely to occur in such operations. Methods: This study was performed at a demining site in war zones located in the West of Iran. After acquiring an initial familiarity with the operations, methods, and tools of clearing minefields, job task related to clearing landmines were specified. Next, these tasks were studied using HTA and related possible errors were assessed using ATHEANA. Results: de-mining task was composed of four main operations, including primary detection, technical identification, investigation, and neutralization. There were found four main reasons for accidents occurring in such operations; walking on the mines, leaving mines with no action, error in neutralizing operation and environmental explosion. The possibility of human error in mine clearance operations was calculated as 0.010. Conclusion: The main causes of human error in de-mining operations can be attributed to various factors such as poor weather and operating conditions like outdoor work, inappropriate personal protective equipment, personality characteristics, insufficient accuracy in the work, and insufficient time available. To reduce the probability of human error in de-mining operations, the aforementioned factors should be managed properly.

  14. Defining Human Failure Events for Petroleum Risk Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Knut Øien

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, an identification and description of barriers and human failure events (HFEs) for human reliability analysis (HRA) is performed. The barriers, called target systems, are identified from risk significant accident scenarios represented as defined situations of hazard and accident (DSHAs). This report serves as the foundation for further work to develop petroleum HFEs compatible with the SPAR-H method and intended for reuse in future HRAs.

  15. Studies relating to human intrusion into a repository. Report pertaining to work package 11. Preliminary safety case of the Gorleben site (VSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuth, Thomas; Buhmann, Dieter; Fischer-Appelt, Klaus; Moenig, Joerg; Ruebel, Andre; Wolf, Jens [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Filbert, Wolfgang [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany); Charlier, Frank [international nuclear safety engineering gmbh (nse), Aachen (Germany); Baltes, Bruno

    2014-10-15

    The question of the long-term safety of a repository system is inseparably linked with the intensive technical examination of the possible future evolution of the site and the repository system e. g. as a result of climatic, geologic, waste-related and repository-related processes. Here, the possible evolutions to be considered are those that have the potential to have a negative impact on the intended, furthest-possible, immediate, and lasting isolation of the radioactive waste in a defined area around the underground workings of the repository mine in salt rock, which is referred to as the containment-providing rock zone (CPRZ).

  16. Demonstrating compliance with protection objectives for non-human biota within post-closure safety cases for radioactive waste repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D; Smith, K; Wood, M D

    2014-07-01

    Over recent years, a number of approaches have been developed that enable the calculation of dose rates to animals and plants following the release of radioactivity to the environment. These approaches can be used to assess the potential impacts of activities that may release radioactivity to the environment, such as the operation of waste repositories. A number of national and international studies have identified screening criteria to indicate those assessment results below which further consideration is not generally required. However no internationally agreed criteria are currently available and consistency in criteria between countries has not been achieved. Furthermore, since screening criteria are not intended to be applied as limits, it is clear that they cannot always form a sufficient basis for assessing the adequacy of protection afforded. Typically, exceeding a screening value leads to a regulatory requirement to undertake a further, more detailed assessment. It does not, per se, imply that there is inadequate protection of the organism types at the specific site under assessment. Therefore, there is a need to develop a more structured approach to dealing with situations in which current screening criteria are exceeded. As a contribution to the developing international discussions, and as an interim measure for application where assessments are required currently, a two-tier, three zone framework is proposed here, relevant to the long term assessment of potential impacts from the deep disposal of radioactive wastes. The purpose of the proposed framework is to promote a proportionate and risk-based approach to the level of effort required in undertaking and interpreting an assessment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Human visual system-based smoking event detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odetallah, Amjad D.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2012-06-01

    Human action (e.g. smoking, eating, and phoning) analysis is an important task in various application domains like video surveillance, video retrieval, human-computer interaction systems, and so on. Smoke detection is a crucial task in many video surveillance applications and could have a great impact to raise the level of safety of urban areas, public parks, airplanes, hospitals, schools and others. The detection task is challenging since there is no prior knowledge about the object's shape, texture and color. In addition, its visual features will change under different lighting and weather conditions. This paper presents a new scheme of a system for detecting human smoking events, or small smoke, in a sequence of images. In developed system, motion detection and background subtraction are combined with motion-region-saving, skin-based image segmentation, and smoke-based image segmentation to capture potential smoke regions which are further analyzed to decide on the occurrence of smoking events. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. As well, the developed method is capable of detecting the small smoking events of uncertain actions with various cigarette sizes, colors, and shapes.

  18. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  19. Video Playback Modifications for a DSpace Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Gilbertson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on modifications to an institutional repository system using the open source DSpace software to support playback of digital videos embedded within item pages. The changes were made in response to the formation and quick startup of an event capture group within the library that was charged with creating and editing video recordings of library events and speakers. This paper specifically discusses the selection of video formats, changes to the visual theme of the repository to allow embedded playback and captioning support, and modifications and bug fixes to the file downloading subsystem to enable skip-ahead playback of videos via byte-range requests. This paper also describes workflows for transcoding videos in the required formats, creating captions, and depositing videos into the repository.

  20. Repository seals requirements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-03

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, managed by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) is conducting investigations to support the Viability Assessment and the License Application for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The sealing subsystem is part of the Yucca Mountain Waste Isolation System. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the role of the sealing subsystem (shaft, ramp and exploratory borehole seals) in achieving the overall performance objectives for the Waste Isolation System. This report documents the results of those evaluations. This report presents the results of a repository sealing requirements study. Sealing is defined as the permanent closure of the shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes. Sealing includes those components that would reduce potential inflows above the repository, or that would divert flow near the repository horizon to allow vertical infiltration to below the repository. Sealing of such features as emplacement drifts was not done in this study because the current capability to calculate fracture flow into the drifts is not sufficiently mature. The objective of the study is to provide water or air flow performance based requirements for shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes located near the repository. Recommendations, as appropriate, are provided for developing plans, seals component testing, and other studies relating to sealing.

  1. Contents of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in the safety evaluation of a repository for spent fuels; Innehaallet i en strategi foer myndighetsbedoemning av framtida maenskligt handlande vid vaerdering av saekerheten for slutfoervar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Wickham, S.M.; Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd., Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2001-08-01

    proponent nor the regulator can influence. Examples include anthropogenic climate change and activities that have recently taken place in the vicinity of the disposal site, such as groundwater abstraction. Future human activities are those that may take place in the vicinity of the disposal system at some time in the future and which may affect the performance of the disposal system by by-passing or affecting the characteristics of the engineered and natural barriers. Institutional controls can prevent or reduce the likelihood of any disruptive activities. It may be inappropriate to treat recent and ongoing human activities in the same way as future human activities. Scenarios that include the occurrence of future human activities are conditional and are used to illustrate the potential behaviour of the system. Scenarios including recent and ongoing human activities are not conditional and may provide a better estimate of system performance than those that exclude such activities. The focus of assessments of future human actions should be on longer-term doses received by groups of people who might anyway be considered in the Reference Scenario In particular, human intrusion assessments should include groups considered in assessments of groundwater releases who may receive additional doses from new pathways arising from future human actions, and groups consuming foodstuffs contaminated by radionuclides brought to the surface during or subsequent to an intrusion and dispersed into, the biosphere. Members of a drilling crew that intrude into a repository do not fulfil the definition of a potentially exposed group because any intrusion would be an isolated activity not occurring on a day-to-day basis. The dose received by one individual from a specific short-term event cannot be compared with a regulatory criteria expressed as an average annual dose. The following outline strategy is proposed as a basis for consultation on the treatment of future human actions. Assessments must

  2. Structuring and presenting annotated media repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutledge, L.; Ossenbruggen, J.R. van; Hardman, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Semantic Web envisions a Web that is both human readable and machine processible. In practice, however, there is still a large conceptual gap between annotated content repositories on the one hand, and coherent, human readable Web pages on the other. To bridge this conceptual gap, one needs to s

  3. Human event observations in the individual plant examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forester, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A major objective of the Individual Plant Examination Insights Program is to identify the important determinants of core damage frequency for the different reactor and containment types and plant designs as indicated in the IPEs. The human reliability analysis is a critical component of the probabilistic risk assessments which were done for the IPEs. The determination and selection of human actions for incorporation into the event and fault tree models and the quantification of their failure probabilities can have an important impact on the resulting estimates of CDF and risk. Two important goals of the NRCs IPE Insights Program are (1) to determine the extent to which human actions and their corresponding failure probabilities influenced the results of the IPEs and (2) to identify which factors played significant roles in determining the differences and similarities in the results of the HRA analyses across the different plants. To obtain the relevant information, the NRC`s IPE database, which contains information on plant design, CDF, and containment performance obtained from the IPEs, was used in conjunction with a systematic examination of the HRA analyses and results from the IPEs. Regarding the extent to which the results of the HRA analyses were significant contributors to the plants` CDFs, examinations of several different measures indicated that while individual human actions could have important influences on CDF for particular initiators, the HRA results did not appear to be the most significant driver of plant risk. Another finding was that while there were relatively wide variations in the calculated human error probabilities for similar events across plants, there was no evidence for any systematic variation as a function of the HRA methods used in the analyses. Much of the variability in HEP values can be explained by differences in plant characteristics and sequence-specific factors. Details of these results and other findings are discussed.

  4. Trust in Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Yakel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ISO 16363:2012, Space Data and Information Transfer Systems - Audit and Certification of Trustworthy Digital Repositories (ISO TRAC, outlines actions a repository can take to be considered trustworthy, but research examining whether the repository’s designated community of users associates such actions with trustworthiness has been limited. Drawing from this ISO document and the management and information systems literatures, this paper discusses findings from interviews with 66 archaeologists and quantitative social scientists. We found similarities and differences across the disciplines and among the social scientists. Both disciplinary communities associated trust with a repository’s transparency. However, archaeologists mentioned guarantees of preservation and sustainability more frequently than the social scientists, who talked about institutional reputation. Repository processes were also linked to trust, with archaeologists more frequently citing metadata issues and social scientists discussing data selection and cleaning processes. Among the social scientists, novices mentioned the influence of colleagues on their trust in repositories almost twice as much as the experts. We discuss the implications our findings have for identifying trustworthy repositories and how they extend the models presented in the management and information systems literatures.

  5. Impacts of Extreme Events on Human Health. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jesse E.; Herring, Stephanie C.; Jantarasami, Lesley; Adrianopoli, Carl; Benedict, Kaitlin; Conlon, Kathryn; Escobar, Vanessa; Hess, Jeremy; Luvall, Jeffrey; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; Quattrochi, Dale; Runkle, Jennifer; Schreck, Carl J., III

    2016-01-01

    Increased Exposure to Extreme Events Key Finding 1: Health impacts associated with climate-related changes in exposure to extreme events include death, injury, or illness; exacerbation of underlying medical conditions; and adverse effects on mental health[High Confidence]. Climate change will increase exposure risk in some regions of the United States due to projected increases in the frequency and/or intensity of drought, wildfires, and flooding related to extreme precipitation and hurricanes [Medium Confidence].Disruption of Essential Infrastructure Key Finding 2: Many types of extreme events related to climate change cause disruption of infrastructure, including power, water, transportation, and communication systems, that are essential to maintaining access to health care and emergency response services and safeguarding human health [High Confidence].Vulnerability to Coastal Flooding Key Finding 3: Coastal populations with greater vulnerability to health impacts from coastal flooding include persons with disabilities or other access and functional needs, certain populations of color, older adults, pregnant women and children, low-income populations, and some occupational groups [High Confidence].Climate change will increase exposure risk to coastal flooding due to increases in extreme precipitation and in hurricane intensity and rainfall rates, as well as sea level rise and the resulting increases in storm surge.

  6. Comparing Repository Types - Challenges and barriers for subject-based repositories, research repositories, national repository systems and institutional repositories in serving scholarly communication

    CERN Document Server

    Armbruster, Chris

    2010-01-01

    After two decades of repository development, some conclusions may be drawn as to which type of repository and what kind of service best supports digital scholarly communication, and thus the production of new knowledge. Four types of publication repository may be distinguished, namely the subject-based repository, research repository, national repository system and institutional repository. Two important shifts in the role of repositories may be noted. With regard to content, a well-defined and high quality corpus is essential. This implies that repository services are likely to be most successful when constructed with the user and reader uppermost in mind. With regard to service, high value to specific scholarly communities is essential. This implies that repositories are likely to be most useful to scholars when they offer dedicated services supporting the production of new knowledge. Along these lines, challenges and barriers to repository development may be identified in three key dimensions: a) identific...

  7. A Dynamic Approach to Modeling Dependence Between Human Failure Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    In practice, most HRA methods use direct dependence from THERP—the notion that error be- gets error, and one human failure event (HFE) may increase the likelihood of subsequent HFEs. In this paper, we approach dependence from a simulation perspective in which the effects of human errors are dynamically modeled. There are three key concepts that play into this modeling: (1) Errors are driven by performance shaping factors (PSFs). In this context, the error propagation is not a result of the presence of an HFE yielding overall increases in subsequent HFEs. Rather, it is shared PSFs that cause dependence. (2) PSFs have qualities of lag and latency. These two qualities are not currently considered in HRA methods that use PSFs. Yet, to model the effects of PSFs, it is not simply a matter of identifying the discrete effects of a particular PSF on performance. The effects of PSFs must be considered temporally, as the PSFs will have a range of effects across the event sequence. (3) Finally, there is the concept of error spilling. When PSFs are activated, they not only have temporal effects but also lateral effects on other PSFs, leading to emergent errors. This paper presents the framework for tying together these dynamic dependence concepts.

  8. Chromothripsis: how does such a catastrophic event impact human reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellestor, Franck

    2014-03-01

    The recent discovery of a new kind of massive chromosomal rearrangement, baptized chromothripsis (chromo for chromosomes, thripsis for shattering into pieces), greatly modifies our understanding of molecular mechanisms implicated in the repair of DNA damage and the genesis of complex chromosomal rearrangements. Initially described in cancers, and then in constitutional rearrangements, chromothripsis is characterized by the shattering of one (or a few) chromosome(s) segments followed by a chaotic reassembly of the chromosomal fragments, occurring during one unique cellular event. The diversity and the high complexity of chromothripsis events raise questions about their origin, their ties to chromosome instability and their impact in pathology. Several causative mechanisms, involving abortive apoptosis, telomere erosion, mitotic errors, micronuclei formation and p53 inactivation, have been proposed. The remarkable point is that all these mechanisms have been identified in the field of human reproduction as causal factors for reproductive failures and chromosomal abnormalities. Consequently, it seems important to consider this unexpected catastrophic phenomenon in the context of fertilization and early embryonic development in order to discuss its potential impact on human reproduction.

  9. The Computational Materials Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landis, David D.; Hummelshøj, Jens S.; Nestorov, Svetlozar

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities for designing new materials based on quantum physics calculations are rapidly growing, but these design efforts lead to a significant increase in the amount of computational data created. The Computational Materials Repository (CMR) addresses this data challenge and provides...

  10. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.P. Acthar Gel® ... Corticotropin repository injection comes as a long acting gel to inject under the skin or into a ... prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, or herbal products you are taking or plan to take. ...

  11. CRIS and Institutional Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asserson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available CRIS (Current Research Information Systems provide researchers, research managers, innovators, and others with a view over the research activity of a domain. IRs (institutional repositories provide a mechanism for an organisation to showcase through OA (open access its intellectual property. Increasingly, organizations are mandating that their employed researchers deposit peer-reviewed published material in the IR. Research funders are increasingly mandating that publications be deposited in an open access repository: some mandate a central (or subject-based repository, some an IR. In parallel, publishers are offering OA but replacing subscription-based access with author (or author institution payment for publishing. However, many OA repositories have metadata based on DC (Dublin Core which is inadequate; a CERIF (Common-European Research Information Format CRIS provides metadata describing publications with formal syntax and declared semantics thus facilitating interoperation or homogeneous access over heterogeneous sources. The formality is essential for research output metrics, which are increasingly being used to determine future funding for research organizations.

  12. Excitable human dynamics driven by extrinsic events in massive communities

    CERN Document Server

    Mathiesen, Joachim; Ahlgren, Peter T H; Jensen, Mogens H

    2013-01-01

    Using empirical data from a social media site (Twitter) and on trading volumes of financial securities, we analyze the correlated human activity in massive social organizations. The activity, typically excited by real-world events and measured by the occurrence rate of international brand names and trading volumes, is characterized by intermittent fluctuations with bursts of high activity separated by quiescent periods. These fluctuations are broadly distributed with an inverse cubic tail and have long-range temporal correlations with a $1/f$ power spectrum. We describe the activity by a stochastic point process and derive the distribution of activity levels from the corresponding stochastic differential equation. The distribution and the corresponding power spectrum are fully consistent with the empirical observations.

  13. Sharing Data between LSDBs and Central Repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dunnen, Johan T.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Andersen, Paal S.; Vihinen, Mauno; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Rossetti, Sandro; Talbot, C. Conover; Hardison, Ross C.; Povey, Sue; Cotton, Richard G. H.

    2009-01-01

    Several Locus-Specific DataBases (LSDBs) have recently been approached by larger, more general data repositories (including NCBI and UCSC) with the request to share the DNA variant data they have collected. Within the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) a document was generated summarizing the iss

  14. Publishers and repositories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The impact of self-archiving on journals and publishers is an important topic for all those involved in scholarly communication. There is some evidence that the physics arXiv has had no impact on physics journals, while 'economic common sense' suggests that some impact is inevitable. I shall review recent studies of librarian attitudes towards repositories and journals, and place this in the context of IOP Publishing's experiences with arXiv. I shall offer some possible reasons for the mis-match between these perspectives and then discuss how IOP has linked with arXiv and experimented with OA publishing. As well as launching OA journals we have co-operated with Cornell and the arXiv on Eprintweb.org, a platform that offers new features to repository users. View Andrew Wray's biography

  15. Distributed Web Service Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Nawrocki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability and popularity of computer systems has resulted in a demand for new, language- and platform-independent ways of data exchange. That demand has in turn led to a significant growth in the importance of systems based on Web services. Alongside the growing number of systems accessible via Web services came the need for specialized data repositories that could offer effective means of searching of available services. The development of mobile systems and wireless data transmission technologies has allowed the use of distributed devices and computer systems on a greater scale. The accelerating growth of distributed systems might be a good reason to consider the development of distributed Web service repositories with built-in mechanisms for data migration and synchronization.

  16. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-10-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to

  17. Thousands of exon skipping events differentiate among splicing patterns in sixteen human tissues [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2dl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Florea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is widely recognized for its roles in regulating genes and creating gene diversity. However, despite many efforts, the repertoire of gene splicing variation is still incompletely characterized, even in humans. Here we describe a new computational system, ASprofile, and its application to RNA-seq data from Illumina’s Human Body Map project (>2.5 billion reads.  Using the system, we identified putative alternative splicing events in 16 different human tissues, which provide a dynamic picture of splicing variation across the tissues. We detected 26,989 potential exon skipping events representing differences in splicing patterns among the tissues. A large proportion of the events (>60% were novel, involving new exons (~3000, new introns (~16000, or both. When tracing these events across the sixteen tissues, only a small number (4-7% appeared to be differentially expressed (‘switched’ between two tissues, while 30-45% showed little variation, and the remaining 50-65% were not present in one or both tissues compared.  Novel exon skipping events appeared to be slightly less variable than known events, but were more tissue-specific. Our study represents the first effort to build a comprehensive catalog of alternative splicing in normal human tissues from RNA-seq data, while providing insights into the role of alternative splicing in shaping tissue transcriptome differences. The catalog of events and the ASprofile software are freely available from the Zenodo repository (http://zenodo.org/record/7068; doi:10.5281/zenodo.7068 and from our web site http://ccb.jhu.edu/software/ASprofile.

  18. Repository performance confirmation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-09-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. This paper explores the myriad aspects of what has been labeled performance confirmation in U.S. programs, which involves monitoring as a collection of distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. This paper is divided into four parts: (1) A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives; (2) A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain; (3) A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and (4) An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. A fundamental consideration is the differentiation of confirmation monitoring from the many other testing and monitoring activities. Recently, the license application for Yucca Mountain provided a case study including a technical process for meeting regulatory requirements to confirm repository performance as well as considerations related to the preservation of retrievability. The performance confirmation plan developed as part

  19. Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories: TIPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Caplan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR is a project funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services to create and test a Repository eXchange Package (RXP. The package will make it possible to transfer complex digital objects between dissimilar preservation repositories.  For reasons of redundancy, succession planning and software migration, repositories must be able to exchange copies of archival information packages with each other. Every different repository application, however, describes and structures its archival packages differently. Therefore each system produces dissemination packages that are rarely understandable or usable as submission packages by other repositories. The RXP is an answer to that mismatch. Other solutions for transferring packages between repositories focus either on transfers between repositories of the same type, such as DSpace-to-DSpace transfers, or on processes that rely on central translation services.  Rather than build translators between many dissimilar repository types, the TIPR project has defined a standards-based package of metadata files that can act as an intermediary information package, the RXP, a lingua franca all repositories can read and write.

  20. Study of Womens Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Biospecimen Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Repository is the biospecimen bank of the SWAN study. All stored specimens are from the 3,302 SWAN participants, collected across the 14 clinic visits...

  1. Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BioGRID is an online interaction repository with data on raw protein and genetic interactions from major model organism species. All interaction data are freely...

  2. Interdisciplinary differences in attitudes towards deposit in institutional repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, James

    2005-01-01

    The attitudes and behaviours of academics from different disciplines towards depositing their work in institutional repositories are compared. This is achieved through the use of a survey strategy, and by examination of the contents of a twenty-five UK institutional repositories. The survey targets humanities academics, and the data is compared to that from previous surveys focusing on scientific, technical and medical (STM) disciplines. The number of humanities documents in institutiona...

  3. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  4. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Bradley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  5. Top-down and bottom-up definitions of human failure events in human reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In the probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) used in the nuclear industry, human failure events (HFEs) are determined as a subset of hardware failures, namely those hardware failures that could be triggered by human action or inaction. This approach is top-down, starting with hardware faults and deducing human contributions to those faults. Elsewhere, more traditionally human factors driven approaches would tend to look at opportunities for human errors first in a task analysis and then identify which of those errors is risk significant. The intersection of top-down and bottom-up approaches to defining HFEs has not been carefully studied. Ideally, both approaches should arrive at the same set of HFEs. This question is crucial, however, as human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are generalized to new domains like oil and gas. The HFEs used in nuclear PRAs tend to be top-down—defined as a subset of the PRA—whereas the HFEs used in petroleum quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) often tend to be bottom-up—derived from a task analysis conducted by human factors experts. The marriage of these approaches is necessary in order to ensure that HRA methods developed for top-down HFEs are also sufficient for bottom-up applications.

  6. Deconstructive Misalignment: Archives, Events, and Humanities Approaches in Academic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor M. Holmes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using poetry, role play, readers’ theatre, and creative manipulations of space through yarn and paper weaving, a workshop in 2008 challenged one of educational development’s more pervasive and least questioned notions (“constructive alignment” associated most often with the work of John Biggs. This paper describes the reasoning behind using humanities approaches specifically in this case and more generally in the Challenging Academic Development Collective’s work, as well as problematising the notions of “experiment” and “results” by unarchiving and re-archiving such a nonce-event. The critical stakes in using an anti-empirical method are broached, and readers are encouraged to experience their own version of the emergent truths of such approaches by drawing their own conclusions. En 2008, par le biais de la poésie, du jeu de rôles, du théâtre lu et de manipulations créatrices de l’espace avec de la laine et des tissages en papier, un atelier a mis au défi une des notions les plus généralisées et les moins remises en question du développement éducatif, l’alignement constructif, le plus souvent associé aux travaux de John Biggs. Cet article décrit le raisonnement qui se cache sous l’utilisation des approches des humanités tout spécialement dans ce cas et de manière plus générale dans les travaux du Collectif sur le développement académique stimulant. L’article traite également de la problématique sur les notions d’« expérience » et de « résultats » en désarchivant et en réarchivant une telle circonstance. Les enjeux principaux de l’utilisation de cette méthode anti-empirique sont abordés et les lecteurs sont encouragés à faire l’expérience de leur propre version des vérités qui émergent de telles approches en tirant leurs propres conclusions.

  7. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  8. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; /CERN; Payet, J.; /Saclay; Bartolini, R.; /RAL, Diamond; Farvacque, L.; /ESRF, Grenoble; Sen, T.; /Fermilab; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  9. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  10. Trusted Data Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaretta, D.

    2008-08-01

    Data is valuable, expensive to create, and may be impossible to re-create, so who can be trusted to look after it in the long term? This is a question which applies to all the types of digital data on which most astronomical research, and much of the rest of civilisation, depends. This talk will outline the work which has been, and continues to be, carried out to provide an answer to the question of how to judge whether any given data repository is up to the task and deserves to be funded. The OAIS Reference Model (ISO 14721) forms the basis of most serious work on digital preservation and the aim of the work described here is to build on OAIS to create an international standard on which an accreditation and certification process can be based. The talk will touch on some of the fundamental ideas about preservation of digital objects and on ways to detect preservation snakeoil salesmen.

  11. Influence analysis of Github repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Bai, Xiaomei; Yu, Shuo; Yang, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    With the support of cloud computing techniques, social coding platforms have changed the style of software development. Github is now the most popular social coding platform and project hosting service. Software developers of various levels keep entering Github, and use Github to save their public and private software projects. The large amounts of software developers and software repositories on Github are posing new challenges to the world of software engineering. This paper tries to tackle one of the important problems: analyzing the importance and influence of Github repositories. We proposed a HITS based influence analysis on graphs that represent the star relationship between Github users and repositories. A weighted version of HITS is applied to the overall star graph, and generates a different set of top influential repositories other than the results from standard version of HITS algorithm. We also conduct the influential analysis on per-month star graph, and study the monthly influence ranking of top repositories.

  12. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  13. The impact of recent events on human genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, Mark A

    2012-03-19

    The historical record tells us stories of migrations, population expansions and colonization events in the last few thousand years, but what was their demographic impact? Genetics can throw light on this issue, and has mostly done so through the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the male-specific Y chromosome. However, there are a number of problems, including marker ascertainment bias, possible influences of natural selection, and the obscuring layers of the palimpsest of historical and prehistorical events. Y-chromosomal lineages are particularly affected by genetic drift, which can be accentuated by recent social selection. A diversity of approaches to expansions in Europe is yielding insights into the histories of Phoenicians, Roma, Anglo-Saxons and Vikings, and new methods for producing and analysing genome-wide data hold much promise. The field would benefit from more consensus on appropriate methods, and better communication between geneticists and experts in other disciplines, such as history, archaeology and linguistics.

  14. Fukushima Daiichi Information Repository FY13 Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Phelan, Cherie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwieder, Dave [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in Japan is one of the most serious in commercial nuclear power plant operating history. Much will be learned that may be applicable to the U.S. reactor fleet, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and supporting systems, and the international reactor fleet. For example, lessons from Fukushima Daiichi may be applied to emergency response planning, reactor operator training, accident scenario modeling, human factors engineering, radiation protection, and accident mitigation; as well as influence U.S. policies towards the nuclear fuel cycle including power generation, and spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and disposal. This document describes the database used to establish a centralized information repository to store and manage the Fukushima data that has been gathered. The data is stored in a secured (password protected and encrypted) repository that is searchable and available to researchers at diverse locations.

  15. Usability Evaluation of a Research Repository and Collaboration Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Maron, Deborah J.; Charles, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports results from an empirical usability evaluation of Human-Animal Bond Research Initiative Central as part of the effort to develop an open access research repository and collaboration platform for human-animal bond researchers. By repurposing and altering key features of the original HUBzero system, Human-Animal Bond Research…

  16. VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository serves as a centralized location to collect and report on agreements that share VHA data with entities outside of VA. It...

  17. Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This repository contains Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) that have been vetted/approved. Section 208 of the Electronic Government Act of 2002 (E-Gov Act) requires...

  18. Book Review: The Institutional Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Galina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available At a time when the future nature of scholarly communication and publishing are being debated this book serves as a useful reference guide for one of the key aspects- the institutional repository. Institutional repositories are a popular recent development for distributing and communicating research. They are a useful academic tool for administrating and publishing electronic resources produced by university members in order to increase access to these, both at an institutional and global level. However, there is still no general concensus about the characteristics of an institutional repository. What types of material are deposited? Who is responsible for building and maintaing a repository, how will copyright be managed, who will cover installation and maintenance costs? How will quality, integrity and preservation of the materials be assured?

  19. Management of Indian Institutional Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates various issues concerning the management of institutional repositories (IRs) developed in India. Data collection done using a web based questionnaire, created using software provided by surveymonkey.com. The entire population i.e. all IRs identified in India were surveyed. It was observed that in 42.86% (6) of Institutional Repositories implementation programmes were headed by librarians. No special staff was appointed by any institution for carrying out different jobs...

  20. Demystifying the institutional repository for success

    CERN Document Server

    Buehler, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Institutional repositories remain key to data storage on campus, fulfilling the academic needs of various stakeholders. Demystifying the Institutional Repository for Success is a practical guide to creating and sustaining an institutional repository through marketing, partnering, and understanding the academic needs of all stakeholders on campus. This title is divided into seven chapters, covering: traditional scholarly communication and open access publishing; the academic shift towards open access; what the successful institutional repository looks like; institutional repository collaboratio

  1. Digital Repository for Life-long Competence Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorov, Alexander; Georgiev, Atanas; Petrov, Milen; Stefanov, Krassen

    2009-01-01

    Grigorov, A., Georgiev, A., Petrov, M., & Stefanov, K. (2009). Digital Repository for Life-long Competence Development. Paper presented at the 'Open workshop of TENCompetence - Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty-event'. November, 19-20, 2009, Manchester, UK: TENComp

  2. Digital Repository for Life-long Competence Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorov, Alexander; Georgiev, Atanas; Petrov, Milen; Stefanov, Krassen

    2009-01-01

    Grigorov, A., Georgiev, A., Petrov, M., & Stefanov, K. (2009). Digital Repository for Life-long Competence Development. Paper presented at the 'Open workshop of TENCompetence - Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty-event'. November, 19-20, 2009, Manchester, UK: TENComp

  3. Multibarrier system preventing migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewska Wioleta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety of radioactive waste repositories operation is associated with a multibarrier system designed and constructed to isolate and contain the waste from the biosphere. Each of radioactive waste repositories is equipped with system of barriers, which reduces the possibility of release of radionuclides from the storage site. Safety systems may differ from each other depending on the type of repository. They consist of the natural geological barrier provided by host rocks of the repository and its surroundings, and an engineered barrier system (EBS. The EBS may itself comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as waste forms, canisters, buffers, backfills, seals and plugs. The EBS plays a major role in providing the required disposal system performance. It is assumed that the metal canisters and system of barriers adequately isolate waste from the biosphere. The evaluation of the multibarrier system is carried out after detailed tests to determine its parameters, and after analysis including mathematical modeling of migration of contaminants. To provide an assurance of safety of radioactive waste repository multibarrier system, detailed long term safety assessments are developed. Usually they comprise modeling of EBS stability, corrosion rate and radionuclide migration in near field in geosphere and biosphere. The principal goal of radionuclide migration modeling is assessment of the radionuclides release paths and rate from the repository, radionuclides concentration in geosphere in time and human exposure to ionizing radiation

  4. Microbial processes in a clay repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canniere, Pierre de [Federal Agency of Nuclear Control (FANC), Brussels (Belgium); Meleshyn, Artur [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The safety of a deep geologic repository (DGR) for nuclear waste must be ensured for geological times exceeding human imagination taking into account large uncertainties. The long-term effects of complex biogeochemical processes potentially affecting the integrity and the long-term safety of engineered barriers might still be unknown. The aim of this presentation is to give a general overview of some microbial processes which have contributed to shape the Earth since probably billions of years and whose unexpected consequences for nuclear waste disposal should be appropriately tackled. (orig.)

  5. Human Events Reference for ATHEANA (HERA) Database Description and Preliminary User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflick, J.L.

    1999-08-12

    The Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA) is a newly developed human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology that aims to facilitate better representation and integration of human performance into probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) modeling and quantification by analyzing risk-significant operating experience in the context of existing behavioral science models. The fundamental premise of ATHEANA is that error forcing contexts (EFCs), which refer to combinations of equipment/material conditions and performance shaping factors (PSFs), set up or create the conditions under which unsafe actions (UAs) can occur. Because ATHEANA relies heavily on the analysis of operational events that have already occurred as a mechanism for generating creative thinking about possible EFCs, a database (db) of analytical operational events, called the Human Events Reference for ATHEANA (HERA), has been developed to support the methodology. This report documents the initial development efforts for HERA.

  6. Repository of Audit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To inform the HHS, Congress, and the public about the efficiency, effectiveness, and integrity of HHS programs and to recommend actions to promote those goals. To...

  7. Repository of Evaluation Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To inform the HHS, Congress, and the public about the efficiency, effectiveness, and integrity of HHS programs and to recommend actions to promote those goals.

  8. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  9. BEI Resource Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BEI Resources provides reagents, tools and information for studying Category A, B, and C priority pathogens, emerging infectious disease agents, non-pathogenic...

  10. Repository of Audit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To inform the HHS, Congress, and the public about the efficiency, effectiveness, and integrity of HHS programs and to recommend actions to promote those goals. To...

  11. The Fermilab Lattice Information Repository

    CERN Document Server

    Ostiguy, Jean-Francois; McCusker-Whiting, Michele; Michelotti, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Fermilab is a large accelerator complex with six rings and sixteen transfer beamlines operating in various modes and configurations, subject to modifications, improvements and occasional major redesign. Over the years, it became increasingly obvious that a centralized lattice repository with the ability to track revisions would be of great value. To that end, we evaluated potentially suitable revision systems, either freely available or commercial, and decided that expecting infrequent users to become fully conversant with complex revision system software was neither realistic nor practical. In this paper, we discuss technical aspects of the recently introduced FNAL Accelerator Division's Lattice Repository, whose fully web-based interface hides the complexity of Subversion, a comprehensive open source revision system. In particular we emphasize how the architecture of Subversion was a key ingredient in the technical success of the repository's implementation.

  12. Modeling 4D Human-Object Interactions for Joint Event Segmentation, Recognition, and Object Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ping; Zhao, Yibiao; Zheng, Nanning; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a 4D human-object interaction (4DHOI) model for solving three vision tasks jointly: i) event segmentation from a video sequence, ii) event recognition and parsing, and iii) contextual object localization. The 4DHOI model represents the geometric, temporal, and semantic relations in daily events involving human-object interactions. In 3D space, the interactions of human poses and contextual objects are modeled by semantic co-occurrence and geometric compatibility. On the time axis, the interactions are represented as a sequence of atomic event transitions with coherent objects. The 4DHOI model is a hierarchical spatial-temporal graph representation which can be used for inferring scene functionality and object affordance. The graph structures and parameters are learned using an ordered expectation maximization algorithm which mines the spatial-temporal structures of events from RGB-D video samples. Given an input RGB-D video, the inference is performed by a dynamic programming beam search algorithm which simultaneously carries out event segmentation, recognition, and object localization. We collected and released a large multiview RGB-D event dataset which contains 3,815 video sequences and 383,036 RGB-D frames captured by three RGB-D cameras. The experimental results on three challenging datasets demonstrate the strength of the proposed method.

  13. Repository operational criteria comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the ``Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies`` (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations considering the interfaces among the components of the regulations and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The ROC task addresses regulatory criteria and uncertainties related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. Those parts of 10 CFR Part 60 that require routine guidance or minor changes to the rule were addressed in Hageman and Chowdhury, 1992. The ROC task shows a possible need for further regulatory clarity, by major changes to the rule, related to the design bases and siting of a geologic repository operations area and radiological emergency planning in order to assure defense-in-depth. The analyses, presented in this report, resulted in the development and refinement of regulatory concepts and their supporting rationale for recommendations for potential major changes to 10 CFR Pan 0 regulations.

  14. Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to broaden access and facilitate efficient data sharing, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) has created the Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR), a centralized, controlled-access database, where Investigators can deposit individual-level de-identified observational cancer datasets.

  15. Semantic repository and ontology mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, J.; Trna, M.; Lozano, E.; Nguyen, T.T.; Gómez-Pérez, A.; Montaña, C.; Liem, J.

    2010-01-01

    This document discusses the core Semantic Technologies in DynaLearn: i) The semantic repository, which supports the online storage and access of qualitative reasoning models, ii) the grounding process, which establishes semantic equivalences between the concepts in the models and the concepts in a

  16. The MEANING multilingual central repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atserias, J.; Villarejo, L.; Rigau, G.; Agirre, E.; Carroll, J.; Magnini, B.; Vossen, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of the Multilingual Central Repository, a lexical knowledge base developed in the framework of the MEANING project. Currently the MCR integrates into the EuroWordNet framework five local wordnets (including four versions of the English WordNet from Princeton),

  17. Principal organic materials in a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    the redox potential within the repository. The products of cellulose degradation may help enhance the complexing capacity of the groundwater around the repository, so the amount of cellulose left in the repository should be minimised. 4. Fuels and engine emissions. No important effects are expected from these organic materials in the repository. Although the presence of aromatic compounds and PAHs in groundwater is not desirable in itself, these compounds are of no consequence for long-term repository performance. 5. Detergents and lubricants. The same reasoning as for fuels and engine emissions can be applied to these materials. The amount of detergents should be minimised, although in the amounts in which they are expected to occur, no important impact is foreseen. 6. Materials from human activities. Of these materials, fibres from clothes could have a more important effect, due to the presence of cellulose. Accordingly, human-related wastes should me minimised, although no large amounts of these materials are expected to be present after repository closure. Three processes are considered to have the largest potential impact on repository performance: i) Increasing the reducing capacity and reducing the redox potential in the short term, and increasing the depletion rate of oxygen trapped during the repository operation stage. ii) Increasing the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to the presence of organic complexants, which is expected to be a more relevant process in the long term. Many organic molecules with complexing capacity, for example, short-chain organic acids such as acetate, however, will be oxidised due to microbial metabolism. The projected acetate concentration in groundwater is below the detection limit of available analytical methods. The amount of organic material in groundwater is usually only being a few mg L-1, and 25-75% of this material is non-humic material, i.e. short-chain acids. iii) Production of HS- from the oxidation of short

  18. The Consequential Problems of Unexpected Events for Human Element and Construction Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Khosravi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected events are unpredictable or beyond the control of human. The aim of this study was to identify the consequential problems of unexpected events faced by construction managers and project managers. In undertaking this investigation, we used an exploratory semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey method. The results of this research showed that the consequential problems of unexpected events were frequently wicked, wicked messes and messes types of problems. These wicked, wicked messes and messes problems grew rapidly by high behavioral complexity of human affected environment and high dynamic complexity of interdependent systems in construction projects. We discovered human behavioral problems as wicked kind of problems for human element could lead to noticeable effects on project manager, such as irresponsibility and making a bizarre decision. Also, we identified wicked messes and messes problems, including loss of reputation and litigation, for construction organizations could terminate the viability of organizations and projects. Furthermore, we found out that three most important factors for responding successfully to the consequential problems of unexpected events were: 1 organizations’ structure and support, 2 competent project manager and 3 immediate actions. The findings of the study revealed that leadership, communication skills and hard-working were essential attributes of the competent project manager in responding to the consequential problems of unexpected events. Lastly, this research suggests the development of managerial reactive skills and control of behavioral responses through learning practice as key components of the required approach that need further investigations in future researches.

  19. Higher-level goals in the processing of human action events

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, M.L.; Zacks, J.M.; Flores, S.; Howard, L.H.; Woodward, A.L.; Loucks, J.; Meltzoff, A N; Cooper, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a goal critically separates dynamic events involving humans from other events. Human behaviours are motivated by goals, which are known to the actor but typically inferred on the part of the observer. Goals can be hierarchical in nature, such that a collection of sub-goals (e.g., getting a mug, boiling water) can be nested under a higher-level goal (e.g., making tea), which can be further nested under an even higher-level goal (e.g., making breakfast).\\ud The diverse set of tal...

  20. Faulty assumptions for repository requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutcliffe, W G

    1999-06-03

    Long term performance requirements for a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste are based on assumptions concerning water use and subsequent deaths from cancer due to ingesting water contaminated with radio isotopes ten thousand years in the future. This paper argues that the assumptions underlying these requirements are faulty for a number of reasons. First, in light of the inevitable technological progress, including efficient desalination of water, over the next ten thousand years, it is inconceivable that a future society would drill for water near a repository. Second, even today we would not use water without testing its purity. Third, today many types of cancer are curable, and with the rapid progress in medical technology in general, and the prevention and treatment of cancer in particular, it is improbable that cancer caused by ingesting contaminated water will be a sign&ant killer in the far future. This paper reviews the performance requirements for geological repositories and comments on the difficulties in proving compliance in the face of inherent uncertainties. The already tiny long-term risk posed by a geologic repository is presented and contrasted with contemporary every day risks. A number of examples of technological progress, including cancer treatments, are advanced. The real and significant costs resulting from the overly conservative requirements are then assessed. Examples are given of how money (and political capital) could be put to much better use to save lives today and in the future. It is concluded that although a repository represents essentially no long-term risk, monitored retrievable dry storage (above or below ground) is the current best alternative for spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Repository Software

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This proposal outlines the design of a comparative analysis of the four institutional repository software packages that were represented at the 4th International Conference on Open Repositories held in 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia: EPrints, DSpace, Fedora and Zentity (The 4th International Conference on Open Repositories website, https://or09.library.gatech.edu). The study includes 23 qualitative and quantitative measures taken from default installations of the four repositories on a benchmark ma...

  2. Digital Preservation Initiatives in Ontario: Trusted Digital Repositories and Research Data Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Johnston

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first in a series of two articles dealing with digital preservation, this article discusses repositories, more specifically Trusted Digital Repositories (TDR and Research Data Repositories. The focus will be on the TDRs at Scholars Portal and Library and Archives Canada (LAC, and the data repository at the University of Guelph.

  3. Consistency Analysis of Network Traffic Repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for var

  4. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, E.; Pras, A.

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for vario

  5. Human events reference for ATHEANA (HERA) database description and preliminary user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflick, J.L.; Hahn, H.A.; Pond, D.J.

    1998-05-27

    The Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA) is a newly developed human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology that aims to facilitate better representation and integration of human performance into probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) modeling and quantification by analyzing risk-significant operating experience in the context of existing behavioral science models. The fundamental premise of ATHEANA is that error-forcing contexts (EFCs), which refer to combinations of equipment/material conditions and performance shaping factors (PSFs), set up or create the conditions under which unsafe actions (UAs) can occur. Because ATHEANA relies heavily on the analysis of operational events that have already occurred as a mechanism for generating creative thinking about possible EFCs, a database, called the Human Events Reference for ATHEANA (HERA), has been developed to support the methodology. This report documents the initial development efforts for HERA.

  6. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-03-07

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized. (JRD)

  7. ERM Ideas and Innovations: Digital Repository Management as ERM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, María M.; Lin, Na

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the application of electronic resources management (ERM) to digital repository management at the Health Sciences and Human Services Library at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. The authors discuss electronic resources management techniques, through the application of "Techniques for Electronic Management,"…

  8. DRIVER: Building a Sustainable Infrastructure of European Scientific Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Lossau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available DRIVER has a clear vision: All research institutions in Europe and worldwide make all their research publications openly accessible through institutional repositories. The vision follows the Berlin Declaration, which called in October 2003 for ‘free and unrestricted access to sciences and human knowledge representation worldwide’. Initiated by the internationally renowned German research organisation the Max-Planck-Society, and signed by many international research organisations and institutes, the Berlin Declaration has set a political statement. In building a sustainable infrastructure for scientific repositories, DRIVER brings to this statement the reality of scholarly communication in the future.

  9. Archaeological data as a basis for repository marker design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1982-10-01

    This report concerns the development of a marking system for a nuclear waste repository which is very likely to survive for 10,000 years. In order to provide a background on the subject, and for the preliminary design presented in this report, a discussion is presented about the issues involved in human interference with the repository system and the communication of information. A separate chapter summarizes six ancient man-made monuments including: materials, effects of associated textual information on our understanding of the monument, and other features of the ancient monument relevant to marking a repository site. The information presented in the two chapters is used to provide the basis and rationale for a preliminary marker system design presented in a final chapter. 86 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Functional requirements for a central research imaging data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Gruetz, Romanus; Dickmann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The current situation at many university medical centers regarding the management of biomedical research imaging data leaves much to be desired. In contrast to the recommendations of the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the German Council of Sciences and Humanities regarding the professional management of research data, there are commonly many individual data pools for research data in each institute and the management remains the responsibility of the researcher. A possible solution for this situation would be to install local central repositories for biomedical research imaging data. In this paper, we developed a scenario based on abstracted use-cases for institutional research undertakings as well as collaborative biomedical research projects and analyzed the functional requirements that a local repository would have to fulfill. We determined eight generic categories of functional requirements, which can be viewed as a basic guideline for the minimum functionality of a central repository for biomedical research imaging data.

  11. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van Strien (Jan); L.A. Isbell (Lynne A.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractStudies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to pa

  12. Eliciting Children's Recall of Events: How Do Computers Compare with Humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martine B.; Wilson, J. Clare; Thomson, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the usefulness of an interactive computer program in eliciting children's reports about an event. Compared results of interviews by computer with interviews with humans with children aged five through eight that showed little benefit in computers over face-to-face interviews. (Author/LRW)

  13. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: Modelling human energy conversion and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, J.H.G.M. van; Supandi, F.; Gavai, A.K.; Graaf, A.A. de; Binsl, T.W.; Hettling, H.

    2011-01-01

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events.We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We

  14. Plasticity in Single Axon Glutamatergic Connection to GABAergic Interneurons Regulates Complex Events in the Human Neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szegedi, Viktor; Paizs, Melinda; Csakvari, Eszter; Molnar, Gabor; Barzo, Pal; Tamas, Gabor; Lamsa, Karri

    2016-11-01

    In the human neocortex, single excitatory pyramidal cells can elicit very large glutamatergic EPSPs (VLEs) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons capable of triggering their firing with short (3-5 ms) delay. Similar strong excitatory connections between two individual neurons have not been found in nonhuman cortices, suggesting that these synapses are specific to human interneurons. The VLEs are crucial for generating neocortical complex events, observed as single pyramidal cell spike-evoked discharge of cell assemblies in the frontal and temporal cortices. However, long-term plasticity of the VLE connections and how the plasticity modulates neocortical complex events has not been studied. Using triple and dual whole-cell recordings from synaptically connected human neocortical layers 2-3 neurons, we show that VLEs in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons exhibit robust activity-induced long-term depression (LTD). The LTD by single pyramidal cell 40 Hz spike bursts is specific to connections with VLEs, requires group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, and has a presynaptic mechanism. The LTD of VLE connections alters suprathreshold activation of interneurons in the complex events suppressing the discharge of fast-spiking GABAergic cells. The VLEs triggering the complex events may contribute to cognitive processes in the human neocortex, and their long-term plasticity can alter the discharging cortical cell assemblies by learning.

  15. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: Modelling human energy conversion and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, J.H.G.M. van; Supandi, F.; Gavai, A.K.; Graaf, A.A. de; Binsl, T.W.; Hettling, H.

    2011-01-01

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events.We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We calculate

  16. Complex events initiated by individual spikes in the human cerebral cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Molnár

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic interactions between neurons of the human cerebral cortex were not directly studied to date. We recorded the first dataset, to our knowledge, on the synaptic effect of identified human pyramidal cells on various types of postsynaptic neurons and reveal complex events triggered by individual action potentials in the human neocortical network. Brain slices were prepared from nonpathological samples of cortex that had to be removed for the surgical treatment of brain areas beneath association cortices of 58 patients aged 18 to 73 y. Simultaneous triple and quadruple whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed testing mono- and polysynaptic potentials in target neurons following a single action potential fired by layer 2/3 pyramidal cells, and the temporal structure of events and underlying mechanisms were analyzed. In addition to monosynaptic postsynaptic potentials, individual action potentials in presynaptic pyramidal cells initiated long-lasting (37 +/- 17 ms sequences of events in the network lasting an order of magnitude longer than detected previously in other species. These event series were composed of specifically alternating glutamatergic and GABAergic postsynaptic potentials and required selective spike-to-spike coupling from pyramidal cells to GABAergic interneurons producing concomitant inhibitory as well as excitatory feed-forward action of GABA. Single action potentials of human neurons are sufficient to recruit Hebbian-like neuronal assemblies that are proposed to participate in cognitive processes.

  17. Experimental DML over digital repositories in Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Namiki, Takao; Naruse, Shunsuke

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the authors show an overview of Virtual Digital Mathematics Library in Japan (DML-JP), contents of which consist of metadata harvested from institutional repositories in Japan and digital repositories in the world. DML-JP is, in a sense, a subject specific repository which collaborate with various digital repositories. Beyond portal website, DML-JP provides subject-specific metadata through OAI-ORE. By the schema it is enabled that digital repositories can load the rich metadata which were added by mathematicians.

  18. Online educational repositories for promoting agricultural knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Costopoulou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards promoting sustainable agriculture and economic growth, the development of the agricultural workforce and set up of innovative agricultural systems are required. Agricultural educational repositories are systems used for storing, reusing and sharing agricultural learning resources. They contribute to agricultural education at different educational levels and target groups. Thus, this paper firstly provides an overview of Institutional repositories (IRs and Open Access Archives (OAAs in Greece and agricultural repositories worldwide. Also, it describes the agricultural repositories that provide access to educational content in Greek and presents experiences from the establishment of Agricultural University of Athens’ (AUA repository.

  19. Analysis on the use of engineered barriers for geologic isolation of spent fuel in a reference salt site repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloninger, M.O.; Cole, C.R.; Washburn, J.F.

    1980-12-01

    A perspective on the potential durability and effectiveness requirements for the waste form, container and other engineered barriers for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been developed. This perspective is based on calculated potential doses to individuals who may be exposed to radioactivity released from a repository via a groundwater transport pathway. These potential dose commitments were calculated with an integrated geosphere transport and bioshpere transport model. A sensitivity analysis was accomplished by varying four important system parameters, namely the waste radionuclide release rate from the repository, the delay prior to groundwater contact with the waste (leach initiation), aquifer flow velocity and flow path length. The nuclide retarding capacity of the geologic media, a major determinant of the isolation effectiveness, was not varied as a parameter but was held constant for a particular reference site. This analysis is limited to looking only at engineered barriers whose net effect is either to delay groundwater contact with the waste form or to limit the rate of release of radionuclides into the groundwater once contact has occurred. The analysis considers only leach incident scenarios, including a water well intrusion into the groundwater near a repository, but does not consider other human intrusion events or catastrophic events. The analysis has so far been applied to a reference salt site repository system and conclusions are presented.Basically, in nearly all cases, the regional geology is the most effective barrier to release of radionuclides to the biosphere; however, for long-lived isotopes of carbon, technetium and iodine, which were poorly sorbed on the geologic media, the geology is not very effective once a leach incident is initiated.

  20. University digital repositories and authors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Keefer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Open Access movement offers two strategies for making scientific information available without economic, technical or legal obstacles: the publication of articles in OA journals and the deposit by authors of their Works in stable institutional or discipline-based repositories. This article explores the implementation of the second “route” on the part of authors, because it is the strategy that offers the greatest possibility of attaining OA in the short term. However, it does require repositories to exert great effort in informing the authors of the advantages of self-archiving and of the procedures for depositing their work and, even helping them to do so – through services and promotional activities.

  1. A Quantitative Index to Support Recurrence Prevention Plans of Human-Related Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sam; Lee, Durk Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea, HuRAM+ (Human related event Root cause Analysis Method plus) was developed to scrutinize the causes of the human-related events. The information of the human-related events investigated by the HuRAM+ method has been also managed by a database management system, R-tracer. It is obvious that accumulating data of human error causes aims to support plans that reduce recurrences of similar events. However, in spite of the efforts for the development of the human error database, it was indicated that the database does not provide useful empirical basis for establishment of the recurrence prevention plans, because the framework to interpret the collected data and apply the insights from the data into the prevention plants has not been developed yet. In this paper, in order to support establishment of the recurrence prevention plans, a quantitative index, Human Error Repeat Interval (HERI), was proposed and its applications to human error prevention were introduced. In this paper, a quantitative index, the HERI was proposed and the statistics of HERIs were introduced. These estimations can be employed to evaluate effects of recurrence prevention plans to human errors. If a mean HERI score is low and the linear trend is not positive, it can be suspected that the recurrence prevention plans applied every human-related event has not been effectively propagated. For reducing repetitive error causes, the system design or operational culture can be reviewed. If there is a strong and negative trend, systematic investigation of the root causes behind these trends is required. Likewise, we expect that the HERI index will provide significant basis for establishing or adjusting prevention plans of human errors. The accurate estimation and application of HERI scores is expected to be done after accumulating more data. When a scatter plot of HERIs is fitted by two or more models, a statistical model selection method can be employed. Some criteria have been introduced by

  2. Trustworthy SNS for Institutional Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Sozo; Hori, Yuko; Ikeda, Daisuke

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, SNS (Social Networking Service) are attracting attention in the field of web services. SNS is the communication system which focuses on social relations between users, such as a friend and a group, named a community. Thus, SNS is useful for the institutional repositories in the sense that they can 1) increase the time and frequency of use by users, and 2) categorize or utilize the contents using the community information. However in SNS nowadays, the increase of spam messages...

  3. Digital Repository of Mathematical Formulae

    OpenAIRE

    Howard S. Cohl; McClain, Marjorie A.; Saunders, Bonita V.; Schubotz, Moritz; Williams, Janelle C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the NIST Digital Repository of Mathematical Formulae (DRMF) is to create a digital compendium of mathematical formulae for orthogonal polynomials and special functions (OPSF) and of associated mathematical data. The DRMF addresses needs of working mathematicians, physicists and engineers: providing a platform for publication and interaction with OPSF formulae on the web. Using MediaWiki extensions and other existing technology (such as software and macro collections developed f...

  4. Towards an enterprise repository framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, D

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available addresses the business and man- agement decisions, portfolio of businesses, mission, business strategies and visions. On the domain level the business architecture includes the definition of the services and products, as well as the business processes..., List and Schiefer [14]: ‘A data warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, and non-volatile collection of data to support decision-making’. Component D introduces the concept of an enterprise repository as warehouse...

  5. Repository development status in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, Alvaro; Zuloaga, Pablo [ENRESA (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The paper describes the status of repository development for the different waste categories. Low and Intermediate Waste Disposal facility of El Cabril was commissioned in 1992 and is in normal operation. The major modifications and activities during the last years are the adaptation to waste streams not initially foreseen such as some decommissioning waste or waste from steel industry, and the improvement of its performance assessment, supported by a R and D and refined models. As part of this facility, a new disposal facility specifically intended for very low activity waste has been constructed and commissioned in July 2008. Its design is based on the European Directive for hazardous waste disposal. National policy for Nuclear Spent Fuel and High-Level waste is focused on the development of a centralized storage facility of the vault type, whose site location would be selected through a volunteering process. Meanwhile, with the aim of solving specific problems, three individual storage facilities are in different status at reactor sites. Research on final solution, including some repository aspects as well as separation and transmutation are being carried out in accordance to ENRESA's R and D program. ENRESA has developed conceptual designs for non site specific repositories, both in granite and clay, and has carried out their corresponding performance assessment exercises. (authors)

  6. A preliminary total-system performance assessment for the potential repository site Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Dockerey, H.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    We present a preliminary performance assessment of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, U.S.A., as a potential site for a radioactive-waste repository. Models and results are discussed for four basic categories of processes and events: groundwater flow and aqueous transport, gas flow and gaseous transport, human intrusion, and basaltic volcanism. Calculated releases of radioactivity to the accessible environment are compared with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requirements. The preliminary results show releases from human intrusion and volcanisms to fall well below the regulatory limits, though not all aspects of those categories have yet been considered. Calculated releases for nominal gaseous transport (of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}) are closest to the limits, indicating that models and data relating to gaseous releases may need to receive higher priority. (author) 15 figs., 33 refs.

  7. The 'dirty downside' of global sporting events: focus on human trafficking for sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, R; Finkel, M L

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is as complex human rights and public health issue. The issue of human trafficking for sexual exploitation at large global sporting events has proven to be elusive given the clandestine nature of the industry. This piece examines the issue from a public health perspective. This is a literature review of the 'most comprehensive' studies published on the topic. A PubMed search was done using MeSH terms 'human traffickings' and 'sex trafficking' and 'human rights abuses'. Subheadings included 'statistics and numerical data', 'legislation and jurispudence', 'prevention and control', and 'therapy'. Only papers published in English were reviewed. The search showed that very few well-designed empirical studies have been conducted on the topic and only one pertinent systematic review was identified. Findings show a high prevalence of physical violence among those trafficked compared to non-trafficked women. Sexually transmitted infections and HIV AIDS are prevalent and preventive care is virtually non-existent. Quantifying human trafficking for sexual exploitation at large global sporting events has proven to be elusive given the clandestine nature of the industry. This is not to say that human trafficking for sex as well as forced sexual exploitation does not occur. It almost certainly exists, but to what extent is the big question. It is a hidden problem on a global scale in plain view with tremendous public health implications. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring the Human Ecology of the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, D. J.; Erlandson, J. M.; Braje, T. J.; Culleton, B. J.

    2007-05-01

    Several lines of evidence now exist for a major extraterrestrial impact event in North America at 12.9 ka (the YDB). This impact partially destabilized the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets, triggered abrupt Younger Dryas cooling and extensive wildfires, and contributed to megafaunal extinction. This event also occurred soon after the well established colonization of the Americas by anatomically modern humans. Confirmation of this event would represent the first near-time extraterrestrial impact with significant effects on human populations. These likely included widespread, abrupt human mortality, population displacement, migration into less effected or newly established habitats, loss of cultural traditions, and resource diversification in the face of the massive megafaunal extinction and population reductions in surviving animal populations. Ultimately, these transformations established the context for the special character of plant and animal domestication and the emergence of agricultural economies in North America. We explore the Late Pleistocene archaeological record in North America within the context of documented major biotic changes associated with the YDB in North America and of the massive ecological affects hypothesized for this event.

  9. An evaluation of repository-induced disturbances for a KBS-3 type repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D.; McLeod, R.; McEwen, T. [QuantiSci, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)

    1998-03-01

    This report considers the potential physical and chemical perturbations caused by the excavation, operation and backfilling and sealing of a KBS-3 type repository for spent fuel in Sweden. Parts of the underground excavations are likely to remain open to the atmosphere for up to several decades. Time-dependent changes to the chemical environment and the properties of the geological formation will be occurring as well as the initial disturbance of construction and subsequent changes after backfilling. In addition, this report also discusses issues that arise from the co-disposal of spent fuel and intermediate level waste. The processes which are likely to act during each stage of a repository from construction through to backfilling and sealing have been reviewed and the degree to which these processes are understood and represented within the performance assessment is discussed. The areas of particular interest are: The coupling of thermal, hydrogeological and mechanical processes with particular reference to the development of the near-field; Understanding the transient process of re-saturation with particular reference to the buffer material surrounding the waste canisters, including chemical changes to the material; The impact of accidental events during the construction and operational phases of work and their possible consequence on the long term performance of the repository; Chemical issues relating to the co-disposal of spent fuel and intermediate level wastes within a single facility. When consideration of transient processes and coupling is discussed, it is apparent that numerical tools and a complete understanding to provide quantitative information is lacking. The importance of the engineered barrier system within the performance assessment for spent fuel disposal is recognised and the emphasis is placed on the understanding of the coupled processes in the evolution in the near-field of the geosphere 45 refs, 4 fig, 2 tabs

  10. Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center (BioLINCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The goal of BioLINCC is to facilitate and coordinate the existing activities of the NHLBI Biorepository and the Data Repository and to expand their scope and...

  11. Use of Mass-Participation Outdoor Events to Assess Human Exposure to Tickborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jessica L; Alpers, Kathrin; Bown, Kevin J; Martin, Stephen J; Birtles, Richard J

    2017-03-01

    Mapping the public health threat of tickborne pathogens requires quantification of not only the density of infected host-seeking ticks but also the rate of human exposure to these ticks. To efficiently sample a high number of persons in a short time, we used a mass-participation outdoor event. In June 2014, we sampled ≈500 persons competing in a 2-day mountain marathon run across predominantly tick-infested habitat in Scotland. From the number of tick bites recorded and prevalence of tick infection with Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato and B. miyamotoi, we quantified the frequency of competitor exposure to the pathogens. Mass-participation outdoor events have the potential to serve as excellent windows for epidemiologic study of tickborne pathogens; their concerted use should improve spatial and temporal mapping of human exposure to infected ticks.

  12. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank — A Repository for Biomaterial and Data Used in Integrative and Systems Biology Modeling the Human Response to Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Geraldine; Unger, Kristian; Krznaric, Marko; Galpine, Angela; Bethel, Jackie; Tomlinson, Christopher; Woodbridge, Mark; Butcher, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer post Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank (CTB: www.chernobyltissuebank.com) was established in 1998. Thus far it is has collected biological samples from 3,861 individuals, and provided 27 research projects with 11,254 samples. The CTB was designed from its outset as a resource to promote the integration of research and clinical data to facilitate a systems biology approach to radiation related thyroid cancer. The project has therefore developed as a multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, dosimetrists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians and serves as a paradigm for tissue banking in the omics era. PMID:24704918

  13. Slovac Republic repository of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bartko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slovac Republic Repository of Radioactive Waste (radwaste in place Mochovce presents a multi-barrier repository of the surface type designed as an ultimate storage of treated solid and fixed, low-and very low-level radwaste generated during the operation and decommissioning of the nuclear power plants, in research institutes, laboratories and hospitals in the Slovak Republic. The isolation of the radwaste and retardation of the radionuclides are provided by the barrier system of the repository. To assess the complete system and parts of one of the most important barriers – the multi-barrier ultimate shielding of the repository – the model of the ultimate shielding of the repository was designed. The monitoring results of the model “ in situ“ will be applicable for projecting the ultimate shielding of the repository.

  14. Author Identifiers in Scholarly Repositories

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Simeon

    2010-01-01

    Bibliometric and usage-based analyses and tools highlight the value of information about scholarship contained within the network of authors, articles and usage data. Less progress has been made on populating and using the author side of this network than the article side, in part because of the difficulty of unambiguously identifying authors. I briefly review a sample of author identifier schemes, and consider use in scholarly repositories. I then describe preliminary work at arXiv to implement public author identifiers, services based on them, and plans to make this information useful beyond the boundaries of arXiv.

  15. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a repository in the Paradox Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Meyer, D.; Case, J.B.; Coons, W.E.

    1985-12-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that human-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the stratigraphy of the Paradox Basin. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as conceptual designs if the Paraodx Basin is selected as a candidate repository site. The principal components used in the shaft seal system are concrete bulkheads interspersed with highly compacted bentonite-rich earth fill. In the repository-level tunnels and rooms, the principal material used in the seal system is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate in response to closure of the repository rooms, to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For Paradox Basin Cycle 6 salt, analyses indictate that this process will require approximately 300 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 140 years for a seal located in a main passageway within the repository. These analyses are based on uncertain laboratory data regarding intact salt creep rates and crushed salt consolidation characteristics, and must be regarded as preliminary.

  16. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a repository in the Permian Basin. [Deaf Smith County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Coons, W.E.; Franzone, J.G.; Meyer, D.

    1985-12-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that human-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the stratigraphy of the Permian Basin. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as conceptual designs if the Permian Basin is selected as a candidate repository site. The principal material used in the seal system in the repository-level rooms and tunnels is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate in response to closure of the repository rooms, to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For Permian Basin Unit 4 salt, analyses indicate that this process will require approximately 700 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 200 years for a seal located in a main passageway within the repository. These analyses are based on uncertain laboratory data regarding intact salt creep rates and crushed salt consolidation characteristics, and must be regarded as preliminary. Bulkheads composed of concrete, as well as bentonite-rich earth fill, are also included in the seal system as components which will have low permeability during the period required for salt consolidation.

  17. Building didactic content repositories: method and tools

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Marciniak

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the method and tools which allows to build repositories of didactic materials in SCORM using UCTS taxonomic system and Content Repository software. SCORM is a universal specification designed to create reusable materials in digital format. UCTS is a taxonomic model which allows to attribute didactic interpretations to content components. Content Repository is a web software designed to create, store and process didactic content in SCORM. The method was verified while crea...

  18. The European Repository Landscape 2008 Inventory of Digital Repositories for Research Output

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Graaf, Maurits

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that a common knowledge base for European research is necessary. Research repositories are an important innovation to the scientific information infrastructure. In 2006, digital repositories in the 27 countries of the European we

  19. Center for Leadership Development (CLD) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Center for Leadership Development Repository stores various data including policies, procedures, governance, guidance, security, and financial documents of the...

  20. E-Thesis Repositories: The Asian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantashree Sengupta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Across the globe, people are trying to find out ways to make the findings of research freely available to the public through open access institutional repositories. Theses and dissertations are considered to be one of the most important sources of scholarly communication. Due to various benefits of electronic theses and dissertations over the print format, various institutions are developing their own e-thesis repositories. Various Asian countries have contributed to the development of e-thesis repositories. The present study gives an overview of the growth and development of e-thesis repositories in Asia with the data from the OpenDOAR database.

  1. Workshop: Creating Your Institutional Research Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Grenz, Daryl M.

    2016-11-08

    In 2002, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) proposed the concept of an institutional repository to simultaneously disrupt and enhance the state of scholarly communications in the academic world. Thirteen years later, thousands of universities and other institutions have answered this call, but many more have not due to gaps in budgets, awareness and, most of all, practical guidance on creating an institutional repository. This workshop provides you with an essential primer on what it takes to establish a fully-functioning institutional repository. Every aspect of the process will be covered, including policies, procedures, staffing guidelines, workflows and repository technologies.

  2. Sustained fecal-oral human-to-human transmission following a zoonotic event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. de Graaf (Marieke); Beck, R. (Relja); S. Caccio (Simone); B. Duim; P.L.A. Fraaij (Pieter); Le Guyader, F.S. (Françoise S.); Lecuit, M. (Marc); Le Pendu, J. (Jacques); E. de Wit (Emmie); C. Schultsz (Constance)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBacterial, viral and parasitic zoonotic pathogens that transmit via the fecal-oral route have a major impact on global health. However, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of such pathogens from the animal reservoir and their persistence in the human population are poorly understood.

  3. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. SR-97-Post-closure safety. Main Report. Volume I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, A. [ed.

    1999-11-01

    In preparation for coming site investigations for siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, the Swedish Government and nuclear regulatory authorities have requested an assessment of the repository's long-term safety. The purpose is to demonstrate whether the risk of harmful effects in individuals in the vicinity of the repository complies with the acceptance criterion formulated by the Swedish regulatory authorities, i.e. that the risk may not exceed 10{sup -6} per year. Geological data are taken from three sites in Sweden to shed light on different conditions in Swedish granitic bedrock. The future evolution of the repository system is analyzed in the form of five scenarios. The first is a base scenario where the repository is postulated to be built entirely according to specifications and where present-day conditions in the surroundings are postulated to persist. The four other scenarios show how the evolution of the repository differs from that in the base scenario if the repository contains a few initially defective canisters, in the event of climate change, earthquakes, and future inadvertent human intrusion. The time horizon for the analyses is at most one million years, in accordance with preliminary regulations. By means of model studies and calculations, the base scenario analyzes how the radioactivity of the fuel declines with time, the repository's thermal evolution as a result of the decay heat in the fuel, the hydraulic evolution in buffer and backfill when they become saturated with water, and the long-term groundwater flow in the geosphere on the three sites. The overall conclusion of the analyses in the base scenario is that the copper canisters isolating capacity is not threatened by either the mechanical or chemical stresses to which it is subjected. The safety margins are great even in a million-year perspective. The internal evolution in initially defective canisters and the possible resultant migration of radionuclides in

  4. Methodology used for total system performance assessment of the potential nuclear waste repository at yucca mountain (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devonec, E.; Sevougian, S.D.; Mattie, P.D.; Mcneish, J.A. [Duke Engineering and Services, Town Center Drive, Las Vegas (United States); Mishra, S. [Duke Engineering and Services, Austin, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors are currently evaluating a site in Nevada (Yucca Mountain) for disposal of high-level radioactive waste from U.S. commercial nuclear plants and U.S. government-owned facilities. The suitability of the potential geologic repository is assessed, based on its performance in isolating the nuclear waste from the environment. Experimental data and models representing the natural and engineered barriers are combined into a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model. Because of the uncertainty in the current data and in the future evolution of the total system, simulations follow a probabilistic approach. Multiple realization simulations using Monte Carlo analysis are conducted over time periods of up to one million years, which estimates a range of possible behaviors of the repository. In addition to the nominal scenario, other exposure scenarios include the possibility of disruptive events such as volcanic eruption or intrusion, or accidental human intrusion. Sensitivity to key uncertain processes is analyzed. The influence of stochastic variables on the TSPA model output is assessed by ''uncertainty importance analysis'', e.g., regression analysis and classification tree analysis. Further investigation of the impact of parameters and assumptions is conducted through ''one-off analysis'', which consists in fixing a parameter at a particular value, using an alternative conceptual model, or in making a different assumption. Finally, robustness analysis evaluates the performance of the repository when various natural or engineered barriers are assumed to be degraded. The objective of these analyses is to evaluate the performance of the potential repository system under conditions ranging from expected to highly unlikely, though physically possible conditions. (author)

  5. Genomes of cryptic chimpanzee Plasmodium species reveal key evolutionary events leading to human malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Sesh A; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Liu, Weimin; Loy, Dorothy E; Learn, Gerald H; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Peeters, Martine; Speede, Sheri; Shaw, George M; Bushman, Frederic D; Brisson, Dustin; Rayner, Julian C; Sharp, Paul M; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2016-03-22

    African apes harbour at least six Plasmodium species of the subgenus Laverania, one of which gave rise to human Plasmodium falciparum. Here we use a selective amplification strategy to sequence the genome of chimpanzee parasites classified as Plasmodium reichenowi and Plasmodium gaboni based on the subgenomic fragments. Genome-wide analyses show that these parasites indeed represent distinct species, with no evidence of cross-species mating. Both P. reichenowi and P. gaboni are 10-fold more diverse than P. falciparum, indicating a very recent origin of the human parasite. We also find a remarkable Laverania-specific expansion of a multigene family involved in erythrocyte remodelling, and show that a short region on chromosome 4, which encodes two essential invasion genes, was horizontally transferred into a recent P. falciparum ancestor. Our results validate the selective amplification strategy for characterizing cryptic pathogen species, and reveal evolutionary events that likely predisposed the precursor of P. falciparum to colonize humans.

  6. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  7. Human BLCAP transcript: new editing events in normal and cancerous tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Federica; Leroy, Anne; Rossetti, Claudia; Gromova, Irina; Gautier, Philippe; Keegan, Liam P; Massimi, Luca; Di Rocco, Concezio; O'Connell, Mary A; Gallo, Angela

    2010-07-01

    Bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP) is a highly conserved protein among species, and it is considered a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene originally identified from human bladder carcinoma. However, little is known about the regulation or the function of this protein. Here, we show that the human BLCAP transcript undergoes multiple A-to-I editing events. Some of the new editing events alter the highly conserved amino terminus of the protein creating alternative protein isoforms by changing the genetically coded amino acids. We found that both ADAR1 and ADAR2-editing enzymes cooperate to edit this transcript and that different tissues displayed distinctive ratios of edited and unedited BLCAP transcripts. Moreover, we observed a general decrease in BLCAP-editing level in astrocytomas, bladder cancer and colorectal cancer when compared with the related normal tissues. The newly identified editing events, found to be downregulated in cancers, could be useful for future studies as a diagnostic tool to distinguish malignancies or epigenetic changes in different tumors.

  8. The study on safety facility criteria for radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Choi, M. H.; Han, S. H. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-12-15

    The radioactive waste repository are necessary to install the engineered safety systems to secure the safety for operation of the repository in the event of fire and earthquake. Since the development of safety facility criteria requires a thorough understanding about the characteristics of the engineered safety systems, we should investigate by means of literature survey and visit SKB. In particular, definition, composition of the systems, functional requirement of the systems, engineered safety systems of foreign countries, system design, operation and maintenance requirement should be investigated : fire protection system, ventilation system, drainage system, I and C system, electric system, radiation monitoring system. This proposed criteria consist of purpose, scope of application, ventilation system, fire protection system, drainage system, electric system and this proposed criteria can be applied as a basic reference for the final criteria.

  9. Investigation of tissue-specific human orthologous alternative splice events in pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Salicio, Susanna Cirera

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA can contribute to differences between tissues or cells either by regulating gene expression or creating proteins with various functions encoded by one gene. The number of investigated alternative splice events in pig has so far been limited. In this study we have......-specific primers in 19 different tissues. The same splice variants as reported in humans were detected in 15 orthologous pig genes, however, the expression pattern predicted in the in silico analyses was only experimentally verified in a few cases. The results support the findings that splice events resulting...... in preservation of open reading frame are indicative of a functional significance of the splice variants of the gene....

  10. Asset Reuse of Images from a Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    According to Markus's theory of reuse, when digital repositories are deployed to collect and distribute organizational assets, they supposedly help ensure accountability, extend information exchange, and improve productivity. Such repositories require a large investment due to the continuing costs of hardware, software, user licenses, training,…

  11. Decompression of magma into repository tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Woods, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    It is nontrivial to find and design safe repository sites for nuclear waste. It appears common sense to drill tunnels as repository sites in a mountain in remote and relatively dry regions. However, erosion of the waste canisters by naturally abundant chemicals in the mountains water cycle remains a

  12. Learning frameworks as an alternative to repositories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    a learning object repository contains all kinds of materials, a learning framework consists of an organisation of materials related to a common theme. Further, a repository consists of single, self-contained objects, whereas a learning framework is an open-ended environment which presents a number...... of different possibilities and potentials for student activities....

  13. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  14. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  15. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  16. A human xenograft model for testing early events of epithelial neoplastic invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCANDLESS, JOHN R.; CRESS, ANNE E.; RABINOVITZ, ISAAC; PAYNE, CLAIRE M.; BOWDEN, G. TIM; KNOX, J. DAVID; NAGLE, RAY B.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a model of human prostate tumor cell invasion using the SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mouse diaphragm. Tumor cells were injected into SCID mice intraperitoneally and the diaphragms harvested three to five weeks later. Electron microscopy showed tumor cell penetration of the mesothelial cell layer and adhesion to the underlying basement membrane on the inferior surface of the mouse diaphragm, where colonies developed. Immunohistochemistry showed invasion by tumor cells through the basement membrane into the muscle of the diaphragm, presence of human tumor cells among the muscle cells and the presence of selected proteins on the invasion front of the tumor cells. Digital image analysis enabled quantitative comparison of events in the metastatic cascade by variants of the tumor cell line and evaluation of the effectiveness of a putative tumor inhibitor. Results suggest that the SCID mouse diaphragm model is a convenient, effective, easily oriented and reproducible in vivo model of the early events associated with human prostate tumor cell invasion. PMID:21533373

  17. A subtle alternative splicing event gives rise to a widely expressed human RNase k isoform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos D Karousis

    Full Text Available Subtle alternative splicing leads to the formation of RNA variants lacking or including a small number of nucleotides. To date, the impact of subtle alternative splicing phenomena on protein biosynthesis has been studied in frame-preserving incidents. On the contrary, mRNA isoforms derived from frame-shifting events were poorly studied and generally characterized as non-coding. This work provides evidence for a frame-shifting subtle alternative splicing event which results in the production of a novel protein isoform. We applied a combined molecular approach for the cloning and expression analysis of a human RNase κ transcript (RNase κ-02 which lacks four consecutive bases compared to the previously isolated RNase κ isoform. RNase κ-02 mRNA is expressed in all human cell lines tested end encodes the synthesis of a 134-amino-acid protein by utilizing an alternative initiation codon. The expression of RNase κ-02 in the cytoplasm of human cells was verified by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis using a specific polyclonal antibody developed on the basis of the amino-acid sequence difference between the two protein isoforms. The results presented here show that subtle changes during mRNA splicing can lead to the expression of significantly altered protein isoforms.

  18. The role of natural analogs in the repository licensing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, W.M. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The concept of a permanent geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste (NLW) is implicitly based on analogy to natural systems that have been stable for millions or billions of years. The time of radioactive and chemical toxicity of HLW exceeds the duration of human civilization, and it is impossible to demonstrate the accuracy of predictions of the behavior of engineered or social systems over such long periods.

  19. One Size Does Not Fit All: Human Failure Event Decomposition and Task Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Laurids Boring, PhD

    2014-09-01

    In the probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) used in the nuclear industry, human failure events (HFEs) are determined as a subset of hardware failures, namely those hardware failures that could be triggered or exacerbated by human action or inaction. This approach is top-down, starting with hardware faults and deducing human contributions to those faults. Elsewhere, more traditionally human factors driven approaches would tend to look at opportunities for human errors first in a task analysis and then identify which of those errors is risk significant. The intersection of top-down and bottom-up approaches to defining HFEs has not been carefully studied. Ideally, both approaches should arrive at the same set of HFEs. This question remains central as human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are generalized to new domains like oil and gas. The HFEs used in nuclear PSAs tend to be top-down—defined as a subset of the PSA—whereas the HFEs used in petroleum quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) are more likely to be bottom-up—derived from a task analysis conducted by human factors experts. The marriage of these approaches is necessary in order to ensure that HRA methods developed for top-down HFEs are also sufficient for bottom-up applications. In this paper, I first review top-down and bottom-up approaches for defining HFEs and then present a seven-step guideline to ensure a task analysis completed as part of human error identification decomposes to a level suitable for use as HFEs. This guideline illustrates an effective way to bridge the bottom-up approach with top-down requirements.

  20. Building didactic content repositories: method and tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Marciniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the method and tools which allows to build repositories of didactic materials in SCORM using UCTS taxonomic system and Content Repository software. SCORM is a universal specification designed to create reusable materials in digital format. UCTS is a taxonomic model which allows to attribute didactic interpretations to content components. Content Repository is a web software designed to create, store and process didactic content in SCORM. The method was verified while creating E-archeology Content Repository which stores e-learning materials on protection and management of archeological heritage. The repository contains approximately 4500 Learning Objects in 5 languages and about 800 components of didactically useful e-learning components described in UCTS.

  1. Identification of Human-induced Initiating Event in the Low and Shutdown operation by using CESA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This paper suggests a procedure to identify human-induced initiating events during low and shutdown state in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Human-induced initiating events, also called Category B actions in human reliability analysis (HRA), are operator actions that may lead directly to initiating events either by themselves or in combination with equipment failures. Most of conventional probabilistic safety analyses (PSAs) typically assume that the frequency of initiating events also includes the probability of human-induced initiating events. However, some regulatory documents require Category B actions to be specifically analyzed and quantified in the PSA. In addition, a NUREG report also addresses that an explicit modeling of Category B actions could potentially lead to important insights for human performance on safety. However, there is no standard procedure to identify Category B actions which are either recommended by regulations or widely used in the PSA. This paper develops a systematic procedure to identify the Category B actions for the shutdown and low power. The procedure includes several steps to derive operator actions that may lead to initiating events in the low and shutdown stage. Those steps are the selection of initiating events to be analyzed, the selection of systems or components, the screening of unlikely operating actions, and quantification of initiating events. The procedure also suggests the detailed activity of each step such as the information required, screening rules, and output of steps. Finally, the applicability of the suggested approach is also investigated to show its feasibility.

  2. Viability assessment of a repository at Yucca Mountain: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-12-01

    Based on the viability assessment, DOE believes that Yucca Mountain remains a promising site for a geologic repository and that work should proceed to support a decision in 2001 on whether to recommend the site to the President for development as a repository. Over 15 years, extensive research has validated many of the expectations of the scientists who first suggested that remote, desert regions of the Southwest are well-suited for a geologic repository. Engineered barriers can be designed to contain waste for thousands of years, and the natural barriers can delay and dilute any radioactive material that migrates from the waste packages. Current models indicate that the possible radiation exposure to future populations living nearby could be comparable to present-day exposure levels from natural background radiation. Design alternatives that may improve performance and reduce remaining uncertainties are now being evaluated. The performance of a geologic repository over such long time periods--longer than recorded human history--cannot be proven beyond all doubt. Forecasts about future geologic and climatic conditions and engineering estimates of how long the waste packages will remain intact cannot be directly validated. The mathematical models used in the performance assessment are subject to uncertainties that can be reduced but never completely eliminated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's general standard for meeting geologic repository regulatory criteria and objectives is reasonable assurance. While considerable uncertainties remain today, DOE believes that reasonable assurance should be achievable in the licensing process after the planned work is completed. The DOE believes, therefore, that ongoing work at Yucca Mountain should proceed as planned.

  3. Viability assessment of a repository at Yucca Mountain: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-12-01

    Based on the viability assessment, DOE believes that Yucca Mountain remains a promising site for a geologic repository and that work should proceed to support a decision in 2001 on whether to recommend the site to the President for development as a repository. Over 15 years, extensive research has validated many of the expectations of the scientists who first suggested that remote, desert regions of the Southwest are well-suited for a geologic repository. Engineered barriers can be designed to contain waste for thousands of years, and the natural barriers can delay and dilute any radioactive material that migrates from the waste packages. Current models indicate that the possible radiation exposure to future populations living nearby could be comparable to present-day exposure levels from natural background radiation. Design alternatives that may improve performance and reduce remaining uncertainties are now being evaluated. The performance of a geologic repository over such long time periods--longer than recorded human history--cannot be proven beyond all doubt. Forecasts about future geologic and climatic conditions and engineering estimates of how long the waste packages will remain intact cannot be directly validated. The mathematical models used in the performance assessment are subject to uncertainties that can be reduced but never completely eliminated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's general standard for meeting geologic repository regulatory criteria and objectives is reasonable assurance. While considerable uncertainties remain today, DOE believes that reasonable assurance should be achievable in the licensing process after the planned work is completed. The DOE believes, therefore, that ongoing work at Yucca Mountain should proceed as planned.

  4. 1972 preliminary safety analysis report based on a conceptual design of a proposed repository in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1977-08-01

    This preliminary safety analysis report is based on a proposed Federal Repository at Lyons, Kansas, for receiving, handling, and depositing radioactive solid wastes in bedded salt during the remainder of this century. The safety analysis applies to a hypothetical site in central Kansas identical to the Lyons site, except that it is free of nearby salt solution-mining operations and bore holes that cannot be plugged to Repository specifications. This PSAR contains much information that also appears in the conceptual design report. Much of the geological-hydrological information was gathered in the Lyons area. This report is organized in 16 sections: considerations leading to the proposed Repository, design requirements and criteria, a description of the Lyons site and its environs, land improvements, support facilities, utilities, different impacts of Repository operations, safety analysis, design confirmation program, operational management, requirements for eventually decommissioning the facility, design criteria for protection from severe natural events, and the proposed program of experimental investigations. (DLC)

  5. Online integrated solution to collect data, generate information and manage events in the human biomonitoring field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M Fátima; Tedim, João; Aguiar, Pedro; Miguel, J Pereira; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Van Tongelen, Birgit

    2007-05-01

    In the ambit of Work Package 1 of the ESBIO Project, an online integrated solution to collect data, to generate information, and to manage mainly information-sharing events related with human biomonitoring within Europe has been designed and is being implemented. The present paper summarises the methodological approaches used by the authors as proposers, general promoters and disseminators of this strategic concept, as well as the first outcomes and future actions to be taken, in the short and longer term, to face present and future challenges to make this innovative solution happen.

  6. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Joel; Overland, Maya; Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization ("opening zipper") opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion ("closing zipper") closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal "cords". Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. Copyright © 2016 International Society

  7. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization (“opening zipper”) opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion (“closing zipper”) closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal “cords”. Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. PMID:27397682

  8. A Description of the Revised ATHEANA (A Technique for Human Event Analysis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORESTER,JOHN A.; BLEY,DENNIS C.; COOPER,SUSANE; KOLACZKOWSKI,ALAN M.; THOMPSON,CATHERINE; RAMEY-SMITH,ANN; WREATHALL,JOHN

    2000-07-18

    This paper describes the most recent version of a human reliability analysis (HRA) method called ``A Technique for Human Event Analysis'' (ATHEANA). The new version is documented in NUREG-1624, Rev. 1 [1] and reflects improvements to the method based on comments received from a peer review that was held in 1998 (see [2] for a detailed discussion of the peer review comments) and on the results of an initial trial application of the method conducted at a nuclear power plant in 1997 (see Appendix A in [3]). A summary of the more important recommendations resulting from the peer review and trial application is provided and critical and unique aspects of the revised method are discussed.

  9. Event-related potential study on image-symmetry discrimination in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambul, Alwin Melkie; Murayama, Nobuki; Igasaki, Tomohiko

    2013-01-01

    The human visual system seems to have a highly perceptual sensitivity to symmetry. However, where and when the discrimination of symmetrical properties begins in the context of visual information processing is largely unclear. This study investigates event-related potential (ERP) patterns in humans when perceiving symmetry-varied complex object images. ERP responses were derived from electroencephalography (EEG) data recorded from eight healthy subjects using 128-channel scalp electrodes. Visual stimulation was provided using gray-scaled photographs of a car with six different viewpoints, hence disrupting the vertical symmetry, where one of the stimuli was intentionally made symmetric by mirroring the image about its center vertical axis. The results show that discrimination of image symmetry is revealed by potential deflection in early ERP components recorded at occipito-temporal sites and can be significantly observed around 220 ms after stimulus onset.

  10. A code for simulation of human failure events in nuclear power plants: SIMPROC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Jesus, E-mail: jesus.gil@indizen.co [Indizen Technologies S.L., Pablo Iglesias 2-3 oB-2, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.fernandez@indizen.co [Indizen Technologies S.L., Pablo Iglesias 2-3 oB-2, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Murcia, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.murcia@indizen.co [Indizen Technologies S.L., Pablo Iglesias 2-3 oB-2, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Gomez, Javier, E-mail: javier.mundina@indizen.co [Indizen Technologies S.L., Pablo Iglesias 2-3 oB-2, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Marrao, Hugo, E-mail: hmarrao@indizen.co [Indizen Technologies S.L., Pablo Iglesias 2-3 oB-2, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Queral, Cesar, E-mail: cesar.queral@upm.e [ETSI Minas - Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Alenza 4, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Exposito, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.exposito@upm.e [ETSI Minas - Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Alenza 4, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.rodriguez.martin@upm.e [ETSI Minas - Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Alenza 4, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Ibanez, Luisa, E-mail: luisa.ibanez@upm.e [ETSI Minas - Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Alenza 4, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Hortal, Javier, E-mail: fjhr@csn.e [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Justo Dorado 11, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Izquierdo, Jose M., E-mail: jmir@csn.e [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Justo Dorado 11, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, Miguel, E-mail: msp@csn.e [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Justo Dorado 11, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Melendez, Enrique, E-mail: ema@csn.e [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Justo Dorado 11, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Over the past years, many Nuclear Power Plant organizations have performed Probabilistic Safety Assessments to identify and understand key plant vulnerabilities. As part of enhancing the PSA quality, the Human Reliability Analysis is essential to make a realistic evaluation of safety and about the potential facility's weaknesses. Moreover, it has to be noted that HRA continues to be a large source of uncertainty in the PSAs. Within their current joint collaborative activities, Indizen, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid and Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear have developed the so-called SIMulator of PROCedures (SIMPROC), a tool aiming at simulate events related with human actions and able to interact with a plant simulation model. The tool helps the analyst to quantify the importance of human actions in the final plant state. Among others, the main goal of SIMPROC is to check the Emergency Operating Procedures being used by operating crew in order to lead the plant to a safe shutdown plant state. Currently SIMPROC is coupled with the SCAIS software package, but the tool is flexible enough to be linked to other plant simulation codes. SIMPROC-SCAIS applications are shown in the present article to illustrate the tool performance. The applications were developed in the framework of the Nuclear Energy Agency project on Safety Margin Assessment and Applications (SM2A). First an introductory example was performed to obtain the damage domain boundary of a selected sequence from a SBLOCA. Secondly, the damage domain area of a selected sequence from a loss of Component Cooling Water with a subsequent seal LOCA was calculated. SIMPROC simulates the corresponding human actions in both cases. The results achieved shown how the system can be adapted to a wide range of purposes such as Dynamic Event Tree delineation, Emergency Operating Procedures and damage domain search.

  11. Evaluation of 6 and 10 Year-Old Child Human Body Models in Emergency Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Emergency events can influence a child’s kinematics prior to a car-crash, and thus its interaction with the restraint system. Numerical Human Body Models (HBMs) can help understand the behaviour of children in emergency events. The kinematic responses of two child HBMs–MADYMO 6 and 10 year-old models–were evaluated and compared with child volunteers’ data during emergency events–braking and steering–with a focus on the forehead and sternum displacements. The response of the 6 year-old HBM was similar to the response of the 10 year-old HBM, however both models had a different response compared with the volunteers. The forward and lateral displacements were within the range of volunteer data up to approximately 0.3 s; but then, the HBMs head and sternum moved significantly downwards, while the volunteers experienced smaller displacement and tended to come back to their initial posture. Therefore, these HBMs, originally intended for crash simulations, are not too stiff and could be able to reproduce properly emergency events thanks, for instance, to postural control. PMID:28099505

  12. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G. H.; Kang, W. J.; Kim, T. J. and others [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria.

  13. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Johannes H G M; Supandi, Farahaniza; Gavai, Anand K; de Graaf, Albert A; Binsl, Thomas W; Hettling, Hannes

    2011-11-13

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events. We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We calculated heat transfer by conduction and blood flow inside the body, and heat transfer from the skin by radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, resulting in temperature changes in 25 body compartments. We simulated a mountain time trial to Alpe d'Huez during the Tour de France. To approach the time realized by Lance Armstrong in 2004, very high oxygen uptake must be sustained by the simulated cyclist. Temperature was predicted to reach 39°C in the brain, and 39.7°C in leg muscle. In addition to the macroscopic simulation, we analysed the buffering of bursts of high adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by creatine kinase during cyclical muscle activity at the biochemical pathway level. To investigate the low oxygen to carbohydrate ratio for the brain, which takes up lactate during exercise, we calculated the flux distribution in cerebral energy metabolism. Computational modelling of the human body, describing heat exchange and energy metabolism, makes simulation of endurance sports events feasible.

  14. Calculating expected DNA remnants from ancient founding events in human population genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Andrew

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advancements in sequencing and computational technologies have led to rapid generation and analysis of high quality genetic data. Such genetic data have achieved wide acceptance in studies of historic human population origins and admixture. However, in studies relating to small, recent admixture events, genetic factors such as historic population sizes, genetic drift, and mutation can have pronounced effects on data reliability and utility. To address these issues we conducted genetic simulations targeting influential genetic parameters in admixed populations. Results We performed a series of simulations, adjusting variable values to assess the affect of these genetic parameters on current human population studies and what these studies infer about past population structure. Final mean allele frequencies varied from 0.0005 to over 0.50, depending on the parameters. Conclusion The results of the simulations illustrate that, while genetic data may be sensitive and powerful in large genetic studies, caution must be used when applying genetic information to small, recent admixture events. For some parameter sets, genetic data will not be adequate to detect historic admixture. In such cases, studies should consider anthropologic, archeological, and linguistic data where possible.

  15. Scientific information repository assisting reflectance spectrometry in legal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenki, Liudmila; Sterzik, Vera; Bohnert, Michael; Zimmermann, Klaus; Liehr, Andreas W

    2012-06-01

    Reflectance spectrometry is a fast and reliable method for the characterization of human skin if the spectra are analyzed with respect to a physical model describing the optical properties of human skin. For a field study performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine and the Freiburg Materials Research Center of the University of Freiburg, a scientific information repository has been developed, which is a variant of an electronic laboratory notebook and assists in the acquisition, management, and high-throughput analysis of reflectance spectra in heterogeneous research environments. At the core of the repository is a database management system hosting the master data. It is filled with primary data via a graphical user interface (GUI) programmed in Java, which also enables the user to browse the database and access the results of data analysis. The latter is carried out via Matlab, Python, and C programs, which retrieve the primary data from the scientific information repository, perform the analysis, and store the results in the database for further usage.

  16. Physical processes of magmatism and effects on the potential repository: Synthesis of technical work through Fiscal Year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    This chapter summarizes data collection and model calculations through FY 95 under Study Plan 8.3.1.8.1.2 Physical Processes of Magmatism and Effects on the Potential Repository. The focus of this study plan is to gather information that ultimately constrains the consequences of small-volume, basaltic magmatic activity at or near a potential repository. This is then combined with event probability estimates, described elsewhere in this synthesis report, to yield a magmatic risk assessment. Tere are two basic classes of effects of magmatisms that are considered here: (1) Eruptive effects, whereby rising magma intersects a potential repository, entrains radioactive waste, and erupts it onto the earth`s surface. (2) Subsurface effects, which includes a wide range of processes such as hydrothermal flow, alteration of mineral assemblages in the potential repository system, and alteration of hydrologic flow properties of the rocks surrounding a potential repository.

  17. Will salt repositories be dry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John D.

    The National Academy of Science committee that considered geologic disposal of nuclear waste in the mid-1950s recommended salt as a repository medium, partly because of its high thermal conductivity and because it was believed to be “dry” (perhaps the appropriate thought is “impermeable”). Certainly, the fact that Paleozoic salt deposits exist in many parts of t h e world is evidence for very low rates of dissolution by moving groundwater. The fact that the dissolution rates were so small led many scientists to the conclusion that the salt beds were nearly impermeable. The major source of brine within the salt beds was thought to be fluid inclusions within salt crystals, which could migrate through differential solution toward a source of high heat. The idea that salt was uniformly “dry” was revised when exploratory drilling in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico encountered brines within the Castile Formation, an evaporite deposit below the Salado Formation. The brine reservoirs were thought to be isolated pockets of brine in an otherwise “impermeable” salt section.

  18. Principal organic materials in a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    the redox potential within the repository. The products of cellulose degradation may help enhance the complexing capacity of the groundwater around the repository, so the amount of cellulose left in the repository should be minimised. 4. Fuels and engine emissions. No important effects are expected from these organic materials in the repository. Although the presence of aromatic compounds and PAHs in groundwater is not desirable in itself, these compounds are of no consequence for long-term repository performance. 5. Detergents and lubricants. The same reasoning as for fuels and engine emissions can be applied to these materials. The amount of detergents should be minimised, although in the amounts in which they are expected to occur, no important impact is foreseen. 6. Materials from human activities. Of these materials, fibres from clothes could have a more important effect, due to the presence of cellulose. Accordingly, human-related wastes should me minimised, although no large amounts of these materials are expected to be present after repository closure. Three processes are considered to have the largest potential impact on repository performance: i) Increasing the reducing capacity and reducing the redox potential in the short term, and increasing the depletion rate of oxygen trapped during the repository operation stage. ii) Increasing the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to the presence of organic complexants, which is expected to be a more relevant process in the long term. Many organic molecules with complexing capacity, for example, short-chain organic acids such as acetate, however, will be oxidised due to microbial metabolism. The projected acetate concentration in groundwater is below the detection limit of available analytical methods. The amount of organic material in groundwater is usually only being a few mg L-1, and 25-75% of this material is non-humic material, i.e. short-chain acids. iii) Production of HS- from the oxidation of short

  19. Salt Repository Project Repository (WBS 1. 3. 4) Program Plan: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingsley, R.S.; Hume, H.R.; McNulty, E.G.

    1986-06-01

    This program plan will describe Salt Repository Project activities conducted under the repository Work Breakdown Structure element. The plan will describe those activities occurring from FY 1986 through the license application in 1991. During this period, the SRP program has three main objectives involving WBS. These include developing repository designs to the extent necessary to support the preparation of the principal licensing documents, the license application, and the final repository site selection report; conducting the RandD studies necessary to support repository design, licensing, and postclosure performance assessment; and analyzing the postclosure performance and waste isolation capabilities of the repository design. Meeting these objectives will require close coordination among all SRP WBS elements. 23 refs., 1 fig., 27 tabs.

  20. Epigenetic silencing of engineered L1 retrotransposition events in human embryonic carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Perez, Jose L.; Morell, Maria; Scheys, Joshua O.; Kulpa, Deanna A.; Morell, Santiago; Carter, Christoph C.; Hammer, Gary D.; Collins, Kathleen L.; O’Shea, K. Sue; Menendez, Pablo; Moran, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition continues to impact human genome evolution1,2. L1s can retrotranspose in the germline, during early development, and in select somatic cells3,4,5,6,7,8; however, the host response to L1 retrotransposition remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that reporter genes introduced into the genome of various human embryonic carcinoma-derived cell lines (ECs) by L1 retrotransposition are rapidly and efficiently silenced either during or immediately after their integration. Treating ECs with histone deacetylase inhibitors (IHDACs) rapidly reverses this silencing, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments revealed that reactivation of the reporter gene was correlated with changes in chromatin status at the L1 integration site. Under our assay conditions, rapid silencing also was observed when reporter genes were delivered into ECs by mouse L1s and a zebrafish LINE-2 element, but not when similar reporter genes were delivered into ECs by Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), suggesting these integration events are silenced by distinct mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrate that subjecting ECs to culture conditions that promote differentiation attenuates the silencing of reporter genes delivered by L1 retrotransposition, but that differentiation, per se, is not sufficient to reactivate previously silenced reporter genes. Thus, our data suggest that ECs differ from many differentiated cells in their ability to silence reporter genes delivered by L1 retrotransposition. PMID:20686575

  1. Emergence of the ability to perceive dynamic events from still pictures in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Nobu; Imura, Tomoko

    2016-11-17

    The ability to understand a visual scene depicted in a still image is among the abilities shared by all human beings. The aim of the present study was to examine when human infants acquire the ability to perceive the dynamic events depicted in still images (implied motion perception). To this end, we tested whether 4- and 5-month-old infants shifted their gaze toward the direction cued by a dynamic running action depicted in a still figure of a person. Results indicated that the 5- but not the 4-month-olds showed a significant gaze shift toward the direction implied by the posture of the runner (Experiments 1, 2, and 3b). Moreover, the older infants showed no significant gaze shift toward the direction cued by control stimuli, which depicted a figure in a non-dynamic standing posture (Experiment 1), an inverted running figure (Experiment 2), and some of the body parts of a running figure (Experiment 3a). These results suggest that only the older infants responded in the direction of the implied running action of the still figure; thus, implied motion perception emerges around 5 months of age in human infants.

  2. Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-29

    The Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System provides supervisory control, monitoring, and selected remote control of primary and secondary repository operations. Primary repository operations consist of both surface and subsurface activities relating to high-level waste receipt, preparation, and emplacement. Secondary repository operations consist of support operations for waste handling and treatment, utilities, subsurface construction, and other selected ancillary activities. Remote control of the subsurface emplacement operations, as well as, repository performance confirmation operations are the direct responsibility of the system. In addition, the system monitors parameters such as radiological data, air quality data, fire detection status, meteorological conditions, unauthorized access, and abnormal operating conditions, to ensure a safe workplace for personnel. Parameters are displayed in a real-time manner to human operators regarding surface and subsurface conditions. The system performs supervisory monitoring and control for both important to safety and non-safety systems. The system provides repository operational information, alarm capability, and human operator response messages during emergency response situations. The system also includes logic control to place equipment, systems, and utilities in a safe operational mode or complete shutdown during emergency response situations. The system initiates alarms and provides operational data to enable appropriate actions at the local level in support of emergency response, radiological protection response, evacuation, and underground rescue. The system provides data communications, data processing, managerial reports, data storage, and data analysis. This system's primary surface and subsurface operator consoles, for both supervisory and remote control activities, will be located in a Central Control Center (CCC) inside one of the surface facility buildings. The system

  3. Evaluasi Website Repositori Institusi Universitas Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Ulum

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The  development  of  institutional  repositories  (IRs  in Indonesia within the broader framework of open access has significant impact on preserving intellectual capital and scholarly communication. Institutional  repositories  play  a  fundamental  role  in  centralizing, preserving,  and  making  accessible  institution’s  intellectual  capital. Evaluation of the system is to determine the functionality the system to meet the users need. Using a descriptive analysis this study wants to evaluate institutional repositories of University of Surabaya. The result is usefull for institution to develop the repository systems.

  4. Methodology Used for Total System Performance Assessment of the Potential Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Devibec; S.D. Sevougian; P.D. Mattie; J.A. McNeish; S. Mishra

    2001-03-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors are currently evaluating a site in Nevada (Yucca Mountain) for disposal of high-level radioactive waste from U.S. commercial nuclear plants and U.S. government-owned facilities. The suitability of the potential geologic repository is assessed, based on its performance in isolating the nuclear waste from the environment. Experimental data and models representing the natural and engineered barriers are combined into a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model [1]. Process models included in the TSPA model are unsaturated zone flow and transport, thermal hydrology, in-drift geochemistry, waste package degradation, waste form degradation, engineered barrier system transport, saturated zone flow and transport, and biosphere transport. Because of the uncertainty in the current data and in the future evolution of the total system, simulations follow a probabilistic approach. Multiple realization simulations using Monte Carlo analysis are conducted over time periods of up to one million years, which estimates a range of possible behaviors of the repository. The environmental impact is measured primarily by the annual dose received by an average member of a critical population group residing 20 km down-gradient of the potential repository. In addition to the nominal scenario, other exposure scenarios include the possibility of disruptive events such as volcanic eruption or intrusion, or accidental human intrusion. Sensitivity to key uncertain processes is analyzed. The influence of stochastic variables on the TSPA model output is assessed by ''uncertainty importance analysis'', e.g., regression analysis and classification tree analysis. Further investigation of the impact of parameters and assumptions is conducted through ''one-off analysis'', which consists in fixing a parameter at a particular value, using an alternative conceptual model, or in making a different assumption

  5. Business model metrics: an open repository

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkila, M.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.; Heikkila, J; Solaimani, S.; Janssen, W

    2015-01-01

    Development of successful business models has become a necessity in turbulent business environments, but compared to research on business modeling tools, attention to the role of metrics in designing business models in literature is limited. Building on existing approaches to business models and performance measurement literature, we develop a generic open repository of metrics related to core business model concepts. We validate and assess the practical value of the repository based on four ...

  6. Learning object repositories as knowledge management systems

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, a number of international initiatives that recognize the importance of sharing and reusing digital educational resources among educational communities through the use of Learning Object Repositories (LORs) have emerged. Typically, these initiatives focus on collecting digital educational resources that are offered by their creators for open access and potential reuse. Nevertheless, most of the existing LORs are designed more as digital repositories, rather than as Knowled...

  7. Empirical analysis of collective human behavior for extraordinary events in blogosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Sano, Yukie; Watanabe, Hayafumi; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2011-01-01

    To explain collective human behavior in blogosphere, we survey more than 1.8 billion entries and observe statistical properties of word appearance. We first estimate the basic properties of number fluctuation of ordinary words that appear almost uniformly. Then, we focus on those words that show dynamic growth with a tendency to diverge on a certain day, and also news words, that are typical keywords for natural disasters, grow suddenly with the occurrence of events and decay gradually with time. In both cases, the functional forms of growth and decay are generally approximated by power laws with exponents around -1 for a period of about 80 days. Our empirical analysis can be applied for the prediction of word frequency in blogosphere.

  8. Electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) with human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Gregory A; Williams, Lisa E; Minow, Falk; Sprock, Joyce; Rissling, Anthony; Sharp, Richard; Swerdlow, Neal R; Braff, David L

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the basic neural processes that underlie complex higher-order cognitive operations and functional domains is a fundamental goal of cognitive neuroscience. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive and relatively inexpensive method for assessing neurophysiological function that can be used to achieve this goal. EEG measures the electrical activity of large, synchronously firing populations of neurons in the brain with electrodes placed on the scalp. This unit outlines the basics of setting up an EEG experiment with human participants, including equipment, and a step-by-step guide to applying and preparing an electrode cap. Also included are support protocols for two event-related potential (ERP) paradigms, P50 suppression, and mismatch negativity (MMN), which are measures of early sensory processing. These paradigms can be used to assess the integrity of early sensory processing in normal individuals and clinical populations, such as individuals with schizophrenia.

  9. Time-compressed preplay of anticipated events in human primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Matthias; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P

    2017-05-23

    Perception is guided by the anticipation of future events. It has been hypothesized that this process may be implemented by pattern completion in early visual cortex, in which a stimulus sequence is recreated after only a subset of the visual input is provided. Here we test this hypothesis using ultra-fast functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure BOLD activity at precisely defined receptive field locations in visual cortex (V1) of human volunteers. We find that after familiarizing subjects with a spatial sequence, flashing only the starting point of the sequence triggers an activity wave in V1 that resembles the full stimulus sequence. This preplay activity is temporally compressed compared to the actual stimulus sequence and remains present even when attention is diverted from the stimulus sequence. Preplay might therefore constitute an automatic prediction mechanism for temporal sequences in V1.

  10. Neural correlates of mental state decoding in human adults: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Mark A; Moulson, Margaret C; Harkness, Kate L

    2004-04-01

    Successful negotiation of human social interactions rests on having a theory of mind - an understanding of how others' behaviors can be understood in terms of internal mental states, such as beliefs, desires, intentions, and emotions. A core theory-of-mind skill is the ability to decode others' mental states on the basis of observable information, such as facial expressions. Although several recent studies have focused on the neural correlates of reasoning about mental states, no research has addressed the question of what neural systems underlie mental state decoding. We used dense-array event-related potentials (ERP) to show that decoding mental states from pictures of eyes is associated with an N270-400 component over inferior frontal and anterior temporal regions of the right hemisphere. Source estimation procedures suggest that orbitofrontal and medial temporal regions may underlie this ERP effect. These findings suggest that different components of everyday theory-of-mind skills may rely on dissociable neural mechanisms.

  11. Time scales of representation in the human brain: weighing past information to predict future events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eHarrison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimates that humans make of statistical dependencies in the environment and therefore their representation of uncertainty crucially depend on the integration of data over time. As such, the extent to which past events are used to represent uncertainty has been postulated to vary over the cortex. For example, primary visual cortex responds to rapid perturbations in the environment, while frontal cortices involved in executive control encode the longer term contexts within which these perturbations occur. Here we tested whether primary and executive regions can be distinguished by the number of past observations they represent. This was based on a decay-dependent model that weights past observations from a Markov process and Bayesian Model Selection (BMS to test the prediction that neuronal responses are characterised by different decay half-lives depending on location in the brain. We show distributions of brain responses for short and long term decay functions in primary and secondary visual and frontal cortices, respectively. We found that visual and parietal responses are released from the burden of the past, enabling an agile response to fluctuations in events as they unfold. In contrast, frontal regions are more concerned with average trends over longer time scales within which local variations are embedded. Specifically, we provide evidence for a temporal gradient for representing context within the prefrontal cortex and possibly beyond to include primary sensory and association areas.

  12. Hepatitis C virus proteins do not directly trigger fibrogenic events in cultured human liver myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K; Guibert, C; Neaud, V; Rosenbaum, J

    2003-11-01

    Although liver fibrosis is the major complication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the mechanisms of fibrogenesis in this setting are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to test the direct effect of HCV proteins on signalling- and fibrosis-related events in cultured human liver myofibroblasts, the effector cells of liver fibrogenesis. Cultured myofibroblasts were exposed to recombinant HCV core, a structural protein, and nonstructural proteins (NS) 3, NS 4 and NS 5. HCV proteins did not significantly increase DNA synthesis in myofibroblasts. We then examined if these proteins affected early signalling events. None of the HCV proteins affected the phosphorylation of the mitogen activated protein kinases/extracellular regulated kinases 1 and 2, or of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase target, Akt. HCV proteins had also no effect on intracellular calcium concentration. In other experiments, fibrogenesis-related parameters were measured. None of the HCV proteins had any effect on the secretion of type I collagen, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type 1, gelatinase or urokinase. Alpha-smooth muscle actin expression was also not modified. In summary, our experiments do not support a direct effect of these HCV proteins on fibrogenic cells.

  13. Human reaction and risk perception to catastrophic events: a psycho-social and cultural perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthakur, M. [Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Science and Technology Management, Trondheim (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    Catastrophes of various kinds occur worldwide inflicting major human suffering, more so in the less privileged regions of the world. Human beings react differently to different traumatic situations and to the threat of an event in spite of man common underlying factors. Psychological reactions to catastrophic natural events like flooding on the perception of risk of flooding across various communities thus becomes an interesting study. Economic situation, lack of knowledge and resources are assumed to give a totally different perspective to reactions and perception of risk and its interpretation specially in an underprivileged country like India, compared to other developed countries. For the proposed session, the results of a study carried out in India will be presented. This includes reactions and responses of individuals and general public affected by flooding and their perceptions of risk of flooding. The study also focuses on a comparison between the people affected and at risk of flooding. Socio-cultural values, religion and superstitions, common beliefs and expectations from authorities will be studied as underlying variables, to what extent they might have an impact on the behavioral pattern of an individual in a situation and the perception of oncoming risk. A sizeable number of the Indian population resides in areas, which are generally affected by flooding or highly prone to flooding. Could perceptions vary among individuals within the society or is it simply poverty and unaffordability that drive these people info such hazardous areas? Lack of consciousness may seem to be an important variable, but what really matters and needs to be looked into is how threatened they actually feel. (author)

  14. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  15. Monitored Geologic Repository Test Evaluation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.B. Skorska

    2002-01-02

    The Monitored Geologic Repository test & evaluation program will specify tests, demonstrations, examinations, and analyses, and describe procedures to conduct and document testing necessary to verify meeting Monitored Geologic Repository requirements for a safe and effective geologic repository for radioactive waste. This test program will provide assurance that the repository is performing as designed, and that the barriers perform as expected; it will also develop supporting documentation to support the licensing process and to demonstrate compliance with codes, standards, and regulations. This comprehensive program addresses all aspects of verification from the development of test requirements to the performance of tests and reporting of the test results. The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Test & Evaluation Plan'' provides a detailed description of the test program approach necessary to achieve the above test program objectives. This test plan incorporates a set of test phases focused on ensuring repository safety and operational readiness and implements a project-wide integrated product management team approach to facilitate test program planning, analysis, and implementation. The following sections provide a description of the individual test phases, the methodology for test program planning and analyses, and the management approach for implementing these activities.

  16. Supporting multiple domains in a single reuse repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David

    1992-01-01

    Domain analysis typically results in the construction of a domain-specific repository. Such a repository imposes artificial boundaries on the sharing of similar assets between related domains. A lattice-based approach to repository modeling can preserve a reuser's domain specific view of the repository, while avoiding replication of commonly used assets and supporting a more general perspective on domain interrelationships.

  17. A Mid-Layer Model for Human Reliability Analysis: Understanding the Cognitive Causes of Human Failure Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; April M. Whaley; Ronald L. Boring; James Y. H. Chang; Song-Hua Shen; Ali Mosleh; Johanna H. Oxstrand; John A. Forester; Dana L. Kelly; Erasmia L. Lois

    2010-06-01

    The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) is sponsoring work in response to a Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) directing an effort to establish a single human reliability analysis (HRA) method for the agency or guidance for the use of multiple methods. As part of this effort an attempt to develop a comprehensive HRA qualitative approach is being pursued. This paper presents a draft of the method’s middle layer, a part of the qualitative analysis phase that links failure mechanisms to performance shaping factors. Starting with a Crew Response Tree (CRT) that has identified human failure events, analysts identify potential failure mechanisms using the mid-layer model. The mid-layer model presented in this paper traces the identification of the failure mechanisms using the Information-Diagnosis/Decision-Action (IDA) model and cognitive models from the psychological literature. Each failure mechanism is grouped according to a phase of IDA. Under each phase of IDA, the cognitive models help identify the relevant performance shaping factors for the failure mechanism. The use of IDA and cognitive models can be traced through fault trees, which provide a detailed complement to the CRT.

  18. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Isbell, Lynne A

    2017-04-07

    Studies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to partially exposed snake models and scale patterns on the snake skin. Here, we examined whether snake skin patterns and partially exposed snakes elicit a larger EPN in humans. In Task 1, we employed pictures with close-ups of snake skins, lizard skins, and bird plumage. In task 2, we employed pictures of partially exposed snakes, lizards, and birds. Participants watched a random rapid serial visual presentation of these pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity (225-300 ms after picture onset) at occipital and parieto-occipital electrodes. Consistent with previous studies, and with the Snake Detection Theory, the EPN was significantly larger for snake skin pictures than for lizard skin and bird plumage pictures, and for lizard skin pictures than for bird plumage pictures. Likewise, the EPN was larger for partially exposed snakes than for partially exposed lizards and birds. The results suggest that the EPN snake effect is partly driven by snake skin scale patterns which are otherwise rare in nature.

  19. An unexpected sequence of events: mismatch detection in the human hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharshan Kumaran

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify and react to novelty within the environment is fundamental to survival. Computational models emphasize the potential role of the hippocampus in novelty detection, its unique anatomical circuitry making it ideally suited to act as a comparator between past and present experience. The hippocampus, therefore, is viewed to detect associative mismatches between what is expected based on retrieval of past experience and current sensory input. However, direct evidence that the human hippocampus performs such operations is lacking. We explored brain responses to novel sequences of objects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, while subjects performed an incidental target detection task. Our results demonstrate that hippocampal activation was maximal when prior predictions concerning which object would appear next in a sequence were violated by sensory reality. In so doing, we establish the biological reality of associative match-mismatch computations within the human hippocampus, a process widely held to play a cardinal role in novelty detection. Our results also suggest that the hippocampus may generate predictions about how future events will unfold, and critically detect when these expectancies are violated, even when task demands do not require it. The present study also offers broader insights into the nature of essential computations carried out by the hippocampus, which may also underpin its unique contribution to episodic memory.

  20. Attribution of extreme events in the western US to human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    A project to investigate the role of human activities on the changing nature of extreme events in the western US began as part of a CLIVAR-sponsored Postdocs Applying Climate Expertise (PACE) project. The climate institution was the Oregon State University and the application partner was the Oregon Department of Land Conservation and Development (DLCD). DLCD was interested in the changes in weather extremes in the Pacific Northwest, specifically extreme rainfall, flooding, and droughts. The project employs very large ensembles of regional model simulations through volunteer computing resources and allows for probabilistic event attribution (PEA), an important climate research technique. The model was found to have good representation of atmospheric rivers, a major source of extreme precipitation in the Pacific Northwest. The model domain also encompasses California and Nevada. One of the studies focused on attribution of extreme heat in relation to vulnerable populations in California's Central Valley, where heat waves have become progressively more severe due to increasing nighttime temperatures. Specifically, we found that that (1) simulations of the hottest summer days during the 2000s were twice as likely to occur using observed levels of greenhouse gases than in a counterfactual world without major human activities, (2) detrimental impacts of heat on public health-relevant variables, such as the number of days above 40°C, can be quantified and attributed to human activities using PEA, and (3) PEA can serve as a tool for addressing climate justice concerns of populations within developed nations. The research conducted through the PACE program has also provided a framework for a pioneering climate attribution study at the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). The UCS project takes advantage of new research that shows that nearly two-thirds of carbon pollution released into the atmosphere, reported as carbon dioxide equivalent with hundred-year global warming

  1. Leveraging the World Cup: Mega Sporting Events, Human Rights Risk, and Worker Welfare Reform in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath Ganji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Qatar will realize its decades-long drive to host a mega sporting event when, in 2022, the opening ceremony of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA World Cup commences. By that time, the Qatari government will have invested at least $200 billion in real estate and development projects, employing anywhere between 500,000 and 1.5 million foreign workers to do so. The scale of these preparations is staggering — and not necessarily positive. Between 2010 and 2013, more than 1,200 labor migrants working in Qatar’s construction sector died, with another 4,000 deaths projected by the start of the event. Foreign workers are subject to conditions of forced labor, human trafficking, and indefinite detention. Advocacy groups cite deplorable living and working conditions, coupled with lax legal protections for workers, as the main culprits. Absent significant improvements in worker welfare, Qatar’s World Cup will be remembered as a human rights tragedy.This article examines whether it is possible for Qatar’s World Cup to forge a different legacy, as an agent of change on behalf of worker welfare reform. In examining the issue, the article takes a two-fold approach. First, it locates the policy problem of worker welfare abuses in the context of the migration life cycle. The migration life cycle represents the range of activities that mediate the relationship between an individual migrant and the labor migration system — from the time the migrant first considers working overseas to his employment abroad to his eventual return to the home country. An understanding of worker welfare abuses in Qatar does not begin or end with reports of migrant deaths. A much broader pattern of abuse exists that, if ignored, will undermine effective policy responses.Second, the article frames worker welfare as a matter that lies at the intersection of business and human rights. Mega events are large-scale, internationally recognized activities

  2. Pleasant and unpleasant odors influence hedonic evaluations of human faces: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jane Cook

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs. Healthy, young participants (N = 20 rated neutral faces presented after a three second pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine, unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan, or no-odor control (clean air. Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms. In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (> 600 and ultra-late (> 900 ms latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations.

  3. Pleasant and Unpleasant Odors Influence Hedonic Evaluations of Human Faces: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Wright, Hazel; Thomas, Anna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Field, Matt; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Healthy, young participants (N = 20) rated neutral faces presented after a 3 s pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine), unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan), or no-odor control (clean air). Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms). In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (>600) and ultra-late (>900 ms) latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations. PMID:26733843

  4. Rolling Deck to Repository I: Designing a Database Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Miller, S. P.; Chandler, C. L.; Ferrini, V. L.; O'Hara, S. H.

    2008-12-01

    The NSF-supported academic research fleet collectively produces a large and diverse volume of scientific data, which are increasingly being shared across disciplines and contributed to regional and global syntheses. As both Internet connectivity and storage technology improve, it becomes practical for ships to routinely deliver data and documentation for a standard suite of underway instruments to a central shoreside repository. Routine delivery will facilitate data discovery and integration, quality assessment, cruise planning, compliance with funding agency and clearance requirements, and long-term data preservation. We are working collaboratively with ship operators and data managers to develop a prototype "data discovery system" for NSF-supported research vessels. Our goal is to establish infrastructure for a central shoreside repository, and to develop and test procedures for the routine delivery of standard data products and documentation to the repository. Related efforts are underway to identify tools and criteria for quality control of standard data products, and to develop standard interfaces and procedures for maintaining an underway event log. Development of a shoreside repository infrastructure will include: 1. Deployment and testing of a central catalog that holds cruise summaries and vessel profiles. A cruise summary will capture the essential details of a research expedition (operating institution, ports/dates, personnel, data inventory, etc.), as well as related documentation such as event logs and technical reports. A vessel profile will capture the essential details of a ship's installed instruments (manufacturer, model, serial number, reference location, etc.), with version control as the profile changes through time. The catalog's relational database schema will be based on the UNOLS Data Best Practices Committee's recommendations, and published as a formal XML specification. 2. Deployment and testing of a central repository that holds

  5. How to Cope with the Rare Human Error Events Involved with organizational Factors in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Luo, Meiling; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The current human error guidelines (e.g. US DOD handbooks, US NRC Guidelines) are representative tools to prevent human errors. These tools, however, have limits that they do not adapt all operating situations and circumstances such as design base events. In other words, these tools are only adapted foreseeable standardized operating situations and circumstances. In this study, our research team proposed an evidence-based approach such as UK's safety case to coping with the rare human error events such as TMI, Chernobyl, Fukushima accidents. These accidents are representative events involved with rare human errors. Our research team defined the 'rare human errors' as the follow three characterized events; Extremely low frequency Extremely high complicated structure Extremely serious damage of human life and property A safety case is a structured argument, supported by evidence, intended to justify that a system is acceptably safe. The definition by UK defense standard 00-56 issue 4 states that such an evidence-based approach can be contrast with a prescriptive approach to safety certification, which require safety to be justified using a prescribed process. Safety managements and safety regulatory activities based on safety case are effective to control organizational factors in terms of integrated safety management. Especially safety issues relevant with public acceptance are useful to provide practical evidences to the public reasonably. European Union including UK has developed the concept of engineered safety management system to deal with public acceptance using the safety case. In Korea nuclear industry, the Korean Atomic Research Institute has firstly performed a basic research to adapt the safety case in the field of radioactive waste according to the IAEA SSG-23(KAERI/TR-4497, 4531). Excepting the radioactive waste, there is no try to adapt the safety case yet. Most incidents and accidents involved human during operating NPPs have a tendency

  6. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Randle

    2000-01-07

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I&C) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I&C systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I&C systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored, controlled, and

  7. Fons antic i repositoris universitaris a Espanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Morillas, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Es mostra la presència de col·leccions de fons antic en els repositoris de les biblioteques universitàries espanyoles després d'analitzar tots els repositoris. Per a aquesta anàlisi, com a part de la metodologia emprada, s'ha elaborat un model o llista que consta d'onze elements. Del conjunt de les universitats espanyoles, seixanta tenen repositoris, vint-i-vuit dels quals (16,8 % disposen de col·leccions de fons antic. Com que del concepte de repositori institucional no sembla desprendre's que tingui com a finalitat incloure aquest tipus de col·leccions, es reflexiona sobre la peculiaritat que una part dels repositoris universitaris espanyols inclogui col·leccions d'aquestes característiques.Se muestra la presencia de colecciones de fondo antiguo en los repositorios de las bibliotecas universitarias españolas después de analizar todos los repositorios. Para este análisis, como parte de la metodología empleada, se ha elaborado un modelo o lista que consta de once elementos. Del conjunto de las universidades españolas, sesenta cuentan con repositorios y, de estos, veintiocho (16,8 % disponen de colecciones de fondo antiguo. Debido a que del concepto de repositorio institucional no parece desprenderse que tenga como finalidad albergar este tipo de colecciones, se hace una reflexión sobre la peculiaridad de que parte de los repositorios universitarios españoles incluya colecciones de estas características.This paper uses an analysis of the repositories of Spanish universities to identify which institutions contain rare book and manuscript collections. The method used in this analysis involved examining each university on the basis of a list comprising eleven elements. A total of 60 universities were found to have repositories but only 28 (16.8 % of these contained rare book and manuscript collections. In the light of these figures, which suggest that Spanish university repositories do not generally consider the preservation of rare

  8. Analysis of computational vulnerabilities in digital repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Fernandes Belarmino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Demonstrates the results of research that aimed to analyze the computational vulnerabilities of digital directories in public Universities. Argues the relevance of information in contemporary societies like an invaluable resource, emphasizing scientific information as an essential element to constitute scientific progress. Characterizes the emergence of Digital Repositories and highlights its use in academic environment to preserve, promote, disseminate and encourage the scientific production. Describes the main software for the construction of digital repositories. Method. The investigation identified and analyzed the vulnerabilities that are exposed the digital repositories using Penetration Testing running. Discriminating the levels of risk and the types of vulnerabilities. Results. From a sample of 30 repositories, we could examine 20, identified that: 5% of the repositories have critical vulnerabilities, 85% high, 25% medium and 100% lowers. Conclusions. Which demonstrates the necessity to adapt actions for these environments that promote informational security to minimizing the incidence of external and / or internal systems attacks.Abstract Grey Text – use bold for subheadings when needed.

  9. One health and cyanobacteria in freshwater systems: animal illnesses and deaths are sentinel events for human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Beasley, Val R

    2015-04-20

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associated with harmful cyanobacteria blooms tend to be investigated and reported separately. Consequently, professionals working in human or in animal health do not always communicate findings related to these events with one another. Using the One Health concept of integration and collaboration among health disciplines, we systematically review the existing literature to discover where harmful cyanobacteria-associated animal illnesses and deaths have served as sentinel events to warn of potential human health risks. We find that illnesses or deaths among livestock, dogs and fish are all potentially useful as sentinel events for the presence of harmful cyanobacteria that may impact human health. We also describe ways to enhance the value of reports of cyanobacteria-associated illnesses and deaths in animals to protect human health. Efficient monitoring of environmental and animal health in a One Health collaborative framework can provide vital warnings of cyanobacteria-associated human health risks.

  10. Public repository with Monte Carlo simulations for high-energy particle collision experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S V

    2016-01-01

    Planning high-energy collision experiments for the next few decades requires extensive Monte Carlo simulations in order to accomplish physics goals of these experiments. Such simulations are essential for understanding fundamental physics processes, as well as for setting up the detector parameters that help establish R&D projects required over the next few decades. This paper describes a public repository with Monte Carlo event samples before and after detector-response simulation. The goal of this repository is to facilitate the accomplishment of many goals in planning a next generation of particle experiments.

  11. Coordination activities of human planners during rescheduling : case analysis and event handling procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Snoo, C.; van Wezel, W.M.C.; Wortmann, J.C.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the process of event handling and rescheduling in manufacturing practice. Firms are confronted with many diverse events, such as new or changed orders, machine breakdowns, and material shortages. These events influence the feasibility and optimality of schedules, and thus induce

  12. Repository Services and the Challenge of Trustworthiness 131836

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.

    2016-12-01

    Digital data repositories of one sort or another have been springing up since the dawn of the digital era in the mid-20th century. Some repositories are specialized and serve a particular audience, often a scientific domain; while others, such as an organizational institutional repository, may handle data from every discipline represented within their organization. The range of services provided users also varies widely from repository to repository complicating the question of trustworthiness. Many users simply do not have the experience or time to make informed comparisons between repositories with vastly different capabilities. This makes the concept of repository certification a matter of importance for helping users select repositories that meet some minimal set of criteria. Yet is that enough to ensure that the data so entrusted will actually be reusable in the future? This talk tackles the variety of repository types and certification mechanisms to discuss the reusability challenges particular to each.

  13. Emerging Prospects for Repository Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, T

    2006-01-12

    Recent events are again raising some old issues and creating new opportunities regarding the future disposition of the used, or spent, fuel from nuclear power plants. Handling these challenges well will not only help set the stage for a robust nuclear energy future, but will reflect the growing linkages among nuclear power, nuclear waste management, international security, and public and political acceptance. The emerging global nuclear regime may make spent fuel management not only more important, but improve chances of success.

  14. Web-based tribology design repository system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tribology design is one of the most important parts of mechanical product design as thestrength design. Unfortunately, because tribology design knowledge is often m ulti-disciplinary,complicated and piecemeal, it is therefore difficult for a mechanical designer to capture the neededtribology design knowledge. The concept of tribology design repository is proposed in this paper totry to address this problem. This paper presents an object-oriented knowledge representation lan-guage based on the modeling of tribology design component and it makes the complicated tribol-ogy knowledge represented has such advantages as inheritance, encapsulation, and consistency.A web-based triblogy design repository is then established and it enables the edition, retrieve,sharing and reuse of corporate tribology design knowledge in the repository from the Internet.

  15. Reducing Psychological Resistance to Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Quinn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential value of digital repositories is dependent on the cooperation of scholars to deposit their work. Although many researchers have been resistant to submitting their work, the literature on digital repositories contains very little research on the psychology of resistance. This article looks at the psychological literature on resistance and explores what its implications might be for reducing the resistance of scholars to submitting their work to digital repositories. Psychologists have devised many potentially useful strategies for reducing resistance that might be used to address the problem; this article examines these strategies and how they might be applied.

  16. Developing Criteria to Establish Trusted Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Faundeen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the drivers, methods, and outcomes of the U.S. Geological Survey’s quest to establish criteria by which to judge its own digital preservation resources as Trusted Digital Repositories. Drivers included recent U.S. legislation focused on data and asset management conducted by federal agencies spending $100M USD or more annually on research activities. The methods entailed seeking existing evaluation criteria from national and international organizations such as International Standards Organization (ISO, U.S. Library of Congress, and Data Seal of Approval upon which to model USGS repository evaluations. Certification, complexity, cost, and usability of existing evaluation models were key considerations. The selected evaluation method was derived to allow the repository evaluation process to be transparent, understandable, and defensible; factors that are critical for judging competing, internal units. Implementing the chosen evaluation criteria involved establishing a cross-agency, multi-disciplinary team that interfaced across the organization.

  17. Developing criteria to establish Trusted Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper details the drivers, methods, and outcomes of the U.S. Geological Survey’s quest to establish criteria by which to judge its own digital preservation resources as Trusted Digital Repositories. Drivers included recent U.S. legislation focused on data and asset management conducted by federal agencies spending $100M USD or more annually on research activities. The methods entailed seeking existing evaluation criteria from national and international organizations such as International Standards Organization (ISO), U.S. Library of Congress, and Data Seal of Approval upon which to model USGS repository evaluations. Certification, complexity, cost, and usability of existing evaluation models were key considerations. The selected evaluation method was derived to allow the repository evaluation process to be transparent, understandable, and defensible; factors that are critical for judging competing, internal units. Implementing the chosen evaluation criteria involved establishing a cross-agency, multi-disciplinary team that interfaced across the organization. 

  18. Review of evoked and event-related delta responses in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntekin, Bahar; Başar, Erol

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, the brain's oscillatory responses have invaded the literature. The studies on delta (0.5-3.5Hz) oscillatory responses in humans upon application of cognitive paradigms showed that delta oscillations are related to cognitive processes, mainly in decision making and attentional processes. The present manuscript comprehensively reviews the studies on delta oscillatory responses upon cognitive stimulation in healthy subjects and in different pathologies, namely Alzheimer's disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and alcoholism. Further delta oscillatory response upon presentation of faces, facial expressions, and affective pictures are reviewed. The relationship between pre-stimulus delta activity and post-stimulus evoked and event-related responses and/or oscillations is discussed. Cross-frequency couplings of delta oscillations with higher frequency windows are also included in the review. The conclusion of this review includes several important remarks, including that delta oscillatory responses are involved in cognitive and emotional processes. A decrease of delta oscillatory responses could be a general electrophysiological marker for cognitive dysfunction (Alzheimer's disease, MCI, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and alcoholism). The pre-stimulus activity (phase or amplitude changes in delta activity) has an effect on post-stimulus EEG responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. SR-97-Post-closure safety. Main Report. Volume I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, A. [ed.

    1999-11-01

    In preparation for coming site investigations for siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, the Swedish Government and nuclear regulatory authorities have requested an assessment of the repository's long-term safety. The purpose is to demonstrate whether the risk of harmful effects in individuals in the vicinity of the repository complies with the acceptance criterion formulated by the Swedish regulatory authorities, i.e. that the risk may not exceed 10{sup -6} per year. Geological data are taken from three sites in Sweden to shed light on different conditions in Swedish granitic bedrock. The future evolution of the repository system is analyzed in the form of five scenarios. The first is a base scenario where the repository is postulated to be built entirely according to specifications and where present-day conditions in the surroundings are postulated to persist. The four other scenarios show how the evolution of the repository differs from that in the base scenario if the repository contains a few initially defective canisters, in the event of climate change, earthquakes, and future inadvertent human intrusion. The time horizon for the analyses is at most one million years, in accordance with preliminary regulations. By means of model studies and calculations, the base scenario analyzes how the radioactivity of the fuel declines with time, the repository's thermal evolution as a result of the decay heat in the fuel, the hydraulic evolution in buffer and backfill when they become saturated with water, and the long-term groundwater flow in the geosphere on the three sites. The overall conclusion of the analyses in the base scenario is that the copper canisters isolating capacity is not threatened by either the mechanical or chemical stresses to which it is subjected. The safety margins are great even in a million-year perspective. The internal evolution in initially defective canisters and the possible resultant migration of radionuclides in

  20. GreyGuide Forum and Repository

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Farace, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    We present the GreyGuide: an online forum and repository of good practice in the field of grey literature. The launch of the GreyGuide Repository took place in December 2013 at the Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature. Since then, the acquisition of both proposed and published good practices are underway. The GreyGuide as an online forum is currently in a developmental stage and is influenced by the changes that have taken place in GreyNet's new infrastructure commencing in J...

  1. Investigative study of standards for digital repositories and related services

    CERN Document Server

    Foulonneau, Muriel; Badolato, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and applications in the domain of digital repositories. Special attention is being paid to the interoperability of repositories to enhance the exchange of data in repositories. It aims to stimulate discussion about these topics and supports initiatives for the integration of and, where needed, development of

  2. Factors involved in the inflammatory events of cervical ripening in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hong

    2004-10-01

    decrease in GR levels in human cervix at parturition. Concomitantly there is an increase of factors such as NFkappaB, PAF-R, COX-1 and COX-2, suggesting that they may participate in the sequence of events leading to the final cervical ripening.

  3. EFFECT OF ARSENICALS ON THE EXPRESSION OF CELL CYCLE PROTEINS AND EARLY SIGNALING EVENTS IN PRIMARY HUMAN KERATINOCYTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of Arsenicals on the Expression of Cell Cycle Proteins and Early Signaling Events in Primary Human Keratinocytes.Mudipalli, A, Owen R. D. and R. J. Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, USEPA, RTP, NC 27711.Environmental exposure to arsenic is a m...

  4. A comparison of event-related potential of humans and rats elicited by a serial feature-positive discrimination task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambeth, A.; Maes, J.H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to compare components of the human and rat auditory event-related potential (ERP) in a serial feature-positive discrimination task. Subjects learned to respond to an auditory target stimulus when it followed a visual feature (X→A+), but to not respond when it was

  5. Radioactive waste repository of Cesium of Abadia de Goias. Construction and design; Repositorio de rejeitos radioativos de cesio - Abadia de Goias. Concepcao e projeto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranjan Filho, Alfredo [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alves, Antonio Sergio de Martin; Santos, Cicero Durval Pacifici dos; Passos, Erivaldo Mario dos; Coutinho, Fernando Paulo Millen [NUCLEN Engenharia e Servicos S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The main criteria, the methodology, the solutions and parameters that were utilized in the design of the Intermediate and Low Level Radioactive Waste Repository of Abadia de Goias are shortly described. The various design steps are analysed from the preparation of the Safety Analysis Report to the detailing engineering tasks. The safety analysis for the constructed repository had the goal of verifying the magnitude of radioecological impacts corresponding to idealized activity release scenarios, allowing also the possible effects of human intrusion in the repository. These safety studies are intrinsically connected to computer calculations envisaged to simulate the long term performance of the repository. (author) 18 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  7. Siting Patterns of Nuclear Waste Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Shelley, Fred M.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an inventory of international radioactive waste-management policies and repository siting decisions for North America, Central and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. This discussion stresses the important role of demographic, geologic, and political factors in siting decisions. (Author/BSR)

  8. Learning frameworks as an alternative to repositories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of ‘learning frameworks’. The purpose of the paper is to discuss and question collections of digital learning objects in large repositories and to argue for large learning frameworks which organise a number of thematically related digital learning materials. Whereas...

  9. Refactoring Process Models in Large Process Repositories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS), large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real-world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are introdu

  10. Ontology-based Software Repository System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    and domains. Current State of the Art Improvements to the current state of the art for software reuse repositories are required ( Shiva & Shala, 2007...model of architecture. IEEE Software, 12(6), 42-50. Object Management Group. (2005). Reusable asset specification (Vers. 2.2). Shiva , S., & Shala

  11. Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of

  12. New Quantitative Study for Dissertations Repository System

    CERN Document Server

    Alshammari, Fahad H; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K; Zaidan, B B; Zaidan, A A

    2010-01-01

    In the age of technology, the information communication technology becomes very important especially in education field. Students must be allowed to learn anytime, anywhere and at their own place. The facility of library in the university should be developed. In this paper we are going to present new Quantitative Study for Dissertations Repository System and also recommend future application of the approach.

  13. Refactoring Process Models in Large Process Repositories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.

    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS), large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real-world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are

  14. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Kappes

    1999-09-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M&O 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS).

  15. Astromaterials Curation Digital Repository: Data Availability and New Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, N. S.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2017-06-01

    The Astromaterials Curation office maintains a public digital repository containing sample data and other digital resources. The purpose of this data repository, its features, available data products, and recent enhancements will be discussed.

  16. Interactive tag cloud visualization of software version control repositories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greene, GJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of Software: Version Control Repositories Gillian J. Greene and Bernd Fischer Abstract: Version control repositories contain a wealth of implicit information that can be used to answer many questions about a project’s development process...

  17. Open DOAR the Directory of Open Access Repositories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The last year has seen wide-spread growth in the idea of using open access repositories as a part of a research institution's accepted infrastructure. Policy development from institutions and funding bodies has also supported the growth of the repository network. The next stage of expansion will be in the provision of services and cross-repository facilities and resources. Of course, it is hoped that these will then establish a feed-back loop to encourage repository population and further repository establishment, as the potential of open access to research materials is realised. The growth of repositories has been organic, with a variety of different repositories based in departments, institutions, funding agencies or subject communities, with a range of content, both in type and subject. Existing repositories are expanding their holdings, from eprints to associated research data-sets, or with learning objects and multimedia material. This presentation will look at the development of the Directory of Open Ac...

  18. Visual querying and analysis of large software repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voinea, Lucian; Telea, Alexandru

    2009-01-01

    We present a software framework for mining software repositories. Our extensible framework enables the integration of data extraction from repositories with data analysis and interactive visualization. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by presenting several case studies performed on

  19. The repository ecology an approach to understanding repository and service interactions

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Hagemann, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of university institutions and other organisations are deciding to deploy repositories and a growing number of formal and informal distributed services are supporting or capitalising on the information these repositories provide. Despite reasonably well understood technical architectures, early majority adopters may struggle to articulate their place within the actualities of a wider information environment. The idea of a repository ecology provides developers and administrators with a useful way of articulating and analysing their place in the information environment, and the technical and organisational interactions they have, or are developing, with other parts of such an environment. This presentation will provide an overview of the concept of a repository ecology and examine some examples from the domains of scholarly communications and elearning.

  20. The repository ecology: an approach to understanding repository and service interactions

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of university institutions and other organisations are deciding to deploy repositories and a growing number of formal and informal distributed services are supporting or capitalising on the information these repositories provide. Despite reasonably well understood technical architectures, early majority adopters may struggle to articulate their place within the actualities of a wider information environment. The idea of a repository ecology provides developers and administrators with a useful way of articulating and analysing their place in the information environment, and the technical and organisational interactions they have, or are developing, with other parts of such an environment. This presentation will provide an overview of the concept of a repository ecology and examine some examples from the domains of scholarly communications and elearning. View John Robertson's biography

  1. Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Human Health Implications in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina

    2016-03-01

    The Asia Pacific region is regarded as the most disaster-prone area of the world. Since 2000, 1.2 billion people have been exposed to hydrometeorological hazards alone through 1215 disaster events. The impacts of climate change on meteorological phenomena and environmental consequences are well documented. However, the impacts on health are more elusive. Nevertheless, climate change is believed to alter weather patterns on the regional scale, giving rise to extreme weather events. The impacts from extreme weather events are definitely more acute and traumatic in nature, leading to deaths and injuries, as well as debilitating and fatal communicable diseases. Extreme weather events include heat waves, cold waves, floods, droughts, hurricanes, tropical cyclones, heavy rain, and snowfalls. Globally, within the 20-year period from 1993 to 2012, more than 530 000 people died as a direct result of almost 15 000 extreme weather events, with losses of more than US$2.5 trillion in purchasing power parity.

  2. Contributions of human activities to suspended sediment yield during storm events from a small, steep, tropical watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, A. M.; Biggs, T. W.

    2016-07-01

    Suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) and yields (SSY) were measured during storm and non-storm periods from undisturbed and human-disturbed portions of a small (1.8 km2), mountainous watershed that drains to a sediment-stressed coral reef. Event-wise SSY (SSYEV) was calculated for 142 storms from measurements of water discharge (Q), turbidity (T), and SSC measured downstream of three key sediment sources: undisturbed forest, an aggregate quarry, and a village. SSC and SSYEV were significantly higher downstream of the quarry during both storm- and non-storm periods. The human-disturbed subwatershed (10.1% disturbed) accounted for an average of 87% of SSYEV from the watershed. Observed sediment yield (mass) to the coast, including human disturbed subwatersheds, was 3.9× the natural background. Specific SSY (mass/area) from the disturbed quarry area was 49× higher than from natural forest compared with 8× higher from the village area. Similar to mountainous watersheds in semi-arid and temperate climates, SSYEV from both the undisturbed and disturbed watersheds correlated closely with maximum event discharge (Qmax), event total precipitation and event total Q, but not with the Erosivity Index. Best estimates of annual SSY varied by method, from 45 to 143 tons/km2/yr from the undisturbed subwatershed, 441-598 tons/km2/yr from the human-disturbed subwatershed, and 241-368 tons/km2/yr from the total watershed. Sediment yield was very sensitive to disturbance; the quarry covers 1.1% of the total watershed area, but contributed 36% of SSYEV. Given the limited access to gravel for infrastructure development, sediment disturbance from local aggregate mining may be a critical sediment source on remote islands in the Pacific and elsewhere. Identification of erosion hotspots like the quarry using rapid, event-wise measures of suspended sediment yield will help efforts to mitigate sediment stress and restore coral reefs.

  3. Institutional Repositories as Infrastructures for Long-Term Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Helena; Gamalielsson, Jonas; Lundell, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The study describes the conditions for long-term preservation of the content of the institutional repositories of Swedish higher education institutions based on an investigation of how deposited files are managed with regards to file format and how representatives of the repositories describe the functions of the repositories.…

  4. The Use of Digital Repositories for Enhancing Teacher Pedagogical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anat; Kalimi, Sharon; Nachmias, Rafi

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the usage of local learning material repositories at school, as well as related teachers' attitudes and training. The study investigates the use of these repositories for enhancing teacher performance and assesses whether the assimilation of the local repositories increases their usage of and contribution to by teachers. One…

  5. Investigative study of standards for Digital Repositories and related services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foulonneau, Muriel; André, Francis

    2007-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and applic

  6. Institutional Repositories in Indian Universities and Research Institutes: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, M.; Kemparaju, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study of the institutional repositories (IRs) in use in Indian universities and research institutes. Design/methodology/approach: Repositories in various institutions in India were accessed and described in a standardised way. Findings: The 20 repositories studied covered collections of diverse…

  7. Repositories for Research: Southampton's Evolving Role in the Knowledge Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Pauline; Hey, Jessie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview of how open access (OA) repositories have grown to take a premier place in the e-research knowledge cycle and offer Southampton's route from project to sustainable institutional repository. Design/methodology/approach: The evolution of institutional repositories and OA is outlined raising questions of multiplicity…

  8. 'It pushed me back into the human race': evaluative findings from a community Christmas event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tracy; Kenney, Christine; Hesk, Gabrielle

    2017-09-01

    Many older people in Britain spend Christmas day alone. The Christmas period may be especially difficult for older people who are socially isolated, living with dementia or who have physical impairments, and may feel particularly marginalised at this time of year. This paper draws on evaluative research findings from a community Christmas event held in December 2014 at the University of Salford for older people and their carers who would be on their own on Christmas day. A multi-method approach was employed, seven guests took part in semi-structured interviews to explore their experiences and perceptions of the event, seven staff and student volunteers participated in a group interview to explore and discuss their participation in the event. Data collection took place during April and May 2015. Interview transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis. Three overarching themes were identified from the interviews: 'reasons for participants attending the event', 'a different Christmas day: the impact on guests and volunteers', and 'learning, planning and moving forwards'. The findings illustrate that a range of people participated in the Christmas day event for a variety of reasons. The event itself had a positive impact, including the shared experience of social belonging, for all involved. There are tangible longer term benefits as a result of the event, such as ongoing contact between participants and the development of supportive networks in the local community. © 2016 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Evolution in Metadata Quality: Common Metadata Repository's Role in NASA Curation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Jason; Shum, Dana; Baynes, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Metadata Quality is one of the chief drivers of discovery and use of NASA EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) data. Issues with metadata such as lack of completeness, inconsistency, and use of legacy terms directly hinder data use. As the central metadata repository for NASA Earth Science data, the Common Metadata Repository (CMR) has a responsibility to its users to ensure the quality of CMR search results. This poster covers how we use humanizers, a technique for dealing with the symptoms of metadata issues, as well as our plans for future metadata validation enhancements. The CMR currently indexes 35K collections and 300M granules.

  10. Summary of four release consequence analyses for hypothetical nuclear waste repositories in salt and granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-12-01

    Release consequence methology developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) program has now been applied to four hypothetical repository sites. This paper summarizes the results of these four studies in order to demonstrate that the far-field methodology developed under the AEGIS program offers a practical approach to the post-closure safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories sited in deep continental geologic formations. The four studies are briefly described and compared according to the following general categories: physical description of the repository (size, inventory, emplacement depth); geologic and hydrologic description of the site and the conceptual hydrologic model for the site; description of release scenario; hydrologic model implementation and results; engineered barriers and leach rate modeling; transport model implementation and results; and dose model implementation and results. These studies indicate the following: numerical modeling is a practical approach to post-closure safety assessment analysis for nuclear waste repositories; near-field modeling capability needs improvement to permit assessment of the consequences of human intrusion and pumping well scenarios; engineered barrier systems can be useful in mitigating consequences for postulated release scenarios that short-circuit the geohydrologic system; geohydrologic systems separating a repository from the natural biosphere discharge sites act to mitigate the consequences of postulated breaches in containment; and engineered barriers of types other than the containment or absorptive type may be useful.

  11. Designing a Secure Storage Repository for Sharing Scientific Datasets using Public Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumbhare, Alok; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2011-11-14

    As Cloud platforms gain increasing traction among scientific and business communities for outsourcing storage, computing and content delivery, there is also growing concern about the associated loss of control over private data hosted in the Cloud. In this paper, we present an architecture for a secure data repository service designed on top of a public Cloud infrastructure to support multi-disciplinary scientific communities dealing with personal and human subject data, motivated by the smart power grid domain. Our repository model allows users to securely store and share their data in the Cloud without revealing the plain text to unauthorized users, the Cloud storage provider or the repository itself. The system masks file names, user permissions and access patterns while providing auditing capabilities with provable data updates.

  12. Design aspects of the alpha repository. II. Conceptual layouts of underground storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grams, W.H.

    1975-06-30

    Five conceptual repository layouts are presented: linear repository, 1 panel; bow tie repository, 2 panels; maltese cross repository, 4 panels; snowflake repository; 5 panels, and sash window repository, 8 panels. The layouts are compared with respect to excavation requirements, haulage distances, ventilation flow path designs, and safety features. (LK)

  13. Numerical modeling capabilities to predict repository performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This report presents a summary of current numerical modeling capabilities that are applicable to the design and performance evaluation of underground repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. The report includes codes that are available in-house, within Golder Associates and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories; as well as those that are generally available within the industry and universities. The first listing of programs are in-house codes in the subject areas of hydrology, solute transport, thermal and mechanical stress analysis, and structural geology. The second listing of programs are divided by subject into the following categories: site selection, structural geology, mine structural design, mine ventilation, hydrology, and mine design/construction/operation. These programs are not specifically designed for use in the design and evaluation of an underground repository for nuclear waste; but several or most of them may be so used.

  14. Managing an Institutional Repository with CDS Invenio

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, N; Simko, T

    2007-01-01

    CERN has long been committed to the free dissemination of scientific research results and theories. Towards this end, CERN's own institutional repository, the CERN Document Server (CDS) offers access to CERN works and to all related scholarly literature in the HEP domain. Hosting over 500 document collections containing more than 900,000 records, CDS provides access to anything from preprints and articles, to multimedia information such as photographs, movies, posters and brochures. The software that powers this service, CDS Invenio, is distributed freely under the GNU GPL and is currently used in approximately 15 institutions worldwide. In this paper, we discuss the use of CDS Invenio to manage a repository of scientific literature. We outline some of the issues faced during the lifecycle of a document from acquisition, processing and indexing to dissemination. In particular, we focus on the features and technology developed to meet the complexities of managing scientific information in the LHC era of large ...

  15. Bedded-salt repository analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiffre, M.S.; Kaplan, M.F.; Ensminger, D.A.; Oston, S.G.; Nalbandian, J.Y.

    1980-03-31

    This report contains a description of an analysis of generic nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. This analysis was performed by TASC for inclusion in a major Lawrence Livermore Laboratory report to NRC; this report therefore should be viewed as providing more complete and detailed information about this analysis than was possible to include in the LLL report. The analysis is performed with the NUTRAN computer codes which are described in the report. The model to be analyzed is defined, and the results of a series of possible waste migration scenarios are presented. Several of these scenarios are used as the basis for a sensitivity analysis, and an uncertainty analysis utilizing Monte Carlo techniques is also performed. A new method for defining the consequences to users of a well drilled near the repository is also described, and results are presented based on two of the waste migration scenarios.

  16. Digital Repository of Research Institutes – RCIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kaczyńska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the project of Digital Repository of Scientific Institutes RCIN and presents opportunities for promoting science by digitization and sharing them on the Internet. The Repository has been created by the 16 Scientific Institutes in Warsaw, Krakow and Bialowieza to modernize the science-research and IT infrastructure, to increase digital resources of mathematical, technical, natural and medical sciences, and to popularize and promote of Polish science. That dissemination and popularization of science affects its development and competitiveness in the international arena and it allows transfer of research results to the economy. In addition, Institutes of RCIN providing contemporary and archival materials of science, support the intellectual capital of Polish science and raise awareness of professional literature of search on the Internet. Project RCIN is implemented in the years 2010–2014 and financing is provided by the funds of the European Fund of Regional Development.

  17. Institutional Repositories in India: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates various aspects of institutional repositories (IR’s) developed in India. The present study has identified the existence of 16 functional IRs some of which were not registered in any of the directories such as ROAR, Open DOAR. The study explores the timeline involved in planning, pilot testing, to system implementation of IR, exploratory activities conducted before implementing IR, its anticipated benefits.

  18. The once & future repository, HKU's Scholars Hub

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, DT; Castro, P.; Bollini, A; Mennielli, M

    2015-01-01

    The HKU Scholars Hub (the Hub) began service as a traditional institutional repository of The University of Hong Kong (HKU). However this format was not compelling to HKU researchers. Fortunately a subsequent reformation of the HKU statement on university mission and vision infused new life and purpose into the project. Over the next five years, in partnership with the Italian University Consortium, Cineca, the HKU Libraries transformed the Hub from an IR to a Current Research Information ...

  19. Repository-based software engineering program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    1992-01-01

    The activities performed during September 1992 in support of Tasks 01 and 02 of the Repository-Based Software Engineering Program are outlined. The recommendations and implementation strategy defined at the September 9-10 meeting of the Reuse Acquisition Action Team (RAAT) are attached along with the viewgraphs and reference information presented at the Institute for Defense Analyses brief on legal and patent issues related to software reuse.

  20. Dissertations Repository System Using Context Module

    CERN Document Server

    Hmood, Ali K; Alanazi, Hamdan O; Alnaqeib, Rami; Al-Nabhani, Yahya

    2010-01-01

    Without a doubt, the electronic learning makes education quite flexible. Nowadays, all organizations and institutions are trying to avoid Monotony and the delay and inertia. As well the universities should be improving their systems continually to achieve success. Whereas, the students need to access the dissertations in the library. In this paper we will present Dissertations Repository System Using Context Module to allow the students to benefit the dissertations which is in the library flexibly.

  1. Quantifications and Modeling of Human Failure Events in a Fire PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kilyoo; Jang, Seung-Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    USNRC and EPRI developed guidance, 'Fire Human Reliability Analysis Guidelines, NUREG-1921', for estimating human error probabilities (HEPs) for HFEs under fire conditions. NUREG-1921 classifies HFEs into four types associated with the following human actions: - Type 1: New and existing Main Control Room (MCR) actions - Type 2: New and existing ex-MCR actions - Type 3: Actions associated with using alternate shutdown means (ASD) - Type 4: Actions relating to the error of commissions (EOCs) or error of omissions (EOOs) as a result of incorrect indications (SPI) In this paper, approaches for the quantifications and modeling of HFEs related to Type 1, 2 and 3 human actions are introduced. This paper introduced the human reliability analysis process for a fire PSA of Hanul Unit 3. A multiplier of 10 was used to re-estimate the HEPs for the preexisting internal human actions. The HEPs for all ex- MCR actions were assumed to be one. New MCR human actions were quantified using the scoping analysis method of NUREG-1921. If the quantified human action were identified to be risk-significant, detailed approaches (modeling and quantification) were used for incorporating fire situations into them. Multiple HFEs for single human action were defined and they were separately and were separately quantified to incorporate the specific fire situations into them. From this study, we can confirm that the modeling as well as quantifications of human actions is very important to appropriately treat them in PSA logic structures.

  2. Salt repository project closeout status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Using internet search queries to predict human mobility in social events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borysov, Stanislav; Lourenco, Mariana; Rodrigues, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    While our transport systems are generally designed for habitual behavior, the dynamics of large and mega cities systematically push it to its limits. Particularly, transport planning and operations in large events are well known to be a challenge. Not only they imply stress to the system...... substantial information retrieval, extraction and data cleaning work, and so they are difficult to generalize from city to city. In contrast, this paper focuses on enriching previously mined information about special events using automated web search queries. Since this context data comes in unstructured...... natural language form, we employ supervised topic model to correlate it with real measurements of transport usage. In this way, the proposed approach is more generic and a transit agency can start planning ahead as early as the event is announced on the web. The results show that using information mined...

  4. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  5. Postclosure safety assessment of a deep geological repository for Canada's used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, N.G.; Kremer, E.P.; Garisto, F.; Gierszewski, P.; Gobien, M.; Medri, C.L.D. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada); Avis, J.D. [Geofirma Engineering Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Chshyolkova, T.; Kitson, C.I.; Melnyk, W.; Wojciechowski, L.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, MB (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on elements of a postclosure safety assessment performed for a conceptual design and hypothetical site for a deep geological repository for Canada's used nuclear fuel. Key features are the assumption of a copper used fuel container with a steel inner vessel, container placement in vertical in-floor boreholes, a repository depth of 500 m, and a sparsely fractured crystalline rock geosphere. The study considers a Normal Evolution Scenario together with a series of Disruptive Event Scenarios. The Normal Evolution Scenario is a reasonable extrapolation of present day site features and receptor lifestyles, while the Disruptive Event Scenarios examine abnormal and unlikely failures of the containment and isolation systems. Both deterministic and probabilistic simulations were performed. The results show the peak dose consequences occur far in the future and are well below the applicable regulatory acceptance criteria and the natural background levels. (author)

  6. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that

  7. Representations in human visual short-term memory : an event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, P; Smid, HGOM; Heinze, HJ

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 12 subjects while performing three delayed matching-to-sample tasks. The task instructions indicated whether stimulus locations, shapes or conjunctions of locations and shapes had to be memorized and matched against a probe.

  8. Adverse events following vaccination against human papillomavirus : Results of the 2010 campaign in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van ' t Klooster TM; Kemmeren JM; Vermeer-de Bondt PE; Oostvogels B; Phaff T; de Melker HE; van der Maas NAT; EPI; cib

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 werden er minder bijwerkingen gemeld na vaccinatie tegen HPV dan in 2009. Ook zijn er in 2010, net als in 2009, geen onverwachte of volgens de criteria ernstige bijwerkingen (Serious Adverse Events) gemeld die door het vaccin zijn veroorzaakt.

    In 2010 zijn meisjes die geb

  9. Two Extreme Climate Events of the Last 1000 Years Recorded in Himalayan and Andean Ice Cores: Impacts on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Davis, M. E.; Kenny, D. V.; Lin, P.

    2013-12-01

    historically in South America, is concomitant with major droughts in India, the collapse of the Yang Dynasty and the Black Death that eliminated roughly one third of the global population. Understanding the characteristics and drivers of these 'natural' events is critical to design adaptive measures for a world with over seven billion people and a climate system now influenced by human activities.

  10. CATEGORIZATION OF EVENT SEQUENCES FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.E. Ragan; P. Mecheret; D. Dexheimer

    2005-04-14

    The purposes of this analysis are: (1) Categorize (as Category 1, Category 2, or Beyond Category 2) internal event sequences that may occur before permanent closure of the repository at Yucca Mountain. (2) Categorize external event sequences that may occur before permanent closure of the repository at Yucca Mountain. This includes examining DBGM-1 seismic classifications and upgrading to DBGM-2, if appropriate, to ensure Beyond Category 2 categorization. (3) State the design and operational requirements that are invoked to make the categorization assignments valid. (4) Indicate the amount of material put at risk by Category 1 and Category 2 event sequences. (5) Estimate frequencies of Category 1 event sequences at the maximum capacity and receipt rate of the repository. (6) Distinguish occurrences associated with normal operations from event sequences. It is beyond the scope of the analysis to propose design requirements that may be required to control radiological exposure associated with normal operations. (7) Provide a convenient compilation of the results of the analysis in tabular form. The results of this analysis are used as inputs to the consequence analyses in an iterative design process that is depicted in Figure 1. Categorization of event sequences for permanent retrieval of waste from the repository is beyond the scope of this analysis. Cleanup activities that take place after an event sequence and other responses to abnormal events are also beyond the scope of the analysis.

  11. jPOSTrepo: an international standard data repository for proteomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Shujiro; Watanabe, Yu; Moriya, Yuki; Kawano, Shin; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Masaki; Takami, Tomoyo; Kobayashi, Daiki; Araki, Norie; Yoshizawa, Akiyasu C.; Tabata, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Goto, Susumu; Ishihama, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Major advancements have recently been made in mass spectrometry-based proteomics, yielding an increasing number of datasets from various proteomics projects worldwide. In order to facilitate the sharing and reuse of promising datasets, it is important to construct appropriate, high-quality public data repositories. jPOSTrepo (https://repository.jpostdb.org/) has successfully implemented several unique features, including high-speed file uploading, flexible file management and easy-to-use interfaces. This repository has been launched as a public repository containing various proteomic datasets and is available for researchers worldwide. In addition, our repository has joined the ProteomeXchange consortium, which includes the most popular public repositories such as PRIDE in Europe for MS/MS datasets and PASSEL for SRM datasets in the USA. Later MassIVE was introduced in the USA and accepted into the ProteomeXchange, as was our repository in July 2016, providing important datasets from Asia/Oceania. Accordingly, this repository thus contributes to a global alliance to share and store all datasets from a wide variety of proteomics experiments. Thus, the repository is expected to become a major repository, particularly for data collected in the Asia/Oceania region. PMID:27899654

  12. New Roles, New Responsibilities: Examining Training Needs of Repository Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Simons

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Institutional repositories play a critical role in the research lifecycle. Funding agencies are increasingly seeking an improved return on their investment in research. Repositories facilitate this process by providing storage of, and access to, institutional research outputs and, more recently, research data. While repositories are generally managed within the academic library, repository staff require different skills and knowledge compared with traditional library roles. This study reports on a survey of Australasian institutional repository staff to identify skills and knowledge sets. METHODS Institutional repository staff working at universities in Australia and New Zealand were invited to participate in an online survey which incorporated both open and closed-ended question types. RESULTS The survey found significant gaps in the current provision of formal training and coursework related to institutional repositories, which echoed findings in the United Kingdom, Italy, and the United States. DISCUSSION There is clearly a need for more and varied training opportunities for repository professionals. Repository work requires a specific set of skills that can be difficult to find and institutions will benefit from investing in training and ongoing development opportunities for repository staff. CONCLUSION The data from this study could be used to facilitate staff recruitment, development, training, and retention strategies.

  13. Investigation of the behaviour of a LILW superficial repository under aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.it; Stefanini, Lorenzo

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Safety assessment of a LILW superficial repository. • Investigation of the consequences of an aircraft impact with fuel burning. • Experimental material properties. • Numerical simulation of aircraft impact with fuel burning accident by MSC.MARC{sup ©} code. • Demonstration that the overall integrity resulted is guaranteed. - Abstract: Safety and security are the two fundamental aspects to guarantee when designing a LILW superficial repository. Because of its safety concern, we have to prove, and build confidence in, the primary and secondary consequences of the crashing will be acceptable. These goals are obtained generally by means of safety assessment supported by calculations. This study is intended to investigate the performance of a superficial repository subjected to aircraft impact and fuel burning. To the purpose a superficial repository similar to that of El Cabril has been considered. Moreover to be confident the facility is safe and that the consequences of such a type of accident on the environment and humans are negligible, an appropriate safety assessment was carried out. The potential damage that aircraft impact could bring into the repository has been therefore analysed and discussed. To attain the intent load functions, calculated according to the Riera approach, and the maximum temperature reached by fuel during its combustion have been considered. FEM (thermo-mechanical) simulations have been done, by MSC{sup ©} Marc code, assuming damaging phenomena of concrete and material properties variation with the temperature. The obtained results showed that an empty superficial repository with a wall thickness, ranging from 0.7 to 1 m, is not sufficient to avoid penetration. Nevertheless even in presence of a reduced strength and of (cone) cracking and plugging, the overall integrity resulted guaranteed.

  14. A genome landscape of SRSF3-regulated splicing events and gene expression in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Jia, Rong; Yang, Yanqin; Zhu, Jun; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2016-02-29

    Alternative RNA splicing is an essential process to yield proteomic diversity in eukaryotic cells, and aberrant splicing is often associated with numerous human diseases and cancers. We recently described serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3 or SRp20) being a proto-oncogene. However, the SRSF3-regulated splicing events responsible for its oncogenic activities remain largely unknown. By global profiling of the SRSF3-regulated splicing events in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells, we found that SRSF3 regulates the expression of 60 genes including ERRFI1, ANXA1 and TGFB2, and 182 splicing events in 164 genes, including EP300, PUS3, CLINT1, PKP4, KIF23, CHK1, SMC2, CKLF, MAP4, MBNL1, MELK, DDX5, PABPC1, MAP4K4, Sp1 and SRSF1, which are primarily associated with cell proliferation or cell cycle. Two SRSF3-binding motifs, CCAGC(G)C and A(G)CAGCA, are enriched to the alternative exons. An SRSF3-binding site in the EP300 exon 14 is essential for exon 14 inclusion. We found that the expression of SRSF1 and SRSF3 are mutually dependent and coexpressed in normal and tumor tissues/cells. SRSF3 also significantly regulates the expression of at least 20 miRNAs, including a subset of oncogenic or tumor suppressive miRNAs. These data indicate that SRSF3 affects a global change of gene expression to maintain cell homeostasis.

  15. Analyses of releases due to drilling at the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Radionuclide releases due to drilling into the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear-waste repository have been evaluated as part of a recent total-system performance assessment. The probability that a drilling event intersects a waste package is a function of the sizes of the drill bit and the waste package, and the density of placement of the containers in the repository. The magnitude of the release is modeled as a random function that also depends on the amount of decay the radionuclides have undergone. Four cases have been analyzed, representing the combinations of two waste-package designs (small-capacity, thin-wall, vertically emplaced; and large-capacity, thick-wall, horizontally emplaced) and two repository layouts (lower thermal power dissipation, low waste-package placement density; and higher thermal power dissipation, high waste-package placement density). The results show a fairly pronounced dependence on waste-package design and slight dependence on repository layout. Given the assumptions in the model, releases from the larger containers are 4-5 times greater than from the smaller packages.

  16. Meteorological factors and timing of the initiating event of human parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Emmet; Lim, Courtney; Dobrez, Deborah; Adams, Marci G; Noble, William

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether meteorological factors are associated with the timing of either onset of labor with intact membranes or rupture of membranes prior to labor-together referred to as 'the initiating event' of parturition. All patients delivering at Evanston Hospital after spontaneous labor or rupture of membranes at ≥20 weeks of gestation over a 6-month period were studied. Logistic regression models of the initiating event of parturition using clinical variables (maternal age, gestational age, parity, multiple gestation and intrauterine infection) with and without the addition of meteorological variables (barometric pressure, temperature and humidity) were compared. A total of 1,088 patients met the inclusion criteria. Gestational age, multiple gestation and chorioamnionitis were associated with timing of initiation of parturition (P < 0.01). The addition of meteorological to clinical variables generated a statistically significant improvement in prediction of the initiating event; however, the magnitude of this improvement was small (less than 2% difference in receiver-operating characteristic score). These observations held regardless of parity, fetal number and gestational age. Meteorological factors are associated with the timing of parturition, but the magnitude of this association is small.

  17. Meteorological factors and timing of the initiating event of human parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Emmet; Lim, Courtney; Dobrez, Deborah; Adams, Marci G.; Noble, William

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether meteorological factors are associated with the timing of either onset of labor with intact membranes or rupture of membranes prior to labor—together referred to as `the initiating event' of parturition. All patients delivering at Evanston Hospital after spontaneous labor or rupture of membranes at ≥20 weeks of gestation over a 6-month period were studied. Logistic regression models of the initiating event of parturition using clinical variables (maternal age, gestational age, parity, multiple gestation and intrauterine infection) with and without the addition of meteorological variables (barometric pressure, temperature and humidity) were compared. A total of 1,088 patients met the inclusion criteria. Gestational age, multiple gestation and chorioamnionitis were associated with timing of initiation of parturition ( P < 0.01). The addition of meteorological to clinical variables generated a statistically significant improvement in prediction of the initiating event; however, the magnitude of this improvement was small (less than 2% difference in receiver-operating characteristic score). These observations held regardless of parity, fetal number and gestational age. Meteorological factors are associated with the timing of parturition, but the magnitude of this association is small.

  18. Russian Geologic Repository Technical Papers and Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L

    2002-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been actively and continuously engaged in Russian geologic disposal activities since 1995. The first joint US-Russian meeting on Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium was held in January 1995 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The meeting resulted in the appointment of Dr. L. J. Jardine from LLNL and Dr. T. A. Gupalo from the All-Russian Research and Design Institute of Production Engineering (VNIPIPT) as the US-Russian Federation (RF) joint co-chairs for geologic disposal of plutonium-containing materials, respectively. The initial joint studies focused on the geologic disposal of plutonium-containing materials and immobilized plutonium waste forms. These studies started in 1995, and continue in 2002. The first joint work of LLNL and VNIPIPT was documented in the October 1996 Paris P8 Nuclear Experts Meeting [1]. In summary, LLNL has been actively and continuously involved in various ways since 1995 in developing and participating in the current Russian geologic disposal program activities near the Mayak and MCC K-26 sites. Figure 1 illustrates how these various LLNL activities have been integrated, coordinated, and focused on developing geologic disposal in Russia. The various LLNL contracts are shown in the figure with the specific LLNL contract number. Reference 13 provides a summary of the status in 2000 of the past Russian repository program activities for the K-26 and Mayak sites. Because of this unique continuous and direct participation in the RF geologic disposal program activities, LLNL has either obtained or generated numerous technical papers and reports documenting various aspects of the RF geologic repository activities for the two sites near the Minatom industrial sites at Mayak and K-26. As a result, LLNL decided to collect these unique documents into one referenceable set and generated this report. This report collects these technical papers, technical reports, plans, and proposals for

  19. The French Geological Repository Project Cigeo - 12023

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, Alain; Labalette, Thibaud; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Ouzounian, Gerald [ANDRA, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2012-07-01

    The French Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, ANDRA, was launched by law in 1991 to perform and develop the research programme for managing high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive waste generated by the French nuclear fleet. After a 15-year intensive research programme, including the study of alternative solutions, an overall review and assessment of the results was organized, including a national public debate. As a result, the Parliament passed a Planning Act on radioactive waste management in 2006. Commissioning of a geological repository by 2025 was one of the most important decisions taken at that time. To reach this goal, a license application must be submitted and reviewed by the competent authorities by 2015. A detailed review and consultation process is, as well, defined in the Planning Act. Beside the legal framework the project needs to progress on two fronts. The first one is on siting. A significant milestone was reached in 2009 with the definition of a defined area to locate the underground repository facilities. This area was approved in March 2010 by the Government, after having collected the opinions and positions of all the interested parties, at both National and local levels. A new phase of dialogue with local players began to refine the implementation scenarios of surface facilities. The final site selection will be approved after a public debate planned for 2013. The second one is the industrial organization, planning and costing. The industrial project of this geological repository was called Cigeo (Centre Industriel de Stockage Geologique). Given the amount of work to be done to comply with the given time framework, a detailed organization with well-defined milestones must be set-up. Cigeo will be a specific nuclear facility, built and operated underground for over a hundred years. The consequence of this long duration is that the development of the repository facilities will take place in successive operational phases

  20. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. M. Curry

    2001-01-30

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements Document'' (MGR RD) (YMP 2000a) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) technical requirements in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The technical requirements documented in the PDD are to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the technical requirements from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the technical requirements captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in US Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 1-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1), the Technical Requirements (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6).

  1. Environmental Degradation of Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories Engineered Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-24

    Several countries are considering geological repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. Most of the environments for these repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, copper, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  2. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-08-28

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  3. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B

    2006-06-01

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  4. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  5. Un repository semantico per la Special Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Benigno

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La ricerca nella mole sconfinata di informazioni e risorse disponibili in rete rappresenta sicuramente un problema che oggi viene riconosciuto come sovraccarico informativo . Una possibile soluzione arriva dalle tecnologie di knowledge e dalla semantica. Nell’ambito del presente contributo verrà descritta la metodologia per lo sviluppo dello user modelling finalizzato a descrivere il profilo e il contesto di riferimento degli utenti nell’utilizzo di un repository semantico sviluppato per la Special Education, il Knowledge Hub (KH. In relazione al KH verranno descritte le principali funzionalità e le tipologie di risorse presenti.

  6. A Framework for Integrating Oceanographic Data Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozell, E.; Maffei, A. R.; Beaulieu, S. E.; Fox, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Oceanographic research covers a broad range of science domains and requires a tremendous amount of cross-disciplinary collaboration. Advances in cyberinfrastructure are making it easier to share data across disciplines through the use of web services and community vocabularies. Best practices in the design of web services and vocabularies to support interoperability amongst science data repositories are only starting to emerge. Strategic design decisions in these areas are crucial to the creation of end-user data and application integration tools. We present S2S, a novel framework for deploying customizable user interfaces to support the search and analysis of data from multiple repositories. Our research methods follow the Semantic Web methodology and technology development process developed by Fox et al. This methodology stresses the importance of close scientist-technologist interactions when developing scientific use cases, keeping the project well scoped and ensuring the result meets a real scientific need. The S2S framework motivates the development of standardized web services with well-described parameters, as well as the integration of existing web services and applications in the search and analysis of data. S2S also encourages the use and development of community vocabularies and ontologies to support federated search and reduce the amount of domain expertise required in the data discovery process. S2S utilizes the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to describe the components of the framework, including web service parameters, and OpenSearch as a standard description for web services, particularly search services for oceanographic data repositories. We have created search services for an oceanographic metadata database, a large set of quality-controlled ocean profile measurements, and a biogeographic search service. S2S provides an application programming interface (API) that can be used to generate custom user interfaces, supporting data and application

  7. Digital Archive Policies and Trusted Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKenzie Smith

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The MIT Libraries, the San Diego Supercomputer Center, and the University of California San Diego Libraries are conducting the PLEDGE Project to determine the set of policies that affect operational digital preservation archives and to develop standardized means of recording and enforcing them using rules engines. This has the potential to allow for automated assessment of “trustworthiness” of digital preservation archives. We are also evaluating the completeness of other efforts to define policies for digital preservation such as the RLG/NARA Trusted Digital Repository checklist and the PREMIS metadata schema. We present our results to date.

  8. Quantifying the effect of interannual ocean variability on the attribution of extreme climate events to human influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Mark D.; Stone, Dáithí A.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Wehner, Michael F.; Angélil, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the climate change research community has become highly interested in describing the anthropogenic influence on extreme weather events, commonly termed "event attribution." Limitations in the observational record and in computational resources motivate the use of uncoupled, atmosphere/land-only climate models with prescribed ocean conditions run over a short period, leading up to and including an event of interest. In this approach, large ensembles of high-resolution simulations can be generated under factual observed conditions and counterfactual conditions that might have been observed in the absence of human interference; these can be used to estimate the change in probability of the given event due to anthropogenic influence. However, using a prescribed ocean state ignores the possibility that estimates of attributable risk might be a function of the ocean state. Thus, the uncertainty in attributable risk is likely underestimated, implying an over-confidence in anthropogenic influence. In this work, we estimate the year-to-year variability in calculations of the anthropogenic contribution to extreme weather based on large ensembles of atmospheric model simulations. Our results both quantify the magnitude of year-to-year variability and categorize the degree to which conclusions of attributable risk are qualitatively affected. The methodology is illustrated by exploring extreme temperature and precipitation events for the northwest coast of South America and northern-central Siberia; we also provides results for regions around the globe. While it remains preferable to perform a full multi-year analysis, the results presented here can serve as an indication of where and when attribution researchers should be concerned about the use of atmosphere-only simulations.

  9. Gene conversion-like events in the diversification of human rearranged IGHV3-23*01 gene sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargavi eDuvvuri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion (GCV as a mechanism of immunoglobulin diversification is well established in a few species. However, definitive evidence of GCV-like events in human immunoglobulin genes is scarce. GCV is mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID. The lack of evidence of GCV in human rearranged immunoglobulin gene sequences is puzzling given the presence of highly similar germline donors and all the enzymatic machinery required for GCV. In this study, we undertook a computational analysis of rearranged IGHV3-23*01 gene sequences from common variable immunodeficiency (CVID patients and healthy individuals to survey ‘GCV-like’ activities. Our search identified strong evidence of GCV-like patterns. Germline VH sequences were identified as potential donors for clustered mutations in rearranged IGHV3-23*01 gene sequences. We identified minimum and maximum sequence identities between donor and recipient sequences that can serve as targets for GCV and our findings are consistent with those reported in literature. We observed that GCV-like tracts are flanked by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID hotspot motifs. Structural modeling of IGHV3-23*01 gene sequence revealed that hypermutable bases flanking GCV-like tracts, are in the single stranded DNA (ssDNA of stable stem-loop structures (SLSs. SsDNA is inherently fragile and also an optimal target for AID. We speculate that GCV could have been initiated by the targeting of hypermutable bases in ssDNA state in stable SLSs, plausibly by AID. We have observed that the frequency of GCV-like events is significantly higher in rearranged IGHV323-*01 sequences from healthy individuals compared to that of CVID patients. GCV, unlike SHM, can result in multiple base substitutions that can alter many amino acids. The extensive changes in antibody affinity by GCV-like events, as identified in this study would be instrumental in protecting humans against pathogens that diversify their genome by

  10. Leveraging the World Cup: Mega Sporting Events, Human Rights Risk, and Worker Welfare Reform in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Sarath Ganji

    2016-01-01

    Qatar will realize its decades-long drive to host a mega sporting event when, in 2022, the opening ceremony of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup commences. By that time, the Qatari government will have invested at least $200 billion in real estate and development projects, employing anywhere between 500,000 and 1.5 million foreign workers to do so. The scale of these preparations is staggering — and not necessarily positive. Between 2010 and 2013, more tha...

  11. Subcellular forms and biochemical events triggered in human cells by HCV polyprotein expression from a viral vector

    OpenAIRE

    González Jose; Guerra Susana; Domingo-Gil Elena; Patiño Cristina; Gómez Carmen; Vandermeeren Andrée M; Esteban Mariano

    2008-01-01

    Abstract To identify the subcellular forms and biochemical events induced in human cells after HCV polyprotein expression, we have used a robust cell culture system based on vaccinia virus (VACV) that efficiently expresses in infected cells the structural and nonstructural proteins of HCV from genotype 1b (VT7-HCV7.9). As determined by confocal microscopy, HCV proteins expressed from VT7-HCV7.9 localize largely in a globular-like distribution pattern in the cytoplasm, with some proteins co-lo...

  12. A novel human ex vivo model for the analysis of molecular events during lung cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Dagmar S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC causes most of cancer related deaths in humans and is characterized by poor prognosis regarding efficiency of chemotherapeutical treatment and long-term survival of the patients. The purpose of the present study was the development of a human ex vivo tissue culture model and the analysis of the effects of conventional chemotherapy, which then can serve as a tool to test new chemotherapeutical regimens in NSCLC. Methods In a short-term tissue culture model designated STST (Short-Term Stimulation of Tissues in combination with the novel *HOPE-fixation and paraffin embedding method we examined the responsiveness of 41 human NSCLC tissue specimens to the individual cytotoxic drugs carboplatin, vinorelbine or gemcitabine. Viability was analyzed by LIFE/DEAD assay, TUNEL-staining and colorimetric MTT assay. Expression of Ki-67 protein and of BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine uptake as markers for proliferation and of cleaved (activated effector caspase-3 as indicator of late phase apoptosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Transcription of caspase-3 was analyzed by RT-PCR. Flow cytometry was utilized to determine caspase-3 in human cancer cell lines. Results Viability, proliferation and apoptosis of the tissues were moderately affected by cultivation. In human breast cancer, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC and human cell lines (CPC-N, HEK proliferative capacity was clearly reduced by all 3 chemotherapeutic agents in a very similar manner. Cleavage of caspase-3 was induced in the chemo-sensitive types of cancer (breast cancer, SCLC. Drug-induced effects in human NSCLC tissues were less evident than in the chemo-sensitive tumors with more pronounced effects in adenocarcinomas as compared to squamous cell carcinomas. Conclusion Although there was high heterogeneity among the individual tumor tissue responses as expected, we clearly demonstrate specific multiple drug-induced effects simultaneously. Thus, STST

  13. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2010-01-01

    for systematically analysing the technical and organizational requirements of institutions for a remote bit repository. Instead of viewing a bit repository simply as Archival Storage for the institutions’ repositories, we argue for viewing it as consisting of a subset of functions from all entities defined...... architecture and its strengths in being flexible in order to offer differentiated services with respect to, among other things, bit safety and cost. Furthermore, the challenges in formulating various aspects, such as risk requirements, are described....

  14. DAR: A Modern Institutional Repository with a Scalability Twist

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail, Youssef; Adly, Noha; Nagi, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Assets Repository (DAR) is an Institutional Repository developed at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina to manage the full lifecycle of a digital asset: its creation and ingestion, its metadata management, storage and archival in addition to the necessary mechanisms for publishing and dissemination. DAR was designed with a focus on integrating DAR with different sources of digital objects and metadata in addition to integration with applications built on top of the repository. As a modern...

  15. National Geoscience Data Repository System, Phase III: Implementation and Operation of the Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    American Geological Institute

    1999-11-09

    The NGDRS steering committee met at Unocal's offices on October 1, 1998 in Sugar Land, Texas to review and discuss issues of data transfer and the continued development of the Stapleton prospect for establishment of a national core repository. Company representatives reaffirmed their commitment to donate geoscience data to the NGDRS once appropriate facilities are available.

  16. Is There a Role for Research Students in an Institutional Repository? Some Repository Managers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickton, Margaret; McKnight, Cliff

    2007-01-01

    Although a number of studies have investigated the attitudes of published academic authors with respect to open access (OA) publishing and institutional repositories (IRs), none have considered the views of other institutional stakeholders. Research students, in particular, are a group that could make a major contribution to an IR, both currently…

  17. The effect of mastication on human cognitive processing: a study using event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kiwako; Nakata, Hiroki; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effect of mastication on cognitive processing using reaction time (RT) and event-related potentials (ERPs). The two experiments consisted of two conditions, Mastication (chewing gum) and Control (relaxing without chewing gum) in Experiment 1, and Jaw Movement (opening and closing the jaw) and Finger Tapping (tapping the right index finger) in Experiment 2. The subjects performed four sessions of an auditory oddball paradigm. RT and ERPs were recorded in these four sessions, Pre (before chewing), and Post 1, Post 2 and Post 3 (after chewing). In Mastication for RT and the peak latencies of P300 and N100, the values were significantly longer in Pre than in Post 2 or Post 3. By contrast, in Control, Jaw Movement, and Finger Tapping, they were almost identical among sessions or significantly shorter in Pre than in Post 2 or Post 3. Mastication influences cognitive processing time as reflected by RT and the latency of ERP waveforms. This is the first study investigating the effect of mastication on the central nervous system using event-related potentials.

  18. Prediction of human errors by maladaptive changes in event-related brain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichele, T.; Debener, S.; Calhoun, V.D.; Specht, K.; Engel, A.K.; Hugdahl, K.; Cramon, D.Y. von; Ullsperger, M.

    2008-01-01

    Humans engaged in monotonous tasks are susceptible to occasional errors that may lead to serious consequences, but little is known about brain activity patterns preceding errors. Using functional Mill and applying independent component analysis followed by deconvolution of hemodynamic responses, we

  19. A search engine for retrieval and inspection of events with 48 human actions in realistic videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Penning, H.L.H. de; Hove, R.J.M. ten; Landsmeer, S.; Broek, S.P. van den; Hollander, R.J.M.; Hanckmann, P.; Kruithof, M.C.; Leeuwen, C.J. van; Korzec, S.; Bouma, H.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of this paper is a search engine that recognizes and describes 48 human actions in realistic videos. The core algorithms have been published recently, from the early visual processing (Bouma, 2012), discriminative recognition (Burghouts, 2012) and textual description (Hankmann, 2012

  20. New content in digital repositories the changing research landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Research institutions are under pressure to make their outputs more accessible in order to meet funding requirements and policy guidelines. Libraries have traditionally played an important role by exposing research output through a predominantly institution-based digital repository, with an emphasis on storing published works. New publishing paradigms are emerging that include research data, huge volumes of which are being generated globally. Repositories are the natural home for managing, storing and describing institutional research content. New Content in Digital Repositories explores the diversity of content types being stored in digital repositories with a focus on research data, creative works, and the interesting challenges they pose.

  1. Oceanographic Data Repositories: An Analysis of the International Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Couto Corrêa da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The preservation and organization of oceanographic research data enables the scientific community to consult and reuse information of different kinds, and this is made possible by the repositories, meaning the services that facilitate data storage and dissemination. This paper reviews the current situation of oceanographic data repositories across different countries and evaluates them according to a series of indicators. The writers propose that although interest in storing and reusing oceanographic data has increased in recent years, the repositories are still in the process of developing their systems for processing, disseminating and reusing data. The repositories also differ in terms of architecture and the organizational level of the content they offer.

  2. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  3. Digital Repositories An investigation of best practices for content recruitment to academic digital repositories and the conditions for their livelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Reidun Anette

    2009-01-01

    A digital repository is a web accessible database, aimed at preserving the research material of an institution or scientific community. A digital repository serves as a tool for dissemination of research material and can increase the impact of the research by making it freely accessible. Digital repositories are often mentioned as a possible aid in relation to the Open Access debate; how research material should be freely accessible to anyone, anywhere at any time. However, for a digital repository to fully unleash its potential as a crucial component of Open Access, it is reliant on the ability to successfully collect and organize content. To a large extent this involves initiating self-archiving of research material by scientists throughout the academic world. This is not a trivial task, and many current repositories are inadequate in this respect, remaining empty, unvisited shelves. This thesis explores best practices for content recruitment to digital repositories, through the review of literature, and an...

  4. Learning object repositories as knowledge management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios G. Sampson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, a number of international initiatives that recognize the importance of sharing and reusing digital educational resources among educational communities through the use of Learning Object Repositories (LORs have emerged. Typically, these initiatives focus on collecting digital educational resources that are offered by their creators for open access and potential reuse. Nevertheless, most of the existing LORs are designed more as digital repositories, rather than as Knowledge Management Systems (KMS. By exploiting KMSs functionalities in LORs would bare the potential to support the organization and sharing of educational communities’ explicit knowledge (depicted in digital educational resources constructed by teachers and/or instructional designers and tacit knowledge (depicted in teachers’ and students’ experiences and interactions of using digital educational resources available in LORs. Within this context, in this paper we study the design and the implementation of fourteen operating LORs from the KMSs’ perspective, so as to identify additional functionalities that can support the management of educational communities’ explicit and tacit knowledge. Thus, we propose a list of essential LORs’ functionalities, which aim to facilitate the organization and sharing of educational communities’ knowledge. Finally, we present the added value of these functionalities by identifying their importance towards addressing the current demands of web-facilitated educational communities, as well as the knowledge management activities that they execute.

  5. Problem trap final repository. Social challenges concerning nuclear waste; Problemfalle Endlager. Gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen im Umgang mit Atommuell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim (ed.)

    2016-07-01

    How is it possible that there is still no final storage facility in the entire world for highly radioactive waste from nuclear power stations? How is it possible that electricity has been generated by industrial-scale nuclear installations for decades without the issue of the disposal of nuclear waste having been resolved? The events in Chernobyl in 1986 and Fukushima in 2011 have made it blatantly obvious how risky this technology is and how important it is to keep humans and the environment at a safe distance from radioactivity. This anthology examines the technological, political, social and economic dimensions of the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. It provides an insight into the emergence of the problem and the people involved and their interests. It describes and analyses the changes that are taking place in Germany (for instance, in relation to the government's commission on nuclear repositories) and other countries with regard to how they handle nuclear waste. The book deals with both questions related to socio-technical aspects of the permanent disposal of nuclear waste and calls for the democratic need for participation and new ways of doing so, without which the search for a permanent disposal site will not bear fruit. This anthology presents a comprehensive discussion of the disposal of nuclear waste and the search for a permanent repository for it. Not only will students and teachers find it extremely useful, but so will any readers who are interested in its subject matter and wish to gain a more in-depth insight into it.

  6. Detecting event-related recurrences by symbolic analysis: applications to human language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beim Graben, Peter; Hutt, Axel

    2015-02-13

    Quasi-stationarity is ubiquitous in complex dynamical systems. In brain dynamics, there is ample evidence that event-related potentials (ERPs) reflect such quasi-stationary states. In order to detect them from time series, several segmentation techniques have been proposed. In this study, we elaborate a recent approach for detecting quasi-stationary states as recurrence domains by means of recurrence analysis and subsequent symbolization methods. We address two pertinent problems of contemporary recurrence analysis: optimizing the size of recurrence neighbourhoods and identifying symbols from different realizations for sequence alignment. As possible solutions for these problems, we suggest a maximum entropy criterion and a Hausdorff clustering algorithm. The resulting recurrence domains for single-subject ERPs are obtained as partition cells reflecting quasi-stationary brain states. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Event-related skin conductance responses to musical emotions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfa, Stéphanie; Isabelle, Peretz; Jean-Pierre, Blondin; Manon, Robert

    2002-08-09

    While the reasons underlying musical emotions are unclear, music is nevertheless a powerful elicitor of emotion, and as such, may induce autonomic nervous system responses. One typical measure of this neural pathway is the skin conductance response (SCR). This response generally depends upon stimulus arousal, one of the two motivational determinants of emotion. The objective of the present study was to verify whether emotional reactions to music elicit such event-related autonomic responses. To this aim, four musical emotions varying in arousal were employed: fear, happiness, sadness and peacefulness. SCRs were found to be greater with the two more stimulating emotions, fear and happiness, as compared to the two more relaxing emotions, sadness and peacefulness (Pmusical emotional arousal, but are not sensitive to emotional clarity. While several studies have been performed with visual scenes and environmental sounds, the present study brings similar evidence from the musical domain.

  8. Modulations of 'late' event-related brain potentials in humans by dynamic audiovisual speech stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebib, Riadh; Papo, David; Douiri, Abdel; de Bode, Stella; Gillon Dowens, Margaret; Baudonnière, Pierre-Marie

    2004-11-30

    Lipreading reliably improve speech perception during face-to-face conversation. Within the range of good dubbing, however, adults tolerate some audiovisual (AV) discrepancies and lipreading, then, can give rise to confusion. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the perceptual strategies governing the intermodal processing of dynamic and bimodal speech stimuli, either congruently dubbed or not. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that non-coherent audiovisual dubbings modulated in amplitude an endogenous ERP component, the N300, we compared to a 'N400-like effect' reflecting the difficulty to integrate these conflicting pieces of information. This result adds further support for the existence of a cerebral system underlying 'integrative processes' lato sensu. Further studies should take advantage of this 'N400-like effect' with AV speech stimuli to open new perspectives in the domain of psycholinguistics.

  9. The role of media and the Internet on vaccine adverse event reporting: a case study of human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberth, Jan M; Kline, Kimberly N; Moskowitz, David A; Montealegre, Jane R; Scheurer, Michael E

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the temporal association of print media coverage and Internet search activity with adverse events reports associated with the human papillomavirus vaccine Gardasil (HPV4) and the meningitis vaccine Menactra (MNQ) among United States adolescents. We used moderated linear regression to test the relationships between print media reports in top circulating newspapers, Internet search activity, and reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for HPV4 and MNQ during the first 2.5 years after Food and Drug Administration approval. Compared with MNQ, HPV4 had more coverage in the print media and Internet search activity, which corresponded with the frequency of VAERS reports. In February 2007, we observed a spike in print media for HPV4. Although media coverage waned, Internet search activity remained stable and predicted the rise in HPV4-associated VAERS reports. We demonstrate that media coverage and Internet search activity, in particular, may promote increased adverse event reporting. Public health officials who have long recognized the importance of proactive engagement with news media must now consider strategies for meaningful participation in Internet discussions. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sequential Events in the Irreversible Thermal Denaturation of Human Brain-Type Creatine Kinase by Spectroscopic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Song Gao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-cooperative or sequential events which occur during protein thermal denaturation are closely correlated with protein folding, stability, and physiological functions. In this research, the sequential events of human brain-type creatine kinase (hBBCK thermal denaturation were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, CD, and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. DSC experiments revealed that the thermal denaturation of hBBCK was calorimetrically irreversible. The existence of several endothermic peaks suggested that the denaturation involved stepwise conformational changes, which were further verified by the discrepancy in the transition curves obtained from various spectroscopic probes. During heating, the disruption of the active site structure occurred prior to the secondary and tertiary structural changes. The thermal unfolding and aggregation of hBBCK was found to occur through sequential events. This is quite different from that of muscle-type CK (MMCK. The results herein suggest that BBCK and MMCK undergo quite dissimilar thermal unfolding pathways, although they are highly conserved in the primary and tertiary structures. A minor difference in structure might endow the isoenzymes dissimilar local stabilities in structure, which further contribute to isoenzyme-specific thermal stabilities.

  11. IL-17A mediates inflammatory and tissue remodelling events in early human tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Neal L.; Akbar, Moeed; Campbell, Abigail L.; Reilly, James H.; Kerr, Shauna C.; McLean, Michael; Frleta-Gilchrist, Marina; Fazzi, Umberto G.; Leach, William J.; Rooney, Brian P.; Crowe, Lindsay A. N.; Murrell, George A. C.; McInnes, Iain B.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, inflammatory mediators are considered crucial to the onset and perpetuation of tendinopathy. We sought evidence of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) expression in early human tendinopathy and thereafter, explored mechanisms whereby IL-17A mediated inflammation and tissue remodeling in human tenocytes. Torn supraspinatus tendon (established pathology) and matched intact subscapularis tendon (representing ‘early pathology’) along with control biopsies were collected from patients undergoing shoulder surgery. Markers of inflammation and IL-17A were quantified by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Human tendon cells were derived from hamstring tendon obtained during ACL reconstruction. In vitro effects of IL-17A upon tenocytes were measured using RT-PCR, multiplex cytokine assays, apoptotic proteomic profiling, immunohistochemistry and annexin V FACS staining. Increased expression of IL-17A was detected in ‘early tendinopathy’ compared to both matched samples and non-matched control samples (p tendinopathy processes thus providing novel therapeutic approaches in the management of tendon disorders. PMID:27263531

  12. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a repository in Richton Dome. [Richton Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Meyer, D.; Franzone, J.G.; Coons, W.E.

    1985-12-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that human-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in dome salt referenced to the geology of the Richton Dome in Mississippi. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as conceptual designs if the Richton Dome is selected as a candidate repository site. The principal components of the seal system are concrete bulkheads and dense earth backfill placed in salt and anhydrite horizons in the shafts and in the tunnels in the shaft pillar. Crushed salt backfill is placed throughout the disposal areas. Close to the waste, this backfill should consolidate in response to closure of the rooms, resulting in effective encapsulation of the waste within a period of about 1000 years. Analyses based on a limited amount of laboratory testing indicate that consolidation rates will be relatively slow at locations further removed from the waste. Rates of consolidation are slow because of the slow-creeping properties of the Richton Dome salt and because of the relatively shallow (1900 feet) repository depth.

  13. Preliminary scenarios and nuclide transport models for low-and intermediate-level repository system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Kyong Won; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-02-01

    Through the study 11 scenarios with which nuclide release from the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste could be simulated and assessed are selected, based upon FEPs identified. For each scenario, some practical methodologies as well as mathematical models involved in modling of nuclide transport in various media are also proposed. It is considered that such methodologies can play a great role when real repository system is constructed and operated in very near future. Real repository system is anticipated not to be quite different with the repository system postulated through this study. Even though there shows very complicated features for relevant parameters associated with various phisical-, geohydrological-, and geochemical situation and even human society as well, it is very necessary to propose the methodologies for a quantitative assessment of the performance of the repository in order to use them as a template on the practical point of view of preliminary safety assessment. Mathematical models proposed could be easily adopted by such common computer codes as, for example, MIMOSA and MASCOT-K.

  14. The human impact of tsunamis: a historical review of events 1900-2009 and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dick, Anna; Kirsch, Thomas D

    2013-04-16

    Introduction. Although rare, tsunamis have the potential to cause considerable loss of life and injury as well as widespread damage to the natural and built environments. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of tsunamis on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of tsunamis were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1900 to mid 2009 of tsunami events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review to October 2012 of publications. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between tsunami mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were 255,195 deaths (range 252,619-275,784) and 48,462 injuries (range 45,466-51,457) as a result of tsunamis from 1900 to 2009. The majority of deaths (89%) and injuries reported during this time period were attributed to a single event -the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Findings from the systematic literature review indicate that the primary cause of tsunami-related mortality is drowning, and that females, children and the elderly are at increased mortality risk. The few studies that reported on tsunami-related injury suggest that males and young adults are at increased injury-risk. Conclusions. Early warning systems may help mitigate tsunami-related loss of life.

  15. The Human Impact of Floods: a Historical Review of Events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Murray, Sarah; Kirsch, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Floods are the most common natural disaster and the leading cause of natural disaster fatalities worldwide. Risk of catastrophic losses due to flooding is significant given deforestation and the increasing proximity of large populations to coastal areas, river basins and lakeshores. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of flood events on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters Methods. Data on the impact of floods were compiled using two methods, a historical review of flood events from 1980 to 2009 from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics, bivariate tests for associations and multinomial logistic regression of flood characteristics and mortality using Stata 11.0. Findings. There were 539,811 deaths (range: 510,941 to 568,680), 361,974 injuries and 2,821,895,005 people affected by floods between 1980 and 2009. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of the injured and affected populations. The primary cause of flood-related mortality is drowning; in developed countries being in a motor-vehicle and male gender are associated with increased mortality, whereas female gender may be linked to higher mortality in low-income countries. Conclusions. Expanded monitoring of floods, improved mitigation measures, and effective communication with civil authorities and vulnerable populations has the potential to reduce loss of life in future flood events. PMID:23857425

  16. Evidence of multiple reassortment events of feline-to-human rotaviruses based on a rare human G3P[9] rotavirus isolated from a patient with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tinh Huu; Than, Van Thai; Thanh, Hien Dang; Kim, Wonyong

    2016-06-01

    A rare human/feline-like rotavirus G3P[9] strain, CAU14-1-262, from a 2-year-old girl with severe gastroenteritis was isolated and sequenced. The 11 gene segments of the CAU14-1-262 strain possessed a novel genotype constellation, G3-P[9]-I3-R3-C3-M3-A3-N3-T1-E3-H6, which was identified for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of this strain identified the following genome origins: VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1-VP3, NSP1, NSP2, and NSP4 genes possessed an AU-1-like genotype 3 constellation with high sequence identity to those of the feline and human/feline-like rotaviruses; NSP5 possessed a H6 lineage, with highest sequence identity to the human/feline-like E2541 strain; and the NSP3 gene possessed a Wa-like genotype 1 constellation with high sequence identity to those of the of human rotaviruses. These results provided evidence of multiple reassortment events in G3P[9] rotavirus CAU14-1-262 and possibility of feline-to-human interspecies transmission.

  17. Auditory event-related response in visual cortex modulates subsequent visual responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naue, Nicole; Rach, Stefan; Strüber, Daniel; Huster, Rene J; Zaehle, Tino; Körner, Ursula; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2011-05-25

    Growing evidence from electrophysiological data in animal and human studies suggests that multisensory interaction is not exclusively a higher-order process, but also takes place in primary sensory cortices. Such early multisensory interaction is thought to be mediated by means of phase resetting. The presentation of a stimulus to one sensory modality resets the phase of ongoing oscillations in another modality such that processing in the latter modality is modulated. In humans, evidence for such a mechanism is still sparse. In the current study, the influence of an auditory stimulus on visual processing was investigated by measuring the electroencephalogram (EEG) and behavioral responses of humans to visual, auditory, and audiovisual stimulation with varying stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA). We observed three distinct oscillatory EEG responses in our data. An initial gamma-band response around 50 Hz was followed by a beta-band response around 25 Hz, and a theta response around 6 Hz. The latter was enhanced in response to cross-modal stimuli as compared to either unimodal stimuli. Interestingly, the beta response to unimodal auditory stimuli was dominant in electrodes over visual areas. The SOA between auditory and visual stimuli--albeit not consciously perceived--had a modulatory impact on the multisensory evoked beta-band responses; i.e., the amplitude depended on SOA in a sinusoidal fashion, suggesting a phase reset. These findings further support the notion that parameters of brain oscillations such as amplitude and phase are essential predictors of subsequent brain responses and might be one of the mechanisms underlying multisensory integration.

  18. HLA DNA sequence variation among human populations: molecular signatures of demographic and selective events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Buhler

    Full Text Available Molecular differences between HLA alleles vary up to 57 nucleotides within the peptide binding coding region of human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes, but it is still unclear whether this variation results from a stochastic process or from selective constraints related to functional differences among HLA molecules. Although HLA alleles are generally treated as equidistant molecular units in population genetic studies, DNA sequence diversity among populations is also crucial to interpret the observed HLA polymorphism. In this study, we used a large dataset of 2,062 DNA sequences defined for the different HLA alleles to analyze nucleotide diversity of seven HLA genes in 23,500 individuals of about 200 populations spread worldwide. We first analyzed the HLA molecular structure and diversity of these populations in relation to geographic variation and we further investigated possible departures from selective neutrality through Tajima's tests and mismatch distributions. All results were compared to those obtained by classical approaches applied to HLA allele frequencies.Our study shows that the global patterns of HLA nucleotide diversity among populations are significantly correlated to geography, although in some specific cases the molecular information reveals unexpected genetic relationships. At all loci except HLA-DPB1, populations have accumulated a high proportion of very divergent alleles, suggesting an advantage of heterozygotes expressing molecularly distant HLA molecules (asymmetric overdominant selection model. However, both different intensities of selection and unequal levels of gene conversion may explain the heterogeneous mismatch distributions observed among the loci. Also, distinctive patterns of sequence divergence observed at the HLA-DPB1 locus suggest current neutrality but old selective pressures on this gene. We conclude that HLA DNA sequences advantageously complement HLA allele frequencies as a source of data used

  19. Tectonic characterization of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John W.; O'Leary, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    Tectonic characterization of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is needed to assess seismic and possible volcanic hazards that could affect the site during the preclosure (next 100 years) and the behavior of the hydrologic system during the postclosure (the following 10,000 years) periods. Tectonic characterization is based on assembling mapped geological structures in their chronological order of development and activity, and interpreting their dynamic interrelationships. Addition of mechanistic models and kinematic explanations for the identified tectonic processes provides one or more tectonic models having predictive power. Proper evaluation and application of tectonic models can aid in seismic design and help anticipate probable occurrence of future geologic events of significance to the repository and its design.

  20. A Review Corrosion of TI Grade 7 and Other TI Alloys in Nuclear Waste Repository Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; K. Mon; P. Pasupathi; G. Gordon

    2004-05-11

    Titanium alloy degradation modes are reviewed in relation to their performance in repository environments. General corrosion, localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking, microbially influenced corrosion, and radiation-assisted corrosion of Ti alloys are considered. With respect to the Ti Grade 7 drip shields selected for emplacement in the repository at Yucca Mountain, general corrosion, hydrogen induced cracking, and radiation-assisted corrosion will not lead to failure within the 10,000 year regulatory period; stress corrosion cracking (in the absence of disruptive events) is of no consequence to barrier performance; and localized corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion are not expected to occur. To facilitate the discussion, Ti Grades 2, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, and 24 are included in this review.

  1. Human recognition memory and conflict control: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Liu, X; Xiao, T; Shi, J

    2016-01-28

    The relationship between recognition memory and cognitive control is an important research topic. The current study investigated how conflict control influences an individual's emotional memory. During the encoding phase, participants were required to judge the affective valence of a Chinese Chengyu word (either positive or negative) in a modified Simon paradigm and to remember the word. Half of the words were presented in the congruent condition and the other half were displayed in the incongruent condition. During the retrieval phase, participants were instructed to make an 'old/new judgment' and decide whether the word had been presented previously. Electrophysiological responses were recorded using the event-related potential (ERP) technique. The behavioral results of retrieval processes showed that participants remembered more positive than negative words when they were encoded in the congruent condition. The electrophysiological results revealed that the retrieval of words encoded in the incongruent condition elicited less negative frontal negativity (FN) and early posterior negativity (EPN) amplitudes than those encoded in the congruent condition. The retrieval of words encoded in the incongruent condition induced greater late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes, relative to those encoded in the congruent condition on the left hemisphere. It was also observed that the recognition of positive words induced faster LPC responses than negative words when they were encoded in the incongruent condition. The present electrophysiological study illustrates that emotional memory processes may be affected by conflict control. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Public Repository of Xenografts (ProXe) enables discovery and randomized phase II-like trials in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth C.; Murakami, Mark A.; Christodoulou, Alexandra; Christie, Amanda L.; Köster, Johannes; DeSouza, Tiffany A.; Morgan, Elizabeth A.; Kallgren, Scott P.; Liu, Huiyun; Wu, Shuo-Chieh; Plana, Olivia; Montero, Joan; Stevenson, Kristen E.; Rao, Prakash; Vadhi, Raga; Andreeff, Michael; Armand, Philippe; Ballen, Karen K.; Barzaghi-Rinaudo, Patrizia; Cahill, Sarah; Clark, Rachael A.; Cooke, Vesselina G.; Davids, Matthew S.; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Dorfman, David M.; Eaton, Hilary; Ebert, Benjamin L.; Etchin, Julia; Firestone, Brant; Fisher, David C.; Freedman, Arnold S.; Galinsky, Ilene A.; Gao, Hui; Garcia, Jacqueline S.; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Graubert, Timothy A.; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Halilovic, Ensar; Harris, Marian H.; Herbert, Zachary T.; Horwitz, Steven M.; Inghirami, Giorgio; Intlekoffer, Andrew M.; Ito, Moriko; Izraeli, Shai; Jacobsen, Eric D.; Jacobson, Caron A.; Jeay, Sébastien; Jeremias, Irmela; Kelliher, Michelle A.; Koch, Raphael; Konopleva, Marina; Kopp, Nadja; Kornblau, Steven M.; Kung, Andrew L.; Kupper, Thomas S.; LaBoeuf, Nicole; LaCasce, Ann S.; Lees, Emma; Li, Loretta S.; Look, A. Thomas; Murakami, Masato; Muschen, Markus; Neuberg, Donna; Ng, Samuel Y.; Odejide, Oreofe O.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Paquette, Rachel R.; Place, Andrew E.; Roderick, Justine E.; Ryan, Jeremy A.; Sallan, Stephen E.; Shoji, Brent; Silverman, Lewis B.; Soiffer, Robert J.; Steensma, David P.; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Stone, Richard M.; Tamburini, Jerome; Thorner, Aaron R.; van Hummelen, Paul; Wadleigh, Martha; Wiesmann, Marion; Weng, Andrew P.; Wuerthner, Jens U.; Williams, David A.; Wollison, Bruce M.; Lane, Andrew A.; Letai, Anthony; Bertagnolli, Monica M.; Ritz, Jerome; Brown, Myles; Long, Henry; Aster, Jon C.; Shipp, Margaret A.; Griffin, James D.; Weinstock, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Over 90% of drugs with preclinical activity fail in human trials, largely due to insufficient efficacy. We hypothesized that adequately powered trials of patient-derived xenografts (PDX) in mice could efficiently define therapeutic activity across heterogeneous tumors. To address this hypothesis, we established a large, publically available repository of well-characterized leukemia and lymphoma PDXs that undergo orthotopic engraftment called the Public Repository of Xenografts (PRoXe; www.proxe.org). PRoXe includes all de-identified information relevant to the primary specimens and the PDXs derived from them. Using this repository, we demonstrate that large studies of acute leukemia PDXs that mimic human randomized clinical trials can characterize drug efficacy and generate transcriptional, functional and proteomic biomarkers in both treatment-naïve and relapsed/refractory disease. PMID:27070704

  3. Post Closure Safety of the Morsleben Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuss, J.; Eilers, G.; Mauke, R.; Moeller-Hoeppe, N.; Engelhardt, H.-J.; Kreienmeyer, M.; Lerch, C.; Schrimpf, C.

    2002-02-26

    After the completion of detailed studies of the suitability the twin-mine Bartensleben-Marie, situated in the Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt (Germany), was chosen in 1970 for the disposal of low and medium level radioactive waste. The waste emplacement started in 1978 in rock cavities at the mine's fourth level, some 500 m below the surface. Until the end of the operational phase in 1998 in total about 36,800 m{sup 3} of radioactive waste was disposed of. The Morsleben LLW/ILW repository (ERAM) is now under licensing for closure. After completing the licensing procedure the repository will be sealed and backfilled to exclude any undue future impact onto man or the environment. The main safety objective is to protect the biosphere from the harmful effects of the disposed radionuclides. Furthermore, classical or conventional requirements call for ruling out or minimizing other unfavorable environmental effects. The ERAM is an abandoned rock salt and potash mine. As a consequence it has a big void volume, however small parts of the cavities are backfilled with crushed salt rocks. Other goals of the closure concept are therefore a long-term stabilization of the cavities to prevent a dipping or buckling of the ground surface. In addition, groundwater protection shall be assured. For the sealing of the repository a closure concept was developed to ensure compliance with the safety protection objectives. The concept anticipates the backfilling of the cavities with hydraulically setting backfill materials (salt concretes). The reduction of the remaining void volume in the mine causes in the case of brine intrusions a limitation of the leaching processes of the exposed potash seams. However, during the setting process the hydration heat of the concrete will lead to an increase of the temperature and hence to thermally induced stresses of the concrete and the surrounding rocks. Therefore, the influence of these stresses and deformations on the stability of the salt body

  4. A Dataflow Meta—Computing Framework for Event Processing in the H1 Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlanCampbell; ChristophGrab; 等

    2001-01-01

    Linux based networked PCs clusters are replacing both the VME non uniform direct memory access systems and SMP shared memory systems used previously for the online event filtering and reconstrucion.To allow an optimal use of the distributed resources of PC clusters an open software framework is presently being developed based on a dataflow paradigm for event processing.This framework allows for the distribution of the data of physics events and associated calibration data to multiple computers from multiple input sources for processing and the subsequent collection of the processed events at multiple outputs.The basis of the system is the event repository,basically a first-in first -out event store which may be read and written in a manner similar to sequential file access.Events are stored in and transferred between repositories as suitably large sequences to enable high throughput.Multiple readers can read simultaneously from a single repository to receive event sequences and multiple writers can insert event sequences to a repository,Hence repositories are used for event distribution and collection.To support synchronisation of the event folow the repository implements baaiers.A barrier must be written by all the writers of a repository before any reader can read the barrier,A reader must read a barrier before it may receive data from behind it.Only after all readers have read the barrier is the barrier emoved from the repository.A barrier may also have attached data,In this way calibration data can be distributed to all proessuing units. The repositories are implemented as multi-threaded CORBA objects in C++ and CORMA is used for all data transfers,Job setup scripts are written in python and interactive status and histogram display is provided by a Java program.Jobs run under the PBS batch system providing shared use of resources for online triggering ,offline mass reporcessing and user analysis jobs.

  5. Preliminary safety evaluation of an aircraft impact on a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, R.; Forasassi, G.; Pugliese, G. [Department of Industrial and Civil Engineering (DICI), University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    The aircraft impact accident has become very significant in the design of a nuclear facilities, particularly, after the tragic September 2001 event, that raised the public concern about the potential damaging effects that the impact of a large civilian airplane could bring in safety relevant structures. The aim of this study is therefore to preliminarily evaluate the global response and the structural effects induced by the impact of a military or commercial airplane (actually considered as a 'beyond design basis' event) into a near surface radioactive waste (RWs) disposal facility. The safety evaluation was carried out according to the International safety and design guidelines and in agreement with the stress tests requirements for the security track. To achieve the purpose, a lay out and a scheme of a possible near surface repository, like for example those of the El Cabril one, were taken into account. In order to preliminarily perform a reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and to determine the structural effects induced by such a types of impulsive loads, a realistic, but still operable, numerical model with suitable materials characteristics was implemented by means of FEM codes. In the carried out structural analyses, the RWs repository was considered a 'robust' target, due to its thicker walls and main constitutive materials (steel and reinforced concrete). In addition to adequately represent the dynamic response of repository under crashing, relevant physical phenomena (i.e. penetration, spalling, etc.) were simulated and analysed. The preliminary assessment of the effects induced by the dynamic/impulsive loads allowed generally to verify the residual strength capability of the repository considered. The obtained preliminary results highlighted a remarkable potential to withstand the impact of military/large commercial aircraft, even in presence of ongoing concrete progressive failure (some penetration and spalling of the

  6. Digital Libraries and Repositories in India: An Evaluative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rekha; Mahesh, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify and evaluate the collections within digital libraries and repositories in India available in the public domain. Design/methodology/approach: The digital libraries and repositories were identified through a study of the literature, as well as internet searching and browsing. The resulting digital…

  7. 15 CFR 1180.10 - NTIS permanent repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NTIS permanent repository. 1180.10... ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.10 NTIS permanent repository. A product, or category of product, will normally be accepted and maintained as part of NTIS'...

  8. Digital Libraries and Repositories in India: An Evaluative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rekha; Mahesh, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify and evaluate the collections within digital libraries and repositories in India available in the public domain. Design/methodology/approach: The digital libraries and repositories were identified through a study of the literature, as well as internet searching and browsing. The resulting digital…

  9. Neural network-based retrieval from software reuse repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David A.; Srinivas, Kankanahalli

    1992-01-01

    A significant hurdle confronts the software reuser attempting to select candidate components from a software repository - discriminating between those components without resorting to inspection of the implementation(s). We outline an approach to this problem based upon neural networks which avoids requiring the repository administrators to define a conceptual closeness graph for the classification vocabulary.

  10. Digital Preservation in the Context of Institutional Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockx-Yu, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the issues and challenges of digital preservation facing institutional repositories and to illustrate the Joint Information Systems Committee's (JISC) view on institutional repositories and its key initiatives in helping UK institutions address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: A combination of published work and JISC…

  11. Science Is the First Step to Siting Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C. E.

    2014-02-01

    As Shaw [2014] notes, U.S. research on shale as a repository host was halted before expending anything close to the effort devoted to studying crystalline rock, salt, and—most notably—tuff at Yucca Mountain. The new political reality regarding Yucca Mountain may allow reconsideration of the decision to abandon research on shale as a repository host.

  12. Structure, Features, and Faculty Content in ARL Member Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Holly; Koenig, Jay; McGeachin, Robert B.; Tucker, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Questions about the optimal way to present repository content to authors, submitters, and end-users, prompted this study. The authors examined, through an observation and a survey, the institutional repositories of peer institutions in the ARL for good practices related to the presentation and organization of faculty-authored institutional…

  13. Collaboration Nation: The Building of the Welsh Repository Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to disseminate information about the Welsh Repository Network (WRN), innovative work being undertaken to build an integrated network of institutional digital repositories. A collaborative approach, in particular through the provision of centralised technical and organisational support, has demonstrated…

  14. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental information concerning geologic repositories... information concerning geologic repositories. (a) In lieu of an environmental report, the Department of Energy... if it makes a substantial change in its proposed action that is relevant to environmental concerns...

  15. Exploring the Coming Repositories of Reproducible Experiments: Challenges and Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire, Juliana; Bonnet, Philippe; Shasha, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Computational reproducibility efforts in many communities will soon give rise to validated software and data repositories of high quality. A scientist in a field may want to query the components of such repositories to build new software workflows, perhaps after adding the scientist’s own algorithm...

  16. Current developments in container design testing for the Konrad repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelzke, Holger; Nieslony, Gregor; Noack, Volker; Hagenow, Peter; Kovacs, Oliver [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    In 2002, the Konrad repository was licensed as a repository for radioactive waste generating no heat. That permit subsequently became the object of litigation and was confirmed by a court of last resort as late as in 2007. The Federal Office of Radiation Protection (BfS) then started planning and converting the former iron ore mine into a repository. The licensed repository volume is 303,000 m{sup 3} based on estimates of expected waste arisings. The mine proper would offer a much larger volume. However, cask emplacement can be started only after completion of the repository which, according to the present status, will not be before the end of this decade. Nevertheless, there is great interest even now in conditioning and packaging for repository storage of the radioactive waste planned for Konrad, which also requires casks type tested by the Federal Institute of Materials Testing (BAM) and approved by the BfS. The key items in the license for the repository are comprehensive requirements to be met by waste forms and casks. As far as continuous revision of repository requirements and consideration of materials hazardous to water are concerned, it is assumed that the key requirements applying to type tests of casks with respect to waste forms and casks will be affected by this either not at all or only very slightly. (orig.)

  17. Humans as animal sentinels for forecasting asthma events: helping health services become more responsive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneous N Soyiri

    Full Text Available The concept of forecasting asthma using humans as animal sentinels is uncommon. This study explores the plausibility of predicting future asthma daily admissions using retrospective data in London (2005-2006. Negative binomial regressions were used in modeling; allowing the non-contiguous autoregressive components. Selected lags were based on partial autocorrelation function (PACF plot with a maximum lag of 7 days. The model was contrasted with naïve historical and seasonal models. All models were cross validated. Mean daily asthma admission in 2005 was 27.9 and in 2006 it was 28.9. The lags 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 were independently associated with daily asthma admissions based on their PACF plots. The lag model prediction of peak admissions were often slightly out of synchronization with the actual data, but the days of greater admissions were better matched than the days of lower admissions. A further investigation across various populations is necessary.

  18. Analysis of Task Types and Error Types of the Human Actions Involved in the Human-related Unplanned Reactor Trip Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2008-02-15

    This report provides the task types and error types involved in the unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred during 1986 - 2006. The events that were caused by the secondary system of the nuclear power plants amount to 67 %, and the remaining 33 % was by the primary system. The contribution of the activities of the plant personnel was identified as the following order: corrective maintenance (25.7 %), planned maintenance (22.8 %), planned operation (19.8 %), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9 %), response to a transient (9.9 %), and design/manufacturing/installation (9.9%). According to the analysis of error modes, the error modes such as control failure (22.2 %), wrong object (18.5 %), omission (14.8 %), wrong action (11.1 %), and inadequate (8.3 %) take up about 75 % of all the unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved showed that the planning function makes the highest contribution to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips, and it is followed by the observation function (23.4%), the execution function (17.8 %), and the interpretation function (10.3 %). The results of this report are to be used as important bases for development of the error reduction measures or development of the error mode prediction system for the test and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants.

  19. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard C. Logan

    2001-07-30

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

  20. Exploring Characterizations of Learning Object Repositories Using Data Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Alejandra; Vidal, Christian; Menendez, Victor; Zapata, Alfredo; Prieto, Manuel

    Learning object repositories provide a platform for the sharing of Web-based educational resources. As these repositories evolve independently, it is difficult for users to have a clear picture of the kind of contents they give access to. Metadata can be used to automatically extract a characterization of these resources by using machine learning techniques. This paper presents an exploratory study carried out in the contents of four public repositories that uses clustering and association rule mining algorithms to extract characterizations of repository contents. The results of the analysis include potential relationships between different attributes of learning objects that may be useful to gain an understanding of the kind of resources available and eventually develop search mechanisms that consider repository descriptions as a criteria in federated search.

  1. Design and production of the KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, Lena

    2010-12-15

    The report contains the common basis for a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report presents the role of the Production reports within the safety report and their common purposes and objectives. An important part of the report is to present the background and sources to the principles to be applied in the design, the functions of the KBS-3 repository and the barrier functions the engineered barriers and rock. Further, the methodology to substantiate detailed design premises for the engineered barriers, underground openings and other parts of the KBS-3 repository is presented. The report also gives an overview of the KBS-3 system and its facilities and the production lines for the spent fuel, the engineered barriers and underground openings. Finally, an introduction to quality management, safety classification and their application is given

  2. Repositories in an institutional context : Technical discussion Group 4

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Repositories are starting to take their place within an institution¹s infrastructure, sitting alongside portals, course management systems, virtual research environments and others. But in considering how a repository can best serve an institution it is important to consider how this technology will integrate with existing systems, so that it doesn¹t become a standalone white elephant that is a nuisance to use. This breakout will consider the technical ways in which repositories can be presented as a system that is easy to use and interact with, from the searcher¹s, depositor¹s and administrator¹s perspectives. It will look at potential interaction through other institutional environments and seek to identify ways in which repositories can become a more integral part of the technical landscape. Bring along your examples of how repositories are being technically embedded within institutions to help share experience and ideas.

  3. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation, in order to use their resources for preservation in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework...... for systematically analysing institutions technical and organisational requirements for a remote bit repository. Instead of viewing a bit repository simply as Archival Storage for the institutions repositories, we argue for viewing it as consisting of a subset of functions from all entities defined by the OAIS...... Reference Model. The work is motivated by and used in a current Danish feasibility study for establishing a national bit repository. The study revealed that depending on their missions and the collections they hold, the institutions have varying requirements e.g. for bit safety, accessibility...

  4. [The subject repositories of strategy of the Open Access initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Guimarães, M C; da Silva, C H; Horsth Noronha, I

    2012-11-01

    The subject repositories are defined as a set of digital objects resulting from the research related to a specific disciplinary field and occupy a still restricted space in the discussion agenda of the Free Access Movement when compared to amplitude reached in the discussion of Institutional Repositories. Although the Subject Repository comes to prominence in the field, especially for the success of initiatives such as the arXiv, PubMed and E-prints, the literature on the subject is recognized as very limited. Despite its roots in the Library and Information Science, and focus on the management of disciplinary collections (subject area literature), there is little information available about the development and management of subject repositories. The following text seeks to make a brief summary on the topic as a way to present the potential to develop subject repositories in order to strengthen the initiative of open access.

  5. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis document describes the STRS application repository for software-defined radio (SDR) applications intended to be compliant to the STRS Architecture Standard. The document provides information about the submission of artifacts to the STRS application repository, to provide information to the potential users of that information, and for the systems engineer to understand the requirements, concepts, and approach to the STRS application repository. The STRS application repository is intended to capture knowledge, documents, and other artifacts for each waveform application or other application outside of its project so that when the project ends, the knowledge is retained. The document describes the transmission of technology from mission to mission capturing lessons learned that are used for continuous improvement across projects and supporting NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for performing software engineering projects and NASAs release process.

  6. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Curry

    2001-06-26

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Requirements Document (YMP RD) (YMP 2001a) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) technical requirements in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The technical requirements documented in the PDD are to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the technical requirements from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the technical requirements captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in US Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 1-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1), the Technical Requirements (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6).

  7. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-02-27

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond.

  8. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N.; Lafuente, B.; Downs, R. T.; Bristow, T.; Blake, D. F.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2015-12-01

    Data management and data publication are becoming increasingly important components of research workflows. The complexity of managing data, publishing data online, and archiving data has not decreased significantly even as computing access and power has greatly increased. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher software (http://www.opendatarepository.org) strives to make data archiving, management, and publication a standard part of a researcher's workflow using simple, web-based tools and commodity server hardware. The publication engine allows for uploading, searching, and display of data with graphing capabilities and downloadable files. Access is controlled through a robust permissions system that can control publication at the field level and can be granted to the general public or protected so that only registered users at various permission levels receive access. Data Publisher also allows researchers to subscribe to meta-data standards through a plugin system, embargo data publication at their discretion, and collaborate with other researchers through various levels of data sharing. As the software matures, semantic data standards will be implemented to facilitate machine reading of data and each database will provide a REST application programming interface for programmatic access. Additionally, a citation system will allow snapshots of any data set to be archived and cited for publication while the data itself can remain living and continuously evolve beyond the snapshot date. The software runs on a traditional LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) server and is available on GitHub (http://github.com/opendatarepository) under a GPLv2 open source license. The goal of the Open Data Repository is to lower the cost and training barrier to entry so that any researcher can easily publish their data and ensure it is archived for posterity. We gratefully acknowledge the support for this study by the Science-Enabling Research Activity (SERA), and NASA NNX11AP82A

  9. The Open Data Repositorys Data Publisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N.; Lafuente, B.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D.; Bristow, T.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2015-01-01

    Data management and data publication are becoming increasingly important components of researcher's workflows. The complexity of managing data, publishing data online, and archiving data has not decreased significantly even as computing access and power has greatly increased. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher software strives to make data archiving, management, and publication a standard part of a researcher's workflow using simple, web-based tools and commodity server hardware. The publication engine allows for uploading, searching, and display of data with graphing capabilities and downloadable files. Access is controlled through a robust permissions system that can control publication at the field level and can be granted to the general public or protected so that only registered users at various permission levels receive access. Data Publisher also allows researchers to subscribe to meta-data standards through a plugin system, embargo data publication at their discretion, and collaborate with other researchers through various levels of data sharing. As the software matures, semantic data standards will be implemented to facilitate machine reading of data and each database will provide a REST application programming interface for programmatic access. Additionally, a citation system will allow snapshots of any data set to be archived and cited for publication while the data itself can remain living and continuously evolve beyond the snapshot date. The software runs on a traditional LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) server and is available on GitHub (http://github.com/opendatarepository) under a GPLv2 open source license. The goal of the Open Data Repository is to lower the cost and training barrier to entry so that any researcher can easily publish their data and ensure it is archived for posterity.

  10. The PBase Scientific Workflow Provenance Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Cuevas-Vicenttín

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific workflows and their supporting systems are becoming increasingly popular for compute-intensive and data-intensive scientific experiments. The advantages scientific workflows offer include rapid and easy workflow design, software and data reuse, scalable execution, sharing and collaboration, and other advantages that altogether facilitate “reproducible science”. In this context, provenance – information about the origin, context, derivation, ownership, or history of some artifact – plays a key role, since scientists are interested in examining and auditing the results of scientific experiments. However, in order to perform such analyses on scientific results as part of extended research collaborations, an adequate environment and tools are required. Concretely, the need arises for a repository that will facilitate the sharing of scientific workflows and their associated execution traces in an interoperable manner, also enabling querying and visualization. Furthermore, such functionality should be supported while taking performance and scalability into account. With this purpose in mind, we introduce PBase: a scientific workflow provenance repository implementing the ProvONE proposed standard, which extends the emerging W3C PROV standard for provenance data with workflow specific concepts. PBase is built on the Neo4j graph database, thus offering capabilities such as declarative and efficient querying. Our experiences demonstrate the power gained by supporting various types of queries for provenance data. In addition, PBase is equipped with a user friendly interface tailored for the visualization of scientific workflow provenance data, making the specification of queries and the interpretation of their results easier and more effective.

  11. A Study of Scala Repositories on Github

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Coleman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional programming appears to be enjoying a renaissance of interest for developing practical, “real-world” applications. Proponents have long maintained that the functional style is a better way to modularize programs and reduce complexity. What is new in this paper is we test this claim by studying the complexity of open source codes written in Scala, a modern language that unifies functional and object programming. We downloaded from GitHub, Inc., a portfolio of mostly “trending” Scala repositories that included the Scala compiler and standard library, much of them written in Scala; the Twitter, Inc., server and its support libraries; and many other repositories, several of them production-oriented and commercially inspired. In total we investigated approximately 22,000 source files with 2 millions lines of code and 223,000 methods written by hundreds of programmers. To analyze these sources, we developed a novel compiler kit that measures lines of code and adaptively learns to estimate the cyclomatic complexity of functional-object codes. The data show, first, lines of code and cyclomatic complexity are positively correlated as we expected but only weakly which we did not expect with Kendall’s t=0.258–0.274. Second, 75% of the Scala methods are straight-line, that is, they have the lowest possible cyclomatic complexity. Third, nearly 70% of methods have three or fewer lines. Fourth, the distributions of lines of code and cyclomatic complexity are both non-Gaussian (P<0.01, which is as surprising as it is interesting. These data may offer new insights into software complexity and the large-scale structure of applications including but not necessarily limited to Scala.

  12. Main organic materials in a repository for high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta [Vita vegrandis, Hindaas (Sweden); Grive, Mireia; Gaona, Xavier; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi [Enviros Consulting, Valldoreix, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    , although the presence of aromatic compounds and PAHs in groundwater is not desirable by itself, they are of no consequence for the long-term performance of the repository. 5. Detergents and lubricants. The same reasoning as for fuels and engine emissions can be applied in this case. The amount of detergents should be minimized, although in the amounts that they are expected to occur, no important impact is foreseen. 6. Materials from human activities. Among them, the ones having potentially a more important effect are fibres from clothes, due to the presence of cellulose, and therefore it is recommended to minimise human-related wastes, although no large amounts of these materials are expected to be present after the repository closure. The effects that organic substances can have in the repository will always depend on the amounts present in the repository after closure. The estimated average concentrations are below 1.7x10{sup -4} kg/m{sup 3} (0.17 mg/L) of hydrocarbons in the deposition tunnels and less than 8.4x10{sup -4} kg/m{sup 3} (0.84 mg/L) of carbohydrates, assuming a total saturation in the pore water and an even distribution of the organic materials. This should be compared to the organic material found in groundwater at natural circumstances. At 500 m depth the DOC (dissolved organic carbon) content usually are approximately 0.5.2 mg/L. Three processes are deemed to have the largest possible impact on the performance of the repository: i) Increase of the reducing capacity and decrease of the redox potential in the short-term, and increased rate of depletion of the oxygen trapped during the repository operation stage. ii) Increase in the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to the presence of organic complexants, which is expected to be a process of more relevance in the long-term. Many organic molecules with complexing capacity, such as short organic acids like acetate are, however, oxidised as a consequence of microbial metabolism. The acetate

  13. Main organic materials in a repository for high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta [Vita vegrandis, Hindaas (Sweden); Grive, Mireia; Gaona, Xavier; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi [Enviros Consulting, Valldoreix, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    , although the presence of aromatic compounds and PAHs in groundwater is not desirable by itself, they are of no consequence for the long-term performance of the repository. 5. Detergents and lubricants. The same reasoning as for fuels and engine emissions can be applied in this case. The amount of detergents should be minimized, although in the amounts that they are expected to occur, no important impact is foreseen. 6. Materials from human activities. Among them, the ones having potentially a more important effect are fibres from clothes, due to the presence of cellulose, and therefore it is recommended to minimise human-related wastes, although no large amounts of these materials are expected to be present after the repository closure. The effects that organic substances can have in the repository will always depend on the amounts present in the repository after closure. The estimated average concentrations are below 1.7x10{sup -4} kg/m{sup 3} (0.17 mg/L) of hydrocarbons in the deposition tunnels and less than 8.4x10{sup -4} kg/m{sup 3} (0.84 mg/L) of carbohydrates, assuming a total saturation in the pore water and an even distribution of the organic materials. This should be compared to the organic material found in groundwater at natural circumstances. At 500 m depth the DOC (dissolved organic carbon) content usually are approximately 0.5.2 mg/L. Three processes are deemed to have the largest possible impact on the performance of the repository: i) Increase of the reducing capacity and decrease of the redox potential in the short-term, and increased rate of depletion of the oxygen trapped during the repository operation stage. ii) Increase in the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to the presence of organic complexants, which is expected to be a process of more relevance in the long-term. Many organic molecules with complexing capacity, such as short organic acids like acetate are, however, oxidised as a consequence of microbial metabolism. The acetate

  14. Extremely rare interbreeding events can explain neanderthal DNA in living humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Armando G M; Serva, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Considering the recent experimental discovery of Green et al that present-day non-Africans have 1 to [Formula: see text] of their nuclear DNA of Neanderthal origin, we propose here a model which is able to quantify the genetic interbreeding between two subpopulations with equal fitness, living in the same geographic region. The model consists of a solvable system of deterministic ordinary differential equations containing as a stochastic ingredient a realization of the neutral Wright-Fisher process. By simulating the stochastic part of the model we are able to apply it to the interbreeding of the African ancestors of Eurasians and Middle Eastern Neanderthal subpopulations and estimate the only parameter of the model, which is the number of individuals per generation exchanged between subpopulations. Our results indicate that the amount of Neanderthal DNA in living non-Africans can be explained with maximum probability by the exchange of a single pair of individuals between the subpopulations at each 77 generations, but larger exchange frequencies are also allowed with sizeable probability. The results are compatible with a long coexistence time of 130,000 years, a total interbreeding population of order [Formula: see text] individuals, and with all living humans being descendants of Africans both for mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome.

  15. Extremely rare interbreeding events can explain neanderthal DNA in living humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando G M Neves

    Full Text Available Considering the recent experimental discovery of Green et al that present-day non-Africans have 1 to [Formula: see text] of their nuclear DNA of Neanderthal origin, we propose here a model which is able to quantify the genetic interbreeding between two subpopulations with equal fitness, living in the same geographic region. The model consists of a solvable system of deterministic ordinary differential equations containing as a stochastic ingredient a realization of the neutral Wright-Fisher process. By simulating the stochastic part of the model we are able to apply it to the interbreeding of the African ancestors of Eurasians and Middle Eastern Neanderthal subpopulations and estimate the only parameter of the model, which is the number of individuals per generation exchanged between subpopulations. Our results indicate that the amount of Neanderthal DNA in living non-Africans can be explained with maximum probability by the exchange of a single pair of individuals between the subpopulations at each 77 generations, but larger exchange frequencies are also allowed with sizeable probability. The results are compatible with a long coexistence time of 130,000 years, a total interbreeding population of order [Formula: see text] individuals, and with all living humans being descendants of Africans both for mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome.

  16. Molecular events underlying maggot extract promoted rat in vivo and human in vitro skin wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Nan; Li, Hong; Zhong, Li-Xia; Sun, Yuan; Yu, Li-Jun; Wu, Mo-Li; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Kong, Qing-You; Wang, Shou-Yu; Lv, De-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Maggot extracts promote wound healing, but their bioactive part(s) and molecular effects on the regenerating tissues/cells remain largely unclear. These issues are addressed here by treating rat skin wounds, human keratinocyte line/HaCat and fibroblasts with maggot secretion/excretion, and the extracts of maggots without and with secretion/excretion. The wound closure rates, cell proliferation activities, and statuses of wound healing-related signaling pathways (STAT3, Notch1, Wnt2, NF-κB, and TGF-beta/Smad3) and their downstream gene expression (c-Myc, cyclin D1, and VEGF) are evaluated by multiple approaches. The results reveal that the maggot extracts, especially the one from the maggots without secretion/excretion, show the best wound healing-promoting effects in terms of quicker wound closure rates and more rapid growth of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Of the five signaling pathways checked, the ones mediated by TGF-beta/Smad3, and STAT3 are activated in the untreated wounds and become further enhanced by the maggot extracts, accompanied with c-Myc, VEGF, and cyclin D1 up-regulation. Our results thus show (1) that both body extract and secretion/excretion of maggots contain favorable wound healing elements and (2) that the enhancement of TGF-beta/Smad3 and STAT3 signaling activities may be the main molecular effects of maggot extracts on the wound tissues.

  17. The Research Library's Role in Digital Repository Services: Final Report of the ARL Digital Repository Issues Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Libraries are making diverse contributions to the development of many types of digital repositories, particularly those housing locally created digital content, including new digital objects or digitized versions of locally held works. In some instances, libraries are managing a repository and its related services entirely on their own, but often…

  18. Parkinson's disease-related LRRK2 G2019S mutation results from independent mutational events in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Suzanne; Patin, Etienne; Condroyer, Christel; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Lohmann, Ebba; Giladi, Nir; Bar-Shira, Anat; Belarbi, Soraya; Hecham, Nassima; Pollak, Pierre; Ouvrard-Hernandez, Anne-Marie; Bardien, Soraya; Carr, Jonathan; Benhassine, Traki; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Pirkevi, Caroline; Hamadouche, Tarik; Cazeneuve, Cécile; Basak, A Nazli; Hattori, Nobutaka; Dürr, Alexandra; Tazir, Meriem; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Brice, Alexis

    2010-05-15

    Mutations in the leucine-rich-repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene have been identified in families with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD) and in sporadic cases; the G2019S mutation is the single most frequent. Intriguingly, the frequency of this mutation in PD patients varies greatly among ethnic groups and geographic origins: it is present at Jewish origin, mostly from Eastern Europe, one was from Japan, one from Turkey and two were of mixed origins. We found the G2019S mutation on three different haplotypes. Network analyses of the three carrier haplotypes showed that G2019S arose independently at least twice in humans. In addition, the population distribution of the intra-allelic diversity of the most widespread carrier haplotype, together with estimations of the age of G2019S determined by two different methods, suggests that one of the founding G2019S mutational events occurred in the Near East at least 4000 years ago.

  19. Subcellular forms and biochemical events triggered in human cells by HCV polyprotein expression from a viral vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Jose

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To identify the subcellular forms and biochemical events induced in human cells after HCV polyprotein expression, we have used a robust cell culture system based on vaccinia virus (VACV that efficiently expresses in infected cells the structural and nonstructural proteins of HCV from genotype 1b (VT7-HCV7.9. As determined by confocal microscopy, HCV proteins expressed from VT7-HCV7.9 localize largely in a globular-like distribution pattern in the cytoplasm, with some proteins co-localizing with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria. As examined by electron microscopy, HCV proteins induced formation of large electron-dense cytoplasmic structures derived from the ER and containing HCV proteins. In the course of HCV protein production, there is disruption of the Golgi apparatus, loss of spatial organization of the ER, appearance of some "virus-like" structures and swelling of mitochondria. Biochemical analysis demonstrate that HCV proteins bring about the activation of initiator and effector caspases followed by severe apoptosis and mitochondria dysfunction, hallmarks of HCV cell injury. Microarray analysis revealed that HCV polyprotein expression modulated transcription of genes associated with lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cellular proliferation. Our findings demonstrate the uniqueness of the VT7-HCV7.9 system to characterize morphological and biochemical events related to HCV pathogenesis.

  20. The human impact of volcanoes: a historical review of events 1900-2009 and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dooling, Shayna; Gorokhovich, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. More than 500 million people live within the potential exposure range of a volcano. The risk of catastrophic losses in future eruptions is significant given population growth, proximities of major cities to volcanoes, and the possibility of larger eruptions. The objectives of this review are to describe the impact of volcanoes on the human population, in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of volcanoes were compiled using two methods, a historical review of volcano events from 1900 to 2009 from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between volcano mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were a total of 91,789 deaths (range: 81,703-102,372), 14,068 injuries (range 11,541-17,922), and 4.72 million people affected by volcanic events between 1900 and 2008. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of numbers injured and affected. The primary causes of mortality in recent volcanic eruptions were ash asphyxiation, thermal injuries from pyroclastic flow, and trauma. Mortality was concentrated with the ten deadliest eruptions accounting for more than 80% of deaths; 84% of fatalities occurred in four locations (the Island of Martinique (France), Colombia, Indonesia, and Guatemala). Conclusions. Changes in land use practices and population growth provide a background for increasing risk; in conjunction with increasing urbanization in at risk areas, this poses a challenge for future volcano preparedness and mitigation efforts.

  1. Human Impact on the Geomorphological Evolution of the Opak River Following the 2010 Large Volcanic Event of the Merapi (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gob, F.; Gautier, E.; Virmoux, C.; Grancher, D.; Tamisier, V.; Primanda, K. W.; Wibowo, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    During large eruptions, active volcanos may introduce very large quantities of sediment to the drainage system through tephra falls and pyroclastic flows, thus modifying the river system. Once remobilized, the sediment inputs propagate downstream as a sediment wave modifying the channel geometry of the river and reloading the sediment cascade of the catchments. Considering the extreme nature of the volcanic events, the parameters that control the post-eruption evolution of the river system are generally only described as natural and the role played by human activities seems negligible. Communities that live on the volcano slopes and foothills are rather considered to suffer from natural disasters associated with the eruption and its consequences (lahars, etc.) or take advantage of the benefits of the volcanic environment (rich soil, mining and geothermal resources, etc.). This study examines the impact of human influence on the fluvial readjustment of a Javanese river impacted by a major eruption of the Merapi volcano (Indonesia) in October/November 2010. The basin of the Opak River was subject to substantial sediment input related to massive pyroclastic deposits that were remobilized by numerous lahars during the year after the eruption. Two study sites were equipped in order to evaluate the morphodynamic evolution of the riverbed of the Opak River. Topographic surveys, bedload particle marking and suspended sediment sampling revealed an important sediment mobilization during efficient flash-floods. Surprisingly, no bed aggradation related to the progradation of a sediment wave was observed. Two years after the eruptive event, marked bed incision was observed. The Opak River readjustment differs from that of other fluvial systems affected by massive eruptions in two ways. Firstly, the local population massively extracted the sand and blocks injected by the eruption as they represent a valuable economic resource. Secondly, several dams trapped the major part of the

  2. The Use of Underground Research Laboratories to Support Repository Development Programs. A Roadmap for the Underground Research Facilities Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), nationally developed underground research laboratories (URLs) and associated research institutions are being offered for use by other nations. These facilities form an Underground Research Facilities (URF) Network for training in and demonstration of waste disposal technologies and the sharing of knowledge and experience related to geologic repository development, research, and engineering. In order to achieve its objectives, the URF Network regularly sponsors workshops and training events related to the knowledge base that is transferable between existing URL programs and to nations with an interest in developing a new URL. This report describes the role of URLs in the context of a general timeline for repository development. This description includes identification of key phases and activities that contribute to repository development as a repository program evolves from an early research and development phase to later phases such as construction, operations, and closure. This information is cast in the form of a matrix with the entries in this matrix forming the basis of the URF Network roadmap that will be used to identify and plan future workshops and training events.

  3. The human impact of tropical cyclones: a historical review of events 1980-2009 and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Dick, Anna; Daniels, Amy; Kirsch, Thomas D

    2013-04-16

    Background. Cyclones have significantly affected populations in Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and the Americas over the past quarter of a century. Future vulnerability to cyclones will increase due to factors including population growth, urbanization, increasing coastal settlement, and global warming. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of cyclones on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of cyclones were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1980 to 2009 of cyclone events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between cyclone characteristics and mortality using Stata 11.0. Findings. There were 412,644 deaths, 290,654 injured, and 466.1 million people affected by cyclones between 1980 and 2009, and the mortality and injury burden was concentrated in less developed nations of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of the injured and affected populations. The primary cause of cyclone-related mortality is drowning; in developed countries male gender was associated with increased mortality risk, whereas females experienced higher mortality in less developed countries. Conclusions. Additional attention to preparedness and early warning, particularly in Asia, can lessen the impact of future cyclones.

  4. Low-level contrast statistics of natural images can modulate the frequency of event-related potentials (ERP in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ghodrati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans are fast and accurate in categorizing complex natural images. It is, however, unclear what features of visual information are exploited by brain to perceive the images with such speed and accuracy. It has been shown that low-level contrast statistics of natural scenes can explain the variance of amplitude of event-related potentials (ERP in response to rapidly presented images. In this study, we investigated the effect of these statistics on frequency content of ERPs. We recorded ERPs from human subjects, while they viewed natural images each presented for 70 ms. Our results showed that Weibull contrast statistics, as a biologically plausible model, explained the variance of ERPs the best, compared to other image statistics that we assessed. Our time-frequency analysis revealed a significant correlation between these statistics and ERPs’ power within theta frequency band (~3-7 Hz. This is interesting, as theta band is believed to be involved in context updating and semantic encoding. This correlation became significant at ~110 ms after stimulus onset, and peaked at 138 ms. Our results show that not only the amplitude but also the frequency of neural responses can be modulated with low-level contrast statistics of natural images and highlights their potential role in scene perception.

  5. Rock and Core Repository Coming Digital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maicher, Doris; Fleischer, Dirk; Czerniak, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In times of whole city centres being available by a mouse click in 3D to virtually walk through, reality sometimes becomes neglected. The reality of scientific sample collections not being digitised to the essence of molecules, isotopes and electrons becomes unbelievable to the upgrowing generation of scientists. Just like any other geological institute the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research GEOMAR accumulated thousands of specimen. The samples, collected mainly during marine expeditions, date back as far as 1964. Today GEOMAR houses a central geological sample collection of at least 17 000 m of sediment core and more than 4 500 boxes with hard rock samples and refined sample specimen. This repository, having been dormant, missed the onset of the interconnected digital age. Physical samples without barcodes, QR codes or RFID tags need to be migrated and reconnected, urgently. In our use case, GEOMAR opted for the International Geo Sample Number IGSN as the persistent identifier. Consequentially, the software CurationDIS by smartcube GmbH as the central component of this project was selected. The software is designed to handle acquisition and administration of sample material and sample archiving in storage places. In addition, the software allows direct embedding of IGSN. We plan to adopt IGSN as a future asset, while for the initial inventory taking of our sample material, simple but unique QR codes act as "bridging identifiers" during the process. Currently we compile an overview of the broad variety of sample types and their associated data. QR-coding of the boxes of rock samples and sediment cores is near completion, delineating their location in the repository and linking a particular sample to any information available about the object. Planning is in progress to streamline the flow from receiving new samples to their curation to sharing samples and information publically. Additionally, interface planning for linkage to GEOMAR databases Ocean

  6. Locating a Radioactive Waste Repository in the Ring of Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apted, Mick; Berryman, Kelvin; Chapman, Neil; Cloos, Mark; Connor, Chuck; Kitayama, Kazumi; Sparks, Steve; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki

    2004-11-01

    The scientific, technical, and sociopolitical challenges of finding a secure site for a geological repository for radioactive wastes have created a long and stony path for many countries. Japan carried out many years of research and development before taking its first steps in site selection. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) began looking for a high-level waste repository site (HLW, vitrified residue from reprocessing power reactor fuel) 2 years ago. Over the next 10-20 years, NUMO hopes to find a site to dispose of ~20,000 tons of HLW in a robustly engineered repository constructed at a depth of several hundred meters.

  7. Building Scientific Data's list of recommended data repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufton, A. L.; Khodiyar, V.; Hrynaszkiewicz, I.

    2016-12-01

    When Scientific Data launched in 2014 we provided our authors with a list of recommended data repositories to help them identify data hosting options that were likely to meet the journal's requirements. This list has grown in size and scope, and is now a central resource for authors across the Nature-titled journals. It has also been used in the development of data deposition policies and recommended repository lists across Springer Nature and at other publishers. Each new addition to the list is assessed according to a series of criteria that emphasize the stability of the resource, its commitment to principles of open science and its implementation of relevant community standards and reporting guidelines. A preference is expressed for repositories that issue digital object identifiers (DOIs) through the DataCite system and that share data under the Creative Commons CC0 waiver. Scientific Data currently lists fourteen repositories that focus on specific areas within the Earth and environmental sciences, as well as the broad scope repositories, Dryad and figshare. Readers can browse and filter datasets published at the journal by the host repository using ISA-explorer, a demo tool built by the ISA-tools team at Oxford University1. We believe that well-maintained lists like this one help publishers build a network of trust with community data repositories and provide an important complement to more comprehensive data repository indices and more formal certification efforts. In parallel, Scientific Data has also improved its policies to better support submissions from authors using institutional and project-specific repositories, without requiring each to apply for listing individually. Online resources Journal homepage: http://www.nature.com/scientificdata Data repository criteria: http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/data-policies#repo-criteria Recommended data repositories: http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/repositories Archived copies of the list: https

  8. Assessment of disruptive scenarios of a Canadian used fuel repository in crystalline rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobien, M.; Garisto, F.; Hunt, N.; Kremer, E.P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    The NWMO has recently extended its modelling capabilities by performing simulations for four disruptive scenarios that, to date, have not yet been examined in detail. These scenarios complement those considered in an existing postclosure safety assessment for a conceptual geological repository located in a hypothetical crystalline rock formation. The four new disruptive scenarios are: Shaft Seal Failure, Undetected Fault, Open or Poorly Sealed Borehole and Open Borehole Due to Inadvertent Human Intrusion. All simulations are based on the FRAC3DVS-OPG Site-Scale Model. The Site-Scale Model includes a simplified representation of the full repository and a portion of the surrounding sub-regional flow system. All transport simulations are performed with only the radionuclide I-129. Transport rates to the surface and a domestic water supply well are compared to the Reference Case results from an earlier case study documented in Reference. (author)

  9. A review of the use of human factors classification frameworks that identify causal factors for adverse events in the hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R J; Williamson, A M; Molesworth, B; Chung, A Z Q

    2014-01-01

    Various human factors classification frameworks have been used to identified causal factors for clinical adverse events. A systematic review was conducted to identify human factors classification frameworks that identified the causal factors (including human error) of adverse events in a hospital setting. Six electronic databases were searched, identifying 1997 articles and 38 of these met inclusion criteria. Most studies included causal contributing factors as well as error and error type, but the nature of coding varied considerably between studies. The ability of human factors classification frameworks to provide information on specific causal factors for an adverse event enables the focus of preventive attention on areas where improvements are most needed. This review highlighted some areas needing considerable improvement in order to meet this need, including better definition of terms, more emphasis on assessing reliability of coding and greater sophistication in analysis of results of the classification. Practitioner Summary: Human factors classification frameworks can be used to identify causal factors of clinical adverse events. However, this review suggests that existing frameworks are diverse, limited in their identification of the context of human error and have poor reliability when used by different individuals.

  10. Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

  11. Normal evolution of a spent fuel repository at the candidate sites in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawford, M.B.; Wilmot, R.D. [Galson Sciences Limited, Rutland (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel envisages burial of the fuel in a repository excavated at a depth of around 500 m in crystalline bedrock. Since 1983, a programme has been underway in Finland to select a potential site for such a repository. The programme is now in the final stages of selecting one site for further detailed characterisation from a list of four candidate sites at Kivetty, Romuvaara, Olkiluoto, and Haestholmen. Each stage of the site selection process has been supported by a major performance assessment (PA) exercise. The aim of this report is to describe the normal evolution of a repository system at the four candidate Finnish sites as input to development of the next PA, known as TILA-99. The report summarises the disposal concept and the present-day characteristics of each candidate site, and considers the most likely future changes in both the natural environment and the engineered components of the disposal system. The description concentrates on the key features, events and processes (FEPs) controlling behaviour and evolution of the disposal system. It is assumed that all the canisters are intact following emplacement and repository closure. FEPs that occur but which do not significantly affect system behaviour and evolution are only briefly described. FEPs with a low probability of occurrence are mentioned as appropriate. The report provides a map to the key Finnish reports and other work that underlies and supports the description of normal evolution. Differences between the four candidate sites in terms of their expected normal evolution are summarised. None of the differences are sufficient to prevent each site from behaving as a `normal` site, the evolution of which is summarised over time in the final section of the report. (author) 155 refs.

  12. Biosphere model for high level waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrdahl, R

    1997-10-01

    Method for environmental impact modeling involving uncertainty, overcoming the disadvantage of providing only one upper bound based on accumulated effects from all extreme events. This method provides a suite of upper and lower bounds based on any subset of such extreme events, to be chosen among by the decision maker.

  13. Introducing the slime mold graph repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirnberger, M.; Mehlhorn, K.; Mehlhorn, T.

    2017-07-01

    We introduce the slime mold graph repository or SMGR, a novel data collection promoting the visibility, accessibility and reuse of experimental data revolving around network-forming slime molds. By making data readily available to researchers across multiple disciplines, the SMGR promotes novel research as well as the reproduction of original results. While SMGR data may take various forms, we stress the importance of graph representations of slime mold networks due to their ease of handling and their large potential for reuse. Data added to the SMGR stands to gain impact beyond initial publications or even beyond its domain of origin. We initiate the SMGR with the comprehensive Kist Europe data set focusing on the slime mold Physarum polycephalum, which we obtained in the course of our original research. It contains sequences of images documenting growth and network formation of the organism under constant conditions. Suitable image sequences depicting the typical P. polycephalum network structures are used to compute sequences of graphs faithfully capturing them. Given such sequences, node identities are computed, tracking the development of nodes over time. Based on this information we demonstrate two out of many possible ways to begin exploring the data. The entire data set is well-documented, self-contained and ready for inspection at http://smgr.mpi-inf.mpg.de.

  14. Traits and types of health data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ted D

    2014-01-01

    We review traits of reusable clinical data and offer a typology of clinical repositories with a range of known examples. Sources of clinical data suitable for research can be classified into types reflecting the data's institutional origin, original purpose, level of integration and governance. Primary data nearly always come from research studies and electronic medical records. Registries collect data on focused populations primarily to track outcomes, often using observational research methods. Warehouses are institutional information utilities repackaging clinical care data. Collections organize data from more organizations than a data warehouse, and more original data sources than a registry. Therefore even if they are heavily curated, their level of internal integration, and thus ease of use, can be less than other types. Federations are like collections except that physical control over data is distributed among donor organizations. Federations sometimes federate, giving a second level of organization. While the size, in number of patients, varies widely within each type of data source, populations over 10 K are relatively numerous, and much larger populations can be seen in warehouses and federations. One imagined ideal structure for research progress has been called an "Information Commons". It would have longitudinal, multi-leveled (environmental through molecular) data on a large population of identified, consenting individuals. These are qualities whose achievement would require long term commitment on the part of many data donors, including a willingness to make their data public.

  15. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The LWR spent fuels discussed in Volume 1 of this report comprise about 99% of all domestic non-reprocessed spent fuel. In this report we discuss other types of spent fuels which, although small in relative quantity, consist of a number of diverse types, sizes, and compositions. Many of these fuels are candidates for repository disposal. Some non-LWR spent fuels are currently reprocessed or are scheduled for reprocessing in DOE facilities at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It appears likely that the reprocessing of fuels that have been reprocessed in the past will continue and that the resulting high-level wastes will become part of defense HLW. However, it is not entirely clear in some cases whether a given fuel will be reprocessed, especially in cases where pretreatment may be needed before reprocessing, or where the enrichment is not high enough to make reprocessing attractive. Some fuels may be canistered, while others may require special means of disposal. The major categories covered in this chapter include HTGR spent fuel from the Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom-1 reactors, research and test reactor fuels, and miscellaneous fuels, and wastes generated from the decommissioning of facilities.

  16. The National Ignition Facility Data Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, R W; Adams, P A; Azevedo, S G; Beeler, R G; Foxworthy, C B; Frazier, T M; Hutton, M S; Lagin, L J; Townsend, S L

    2009-09-24

    NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. This presentation discusses the design, architecture, and implementation of the NIF Data Repository (NDR), which provides for the capture and long-term digital storage of peta-scale datasets produced by conducting experimental campaigns. The NDR is a federated database that provides for the capture of: experimental campaign plans, machine configuration & calibration data, raw experimental results and the processed results produced by scientific workflows. The NDR provides for metadata, pedigree, quality, effectivity, versioning and access control for each of the data categories. A critical capability of the NDR is its extensive data provisioning capabilities and protocols that enable scientists, local and remote alike, to review the results of analysis produced by the NDR's analysis pipeline or to download datasets for offline analysis. The NDR provides for the capture of these locally-produced analysis results to enable both peer review and follow-on automated analysis.

  17. Data sharing, small science and institutional repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragin, Melissa H; Palmer, Carole L; Carlson, Jacob R; Witt, Michael

    2010-09-13

    Results are presented from the Data Curation Profiles project research, on who is willing to share what data with whom and when. Emerging from scientists' discussions on sharing are several dimensions suggestive of the variation in both what it means 'to share' and how these processes are carried out. This research indicates that data curation services will need to accommodate a wide range of subdisciplinary data characteristics and sharing practices. As part of a larger set of strategies emerging across academic institutions, institutional repositories (IRs) will contribute to the stewardship and mobilization of scientific research data for e-Research and learning. There will be particular types of data that can be managed well in an IR context when characteristics and practices are well understood. Findings from this study elucidate scientists' views on 'sharable' forms of data-the particular representation that they view as most valued for reuse by others within their own research areas-and the anticipated duration for such reuse. Reported sharing incidents that provide insights into barriers to sharing and related concerns on data misuse are included.

  18. National Geoscience Data Repository System, Phase III: Implementation and operation of the repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    American Geological Institute

    2000-03-13

    The American Geological Institute's (AGI) National Geoscience Data Repository System (NGDRS) was initiated in response to the fact that billions of dollars worth of domestic geoscience data are in jeopardy of being irrevocably lost or destroyed as a consequence of the ongoing downsizing of the U.S. energy and minerals industry. Preservation and access to domestic geological and geophysical data are critical to the energy security and economic prosperity of the nation. There is a narrow window of opportunity to act before valuable data are destroyed. The data truly represent a national treasure and immediate steps must be taken to assure their preservation.

  19. Feeding the fledgling repository: starting an institutional repository at an academic health sciences library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Ann; Kipnis, Dan

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Scott Memorial Library at Thomas Jefferson University started an institutional repository (IR), the Jefferson Digital Commons (JDC) . Originally intended as a showcase for faculty scholarship, it has evolved to serve also as a university press for original journals and newsletters, and as an institutional archive. Many lessons have been learned about marketing techniques, common IR issues, and advantages of an IR for a library. IR recruitment has come to be viewed as yet another form of collection development and has been integrated into all forms of the Library's outreach. Jefferson's academic health sciences environment has proven similar to other academic environments on issues of acceptance and participation.

  20. Preservation of Earth Science Data History with Digital Content Repository Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Pan, J.; Shrestha, B.; Cook, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    An increasing need for derived and on-demand data product in Earth Science research makes the digital content more difficult for providers to manage and preserve and for users to locate, understand, and consume. Specifically, this increasing need presents additional challenges in managing data processing history information and delivering such information to end users. For example, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) chose a modified SYNMAP land cover data as one of the input driver data for participating terrestrial biospheric models. The global 1km resolution SYNMAP data was created by harmonizing 3 remote sensing-based land cover products: GLCC, GLC2000, and the MODIS land cover product. The original SYNMAP land cover data was aggregated into half and quarter degree resolution. It was then enhanced with more detailed grassland and cropland types. Currently, there lacks an effective mechanism to convey this data processing information to different modeling teams for them to determine if a data product meets their needs. It still highly relies on offline human interaction. The NASA-sponsored ORNL DAAC has leveraged the contemporary digital object repository technology to promote the representation, management, and delivery of data processing history and provenance information. Within digital object repository, different data products are managed as objects, with metadata as attributes and content delivery and management services as dissemination methods. Derivation relationships among data products can be semantically referenced between digital objects. Within the repository, data users can easily track a derived data product back to its origin, explorer metadata and documents about each intermediate data product, and discover processing details involved in each derivation step. Coupled with Drupal Web Content Management System, the digital repository interface was enhanced to

  1. Open and regionalised spectrum repositories for emerging countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arcia-Moret, A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available the motivations and challenges for collecting spectrum measurements in developing regions and discuss a scalable system for communities to gather and provide access to White Spaces information through open and regionalised repositories. We further discuss two...

  2. Waste package/repository impact study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Waste Package/Repository Impact Study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the current reference salt waste package in the salt repository conceptual design. All elements of the repository that may impact waste package parameters, i.e., (size, weight, heat load) were evaluated. The repository elements considered included waste hoist feasibility, transporter and emplacement machine feasibility, subsurface entry dimensions, feasibility of emplacement configuration, and temperature limits. The evaluations are discussed in detail with supplemental technical data included in Appendices to this report, as appropriate. Results and conclusions of the evaluations are discussed in light of the acceptability of the current reference waste package as the basis for salt conceptual design. Finally, recommendations are made relative to the salt project position on the application of the reference waste package as a basis for future design activities. 31 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Spent nuclear fuel for disposal in the KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, Per; Moren, Lena; Wiborgh, Maria

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input to the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site as well as to the operational safety report, SR-Operation. The report presents the spent fuel to be deposited, and the requirements on the handling and selection of fuel assemblies for encapsulation that follows from that it shall be deposited in the KBS-3 repository. An overview of the handling and a simulation of the encapsulation and the resulting canisters to be deposited are presented. Finally, the initial state of the encapsulated spent nuclear fuel is given. The initial state comprises the radionuclide inventory and other data required for the assessment of the long-term safety

  4. On-line repository of audiovisual material feminist research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Prado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a collection of audiovisual material available in the repository of the Interdisciplinary Seminar of Feminist Research Methodology SIMReF (http://www.simref.net.

  5. DRIVER: Building a Sustainable Infrastructure of European Scientific Repositories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The acronym DRIVER stands for “Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research”. Ten partners from eight countries have entered into an international partnership, to connect and network as a first step more than 50 physically distributed institutional repositories to one, large-scale, virtual Knowledge Base of European research. Universities and research organisations around the world currently build repositories, whose overall number is estimated to exceed 600 by far. As the academic information landscape is already highly fragmented, DRIVER is the trans-national catalyst to overcome local, isolated efforts and to stop fragmentation by offering one harmonised, virtual knowledge resource. DRIVER currently builds a production quality test-bed to assist the development of a knowledge infrastructure across Europe. DRIVER as a project, funded by the “Research Infrastructure” unit of the European Commission, is also preparing for the future expansion and upgrade of the Digital Repository in...

  6. Enforcing Interoperability with the Open Archives Initiative Repository Explorer

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the Open Archives Initiative (OAI), protocol validation procedures, interactive browsing, and the OAI repository explorer tool. Presented at the ACM/IEEE JCDL 2001 Conference

  7. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M

    2016-01-04

    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at http://sbrblood.nhgri.nih.gov, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. SBOLme: a Repository of SBOL Parts for Metabolic Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-12

    The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) is a community-driven open language to promote standardization in synthetic biology. To support the use of SBOL in metabolic engineering, we developed SBOLme, the first open-access repository of SBOL 2-compliant biochemical parts for a wide range of metabolic engineering applications. The URL of our repository is http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/sbolme.

  9. NIDDK data repository: a central collection of clinical trial data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall R David

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases have established central repositories for the collection of DNA, biological samples, and clinical data to be catalogued at a single site. Here we present an overview of the site which stores the clinical data and links to biospecimens. Description The NIDDK Data repository is a web-enabled resource cataloguing clinical trial data and supporting information from NIDDK supported studies. The Data Repository allows for the co-location of multiple electronic datasets that were created as part of clinical investigations. The Data Repository does not serve the role of a Data Coordinating Center, but rather as a warehouse for the clinical findings once the trials have been completed. Because both biological and genetic samples are collected from many of the studies, a data management system for the cataloguing and retrieval of samples was developed. Conclusion The Data Repository provides a unique resource for researchers in the clinical areas supported by NIDDK. In addition to providing a warehouse of data, Data Repository staff work with the users to educate them on the datasets as well as assist them in the acquisition of multiple data sets for cross-study analysis. Unlike the majority of biological databases, the Data Repository acts both as a catalogue for data, biosamples, and genetic materials and as a central processing point for the requests for all biospecimens. Due to regulations on the use of clinical data, the ultimate release of that data is governed under NIDDK data release policies. The Data Repository serves as the conduit for such requests.

  10. A metadata-driven approach to data repository design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Matthew J; McLean, Andrew; Rzepa, Henry S

    2017-01-01

    The design and use of a metadata-driven data repository for research data management is described. Metadata is collected automatically during the submission process whenever possible and is registered with DataCite in accordance with their current metadata schema, in exchange for a persistent digital object identifier. Two examples of data preview are illustrated, including the demonstration of a method for integration with commercial software that confers rich domain-specific data analytics without introducing customisation into the repository itself.

  11. Reach-scale channel sensitivity to multiple human activities and natural events: Lower Santa Clara River, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Peter W.; Dusterhoff, Scott R.; Sears, William A.

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the cumulative impact of natural and human influences on the sensitivity of channel morphodynamics, a relative measure between the drivers for change and the magnitude of channel response, requires an approach that accommodates spatial and temporal variability in the suite of primary stressors. Multiple historical data sources were assembled to provide a reach-scale analysis of the lower Santa Clara River (LSCR) in Ventura County, California, USA. Sediment supply is naturally high due to tectonic activity, earthquake-generated landslides, wildfires, and high magnitude flow events during El Niño years. Somewhat typically for the region, the catchment has been subject to four reasonably distinct land use and resource management combinations since European-American settlement. When combined with analysis of channel morphological response (quantifiable since ca. 1930), reach-scale and temporal differences in channel sensitivity become apparent. Downstream reaches have incised on average 2.4 m and become narrower by almost 50% with changes focused in a period of highly sensitive response after about 1950 followed by forced insensitivity caused by structural flood embankments and a significant grade control structure. In contrast, the middle reaches have been responsive but are morphologically resilient, and the upstream reaches show a mildly sensitive aggradational trend. Superimposing the natural and human drivers for change reveals that large scale stressors (related to ranching and irrigation) have been replaced over time by a suite of stressors operating at multiple spatial scales. Lower reaches have been sensitive primarily to 'local' scale impacts (urban growth, flood control, and aggregate mining) whereas, upstream, catchment-scale influences still prevail (including flow regulation and climate-driven sediment supply factors). These factors illustrate the complexity inherent to cumulative impact assessment in fluvial systems, provide evidence for a

  12. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Emasealu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, career path and recruitment of librarians, and community support necessary for effective and efficient implementation and management of repository initiatives. This entails the ability to comprehend trends and change patterns which are essential for providing research focused and user-friendly models in open repository services that are based on thorough analytical understanding of the challenges of emerging trends. To achieve this requires the training and retraining of librarians to reposition them as information specialists in their career path. The role of the library as an integral part of its social environment is to educate the community about the existence of an open repository by building partnership with community-oriented research centres through seminars, workshops, symposium, training, and awareness programmes. The study recommends that librarians should strategize and collaborate with researchers to make open repository an essential research tool.

  13. Emotional expectations influence neural sensitivity to fearful faces in humans:An event-related potential study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested whether neural sensitivity to salient emotional facial expressions was influenced by emotional expectations induced by a cue that validly predicted the expression of a subsequently presented target face. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by fearful and neutral faces were recorded while participants performed a gender discrimination task under cued (‘expected’) and uncued (‘unexpected’) conditions. The behavioral results revealed that accuracy was lower for fearful compared with neutral faces in the unexpected condition, while accuracy was similar for fearful and neutral faces in the expected condition. ERP data revealed increased amplitudes in the P2 component and 200–250 ms interval for unexpected fearful versus neutral faces. By contrast, ERP responses were similar for fearful and neutral faces in the expected condition. These findings indicate that human neural sensitivity to fearful faces is modulated by emotional expectations. Although the neural system is sensitive to unpredictable emotionally salient stimuli, sensitivity to salient stimuli is reduced when these stimuli are predictable.

  14. Eprints Institutional Repository Software: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike R. Beazley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting up an institutional repository (IR can be a daunting task. There are many software packages out there, some commercial, some open source, all of which offer different features and functionality. This article will provide some thoughts about one of these software packages: Eprints. Eprints was one of the first IR software packages to appear and has been available for 10 years. It is under continual development by its creators at the University of Southampton and the current version is v3.2.3. Eprints is open-source, meaning that anyone can download and make use of the software for free and the software can be modified however the user likes. This presents clear advantages for institutions will smaller budgets and also for institutions that have programmers on staff. Eprints requires some additional software to run: Linux, Apache, MySQL, and Perl. This software is all open-source and already present on the servers of many institutions. There is now a version of Eprints that will run on Windows servers as well, which will make the adoption of Eprints even easier for some. In brief, Eprints is an excellent choice for any institution looking to get an IR up and running quickly and easily. Installation is straightforward as is the initial configuration. Once the IR is up and running, users may upload documents and provide the necessary metadata for the records by filling out a simple web form. Embargoes on published documents are handled elegantly by the software, and the software links to the SHERPA/RoMEO database so authors can easily verify their rights regarding IR submissions. Eprints has some drawbacks, which will be discussed later in the review, but on the whole it is easy to recommend to anyone looking to start an IR. However, It is less clear that an institution with an existing IR based on another software package should migrate to Eprints.

  15. IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION OF THE REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus Milling

    2003-10-01

    The NGDRS has facilitated 85% of cores, cuttings, and other data identified available for transfer to the public sector. Over 12 million linear feet of cores and cuttings, in addition to large numbers of paleontological samples and are now available for public use. To date, with industry contributions for program operations and data transfers, the NGDRS project has realized a 6.5 to 1 return on investment to Department of Energy funds. Large-scale transfers of seismic data have been evaluated, but based on the recommendation of the NGDRS steering committee, cores have been given priority because of the vast scale of the seismic data problem relative to the available funding. The rapidly changing industry conditions have required that the primary core and cuttings preservation strategy evolve as well. Additionally, the NGDRS clearinghouse is evaluating the viability of transferring seismic data covering the western shelf of the Florida Gulf Coast. AGI remains actively involved in working to realize the vision of the National Research Council's report of geoscience data preservation. GeoTrek has been ported to Linux and MySQL, ensuring a purely open-source version of the software. This effort is key in ensuring long-term viability of the software so that is can continue basic operation regardless of specific funding levels. Work has been on a major revision of GeoTrek, using the open-source MapServer project and its related MapScript language. This effort will address a number of key technology issues that appear to be rising for 2003, including the discontinuation of the use of Java in future Microsoft operating systems. The recent donation of BPAmoco's Houston core facility to the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology has provided substantial short-term relief of the space constraints for public repository space.

  16. Representation of an open repository in groundwater flow models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott; Sun, Alexander [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    2005-08-01

    The effect of repository tunnels on groundwater flow has been identified as a potential issue for the nuclear waste repository being considered by SKB for a fractured granite formation in Sweden. In particular, the following pre-closure and post-closure processes have been identified as being important: inflows into open tunnels as functions of estimated grouting efficiencies, drawdown of the water table in the vicinity of the repository, upcoming of saline water, 'turnover' of surface water in the upper bedrock, and resaturation of backfilled tunnels following repository closure. The representation of repository tunnels within groundwater models is addressed in this report. The primary focus is on far-field flow that is modeled with a continuum porous medium approximation. Of particular interest are the consequences of the tunnel representation on the transient response of the groundwater system to repository operations and repository closure, as well as modeling issues such as how the water-table free surface and the coupling to near-surface hydrogeology should be handled. The overall objectives are to understand the consequences of current representations and to identify appropriate approximations for representing open tunnels in future groundwater modeling studies. The following conclusions can be drawn from the results of the simulations: 1. Two-phase flow may be induced in the vicinity of repository tunnels during repository pre-closure operations, but the formation of a two-phase flow region will not significantly affect far-field flow or inflows into tunnels. 2. The water table will be drawn down to the repository horizon and tunnel inflows will reach a steady-state value within about 5 years. 3. Steady-state inflows at the repository edge are estimated to be about 250 m{sup 3}/year per meter of tunnel. Inflows will be greater during the transient de-watering period and less for tunnel locations closer to the repository center. 4. Significant

  17. International perspective on repositories for low level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Pers, Karin; Almen, Ylva (SKB International AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    Nuclear energy production gives rise to different types of radioactive waste. The use of nuclear isotopes within the research, industry and medical sectors also generates radioactive waste. To protect man and the environment from radiation the waste is isolated and contained by deposition in repositories. These repositories may have various designs regarding location, barriers etc depending on the potential danger of the waste. In Sweden, low- and intermediate level waste (LILW) is disposed of in the SFR repository in Forsmark. The repository is located 60 metres down into the bedrock under the bottom of the sea and covered by 6 metres of water. It is planned to extend SFR to accommodate decommissioning waste from the dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power facilities and also for the additional operation waste caused by the planned prolonged operation time. When planning the extension consultations will be carried out with the host municipality, authorities, organisations and general public. In planning the extension, SKB has performed a worldwide compilation of how other countries have, or plan to, handle the final disposal of similar wastes. The aim of this report is to give a brief description of LILW repositories worldwide; including general brief descriptions of many facilities, descriptions of the waste and the barriers as well as safety assessments for a few chosen repositories which represent different designs. The latter is performed, where possible, to compare certain features against the Swedish SFR. To provide a background and context to this study, international organisations and conventions are also presented along with internationally accepted principles regarding the management of radioactive waste. Similar to SFR, suitable locations for the repositories have, in many countries, been found at sites that already have, or used to have nuclear activities, such as reactor sites. Abandoned and disused mines, such as the salt mines in Germany, also

  18. Electronic Repositories of Marked Student Work and their Contributions to Formative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Heinrich

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The educational literature shows that formative assessment is highly conducive to learning. The tasks given to students in formative assessment generally require open-ended responses that can be given, for example, in essay-type format and that are assessed by a human marker. An essential component is the formative feedback provided by the marker that needs to assist the student in recognising knowledge gaps and in formulating steps to close these gaps. The concepts of ‘electronic repositories of marked student work’ introduced in this article suggests an approach to support learning from formative assessment. At the core of this concept lies the realisation that the artefacts submitted by students and assessed by markers are a valuable resource. This resource should not just be used by the submitting students but should be made accessible to future students studying the same concepts. These students can learn from the artefacts and the formative feedback attached to these artefacts. Self- and peer-assessment, important concepts closely linked to formative assessment, can be integrated with the repositories to develop the students’ subject knowledge, to enhance their critical thinking skills and to familiarise them with assessment procedures. This article develops the concepts of electronic repositories of marked student work. Special emphasis is put on reviewing the educational literature on formative assessment and on binding the concepts introduced into the literature findings.

  19. Concentration ratios to great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) at Olkiluoto repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Haavisto, Fiia [FM Meri and Erae Oy, Seijaistentie 133a, 21230 Lemu (Finland); Salmi, Juhani A. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Itaeinen Pitkaekatu 3, 20520 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. The great cormorant was a common species in the Finnish coastal area and possibly also a resource for human uses before the decline of the cormorant population in the 18. century. During the last decade, the great cormorant has become again a relevant part of food web in the Bothnian Sea coastal area. Due to the regulatory requirements, the biosphere assessment demonstrating the long-term safety of the repository is developed into more and more site specific. As the adequate literature data on common waterfowl is sparse or in some cases lacking, samples of adult cormorants, eggs and guano together with water and fish samples were collected from the Olkiluoto coastal area. This contribution will present concentration ratios of stable element based on these samples with focus on the elements of a high relevance to the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository together with discussion on the role of food (fish) versus the application of the water-to-bird concentration ratio. (authors)

  20. [Characterization of air mycobiota in two repositories of the National Archives of the Republic of Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego Alonso, Sofía; Perdomo Amistad, Ivette

    2014-01-01

    The high relative humidity and temperatures in tropical countries create favorable conditions for development of fungi that are not only a risk to human health but they can also colonize documentary support. To study the concentration of the airborne fungi in two repositories of the National Archives of the Republic of Cuba, the mycobiota deposited on different photographic supports and maps preserved in these repositories, and to determine the taxonomic characterization of the fungi isolated. The air sampling was performed using a sedimentation method, and the supports (6 pictures and 7 maps) were analyzed using moistened sterile swabs. The Cladosporium genus was predominant, followed by Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. Filamentous fungi were isolated in all the photos and maps, and yeasts were only isolated from a photographic supports and a map. We identified several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium genera, but Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus predominated. Candida and Rhodotorula were the yeast genera isolated. The fungal concentration of the air demonstrated that the environments were not contaminated. From the 26 species of filamentous fungi isolated only 5 were detected in the indoor air of the repositories and on one or more of the document supports analyzed (representing a 19.3%). This shows that there is a low ecological relationship between the fungi detected in the indoor air and those that were isolated from the supports studied. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, H; Blink, J A

    2008-12-12

    The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste

  2. Have digital repositories come of age? The views of library directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nicholas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This survey of approximately 150 repositories assessed the achievements, impact, and success of digital repositories. Results show that while the size and use of repositories has been relatively modest, almost half of all institutions either have, or are planning, a repository mandate requiring deposit and small gains have been made in raising the profile of the library within the institution. Repositories, then, have made a good deal of progress, but they have not quite come of age.

  3. The relative importance of noise level and number of events on human reactions to noise: Community survey findings and study methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    The data from seven surveys of community response to environmental noise are reanalyzed to assess the relative influence of peak noise levels and the numbers of noise events on human response. The surveys do not agree on the value of the tradeoff between the effects of noise level and numbers of events. The value of the tradeoff cannot be confidently specified in any survey because the tradeoff estimate may have a large standard error of estimate and because the tradeoff estimate may be seriously biased by unknown noise measurement errors. Some evidence suggests a decrease in annoyance with very high numbers of noise events but this evidence is not strong enough to lead to the rejection of the conventionally accepted assumption that annoyance is related to a log transformation of the number of noise events.

  4. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  5. Late Quaternary erosion events in lowland and mid-altitude Tasmania in relation to climate change and first human arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, P. D.; Price, D. M.; Eberhard, R.; Slee, A. J.

    2009-05-01

    The establishment of a chronology of landscape-forming events in lowland and mid-altitude Tasmania, essential for assessing the relative importance of climatic and human influences on erosion, and for assessing present erosion risk, has been limited by the small number of ages obtained and limitations of dating methods. In this paper we critically assess previous Tasmanian studies, list published radiocarbon ages considered to be dependable, present new radiocarbon and thermoluminescence (TL) ages for 25 sites around Tasmania, and consider the evidence for the hypotheses that erosion processes at low and mid altitudes have been: (1) purely climatically controlled; and (2) influenced both by climatic and anthropogenic (increased fire frequency) effects. A total of 94 dependable finite ages (calibrated for radiocarbon and 'as measured' for TL and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) determinations) are listed for deposits comprising dunes, colluvium, alluvium and loess-like aeolian deposits. Two fall in the >100 ka period, 15 fall in the period 65-35 ka, and 77 fall in the period 35-0.3 ka. There was a sustained increase in erosion recorded in the period 35-15 ka, as reflected by a greater number of dated aeolian deposits during this period. We considered three possible biases that may have affected the age distribution obtained: the limitations of radiocarbon dating, sampling bias, and preservation bias. Sampling bias may have favoured more recent dune strata, but radiocarbon dating and preservation biases are unlikely to have significantly distorted the age distribution obtained. Long but intermittent aeolian deposition is recorded at two sites (Southwood B; c. 59-28 ka and Dunlin Dune; c. 29-14 ka) but there is no evidence of regional loess deposits such as found in New Zealand. The timing of increased erosion in Tasmania between 35 and 30 ka approximately coincides with the intermittent ten-fold increase of dust accumulation between 33 and 30 ka in the

  6. Personal significance is encoded automatically by the human brain: an event-related potential study with ringtones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roye, Anja; Jacobsen, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2007-08-01

    In this human event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we have used one's personal--relative to another person's--ringtone presented in a two-deviant passive oddball paradigm to investigate the long-term memory effects of self-selected personal significance of a sound on the automatic deviance detection and involuntary attention system. Our findings extend the knowledge of long-term effects usually reported in group-approaches in the domains of speech, music and environmental sounds. In addition to the usual mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a component elicited by deviants in contrast to standard stimuli, we observed a posterior ERP deflection directly following the MMN for the personally significant deviant only. This specific impact of personal significance started around 200 ms after sound onset and involved neural generators that were different from the mere physical deviance detection mechanism. Whereas the early part of the P3a component was unaffected by personal significance, the late P3a was enhanced for the ERPs to the personal significant deviant suggesting that this stimulus was more powerful in attracting attention involuntarily. Following the involuntary attention switch, the personally significant stimulus elicited a widely-distributed negative deflection, probably reflecting further analysis of the significant sound involving evaluation of relevance or reorienting to the primary task. Our data show, that the personal significance of mobile phone and text message technology, which have developed as a major medium of communication in our modern world, prompts the formation of individual memory representations, which affect the processing of sounds that are not in the focus of attention.

  7. Groundwater chemistry around a repository for spent nuclear fuel over a glacial cycle. Evaluation for SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auque, L.F.; Gimeno, M.J.; Gomez, J.B. [University of Zaragoza (Spain); Puigdomenech, I. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Smellie, J. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the rock volume surrounding a spent nuclear fuel repository is of importance to many factors that affect repository performance. The geochemical characteristics of present-day Swedish groundwater systems are governed by successive mixing events of several waters during the post-glacial evolution of the sites. The expected development of groundwaters at two Swedish sites - Forsmark and Laxemar - during a glacial cycle has been evaluated within the SR-Can project, and the results are presented in this report. For the temperate period following repository closure, an approach is proposed here to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater geochemistry by coupling hydrogeological and geochemical models in a sequential way. The procedure combines hydrogeological results obtained with CONNECTFLOW within the SR-Can project with a mixing and reaction path simulation using PHREEQC. The hydrological results contain mixing proportions of four component waters (a deep brine, glacial meltwater, marine water, and meteoric infiltration) at each time step and at every node of the D regional model domain. In this work the mixing fractions are fed into PHREEQC using software developed to build formatted input files and to extract the information from output files for subsequent plotting and analysis. The geochemical calculations included both chemical mixing and equilibrium reactions with selected minerals: calcite, chalcedony and an Fe(III) oxy-hydroxide. Results for the Forsmark and Laxemar sites are graphically presented as histograms and box-and-whisker plots. Cross sections, where each node is colour-coded with respect to an important variable (pH, Eh or concentrations of main elements), are used to visualize the future evolution of the site. Sensitivity analyses are made to evaluate the effects of the different reactions and/or assumptions. The results reflect the progressive inflow of meteoric waters into the sites

  8. Criticality issues with highly enriched fuels in a repository environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sanchez, L.C.; Rath, J.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary analysis of a volcanic tuff repository containing a combination of low enrichment commercial spent nuclear fuels (SNF) and DOE-owned SNF packages. These SNFs were analyzed with respect to their criticality risks. Disposal of SNF packages containing significant fissile mass within a geologic repository must comply with current regulations relative to criticality safety during transportation and handling within operational facilities. However, once the repository is closed, the double contingency credits for criticality safety are subject to unremediable degradation, (e.g., water intrusion, continued presence of neutron absorbers in proximity to fissile material, and fissile material reconfiguration). The work presented in this paper focused on two attributes of criticality in a volcanic tuff repository for near-field and far-field scenarios: (1) scenario conditions necessary to have a criticality, and (2) consequences of a nuclear excursion that are components of risk. All criticality consequences are dependent upon eventual water intrusion into the repository and subsequent breach of the disposal package. Key criticality parameters necessary for a critical assembly are: (1) adequate thermal fissile mass, (2) adequate concentration of fissile material, (3) separation of neutron poison from fissile materials, and (4) sufficient neutron moderation (expressed in units of moderator to fissile atom ratios). Key results from this study indicated that the total energies released during a single excursion are minimal (comparable to those released in previous solution accidents), and the maximum frequency of occurrence is bounded by the saturation and temperature recycle times, thus resulting in small criticality risks.

  9. Proceedings of the scientific visit on crystalline rock repository development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Miksova, Jitka [RAWRA, Czech Republic

    2013-02-01

    A scientific visit on Crystalline Rock Repository Development was held in the Czech Republic on September 24-27, 2012. The visit was hosted by the Czech Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA), co-hosted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The purpose of the visit was to promote technical information exchange between participants from countries engaged in the investigation and exploration of crystalline rock for the eventual construction of nuclear waste repositories. The visit was designed especially for participants of countries that have recently commenced (or recommenced) national repository programmes in crystalline host rock formations. Discussion topics included repository programme development, site screening and selection, site characterization, disposal concepts in crystalline host rock, regulatory frameworks, and safety assessment methodology. Interest was surveyed in establishing a %E2%80%9Cclub,%E2%80%9D the mission of which would be to identify and address the various technical challenges that confront the disposal of radioactive waste in crystalline rock environments. The idea of a second scientific visit to be held one year later in another host country received popular support. The visit concluded with a trip to the countryside south of Prague where participants were treated to a tour of the laboratory and underground facilities of the Josef Regional Underground Research Centre.

  10. Federated repositories of X-ray diffraction images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, Steve; Schmidberger, Jason; Bate, Mark A; DeGori, Ross; Beitz, Anthony; Keong, Cyrus; Cameron, Bob; McGowan, Sheena; Porter, Corrine J; Harrison, Andrew; Hunter, Jane; Martin, Jennifer L; Kobe, Bostjan; Dobson, Renwick C J; Parker, Michael W; Whisstock, James C; Gray, Joan; Treloar, Andrew; Groenewegen, David; Dickson, Neil; Buckle, Ashley M

    2008-07-01

    There is a pressing need for the archiving and curation of raw X-ray diffraction data. This information is critical for validation, methods development and improvement of archived structures. However, the relatively large size of these data sets has presented challenges for storage in a single worldwide repository such as the Protein Data Bank archive. This problem can be avoided by using a federated approach, where each institution utilizes its institutional repository for storage, with a discovery service overlaid. Institutional repositories are relatively stable and adequately funded, ensuring persistence. Here, a simple repository solution is described, utilizing Fedora open-source database software and data-annotation and deposition tools that can be deployed at any site cheaply and easily. Data sets and associated metadata from federated repositories are given a unique and persistent handle, providing a simple mechanism for search and retrieval via web interfaces. In addition to ensuring that valuable data is not lost, the provision of raw data has several uses for the crystallographic community. Most importantly, structure determination can only be truly repeated or verified when the raw data are available. Moreover, the availability of raw data is extremely useful for the development of improved methods of image analysis and data processing.

  11. Implementing digital preservation in repositories: Knowledge and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Groposo Pavão

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital preservation has to be undertaken by institutional repositories, which are responsible for the preservation of the scientific output from academic institutions. However, due to the constant evolution of the field, to gain domain knowledge and recognise best practices is a complex task for people responsible for digital preservation in those institutions. Digital preservation research, practices and solutions address specific problems, such as formats, curation, reference models, authenticity, policies and preservation plans, tools, etc., while stakeholders need an integrated, contextualized and applicable overview. This paper focuses on the implementation of digital preservation in repositories, from the perspective of the team responsible for the project, regarding the necessary knowledge and best practices. Initially, it defines and contextualizes digital preservation repositories. The following section presents a conceptual model of digital preservation, synthesized from conceptual models developed in influential projects in the field, which allows us to identify the domain knowledge in digital preservation. Finally, aspects represented in the model are discussed in the light of the performance of teams implementing digital preservation repositories. It provides recommendations, guides and examples that may be useful for the implementation of digital preservation. It points to the need to strengthen the relationship between domain knowledge in digital preservation repositories with practices developed in numerous projects developed worldwide.

  12. NASA Life Sciences Data Repositories: Tools for Retrospective Analysis and Future Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.; Wear, M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Fitts, M.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA transitions from the Space Shuttle era into the next phase of space exploration, the need to ensure the capture, analysis, and application of its research and medical data is of greater urgency than at any other previous time. In this era of limited resources and challenging schedules, the Human Research Program (HRP) based at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) recognizes the need to extract the greatest possible amount of information from the data already captured, as well as focus current and future research funding on addressing the HRP goal to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. To this end, the Science Management Office and the Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch within the HRP and the Space Medicine Division have been working to make both research data and clinical data more accessible to the user community. The Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA), the research repository housing data and information regarding the physiologic effects of microgravity, and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH-R), the clinical repository housing astronaut data, have joined forces to achieve this goal. The task of both repositories is to acquire, preserve, and distribute data and information both within the NASA community and to the science community at large. This is accomplished via the LSDA s public website (http://lsda.jsc.nasa.gov), which allows access to experiment descriptions including hardware, datasets, key personnel, mission descriptions and a mechanism for researchers to request additional data, research and clinical, that is not accessible from the public website. This will result in making the work of NASA and its partners available to the wider sciences community, both domestic and international. The desired outcome is the use of these data for knowledge discovery, retrospective analysis, and planning of future

  13. Bentonite Clay Evolution at Elevated Pressures and Temperatures: An experimental study for generic nuclear repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporuscio, F. A.; Cheshire, M.; McCarney, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign is presently engaged in looking at various generic repository options for disposal of used fuel. Of interest are the disposal of high heat load canisters ,which may allow for a reduced repository footprint. The focus of this experimental work is to characterize Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) conditions in repositories. Clay minerals - as backfill or buffer materials - are critical to the performance of the EBS. Experiments were performed in Dickson cells at 150 bar and sequentially stepped from 125 oC to 300 oC over a period of ~1 month. An unprocessed bentonite from Colony, Wyoming was used as the buffer material in each experiment. An K-Ca-Na-Cl-rich brine (replicating deep Stripa groundwater) was used at a 9:1 water:rock ratio. The baseline experiment contained brine + clay, while three other experiments contained metals that could be used as waste form canisters (brine +clay+304SS, brine+clay+316SS, brine+clay+Cu). All experiments were buffered at the Mt-Fe oxygen fugacity univarient line. As experiment temperature increased and time progressed, pH, K and Ca ion concentrations dropped, while Si, Na, and SO4 concentrations increased. Silicon was liberated into the fluid phase (>1000 ppm) and precipitated during the quenching of the experiment. The precipitated silica transformed to cristobalite as cooling progressed. Potassium was mobilized and exchanged with interlayer Na, transitioning the clay from Na-montmorillonite to K-smectite. Though illitization was not observed in these experiments, its formation may be kinetically limited and longer-term experiments are underway to evaluate the equilibrium point in this reaction. Clinoptilolite present in the starting bentonite mixture is unstable above 150 oC. Hence, the zeolite broke down at high temperatures but recrystallized as the quench event occurred. This was borne out in SEM images that showed clinoptilolite as a very late stage growth mineral. Both experimental runs

  14. On release of radionuclides from a near-surface radioactive waste repository to the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudelis Arūnas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A closed near-surface radioactive waste repository is the source of various radionuclides causing the human exposure. Recent investigations confirm an effectiveness of the engineering barriers installed in 2006 to prevent the penetration of radionuclides to the environment. The tritium activity concentration in groundwater decreased from tens of kBq/l to below hundreds of Bq/l. The monitoring and groundwater level data suggest the leaching of tritium from previously contaminated layers of unsaturated zone by rising groundwater while 210Pb may disperse as a decay product of 226Ra daughters.

  15. Institutional Repository saber.ula.ve: A testimonial perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Briceno, Y; Nunez, L A; Salager-Meyer, F; Rojas, A; Torrens, R

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our decade-long experience of building and operating one of the most active Institutional Repository in the world: www.saber.ula.ve (University of the Andes, Merida-Venezuela). In order to share our experience with other institutions, we firstly explain the steps we followed to preserve and disseminate the scientific production of the University of Los Andes' researchers. We then present some recent quantitative results about our repository activities and we outline some methodological guidelines that could be applied in order to replicate similar experiences. These guidelines list the ingredients or building blocks as well as the processes followed for developing and maintaining the services of an Institutional Repository. These include technological infrastructure; institutional policies on preservation, publication and dissemination of knowledge; recommendations on incentives for open access publication; the process of selection, testing and adaptation of technological tools; th...

  16. Interaction of Plutonium with Bacteria in the Repository Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J. B.; Francis, A. J.; Lucero, D. A.; Papenguth, H. W.

    2000-07-01

    Microorganisms in the nuclear waste repository environment may interact with plutonium through (1) sorption, (2) intracellular accumulation, and (3) transformation speciation. These interactions may retard or enhance the mobility of Pu by precipitation reactions, biocolloid formation, or production of more soluble species. Current and planned radioactive waste repository environments, such as deep subsurface halite and granite formations, are considered extreme relative to life processes in the near-surface terrestrial environment. There is a paucity of information on the biotransformation of radionuclides by microorganisms present in such extreme environments. In order to gain a better understanding of the interaction of plutonium with microorganisms present in the waste repository sites we investigated a pure culture (Halomonas sp.) and a mixed culture of bacteria (Haloarcula sinaiiensis, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Altermonas sp., and a {gamma}-proteobacterium) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and an Acetobacterium sp. from alkaline groundwater at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland.

  17. Reliable predictions of waste performance in a geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.

    1985-08-01

    Establishing reliable estimates of long-term performance of a waste repository requires emphasis upon valid theories to predict performance. Predicting rates that radionuclides are released from waste packages cannot rest upon empirical extrapolations of laboratory leach data. Reliable predictions can be based on simple bounding theoretical models, such as solubility-limited bulk-flow, if the assumed parameters are reliably known or defensibly conservative. Wherever possible, performance analysis should proceed beyond simple bounding calculations to obtain more realistic - and usually more favorable - estimates of expected performance. Desire for greater realism must be balanced against increasing uncertainties in prediction and loss of reliability. Theoretical predictions of release rate based on mass-transfer analysis are bounding and the theory can be verified. Postulated repository analogues to simulate laboratory leach experiments introduce arbitrary and fictitious repository parameters and are shown not to agree with well-established theory. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Digital repositories certification: the Data Seal of Approval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Allegrezza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become increasingly common to entrust records to digital repositories; this assumes an implicit confidence in the repositories reliability, and therefore is urgent to identify the criteria on which to evaluate them. The Data Seal of Approval is a set of sixteen criteria that can be used to ensure that archived data can still be found, understood and used in the future. It is a basic level of certification but it is very useful to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the deposit; in any case, it constitutes a solid basis for further certification of compliance to ISO 16363 or DIN 31644. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of Data Seal of Approval in the wider context of digital repositories' certification.

  19. Event Normalization Through Dynamic Log Format Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Meinel

    2014-01-01

    The analytical and monitoring capabilities of central event re-positories, such as log servers and intrusion detection sys-tems, are limited by the amount of structured information ex-tracted from the events they receive. Diverse networks and ap-plications log their events in many different formats, and this makes it difficult to identify the type of logs being received by the central repository. The way events are logged by IT systems is problematic for developers of host-based intrusion-detection systems (specifically, host-based systems), develop-ers of security-information systems, and developers of event-management systems. These problems preclude the develop-ment of more accurate, intrusive security solutions that obtain results from data included in the logs being processed. We propose a new method for dynamically normalizing events into a unified super-event that is loosely based on the Common Event Expression standard developed by Mitre Corporation. We explain how our solution can normalize seemingly unrelat-ed events into a single, unified format.

  20. GIS for the needs of the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Mikšová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA is a state organisation responsible for the management of activities related to the disposal of all existing and future radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel classed as a waste in Czech Republic. Worldwide, a deep geological repository is considered the highest degree of safety for a nuclear waste disposal. Such a repository has to be built in a stable geological environment ensuring the isolation of the stored radioactive waste from the surrounding environment for a long period of time. The selection of suitable site for the deep geological repository construction is a complicated and long term process. Considering this fact and also in respect to an assumed volume of varied datasets the GIS RAWRA was established to ensure convenient management and availability of data containing spatial information.The system is based on ESRI (ArcInfo including extensions, ArcSDE, ArcIMS, Leica Geosystems (Image Analysis and Microsoft software (MS SQL Server. Resulting datasets from six recommended potentially suitable sites for the location of a geological repository have been incorporated into the geodatabase to date. The necessary analysis was made using ESRI software tools and, in addition, custom applications were developed including the metadata editor, etc. This analysis was carried out with respect to existing geological and non-geological criteria defined for a nuclear waste repository. Finally, all six investigated sites with a total area of 240 km2 were reduced in area, each of them resulting in an area of approximately 10km2 for further detailed characterisation.

  1. Implementation of the Brazilian National Repository - RBMN Project - 13008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassia Oliveira de Tello, Cledola [CDTN - Center for Development of Nuclear Technology, Av. Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6.627 - Campus UFMG - Pampulha, CEP 31270-901 - Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). Besides this NPP, in the National Energy Program is previewed the installation of four more plants, by 2030. In November 2008, CNEN launched the Project RBMN (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes), which aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (authors)

  2. Final repository for Denmark's low- and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, B.; Gravesen, P.; Petersen, S. S.; Binderup, M.

    2012-12-01

    Bertel Nilsson*, Peter Gravesen, Stig A. Schack Petersen, Merete Binderup Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark, * email address bn@geus.dk The Danish Parliament decided in 2003 that the temporal disposal of the low- and intermediate level radioactive waste at the nuclear facilities at Risø should find another location for a final repository. The Danish radioactive waste must be stored on Danish land territory (exclusive Greenland) and must hold the entire existing radioactive waste, consisting of the waste from the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risø, and the radioactive waste produced in Denmark from hospitals, universities and industry. The radioactive waste is estimated to a total amount of up to 10,000 m3. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, GEUS, is responsible for the geological studies of suitable areas for the repository. The task has been to locate and recognize non-fractured Quaternary and Tertiary clays or Precambrian bedrocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surroundings the coming more than 300 years. Twenty two potential areas have been located and sequential reduced to the most favorable two to three locations taking into consideration geology, hydrogeology, nature protection and climate change conditions. Further detailed environmental and geology investigations will be undertaken at the two to three potential localities in 2013 to 2015. This study together with a study of safe transport of the radioactive waste and an investigation of appropriate repository concepts in relation to geology and safety analyses will constitute the basis upon which the final decision by the Danish Parliament on repository concept and repository location. The final repository is planned to be established and in operation at the earliest 2020.

  3. Public concerns and choices regarding nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    Survey research on nuclear power issues conducted in the late 1970's has determined that nuclear waste management is now considered to be one of the most important nuclear power issues both by the US public and by key leadership groups. The purpose of this research was to determine the importance placed on specific issues associated with high-level waste disposal. In addition, policy option choices were asked regarding the siting of both low-level and high-level nuclear waste repositories. A purposive sampling strategy was used to select six groups of respondents. Averaged across the six respondent groups, the leakage of liquid wastes from storage tanks was seen as the most important high-level waste issue. There was also general agreement that the issue regarding water entering the final repository and carrying radioactive wastes away was second in importance. Overall, the third most important issue was the corrosion of the metal containers used in the high-level waste repository. There was general agreement among groups that the fourth most important issue was reducing safety to cut costs. The fifth most important issue was radioactive waste transportation accidents. Overall, the issues ranked sixth and seventh were, respectively, workers' safety and earthquakes damaging the repository and releasing radioactivity. The eighth most important issue, overall, was regarding explosions in the repository from too much radioactivity, which is something that is not possible. There was general agreement across all six respondent groups that the two least important issues involved people accidentally digging into the site and the issue that the repository might cost too much and would therefore raise electricity bills. These data indicate that the concerns of nuclear waste technologists and other public groups do not always overlap.

  4. Data Storing Proposal from Heterogeneous Systems into a Specialized Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václavová Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze and to propose an appropriate system for processing and simultaneously storing a vast volume of structured and unstructured data. The paper consists of three parts. The first part addresses the issue of structured and unstructured data. The second part provides the detailed analysis of data repositories and subsequent evaluation indicating which system would be for the given type and volume of data optimal. The third part focuses on the use of gathered information to transfer data to the proposed repository.

  5. Corrosion of the copper canister in the repository environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, H.P.; Eriksson, Sture [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The present report accounts for studies on copper corrosion performed at Studsvik Material AB during 1997-1999 on commission by SKI. The work has been focused on localised corrosion and electrochemistry of copper in the repository environment. The current theory of localised copper corrosion is not consistent with recent practical experiences. It is therefore desired to complete and develop the theory based on knowledge about the repository environment and evaluations of previous as well as recent experimental and field results. The work has therefore comprised a thorough compilation and up-date of literature on copper corrosion and on the repository environment. A selection of a 'working environment', defining the chemical parameters and their ranges of variation has been made and is used as a fundament for the experimental part of the work. Experiments have then been performed on the long-range electrochemical behaviour of copper in selected environments simulating the repository. Another part of the work has been to further develop knowledge about the thermodynamic limits for corrosion in the repository environment. Some of the thermodynamic work is integrated here. Especially thermodynamics for the system Cu-Cl-H-O up to 150 deg C and high chloride concentrations are outlined. However, there is also a rough overview of the whole system Cu-Fe-Cl-S-C-H-O as a fundament for the discussion. Data are normally accounted as Pourbaix diagrams. Some of the conclusions are that general corrosion on copper will probably not be of significant importance in the repository as far as transportation rates are low. However, if such rates were high, general corrosion could be disastrous, as there is no passivation of copper in the highly saline environment. The claim on knowledge of different kinds of localised corrosion and pitting is high, as pitting damages can shorten the lifetime of a canister dramatically. Normal pitting can happen in oxidising environment, but

  6. Software Aspects of the Geant4 Validation Repository

    CERN Document Server

    Dotti, Andrea; Elvira, Daniel; Genser, Krzysztof; Yarba, Julia; Carminati, Federico; Folger, Gunter; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Pokorski, Witold; Ribon, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The Geant4, GeantV and GENIE collaborations regularly perform validation and regression tests for simulation results. DoSSiER (Database of Scientic Simulation and Experimental Results) is being developed as a central repository to store the simulation results as well as the experimental data used for validation. DoSSiER is easily accessible via a web application. In addition, a web service allows for programmatic access to the repository to extract records in JSON or XML exchange formats. In this article, we describe the functionality and the current status of various components of DoSSiER as well as the technology choices we made.

  7. The Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository From A Corrosion Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.H. Payer

    2005-03-10

    Corrosion is a primary determinant of waste package performance at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository and will control the delay time for radionuclide transport from the waste package. Corrosion is the most probable and most likely degradation process that will determine when packages will be penetrated and the shape size and distribution of those penetrations. The general issues in corrosion science, materials science and electrochemistry are well defined, and the knowledge base is substantial for understanding corrosion processes. In this paper, the Yucca Mountain Repository is viewed from a corrosion perspective.

  8. Analytical performance models for geologic repositories. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Fujita, A.; Kanki, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Lung, H.; Ting, D.; Sato, Y.; Zavoshy, S.J.

    1982-10-01

    This report presents analytical solutions of the dissolution and hydrogeologic transport of radionuclides in geologic repositories. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the equations resulting from these analyses. The subjects treated in this report are: solubility-limited transport with transverse dispersion (chapter 2); transport of a radionuclide chain with nonequilibrium chemical reactions (chapter 3); advective transport in a two-dimensional flow field (chapter 4); radionuclide transport in fractured media (chapter 5); a mathematical model for EPA's analysis of generic repositories (chapter 6); and dissolution of radionuclides from solid waste (chapter 7). Volume 2 contains chapters 5, 6, and 7.

  9. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  10. The ATLAS Event Service: A New Approach to Event Processing

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00070566; De, Kaushik; Guan, Wen; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Event Service (ES) implements a new fine grained approach to HEP event processing, designed to be agile and efficient in exploiting transient, short-lived resources such as HPC hole-filling, spot market commercial clouds, and volunteer computing. Input and output control and data flows, bookkeeping, monitoring, and data storage are all managed at the event level in an implementation capable of supporting ATLAS-scale distributed processing throughputs (about 4M CPU-hours/day). Input data flows utilize remote data repositories with no data locality or pre­staging requirements, minimizing the use of costly storage in favor of strongly leveraging powerful networks. Object stores provide a highly scalable means of remotely storing the quasi-continuous, fine grained outputs that give ES based applications a very light data footprint on a processing resource, and ensure negligible losses should the resource suddenly vanish. We will describe the motivations for the ES system, its unique features and capabi...

  11. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

  12. Thrombin cleaves recombinant human thrombopoietin: One of the proteolytic events that generates truncated forms of thrombopoietin

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A heterogeneity in the molecular weight (Mr) of thrombopoietin (TPO) has been reported. We found several thrombin cleavage sites in human, rat, murine, and canine TPOs, and also found that human TPO undergoes selective proteolysis by thrombin. Recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) was incubated with human platelets in the presence of calcium ions to allow the generation of thrombin, and was cleaved into low Mr peptide fragments. The cleavage was completely inhibited by hirudin, indicating that the pr...

  13. Revision history aware repositories of computational models of biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickerson David P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Building repositories of computational models of biological systems ensures that published models are available for both education and further research, and can provide a source of smaller, previously verified models to integrate into a larger model. One problem with earlier repositories has been the limitations in facilities to record the revision history of models. Often, these facilities are limited to a linear series of versions which were deposited in the repository. This is problematic for several reasons. Firstly, there are many instances in the history of biological systems modelling where an 'ancestral' model is modified by different groups to create many different models. With a linear series of versions, if the changes made to one model are merged into another model, the merge appears as a single item in the history. This hides useful revision history information, and also makes further merges much more difficult, as there is no record of which changes have or have not already been merged. In addition, a long series of individual changes made outside of the repository are also all merged into a single revision when they are put back into the repository, making it difficult to separate out individual changes. Furthermore, many earlier repositories only retain the revision history of individual files, rather than of a group of files. This is an important limitation to overcome, because some types of models, such as CellML 1.1 models, can be developed as a collection of modules, each in a separate file. The need for revision history is widely recognised for computer software, and a lot of work has gone into developing version control systems and distributed version control systems (DVCSs for tracking the revision history. However, to date, there has been no published research on how DVCSs can be applied to repositories of computational models of biological systems. Results We have extended the Physiome Model

  14. Recurrence models of volcanic events: Applications to volcanic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Picard, R.; Valentine, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Perry, F.V. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-03-01

    An assessment of the risk of future volcanism has been conducted for isolation of high-level radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada. Risk used in this context refers to a combined assessment of the probability and consequences of future volcanic activity. Past studies established bounds on the probability of magmatic disruption of a repository. These bounds were revised as additional data were gathered from site characterization studies. The probability of direct intersection of a potential repository located in an eight km{sup 2} area of Yucca Mountain by ascending basalt magma was bounded by the range of 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup {minus}10} yr{sup {minus}1 2}. The consequences of magmatic disruption of a repository were estimated in previous studies to be limited. The exact releases from such an event are dependent on the strike of an intruding basalt dike relative to the repository geometry, the timing of the basaltic event relative to the age of the radioactive waste and the mechanisms of release and dispersal of the waste radionuclides in the accessible environment. The combined low probability of repository disruption and the limited releases associated with this event established the basis for the judgement that the risk of future volcanism was relatively low. It was reasoned that that risk of future volcanism was not likely to result in disqualification of the potential Yucca Mountain site.

  15. National Geoscience Data Repository System, Phase III: Implementation and Operation of the Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    American Geological Institute

    1999-05-14

    The NGDRS steering committee met at Chevron's office on March 2, 1999 in Houston, Texas to review and discuss issues of data transfer and the future of the Stapleton prospect for establishment of a national core repository. Company representatives reaffirmed their commitment in principal to the NGDRS project. Given the downturn in oil prices and final results from the due diligence of the Stapleton property, AGI has decided to forego pursuing acquisition and build-out of the Stapleton Airport property. The major petroleum companies indicated that rising the $10-12 million endowment would be difficult in the current climate. The completion of the due diligence of the property also revealed major concerns about the environmental liability associated with the property, which would require indemnification of the AGI by the City of Denver. Given these complicating results, AGI officially terminated efforts regarding the Stapleton property effective March 31, 1999. Several steering committee members put forth a proposal that the companies make their non-proprietary holdings public and list them in the NGDRS GeoTrek metadata catalog. Most of these holdings are at C&M Storage in Schulemburg, Texas. The companies are discussing methods to allow for public access to these data with C&M.

  16. Practices of research data curation in institutional repositories: A qualitative view from repository staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Joon; Stvilia, Besiki

    2017-01-01

    The importance of managing research data has been emphasized by the government, funding agencies, and scholarly communities. Increased access to research data increases the impact and efficiency of scientific activities and funding. Thus, many research institutions have established or plan to establish research data curation services as part of their Institutional Repositories (IRs). However, in order to design effective research data curation services in IRs, and to build active research data providers and user communities around those IRs, it is essential to study current data curation practices and provide rich descriptions of the sociotechnical factors and relationships shaping those practices. Based on 13 interviews with 15 IR staff members from 13 large research universities in the United States, this paper provides a rich, qualitative description of research data curation and use practices in IRs. In particular, the paper identifies data curation and use activities in IRs, as well as their structures, roles played, skills needed, contradictions and problems present, solutions sought, and workarounds applied. The paper can inform the development of best practice guides, infrastructure and service templates, as well as education in research data curation in Library and Information Science (LIS) schools.

  17. Event Management

    OpenAIRE

    Havlenová, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    Event is an experience that is perceived by all the senses. Event management is a process involving the various activities that are assigned to staffers. Organizing special events became an individual field. If the manager understand the events as a communication platform gets into the hands of a modern, multifunctional and very impressive tool. The procedure to implement a successful event in a particular area is part of this work. The first part explains the issues of event management on th...

  18. Modeling transient heat transfer in nuclear waste repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2009-09-30

    The heat of high-level nuclear waste may be generated and released from a canister at final disposal sites. The waste heat may affect the engineering properties of waste canisters, buffers, and backfill material in the emplacement tunnel and the host rock. This study addresses the problem of the heat generated from the waste canister and analyzes the heat distribution between the buffer and the host rock, which is considered as a radial two-layer heat flux problem. A conceptual model is first constructed for the heat conduction in a nuclear waste repository and then mathematical equations are formulated for modeling heat flow distribution at repository sites. The Laplace transforms are employed to develop a solution for the temperature distributions in the buffer and the host rock in the Laplace domain, which is numerically inverted to the time-domain solution using the modified Crump method. The transient temperature distributions for both the single- and multi-borehole cases are simulated in the hypothetical geological repositories of nuclear waste. The results show that the temperature distributions in the thermal field are significantly affected by the decay heat of the waste canister, the thermal properties of the buffer and the host rock, the disposal spacing, and the thickness of the host rock at a nuclear waste repository.

  19. Assessing the Quality of a Student-Generated Question Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Simon P.; Galloway, Ross K.; Riise, Jonathan; Homer, Danny

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a study that categorizes and assesses the quality of questions and explanations authored by students in question repositories produced as part of the summative assessment in introductory physics courses over two academic sessions. Mapping question quality onto the levels in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy, we find…

  20. A Miniature Data Repository on a Raspberry Pi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samourkasidis, Argyrios; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates a low-cost, miniature data repository proof-of-concept. Such a system needs to be resilient to power and network failures, and expose adequate processing power for persistent, long-term storage. Additional services are required for interoperable data sharing and visualization.

  1. Malaysian Education Index (MEI): An Online Indexing and Repository System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…

  2. Framing a bilateral US-Russian geologic repository initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J

    1998-09-08

    This document summarizes a framework for the development of a bilateral United States-Russian geologic repository initiative to enable cooperative work on the science and technology of geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes and fissile-containing materials. Three different types of integrated technical activities in Russia are employed to focus and organize a Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) FY00 initiative. We have specified the items for initial negotiations with the Russians for start-up activities in FY99 and early FY00. These first interactions will generate other activities which, by utilizing Russia's unique capabilities, may assist us in the development and validation of the US geologic repository program. The current International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) cooperative study of 30years of heat effects on underground hardrock rock media at the closed city of Krasnoyarsk-26 (Zheleznorgorsk) is but one example of such a Russian geologic repository analogue project that may assist the US geologic repository program.

  3. Preservation Health Check: Monitoring Threats to Digital Repository Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Wouter; van der Werf, Titia; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The Preservation Health Check (PHC) project, undertaken as a joint effort by Open Planets Foundation (OPF) and OCLC Research, aims to evaluate the usefulness of the preservation metadata created and maintained by operational repositories for assessing basic preservation properties. The PHC project seeks to develop an implementable logic to support…

  4. Test case for a near-surface repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elert, M.; Jones, C. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, L.B. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Co, Stockholm (Sweden); Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    A test case is presented for assessment of a near-surface disposal facility for radioactive waste. The case includes waste characterization and repository design, requirements and constraints in an assessment context, scenario development, model description and test calculations 6 refs, 12 tabs, 16 figs

  5. Performance assessment implementation plan for the geologic repository program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    Performance assessment is a major constituent of the program being conducted in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a geologic repository. Performance assessment is the set of activities needed for quantitative evaluations of repository-system performance to access compliance with regulations and to support the development of the geologic repository. To define the strategy for these evaluations, the DOE has developed this performance assessment strategy plan. This document discusses the need for such a strategy, the objectives and scope of the strategy plan, the relationship of the plan to other program plans. Additionally, it defines performance assessment and describes the roles of performance assessment in this program, discusses concepts and general strategies needed for performance assessment, outlines the content of the Safety Analysis Report, summarizes the requirements for the repository Environmental Impact Statement, discusses the requirements that apply to the site-suitability analyses and describes the site characterization. 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford Site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  7. Building a Knowledge Repository for Life-long Competence Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorov, Alexander; Georgiev, Atanas; Petrov, Milen; Varbanov, Sergey; Stefanov, Krassen

    2008-01-01

    Grigorov, A., Georgiev, A., Petrov, M., Varbanov, S., & Stefanov, K. (2008). Building a Knowledge Repository for Life-long Competence Development. In R. Koper, K. Stefanov & D. Dicheva (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International TENCompetence Open Workshop "Stimulating Personal Development and Know

  8. /facet: A Browser for Heterogeneous Semantic Web Repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, M.; Ossenbruggen, J.R. van; Hardman, L.

    2006-01-01

    Facet browsing has become popular as a user friendly interface to data repositories. The Semantic Web raises new challenges due to the heterogeneous character of the data. First, users should be able to select and navigate through facets of resources of any type and to make selections based on prope

  9. /facet: A browser for heterogeneous semantic web repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, M.; Ossenbruggen, J.R. van; Hardman, L.

    2006-01-01

    Facet browsing has become popular as a user friendly interface to data repositories. We extend facet browsing of Semantic Web data in four ways. First, users are able to select and navigate through facets of resources of any type and to make selections based on properties of other, semantically rela

  10. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites available for characterization.

  11. Indian Institutional Repositories: A Study of User's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Sarika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the experience, contribution and opinions of users of respective institutional repositories (IRs) developed in India. Design/methodology/approach: The survey method was used. The data collection tool was a web questionnaire, which was created with the help of software provided by surveymonkey.com…

  12. Motivations of Faculty Self-Archiving in Institutional Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun

    2011-01-01

    Professors contribute to Institutional Repositories (IRs) to make their materials widely accessible in keeping with the benefits of Open Access. However, universities' commitment to IRs depends on building trust with faculty and solving copyright concerns. Digital preservation and copyright management in IRs should be strengthened to increase…

  13. Evaluation of storage mechanisms for a content repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G.M. Beekman

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, we describe and evaluate different storage mechanisms for the content repository powering a content platform. In certain usage scenarios the current RDBMS-based implementation exhibits severe performance degradation. The evaluation will focus on performance and

  14. A Miniature Data Repository on a Raspberry Pi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samourkasidis, Argyrios; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates a low-cost, miniature data repository proof-of-concept. Such a system needs to be resilient to power and network failures, and expose adequate processing power for persistent, long-term storage. Additional services are required for interoperable data sharing and visualization.

  15. INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORY FOR ACCOUNTING RESEARCH RESULTS (PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkova L. M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of the number of consumers using the advancements in technology search and delivery of scientific information, creates a need for institutional repositories that manage, preserve and maintain digital assets and intellectual products, as well as multiply the speed and convenience of obtaining the necessary information

  16. Understanding Faculty to Improve Content Recruitment for Institutional Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nancy Fried.; Gibbons, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Institutional repositories (IRs) offer many clear benefits yet faculty authors have not demonstrated much interest in depositing their content into them. Without the content, IRs will not succeed, because institutions will sustain IRs for only so long without evidence of success. A yearlong study of faculty members at the University of Rochester…

  17. Institutional Repositories at Small Institutions in America: Some Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykanen, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this article was undertaken to determine the level of implementation of institutional repositories (IRs) at small institutions enrolling fewer than 10,000 students. The study analyzed quantitative and qualitative data from IRs at a number of small institutions with the aim of observing relevant patterns and trends that may…

  18. Institutional Repositories: The Experience of Master's and Baccalaureate Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Karen; St. Jean, Beth; Soo, Young Rieh; Yakel, Elizabeth; Kim, Jihyun

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, MIRACLE Project investigators censused library directors at all U.S. academic institutions about their activities planning, pilot testing, and implementing the institutional repositories on their campuses. Out of 446 respondents, 289 (64.8 percent) were from master's and baccalaureate institutions (M&BIs) where few operational…

  19. Assessment of Self-Archiving in Institutional Repositories: Across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingfeng

    2007-01-01

    This research examined self-archiving practices by four disciplines in seven institutional repositories. By checking each individual item for its metadata and deposition status, the research found that a disciplinary culture is not obviously presented. Rather, self-archiving is regulated by a liaison system and a mandate policy.

  20. Evaluation of storage mechanisms for a content repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, C.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we describe and evaluate different storage mechanisms for the content repository powering a content platform. In certain usage scenarios the current RDBMS-based implementation exhibits severe performance degradation. The evaluation will focus on performance and implementation complex

  1. Different Mass Processing Services in a Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Zierau, Eld

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how a general bit repository mass processing service using different programming models and platforms can be specified. Such a service is needed in large data archives, especially libraries, where different ways of doing mass processing is needed for different digital libr...

  2. Environmental effects on corrosion in the Tuff repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavers, J.A.; Thompson, N.G. [Cortest Columbus, Inc., OH (USA)

    1990-02-01

    Cortest Columbus is investigating the long-term performance of container materials used for high-level waste packages as part of the information needed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assess the Department of Energy`s application to construct a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The scope of work consists of employing short-term techniques, to examine a wide range of possible failure modes. Long-term tests are being used to verify and further examine specific failure modes identified as important by the short-term studies. The original focus of the program was on the salt repository but the emphasis was shifted to the Tuff repository. This report summarizes the results of a literature survey performed under Task 1 of the program. The survey focuses on the influence of environmental variables on the corrosion behavior of candidate container materials for the Tuff repository. Environmental variables considered include: radiation, thermal and microbial effects. 80 refs., 44 figs., 44 tabs.

  3. User Oriented Platform for Data Analytics in Medical Imaging Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Miguel; Godinho, Tiago Marques; Costa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The production of medical imaging studies and associated data has been growing in the last decades. Their primary use is to support medical diagnosis and treatment processes. However, the secondary use of the tremendous amount of stored data is generally more limited. Nowadays, medical imaging repositories have turned into rich databanks holding not only the images themselves, but also a wide range of metadata related to the medical practice. Exploring these repositories through data analysis and business intelligence techniques has the potential of increasing the efficiency and quality of the medical practice. Nevertheless, the continuous production of tremendous amounts of data makes their analysis difficult by conventional approaches. This article proposes a novel automated methodology to derive knowledge from medical imaging repositories that does not disrupt the regular medical practice. Our method is able to apply statistical analysis and business intelligence techniques directly on top of live institutional repositories. It is a Web-based solution that provides extensive dashboard capabilities, including complete charting and reporting options, combined with data mining components. Moreover, it enables the operator to set a wide multitude of query parameters and operators through the use of an intuitive graphical interface.

  4. Capturing knowledge in institutional repositories: playing leapfrog with giraffes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, H

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available are stored and can be searched and retrieved for future use. A repository thus enables staff and institutions to manage and preserve content and thus driving maximum value from the content. The University of Pretoria with Dr Heila Pienaar started the move...

  5. An approach to improve Romanian geological repository planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Veronica [Romanian Association for Nuclear Energy, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Prisecaru, Ilie [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-04-15

    International standards recommend typical phases to be included within any national program for the development of a geological repository dedicated to disposal of the high level radioactive wastes generated in countries using nuclear power. However, these are not universally applicable and the content of each of these phases may need to be adapted for each national situation and regulatory and institutional framework. Several national geological repository programs have faced failures in schedules and have revised their programs to consider an adapted phased management approach. The authors have observed that in the case of those countries in the early phases of a geological repository program where boundary conditions have not been fully defined, international recommendations for handling delays/failures in the national program might not immediately help. This paper considers a case study of the influences of the national context risks on the current planning schedule of the Romanian national geological repository. It proposes an optimum solution for an integrated response to any significant adverse impact arising from these risks, enabling sustainable program planning.

  6. Content Analysis of a Computer-Based Faculty Activity Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Eveleth, Lori; Stone, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The research presents an analysis of faculty opinions regarding the introduction of a new computer-based faculty activity repository (FAR) in a university setting. The qualitative study employs content analysis to better understand the phenomenon underlying these faculty opinions and to augment the findings from a quantitative study. A web-based…

  7. Digital repository service (DRS) at National Institute of Oceanography: A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahu, S.R.

    Open access to the publications over Internet has become a reality. The software likes DSpace help in creating institutional repositories to place the publications on Internet. Implementation of an institutional repository at National Institute...

  8. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Evolution report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Paul; Johnson, Lawrence; Snellman, Margit; Pastina, Barbara; Gribi, Peter

    2008-01-15

    important differences between KBS-3H and KBS-3V occur. The description of evolution in this phase addresses in turn the (i), thermal evolution, (ii), groundwater flow and evolution of groundwater composition, (iii), mechanical evolution, (iv), saturation and buffer swelling, (v) evolution of chemical and microbiological conditions and (vi), evolution of the canister surface and interior. A key issue is the local variability of the near-field rock around the KBS-3H repository drifts, which, together with the effects of gas from the corrosion of the supercontainer shells and other steel repository components, results in widely differing saturation times for different drift sections. Nevertheless, even in the tightest drift sections, the buffer is expected to retain its initial water content, and will eventually fully saturate, at which time it is expected to perform its full range of safety functions. In the more distant future, the evolution of conditions at repository depth may be significantly affected by major climate change, and, in particular, by the formation of ice sheets at the ground surface. Key issues, which are common to KBS-3H and KBS.3V, are (i), the possibility that meltwater penetrating to repository depth may lead to some erosion of the buffer, and (ii), the impact of post-glacial earthquakes on canister integrity. The impact of anthropogenic emissions on the magnitude and timing of future major climate changes is a key uncertainty that is also common to the two alternatives. The description of repository evolution provides the basis for the identification of evolution scenarios, an assessment of canister longevity and the analysis of radionuclide release and transport in the event of canister failure. Scenarios involving canister failure and radionuclide release are, however, also identified based on the discussion in this report and in the KBS-3H Process Report. These are initiated, in the first place, by: . the presence of an initial, penetrating defect

  9. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  10. [Structure, use, and risks of biomaterial repositories of embryonal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernestus, K; Pietsch, T; Gessler, M; Simon, T; Hero, B; Berthold, F

    2006-01-01

    Availability of statistically sufficient numbers of tumor samples and other biomaterials in high quality together with corresponding clinical data is crucial for biomedical research. Tumor repositories from individual scientists are mostly not sufficient to satisfy these criteria, especially since pediatric tumors are rare. In 2000 three centralized tumor repositories (neuroblastoma in Cologne, nephroblastoma in Würzburg, hepatoblastoma, brain tumors in Bonn) have been established by the "German Competence Net Pediatric Oncology und Hematology". The aim was to collect biomaterial including tumor samples, normal tissue, and blood in high quality for research and diagnostic purposes at a central institution. Informed consent of the parents or patients is a prerequisite for scientific use of the samples and is requested by the therapy trial. The samples are collected according to accepted standards and shipped in the specially designed Tumorbox. The tumor repository organizes the distribution of the samples to the cooperating diagnostic laboratories. The number of collected tumor samples has increased over the years. In 2000, samples from 200 patients were collected while the patient number increased to 321 in 2005. Over the years the tumor repositories collected more than 7,150 samples (fresh frozen tumor, fresh frozen normal tissue, and blood). Through links with clinical trial databases the samples can be connected with clinical data. 12 of 14 applications for tumor material to be used in specific scientific projects have been approved by an independent supervisory board. The establishment of central tumor repositories represents a major step for biomedical research activities and quality control in pediatric oncology.

  11. CD81 is a central regulator of cellular events required for hepatitis C virus infection of human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzoli, Michela; Bianchi, Alessia; Filippini, Sara; Weiner, Amy; Zhu, Qing; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Crotta, Stefania

    2008-09-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is still a major public health problem, and the events leading to hepatocyte infection are not yet fully understood. Combining confocal microscopy with biochemical analysis and studies of infection requirements using pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNAs, we show here that engagement of CD81 activates the Rho GTPase family members Rac, Rho, and Cdc42 and that the block of these signaling pathways drastically reduces HCV infectivity. Activation of Rho GTPases mediates actin-dependent relocalization of the HCV E2/CD81 complex to cell-cell contact areas where CD81 comes into contact with the tight-junction proteins occludin, ZO-1, and claudin-1, which was recently described as an HCV coreceptor. Finally, we show that CD81 engagement activates the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade and that this pathway affects postentry events of the virus life cycle. In conclusion, we describe a range of cellular events that are manipulated by HCV to coordinate interactions with its multiple coreceptors and to establish productive infections and find that CD81 is a central regulator of these events.

  12. Model-based assessment of the role of human-induced climate change in the 2005 Caribbean coral bleaching event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, S.D. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs; Knutson, T.R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Princeton, NJ (United States). Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab.; Oppenheimer, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Geosciences

    2007-03-27

    Episodes of mass coral bleaching around the world in recent decades have been attributed to periods of anomalously warm ocean temperatures. In 2005, the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the tropical North Atlantic that may have contributed to the strong hurricane season caused widespread coral bleaching in the Eastern Caribbean. Here, the authors use two global climate models to evaluate the contribution of natural climate variability and anthropogenic forcing to the thermal stress that caused the 2005 coral bleaching event. Historical temperature data and simulations for the 1870-2000 period show that the observed warming in the region is unlikely to be due to unforced climate variability alone. Simulation of background climate variability suggests that anthropogenic warming may have increased the probability of occurrence of significant thermal stress events for corals in this region by an order of magnitude. Under scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions, mass coral bleaching in the Eastern Caribbean may become a biannual event in 20-30 years. However, if corals and their symbionts can adapt by 1-1.5{sup o}C, such mass bleaching events may not begin to recur at potentially harmful intervals until the latter half of the century. The delay could enable more time to alter the path of greenhouse gas emissions, although long-term 'committed warming' even after stabilization of atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels may still represent an additional long-term threat to corals.

  13. Model-based assessment of the role of human-induced climate change in the 2005 Caribbean coral bleaching event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Simon D; Knutson, Thomas R; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2007-03-27

    Episodes of mass coral bleaching around the world in recent decades have been attributed to periods of anomalously warm ocean temperatures. In 2005, the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the tropical North Atlantic that may have contributed to the strong hurricane season caused widespread coral bleaching in the Eastern Caribbean. Here, we use two global climate models to evaluate the contribution of natural climate variability and anthropogenic forcing to the thermal stress that caused the 2005 coral bleaching event. Historical temperature data and simulations for the 1870-2000 period show that the observed warming in the region is unlikely to be due to unforced climate variability alone. Simulation of background climate variability suggests that anthropogenic warming may have increased the probability of occurrence of significant thermal stress events for corals in this region by an order of magnitude. Under scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions, mass coral bleaching in the Eastern Caribbean may become a biannual event in 20-30 years. However, if corals and their symbionts can adapt by 1-1.5 degrees C, such mass bleaching events may not begin to recur at potentially harmful intervals until the latter half of the century. The delay could enable more time to alter the path of greenhouse gas emissions, although long-term "committed warming" even after stabilization of atmospheric CO(2) levels may still represent an additional long-term threat to corals.

  14. 10 CFR 60.131 - General design criteria for the geologic repository operations area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Repository Operations Area § 60.131 General design criteria for the geologic repository operations area. (a... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General design criteria for the geologic repository operations area. 60.131 Section 60.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF...

  15. Semantic Repositories for eGovernment Initiatives: Integrating Knowledge and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmonari, Matteo; Viscusi, Gianluigi

    In recent years, public sector investments in eGovernment initiatives have depended on making more reliable existing governmental ICT systems and infrastructures. Furthermore, we assist at a change in the focus of public sector management, from the disaggregation, competition and performance measurements typical of the New Public Management (NPM), to new models of governance, aiming for the reintegration of services under a new perspective in bureaucracy, namely a holistic approach to policy making which exploits the extensive digitalization of administrative operations. In this scenario, major challenges are related to support effective access to information both at the front-end level, by means of highly modular and customizable content provision, and at the back-end level, by means of information integration initiatives. Repositories of information about data and services that exploit semantic models and technologies can support these goals by bridging the gap between the data-level representations and the human-level knowledge involved in accessing information and in searching for services. Moreover, semantic repository technologies can reach a new level of automation for different tasks involved in interoperability programs, both related to data integration techniques and service-oriented computing approaches. In this chapter, we discuss the above topics by referring to techniques and experiences where repositories based on conceptual models and ontologies are used at different levels in eGovernment initiatives: at the back-end level to produce a comprehensive view of the information managed in the public administrations' (PA) information systems, and at the front-end level to support effective service delivery.

  16. Event marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyze event-marketing activities of the small firm and propose new events. At first the theoretical part describes marketing and communication mix and then especially planning and development of event marketing campaign. Research data were collected by the method of survey to propose the new events. Randomly selected customers were asked to fill the questionnaire. Its results were integrated into the proposal of the new events. The interview was realized with the owner of...

  17. CD81 Is a Central Regulator of Cellular Events Required for Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Human Hepatocytes▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Brazzoli, Michela; Bianchi, Alessia; Filippini, Sara; Weiner, Amy; Zhu, Qing; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Crotta, Stefania

    2008-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is still a major public health problem, and the events leading to hepatocyte infection are not yet fully understood. Combining confocal microscopy with biochemical analysis and studies of infection requirements using pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNAs, we show here that engagement of CD81 activates the Rho GTPase family members Rac, Rho, and Cdc42 and that the block of these signaling pathways drastically reduces HCV infectivity. Activ...

  18. Perceived risk, stigma, and potential economic impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; Layman, M; Kraus, N; Flynn, J; Chalmers, J; Gesell, G

    1991-12-01

    This study investigates the potential impacts of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, upon tourism, retirement and job-related migration, and business development in Las Vegas and the state. Adverse impacts may be expected to result from perceptions of risk, stigmatization, and socially amplified reactions to "unfortunate events" associated with the repository (major and minor accidents, discoveries of radiation releases, evidence of mismanagement, attempts to sabotage or disrupt the facility, etc.). The conceptual underpinnings of risk perception, stigmatization, and social amplification are discussed and empirical data are presented to demonstrate how nuclear images associated with Las Vegas and the State of Nevada might trigger adverse economic effects. The possibility that intense negative imagery associated with the repository may cause significant harm to Nevada's economy can no longer be ignored by serious attempts to assess the risks and impacts of this unique facility. The behavioral processes described here appear relevant as well to the social impact assessment of any proposed facility that produces, uses, transports, or disposes of hazardous materials.

  19. State-of-the-art for evaluating the potential impact of tectonism and volcanism on a radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-16

    Most estimates of the time required for safe isolation of radioactive wastes from the biosphere range from 100,000 to 1,000,000 years. For such long time spans, it is necessary to assess the potential effects of geologic processes such as volcanism and tectonic activity on the integrity of geologic repositories. Predictions of geologic phenomena can be based on probabilistic models, which assume a random distribution of events. The necessary historic and geologic records are rarely available to provide an adequate data base for such predictions. The observed distribution of volcanic and tectonic activity is not random, and appears to be controlled by extremely complex deterministic processes. The advent of global plate tectonic theory in the past two decades has been a giant step toward understanding these processes. At each potential repository site, volcanic and tectonic processes should be evaluated to provide the most thorough possible understanding of those deterministic processes. Based on this knowledge, judgements will have to be made as to whether or not the volcanic and tectonic processes pose unacceptable risk to the integrity of the repository. This report describes the potential hazards associated with volcanism and tectonism, and the means for evaluating these processes.

  20. Deployment of a highly secure clinical data repository in an insecure international environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Henry; Reti, Shane; Kaldany, Eli; Safran, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We have designed and deployed a novel approach to protecting Personal Healthcare Information in environments where a data center is remote and its physical security cannot be assured. Our "KeyServer" methodology uses a server-client-server architecture to dynamically serve keys from a distant server in a separate secure data center in the US. The approach combines pre-existing and novel techniques into a layered protective barrier around compromise of patient data. We describe how this technology provides scalable security that makes security breaches highly unlikely. With some careful planning a Clinical Data Repositories fed by Electronic Health Records can be placed in relatively insecure settings, with a high-level of security surrounding data theft, even in the event of hardware theft. Such security architecture is ideal for not only developing nations, but for the evolution of health information to cloud computing platforms.

  1. Proceedings of the 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research Design and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leigh, Christi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Walter [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm [DBE Technology, Peine (Germany); Von Berlepsche, Thilo [DBE Technology, Peine (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    The 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Santa Fe New Mexico September 8-10, 2014. The forty seven registered participants were equally divided between the United States (US) and Germany, with one participant from The Netherlands. The agenda for the 2014 workshop was under development immediately upon finishing the 4th Workshop. Ongoing, fundamental topics such as thermomechanical behavior of salt, plugging and sealing, the safety case, and performance assessment continue to advance the basis for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt formations. The utility of a salt underground research laboratory (URL) remains an intriguing concept engendering discussion of testing protocol. By far the most interest in this years’ workshop pertained to operational safety. Given events at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this discussion took on a new sense of relevance and urgency.

  2. Data Publication: The Role of Community-Based, Disciplinary Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Kerstin; Hsu, Leslie

    2013-04-01

    Data publication is increasingly recognized as a new paradigm to achieve broad and open access to data for their re-use while ensuring proper citation and attribution of the data to their creator. Current models of data publication include special data journals, institutional repositories, and programmatic or disciplinary repositories. This presentation focuses on the critical role that community-based disciplinary repositories should play, using the example of the IEDA data facility (www.iedadata.org). Disciplinary repositories ensure that data publication is successfully implemented and adopted by the science community, so that it can fulfill its promise to advance data reuse, enhance reproducibility of scientific results, and offer new opportunities for scientific discoveries. Disciplinary repositories are ideally poised to address the challenges that can lead to 'data reuse failure' (Rees 2010), which in turn obstruct the successful development and implementation of new data infrastructures for the sciences. Among these challenges are: professional motivation for investigators to publish the data; effort and economic burden of publication; discovery and long-term accessibility of data; adequate documentation of data provenance (measured parameters, uncertainty, reproducibility, materials, methods, data manipulation); and usability (file formats, interfaces to software tools for data analysis, visualization, modeling). The relevant function of a disciplinary repository is to coordinate and bridge the needs of its community with recognized requirements for data curation and demands of evolving technologies. IEDA meets that function, gathering regular guidance from the community, developing community-approved best practices and guidelines; providing guidance and tools to investigators that facilitate the process of data publication; and performing data quality control. IEDA's sustainable infrastructure supports the discovery and access of the data, and IEDA

  3. Effects of adverse early-life events on aggression and anti-social behaviours in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, J; Harold, G; Sandi, C; Neumann, I D

    2014-10-01

    We review the impact of early adversities on the development of violence and antisocial behaviour in humans, and present three aetiological animal models of escalated rodent aggression, each disentangling the consequences of one particular adverse early-life factor. A review of the human data, as well as those obtained with the animal models of repeated maternal separation, post-weaning social isolation and peripubertal stress, clearly shows that adverse developmental conditions strongly affect aggressive behaviour displayed in adulthood, the emotional responses to social challenges and the neuronal mechanisms activated by conflict. Although similarities between models are evident, important differences were also noted, demonstrating that the behavioural, emotional and neuronal consequences of early adversities are to a large extent dependent on aetiological factors. These findings support recent theories on human aggression, which suggest that particular developmental trajectories lead to specific forms of aggressive behaviour and brain dysfunctions. However, dissecting the roles of particular aetiological factors in humans is difficult because these occur in various combinations; in addition, the neuroscientific tools employed in humans still lack the depth of analysis of those used in animal research. We suggest that the analytical approach of the rodent models presented here may be successfully used to complement human findings and to develop integrative models of the complex relationship between early adversity, brain development and aggressive behaviour.

  4. SR-CAN - a safety assessment of a repository of spent nuclear fuel: canister performance and effects on the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, U.; Kumblad, L. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    During the next few years the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) performs site investigations at two sites in Sweden for a future repository of spent nuclear fuel. Parallel an encapsulation plant is planned to encapsulate the spent fuel in copper canisters according to the KBS-3 method. The purpose of the SR-CAN safety assessment is to show the performance of the canister isolations at different sites for a repository at 500 meters depth in crystalline rock. Moreover, SR-CAN provides an example how the site specific safety assessment of a deep repository will be made in year 2006-2008. To be able to calculate dose and risk for humans and the environment, new assessment methods were developed for the biosphere. These methods were based on a system ecological approach and used knowledge from landscape ecology to provide an integrated approach with hydrology and geology considering the discharges in a watershed and calculating consequences in terrestrial and aquatic (freshwater and marine) ecosystems. A range of methods and tools were developed in GIS and Matlab/Simulink to be able to model and understand the important processes in the landscape today and during the next few thousands of years. In this paper, an overview of the program and the novel methods are presented, as well as some examples from performance calculations from a watershed in the Forsmark area considering effects on humans and ecosystems. (author)

  5. Evaluation on radiation protection aspect and radiological risk at Mukim Belanja repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmi, Siti Nur Aisyah, E-mail: nuclear.aisyahazmi@gmail.com; Kenoh, Hamiza; Majid, Amran Ab. [Nuclear Technology Research Centre, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Asian Rare Earth (ARE) is a locally incorporated company that operated a mineral processing operation to extract rare earth element. ARE has received much attention from the public since the beginning of their operation until the work of decommissioning and decontamination of the plant. Due to the existence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in the residue, the decommissioning and disposal was done by the company in collaboration with the Perak State Government and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). The main objective of this study is to review the level of compliance of the existing Radiation Protection Regulations enforced by AELB particularly in the achievement of allowed exposure dose limit. The next objective was to study the impact of the construction of the Mukim Belanja Repository to workers and public. This study was conducted by analyzing documents that were issued and conducting the area monitoring using a Geiger Muller detector (GM) and Sodium Iodide (NaI(Tl)) survey meters. The measurements were made at 5 cm and 1 m from the ground surface at 27 measurement stations. The external doses measured were within the background levels of the surrounding area. The annual effective dose using the highest reading at 5 cm and 1 m from ground surface by GM detector was calculated to be 1.36 mSv/year and 1.21 mSv/year respectively. Whereas the annual effective dose using the highest reading at 5 cm and 1 m from ground surface by using NaI(Tl) detector was calculated to be 3.31 mSv/year and 2.83 mSv/year respectively. The calculated cancer risks from the study showed that the risk is small compared with the risks derived from natural radiation based on global annual radiation dose to humans. This study therefore indicated that the repository is able to constrain the dose exposure from the disposed NORM waste. The study also revealed that the construction of the repository has complied with all the rules and regulations subjected to

  6. Evaluation on radiation protection aspect and radiological risk at Mukim Belanja repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Siti Nur Aisyah; Kenoh, Hamiza; Majid, Amran Ab.

    2016-01-01

    Asian Rare Earth (ARE) is a locally incorporated company that operated a mineral processing operation to extract rare earth element. ARE has received much attention from the public since the beginning of their operation until the work of decommissioning and decontamination of the plant. Due to the existence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in the residue, the decommissioning and disposal was done by the company in collaboration with the Perak State Government and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). The main objective of this study is to review the level of compliance of the existing Radiation Protection Regulations enforced by AELB particularly in the achievement of allowed exposure dose limit. The next objective was to study the impact of the construction of the Mukim Belanja Repository to workers and public. This study was conducted by analyzing documents that were issued and conducting the area monitoring using a Geiger Muller detector (GM) and Sodium Iodide (NaI(Tl)) survey meters. The measurements were made at 5 cm and 1 m from the ground surface at 27 measurement stations. The external doses measured were within the background levels of the surrounding area. The annual effective dose using the highest reading at 5 cm and 1 m from ground surface by GM detector was calculated to be 1.36 mSv/year and 1.21 mSv/year respectively. Whereas the annual effective dose using the highest reading at 5 cm and 1 m from ground surface by using NaI(Tl) detector was calculated to be 3.31 mSv/year and 2.83 mSv/year respectively. The calculated cancer risks from the study showed that the risk is small compared with the risks derived from natural radiation based on global annual radiation dose to humans. This study therefore indicated that the repository is able to constrain the dose exposure from the disposed NORM waste. The study also revealed that the construction of the repository has complied with all the rules and regulations subjected to it. The

  7. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Evolution report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Paul; Johnson, Lawrence; Snellman, Margit; Pastina, Barbara; Gribi, Peter

    2008-01-15

    important differences between KBS-3H and KBS-3V occur. The description of evolution in this phase addresses in turn the (i), thermal evolution, (ii), groundwater flow and evolution of groundwater composition, (iii), mechanical evolution, (iv), saturation and buffer swelling, (v) evolution of chemical and microbiological conditions and (vi), evolution of the canister surface and interior. A key issue is the local variability of the near-field rock around the KBS-3H repository drifts, which, together with the effects of gas from the corrosion of the supercontainer shells and other steel repository components, results in widely differing saturation times for different drift sections. Nevertheless, even in the tightest drift sections, the buffer is expected to retain its initial water content, and will eventually fully saturate, at which time it is expected to perform its full range of safety functions. In the more distant future, the evolution of conditions at repository depth may be significantly affected by major climate change, and, in particular, by the formation of ice sheets at the ground surface. Key issues, which are common to KBS-3H and KBS.3V, are (i), the possibility that meltwater penetrating to repository depth may lead to some erosion of the buffer, and (ii), the impact of post-glacial earthquakes on canister integrity. The impact of anthropogenic emissions on the magnitude and timing of future major climate changes is a key uncertainty that is also common to the two alternatives. The description of repository evolution provides the basis for the identification of evolution scenarios, an assessment of canister longevity and the analysis of radionuclide release and transport in the event of canister failure. Scenarios involving canister failure and radionuclide release are, however, also identified based on the discussion in this report and in the KBS-3H Process Report. These are initiated, in the first place, by: . the presence of an initial, penetrating defect

  8. A Summary of Properties Used to Evaluate INEEL Calcine Disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, C.A.

    2003-07-14

    To support evaluations of the direct disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory calcines to the repository at Yucca Mountain, an evaluation of the performance of the calcine in the repository environment must be performed. This type of evaluation demonstrates, through computer modeling and analysis, the impact the calcine would have on the ability of the repository to perform its function of containment of materials during the repository lifetime. This report discusses parameters that were used in the scoping evaluation conducted in FY 2003. It provides nominal values for the parameters, with explanation of the source of the values, and how the values were modified for use in repository analysis activities.

  9. The Geologic Basis for Volcanic Hazard Assessment for the Proposed High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Perry

    2002-10-15

    Studies of volcanic risk to the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain have been ongoing for 25 years. These studies are required because three episodes of small-volume, alkalic basaltic volcanism have occurred within 50 km of Yucca Mountain during the Quaternary. Probabilistic hazard estimates for the proposed repository depend on the recurrence rate and spatial distribution of past episodes of volcanism in the region. Several independent research groups have published estimates of the annual probability of a future volcanic disruption of the proposed repository, most of which fall in the range of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -9} per year; similar conclusions were reached. through an extensive expert elicitation sponsored by the Department of Energy in 1995-1996. The estimated probability values are dominated by a regional recurrence rate of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -6} volcanic events per year (equating to recurrence intervals of several hundred thousand years). The recurrence rate, as well as the spatial density of volcanoes, is low compared to most other basaltic volcanic fields in the western United States, factors that may be related to both the tectonic history of the region and a lithospheric mantle source that is relatively cold and not prone to melting. The link between volcanism and tectonism in the Yucca Mountain region is not well understood beyond a general association between volcanism and regional extension, although areas of locally high extension within the region may control the location of some volcanoes. Recently, new geologic data or hypotheses have emerged that could potentially increase past estimates of the recurrence rate, and thus the probability of repository disruption. These are (1) hypothesized episodes of anomalously high strain rate, (2) hypothesized presence of a regional mantle hotspot, and (3) new aeromagnetic data suggesting as many as twelve previously unrecognized volcanoes buried in alluvial-filled basins near

  10. Early events in xenograft development from the human embryonic stem cell line HS181--resemblance with an initial multiple epiblast formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertow, Karin; Cedervall, Jessica; Jamil, Seema; Ali, Rouknuddin; Imreh, Marta P; Gulyas, Miklos; Sandstedt, Bengt; Ahrlund-Richter, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Xenografting is widely used for assessing in vivo pluripotency of human stem cell populations. Here, we report on early to late events in the development of mature experimental teratoma from a well-characterized human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line, HS181. The results show an embryonic process, increasingly chaotic. Active proliferation of the stem cell derived cellular progeny was detected already at day 5, and characterized by the appearance of multiple sites of engraftment, with structures of single or pseudostratified columnar epithelium surrounding small cavities. The striking histological resemblance to developing embryonic ectoderm, and the formation of epiblast-like structures was supported by the expression of the markers OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-4 and KLF4, but a lack of REX1. The early neural marker NESTIN was uniformly expressed, while markers linked to gastrulation, such as BMP-4, NODAL or BRACHYURY were not detected. Thus, observations on day 5 indicated differentiation comparable to the most early transient cell populations in human post implantation development. Confirming and expanding on previous findings from HS181 xenografts, these early events were followed by an increasingly chaotic development, incorporated in the formation of a benign teratoma with complex embryonic components. In the mature HS181 teratomas not all types of organs/tissues were detected, indicating a restricted differentiation, and a lack of adequate spatial developmental cues during the further teratoma formation. Uniquely, a kinetic alignment of rare complex structures was made to human embryos at diagnosed gestation stages, showing minor kinetic deviations between HS181 teratoma and the human counterpart.

  11. Description and utilization of the United States department of defense serum repository: a review of published studies, 1985-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Perdue

    Full Text Available Specimens in the United States Department of Defense (DoD Serum Repository have accumulated in frozen storage since 1985 when the DoD began universal screening for human immunodeficiency virus. Use of the stored serum for health research has been carefully controlled, but the resulting publications have never been systematically identified or described. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC information systems and open (online sites were used as data sources. Through 2012, the repository contained 54,542,658 serum specimens, of which 228,610 (0.42% have been accessed for any purpose. Between 2001 (the first year that comprehensive, digital records were available and 2012, 65.2% of all approved requests for serum were for healthcare or public health investigations, but greater than 99% of all shipped samples were for research. Using two different methods - a structure search of PubMed and an exhaustive online search based on records from AFHSC - we identified 76 articles published between October 1988 and March 2013 that covered a multitude of infectious diseases, injuries, environmental exposures and mental health conditions through analysis of antibodies, biological metabolic, signaling and regulatory substances, Vitamin D, organochlorines, dioxin, omega-3-fatty acid, and portions of human deoxyribonucleic acid. Despite its operational and scientific value, it appears that the DoD Serum Repository has been underutilized. Changes to policy and increased capacity for specimen processing could increase use of the repository without risking privacy or the availability of specimens for the healthcare of individual service members in the future.

  12. Description and Utilization of the United States Department of Defense Serum Repository: A Review of Published Studies, 1985-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Christopher L.; Cost, Angelia A. Eick; Rubertone, Mark V.; Lindler, Luther E.; Ludwig, Sharon L.

    2015-01-01

    Specimens in the United States Department of Defense (DoD) Serum Repository have accumulated in frozen storage since 1985 when the DoD began universal screening for human immunodeficiency virus. Use of the stored serum for health research has been carefully controlled, but the resulting publications have never been systematically identified or described. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC) information systems and open (online) sites were used as data sources. Through 2012, the repository contained 54,542,658 serum specimens, of which 228,610 (0.42%) have been accessed for any purpose. Between 2001 (the first year that comprehensive, digital records were available) and 2012, 65.2% of all approved requests for serum were for healthcare or public health investigations, but greater than 99% of all shipped samples were for research. Using two different methods – a structure search of PubMed and an exhaustive online search based on records from AFHSC – we identified 76 articles published between October 1988 and March 2013 that covered a multitude of infectious diseases, injuries, environmental exposures and mental health conditions through analysis of antibodies, biological metabolic, signaling and regulatory substances, Vitamin D, organochlorines, dioxin, omega-3-fatty acid, and portions of human deoxyribonucleic acid. Despite its operational and scientific value, it appears that the DoD Serum Repository has been underutilized. Changes to policy and increased capacity for specimen processing could increase use of the repository without risking privacy or the availability of specimens for the healthcare of individual service members in the future. PMID:25723497

  13. Disruptive Event Biosphere Doser Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2000-12-28

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to, and the results of, development of radionuclide-, exposure scenario-, and ash thickness-specific Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postulated postclosure extrusive igneous event (volcanic eruption) at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations were done for seventeen radionuclides. The selection of radionuclides included those that may be significant dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, as well as radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure. The approach documented in this report takes into account human exposure during three different phases at the time of, and after, volcanic eruption. Calculations of disruptive event BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. The pathway analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. BDCFs for volcanic eruption, when combined with the concentration of radioactivity deposited by eruption on the soil surface, allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculation of radioactivity deposition is outside the scope of this report and so is the transport of contaminated ash from the volcano to the location of the receptor. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), in which doses are calculated to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  14. Compliance with minimum information guidelines in public metabolomics repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Rachel A; Salek, Reza; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2017-09-26

    The Metabolomics Standards Initiative (MSI) guidelines were first published in 2007. These guidelines provided reporting standards for all stages of metabolomics analysis: experimental design, biological context, chemical analysis and data processing. Since 2012, a series of public metabolomics databases and repositories, which accept the deposition of metabolomic datasets, have arisen. In this study, the compliance of 399 public data sets, from four major metabolomics data repositories, to the biological context MSI reporting standards was evaluated. None of the reporting standards were complied with in every publicly available study, although adherence rates varied greatly, from 0 to 97%. The plant minimum reporting standards were the most complied with and the microbial and in vitro were the least. Our results indicate the need for reassessment and revision of the existing MSI reporting standards.

  15. An Open Challenge Problem Repository for Systems Supporting Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Felty

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of logical frameworks support the use of higher-order abstract syntax in representing formal systems; however, each system has its own set of benchmarks. Even worse, general proof assistants that provide special libraries for dealing with binders offer a very limited evaluation of such libraries, and the examples given often do not exercise and stress-test key aspects that arise in the presence of binders. In this paper we design an open repository ORBI (Open challenge problem Repository for systems supporting reasoning with BInders. We believe the field of reasoning about languages with binders has matured, and a common set of benchmarks provides an important basis for evaluation and qualitative comparison of different systems and libraries that support binders, and it will help to advance the field.

  16. The Peer Review Process: An Expanded Role for Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Richardson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer review has been regarded as a cornerstone of scientific research for a considerable time. Journals seeking to attract high quality scholarship rely on peer review to maintain their credentials in the publishing industry. However, over a period of time—and especially given the advent of the Internet—complaints have arisen from authors, reviewers and even editors as to the efficacy of the system. The authors outline a range of models which have evolved that either complement or replace evaluation processes which characterise traditional peer review. Research data is presented in the context of quality assessment. The authors introduce several approaches which are utilising repositories to support the process. Consideration is given as to how this might change the current institutional repository environment.

  17. A Miniature Data Repository on a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrios Samourkasidis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates a low-cost, miniature data repository proof-of-concept. Such a system needs to be resilient to power and network failures, and expose adequate processing power for persistent, long-term storage. Additional services are required for interoperable data sharing and visualization. We designed and implemented a software tool called Airchive to run on a Raspberry Pi, in order to assemble a data repository for archiving and openly sharing timeseries data. Airchive employs a relational database for storing data and implements two standards for sharing data (namely the Sensor Observation Service by the Open Geospatial Consortium and the Protocol for Metadata Harvesting by the Open Archives Initiative. The system is demonstrated in a realistic indoor air pollution data acquisition scenario in a four-month experiment evaluating its autonomy and robustness under power and network disruptions. A stress test was also conducted to evaluate its performance against concurrent client requests.

  18. Simulated geophysical monitoring of radioactive waste repository barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, Anton

    Estimation of attenuation of the elastic waves in clays and high clay-content rocks is important for the quality of geophysical methods relying on processing the recorded waveforms. Time-lapse imaging is planned to be employed for monitoring of the condition of high-radioactive waste repositories. Engineers can analyze and optimize configuration of the monitoring system using numerical modelling tools. The reliability of modeling requires proper calibration. The purpose of this thesis is threefold: (i) propose a calibration methodology for the wave propagation tools based on the experimental data, (ii) estimate the attenuation in bentonite as a function of temperature and water content, and (iii) investigate the feasibility of active sonic monitoring of the engineered barriers. The results suggest that pronounced inelastic behavior of bentonite has to be taken into account in geophysical modeling and analysis. The repository--scale models confirm that active sonic monitoring is capable of depicting physical changes in the bentonite barrier.

  19. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation in order to use their resources for preservation n in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework......, and confidentiality. This study further revealed that requirements for the level of bit safety must be supplemented by risk analysis, which needs to involve elements of the architecture; for example, the number of copies and how independence between the copies is ensured. The paper describes bit repository...... architecture and its strengths in being flexible in order to offer differentiated services with respect to, among other things, bit safety and cost. Furthermore, the challenges in formulating various aspects, such as risk requirements, are described....

  20. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation, in order to use their resources for preservation in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework......, and confidentiality. This study furthermore revealed that requirements for the level of bit safety must be supplemented by risk analysis, which needs to involve elements of the architecture, e.g. the number of copies and how independence between the copies is ensured. The paper describes the bit repository...... architecture, its strengths in being flexible in order to offer differentiated services with respect to, among other things, bit safety and cost. Furthermore, the challenges in formulating e.g. risk requirements are described....