WorldWideScience

Sample records for human ethics based

  1. Basing Science Ethics on Respect for Human Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aközer, Mehmet; Aközer, Emel

    2016-12-01

    A "no ethics" principle has long been prevalent in science and has demotivated deliberation on scientific ethics. This paper argues the following: (1) An understanding of a scientific "ethos" based on actual "value preferences" and "value repugnances" prevalent in the scientific community permits and demands critical accounts of the "no ethics" principle in science. (2) The roots of this principle may be traced to a repugnance of human dignity, which was instilled at a historical breaking point in the interrelation between science and ethics. This breaking point involved granting science the exclusive mandate to pass judgment on the life worth living. (3) By contrast, respect for human dignity, in its Kantian definition as "the absolute inner worth of being human," should be adopted as the basis to ground science ethics. (4) The pathway from this foundation to the articulation of an ethical duty specific to scientific practice, i.e., respect for objective truth, is charted by Karl Popper's discussion of the ethical principles that form the basis of science. This also permits an integrated account of the "external" and "internal" ethical problems in science. (5) Principles of the respect for human dignity and the respect for objective truth are also safeguards of epistemic integrity. Plain defiance of human dignity by genetic determinism has compromised integrity of claims to knowledge in behavioral genetics and other behavioral sciences. Disregard of the ethical principles that form the basis of science threatens epistemic integrity.

  2. A code of ethics for evidence-based research with ancient human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreissl Lonfat, Bettina M; Kaufmann, Ina Maria; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    As clinical research constantly advances and the concept of evolution becomes a strong and influential part of basic medical research, the absence of a discourse that deals with the use of ancient human remains in evidence-based research is becoming unbearable. While topics such as exhibition and excavation of human remains are established ethical fields of discourse, when faced with instrumentalization of ancient human remains for research (i.e., ancient DNA extractions for disease marker analyses) the answers from traditional ethics or even more practical fields of bio-ethics or more specific biomedical ethics are rare to non-existent. The Centre for Evolutionary Medicine at the University of Zurich solved their needs for discursive action through the writing of a self-given code of ethics which was written in dialogue with the researchers at the Institute and was published online in Sept. 2011: http://evolutionäremedizin.ch/coe/. The philosophico-ethical basis for this a code of conduct and ethics and the methods are published in this article. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions: ethical challenges for early human trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, D J H; Sugarman, J; Bok, H; Blass, D M; Coyle, J T; Duggan, P; Finkel, J; Greely, H T; Hillis, A; Hoke, A; Johnson, R; Johnston, M; Kahn, J; Kerr, D; Kurtzberg, J; Liao, S M; McDonald, J W; McKhann, G; Nelson, K B; Rao, M; Regenberg, A; Siegel, A W; Smith, K; Solter, D; Song, H; Vescovi, A; Young, W; Gearhart, J D; Faden, R

    2008-07-22

    Attempts to translate basic stem cell research into treatments for neurologic diseases and injury are well under way. With a clinical trial for one such treatment approved and in progress in the United States, and additional proposals under review, we must begin to address the ethical issues raised by such early forays into human clinical trials for cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions. An interdisciplinary working group composed of experts in neuroscience, cell biology, bioethics, law, and transplantation, along with leading disease researchers, was convened twice over 2 years to identify and deliberate on the scientific and ethical issues raised by the transition from preclinical to clinical research of cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions. While the relevant ethical issues are in many respects standard challenges of human subjects research, they are heightened in complexity by the novelty of the science, the focus on the CNS, and the political climate in which the science is proceeding. Distinctive challenges confronting US scientists, administrators, institutional review boards, stem cell research oversight committees, and others who will need to make decisions about work involving stem cells and their derivatives and evaluate the ethics of early human trials include evaluating the risks, safety, and benefits of these trials, determining and evaluating cell line provenance, and determining inclusion criteria, informed consent, and the ethics of conducting early human trials in the public spotlight. Further study and deliberation by stakeholders is required to move toward professional and institutional policies and practices governing this research.

  4. Ethics of human testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, D C

    1990-08-01

    What should one do, and why? Anyone asking such questions--and everyone does so hundreds of time each day--is concerned with ethics. Product development and testing raise many ethical questions. Particularly since the rise of 'green consumerism', these are of increasing concern to people outside the cosmetics industry, and so should be of interest to those inside it. The major problem seems to be that of reaching agreement on moral and ethical issues. Overcoming this problem involves investigating what is meant by 'ethics', and how decisions depend not on facts but on 'facts-as-perceived'. These in turn depend on many factors, with one's philosophy being the most fundamental. The range of philosophical options is reviewed and it is proposed that wider discussion is the only just way to achieve agreement. Yet some things are not negotiable. There are certain key moral concepts in terms of which discussion must take place for it to be relevant. In ethics of human testing, 'respect for others', that is, avoiding exploitation, is the principal one. Some synthesis of the key moral concepts like that of Immanuel Kant is therefore recommended as the soundest and most widely acceptable basis for the necessary discussion. Defining the responsible use of human subjects covers a range of issues, moral, historical, legal and professional. For example, there may be ethical difficulties in deliberate damage induction as in SPF and irritancy testing. But above all, to avoid exploitation, there is a moral and also a legal requirement that subjects are truly volunteers. This is the basis of the concept of 'informed consent', required but not generally explained in current professional codes of practice. It is unjustified to exploit those who may be under duress, such as 'in-house volunteers' and those with low incomes. Hence in conclusion, criteria for obtaining valid informed consent are briefly reviewed. By considering issues such as these, we can help ensure that cosmetic

  5. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ethical issues in human genome epidemiology: a case study based on the Japanese American Family Study in Seattle, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Melissa A

    2002-04-01

    Recent completion of the draft sequence of the human genome has been greeted with both excitement and skepticism, and the potential of this accomplishment for advancing public health has been tempered by ethical concerns about the protection of human subjects. This commentary explores ethical issues arising in human genome epidemiology by using a case study approach based on the ongoing Japanese American Family Study at the University of Washington in Seattle (1994-2003). Ethical issues encountered in designing the study, collecting the data, and reporting the study results are considered. When developing studies, investigators must consider whether to restrict the study to specific racial or ethnic groups and whether community involvement is appropriate. Once the study design is in place, further ethical issues emerge, including obtaining informed consent for DNA banking and protecting the privacy and confidentiality of family members. Finally, investigators must carefully consider whether to report genotype results to study participants and whether pedigrees illustrating the results of the study will be published. Overall, the promise of genomics for improving public health must be pursued based on the fundamental ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.

  7. [Scientific ethics of human cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2005-01-01

    True cloning is fission, budding or other types of asexual reproduction. In humans it occurs in monozygote twinning. This type of cloning is ethically and religiously good. Human cloning can be performed by twinning (TWClo) or nuclear transfer (NTClo). Both methods need a zygote or a nuclear transferred cell, obtained in vitro (IVTec). They are under the IVTec ethics. IVTecs use humans (zygotes, embryos) as drugs or things; increase the risk of malformations; increase development and size of abnormalities and may cause long-term changes. Cloning for preserving extinct (or almost extinct) animals or humans when sexual reproduction is not possible is ethically valid. The previous selection of a phenotype in human cloning violates some ethical principles. NTClo for reproductive or therapeutic purposes is dangerous since it increases the risk for nucleotide or chromosome mutations, de-programming or re-programming errors, aging or malignancy of the embryo cells thus obtained.

  8. Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

  9. Moral Entrepreneurship: Resource Based Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, V.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the role of entrepreneurship in business ethics and promotes a resource-based ethics. The need for and usefulness of this form of ethics emerge from an analysis of contemporary business ethics that appears to be inefficacious and from a moral business practice formed out of the

  10. Human Dignity in Contemporary Ethics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this strictly academic book, David. Kirchhoffer processes the complex issues surrounding the concept of human dignity through a clearly defined ethical method. At the outset, he questions whether it is possible to use human dignity as a normative criterion, when empirical research has shown there is no evidence that an ...

  11. Animal ethics based on friendship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fröding, B.; Peterson, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses some aspects of animal ethics from an Aristotelian virtue ethics point of view. Because the notion of friendship (philia) is central to Aristotle's ethical theory, the focus of the article is whether humans and animals can be friends. It is argued that new empirical findings

  12. The Ethics of Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoloth, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    This chapter intends to lay out some essential ethics questions that might frame the next step of space exploration. In this, I undertake two sorts of tasks. The first is to respond to the core ethic question: Is it ethical to travel in space? The second, assuming for the moment that I can convince you that the first premise can be justified, is to comment on what ethical challenges will face us there. It is appropriate to have a philosopher comment on this at the fortieth anniversary celebration, since it was also in 1962 that the National Academy of Science first convened a panel of philosophers to comment on space travel. They asked at that time whether it was indeed a worthwhile pursuit to travel in space and what might be expected of such an effort. What is at stake in any such boundary crossing is how the changing of essential human perimeters changes our own moral status. Will such boundary crossing worsen our human condition, or will it enhance it? In this way, the geopolitical quest is then linked to the quest for ontology, Pisarro hunting for the fountain of youth, for gold, and for territory. What follows are a series of ethical claims that link the problem of discovery in the larger world and the attendant ethical dilemmas of our explorations, as well as how this exploration alters our concepts of life on Earth. In this, the role of the ethicist is to function as both a skeptic and a stranger, aware of the optimism of science and the pessimism of philosophy.

  13. Advance Directives of Will (Living Will: Ethical and Legal Implications Based on the Principle of Dignity of Human Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Alkimim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, with methodology of philosophical, bibliographical and documentary research intends to apply the principle of dignity of human person to the vicissitudes around the advance directives of will, to the ethical aspects disciplined by the Code of Medical Ethics, as well as to what regards the legal aspects, involving the Federal Constitution, the Civil Code, the Code of Medical Ethics and the Resolution 1995/2012 (CFM. The principle of dignity of human person along with the consequent application in the principles of bioethics is considered in a personalistic perspective. This kind of approach is indicative of the interdisciplinarity of bioethics.

  14. Perspective Intercultural Bioethics and Human Rights: the search for instruments for resolving ethical conflicts culturally based.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline ALBUQUERQUE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to a deeper reflection on intercultural conflicts within the bioethics scope, and to point out the problem of using human rights as a theoretical normative mediator of the conflicts in bioethics that bear elements of interculturalism. The methodological steps adopted in this inquiry were: analysis of the concept of intercultural conflict in bioethics, from the perception developed by Colectivo Amani; study of human rights as tools of the culture of human beings, based on Bauman’s and Beauchamp’s theories; investigation of the toolsthat human rights offer so as to solve intercultural conflicts in bioethics. It was concluded that intercultural bioethics must incorporate to its prescriptive and descriptive tasks norms and institutions of human rights that ensure the participation and social integration of the individuals from communities that are in cultural conflict. Such measure will act as instrumentsfor the solution of intercultural conflicts.

  15. Ethical considerations with regard to the sanctity of human life

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    believe that it is ethical to perform abortion or euthanasia, whatever the circumstances. The problem inherent in discussing these core beliefs is that almost all debate is based on the premise that the sanctity of human life is paramount, and that to kill a human being, whether by abortion or euthanasia, is ethically wrong.

  16. Overview on business ethics and human resources management ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Cãtãlina Bonciu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary business world ethics represents one of the most exciting challenges,precisely because there is still no universally valid modality for solving a problem of this kind. Adopting anethic personal behavior does not always ensure winning in the problems regarding the actual business, norin the organizational behavior itself. The personal values, either native or gained by an individual throughouthis socializing do not represent a support or advantage in the attitude towards the economic life. What is it that actually concerns the managers:to succeed in their activity or to have an ethic activity? A successful business is necessarily an ethic one, or one lacking ethics? In particular, should the human resources manager choose the human factor of solid moral and ethic grounds, or the one exclusively focused on money quantifiable performance?

  17. The ethics of human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carson

    2005-03-01

    This article addresses the question of whether human reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples who would choose cloning as a way to have a genetically related child. At present, the risk of congenital anomalies constitutes a compelling argument against human reproductive cloning. The article explores whether reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable if, at some future time, cloning becomes possible without an elevated risk of anomalies. It is argued that freedom to use cloning is a form of procreative freedom and, as such, deserves respect. All of the objections that have been raised against human reproductive cloning fall under three main categories: those that appeal to the interests of the child, those based on consequences for society, and those arising from teleological views. Objections that appeal to the child's interests are, in turn, of two main kinds: consequentialist and deontological. All of these types of objections are examined, and it is found that each involves serious problems that prevent it from being a reasonable objection in the context of the infertility cases considered. It is concluded that human reproductive cloning would be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples, provided that it could be performed without an elevated risk of anomalies.

  18. Human research ethics committees: examining their roles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn; Rosenthal, Doreen; Bolitho, Annie

    2012-07-01

    Considerable time and resources are invested in the ethics review process. We present qualitative data on how human research ethics committee members and health researchers perceive the role and function of the committee. The findings are based on interviews with 34 Australian ethics committee members and 54 health researchers. Although all participants agreed that the primary role of the ethics committee was to protect participants, there was disagreement regarding the additional roles undertaken by committees. Of particular concern were the perceptions from some ethics committee members and researchers that ethics committees were working to protect the institution's interests, as well as being overprotective toward research participants. This has the potential to lead to poor relations and mistrust between ethics committees and researchers.

  19. Human Research Ethics Committees in Technical Universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koepsell, D.R.; Brinkman, W.P.; Pont, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Human research ethics has developed in both theory and practice mostly from experiences in medical research. Human participants, however, are used in a much broader range of research than ethics committees oversee, including both basic and applied research at technical universities. Although

  20. Human research ethics committees in technical universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, David; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Pont, Sylvia

    2014-07-01

    Human research ethics has developed in both theory and practice mostly from experiences in medical research. Human participants, however, are used in a much broader range of research than ethics committees oversee, including both basic and applied research at technical universities. Although mandated in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia, non-medical research involving humans need not receive ethics review in much of Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Our survey of the top 50 technical universities in the world shows that, where not specifically mandated by law, most technical universities do not employ ethics committees to review human studies. As the domains of basic and applied sciences expand, ethics committees are increasingly needed to guide and oversee all such research regardless of legal requirements. We offer as examples, from our experience as an ethics committee in a major European technical university, ways in which such a committee provides needed services and can help ensure more ethical studies involving humans outside the standard medical context. We provide some arguments for creating such committees, and in our supplemental article, we provide specific examples of cases and concerns that may confront technical, engineering, and design research, as well as outline the general framework we have used in creating our committee. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Ethical reflections on Evidence Based Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corrao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to Potter’s point of view, medical ethics is the science of survival, a bridge between humanistic and scientific culture. The working out of judgements on right or wrong referred to the human being are studied by this science. Methodological quality is fundamental in clinical research, and several technical issues are of paramount importance in trying to answer to the final question “what is the true, the right thing?”. We know they are essential aspects as in medical ethics as in evidence based practice. AIM OF THE STUDY The aim of this paper is to talk about relationships and implications between ethical issues and Evidence Based Medicine (EBM. DISCUSSION EBM represents a new paradigm that introduces new concepts to guide medical-decision making and health-care planning. Its principles are deeply rooted in clinical research methodology since information are derived from sound studies of strong quality. Health-care professionals have to deal with methodological concepts for critical appraisal of literature and implementation of evidences in clinical practice and healthcare planning. The central role of EBM in medical ethics is obvious, but a risk could be possible. The shift from Hippocratic point of view to community-centred one could lose sight of the centrality of the patient. CONCLUSION Both EBM principles and the needs to adequately response to economic restrictions urge a balance between individual and community ethics. All this has to represent an opportunity to place the patient at the centre of medical action considering at the same time community ethics as systemic aim, but without forgetting the risk that economic restrictions push towards veterinary ethics where herd is central and individual needs do not exist.

  2. Painful dilemmas: the ethics of animal-based pain research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I. A. S.

    2009-01-01

    While it has the potential to deliver important human benefits, animal-based pain research raises ethical questions, because it involves inducing pain in sentient beings. Ethical decision-making, connected with this variety of research, requires informed harm-benefit analysis, and the aim of this...

  3. Human Genome Editing and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Singh, Bahadur

    2016-04-01

    Editing human germline genes may act as boon in some genetic and other disorders. Recent editing of the genome of the human embryo with the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool generated a debate amongst top scientists of the world for the ethical considerations regarding its effect on the future generations. It needs to be seen as to what transformation human gene editing brings to humankind in the times to come.

  4. [Scientific ethics and the use of human material or data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2012-03-01

    A scientific article censured by superposing obstacles to its reading remembers the censure of Galileo made by the Inquisition. The censure followed the failure to obtain the informed consent (IC) to disclose results of old samples. At present, the use of collected data or samples for a new research needs a new IC, in most ethical protocols. The Helsinki Code allows the research ethics committees the authorization for the use of that information. This norm is founded rather in commercial, legal or protective arguments than in ethical bases. This article criticizes this norm from the Scientific Ethics viewpoint because: i) the ownership of the genome and environment that originate a person is not of such person but of the human society and Homo sapiens species, ii) a person is not the unique owner of that information; laboratories, institutions, health services and research teams add constituents to it, iii) several violations to this norm occurring in medical, labor, legal and social practice show it as biased against science, iv) if this stored information and its use are beneficial for humankind (its proper owner) it is ethically obligatory to use it. It is proposed to create an anonymous World Bank for Human Information with open access and universal transparency. This universal collection of data handled under universal accepted ethical norms should prevent exclusive private use of public information, non-publication of negative results, illicit and unethical use of human data.

  5. Future global ethics: environmental change, embedded ethics, evolving human identity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Work on global ethics looks at ethical connections on a global scale. It should link closely to environmental ethics, recognizing that we live in unified social-ecological systems, and to development ethics, attending systematically to the lives and interests of

  6. "Goodbye Dolly?" The ethics of human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J

    1997-01-01

    The ethical implications of human clones have been much alluded to, but have seldom been examined with any rigour. This paper examines the possible uses and abuses of human cloning and draws out the principal ethical dimensions, both of what might be done and its meaning. The paper examines some of the major public and official responses to cloning by authorities such as President Clinton, the World Health Organisation, the European parliament, UNESCO, and others and reveals their inadequacies as foundations for a coherent public policy on human cloning. The paper ends by defending a conception of reproductive rights of "procreative autonomy" which shows human cloning to be not inconsistent with human rights and dignity. PMID:9451604

  7. Ethical issues of perinatal human gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J C; Richter, G

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines some key ethical issues raised by trials of human gene therapy in the perinatal period--i.e., in infants, young children, and the human fetus. It describes five resources in ethics for researchers' considerations prior to such trials: (1) the history of ethical debate about gene therapy, (2) a literature on the relevance of major ethical principles for clinical research, (3) a body of widely accepted norms and practices, (4) knowledge of paradigm cases, and (5) researchers' own professional integrity. The paper also examines ethical concerns that must be met prior to any trial: benefits to and safety of subjects, informed assent of children and informed parental permission, informed consent of pregnant women in fetal gene therapy, protection of privacy, and concerns about fairness in the selection of subjects. The paper criticizes the position that cases of fetal gene therapy should be restricted only to those where the pregnant woman has explicitly refused abortion. Additional topics include concerns about genetic enhancement and germ-line gene therapy.

  8. The main elements of Erich Fromm's humane ethic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić Saduša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Erich Fromm contributed to social science mostly by his detailed theory of social character. Besides, he was interested in ethics. Even more - considering Fromm, human nature is strictly connected with ethics. He asks if there is foundation to establish some universal, absolute ethic? What is authority, and is there a connection between authority and ethics, and humanity and ethics? Is character of any relevance to ethics? Is human good or bad? What is the connection between human nature and social value? Fromm defines terms clearly, and this paper is brief introduction to those terms and to answers that Fromm gave to upper questions.

  9. Global Journalism Ethics: Widening the Conceptual Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. A. Ward

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For most of its history, journalism ethics has been highly practical in aim, in theorizing, and in application. Inquiry analyzed what was occurring inside newsrooms and its scope was parochial. Starting from the premise that a parochial approach no longer serves journalism, the study of journalism, or the public of journalism, in this paper it is argued that a major task of journalism ethics is to construct a more non-parochial ethics—a global journalism ethics informed by critical work from various disciplines and cultures. The discussion presented charts the trajectory of journalism ethics over several centuries to explain the role of parochialism and the limits of theorizing in journalism ethics. This historical perspective also serves as a foundation for outlining what a future journalism ethics might look like, if we widen the conceptual base by incorporating new knowledge of media from outside journalism ethics, and by redefining journalism ethics as a global enterprise.

  10. The treatment of sex offenders: evidence, ethics, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgden, Astrid; Cucolo, Heather

    2011-09-01

    Public policy is necessarily a political process with the law and order issue high on the political agenda. Consequently, working with sex offenders is fraught with legal and ethical minefields, including the mandate that community protection automatically outweighs offender rights. In addressing community protection, contemporary sex offender treatment is based on management rather than rehabilitation. We argue that treatment-as-management violates offender rights because it is ineffective and unethical. The suggested alternative is to deliver treatment-as-rehabilitation underpinned by international human rights law and universal professional ethics. An effective and ethical community-offender balance is more likely when sex offenders are treated with respect and dignity that, as human beings, they have a right to claim.

  11. A Theoretical Framework for Human and Veterinary Medical Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In their practice, physicians and veterinarians need to resort to an array of ethical competences. As a teaching topic, however, there is no accepted gold standard for human medical ethics, and veterinary medical ethics is not yet well established. This paper provides a reflection on the underlying aims of human and veterinary medical ethics…

  12. Ethical human resource management: a critical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    In modern day, Human Resource Management (HRM) is seen as a mere variant of management control aiming intentionally to ‘colonize’ the identity of the individual employee which points to the contradictions between the idealised HRM theories and its practice commonly referred to as the difference between rhetoric and reality. These critical analyses suggest that HRM reflects a historical shift in the way work is defined and managed and research has to be undertaken on how morality and ethics ma...

  13. Human reproduction: possibilities and ethical borders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pr RenĂŠ Frydman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive medicine is a new important field in all the countries. The possibilities are tremendous, therefore we have to decide if limits are necessary or should we consider that everything that have been initiated (as clone, gene transfer... can be apply in humans. That will be the challenge of a global ethical approach in each country with their culture, morality, guidelines or laws.

  14. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral.

  15. [Neuroethics: Ethical Endowments of Human Brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Moratalla, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of Neuroethics. Neurosciences demonstrate which cerebral areas are active and inactive whilst people decide how to act when facing a moral dilemma; in this way we know the correlation between determined cerebral areas and our human acts. We can explain how the ″ethical endowments″ of each person, common to all human beings, is ″embedded″ in the dynamic of cerebral flows. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. The outcome of man's natural inclinations is on one hand linked to instinctive systems of animal survival and to basic emotions, and on the other, to the life of each individual human uninhibited by automatism of the biological laws, because he is governed by the laws of freedom. The capacity to formulate an ethical judgement is an innate asset of the human mind.

  16. Ethical leadership, employee well-being, and helping: the moderating role of human resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, K.; Boon, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this multi-source study, we examined the link between ethical leadership, human resource management (HRM), employee well-being, and helping. Based on the Conservation of Resources Theory, we proposed a mediated moderation model linking ethical leadership to helping, which includes well-being as

  17. Perspective: Medical education in medical ethics and humanities as the foundation for developing medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    Medical education accreditation organizations require medical ethics and humanities education to develop professionalism in medical learners, yet there has never been a comprehensive critical appraisal of medical education in ethics and humanities. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) I Workshop, convened in May 2010, undertook the first critical appraisal of the definitions, goals, and objectives of medical ethics and humanities teaching. The authors describe assembling a national expert panel of educators representing the disciplines of ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This panel was tasked with describing the major pedagogical goals of art, ethics, history, and literature in medical education, how these disciplines should be integrated with one another in medical education, and how they could be best integrated into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The authors present the recommendations resulting from the PRIME I discussion, centered on three main themes. The major goal of medical education in ethics and humanities is to promote humanistic skills and professional conduct in physicians. Patient-centered skills enable learners to become medical professionals, whereas critical thinking skills assist learners to critically appraise the concept and implementation of medical professionalism. Implementation of a comprehensive medical ethics and humanities curriculum in medical school and residency requires clear direction and academic support and should be based on clear goals and objectives that can be reliably assessed. The PRIME expert panel concurred that medical ethics and humanities education is essential for professional development in medicine.

  18. Ethical and Safety Issues of Stem Cell-Based Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volarevic, Vladislav; Markovic, Bojana Simovic; Gazdic, Marina; Volarevic, Ana; Jovicic, Nemanja; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Armstrong, Lyle; Djonov, Valentin; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2018-01-01

    Results obtained from completed and on-going clinical studies indicate huge therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapy in the treatment of degenerative, autoimmune and genetic disorders. However, clinical application of stem cells raises numerous ethical and safety concerns. In this review, we provide an overview of the most important ethical issues in stem cell therapy, as a contribution to the controversial debate about their clinical usage in regenerative and transplantation medicine. We describe ethical challenges regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, emphasizing that ethical dilemma involving the destruction of a human embryo is a major factor that may have limited the development of hESC-based clinical therapies. With previous derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) this problem has been overcome, however current perspectives regarding clinical translation of iPSCs still remain. Unlimited differentiation potential of iPSCs which can be used in human reproductive cloning, as a risk for generation of genetically engineered human embryos and human-animal chimeras, is major ethical issue, while undesired differentiation and malignant transformation are major safety issues. Although clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has shown beneficial effects in the therapy of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, the ability to promote tumor growth and metastasis and overestimated therapeutic potential of MSCs still provide concerns for the field of regenerative medicine. This review offers stem cell scientists, clinicians and patient's useful information and could be used as a starting point for more in-depth analysis of ethical and safety issues related to clinical application of stem cells.

  19. The ethics of patenting human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-09-01

    Just as human embryonic stem cell research has generated controversy about the uses of human embryos for research and therapeutic applications, human embryonic stem cell patents raise fundamental ethical issues. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted foundational patents, including a composition of matter (or product) patent to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), the University of Wisconsin-Madison's intellectual property office. In contrast, the European Patent Office rejected the same WARF patent application for ethical reasons. This article assesses the appropriateness of these patents placing the discussion in the context of the deontological and consequentialist ethical issues related to human embryonic stem cell patenting. It advocates for a patent system that explicitly takes ethical factors into account and explores options for new types of intellectual property arrangements consistent with ethical concerns.

  20. The Economics and Ethics of Human Induced Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.; Gattringer, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Human induced climate change poses a series of ethical challenges to the current political economy, although it has often be regarded by economists as only an ethical issue for those concerned about future generations. The central debate in economics has then concerned the rate at which future costs and benefits should be discounted. Indeed the full range of ethical aspects of climate change are rarely even discussed. Despite recent high profile and lengthy academic papers on t...

  1. Ethics creep or governance creep? Challenges for Australian Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Susanna M

    2011-09-01

    Australian Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) have to contend with ever-increasing workloads and responsibilities which go well beyond questions of mere ethics. In this article, I shall examine how the roles of HRECs have changed, and show how this is reflected in the iterations of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research 2007 (NS). In particular I suggest that the focus of the National Statement has shifted to concentrate on matters of research governance at the expense of research ethics, compounded by its linkage to the Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research (2007) in its most recent iteration. I shall explore some of the challenges this poses for HRECs and institutions and the risks it poses to ensuring that Australian researchers receive clear ethical guidance and review.

  2. Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Marc

    2012-09-01

    For centuries, religion and philosophy have been the primary basis for efforts to guide humans to be more ethical. However, training in ethics and religion and imparting positive values and morality tests such as those emanating from the categorical imperative and the Golden Rule have not been enough to protect humankind from its bad behaviors. To improve ethics education educators must better understand aspects of human nature such as those that lead to "self-deception" and "personal bias." Through rationalizations, faulty reasoning and hidden bias, individuals trick themselves into believing there is little wrong with their own unethical behavior. The application of science to human nature offers the possibility of improving ethics education through better self-knowledge. The author recommends a new paradigm for ethics education in contemporary modern society. This includes the creation of a new field called "applied evolutionary neuro-ethics" which integrates science and social sciences to improve ethics education. The paradigm can merge traditional thinking about ethics from religious and philosophical perspectives with new ideas from applied evolutionary neuro-ethics.

  3. Ethical principles for the use of human cellular biotechnologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolpe, Paul Root; Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Borenstein, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in bioengineering promise the possibility of new diagnostic and treatment strategies, novel industrial processes, and innovative approaches to thorny problems in fields such as nutrition, agriculture, and biomanufacturing. As modern genetics has matured and developed technolog......-producing countries of the world, offers a set of ethical principles to contribute to the ethical conversation about human cellular biotechnological research moving forward....

  4. Ethical Issues in the Use of Humans for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaw, W. L.

    The APA Ethical Principles, the University of Georgia policy, standard research texts, and research literature on specific methodologies, all in relation to ethical issues in human research, are discussed. The 10 APA principles state, in essence, that the investigator is responsible for what happens, that confidentiality and the protection of the…

  5. Ethical perception of human gene in transgenic banana | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic banana has been developed to prevent hepatitis B through vaccination. Its production seems to be an ideal alternative for cheaper vaccines. The objective of this paper is to assess the ethical perception of transgenic banana which involved the transfer of human albumin gene, and to compare their ethical ...

  6. Human rights, politics, and reviews of research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyrer, Chris; Kass, Nancy E

    2002-07-20

    Although the human rights movement and the sphere of research ethics have overlapping principles and goals, there has been little attempt to incorporate external political and human rights contexts into research ethics codes or ethics reviews. Every element of a research ethics review--the balance of risks and benefits, the assurance of rights for individual participants, and the fair selection of research populations--can be affected by the political and human rights background in which a study is done. Research that at first seems to be low in risk may become high in risk if implemented in a country where the government might breach the confidentiality of study results or where results might be used to deport a refugee group. Researchers should determine whether research could or should be done by consulting human rights organisations and, when possible, a trusted colleague, to learn the background political context and human rights conditions of the settings in which they propose to do research.

  7. Ethics in Animal-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Dominik; Tolba, René H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of new demands and regulations which have reignited the discussion on ethics in animal-based research. In the light of this development, the present review first presents an overview of underlying core ethical questions and issues. This is followed by an outline of the current discussion on whether animals (used for experimentation) should have rights ascribed to them and whether animals need to have certain characteristics in order to be the beneficiaries of rights. The discourse on concepts of sentience and the 'sociozoological scale' in particular is mapped out in this regard. There follows an outline of relevant ethical positions and current moral approaches to animal-based research (animal rights position, utilitarianism, 'convergence position', intrinsic cultural value of fundamental research, 'contractarianism', anthropocentrism, principle of the three Rs). 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. [Ethics and laws related to human subject research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

    2011-10-01

    Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately.

  9. Transforming educational accountability in medical ethics and humanities education toward professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; Kirch, Darrell G; Brigham, Timothy P; Barzansky, Barbara M; Wear, Stephen; Carrese, Joseph A; Fins, Joseph J; Lederer, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Effectively developing professionalism requires a programmatic view on how medical ethics and humanities should be incorporated into an educational continuum that begins in premedical studies, stretches across medical school and residency, and is sustained throughout one's practice. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education National Conference on Medical Ethics and Humanities in Medical Education (May 2012) invited representatives from the three major medical education and accreditation organizations to engage with an expert panel of nationally known medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This article, based on the views of these representatives and their respondents, offers a future-tense account of how professionalism can be incorporated into medical education.The themes that are emphasized herein include the need to respond to four issues. The first theme highlights how ethics and humanities can provide a response to the dissonance that occurs in current health care delivery. The second theme focuses on how to facilitate preprofessional readiness for applicants through reform of the medical school admission process. The third theme emphasizes the importance of integrating ethics and humanities into the medical school administrative structure. The fourth theme underscores how outcomes-based assessment should reflect developmental milestones for professional attributes and conduct. The participants emphasized that ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that promote professionalism should be taught with accountability, flexibility, and the premise that all these traits are essential to the formation of a modern professional physician.

  10. Ethical issues regarding human cloning: a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Leyla

    2003-05-01

    Advances in cloning technology and successful cloning experiments in animals raised concerns about the possibility of human cloning in recent years. Despite many objections, this is not only a possibility but also a reality. Human cloning is a scientific revolution. However, it also introduces the potential for physical and psychosocial harm to human beings. From this point of view, it raises profound ethical, social and health related concerns. Human cloning would have an impact on the practice of nursing because it could result in the creation of new physiological and psychosocial conditions that would require nursing care. The nursing profession must therefore evaluate the ethics of human cloning, in particular the potential role of nurses. This article reviews the ethical considerations of reproductive human cloning, discusses the main reasons for concern, and reflects a nursing perspective regarding this issue.

  11. The challenge of promoting professionalism through medical ethics and humanities education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen; Lehmann, Lisa S; Nixon, Lois LaCivita; Carrese, Joseph A; Shapiro, Johanna F; Green, Michael J; Kirch, Darrell G

    2013-11-01

    Given recent emphasis on professionalism training in medical schools by accrediting organizations, medical ethics and humanities educators need to develop a comprehensive understanding of this emphasis. To achieve this, the Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) II Workshop (May 2011) enlisted representatives of the three major accreditation organizations to join with a national expert panel of medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. PRIME II faculty engaged in a dialogue on the future of professionalism in medical education. The authors present three overarching themes that resulted from the PRIME II discussions: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.The first theme highlights that education toward professionalism requires transformational change, whereby medical ethics and humanities educators would make explicit the centrality of professionalism to the formation of physicians. The second theme emphasizes that the flourishing of professionalism must be based on first addressing the dysfunctional aspects of the current system of health care delivery and financing that undermine the goals of medical education. The third theme focuses on how ethics and humanities educators must have unity of vision and purpose in order to collaborate and identify how their disciplines advance professionalism. These themes should help shape discussions of the future of medical ethics and humanities teaching.The authors argue that improvement of the ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that fosters professionalism should enhance patient care and be evaluated for its distinctive contributions to educational processes aimed at producing this outcome.

  12. Ethical issues in neonatal research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    Research involving critically ill neonates creates many ethical challenges. Neonatal clinical research has always been hard to perform, is very expensive, and may generate some unique ethical concerns. This article describes some examples of historical and modern controversies in neonatal research, discusses the justification for research involving such vulnerable and fragile patients, clarifies current federal regulations that govern research involving neonates, and suggests ways that clinical investigators can develop and implement ethically grounded human subjects research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The ethics of human genetic intervention: a postmodern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, A R

    1997-03-01

    Gene therapy for a particular disease like Parkinson's involves ethical principles worked out for other diseases. The major ethical issues for gene therapy (and the corresponding ethical principles) are safety (nonmalfeasance), efficacy (beneficence), informed consent (autonomy), and allocation of resources (justice). Yet genetic engineering (germ-line interventions or interventions to enhance human potentialities) raises emotions and fears that might cause resistance to gene therapies. Looking at these technologies in a postmodern perspective helps one to appreciate the issues at stake in social and cultural change with a new technology such as gene therapy. While "modern" technology and ethics have focused on the autonomy of the individual, we are beginning to see a lessening of such emphasis on individualism and autonomy and more emphasis on the health of the population. Such a social change could cause technologies about which society may currently be cautious (such as human genetic interventions) to become more acceptable or even expected.

  14. Ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Barragan, Elena; Mennin, Stewart

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian national curriculum guidelines for undergraduate medicine courses inspired and influenced the groundwork for knowledge acquisition, skills development and the perception of ethical values in the context of professional conduct. The evaluation of ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil, both in courses with active learning processes and in those with traditional lecture learning methodologies. Curricula and teaching projects of 175 Brazilian medical schools were analyzed using a retrospective historical and descriptive exploratory cohort study. Thirty one medical schools were excluded from the study because of incomplete information or a refusal to participate. Active research for information from institutional sites and documents was guided by terms based on 69 DeCS/MeSH descriptors. Curriculum information was correlated with educational models of learning such as active learning methodologies, tutorial discussions with integrated curriculum into core modules, and traditional lecture learning methodologies for large classes organized by disciplines and reviewed by occurrence frequency of ethical themes and average hourly load per semester. Ninety-five medical schools used traditional learning methodologies. The ten most frequent ethical themes were: 1--ethics in research (26); 2--ethical procedures and advanced technology (46); 3--ethic-professional conduct (413). Over 80% of schools using active learning methodologies had between 50 and 100 hours of scheduled curriculum time devoted to ethical themes whereas more than 60% of traditional learning methodology schools devoted less than 50 hours in curriculum time to ethical themes. The data indicates that medical schools that employ more active learning methodologies provide more attention and time to ethical themes than schools with traditional discipline-based methodologies. Given the importance of ethical issues in contemporary medical

  15. Affective Learning: Environmental Ethics and Human Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel P.

    1977-01-01

    This discussion of home economics as a discipline which should focus on its affective foundations, covers the following areas: Affective context of home economics education, the adequacy of the home economics value complex for coping with environmental problems, and toward an acceptable environmental ethic. (SH)

  16. Philanthropy and Human Rights in Business Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2017-01-01

    in the UN Global Compact. Philanthropy has many dimensions; these include ethical, juridical, political, economic and cultural dimensions. In the last years, a lot has been written about philanthropy from a political, sociological, anthropological and managerial perspective. However, an essential question...

  17. Justice in human research ethics. A conceptual and practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Ian; Thomson, Colin J H

    2013-03-01

    One of the core values to be applied by a body reviewing the ethics of human research is justice. The inclusion of justice as a requirement in the ethical review of human research is relatively recent and its utility had been largely unexamined until debates arose about the conduct of international biomedical research in the late 1990s. The subsequent amendment of authoritative documents in ways that appeared to shift the meaning of conceptions of justice generated a great deal of controversy. Another difficulty has been that both the theory and the substance of justice that are applied by researchers or reviewers can be frequently seen to be subjective. Both the concept of justice--hether distributive or commutative--and what counts as a just distribution or exchange--are given different weight and meanings by different people. In this paper, the origins and more recent debates about the requirement to consider justice as a criterion in the ethical review of human research are traced, relevant conceptions of justice are distinguished, and the manner in which they can be applied meaningfully in the ethical review of all human research is identified. We also explain the way that these concepts are articulated in, and the intent and function of, specific paragraphs of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (2007). The National Statement identifies a number of issues that should be considered when a human research ethics committee is reviewing the justice aspects of an application. We provide guidance to researchers as to how they can show that there is a fair distribution of burdens and benefits in the participant experience and the research outcomes. We also provide practical guidance to researches on how to think through issues of justice so that they can demonstrate that the design of their research projects meets this ethical requirement.

  18. Teaching medical students to discern ethical problems in human clinical research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; Warner, Teddy D; Green Hammond, Katherine A; Brody, Janet L; Kaminsky, Alexis; Roberts, Brian B

    2005-10-01

    Investigators and institutional review boards are entrusted with ensuring the conduct of ethically sound human studies. Assessing ethical aspects of research protocols is a key skill in fulfilling this duty, yet no empirically validated method exists for preparing professionals to attain this skill. The authors performed a randomized controlled educational intervention, comparing a criteria-based learning method, a clinical-research- and experience-based learning method, and a control group. All 300 medical students enrolled at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine in 2001 were invited to participate. After a single half-hour educational session, a written posttest of ability to detect ethical problems in hypothetical protocol vignettes was administered. The authors analyzed responses to ten protocol vignettes that had been evaluated independently by experts. For each vignette, a global assessment of the perceived significance of ethical problems and the identification of specific ethical problems were evaluated. Eighty-three medical students (27%) volunteered: 50 (60%) were women and 55 (66%) were first- and second-year students. On global assessments, the criteria-focused group perceived ethical problems as more significant than did the other two groups (p evaluation skills. This work supports the potential value of empirically derived methods for preparing professionals to discern ethical aspects of human studies.

  19. Ethical implications of implantable radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Jaeger, Jan

    2008-08-01

    This article reviews the use of implantable radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags in humans, focusing on the VeriChip (VeriChip Corporation, Delray Beach, FL) and the associated VeriMed patient identification system. In addition, various nonmedical applications for implanted RFID tags in humans have been proposed. The technology offers important health and nonhealth benefits, but raises ethical concerns, including privacy and the potential for coercive implantation of RFID tags in individuals. A national discussion is needed to identify the limits of acceptable use of implantable RFID tags in humans before their use becomes widespread and it becomes too late to prevent misuse of this useful but ethically problematic technology.

  20. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice.

  1. [Ethics, inequality, poverty and human rights in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez De Nucci, Armando M

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to show the existence of important failures in the field of Human Rights and equal possibilities in health. Human rights are analyzed an developed in the field of public and social health in our country. Ethics is the main field proposed to reach solutions in the context on EPEP (Etica para la erradicación de la pobreza).

  2. Organizational Ethics Development and the Human Resource Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Joseph A.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys literature on organizational moral development and describes research methodology employed, summarizes research findings, and examines career implications for human resource professionals. Contends that institutionalizing an ethics program can impact favorably on both the organization and the career of the implementing human resource…

  3. TOXICOLOGICAL RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMANS: ETHICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the need for the Society of Toxicology (SOT) to develop a policy for ethical research in humans, and a review for publication of these studies. Observations on human beings have been the foundation upon which toxicologic knowledge has been built since the in...

  4. Ethics, religion and humanity: Rethinking religion in 21 st century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, there is a relationship between religion, ethics and humanity. However, more often than not, religion is alleged for being a root cause of all human predicaments; that it provides viable and abundant fuel for conflict such that in every continent of the world, there are troubled spots rooted in religious conflicts. Although ...

  5. Special Feature: Ethical Standards of Human Service Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Service Education: A Journal of the National Organization for Human Service Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a code of ethics that reflects the unique history of the human service profession. Provides a definition for human services and gives guidelines in meeting responsibility to clients, to the community and society, and to colleagues. Also provides statements guiding responsibility to the profession, to employers, and to self. (RJM)

  6. Some Ethical Concerns About Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue Liang

    2016-10-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells can be obtained from somatic cells, and their derivation does not require destruction of embryos, thus avoiding ethical problems arising from the destruction of human embryos. This type of stem cell may provide an important tool for stem cell therapy, but it also results in some ethical concerns. It is likely that abnormal reprogramming occurs in the induction of human induced pluripotent stem cells, and that the stem cells generate tumors in the process of stem cell therapy. Human induced pluripotent stem cells should not be used to clone human beings, to produce human germ cells, nor to make human embryos. Informed consent should be obtained from patients in stem cell therapy.

  7. Ethical Decisions in Experience-Based Training and Development Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Michael A.; Wurdinger, Scott

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates how principle and virtue ethics can be applied to decision-making processes in experience-based training and development programs. Principle ethics is guided by predetermined rules and assumes that issues being examined are somewhat similar in context, whereas virtue ethics assumes that "correct behavior" is determined from…

  8. Ethical fundamentals in human subjects research : On equipoise and human dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf - Verhave, R.

    2010-01-01

    In her PhD thesis Rieke van der Graaf has studied how we can ethically justify human subjects research. In particular she has studied two ethical fundamentals that play a key role in the justification process, that of equipoise and human dignity. Equipoise is often taken to mean that

  9. 40 CFR 26.1303 - Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ethical conduct of completed human research. 26.1303 Section 26.1303 Protection of Environment... on the Ethical Conduct of Completed Human Research § 26.1303 Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research. Any person who submits to EPA data derived from human...

  10. The ethics of human-robot relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, M.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, human-robot interactions are constructed according to the rules of human-human interactions inviting users to interact socially with robots. Is there something morally wrong with deceiving humans into thinking they can foster meaningful interactions with a technological object? Or is this

  11. Dolphin natures, human virtues: MacIntyre and ethical naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, Shane Nicholas

    2008-09-01

    Can biological facts explain human morality? Aristotelian 'virtue' ethics has traditionally assumed so. In recent years Alasdair MacIntyre has reintroduced a form of Aristotle's 'metaphysical biology' into his ethics. He argues that the ethological study of dependence and rationality in other species--dolphins in particular--sheds light on how those same traits in the typical lives of humans give rise to the moral virtues. However, some goal-oriented dolphin behaviour appears both dependent and rational in the precise manner which impresses MacIntyre, yet anything but ethically 'virtuous'. More damningly, dolphin ethologists consistently refuse to evaluate such behaviour in the manner MacIntyre claims is appropriate to moral judgement. In light of this, I argue that virtues--insofar as they name a biological or ethological category--do not name a morally significant one.

  12. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London Leslie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter.

  13. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Leslie; Coggon, David; Moretto, Angelo; Westerholm, Peter; Wilks, Martin F; Colosio, Claudio

    2010-08-18

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter.

  14. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

  15. A Selected Review of the Underpinnings of Ethics for Human Performance Technology Professionals--Part One: Key Ethical Theories and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    Provides a review of the key ethical theories and relevant empirical research relating to the practice of human performance technology. Topics addressed include ethics, morals, business ethics, ethics officers, empiricism versus normative ethical theory, consequentialism, utilitarianism, nonconsequentialism, Kohlberg model of cognitive moral…

  16. Ethical downsizing. Managers must focus on justice and human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, L J

    1994-01-01

    It is vital that leaders and managers focus on justice and human dignity in the workplace when faced with the possible need to downsize. First, administrators should clearly identify the goals of work force reduction, evaluate their importance, and consider whether they could be achieved through other means. Once they have made the decision to downsize, top managers must clearly communicate the reasons and the goals to those responsible for identifying the employees affected. Employees selected for layoff should be identified on the basis of the articulated goals for work force reduction, whenever possible. When this is not clear, the tough decisions can be based on a variety of factors: "across-the-board" reductions; employee abilities, qualifications, and performance; diversity goals; seniority; or multiple criteria. It is also important to respect human dignity in the layoff process. Affected employees should be informed in advance and given an honest explanation for the layoff. Ordinarily, they should be encouraged to work until the effective date. All employees need a clear and honest explanation of the reasons for and the expected effects of the layoff. There should be a stress on the free flow of information, without an effort to control it. How downsizing is handled says a lot about the nature of an organization and its leadership. Ethical downsizing is, first of all, a refusal to deny the complexity of the issues and evidence of the organization's commitment to justice and human dignity.

  17. Ethical Leadership and Moral Literacy: Incorporating Ethical Dilemmas in a Case-­Based Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenlink, Patrick M.; Jenlink, Karen Embry

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine an ethical dilemma approach to case-based pedagogy for leadership preparation, which was used in a doctoral studies program. Specifically, the authors argue that preparing educational leaders for the ethical dilemmas and moral decision-making that define schools requires assessing current programs and pedagogical…

  18. The influence of human resource management on improvement of business ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Radenko Maric; Jelena Vemic- Djurkovic

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the importance of practice of human resource management as of a significant driver of business ethics in companies has been considered. The basic premise of the paper is the fact that the company’s main source of unethical behaviour is situated in its people’s activities which further implies that many measures aimed to apply and improve business ethics belong to the domain of human resource management. Based on research results on a sample of 36 enterprises, the paper attempts...

  19. TRAINING IN ETHICS OF HUMAN CAPITAL TO BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyda Ibañez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to interpret training in ethics for action business students an introduction to the economy of the Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences at the University of Carabobo, as part of professional development in business studies. The investigation was addressed within the paradigm post positivist using ethnographic and hermeneutic method, descriptive mode of scientific research and technique participant-observation. It concludes that training in ethics management must transcend the economic theories located in the teleological by financial or economic interests toward the teleological including humanism.

  20. DEVELOPING ETHICAL BEHAVIOURS AT BPK THROUGH HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Setiawan Syukur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the 1945 Constitution, the Audit Board of the Republic of Indonesia (BPK has an important role in fostering good governance and combating corruption in Indonesia’s public sector through its audit works. To be successful, BPK must implement and enforce ethical behaviours within the organisation. There are laws and regulations (e.g., civil servants’ code of ethics and employee discipline and systems, policies, and practices set up by authorities at BPK (e.g., BPK’s code of ethics, whistle-blowing procedure, the Honourary Council of BPK’s Code of Ethics (MKKE, and ethics training that regulate and influence behaviours of employees and members of the board. When reviewing literature, this paper attempts to understand the antecedents of ethical/unethical behaviours in organisations and look for best practices (including human resource management practices in developing ethical behaviours in organisations. It turns out that the ethical frameworks within BPK have a strong theoretical support. Despite the strong theoretical support from the literature, this study attempts to identify gaps between the best practices and ethical frameworks within BPK. In response to the gaps, this study attempts to offer recommendations so as to close the gaps and improve the ethical frameworks within BPK. In the end, this study produces seventeen recommendations. KEYWORDS code of ethics, ethical behaviours, human resource management, ethics audit, and ethical climate survey. ABSTRAK Berdasarkan Undang-undang Dasar 1945, Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan Republik Indonesia (BPK mempunyai peran penting dalam meningkatkan tata kelola pemerintahan yang baik dan memberantas korupsi di sektor publik di Indonesia melalui kegiatan pemeriksaannya. Agar sukses dalam mencapai tujuan tersebut, BPK harus menerapkan dan menegakkan perilaku etis di dalam organisasi. Ada undang-undang dan peraturan peraturan (contoh: kode etik Pegawai Negeri Sipil (PNS dan peraturan disiplin

  1. Ethnographic research with adolescent students: situated fieldwork ethics and ethical principles governing human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Annette

    2009-12-01

    This paper explores ethical dilemmas in situated fieldwork ethics concerning ethnographic studies of adolescent students. While consequentialist and deontological ethics form the basis of the ethical stances shared by ethnographers and research ethics committees, the interpretation of those principles may diverge in school-based ethnography with adolescent students because of the particular role of the adult ethnographer vis-à-vis developmentally immature adolescents not held legally responsible for many of their actions. School ethnographers attempt to build trust with adolescent participants in order to learn about their hidden cultural worlds, which may involve activities that are very harmful to the youths involved. They face many difficult and sometimes unexpected choices, including whether to intervene and how to represent events and adolescents in published findings. Scenarios with examples drawn from research conducted in public high schools are used to illustrate and explicate dilemmas in formal research and latent insider/outsider roles and relations involving harmful adolescent behaviors, advocacy, and psychological trauma. Also examined are analytical procedures used to construct interpretations leading to representations of research participants in the resulting publication.

  2. Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.

  3. Ethics education for health professionals: a values based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbold, Rosemary; Lees, Amanda

    2013-11-01

    It is now widely accepted that ethics is an essential part of educating health professionals. Despite a clear mandate to educators, there are differing approaches, in particular, how and where ethics is positioned in training programmes, underpinning philosophies and optimal modes of assessment. This paper explores varying practices and argues for a values based approach to ethics education. It then explores the possibility of using a web-based technology, the Values Exchange, to facilitate a values based approach. It uses the findings of a small scale study to signal the potential of the Values Exchange for engaging, meaningful and applied ethics education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. References to Human Rights in Codes of Ethics for Psychologists: Critical Issues and Recommendations. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Жанель Готье

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available There are codes of ethics in psychology that explicitly refer to human rights. There are also psychologists interested in the protection and promotion of human rights who are calling for the explicit inclusion of references to human rights in all psychology ethics codes. Yet, references to human rights in ethics documents have rarely been the focus of attention in psychological ethics. This article represents the first part of a two-part article series focusing on critical issues associated with the inclusion of references to human rights in the ethical codes of psychologists, and recommendations about how psychological ethics and the human rights movement can work together in serving humanity. The first part of the article series examines issues pertaining to the interpretation of references to human rights in codes of ethics for psychologists, and the justifications for including these references in psychological ethics codes. The second part of the article series examines how the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists can be used to extend or supplement codes of ethics in psychology, how ethical principles and human rights differ and complement each other, and how psychological ethics and the human rights movement can work together in serving humanity and improving the welfare of both persons and peoples.

  5. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todres, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter-though they may not identify-victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case scenario: criminal law, with a focus on conspiracy; service provider regulations, with a focus on mandatory reporting laws; and human rights law. In addition to imposing a legal mandate, the law can inform ethical considerations about how health care professionals should respond to human trafficking. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Metaphysical and ethical perspectives on creating animal-human chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Jason T; Ballard, Rebecca A

    2009-10-01

    This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and research involving human subjects, and the classification of a research protocol into one of these categories will trigger different ethical standards as to the moral permissibility of the research in question. Are a-h chimeras entitled to the more restrictive and protective ethical standards applied to human research subjects? We elucidate an Aristotelian-Thomistic metaphysical framework in which to argue how such chimeras ought to be defined ontologically. We then examine when the creation of, and experimentation upon, certain types of a-h chimeras may be morally permissible.

  7. Committees for Ethics in Research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossne, William Saad; Vieira, Sonia; De Freitas, Corina Bontempo Duca

    2008-01-01

    In Brazil since October 1996 there have been guidelines for research involving human subjects. Now human subjects know when their treatment is part of research. Deceit is no longer tolerated. But is not enough to say we offer an explanation to the potential subject and we offer a choice before he or she is confronted with an informed consent form. As in all professional activity, scientific investigation needs social controls. In Brazil, the ultimate responsibility of an investigation lies on the investigator, but in every institution where research is carried out there is a Committee for Ethics in Research. All Committees are subordinated to the National Commission of Ethics in Research, which is submitted to the Brazilian Institute of Health. During 2005 around 17,000 protocols involving 700,000 human subjects were revised by 475 Committees distributed all over the country. Approximately 7,000 people are now working in these Committees.

  8. Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

  9. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-07-21

    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits.

  10. Human genome and open source: balancing ethics and business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Human Genome Project has been completed thanks to a massive use of computer techniques, as well as the adoption of the open-source business and research model by the scientists involved. This model won over the proprietary model and allowed a quick propagation and feedback of research results among peers. In this paper, the author will analyse some ethical and legal issues emerging by the use of such computer model in the Human Genome property rights. The author will argue that the Open Source is the best business model, as it is able to balance business and human rights perspectives.

  11. Ethics of orthodontic clinical research based on Helsinki declaration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Erwansyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Declaration of Helsinki code of ethics on human experimentation, states that the desin and peformance of experimental procedures involving human should be clearly formulated in an experimental protocol, Todeterminewhetheraninvestigationin accordancewiththe code of conductin a researchthen letusconsider the contentofthe declarationhelsinkiasour referencein conductingaclinicalstudyusinghuman subjects. In journals, authors are expected to report if the study was carried out in accordance with international and national ethical guidelines and inform readers if approval from ethics committee was obtained and if written informed consent was taken from the participant or legal guardian.

  12. The ethical approach to evidence-based medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research findings as the basis for clinical decisions”.2 The practice ... paper will explore the role of evidence-based medicine in ethical practice of health care professionals. ... based medicine is used for “evidence-based purchasing”, it will.

  13. Still Human: A Call for Increased Focus on Ethical Standards in Cadaver Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Michelle C

    2016-12-01

    Research on human cadavers is an important mechanism of scientific progress and comprises a large industry in the United States. However, despite its importance and influence, there is little ethical or regulatory oversight of cadaver-based research. This lack of transparency raises important ethical questions. Thus, this paper serves as a call for ethicists and regulators to pay increased attention to cadaver research. I argue that cadaver research ought to be considered a subset of human subjects research and held accountable to higher ethical standards. After describing current practices, I argue that oversight of cadaver research as a form of human subjects research is appropriate because cadaver research is similar to other types of human research, participants in cadaver research incur risks of harm, and a current lack of oversight has allowed the cadaver industry to entice research participation through ethically questionable practices. This paper urges greater dialogue among human subjects research ethicists and regulators about what constitutes appropriate protections for participants in cadaver research.

  14. Reflections on Ethics and Humanity in Pediatric Neurology: the Value of Recognizing Ethical Issues in Common Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Gabriel M; Rosenbaum, Peter L

    2017-05-01

    Our goals in this reflection are to (i) identify the ethical dimensions inherent in any clinical encounter and (ii) bring to the forefront of our pediatric neurology practice the myriad of opportunities to explore and learn from these ethical questions. We highlight specifically Beauchamp and Childress's principles of biomedical ethics. We use the terms ethics in common clinical practice and an ethical lens to remind people of the ubiquity of ethical situations and the usefulness of using existing ethical principles to analyze and resolve difficult situations in clinical practice. We start with a few common situations with which many of us tend to struggle. We describe what we understand as ethics and how and why developments in technology, novel potential interventions, policies, and societal perspectives challenge us to think about and debate ethical issues. Individual patients are not a singular population; each patient has their own unique life situations, culture, goals, and expectations that need to be considered with a good dose of humanity and humility. We believe that using an ethical lens-by which we mean making an explicit effort to identify and consider these issues openly-will help us to achieve this goal in practice, education, and research.

  15. [Ethical viewpoints on cryopreservation of human embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, R

    1991-01-01

    In the introduction the author describes how moral judgements are being formed in the pluralistic structures of today's societies. Moral relativism and subjectivism are the wide spread consequences of empirical anthropological theories. In this situation the necessity of an objective and normative moral theory (Christian natural law theory) is being stressed. Neither biology nor medicine can pronounce final judgements on the value of human life. The arguments in favour of cryoconservation (medical progress, parents wish to have children, cost-reduction) are outweighed by those arguments which maintain that man cannot dispose of human life through the manipulation of the progenitive act outside marriage and of the juman act of procreation. There are also the risks and the endangering of the human value of the embryo, up to prolicide which is considered to be permissible in some cases, on these moral grounds the author objects to the cryoconservation of embryos as does the relevant instruction of the papal magisterium of the Roman Catholic Church (Donum vitae 1987). He does not, however, take a final stance on how the subjective decision of the physician is to be judged in the individual case.

  16. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Todres, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter - though they may not identify - victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case...

  17. Euthanasia and ethical dillemas: Human dignity against sanctity of life

    OpenAIRE

    Simović, Darko Z.; Simeunović-Patić, Biljana J.

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyses ethical dilemmas and conflicting issues tied to euthanasia and the institutionalization of the right to a dignified death, viewed through a prism of arguments in favour of and against euthanasia, solutions of comparative law and the practice of the European Council and The European Court of Human Rights in this field, as well as the existing practices of physicians with respect to the implementation of various modalities of euthanasia. At the national lavel, the topic is be...

  18. Public health ethics and more-than-human solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Melanie J; Degeling, Chris

    2015-03-01

    This article contributes to the literature on One Health and public health ethics by expanding the principle of solidarity. We conceptualise solidarity to encompass not only practices intended to assist other people, but also practices intended to assist non-human others, including animals, plants, or places. To illustrate how manifestations of humanist and more-than-human solidarity may selectively complement one another, or collide, recent responses to Hendra virus in Australia and Rabies virus in Canada serve as case examples. Given that caring relationships are foundational to health promotion, people's efforts to care for non-human others are highly relevant to public health, even when these efforts conflict with edicts issued in the name of public health. In its most optimistic explication, One Health aims to attain optimal health for humans, non-human animals and their shared environments. As a field, public health ethics needs to move beyond an exclusive preoccupation with humans, so as to account for moral complexity arising from people's diverse connections with places, plants, and non-human animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ETHICS IN HEALTH CARE: INDUCEMENT AND HUMAN SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNIR HOSSAIN TALUKDER

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, most health researchers or donor organizations considerinducement as a vital part in promoting research. They propose benefits, such as post research free medical treatment, food, insurance facilities, or even cash, in order to meet sufficient number of subjects. So, inducement may influence one to participate in a research. Is it ethical to offer inducement to human subjects? What are the risks in such practice? What will happen if the donor agencies use subjects by hiding possible risks from them? When an inducement can satisfy ethical criteria? The CIOMS, FDA, and other ethical guidelines hold that inducement is unethical because it involves enough risk for voluntary informed consent. Supporting this position, a group of ethicists has argued that inducement undermines voluntariness especially when subjects are poor and vulnerable, and thus, unethical. In contrast to them, others argue that inducement contributes to discover new knowledge which can improve miserable condition of the poor. In their view, an inducement maintains all ethical criteria including subject’s autonomy, and therefore, morally permissible. The paper focuses this debate and analyzes both types ofargument. It examines whether inducement invalidate informed consent.Even if inducement may not violate the basic components of informedconsent, the paper concludes, subjects may claim a prima facie right to enjoy research outcomes.

  20. Inherent safety, ethics and human error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Maria

    2008-02-11

    stated. The reason this article is presented here is that I believe that often, complex accidents, similarly to insignificant ones, often demonstrate an attitude which can be characterized as "inherently unsafe". I take the view that the enormous human potential and the human ability to minimize accidents needs to become a focal point towards inherent safety. Restricting ourselves to human limitations and how we could "treat" or prevent humans from not making accidents needs to be re-addressed. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight observations and provoke a discussion on how we could possibly improve the understanding of safety related issues. I do not intent to reject or criticize existing methodologies. (The entire presentation is strongly influenced by Trevor Kletz's work although our views are often different.).

  1. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress.

  2. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M.; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students’ preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  3. The ethics of cloning and human embryo research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Madeleine

    2002-01-01

    The successful cloning experiments that led to Dolly in 1997 have raised many ethical and policy questions. This paper will focus on cloning research in human embryonic cells. The possible gains of the research will be judged against the moral issues of doing research on a person. This paper concludes that while the embryo has some moral status, its moral status is outweighed by the multitude of benefits that embryonic stem cell research will bring to humanity. Policy suggestions are given for dealing with this new and developing field of stem cell research.

  4. Fluoridation: a violation of medical ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Douglas W; Carton, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    Silicofluorides, widely used in water fluoridation, are unlicensed medicinal substances, administered to large populations without informed consent or supervision by a qualified medical practitioner. Fluoridation fails the test of reliability and specificity, and, lacking toxicity testing of silicofluorides, constitutes unlawful medical research. It is banned in most of Europe; European Union human rights legislation makes it illegal. Silicofluorides have never been submitted to the U.S. FDA for approval as medicines. The ethical validity of fluoridation policy does not stand up to scrutiny relative to the Nuremberg Code and other codes of medical ethics, including the Council of Europe's Biomedical Convention of 1999. The police power of the State has been used in the United States to override health concerns, with the support of the courts, which have given deference to health authorities.

  5. The role of veterinarians in equestrian sport: a comparative review of ethical issues surrounding human and equine sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Madeleine L H

    2013-09-01

    Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethical dilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethical dilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Human biomonitoring data interpretation and ethics; obstacles or surmountable challenges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepai Ovnair

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of human samples to assess environmental exposure and uptake of chemicals is more than an analytical exercise and requires consideration of the utility and interpretation of data as well as due consideration of ethical issues. These aspects are inextricably linked. In 2004 the EC expressed its commitment to the development of a harmonised approach to human biomonitoring (HBM by including an action in the EU Environment and Health Strategy to develop a Human Biomonitoring Pilot Study. This further underlined the need for interpretation strategies as well as guidance on ethical issues. A workshop held in December 2006 brought together stakeholders from academia, policy makers as well as non-governmental organisations and chemical industry associations to a two day workshop built a mutual understanding of the issues in an open and frank discussion forum. This paper describes the discussion and recommendations from the workshop. The workshop developed key recommendations for a Pan-European HBM Study: 1. A strategy for the interpretation of human biomonitoring data should be developed. 2. The pilot study should include the development of a strategy to integrate health data and environmental monitoring with human biomonitoring data at national and international levels. 3. Communication strategies should be developed when designing the study and evolve as the study continues. 4. Early communication with stakeholders is essential to achieve maximum efficacy of policy developments and facilitate subsequent monitoring. 5. Member states will have to apply individually for project approval from their National Research Ethics Committees. 6. The study population needs to have sufficient information on the way data will be gathered, interpreted and disseminated and how samples will be stored and used in the future (if biobanking before they can give informed consent. 7. The participants must be given the option of anonymity. This has an impact

  7. [Philosophy of human dignity and the ethics of psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, Ralf

    2014-07-01

    Current moral philosophy has serious problems with the concept of human dignity. Although it seems to be an almost inevitable ingredient of every day moral judgments, philosophers have difficulties to find an analysis of the concept that could support this central role. One way out of these difficulties consists in a closer look at the various areas where the concept is used so widely and naturally, in the attempt to extract inductively an adequate understanding of human dignity from these contexts. In the article, this strategy is used to glean features of human dignity from the history of psychiatry, condense them into a plausible understanding of human dignity and finally sketch some practical implications for modern psychiatric ethics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Collaborative international research: ethical and regulatory issues pertaining to human biological materials at a South African institutional research ethics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Aslam; Dhai, Amaboo; van der Linde, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Human Biological Materials (HBMs) are an invaluable resource in biomedical research. To determine if researchers and a Research Ethics Committee (REC) at a South African institution addressed ethical issues pertaining to HBMs in collaborative research with developed countries. Ethically approved retrospective cross-sectional descriptive audit. Of the 1305 protocols audited, 151 (11.57%) fulfilled the study's inclusion criteria. Compared to other developed countries, a majority of sponsors (90) were from the USA (p = 0.0001). The principle investigators (PIs) in all 151 protocols informed the REC of their intent to store HBMs. Only 132 protocols informed research participants (P ethical and regulatory issues pertaining to HBMs. There was a lack of congruence between the ethical guidelines of developed countries and their actions which are central to the access to HBMs in collaborative research. HBMs may be leaving South Africa without EPs and MTAs during the process of international collaborative research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ethics and morala as a significant part of resource of human management

    OpenAIRE

    ŠKODOVÁ, Hana

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this bachelor´s work was to specify decisive differences between ethics and morality in today´s market environment on the level of business sphere, to occupy with ethical probléme and to find out if ethics is reallly an important part of the human resource management nowadays.

  10. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for

  11. The ethical approach to evidence-based medicine | Kruger | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper will explore the role of evidence-based medicine in ethical practice of health care professionals. It will also address some of its limitations and potential for negative impact on health care.

  12. Educating for ethical leadership through web-based coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Tom; Dulmen, Sandra van; Eide, Hilde

    2016-12-01

    Ethical leadership is important for developing ethical healthcare practice. However, there is little research-based knowledge on how to stimulate and educate for ethical leadership. The aim was to develop and investigate the feasibility of a 6-week web-based, ethical leadership educational programme and learn from participants' experience. Training programme and research design: A training programme was developed consisting of (1) a practice part, where the participating middle managers developed and ran an ethics project in their own departments aiming at enhancing the ethical mindfulness of the organizational culture, and (2) a web-based reflection part, including online reflections and coaching while executing the ethics project. Focus group interviews were used to explore the participants' experiences with and the feasibility of the training. Participants and research context: Nine middle managers were recruited from a part-time master's programme in leadership in Oslo, Norway. The research context was the participating leaders' work situation during the 6 weeks of training. Ethical considerations: Participation was voluntary, data anonymized and the confidentiality of the participating leaders/students and their institutions maintained. No patient or medical information was involved. Eight of the nine recruited leaders completed the programme. They evaluated the training programme as efficient and supportive, with the written, situational feedback/coaching as the most important element, enhancing reflection and motivation, counteracting a feeling of loneliness and promoting the execution of change. The findings seem consistent with the basic assumptions behind the educational design, based partly on e-health research, feedback studies and organizational ethics methodology, partly on theories on workplace learning, reflection, recognition and motivation. The training programme seems feasible. It should be adjusted according to participants' proposals and tested

  13. The ethics of human reproductive cloning: when world views collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Cynthia B

    2004-01-01

    Two camps in bioethics with seemingly opposing world views have staked out conflicting positions regarding the ethics of human reproductive cloning. These camps do not appear to share common concepts or ways of reasoning through which to exchange views and come to a meeting of minds about uses of this technology. Yet analysis of their respective approaches to several issues surrounding reproductive cloning, such as where the ethical limits of individual reproductive choice lie, whether the use of this technology would violate human dignity, whether it would create risks to the resulting fetuses and children that would make its use intolerable, and whether it would challenge certain core social values, reveals that they are not wholly opposed to one another. Indeed, it displays that they hold certain beliefs, values, and concerns in common. Moreover, it indicates that the different world views that they each presuppose, while flawed in certain respects, do not collide in every respect, but can be reconciled in significant ways that provide fertile ground for agreement about several issues related to human reproductive cloning.

  14. The Principle-Based Method of Practical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielthenner, Georg

    2017-09-01

    This paper is about the methodology of doing practical ethics. There is a variety of methods employed in ethics. One of them is the principle-based approach, which has an established place in ethical reasoning. In everyday life, we often judge the rightness and wrongness of actions by their conformity to principles, and the appeal to principles plays a significant role in practical ethics, too. In this paper, I try to provide a better understanding of the nature of principle-based reasoning. To accomplish this, I show in the first section that these principles can be applied to cases in a meaningful and sufficiently precise way. The second section discusses the question how relevant applying principles is to the resolution of ethical issues. This depends on their nature. I argue that the principles under consideration in this paper should be interpreted as presumptive principles and I conclude that although they cannot be expected to bear the weight of definitely resolving ethical problems, these principles can nevertheless play a considerable role in ethical research.

  15. Teaching Communication with Ethics-Based Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Betsy

    1996-01-01

    Argues the importance of presenting ethics and communication as twin concepts in the management communication class. Presents two cases useful in the classroom that address two contemporary issues (harassment in the workplace and the consumption of alcohol by pregnant women) that have implications for business professionals and allow students to…

  16. Rural Design Ethics Based on Four Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Zhu, Li

    2017-12-01

    China has a large rural area with a large population, whose architectural features, natural landscape, organizational structure and industrial structure are very different from that of cities. In the past, the contradictory between city and rural areas in China had negative effects on rural construction, resulting in a slow development. The excessive focus on city design has led to the neglect of rural design. Blindly using the concept and method of city design to renewed the countryside is a kind of destruction to the countryside, and also wastes a lot of construction resources. Design is influenced by ethical concepts, which needs to pay more attention to the culture tendency and society. Urban design makes theoretical investigation aiming at the ethical questions that emerged from city, then summarizes the design strategies of the city. While Chinese rural design has only begun to enter people’s horizon, and there is very little discussion about it. Due to the lack of ethical value guidance, Chinese rural design and construction has many problems at different levels of ecology, culture and industry. Therefore this paper primarily explores the domestic and foreign design ethics, attempting to provide a new perspective for Chinese rural design, aiming at finding a realistic and forward-looking solution for Chinese rural design concerning to the complex relation between city and rural areas.

  17. Defining Ethical Placemaking for Place-Based Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenwiler, Lisa A

    2016-11-01

    As place-based interventions expand and evolve, deeper reflection on the meaning of ethical placemaking is essential. I offer a summary account of ethical placemaking, which I propose and define as an ethical ideal and practice for health and for health justice, understood as the capability to be healthy. I point to selected wide-ranging examples-an urban pathway, two long-term care settings, innovations in refugee health services, and a McDonald's restaurant-to help illustrate these ideas.

  18. Pandemic influenza: human rights, ethics and duty to treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlman, I; Tohmo, H; Gylling, H

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic seems to be only moderately severe. In the future, a pandemic influenza with high lethality, such as the Spanish influenza in 1918-1919 or even worse, may emerge. In this kind of scenario, lethality rates ranging roughly from 2% to 30% have been proposed. Legal and ethical issues should be discussed before the incident. This article aims to highlight the legal, ethical and professional aspects that might be relevant to anaesthesiologists in the case of a high-lethality infectious disease such as a severe pandemic influenza. The epidemiology, the role of anaesthesiologists and possible threats to the profession and colleagueship within medical specialties relevant to anaesthesiologists are reviewed. During historical plague epidemics, some doctors have behaved like 'deserters'. However, during the Spanish influenza, physicians remained at their jobs, although many perished. In surveys, more than half of the health-care workers have reported their willingness to work in the case of severe pandemics. Physicians have the same human rights as all citizens: they have to be effectively protected against infectious disease. However, they have a duty to treat. Fair and responsible colleagueship among the diverse medical specialties should be promoted. Until disaster threatens humanity, volunteering to work during a pandemic might be the best way to ensure that physicians and other health-care workers stay at their workplace. Broad discussion in society is needed.

  19. Toward a Method for Exposing and Elucidating Ethical Issues with Human Cognitive Enhancement Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    To develop a method for exposing and elucidating ethical issues with human cognitive enhancement (HCE). The intended use of the method is to support and facilitate open and transparent deliberation and decision making with respect to this emerging technology with great potential formative implications for individuals and society. Literature search to identify relevant approaches. Conventional content analysis of the identified papers and methods in order to assess their suitability for assessing HCE according to four selection criteria. Method development. Amendment after pilot testing on smart-glasses. Based on three existing approaches in health technology assessment a method for exposing and elucidating ethical issues in the assessment of HCE technologies was developed. Based on a pilot test for smart-glasses, the method was amended. The method consists of six steps and a guiding list of 43 questions. A method for exposing and elucidating ethical issues in the assessment of HCE was developed. The method provides the ground work for context specific ethical assessment and analysis. Widespread use, amendments, and further developments of the method are encouraged.

  20. Ethics review of health research on human participants in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Christa

    2010-06-01

    In terms of South African legislation, all health research on human participants must be submitted to an accredited research ethics committee for independent ethics review. Health research covers a broad spectrum of research, including clinical trials. This article sets out the ethical-legal framework for the functioning and composition of such committees. It also deals with the newly created National Health Research Ethics Council, which registers and audits health research ethics committees. Special attention is given to the conduct of clinical trials. In conclusion, it is submitted that the National Health Act, the Draft Regulations Relating to Research on Human Subjects, and two sets of ethical guidelines adopted by the Department of Health provide a much needed and coherent ethical-legal framework for research in South Africa.

  1. Using experimental game theory to transit human values to ethical AI

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yijia; Wan, Yan; Wang, Zhijian

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the reflection of game theory and ethics, we develop a mathematical representation to bridge the gap between the concepts in moral philosophy (e.g., Kantian and Utilitarian) and AI ethics industry technology standard (e.g., IEEE P7000 standard series for Ethical AI). As an application, we demonstrate how human value can be obtained from the experimental game theory (e.g., trust game experiment) so as to build an ethical AI. Moreover, an approach to test the ethics (rightness or wrongn...

  2. [Manipulation of the human genome: ethics and law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Maria Carolina Vaz; Iano, Flávia Godoy; Silva, Paulo Maurício; Sales-Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho; Sales-Peres, Arsênio

    2010-06-01

    The molecular biology has provided the basic tool for geneticists deepening in the molecular mechanisms that influence different diseases. It should be noted the scientific and moral responsibility of the researchers, because the scientists should imagine the moral consequences of the commercial application of genetic tests, since this fact involves not only the individual and their families, but the entire population. Besides being also necessary to make a reflection on how this information from the human genome will be used, for good or bad. The objective of this review was to bring the light of knowledge, data on characteristics of the ethical application of molecular biology, linking it with the rights of human beings. After studying literature, it might be observed that the Human Genome Project has generated several possibilities, such as the identification of genes associated with diseases with synergistic properties, but sometimes modifying behavior to genetically intervene in humans, bringing benefits or social harm. The big challenge is to decide what humanity wants on this giant leap.

  3. The history of ethics in research with human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kottow, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    This article contextualizes the emergence of the field of research ethics in historical, social, and political events over the last 60 years. It draws a distinction between professional ethics and bioethics, focusing on the historical and philosophical precedents of the latter field. It also presents the appearance of research ethics as a result of the disclosure of cases of scientific misconduct, discussing the first regulations on research ethics, the guidelines contained in the Belmont Rep...

  4. Ethical and Human Rights Foundations of Health Policy: Lessons from Comprehensive Reform in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2015-12-10

    This paper discusses the use of an explicit ethical and human rights framework to guide a reform intended to provide universal and comprehensive social protection in health for all Mexicans, independently of their socio-economic status or labor market condition. This reform was designed, implemented, and evaluated by making use of what Michael Reich has identified as the three pillars of public policy: technical, political, and ethical. The use of evidence and political strategies in the design and negotiation of the Mexican health reform is briefly discussed in the first part of this paper. The second part examines the ethical component of the reform, including the guiding concept and values, as well as the specific entitlements that gave operational meaning to the right to health care that was enshrined in Mexico's 1983 Constitution. The impact of this rights-based health reform, measured through an external evaluation, is discussed in the final section. The main message of this paper is that a clear ethical framework, combined with technical excellence and political skill, can deliver major policy results. Copyright © 2015 Frenk and Gómez-Dantés. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  5. Educating for ethical leadership through web-based coaching. A feasibility study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eide, T.; Dulmen, S. van; Eide, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ethical leadership is important for developing ethical healthcare practice. However, there is little research-based knowledge on how to stimulate and educate for ethical leadership. Objectives: The aim was to develop and investigate the feasibility of a 6-week web-based, ethical

  6. The value of respect in human research ethics: a conceptual analysis and a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, I J; Thomson, C J H

    2014-01-01

    In order to continue to maintain public trust and confidence in human research, participants must be treated with respect. Researchers and Human Research Ethics Committee members need to be aware that modern considerations of this value include: the need for a valid consenting process, the protection of participants who have their capacity for consent compromised; the promotion of dignity for participants; and the effects that human research may have on cultures and communities. This paper explains the prominence of respect as a value when considering the ethics of human research and provides practical advice for both researchers and Human Research Ethics Committee members in developing respectful research practices.

  7. Teaching ethics to engineers - a research-based perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Peter

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes research underpinning a course, developed in Australia, on ethics for engineers. The methodology used, that of identifying the principal ethical issues facing the discipline and designing the course around these issues, would be applicable to other disciplines and in other countries. The course was based on the assumption that identifying the major ethical issues in the discipline, and subsequently presenting and analysing them in the classroom, would provide the future professional with knowledge of the ethical problems that they were likely to face on graduation. The student has then to be given the skills and knowledge to combat these concerns, should he/she wish to. These findings feed into several components of the course, such as the development of a code of ethics, the role of a professional society or industry association and the role of ethical theory The sources employed to identify the issues were surveys of the literature and about 30 case studies, in Australia and overseas. The issues thus identified were then put before a sample of engineering managers to assess the relevance to the profession.

  8. Development and oversight of ethical health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities involving human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Peter

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers the role of ethics and ethics review processes in the development of health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities involving human participants. The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research and associated documents provide the framework for the ethical conduct and independent review of research (including quality assurance and evaluation) involving humans in Australia. Identifying the level of risk to which participants may be exposed by participation in quality assurance and evaluation activities is essential for health promotion workers undertaking such activities. Organisations can establish processes other than review by a Human Research Ethics Committee for negligible and low risk research activities. Health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities often involve negligible and low risk to participants. Seven triggers that indicate the need for ethics review of quality assurance and evaluation activities and a procedural checklist for developing ethical quality assurance and evaluation activities are provided. Health promotion workers should be familiar with the NHMRC's National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research. When ethical considerations underpin the planning and conduct of all quality assurance and evaluation from the very beginning, the activity is the better for it, independent 'ethics approval' can mostly be secured without much trouble and workers' frustration levels are reduced. So what? Health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities must be ethically justified. Health promotion workers should be familiar with the NHMRC's National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research and should use it when developing health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities.

  9. Comparison of lecture and team-based learning in medical ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgonul, Levent; Alimoglu, Mustafa Kemal

    2017-01-01

    Medical education literature suggests that ethics education should be learner-centered and problem-based rather than theory-based. Team-based learning is an appropriate method for this suggestion. However, its effectiveness was not investigated enough in medical ethics education. Is team-based learning effective in medical ethics education in terms of knowledge retention, in-class learner engagement, and learner reactions? This was a prospective controlled follow-up study. We changed lecture with team-based learning method to teach four topics in a 2-week medical ethics clerkship, while the remaining topics were taught by lectures. For comparison, we formed team-based learning and lecture groups, in which the students and instructor are the same, but the topics and teaching methodologies are different. We determined in-class learner engagement by direct observation and student satisfaction by feedback forms. Student success for team-based learning and lecture topics in the end-of-clerkship exam and two retention tests performed 1 year and 2 years later were compared. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval for the study was granted by Akdeniz University Board of Ethics on Noninvasive Clinical Human Studies Ethics committee. Short-term knowledge retention did not differ; however, team-based learning was found superior to lecture at long-term retention tests. Student satisfaction was high with team-based learning and in-class engagement was better in team-based learning sessions. Our results on learner engagement and satisfaction with team-based learning were similar to those of previous reports. However, knowledge retention results in our study were contrary to literature. The reason might be the fact that students prepared for the end-of-clerkship pass/fail exam (short term) regardless of the teaching method. But, at long-term retention tests, they did not prepare for the exam and answered the questions just using the knowledge retained in their memories. Our

  10. Biobanking human embryonic stem cell lines: policy, ethics and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Søren

    2015-12-01

    Stem cell banks curating and distributing human embryonic stem cells have been established in a number of countries and by a number of private institutions. This paper identifies and critically discusses a number of arguments that are used to justify the importance of such banks in policy discussions relating to their establishment or maintenance. It is argued (1) that 'ethical arguments' are often more important in the establishment phase and 'efficiency arguments' more important in the maintenance phase, and (2) that arguments relating to the interests of embryo and gamete donors are curiously absent from the particular stem cell banking policy discourse. This to some extent artificially isolates this discourse from the broader discussions about the flows of reproductive materials and tissues in modern society, and such isolation may lead to the interests of important actors being ignored in the policy making process.

  11. Sexuality in institutionalized elderly persons: a systematic review of argument-based ethics literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Lieslot; Gastmans, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Admission to a nursing home might challenge the way in which individuals experience their own sexuality, but it does not automatically diminish their need and desire for sexual fulfillment. Despite the fact that sexuality proves to be an intrinsic part of human existence, the sexual expression of geriatric residents remains a sensitive subject for many caregivers and family members. It evokes a variety of ethical issues and concerns, especially when dementia patients are involved. The overall objective of this review was to examine the ethical arguments and concepts about the debate on sexuality within a nursing home environment. We conducted a systematic search for argument-based ethics literature focusing on sexuality in institutionalized elderly people. Twenty-five appropriate studies were identified. A thematic analysis of the included literature led us to distinguish two major groups of ethical arguments: (i) principles and (ii) care. Ethics arguments on sexuality in institutionalized elderly are particularly guided by the principle of respect for autonomy and the concomitant notion of informed consent. Arguments related to care were also apparent within the research literature although they received considerably less attention than the arguments related to the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice. The lack of clarity in the conceptualization of the arguments referred to in the research literature indicates that there is a pressing need for a better defined, more fundamental philosophical-ethical analysis of the values at stake.

  12. Toward a virtue-based normative ethics for the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, E D

    1995-09-01

    Virtue is the most perdurable concept in the history of ethics, which is understandable given the ineradicability of the moral agent in the events of the moral life. Historically, virtue enjoyed normative force as long as the philosophical anthropology and the metaphysics of the good that grounded virtue were viable. That grounding has eroded in both general and medical ethics. If virtue is to be restored to a normative status, its philosophical underpinnings must be reconstructed. Such reconstruction seems unlikely in general ethics, where the possibility of agreement on the good for humans is remote. However, it is a realistic possibility in the professional ethics fo the health professions where agreement on the telos of the healing relationship is more likely to arise. Nevertheless, virtue-based ethics must be related conceptually and normatively to other ethical theories in a comprehensive moral philosophy of the health professions. If he really does think there is no distinction between virtue and vice, why, sir, when he leaves our house, let us count our spoons. Samuel Johnson

  13. Team-based learning and ethics education in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Susan E; Wocial, Lucia D

    2013-12-01

    This report describes the use of team-based learning concepts in an undergraduate nursing applied ethics course using established reporting guidelines. Team-based learning relies on actively engaging students in the learning process through small-group activities that facilitate the development of skills, including concept analysis, critical thinking, and problem solving. Students are divided into teams of five to seven members who collaborate throughout the semester to work through activities that build on ethics concepts introduced through reading and lectures. Nurse educators are challenged to develop educational approaches that will engage students and help them to apply what they learn from the study of ethics to the lived experience of clinical practice. The ultimate goal is to help students to develop into morally sensitive and competent professionals. Team-based learning represents a novel way to teach these skills to undergraduate nursing students. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Thinking About Education in Human Rights from an Ethical and Controversial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Magendzo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper delves into the relationship between the education in human rights and ethics from a controversial perspective. It is a direction that seeks to help people become active and participatory citizens in a pluralistic democracy. Three fundamental ethical principles are analyzed, and they allow teaching human rights through controversy: Human rights: a global ethics of human rights; human rights: an ethical minimum; human rights and moral pluralism. This article proposes to relate human rights education with the critical-dialogical pedagogy. In this perspective are identified four critical inquiry tools that serve to develop different dimensions for a critical understanding in the social sphere: the approach of the problem, the reflexive skepticism, the multiperspectivity, and systemic thinking.

  15. Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    In this brief annual review of ethical issues in medicine, Pellegrino focuses on two issues, AIDS and surrogate mothers. The AIDS epidemic has generated debate over public health needs vs. individual rights, modification of sexual practices, screening programs to detect infected persons, confidentiality of test results, experimental therapies, and the duty of physicians to care for AIDS patients. Surrogate motherhood arrangements have become one of the more controversial of the new reproductive technologies. The publicity that accompanied the custody battle over New Jersey's "Baby M" intensified debate over the commercialization of childbearing and the regulation of reproduction. Pellegrino concludes that physicians, along with ethicists and policymakers, have an obligation to "lead society in careful and judicious deliberation" of the ethical issues raised by AIDS and by reproductive technologies.

  16. Ethical review of research on human subjects at Unilever: reflections on governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Marti, Vernon; Roberts, Tony

    2014-07-01

    This article considers the process of ethical review of research on human subjects at a very large multinational consumer products company. The commercial context of this research throws up unique challenges and opportunities that make the ethics of the process of oversight distinct from mainstream medical research. Reflection on the justification of governance processes sheds important, contrasting light on the ethics of governance of other forms and context of research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation in health promotion: thoughts from inside a human research ethics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Judy; Flack, Felicity

    2015-12-01

    Health promotion research, quality improvement and evaluation are all activities that raise ethical issues. In this paper, the Chair and a member of human resear ch ethics committees provide an insiders' point of view on how to demonstrate ethical conduct in health promotion research and quality improvement. Several common issues raised by health promotion research and evaluation are discussed including researcher integrity, conflicts of interest, use of information, consent and privacy.

  18. Research on ethics in two large Human Biomonitoring projects ECNIS and NewGeneris: a bottom up approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casteleyn Ludwine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Assessment of ethical aspects and authorization by ethics committees have become a major constraint for health research including human subjects. Ethical reference values often are extrapolated from clinical settings, where emphasis lies on decisional autonomy and protection of individual's privacy. The question rises if this set of values used in clinical research can be considered as relevant references for HBM research, which is at the basis of public health surveillance. Current and future research activities using human biomarkers are facing new challenges and expectancies on sensitive socio-ethical issues. Reflection is needed on the necessity to balance individual rights against public interest. In addition, many HBM research programs require international collaboration. Domestic legislation is not always easily applicable in international projects. Also, there seem to be considerable inconsistencies in ethical assessments of similar research activities between different countries and even within one country. All this is causing delay and putting the researcher in situations in which it is unclear how to act in accordance with necessary legal requirements. Therefore, analysis of ethical practices and their consequences for HBM research is needed. This analysis will be performed by a bottom-up approach, based on a methodology for comparative analysis of determinants in ethical reasoning, allowing taking into account different social, cultural, political and historical traditions, in view of safeguarding common EU values. Based on information collected in real life complexity, paradigm cases and virtual case scenarios will be developed and discussed with relevant stakeholders to openly discuss possible obstacles and to identify options for improvement in regulation. The material collected will allow developing an ethical framework which may constitute the basis for a more harmonized and consistent socio-ethical and legal approach

  19. Research on ethics in two large Human Biomonitoring projects ECNIS and NewGeneris: a bottom up approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumez, Birgit; Van Damme, Karel; Casteleyn, Ludwine

    2008-06-05

    Assessment of ethical aspects and authorization by ethics committees have become a major constraint for health research including human subjects. Ethical reference values often are extrapolated from clinical settings, where emphasis lies on decisional autonomy and protection of individual's privacy. The question rises if this set of values used in clinical research can be considered as relevant references for HBM research, which is at the basis of public health surveillance. Current and future research activities using human biomarkers are facing new challenges and expectancies on sensitive socio-ethical issues. Reflection is needed on the necessity to balance individual rights against public interest. In addition, many HBM research programs require international collaboration. Domestic legislation is not always easily applicable in international projects. Also, there seem to be considerable inconsistencies in ethical assessments of similar research activities between different countries and even within one country. All this is causing delay and putting the researcher in situations in which it is unclear how to act in accordance with necessary legal requirements. Therefore, analysis of ethical practices and their consequences for HBM research is needed.This analysis will be performed by a bottom-up approach, based on a methodology for comparative analysis of determinants in ethical reasoning, allowing taking into account different social, cultural, political and historical traditions, in view of safeguarding common EU values. Based on information collected in real life complexity, paradigm cases and virtual case scenarios will be developed and discussed with relevant stakeholders to openly discuss possible obstacles and to identify options for improvement in regulation. The material collected will allow developing an ethical framework which may constitute the basis for a more harmonized and consistent socio-ethical and legal approach. This will not only increase

  20. Ethics of animal research in human disease remediation, its institutional teaching; and alternatives to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheluvappa, Rajkumar; Scowen, Paul; Eri, Rajaraman

    2017-08-01

    Animals have been used in research and teaching for a long time. However, clear ethical guidelines and pertinent legislation were instated only in the past few decades, even in developed countries with Judeo-Christian ethical roots. We compactly cover the basics of animal research ethics, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation across the developed world, "our" fundamentals of institutional animal research ethics teaching, and emerging alternatives to animal research. This treatise was meticulously constructed for scientists interested/involved in animal research. Herein, we discuss key animal ethics principles - Replacement/Reduction/Refinement. Despite similar undergirding principles across developed countries, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation vary. The chronology and evolution of mandatory institutional ethical reviewing of animal experimentation (in its pioneering nations) are summarised. This is followed by a concise rendition of the fundamentals of teaching animal research ethics in institutions. With the advent of newer methodologies in human cell-culturing, novel/emerging methods aim to minimise, if not avoid the usage of animals in experimentation. Relevant to this, we discuss key extant/emerging alternatives to animal use in research; including organs on chips, human-derived three-dimensional tissue models, human blood derivates, microdosing, and computer modelling of various hues. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Reporting of ethical protection in recent oral and maxillofacial surgery research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitak-Arnnop, P; Sader, R; Hervé, C; Dhanuthai, K; Bertrand, J-Ch; Hemprich, A

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective observational study investigated the frequency of reporting ethical approval and informed consent in recently published oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) research involving human subjects. All research involving human subjects published in the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery during January to June 2005-2007 were analysed for disclosure of ethical approval by a local ethical committee and obtaining informed consent from the subjects. 534 articles were identified; ethical approval was documented in 118 (22%) and individual patient consent in 135 (25%). 355 reports (67%) did not include a statement on ethical approval or informed consent and only 74 reports (14%) disclosed statements of both. Ethical documentation in retrospective and observational studies was scant; 12% of randomised controlled trials and 38% of non-random trials did not report both of ethical protections. Most recent OMS publications involving humans failed to mention ethical review or subjects' consent. Authors must adhere to the international research ethics guidelines and journal instructions, while editors should play a gatekeeper role to protect research participants, uphold scientific integrity and maintain public trust in the experimental process and OMS profession.

  2. [The beginning of human life: ethical and legal perspectives in the context of biotechnological progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretto, Vicente de Paulo; Lauxen, Elis Cristina Uhry

    2017-07-13

    Questions concerning the beginning of human life have pervaded society since antiquity. In the post-modern world, scientific and technological advances have fueled discussions on the issue, such that debates previously concentrated on abortion now also focus on biotechnological interventions. The article addresses the latter, reflecting on the extent to which human dignity can be considered a (hermeneutic) reference in establishing ethical and legal parameters for biotechnological advances in the definition of the beginning of human life. The study's method was critical hermeneutic ethics, with ethics at the center of the process of understanding and interpretation, observing the contours of facticity. No consensus was found on the beginning of human life, so it is essential to engage in dialogue with the new reality resulting from biotechnological advances in the process of defining ethical and legal principles for protecting the embryo and human nature, with human dignity as the reference.

  3. Ethics and Human Rights in Leibniz’s View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrollah Moein

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Human rights in the present world is explained and justified on the basis of humanism. This kind of explanation is based less on natural rights. However, some philosophers and thinkers are searching for Divine and natural sources for human rights. This paper tries to explain one of the traditional theories of the modern philosopher, Leibniz. He tries to show that any right arises from natural rights and this is only possible in the moral life. But the only criterion that can cover both rights and ethics is justice. Justice is a virtue that is superior to other virtues. This kind of justice arises from natural rights which are in turn Devine things. Human rights is measured by this criterion and punishments are imposed and rewards are given by this kind of justice. حقوق انسانی و حقوق بشر در جهان کنونی بر مبنای نگرش انسان مدارانه (Humanism تبیین و توجیه می‌‌شود. این نوع تبیین کمتر بر مبنای حقوق طبیعی است اما برخی از فلاسفه و اندیشمندان به دنبال یافتن منشأیی الهی و طبیعی برای حقوق انسانی بوده‌اند. مقاله حاضر کوشش می‌‌کند یکی از نظریات سنتی لایب ‌نیتس فیلسوف دوران جدید را بیان نماید. لایب نیتس به دنبال این است که ثابت نماید هر نوع حقوقی از حق طبیعی ناشی می‌‌شود و این تنها در زندگی اخلاقی امکان پذیر است. اما ملاک و معیاری که بتوان هم اخلاق و هم حقوق را در آن طرح کرد، عدالت است. عدالت فضیلتی است که بر سایر فضایل برتری دارد. این نوع عدالت از حق طبیعی، که امری الهی است، ناشی می‌شود. حقوق انسان‌ها با این ملاک سنجیده می‌شود و جزا و

  4. The contribution of deontological Christian ethics to the contemporary human rights discourse

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Vorster

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the possible role of a Christian deontological ethics in the contemporary human rights debate. It concludes that a Christian deontological ethics in the Reformed tradition can be positively engaged in the human rights debate when Biblical theological topics are transposed into moral directives applicable to the current human rights concerns, such as religious extremism, femicide, ideologies of intolerance and ecocide. As an example of the applicability of a Christian deo...

  5. Problem-Based Learning in Engineering Ethics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Robert

    2016-01-01

    I describe the first stages of a process of design research in which I employ problem-based learning in a course in engineering ethics, which fulfills a requirement for students in engineering degree programs. The aim of the course is to foster development of particular cognitive skills contributing to moral imagination, a capacity to notice,…

  6. Human Subjects Protection: A Source for Ethical Service-Learning Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    Human subjects research ethics were developed to ensure responsible conduct when university researchers learn by interacting with community members. As service-learning students also learn by interacting with community members, a similar set of principles may strengthen the ethical practice of service-learning. This article identifies ethical…

  7. An Approach to Teaching Ethics Courses in Human Services and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Gerald; Corey, Schneider Marianne; Callanan, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This article presents multiple facets of a team approach to teaching and facilitating an ethics course for undergraduate human services students and a graduate ethics course for students majoring in counseling. Starting with general points, this article describes a specific, week-to-week approach to a 1-semester course, concluding with sample…

  8. Ethical tissue: a not-for-profit model for human tissue supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kevin; Martin, Sandie

    2011-02-01

    Following legislative changes in 2004 and the establishment of the Human Tissue Authority, access to human tissues for biomedical research became a more onerous and tightly regulated process. Ethical Tissue was established to meet the growing demand for human tissues, using a process that provided ease of access by researchers whilst maintaining the highest ethical and regulatory standards. The establishment of a licensed research tissue bank entailed several key criteria covering ethical, legal, financial and logistical issues being met. A wide range of stakeholders, including the HTA, University of Bradford, flagged LREC, hospital trusts and clinical groups were also integral to the process.

  9. Tiny tweaks, big changes: An alternative strategy to empower ethical culture of human research in anesthesia (A Taiwan Acta Anesthesiologica Taiwanica-Ethics Review Task Force Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Hsiang-Ning; Ennever, John F; Day, Yuan-Ji; Wong, Chih-Shung; Sun, Wei-Zen

    2015-03-01

    For this guidance article, the Ethics Review Task Force (ERTF) of the Journal reviewed and discussed the ethics issues related to publication of human research in the field of anesthesia. ERTF first introduced international ethics principles and minimal requirements of reporting of ethics practices, followed by discussing the universal problems of publication ethics. ERTF then compared the accountability and methodology of several medical journals in assuring authors' ethics compliance. Using the Taiwan Institutional Review Board system as an example, ERTF expressed the importance of institutional review board registration and accreditation to assure human participant protection. ERTF presented four major human research misconducts in the field of anesthesia in recent years. ERTF finally proposed a flow-chart to guide journal peer reviewers and editors in ethics review during the editorial process in publishing. Examples of template languages applied in the Ethics statement section in the manuscript are expected to strengthen the ethics compliance of the authors and to set an ethical culture for all the stakeholders involved in human research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Application of Ethics, Justice and Fair Treatment in Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper observed that ethics and fair treatment play important roles in managing employees at work. The paper also noticed that moral awareness, the managers themselves, moral engagement, morality, unmet goals, and rewards all influence ethical behaviour. The paper further recommended that employees. fair ...

  11. Toward machines that behave ethically better than humans do

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontier, M.A.; Hoorn, J.F.; Miyake, N.; Peebles, B.; Cooper, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing dependence on autonomous operating agents and robots the need for ethical machine behavior rises. This paper presents a moral reasoner that combines connectionism, utilitarianism and ethical theory about moral duties. The moral decision-making matches the analysis of expert

  12. The ethics of human condition in the age of technological civilization. Back and forth with Heidegger and Jonas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Luzia Miranda

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethical dimension of the human condition in our times takes increasingly more space in current philosophical discussions. In this context, the ethical principle of responsibility has been widely discussed, particularly by authors who work on the ethical implications of modern technology. In his essay on ethics for the technological age, Hans Jonas proposes to base ethics on a principle of responsibility, taking into account that we live in the age of technological civilization. The present paper explores the origins and sources of Jonas’ principle of responsibility, focusing on the influence of his teacher Martin Heidegger on Jonas’s work. The paper analyses the intrinsic and intriguing relationship between Heidegger’s ontological concept of “care” [Sorge] and the idea or responsibility in Jonas, and it examines further the current discussion on the possibility of an ethical foundation for the techno scientific civilization. Keywords:  Philosophy of technology; Éthics and technology; Ontology; Martin Heidegger; Hans Jonas.

  13. Evolution of Attitudes in the Field of Human Research Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Escobar-Melo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The state of evolution of attitudes in a sample of 142 Medical Students at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogota (at the beginning, middle and ending of their studies in the field of Human Research Ethics (HRE is analytically described. A complex scale of attitudes was used, with three components: affective, beliefs-related and behavioral, further divided into three theoretical categories taken from Bioethics: Subject-End/means- Dignity, Benefit and Justice. The relationship between the current medical education process and the attitudes regarding HRE in the sample are analyzed.A small trend towards progress in all categories and in all components of attitudes throughout medical education is described; neither the Benefit nor the Subject-End/means/Dignity categories evolve in a significant way; some significant differences were observed in the Justice category (beliefs and behavioral and in the Subject-End/means-Dignity category (beliefs component. The results allow for asking about the role of formation and evolution of those attitudes throughout the academic process. In conclusion, attitudes seem to be progressing relatively, without a decisive evolution.

  14. An African Thought on the Ethics of Human Foetal Life | Ebeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an African thought on the ethics of human foetal life and this can be discussed against the backdrop of the African concept of life, person and community. In the process, it examines the fact of humanity and personhood of the human foetus and the role of the community in the determinant of humanity and ...

  15. [The 14/2006 law on human assisted reproduction techniques: scientific and ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacadena, Juan-Ramón

    2006-01-01

    The new Spanish Law on Artificial Human Reproduction Techniques is analyzed from the scientific, ethical and legal points of view, paying special attention to the preimplantational diagnosis and the experimental utilization of gametes and preembryos. Other items are also analyzed.

  16. Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    use animals for research and experimentations to research on human subjects. Jonas upholds the ..... examples of ethical theory, the less said about it the better. But what is allowable .... Also, man seeks self-gratification and self- promotion.

  17. TRAINING IN ETHICS OF HUMAN CAPITAL TO BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Neyda Ibañez; Rubén Castillo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to interpret training in ethics for action business students an introduction to the economy of the Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences at the University of Carabobo, as part of professional development in business studies. The investigation was addressed within the paradigm post positivist using ethnographic and hermeneutic method, descriptive mode of scientific research and technique participant-observation. It concludes that training in ethics manage...

  18. Understanding Ethics in School-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Hazel; Burstow, Bob

    2018-01-01

    The notion of the "teacher as researcher" has been in the education lexicon since the mid-1970s. School-based research, we suggest, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance, flourishing within the emerging, complex school landscape. This empirical research engages with 25 school leaders to explore the ways in which…

  19. Three Pervasive Presuppositions about Human Life and Ethics Strongly Warrant Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Lantz E.

    2017-01-01

    Common philosophical discussions concerning the ethics of human interaction with the biosphere and universe have been significantly informed by certain presuppositions: (1) nature is conquerable; (2) human cultural and social (contrasted with moral) progress is somewhat like a thing, beyond human

  20. Machine medical ethics when a human is delusive but the android has its wits about him

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.F.; van Rysewyk, S.P.; Pontier, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    When androids take care of delusive patients, ethic-epistemic concerns crop up about an agency’s good intent and why we would follow its advice. Robots are not human but may deliver correct medical information, whereas Alzheimer patients are human but may be mistaken. If humanness is not the

  1. The discursive production of professionals about humanizing health: singularity, rights and ethics1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Pereira, Eliane Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to describe the discursive production of professionals about the humanization of health. Method: qualitative study of descriptive approach, inspired by the social representation theory, with 24 professionals in the healthcare field, working in a university hospital with the established humanization policy. The selection of participants was conducted according to criteria of adequacy and diversity for an intentional sample. Data collection was conducted by semi-structured interviews. Results: through content analysis, three categories emerged, around which the analyses were conducted: "humanizing health as an act of accepting the other as unique", "humanizing health as a matter of right" and "humanizing health as an ethical issue". The discursive production of professionals is based on a perspective which is based on the humanist prospect with socio-historical bias. Conclusion: healthcare professionals must know the National Humanization Policy in order to provide quality care, promoting the meeting, welcoming and recognition of oneself, others and their profession in the political and socio-historical scenario of their country as a citizen, not only of rights, but also of obligations. PMID:26487145

  2. [Population, ethics and equity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinguer, G

    1997-01-01

    "Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT)

  3. Human cloning and embryo research: the 2003 John J. Conley Lecture on medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Robert P

    2004-01-01

    The author, a member of the U.S. President's Council on Bioethics, discusses ethical issues raised by human cloning, whether for purposes of bringing babies to birth or for research purposes. He first argues that every cloned human embryo is a new, distinct, and enduring organism, belonging to the species Homo sapiens, and directing its own development toward maturity. He then distinguishes between two types of capacities belonging to individual organisms belonging to this species, an immediately exerciseable capacity and a basic natural capacity that develops over time. He argues that it is the second type of capacity that is the ground for full moral respect, and that this capacity (and its concomitant degree of respect) belongs to cloned human embryos no less than to adult human beings. He then considers and rejects counter-arguments to his position, including the suggestion that the capacity of embryos is equivalent to the capacity of somatic cells, that full human rights are afforded only to human organisms with functioning brains, that the possibility of twinning diminishes the moral status of embryos, that the fact that people do not typically mourn the loss of early embryos implies that they have a diminished moral status, that the fact that early spontaneous abortions occur frequently diminishes the moral status of embryos, and that his arguments depend upon a concept of ensoulment. He concludes that if the moral status of cloned human embryos is equivalent to that of adults, then public policy should be based upon this assumption.

  4. Robotic Nudges: The Ethics of Engineering a More Socially Just Human Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Jason; Arkin, Ron

    2016-02-01

    Robots are becoming an increasingly pervasive feature of our personal lives. As a result, there is growing importance placed on examining what constitutes appropriate behavior when they interact with human beings. In this paper, we discuss whether companion robots should be permitted to "nudge" their human users in the direction of being "more ethical". More specifically, we use Rawlsian principles of justice to illustrate how robots might nurture "socially just" tendencies in their human counterparts. Designing technological artifacts in such a way to influence human behavior is already well-established but merely because the practice is commonplace does not necessarily resolve the ethical issues associated with its implementation.

  5. Human subject research: reporting ethics approval and informed consent in 3 chiropractic journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Dana J

    2011-11-01

    To date, there have been no reports of ethics board approval or informed consent within the chiropractic literature or within chiropractic research. The purpose of this study was to assess the reporting of ethics approval and informed consent in articles published during the 2008 volume year of 3 chiropractic research journals included in PubMed. A quantitative assessment of the articles published in each journal for the 2008 volume year was performed. Information collected included if the article involved human subject research, if it reported ethics board approval, and if informed consent was given to subjects. Data were collected as descriptive statistics (frequency counts and percentages). In aggregate, 50 articles of a total of 143 published involved human subject research (35%). 44 reported ethics board approval (88%), and 28 reported that informed consent had been obtained (56%). Forty-five percent of articles published in the Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics involved human subject research (39/87), of which 95% reported ethics board approval (37/39) and 64% reported informed consent (25/39); 12.5% of articles from the Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association involved human subject research (5/40), of which 80% reported ethics board approval (4/5) and 40% reported informed consent (2/5); and 37.5% of articles published in Chiropractic and Osteopathy involved human subject research (6/16), of which 50% reported ethics board approval (3/6) and 17% reported informed consent (1/6). Overall, most articles reported ethics approval, and more than half reported consent. This was harmonious with research on this topic from other disciplines. This situation indicates a need for continued quality improvement and for better instruction and dissemination of information on these issues to researchers, to manuscript reviewers, to journal editors, and to the readers. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby

  6. [Enhanced recovery after surgery based on medical ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingchuan

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), a new model of perioperative management developed in recent years, can shorten hospital stay, reduce medical cost and postoperative discomfort. However, some of these measures under the strategy are negation of the traditional recommendation and many surgeons are concerned about the medical tangle by the complications coming with the ERAS strategy. In this paper, ERAS strategy is evaluated from an ethical standpoint and the assessment factors of medical behavior are introduced based on medical virtues and medical ethnics. It is also analyzed that how to deal with the conflicts between the textbooks and the ERAS strategy, and elaborated that the medical ethics should be observed if the ERAS strategy is implemented. The scientific principles must be followed, the rights and interests of the patients need to be protected, and the informed consent should be guaranteed.

  7. Principle-Based Ethics and the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bay, Ingrid; Oughton, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Search for common values can go a long way resolving international political and social differences, and represents an area where ethical evaluation can offer an input to international legislation. This paper argues that a principle-based, normative approach should be applied to evaluation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and the goal of sustainable development (SD). Primafacie ethical principles to promote weil-being, dignity and justice can be defined and supported from international agreements on sustainable developments. To promote coherency, these principles should then be specifled according to particular CDM-projects, to produce a set of norms that covers: 1) the different dimension to sustainable development, 2) the distribution of costs and benefits across time and place, and 3) consequences for different affected parties, including future generations and the environment

  8. Development of a medical humanities and ethics certificate program in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Cheryl J

    2014-12-01

    Education in the medical humanities and ethics is an integral part of the formation of future physicians. This article reports on an innovative approach to incorporating the medical humanities and ethics into the four-year curriculum in a Certificate Program spanning all four years of the medical school experience. The faculty of the McGovern Center for Humanities and Ethics at the University of Texas Medical School at Houston conceived and implemented this program to teach medical students a range of scholarly topics in the medical humanities and to engage the full human experience into the process of becoming a physician. This study follows six years of experience, and we report student experiences and learning in their own words.

  9. Ethical and social implications of microdosing clinical trial (3). Radiological protection of human subjects in research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Chieko

    2008-01-01

    Internal irradiation of human subjects in research is discussed. Radiological protection of human subjects in medical research in a framework of radiation protection is surveyed from a viewpoint of general life-ethics and research-ethics. A workshop 'On the internal irradiation of human subjects' to summarize special and systematic knowledge was organized by Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences in the beginning of 2008. Activities of this workshop are introduced. Discussion covers also (1) Research ethics and radiation protection, (2) Fundamentals and applications of risk-benefit assessment, (3) Human subjects risk assessment in ICRP recommendation, (4) Mechanism of human subjects internal irradiation assessment, and (5) Present status and future prospects in Japan. (K.Y.)

  10. Case-based ethics instruction: the influence of contextual and individual factors in case content on ethical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Thiel, Chase E; Johnson, James F; Connelly, Shane; Harkrider, Lauren N; Devenport, Lynn D; Mumford, Michael D

    2013-09-01

    Cases have been employed across multiple disciplines, including ethics education, as effective pedagogical tools. However, the benefit of case-based learning in the ethics domain varies across cases, suggesting that not all cases are equal in terms of pedagogical value. Indeed, case content appears to influence the extent to which cases promote learning and transfer. Consistent with this argument, the current study explored the influences of contextual and personal factors embedded in case content on ethical decision-making. Cases were manipulated to include a clear description of the social context and the goals of the characters involved. Results indicated that social context, specifically the description of an autonomy-supportive environment, facilitated execution of sense making processes and resulted in greater decision ethicality. Implications for designing optimal cases and case-based training programs are discussed.

  11. School-based smoking prevention programmes: ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Trofor, Antigona; Mihălţan, Florin; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2011-01-01

    School-based health education has the potential to inform and educate young people, in order to promote healthy behaviours among them, which will help to prevent diseases and social problems. The present study gives an overview of several ethical issues which must be considered in different phases of school-based smoking prevention programs. This will help health educators, public health professionals and researchers in their activity of health education in schools. The ethical issues must be taken into consideration during all the activities and refer to the involvement of officials, schools, parents, young people who participate into the program, authors and persons/institutions responsible with the implementation, evaluation or funding of the programs. The application into practice of these ethical principles, influence the quality of the health education, its acceptability BY the target group and the correctness of results. Also, it prevents possible problems and misunderstandings between persons and institutions involved in the health education and smoking prevention process, which could seriously affect and even destroy implementation of such health education activities.

  12. Heterogeneity of Human Research Ethics Committees and Research Governance Offices across Australia: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smit, Elisabeth; Kearns, Lisa S; Clarke, Linda; Dick, Jonathan; Hill, Catherine L; Hewitt, Alex W

    2016-01-01

    Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) and Research Governance Offices (RGOs) across Australia. In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a "National Ethics Application Form" and three a "Low Negligible Risk" form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22) and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days). We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently.

  13. Legal and ethical issues arising with preimplantation human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J A

    1992-04-01

    The development of in vitro fertilization has led to ethical and legal controversies concerning actions with externalized preembryos. A legal and ethical consensus is emerging that preembryos are not legal persons or moral subjects, although they are owed special respect because of their ability to implant and come to term. In addition, gamete providers are recognized as having dispositional authority over whether preembryos will be created, cryopreserved, placed in a uterus, discarded, donated, or used in research. Prior agreements over preembryo disposition are the best way to minimize disputes between the gamete providers.

  14. Introducing Human Rights Education in the Confucian Society of Taiwan: Its Implications for Ethical Leadership in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2001-01-01

    Discusses recent introduction of human-rights education in Taiwan. Describes essential characteristics of Confucian ethics; compares Confucianism with ethical leadership in education. Discusses relationship between findings on the use of corporal punishment in Taiwanese schools and ethical leadership. Describes worldwide use of corporal punishment…

  15. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangerau, H

    2005-01-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of artificial parthogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

  16. Chekhov’s Ethical Heritage in the Contemporary American Medical Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenyia M. Butenina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Chekhovian ethical discourse in American fiction and non-fiction that forms part of an emerging literary canon of medical humanities in the USA. Besides Chekhov’s “medical” stories, special attention is given to his book Sakhalin Island seen as an object of “moral cartography.” The analysis of contemporary medical humanities in the USA shows that Chekhov’s ethical heritage has entered this field at several levels. One is teaching “medical” stories and Sakhalin Island as part of the future doctors’ ethical education. The other is expanding the literary-medical context by including these texts in comparative studies and anthologies. Finally, there is the overall level of developing the method of literary “diagnostic” bearing on Chekhov’s ethical heritage that is important for the study of both fiction and non-fiction authored by doctors-writers.

  17. Designing and Introducing Ethical Dilemmas into Computer-Based Business Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Paul L.; Scott, Timothy W.; Anderson, Philip H.

    2006-01-01

    This article makes two contributions to the teaching of business ethics literature. First, it describes the steps involved in developing effective ethical dilemmas to incorporate into a computer-based business simulation. Second, it illustrates these steps by presenting two ethical dilemmas that an instructor can incorporate into any business…

  18. [Ethical aspects of human embryonic stem cell use and commercial umbilical cord blood stem cell banking. Ethical reflections on the occasion of the regulation of the European Council and Parliament on advanced therapy medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virt, G

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of the European Council and Parliament on advanced therapy medicinal products also includes therapies with human embryonic stem cells. The use of these stem cells is controversially and heavily discussed. Contrary to the use of adult stem cells, medical and ethical problems concerning the use of human embryonic stem cells persists, because this use is based on the destruction of human life at the very beginning. The regulation foresees, therefore, subsidiarity within the European Member States. Although there are no ethical problems in principle with the use of stem cells from the umbilical cord blood, there are social ethical doubts with the banking of these stem cells for autologous use without any currently foreseeable medical advantage by commercial blood banks. Also in this case subsidiarity is valid.

  19. Ethical Implications of Case-Based Payment in China: A Systematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pingyue; Biller-Andorno, Nikola; Wild, Verina

    2015-12-01

    How health care providers are paid affects how medicine is practiced. It is thus important to assess provider payment models not only from the economic perspective but also from the ethical perspective. China recently started to reform the provider payment model in the health care system from fee-for-service to case-based payment. This paper aims to examine this transition from an ethical perspective. We collected empirical studies on the impact of case-based payment in the Chinese health care system and applied a systematic ethical matrix that integrates clinical ethics and public health ethics to analyze the empirical findings. We identified eleven prominent ethical issues related to case-based payment. Some ethical problems of case-based payment in China are comparable to ethical problems of managed care and diagnosis related groups in high-income countries. However, in this paper we discuss in greater detail four specific ethical issues in the Chinese context: professionalism, the patient-physician relationship, access to care and patient autonomy. Based on the analysis, we cautiously infer that case-based payment is currently more ethically acceptable than fee-for-service in the context of China, mainly because it seems to lower financial barriers to access care. Nonetheless, it will be difficult to justify the implementation of case-based payment if no additional measures are taken to monitor and minimize its existing negative ethical implications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Vulnerabilities and humanity of care, the ethical compass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Marie-Claude

    2018-04-01

    Talking about care refers us directly to the values which shape it. At a time when these values are under threat, it is the very idea of caring which is in danger. Its moral and ethical foundations must be reasserted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Ethical Issues Affecting Human Participants in Community College Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demand of constituents to conduct analyses in order to help inform the decision-making process has led to the need for Institutional Research (IR) guidelines for community college educators. One method of maintaining the quality of research conducted by IR staff is to include professional development about ethics. This article…

  2. Ethics and human rights issues experienced by nurses in leadership roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Barbara A; Fry, Sara T

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify (1) the ethics and human rights issues experienced by nurses in leadership roles (NLs); (2) how frequently these issue occurred in the NLs'practices; and (3) how disturbed the NLs were by the issues. Dillman's Total Design Method (1978) for mailed surveys guided the study design. Data analysis was performed on 470 questionnaires from New England RNs in nursing leadership roles. The most frequently experienced ethics and human rights issues during the previous 12 months were (1) protecting patient right and human dignity; (2) respecting or not respecting informed consent to treatment; (3) use or nonuse of physical or chemical restraints; (4) providing care with possible risks to the RN's health; (5) following or not following advance directives; and (6) staffing patterns that limit patient access to nursing care. The most disturbing ethics and human rights issues experienced by the NLs were staffing patterns that limited patient access to nursing care, prolonging the dying process with inappropriate measures, working with unethical, incompetent, or impaired colleagues, implementing managed care policies that threaten quality of care, not considering quality of the patient's life, and caring for patients and families who are uninformed or misinformed about treatment, prognosis, or medical alternatives. Nearly 39% of the NLs reported experiencing ethics and human rights issues one to four times a week or more, and more than 90% handled their most recent ethics issue by discussing it with nursing peers. Study findings have implications for ethics education and resource support for nurses in leadership roles, and for further research on how NLs handle ethics and human rights issues in the workplace.

  3. The ethics and politics of mindfulness-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas T

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been a lot of enthusiasm for mindfulness practice and its use in healthcare, businesses and schools. An increasing number of studies give us ground for cautious optimism about the potential of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) to improve people's lives across a number of dimensions. This paper identifies and addresses some of the main ethical and political questions for larger-scale MBIs. First, how far are MBIs compatible with liberal neutrality given the great diversity of lifestyles and conceptions of the good characteristic of modern societies? It will be argued that the potential benefits of contemporary secular mindfulness practice are indeed of a sufficiently primary or all-purpose nature to qualify as suitable goals of liberal public policy. Second, what challenges are brought up if mindfulness is used in contexts and applications-such as military settings-whose goals seem incompatible with the ethical and soteriological views of traditional mindfulness practice? It will be argued that, given concerns regarding liberal neutrality and reasonable disagreement about ethics, MBIs should avoid strong ethical commitments. Therefore, it should, in principle, be applicable in contexts of controversial moral value. Finally, drawing on recent discussions within the mindfulness community, it is argued that we should not overstate the case for mindfulness and not crowd out discussion of organisational and social determinants of stress, lowered well-being, and mental illness and the collective measures necessary to address them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Machine Ethics: Creating an Ethical Intelligent Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Michael; Anderson, Susan Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The newly emerging field of machine ethics (Anderson and Anderson 2006) is concerned with adding an ethical dimension to machines. Unlike computer ethics -- which has traditionally focused on ethical issues surrounding humans' use of machines -- machine ethics is concerned with ensuring that the behavior of machines toward human users, and perhaps other machines as well, is ethically acceptable. In this article we discuss the importance of machine ethics, the need for machines that represent ...

  5. The contribution of deontological Christian ethics to the contemporary human rights discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Vorster

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the possible role of a Christian deonto- logical ethics in the contemporary human rights debate. It concludes that a Christian deontological ethics in the Reformed tradition can be positively engaged in the human rights debate when Biblical theological topics are transposed into moral directives applicable to the current human rights concerns, such as religious extremism, femicide, ideologies of intolerance and ecocide. As an example of the applicability of a Christian deon- tological ethics from a reformed perspective, the following Bibli- cal topics are investigated: human dignity on the basis of the “imago dei”, creation and creational integrity, the kingdom of God and forgiveness. Furthermore, the article proposes that other concepts can be added to this list such as the Biblical idea of life, eschatology, covenant and holiness.

  6. Lecture-based versus problem-based learning in ethics education among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiban, Mahnaz; Falahan, Seyede Nayereh; Amini, Roya; Farahanchi, Afshin; Soltanian, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    Moral reasoning is a vital skill in the nursing profession. Teaching moral reasoning to students is necessary toward promoting nursing ethics. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of problem-based learning and lecture-based methods in ethics education in improving (1) moral decision-making, (2) moral reasoning, (3) moral development, and (4) practical reasoning among nursing students. This is a repeated measurement quasi-experimental study. Participants and research context: The participants were nursing students in a University of Medical Sciences in west of Iran who were randomly assigned to the lecture-based (n = 33) or the problem-based learning (n = 33) groups. The subjects were provided nursing ethics education in four 2-h sessions. The educational content was similar, but the training methods were different. The subjects completed the Nursing Dilemma Test before, immediately after, and 1 month after the training. The data were analyzed and compared using the SPSS-16 software. Ethical considerations: The program was explained to the students, all of whom signed an informed consent form at the baseline. The two groups were similar in personal characteristics (p > 0.05). A significant improvement was observed in the mean scores on moral development in the problem-based learning compared with the lecture-based group (p ethics education enhances moral development among nursing students. However, further studies are needed to determine whether such method improves moral decision-making, moral reasoning, practical considerations, and familiarity with the ethical issues among nursing students.

  7. Clinical research ethics review process in Lebanon: efficiency and functions of research ethics committees - results from a descriptive questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, David; Moubarak, Malak; El Kassis, Nadine; Abboud, Sara

    2018-01-11

    Clinical trials conducted in Lebanon are increasing. However, little is known about the performance of research ethics committees (RECs) in charge of reviewing the research protocols. This study aimed to assess the level of adherence to the ethics surrounding the conduct of clinical trials and perceptions of team members regarding roles of the RECs during the conduct of clinical trials in Lebanon. The research question was: Are RECs adherent to the ethics surrounding the conduct of clinical trials (chapters II and IV in 'Standards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review of Health-related Research with Human Participants' in Lebanon?' This was a quantitative and descriptive questionnaire-based study conducted among RECs of university hospitals in Lebanon. The questionnaire had to be completed online and included general questions in addition to items reflecting the different aspects of a REC performance and effectiveness. All the questionnaire was assigned a total score of 175 points. General information and questions assigned point values/scores were analysed using descriptive statistics: frequency and percentage, mean score ± standard deviation. Ten RECs participated in the study (52 persons: four chairs, one vice-president, 47 ordinary members). Forty-seven (90.4%) had previous experience with clinical research and 30 (57.7%) had a diploma or had done a training in research ethics. Forty-one percent confirmed that they were required to have a training in research ethics. All RECs had a policy for disclosing and managing potential conflicts of interest for its members, but 71.8% of participants reported the existence of such a policy for researchers. Thirty-three point three percent reported that the RECs had an anti-bribery policy. The questionnaire mean score was 129.6 ± 22.3/175 points reflecting thus an excellent adherence to international standards. Inadequate training of REC members and the lack of anti-bribery policies should be resolved to

  8. Humanity in the Digital Age: Cognitive, Social, Emotional, and Ethical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Junko; Ananou, Simeon

    2015-01-01

    Even though technology has brought great benefits to current society, there are also indications that the manner in which people use technology has undermined their humanity in some respects. In this article the authors frame human nature in terms of four dimensions: cognition, social interaction, emotion, and ethics. We argue that while basic…

  9. Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects and its implications for contemporary medical research in Nigeria was examined. The thinking and teachings of Hans Jonas was on the need for medical research to advance beyond the use animals for research and experimentations to research on human ...

  10. Development ethics through the lenses of caring, gender, and human security.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); T-D. Truong (Thanh-Dam)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThinking about ethics of development and human development must both treat development in a global perspective and yet reflect on the content of human. This paper explores some faces of globalization by using a gender perspective, in order to consider reproduction (psychological and

  11. Ecological Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy

  12. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics: a reflection on the ethics of respect and human dignity with nurse as expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Constance L

    2003-10-01

    The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses calls for the nurse to practice with compassion and respect for every individual. What are the ethics and challenges of practicing professional nursing with expertise and educating a new generation of nurses while incorporating the interpretive statements into practice? This column differentiates the traditional biomedical views on human dignity and respect while exploring the embedded ethics of respect and self-determination and what it truly means to be an expert of nursing from the theoretical perspective of the human becoming school of thought.

  13. THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT IN POINT OF ETHICAL

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel DEMIR

    2013-01-01

    In this research, it is evaluated through concrete examples the results of HUGO and potential ethical problems that it may cause. It is explained deeply that when it is realize that carried potential risks of HUGO, how will be effected people’s social rights, freedoms and where will start and finish their freedom because of HUGO’s results. The research discusses the problem of regarding people as instruments and argues that genetic interventions have the potential to interfere with people's p...

  14. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Ethical Views of Buddhist, Hindu and Catholic Leaders in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Mathana Amaris Fiona; Noor, Siti Nurani Mohd

    2016-04-01

    Embryonic Stem Cell Research (ESCR) raises ethical issues. In the process of research, embryos may be destroyed and, to some, such an act entails the 'killing of human life'. Past studies have sought the views of scientists and the general public on the ethics of ESCR. This study, however, explores multi-faith ethical viewpoints, in particular, those of Buddhists, Hindus and Catholics in Malaysia, on ESCR. Responses were gathered via semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Three main ethical quandaries emerged from the data: (1) sanctity of life, (2) do no harm, and (3) 'intention' of the research. Concerns regarding the sanctity of life are directed at particular research protocols which interfere with religious notions of human ensoulment and early consciousness. The principle of 'do no harm' which is closely related to ahimsa prohibits all acts of violence. Responses obtained indicate that respondents either discourage research that inflicts harm on living entities or allow ESCR with reservations. 'Intention' of the research seems to be an interesting and viable rationale that would permit ESCR for the Buddhists and Hindus. Research that is intended for the purpose of alleviating human suffering is seen as being ethical. This study also notes that Catholics oppose ESCR on the basis of the inviolability of human life.

  15. [Clinical research XXIV. From clinical judgment to ethics in research on humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Talavera, Juan O

    2014-01-01

    Bioethics in research is an essential part of the structured review process of an article and it is based on three fundamental principles: respect for persons, beneficence and justice. In addition to not providing valid knowledge, a research with inadequate design, execution and statistical analysis is not ethical either, since these methodological deficiencies will produce information that will not be useful and, therefore, the risks that the participants were exposed to will have been in vain. Beyond scientific validity, there are other aspects that outline if an investigation is ethical, such as the clinical and social value of a study, a fair selection of participants, favorable risk-benefit balance, an independent review, the informed consent and respect for participants and potential participants. Throughout the article here presented, the documents that profile the behavior of investigators to protect the participants, such as the Declaration of Helsinki, the national regulations that rule us and the differences between research without risk, with minimal risk and with greater than minimal risk are discussed. That like in daily life, behavior in research involving human participants must be self-regulated, ie, people with knowledge of the existence of the law discover that the man is outside the realm of nature where work is done under the necessity of natural causality, and falls within the scope of the will; only if the man is free to decide their actions may be a law regulating their action.

  16. Science and ethics of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome controversies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, David

    2011-09-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Africa has raised important ethical issues for both researchers and clinicians. The most notorious controversy has been related to the zidovudine (AZT) trials in Africa in the late 1990s, in which the control groups were given a placebo rather than an effective drug to prevent vertical transmission. This raised concerns in the sponsoring country about exploitation of subjects, injustice and an ethical double standard between donor countries and resource-poor settings. However, the real double standard is between clinical practice standards in Western versus African countries, which must be addressed as part of the increasing global inequity of wealth both between countries and also within countries. There are important limitations to ethical declarations, principles and guidelines on their own without contextual ethical reasoning. The focus on research ethics with the HIV epidemic has led to a relative neglect of ethical issues in clinical practice. Although the scientific advances in HIV/AIDS have changed the ethical issues since the 1990s, there has also been progress in the bioethics of HIV/AIDS in terms of ethical review capability by local committees as well as in exposure to ethical issues by clinicians and researchers in Africa. However, serious concerns remain about the overregulation of research by bureaucratic agencies which could discourage African research on specifically African health issues. There is also a need for African academic institutions and researchers to progressively improve their research capacity with the assistance of research funders and donor agencies. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. Human Participants in Engineering Research: Notes from a Fledgling Ethics Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, David; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Pont, Sylvia

    2015-08-01

    For the past half-century, issues relating to the ethical conduct of human research have focused largely on the domain of medical, and more recently social-psychological research. The modern regime of applied ethics, emerging as it has from the Nuremberg trials and certain other historical antecedents, applies the key principles of: autonomy, respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice to human beings who enter trials of experimental drugs and devices (Martensen in J Hist Med Allied Sci 56(2):168-175, 2001). Institutions such as Institutional Review Boards (in the U.S.) and Ethics Committees (in Europe and elsewhere) oversee most governmentally-funded medical research around the world, in more than a hundred nations that are signers of the Declaration of Helsinki (World Medical Association 2008). Increasingly, research outside of medicine has been recognized to pose potential risks to human subjects of experiments. Ethics committees now operate in the US, Canada, the U.K. and Australia to oversee all governmental-funded research, and in other jurisdictions, the range of research covered by such committees is expanding. Social science, anthropology, and other fields are falling under more clear directives to conduct a formal ethical review for basic research involving human participants (Federman et al. in Responsible research: a systems approach to protecting research participants. National Academies Press, Washington, 2003, p. 36). The legal and institutional response for protecting human subjects in the course of developing non-medical technologies, engineering, and design is currently vague, but some universities are establishing ethics committees to oversee their human subjects research even where the experiments involved are non-medical and not technically covered by the Declaration of Helsinki. In The Netherlands, as in most of Europe, Asia, Latin America, or Africa, no laws mandate an ethical review of non-medical research. Yet, nearly 2

  18. A narrative review of undergraduate peer-based healthcare ethics teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarch, Thomas; Allikmets, Silvia; Knights, Felicity

    2015-12-12

    This study explores the literature in establishing the value of undergraduate peer-based healthcare ethics teaching as an educational methodology. A narrative review of the literature concerning peer-based ethics teaching was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS databases, and the Cochrane Library, were systematically searched for studies of peer-based ethics or professionalism teaching. Selected studies related peer-based teaching to ethics education outcomes. Ten publications were identified. Selected studies were varied in their chosen intervention methodology and analysis. Collectively, the identified studies suggest peer-based ethics education is an effective and valued educational methodology in training healthcare professionals. One paper suggests peer-based ethics teaching has advantages over traditional didactic methods. Peer-based ethics teaching also receives positive feedback from student participants. However, the limited literature base demonstrates a clear need for more evaluation of this pedagogy. The current literature base suggests that undergraduate peer based healthcare ethics teaching is valuable in terms of efficacy and student satisfaction. We conclude that the medical community should invest in further study in order to capitalise upon the potential of peer-based ethics teaching in undergraduate healthcare education.

  19. National ethics guidance in Sub-Saharan Africa on the collection and use of human biological specimens: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchi, Francis; Little, Madison T

    2016-10-22

    Ethical and regulatory guidance on the collection and use of human biospecimens (HBS) for research forms an essential component of national health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rapid advances in genetic- and genomic-based technologies are fueling clinical trials involving HBS and the establishment of large-scale biobanks. An extensive multi-level search for publicly available ethics regulatory guidance was conducted for each SSA country. A second review documented active trials listed in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform as of January 2015 in which HBS collection was specified in the protocol. Findings were combined to determine the extent to which countries that are study sites for HBS-related research are supported by regulatory guidance language on the collection, use, ownership and storage of biospecimens. Of the 49 SSA countries, 29 had some form of national ethics guidance, yet only 17 provided language relating to HBS-related research, with specific guidance on consent (14), ownership (6), reuse (10), storage (9), and export/import/transfer (13). Ten countries accounted for 84 % of the active clinical trials involving the collection of HBS in SSA. All except one of these countries were found to have some national guidance in the form of regulations, codes of ethics, and/or standard operating procedures; however, only seven of the ten offered any language specific to HBS. Despite the fact that the bulk of registered clinical trials in SSA involving HBS, as well as existing and proposed sites for biorepositories under the H3Africa Initiative, are currently situated in countries with the most complete ethics and regulatory guidance, variability in the regulations themselves may create challenges for planned and future pan-African collaborations and may require legislative action at the national level to revise. Countries in SSA that still lack regulatory guidance on HBS will require extensive health system strengthening in

  20. Human dignity and biomedical ethics from a Christian theological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The argument of human dignity plays an important role in current debates on human rights and their relevance in modern biomedicine. When discussing the contribution of Christian theology to current debates on human dignity and human rights the thesis is not that the modern idea of human dignity depends on a ...

  1. Ethical Considerations in Mandatory Disclosure of Data Acquired While Caring for Human Trafficking Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Patrick L; Dash, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Accurate data on the prevalence and psychological effects of human trafficking as well as treatment outcomes for survivors are essential for measuring the impact of interventions and generating better understanding of this phenomenon. However, such data are difficult to obtain. A legal mandate for health care professionals to report trafficking opens opportunities for advancing our work in the field of human trafficking but also poses risks to survivors seeking services. In this article, we provide an analysis of some critical ethical considerations for the development and implementation of a mandatory reporting policy and offer recommendations for the ethical implementation of such a policy. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  2. A Synergistic Approach to Human Rights and Public Health Ethics: Effective or a Source of Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz-Wood, Madeleine

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerns over the growing disparities in health and wealth between members of society incited Stephanie Nixon and Lisa Forman, in their 2008 article Exploring synergies between human rights and public health ethics: A whole greater than the sum of its parts, to propose that the principles of human rights and public health ethics should be used in combination to develop norms for health action. This commentary reflects on the benefits as well as the difficulties that could arise from taking such an approach.

  3. Ethical issues in Alzheimer's disease research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dena S

    2017-12-01

    As we aggressively pursue research to cure and prevent Alzheimer's disease, we encounter important ethical challenges. None of these challenges, if handled thoughtfully, would pose insurmountable barriers to research. But if they are ignored, they could slow the research process, alienate potential study subjects and do damage to research recruits and others. These challenges are (1) the necessity of very large cohorts of research subjects, recruited for lengthy studies, probably ending only in the subjects' death; (2) the creation of cohorts of 'study ready' volunteers, many of whom will be competent to consent at the beginning of the process, but move into cognitive impairment later; (3) reliance on adaptive trial design, creating challenges for informed consent, equipoise and justice; (4) the use of biomarkers and predictive tests that describe risk rather than certainty, and that can threaten participants' welfare if the information is obtained by insurance companies or long-term care providers; (5) the use of study partners that creates unique risks of harm to the relationship of subject and study partner. We need greater attention, at all levels, to these complex ethical issues. Work on these issues should be included in research plans, from the federal to the local, and should be supported through NIH in the same way that it supported work on the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. The Human - Nature Relationship i n t he Context o f Theo - Centric Environmental Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen YAYLI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental problems are one of the issues that intensively occupy the agenda of humankind. This fact mainly derives from the ambiguity of the s pan and the content of the issue. The concept of environmental problems can not be confined to th e soil, air and water pollution for the reason that it covers a scope wider than a classical pollution issues. Initially the form of the relations hip between h uman and nature has been relying on the “consumption at the level of content” which stands for a level that is enough to sustain the living. The perception of the nature used to be described with the metaphor of mother while natural environment was defined as the “mother earth”. However subsequent to natural environment definition of the Cartesian philosophy with its approach to the human nature relationship, the core metaphor to describe the natural environment has changed from the metaphor of “mother” to the “slave” which should serve by any means. The human - nature relationship within the context of ethics, both the parties an d their respective statues bear an importance. In terms of ethics of human - nature relationship, it is possible to mention three main approaches. First one is the anthropo - centric approach. Within the scope of historical process, human - nature relationship is addressed according to anthropo - centric ethics comprehension so human has remained at the center of discussion. Following the change of the perception regarding the issue of environment, new approaches have emerged that give emphasis not only on human beings but also others; on li ving and non - living beings with in the eco - system. In principle, this represents a departure from an anthropo - centric ethics to a new ethic approach which fall s into two categories, bio centric and eco - centric. The theo - centric ethics should also be included to these ethics approaches that are shaped within the sphere of positive sciences. The Abrahamic

  5. Beyond equality and inequality in education: Bakhtinian dialogic ethics approach of human uniqueness to educational justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Matusov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In our essay, we challenge the hegemonic Kantian discourse of defining justice as equality (in a broader sense and injustice as inequality in education (and elsewhere. We argue that this discourse is based on the underlining assumption of replaceability and measurement of people and of educational practice itself. In contrast, we argue that people and their education are unique. Thus, it is necessary to develop an alternative notion of justice based on uniqueness and immeasurability of people and their education. We found that Bakhtin’s dialogic ethics framework is helpful for developing such an alternative approach. According to the Bakhtinian dialogic ethics, people are engaged in self-contradictory deeds, charged with ethical tensions. These ethically problematic deeds must be challenged by others and the self in critical dialogue and must demand responses by the authors of the deeds striving to achieve justice. Taking responsibility is not merely a discursive process of answering – it is not “answerability” – but rather another ethic deed of defining ethically good or bad, defining quality and values, accepting blame, standing grounds, committing to fixing negative consequences, emotional sympathy, and so on. The process of challenging people’s deeds in critical dialogue and their taking (or not taking responsibility defines (injustice of people’s deeds. We examine two cases of educational injustice based on the Bakhtinian dialogic ethics framework of uniquness. We try to show that education and its justice are essentially authorial and, thus, unique processes. Even when justice involves measurable things like money, it is still about unique people with unique educational goals, interests, and needs in unique circumstances that these measurable resources afford. We consider a case of allocation of measurable resources as a compromise between the Kantian formulistic and the Bakhtinian dialogic ethics approaches. We conclude our

  6. Twelve tips for the construction of ethical dilemma case-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan

    2017-04-01

    Ethical dilemma case-based examination (ethics Script Concordance Test, eSCT) is a written examination that can be delivered to a large group of examinees for the purpose of measuring high-level thinking. As it accommodates for diverse responses from experts, ethics SCT allows partial credits. The framework of ethics SCT includes a vignette with an ethical dilemma and a leading question, which asks the examinee to "agree" or "disagree", plus the shifts of prior decision by adding new information. In this article, the following tips for constructing this type of examination are provided: use "true" dilemmas, select an appropriate ethical issue, target high-level cognitive tasks, list key components, keep a single central theme, device quality scoring system, be important and plausible, be clear, select quality experts, validate, know the limitation, and be familiar with test materials. The use of eSCT to measure ethical reasoning ability appears to be both viable and desirable.

  7. True or False, Process or Procedure: Parrhesia and a Consideration of Humanism, Subjectivity, and Ethics within Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, David; Polush, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine ethics, humanism, and the concept of "parrhesia" ("pa???s?a") in the context of educational research. More specifically, it surveys Foucault's lectures on ethics to explore a framework for educational research that disrupts subjectivity and traditional forms of humanism while retaining a relational…

  8. The importance of ethic in the field of human tissue banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Herson, Marisa Roma

    2012-03-01

    A tissue bank is accountable before the community in fulfilling the expectations of tissue donors, their families and recipients. The expected output from the altruistic donation is that safe and high quality human tissue grafts will be provided for the medical treatment of patients. Thus, undertakings of tissue banks have to be not only authorised and audited by national competent health care authorities, but also comply with a strong ethical code, a code of practices and ethical principles. Ethical practice in the field of tissue banking requires the setting of principles, the identification of possible deviations and the establishment of mechanisms that will detect and hinder abuses that may occur during the procurement, processing and distribution of human tissues for transplantation. The opinions and suggestions manifested by the authors in this paper may not be necessarily a reflection of those within the institutions or community they are linked to.

  9. Ethics in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Ethics is a branch of philosophy. Its object is the study of both moral and immoral behaviour in order to make well founded judgements and to arrive at adequate recommendations. The Collins English Dictionary provides the following definitions of the word ethic: Ethic: a moral principle or set of moral values held by an individual or group; Ethics(singular): the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it; Ethics(pleural): a social, religious or civil code of behaviour considered correct, especially that of a particular group, profession or individual; Ethics(pleural): the moral fitness of a decision, course of action, etc. Ethics has a two-fold objective: Firstly it evaluates human practices by calling upon moral standards; it may give prescriptive advice on how to act morally in a specific kind of situation. This implies analysis and evaluation. Sometimes this is known as Normative ethics. The second is to provide therapeutic advice, suggesting solutions and policies. It must be based on well-informed opinions and requires a clear understanding of the vital issues. In the medical world, we are governed by the Hippocratic Oath. Essentially this requires medical practitioners (doctors) to do good, not harm. There is great interest and even furore regarding ethics in radiation protection

  10. Business ethics and prospects for restorative justice in selected commercial organisations based in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahim, Razwana Begum

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the principles and practices of business ethics in commercial organisations in Singapore. It also addresses the potential of the concept, restorative justice as a feature of ethical practice in commercial organisations. Two research questions guided the study which were i) what are the principles and practices of business ethics in commercial organisations based in Singapore and ii) what is the potential of restorative justice in commercial organisations based in Singapo...

  11. The Need for Authenticity-Based Autonomy in Medical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lucie

    2017-08-11

    The notion of respect for autonomy dominates bioethical discussion, though what qualifies precisely as autonomous action is notoriously elusive. In recent decades, the notion of autonomy in medical contexts has often been defined in opposition to the notion of autonomy favoured by theoretical philosophers. Where many contemporary theoretical accounts of autonomy place emphasis on a condition of "authenticity", the special relation a desire must have to the self, bioethicists often regard such a focus as irrelevant to the concerns of medical ethics, and too stringent for use in practical contexts. I argue, however, that the very condition of authenticity that forms a focus in theoretical philosophy is also essential to autonomy and competence in medical ethics. After tracing the contours of contemporary authenticity-based theories of autonomy, I consider and respond to objections against the incorporation of a notion of authenticity into accounts of autonomy designed for use in medical contexts. By looking at the typical problems that arise when making judgments concerning autonomy or competence in a medical setting, I reveal the need for a condition of authenticity-as a means of protecting choices, particularly high-stakes choices, from being restricted or overridden on the basis of intersubjective disagreement. I then turn to the treatment of false and contestable beliefs, arguing that it is only through reference to authenticity that we can make important distinctions in this domain. Finally, I consider a potential problem with my proposed approach; its ability to deal with anorexic and depressive desires.

  12. Building research capacity with members of underserved American Indian/Alaskan Native communities: training in research ethics and the protection of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetter, Karen M; Yarborough, Mark; Cassady, Diana L; Styne, Dennis M

    2015-05-01

    To develop a research ethics training course for American Indian/Alaskan Native health clinic staff and community researchers who would be conducting human subjects research. Community-based participatory research methods were used in facilitated discussions of research ethics centered around topics included in the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative research ethics course. The community-based participatory research approach allowed all partners to jointly develop a research ethics training program that was relevant for American Indian/Alaskan Native communities. All community and clinic partners were able to pass the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative course they were required to pass so that they could be certified to conduct research with human subjects on federally funded projects. In addition, the training sessions provided a foundation for increased community oversight of research. By using a collaborative process to engage community partners in research ethics discussions, rather than either an asynchronous online or a lecture/presentation format, resulted in significant mutual learning about research ethics and community concerns about research. This approach requires university researchers to invest time in learning about the communities in which they will be working prior to the training. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  13. Ethics, the law, and prisoners: protecting society, changing human behavior, and protecting human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trestman, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Restricting a person's liberty presents society with many inherent ethical challenges. The historical purposes of confinement have included punishment, penitence, containment, rehabilitation, and habilitation. While the purposes are indeed complex, multifaceted, and at times ambiguous or contradictory, the fact of incarceration intrinsically creates many ethical challenges for psychiatrists working in correctional settings. Role definition of a psychiatrist may be ambiguous, with potential tensions between forensic and therapeutic demands. Privacy may be limited or absent and confidentiality may be compromised. Patient autonomy may be threatened to address real or perceived security concerns. Care delivery may actually have harmful consequences in court cases for pretrial detainees or lethal consequences for those under a death sentence. An absence of data and targeted research hampers the development of evidence-based care delivery for the disenfranchised, understudied, and disproportionately ill prisoner population. In this review paper, I discuss a few of the challenges and dilemmas routinely faced and present a series of questions. Where feasible, proposed resolutions are offered.

  14. Heterogeneity of Human Research Ethics Committees and Research Governance Offices across Australia: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth De Smit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. Aims To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs and Research Governance Offices (RGOs across Australia. Methods In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA, for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Results Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a “National Ethics Application Form” and three a “Low Negligible Risk” form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22 and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days. Conclusion We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently

  15. The use of animal tissues alongside human tissue: Cultural and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, Anu; Jones, D Gareth; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and research facilities often use cadaveric material alongside animal tissues, although there appear to be differences in the way we handle, treat, and dispose of human cadaveric material compared to animal tissue. This study sought to analyze cultural and ethical considerations and provides policy recommendations on the use of animal tissues alongside human tissue. The status of human and animal remains and the respect because of human and animal tissues were compared and analyzed from ethical, legal, and cultural perspectives. The use of animal organs and tissues is carried out within the context of understanding human anatomy and function. Consequently, the interests of human donors are to be pre-eminent in any policies that are enunciated, so that if any donors find the presence of animal remains unacceptable, the latter should not be employed. The major differences appear to lie in differences in our perceptions of their respective intrinsic and instrumental values. Animals are considered to have lesser intrinsic value and greater instrumental value than humans. These differences stem from the role played by culture and ethical considerations, and are manifested in the resulting legal frameworks. In light of this discussion, six policy recommendations are proposed, encompassing the nature of consent, respect for animal tissues as well as human remains, and appropriate separation of both sets of tissues in preparation and display. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Human impact on the planet: an earth system science perspective and ethical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    natural and human history to stop further degradation of Earth?s ecosystems and extinction of its biota? The fate of the biosphere, including humanity, depends on a reaffirmation by all humans of all cultures and religions of the global importance of a planet-wide conservation of the Earth?s biotic heritage. For the world?s religions it means elevation of stewardship of the Earth to a moral imperative and a goal of complete preservation of the Earth?s biotic inheritance, one which is based on a Do No Harm ethic.

  17. Genetic Testing and Its Implications: Human Genetics Researchers Grapple with Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabino, Isaac

    2003-01-01

    Contributes systematic data on the attitudes of scientific experts who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. Finds that they are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. Calls for greater genetic literacy. (Contains 87 references.) (Author/NB)

  18. The Human Rights Context for Ethical Requirements for Involving People with Intellectual Disability in Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, T.; Carling-Jenkins, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and…

  19. The Use of Ethical Frameworks for Implementing Science as a Human Endeavour in Year 10 Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Siew Fong; Dawson, Vaille

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on the use of ethical frameworks as a pedagogical model for socio-scientific education in implementing the "Science as a Human Endeavour" (SHE) strand of the Australian Curriculum: Science in a Year 10 biology class in a Christian college in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Using a case study approach, a mixed…

  20. Copying and Coping Conceptualizations of Language: Counseling and the Ethic of Appreciation for Human Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2008-01-01

    The author takes the position that the foundational value of the counseling profession is an ethic of appreciation for human differences. The professional tool that is used to actualize this value is language. In this regard, the philosophical distinction between copying and coping conceptualizations of language is overviewed. The author argues…

  1. Human Dignity and the Ethics and Regulation of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duwell, M.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter investigates how human dignity might be understood as a normative concept for the regulation of technologies. First, various distinctions that are relevant for the way human dignity can be understood are discussed. It is argued that it is particularly important that we should see human

  2. How to depolarise the ethical debate over human embryonic stem cell research (and other ethical debates too!)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinoza, N.; Peterson, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    The contention of this paper is that the current ethical debate over embryonic stem cell research is polarised to an extent that is not warranted by the underlying ethical conflict. It is argued that the ethical debate can be rendered more nuanced, and less polarised, by introducing non-binary

  3. Ethics and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Mejia, Jose Fernando

    2002-01-01

    It could be said that the concept of sustainability is based on ethic postulates, because it claims to bear in mind the set of necessities of future generations as a control variable for human development models and for consumption patterns. Ethics, in its own, mainly in the spinozist line of thinking, is a philosophical proposal directed to empowering the operations of expression of the beings (not only of the human being). This ethics outlines multiple developments and conceive future generations not as undifferentiated, passive and impotent collectives, but as active and joyful communities, who are sensitive to the possibilities of their own devenir

  4. Ethics and methods for biological rhythm research on animals and human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    2010-10-01

    This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve

  5. Human genome education model project. Ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project: Education of interdisciplinary professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, J.O. [Alliance of Genetic Support Groups, Chevy Chase, MD (United States); Lapham, E.V. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Child Development Center

    1996-12-31

    This meeting was held June 10, 1996 at Georgetown University. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the human genome education model. Topics of discussion include the following: psychosocial issues; ethical issues for professionals; legislative issues and update; and education issues.

  6. Human dignity and biomedical ethics from a Christian theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich H.J. Körtner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The argument of human dignity plays an important role in current debates on human rights and their relevance in modern biomedicine. When discussing the contribution of Christian theology to current debates on human dignity and human rights the thesis is not that the modern idea of human dignity depends on a theological grounding. Also, it is not the task of theology to legitimate rights as Christian a posteriori. We do not need to deduce modern human rights from theological doctrines. The theological challenge is to find an access for Christians from their belief to the modern idea of human rights and human dignity and to discuss the contribution which theology and the churches can make to further development of human rights. The Christian image of man, which serves as the foundation for the church position on bioethical topics in the German-speaking context, is a mix of biblical motives, a Kantian interpretation of the concept of human dignity and an interpretation of the German constitutional law inspired by the Catholic tradition of natural law. The following presented theological understanding of human dignity, in contrast, was inspired by the insights of the Pauline doctrine of justification and its Protestant reinterpretation.

  7. Ethical Issues Surrounding the Use of Modern Human Remains for Research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, N; Dempers, J J

    2017-02-01

    Chapter 8 of the South African National Health Act 61 of 2003 (NHA) that deals with the donation of human tissue was promulgated in 2012. The new Act is perceived to impose restrictions on low-risk research involving human remains. This study aimed to identify the issues raised by a research ethics committee (REC) when reviewing protocols where human remains are used as data source. REC minutes from 2009 to 2014 were reviewed, and issues raised by the committee were categorized. In total, 127 protocols submitted to the committee over 6 years involved human remains. Queries relating to science (22.2%) and administration (18.9%) were the most common, whereas queries relating to legal issues constituted only 10.2%. Ethical issues centered on informed consent regarding sensitive topics such as HIV, DNA, and deceased children. The change in legislation did not change the number or type of legal issues identified by the REC.

  8. Interprofessional Clinical Ethics Education: The Promise of Cross-Disciplinary Problem-Based Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Melissa J; Starbird, Laura E

    2016-09-01

    A review of Lin et al.'s pilot study exploring the effects of an interprofessional, problem-based learning clinical ethics curriculum on Taiwanese medical and nursing students' attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration highlights the benefits of interprofessional collaboration and offers insight into how problem-based learning might be universally applied in ethics education. Interprofessional collaboration is an ideal approach for exploring ethical dilemmas because it involves all relevant professionals in discussions about ethical values that arise in patient care. Interprofessional ethics collaboration is challenging to implement, however, given time constraints and organizational and practice demands. Nevertheless, we suggest that when professionals collaborate, they can collectively express greater commitment to the patient. We also suggest future research avenues that can explore additional benefits of interprofessional collaboration in clinical ethics. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Human Genome Diversity Project. Summary of planning workshop 3(B): Ethical and human-rights implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.

  10. Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and reproductive cloning: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This document presents arguments that conclude that it is unethical to use somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for infertility treatment due to concerns about safety; the unknown impact of SCNT on children, families, and society; and the availability of other ethically acceptable means of assisted reproduction. This document replaces the ASRM Ethics Committee report titled, "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and cloning," last published in Fertil Steril 2012;98:804-7. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A role for research ethics committees in exchanges of human biospecimens through material transfer agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Donald; Nicol, Dianne; Nicolás, Pilar; Zeps, Nikolajs

    2014-09-01

    International transfers of human biological material (biospecimens) and data are increasing, and commentators are starting to raise concerns about how donor wishes are protected in such circumstances. These exchanges are generally made under contractual material transfer agreements (MTAs). This paper asks what role, if any, should research ethics committees (RECs) play in ensuring legal and ethical conduct in such exchanges. It is recommended that RECs should play a more active role in the future development of best practice MTAs involving exchange of biospecimens and data and in monitoring compliance.

  12. Ethics and research in Human and Social Sciences: a case to be thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto dos Santos Amaral Filho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, fundamentally through the analysis and interpretation of Resolutions that have historically been regulating ethical issues that involve scientific research (CNS Resolutions N. 196/96, N. 466/2012, N. 510/2016, seeks to show the inadequacy of such Resolutions for Human and Social Sciences research. In addition, this text wants to point to the political dispute imposed by the area of biomedical sciences that apparently seems to be little concerned with ethical issues per se and seeks, first and foremost, to maintain its power.

  13. Principle-based ethics and nurses' attitudes towards artificial feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, L; Drought, T; Davis, A J

    1995-02-01

    Nurses often institute artificial feeding for patients who would otherwise starve. Recently, the courts in the United States have favoured withholding or withdrawing feedings from patients who currently refuse or previously gave some indication they would refuse artificial nutrition and hydration. This paper investigates under what circumstances nurses feel justified in withholding artificial nutrition and hydration. Structured interviews were conducted with 40 cancer care nurses from two sites, and 40 dementia care nurses from two sites. The interviews were based on two vignettes, one involving an alert patient with terminal cancer, the other a patient suffering end-stage Alzheimer's dementia, and were analysed for themes coinciding with principles of deontological ethics. Investigators found that autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence most often guided nurses' decisions to withhold or implement artificial feeding.

  14. In Defense of Agent-Based Virtue Ethics | Van Zyl | Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 'Against agent-based virtue ethics' (2004) Michael Brady rejects agent-based virtue ethics on the grounds that it fails to capture the commonsense distinction between an agent's doing the right thing, and her doing it for the right reason. In his view, the failure to account for this distinction has paradoxical results, making it ...

  15. BIOETHICS METHODS IN THE ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT LITERATURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca; Morrissey, Clair

    2013-01-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003-2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275

  16. Engineering Substantially Prolonged Human Lifespans: Biotechnological Enhancement and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has recently become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion in 2001 of the Human Genome Project and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research it has opened. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology.

  17. [The gift of human body's products: philosophical and ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertschi, B

    2014-09-01

    In continental Europe, there is a very strong moral condemnation against putting parts or products of the human body on sale-and, consequently, against putting sperms and oocytes on sale. Only a gift is morally permissible. The situation is different in Anglo-Saxon countries. Who is right? Above all, it must be noticed that two views of the human body are facing each other here: for the first, the human body is a part of the person (so, it partakes of the person's dignity), whereas for the second, the human body is a possession of the person (the person is the owner of his/her body). In my opinion, the argument of dignity comes up against serious objections, and the property argument is more consistent. However, it does not follow that it would be judicious to put parts and products of the human body for sale on a market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Parallel experience: how art and art theory can inform ethics in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, L

    2003-12-01

    Trends in ethical research involving humans emphasise the importance of collaboration, of involving research subjects, alongside the researchers in the construction and implementation of research. This paper will explore parallels derived from another tradition of investigation of the human: art and art theory. An artist's inquiry into the problems of human research will be described, followed by the application of arguments from art theory to research practice. Recently artist Christine Borland has provided examples in which the lack of collaboration in research has caused injustice. Borland's work reflects these ethical dilemmas and questions the procedures and assumptions involved. In most cases the value of subject anonymity is called into question because it reduces the subjects' control over themselves. The application of art theory, which has already considered these problems, helps question and explore the ways in which the subject turned object of artistic or scientific interpretation can maintain some control and dignity.

  19. Human and animal research guidelines: aligning ethical constructs with new scientific developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsian, Hope

    2011-10-01

    Both human research and animal research operate within established standards and procedures. Although the human research environment has been criticized for its sometimes inefficient and imperfect process, reported abuses of human subjects in research served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and the resulting Belmont Report. No similar, comprehensive and principled effort has addressed the use of animals in research. Although published policies regarding animal research provide relevant regulatory guidance, these policies have not emerged from the process of specifying consistent and reasoned ethical principles. The lack of a fundamental effort to explore the ethical issues and principles regarding the use of animals in research has led to unclear and disparate policies. Recent studies have increased our understanding of animal cognition and emotion, suggesting that animals' potential for experiencing a wide variety of harms, such as pain and fear, is greater than has been previously appreciated. Furthermore, relationships between methods of captivity and certain laboratory procedures and the resulting adverse physical, social and psychological effects have been established. In light of this information, current protections may need to be reconsidered and modified. This paper explores the historical convergence and divergence in the creation of human and animal research guidelines, as well as opportunities to align ethical frameworks with new scientific discoveries. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Cavalieri

    2007-01-01

    The ethics we find in companies contains the same elements as the ethics in the socio-economic context in which they operate. The aspirations and ethical levels of companies operating in certain countries differ substantially from those of companies operating in other areas, where the defence of the environment, social welfare, human rights, cooperation, assistance are expected and offered to a lower degree, or are not requested or protected at all. The new globalised, networked economy, base...

  1. Chapter 3. Aristotelian Virtue Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Dimmock, Mark; Fisher, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    To seek virtue for the sake of reward is to dig for iron with a spade of gold. 1. Aristotelian Virtue Ethics Introduction Aristotle (384–322 BC) was a scholar in disciplines such as ethics, metaphysics, biology and botany, amongst others. It is fitting, therefore, that his moral philosophy is based around assessing the broad characters of human beings rather than assessing singular acts in isolation. Indeed, this is what separates Aristotelian Virtue Ethics from both Utilitarianism and Kantia...

  2. Ethical aspects of registry-based research in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Håberg, Siri E; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Lafolie, Pierre; Zoega, Helga; Sarkkola, Catharina; von Kraemer, Stephanie; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Nørgaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    National health care registries in the Nordic countries share many attributes, but different legal and ethical frameworks represent a challenge to promoting effective joint research. Internationally, there is a lack of knowledge about how ethical matters are considered in Nordic registry-based research, and a lack of knowledge about how Nordic ethics committees operate and what is needed to obtain an approval. In this paper, we review ethical aspects of registry-based research, the legal framework, the role of ethics review boards in the Nordic countries, and the structure of the ethics application. We discuss the role of informed consent in registry-based research and how to safeguard the integrity of study participants, including vulnerable subjects and children. Our review also provides information on the different government agencies that contribute registry-based data, and a list of the major health registries in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Both ethical values and conditions for registry-based research are similar in the Nordic countries. While Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have chosen different legal frameworks, these differences can be resolved through mutual recognition of ethical applications and by harmonizing the different systems, likely leading to increased collaboration and enlarged studies.

  3. Connections between Ethical Values, the Meaning of Human Life, and Human Communities, according to Vasile Goldiș

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovan Marţian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the views held by Vasile Goldiș – Transylvanian scholar, politician, and one of the masterminds of the Great Union of 1 December 1918 – regarding the role of universal human values in guiding individuals and human communities. Together with other Christian values, ethics guides individuals, communities, political and administrative elites, churches, and academia. This results in greater justice, community solidarity and cohesion, and a greater ability for society to shape and promote its internal moral order. Considering the diversity of moral profiles found among various nations, ethnicities and political elites, Goldiș highlights their common grounds – which facilitates a new moral order in inter-human, inter-community and international relations. The ethical testament promoted by Goldiș in his writings and throughout his life is still relevant today, and it also holds true for the next generations.

  4. Model-Based Policymaking: A Framework to Promote Ethical “Good Practice” in Mathematical Modeling for Public Health Policymaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Lisa A.; McKendrick, Iain J.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models are increasingly relied upon as decision support tools, which estimate risks and generate recommendations to underpin public health policies. However, there are no formal agreements about what constitutes professional competencies or duties in mathematical modeling for public health. In this article, we propose a framework to evaluate whether mathematical models that assess human and animal disease risks and control strategies meet standards consistent with ethical “good practice” and are thus “fit for purpose” as evidence in support of policy. This framework is derived from principles of biomedical ethics: independence, transparency (autonomy), beneficence/non-maleficence, and justice. We identify ethical risks associated with model development and implementation and consider the extent to which scientists are accountable for the translation and communication of model results to policymakers so that the strengths and weaknesses of the scientific evidence base and any socioeconomic and ethical impacts of biased or uncertain predictions are clearly understood. We propose principles to operationalize a framework for ethically sound model development and risk communication between scientists and policymakers. These include the creation of science–policy partnerships to mutually define policy questions and communicate results; development of harmonized international standards for model development; and data stewardship and improvement of the traceability and transparency of models via a searchable archive of policy-relevant models. Finally, we suggest that bespoke ethical advisory groups, with relevant expertise and access to these resources, would be beneficial as a bridge between science and policy, advising modelers of potential ethical risks and providing overview of the translation of modeling advice into policy. PMID:28424768

  5. Where are human subjects in Big Data research? The emerging ethics divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Metcalf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are growing discontinuities between the research practices of data science and established tools of research ethics regulation. Some of the core commitments of existing research ethics regulations, such as the distinction between research and practice, cannot be cleanly exported from biomedical research to data science research. Such discontinuities have led some data science practitioners and researchers to move toward rejecting ethics regulations outright. These shifts occur at the same time as a proposal for major revisions to the Common Rule—the primary regulation governing human-subjects research in the USA—is under consideration for the first time in decades. We contextualize these revisions in long-running complaints about regulation of social science research and argue data science should be understood as continuous with social sciences in this regard. The proposed regulations are more flexible and scalable to the methods of non-biomedical research, yet problematically largely exclude data science methods from human-subjects regulation, particularly uses of public datasets. The ethical frameworks for Big Data research are highly contested and in flux, and the potential harms of data science research are unpredictable. We examine several contentious cases of research harms in data science, including the 2014 Facebook emotional contagion study and the 2016 use of geographical data techniques to identify the pseudonymous artist Banksy. To address disputes about application of human-subjects research ethics in data science, critical data studies should offer a historically nuanced theory of “data subjectivity” responsive to the epistemic methods, harms and benefits of data science and commerce.

  6. Using Video-Based Instruction to Integrate Ethics into the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Ali M.; Mintz, Steven M.; Wright, George M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a video case discussion project based on the IMA's Statement of Ethical Professional Practice that was administered in a cost accounting class to assess the extent to which students were able to identify and discuss ethical issues raised by the facts of a case scenario. The case was developed by the IMA to advance the…

  7. Using Drones to Study Human Beings: Ethical and Regulatory Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C

    2018-02-27

    Researchers have used drones to track wildlife populations, monitor forest fires, map glaciers, and measure air pollution but have only begun to consider how to use these unmanned aerial vehicles to study human beings. The potential use of drones to study public gatherings or other human activities raises novel issues of privacy, confidentiality, and consent, which this article explores in depth. It argues that drone research could fall into several different categories: non-human subjects research (HSR), exempt HSR, or non-exempt HSR. In the case of non-exempt HSR, it will be difficult for institutional review boards to approve studies unless they are designed so that informed consent can be waived. Whether drone research is non-HSR, exempt HSR, or non-exempt HSR, it is important for investigators to consult communities which could be affected by the research.

  8. How to depolarise the ethical debate over human embryonic stem cell research (and other ethical debates too!).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Nicolas; Peterson, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The contention of this paper is that the current ethical debate over embryonic stem cell research is polarised to an extent that is not warranted by the underlying ethical conflict. It is argued that the ethical debate can be rendered more nuanced, and less polarised, by introducing non-binary notions of moral rightness and wrongness. According to the view proposed, embryonic stem cell research--and possibly other controversial activities too--can be considered 'a little bit right and a little bit wrong'. If this idea were to become widely accepted, the ethical debate would, for conceptual reasons, become less polarised.

  9. Ethically-based clinical decision-making in physical therapy: process and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Elspeth; Geddes, E Lynne; Larin, Hélène

    2005-01-01

    The identification and consideration of relevant ethical issues in clinical decision-making, and the education of health care professionals (HCPs) in these skills are key factors in providing quality health care. This qualitative study explores the way in which physical therapists (PTs) integrate ethical issues into clinical practice decisions and identifies ethical themes used by PTs. A purposive sample of eight PTs was asked to describe a recent ethically-based clinical decision. Transcribed interviews were coded and themes identified related to the following categories: 1) the integration of ethical issues in the clinical decision-making process, 2) patient welfare, 3) professional ethos of the PT, and 4) health care economics and business practices. Participants readily described clinical situations involving ethical issues but rarely identified specific conflicting ethical issues in their description. Ethical dilemmas were more frequently resolved when there were fewer emotional sequelae associated with the dilemma, and the PT had a clear understanding of professional ethos, valued patient autonomy, and explored a variety of alternative actions before implementing one. HCP students need to develop a clear professional ethos and an increased understanding of the economic factors that will present ethical issues in practice.

  10. Ethical Concerns About Human Genetic Enhancement in the Malay Science Fiction Novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Noor Munirah; Hj Safian Shuri, Muhammad Fakhruddin

    2018-02-01

    Advancements in science and technology have not only brought hope to humankind to produce disease-free offspring, but also offer possibilities to genetically enhance the next generation's traits and capacities. Human genetic enhancement, however, raises complex ethical questions, such as to what extent should it be allowed? It has been a great challenge for humankind to develop robust ethical guidelines for human genetic enhancement that address both public concerns and needs. We believe that research about public concerns is necessary prior to developing such guidelines, yet the issues have not been thoroughly investigated in many countries, including Malaysia. Since the novel often functions as a medium for the public to express their concerns, this paper explores ethical concerns about human genetic enhancement expressed in four Malay science fiction novels namely Klon, Leksikon Ledang, Transgenesis Bisikan Rimba and Transgenik Sifar. Religion has a strong influence on the worldview of the Malays therefore some concerns such as playing God are obviously religious. Association of the negative image of scientists as well as the private research companies with the research on human genetic enhancement reflects the authors' concerns about the main motivations for conducting such research and the extent to which such research will benefit society.

  11. Abortion and human rights: Towards an ethics of compassion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper contends that abortion is not easy nor safe as the pro-abortionists and medical experts woul want us believe. Given the natue of this work, we employed the analytic and existential method of philosophizing to draw a conclusion that, as humans we should always have compassion for the weakest member of the ...

  12. Human Resource Development, Ethics, and the Social Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Floyd F.

    2018-01-01

    Businesses can achieve competitive advantage and better productivity and performance by attracting and developing exceptional employees, by caring for and listening to stakeholders, and by avoiding financial and reputational damage due to unethical and illegal behaviors. As a profession, human resource development (HRD) engages in practices that…

  13. The ethics of human cadaver organ transplantation: a biologist's viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emson, H E

    1987-01-01

    The rights of the various individuals involved in decision-making in cadaver organ donation are considered, and there is discussion of the relation of human cadavers to the planetary biomass. I conclude that the rights of the potential recipient should outweigh those of the other parties concerned and that education and legislation should recognise and promote this. PMID:3669037

  14. ethics, religion and humanity: rethinking religion in 21 century africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    cause of all human predicaments; that it provides viable and abundant fuel for ... have its older roots in Marx and Lenin, however, the condemnation it has received in recent times is ... beings, it is not out of place to say that his .... religion functions in the culture of a people; ..... zombies and robots having no freedom and.

  15. The Slippery Slope Argument in the Ethical Debate on Genetic Engineering of Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Douglas

    2017-12-01

    This article applies tools from argumentation theory to slippery slope arguments used in current ethical debates on genetic engineering. Among the tools used are argumentation schemes, value-based argumentation, critical questions, and burden of proof. It is argued that so-called drivers such as social acceptance and rapid technological development are also important factors that need to be taken into account alongside the argumentation scheme. It is shown that the slippery slope argument is basically a reasonable (but defeasible) form of argument, but is often flawed when used in ethical debates because of failures to meet the requirements of its scheme.

  16. Some Basics about Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of ethics focuses on the role of human performance technology professionals in helping corporate ethicists. Highlights include definitions of ethics, morals, values, and business ethics; ethics in academia and in business; and application of the knowledge of ethics to decision-making. (Contains 18 references.) (LRW)

  17. Genetic testing and its implications: human genetics researchers grapple with ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabino, Isaac

    2003-01-01

    To better understand ethical issues involved in the field of human genetics and promote debate within the scientific community, the author surveyed scientists who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. This study contributes systematic data on attitudes of scientific experts. The survey finds respondents are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. The majority consider in utero testing and consequent pregnancy termination acceptable for cases involving likelihood of serious disease but disapprove for genetic reasons they consider arbitrary, leaving a gray area of distinguishing between treatment of disorders and enhancement still to be resolved. While safeguarding patient confidentiality versus protecting at-risk third parties (kin, reproductive partners) presents a dilemma, preserving privacy from misuse by institutional third parties (employers, insurers) garners strong consensus for legislation against discrimination. Finally, a call is made for greater genetic literacy.

  18. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  19. Ethical Assessment of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research According to Turkish Muslim Scholars: First Critical Analysis and Some Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Ahmet; Ilkilic, Ilhan

    2016-08-01

    Turkey, with a Muslim population of officially over 99 %, is one of the few secular states in the Muslim world. Although state institutions are not based on Islamic juridical and ethical norms, the latter play a significant role in defining people's attitudes towards controversial issues in the modern world, especially when backed by opinions of Muslim scholars living in Turkey. Accordingly, opinions of Muslim scholars undoubtedly have an important effect on bioethical decisions made by institutions and individuals. To explore the ethical positions of Muslim scholars living in Turkey and their arguments used in the ethical assessment of embryonic stem cell research; to discuss the biological-moral tensions arising in medical research on human embryos. Qualitative study. Muslim scholars located in different parts of Turkey. Qualitative method, involving the collection of opinions of various scholars, by means of 15 individual semi-structured interviews, evaluated using thematic qualitative analysis. Positions regarding embryonic stem cell research differ among Muslim scholars in Turkey. On the other hand, even where positions are similar, they are often supported by different arguments. Despite the heterogeneity of the arguments presented, the dominant position considers embryonic stem cell research as morally acceptable.

  20. [Thinking ethics education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Stéphanie

    2015-12-01

    Ethics emerges in the interstices of deontology, in difficult situations generating internal conflicts for the caregiver, sources of anxiety and questioning. Ethics education has always played a major in nursing programs by initiating a reflection on human values. Faced with current uncertainties in the context of care, it is now based on the appropriation of a reflexive approach to the meaning of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Psihologie, morală, politică: avatarurile umanismului (Psychology, ethic, politics: the avatars of humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru MAMINA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article treats the impact of psychological researches upon the humanistic ethic came out from Lumières, and subsequently on the liberal thought influenced by that. Hence it first presents the crisis which psychoanalysis induced to the traditional image of human being as rational an capable of free will. It also shows the way that humanistic view was transformed and so recovered in a more democratic sense by the analytical psychology and mainly the cultural psychoanalysis.

  2. Religious morality (and secular humanism) in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel A Faria

    2015-01-01

    In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention) of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience) journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the m...

  3. How to challenge a culturalization of human existence? Promoting interculturalism and ethical thinking in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Brossard Børhaug

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available What if culture appears to be a universal solution – and problem – to all human encounters in the multicultural school? When teachers explain the problems encountered by minority pupils simply by reference to their cultural (religious backgrounds, one faces the danger of culturalization where the other’s difference is explained only by his/her ethnicity. Culturalization is highly problematic because it emphasizes stereotyped inter-group differences and by doing so erases intra-group and inter-individual differences. The article argues that culture is fundamental in human existence, but it should not be an ambiguous dimension if the school seeks to help the learner get a stronger capacity of voice and aspiration. In order to challenge culturalization of human existence, it is crucial for education to promote the paradigm of interculturalism. Such a paradigm requires educators to acknowledge multiple forms of identity belongings for the individual and to resist the interpretation of culture as common sense. Education becomes intercultural and provides liberating categorizations for the individual when it acknowledges the true value of chosen cultural affiliations and individual aspirations. Nonetheless, promoting interculturalism might not be sufficient. Facing the potential danger of culturalization, we also need to foster ethics in education, in order to deconstruct the categories of cultural identity and belonging. Drawing on the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas (1905-1995 the article argues that loving the other implies the act of loving the other person as a brother and as a stranger. Responsibility understood as an ethical responsibility opens up the community’s traditional structures and promotes a politics of ethical difference. Justice, thus, is not only about how well rights and duties are enforced, but also a matter of the other’s right to be other. Difference as a category is in other words not cultural but refers to the

  4. Virtue-based Approaches to Professional Ethics: a Plea for More Rigorous Use of Empirical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spielthenner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the method of professional ethics has been largely principle-based. But the failure of this approach to take into sufficient account the character of professionals has led to a revival of virtue ethics. The kind of professional virtue ethics that I am concerned with in this paper is teleological in that it relates the virtues of a profession to the ends of this profession. My aim is to show how empirical research can (in addition to philosophical inquiry be used to develop virtue-based accounts of professional ethics, and that such empirically well-informed approaches are more convincing than traditional kinds of professional virtue ethics. The paper is divided into four sections. In the first, I outline the structure of a teleological approach to virtue ethics. In Section 2, I show that empirical research can play an essential role in professional ethics by emphasizing the difference between conceptual and empirical matters. Section 3 demonstrates the relevance of virtues in professional life; and the last section is concerned with some meta-ethical issues that are raised by a teleological account of professional virtues.

  5. Human Dignity in Healthcare: A Virtue Ethics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert

    The term ‘dignity’ is used in a variety of ways but always to attribute or recognize some status in the person. The present paper concerns not the status itself but the virtue of acknowledging that status. This virtue, which Thomas Aquinas calls ‘observantia’, concerns how dignity is honoured, respected, or observed. By analogy with justice (of which it is a part) observantia can be thought of both as a general virtue and as a special virtue. As a general virtue observantia refers to that respect for human dignity that is implicit in all acts of justice. As a special virtue it concerns the specific way we show esteem for people. Healthcare represents a challenge to observantia because those in need of healthcare are doubly restricted in expressing their dignity in action: in the first place by their ill health, and in the second place by the conditions required by healthcare (hence the sick are termed ‘patients’ rather than ‘agents’). To be understood properly, especially in the context of healthcare, the virtue of observantia needs both to qualify and to be qualified by the virtue of misericordia, empathy, or compassion for affliction. The unity of the virtues requires a simultaneous recognition of the common dignity and common neediness of human existence.

  6. The ethical introduction of genome-based information and technologies into public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, H C; Swinnen, E; Douw, K; Vondeling, H; Cassiman, J-J; Cambon-Thomsen, A; Borry, P

    2013-01-01

    With the human genome project running from 1989 until its completion in 2003, and the incredible advances in sequencing technology and in bioinformatics during the last decade, there has been a shift towards an increase focus on studying common complex disorders which develop due to the interplay of many different genes as well as environmental factors. Although some susceptibility genes have been identified in some populations for disorders such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, the integration of this information into the health care system has proven to be much more problematic than for single gene disorders. Furthermore, with the 1000$ genome supposedly just around the corner, and whole genome sequencing gradually being integrated into research protocols as well as in the clinical context, there is a strong push for the uptake of additional genomic testing. Indeed, the advent of public health genomics, wherein genomics would be integrated in all aspects of health care and public health, should be taken seriously. Although laudable, these advances also bring with them a slew of ethical and social issues that challenge the normative frameworks used in clinical genetics until now. With this in mind, we highlight herein 5 principles that are used as a primer to discuss the ethical introduction of genome-based information and genome-based technologies into public health. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Ethics and the law: the law and assisted human conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1990-07-01

    This article aims to provide no more than a brief summary and overview of some of the principal legal questions which arise in connection with assisted human conception. There is no requirement of legal suitability for natural parenthood, though a child may be removed from parental care at birth if its welfare is considered to be at risk. Where medical or other assistance is required, however, the law and social judgments may impinge on the freedom of individuals to procreate. Commercial surrogacy has recently been criminalized, but private surrogacy arrangements without reward are not illegal--although any contract would probably be unenforceable through the courts. If medical intervention is required to achieve assisted conception, the availability of resources for NHS treatment, the physical and mental health of the prospective mother and father, and the welfare (or lack of it) of any prospective child, may be factors in deciding whether an infertility unit will offer treatment. Such practices must not operate unfairly and must not discriminate on racial grounds. If treatment is provided, and a woman becomes pregnant, the ordinary abortion laws will apply and, it is thought, will extend to the selective reduction of a multiple pregnancy--there is no claim in English law for 'wrongful birth'. AID does not constitute adultery, and the law has recently been reformed to recognize children born following AID as legitimate to their social parents. A child may be regarded as the legitimate child of a surrogate mother's marriage, but where the baby is genetically distinct from the surrogate mother, the law, and is uncertain and as yet could be conflicting claims of parenthood without legislation. The storage and disposal of human gametes and embryos may raise problems of 'ownership'.

  8. Reflections on the ethics of recruiting foreign-trained human resources for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labonté Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developed countries' gains in health human resources (HHR from developing countries with significantly lower ratios of health workers have raised questions about the ethics or fairness of recruitment from such countries. By attracting and/or facilitating migration for foreign-trained HHR, notably those from poorer, less well-resourced nations, recruitment practices and policies may be compromising the ability of developing countries to meet the health care needs of their own populations. Little is known, however, about actual recruitment practices. In this study we focus on Canada (a country with a long reliance on internationally trained HHR and recruiters working for Canadian health authorities. Methods We conducted interviews with health human resources recruiters employed by Canadian health authorities to describe their recruitment practices and perspectives and to determine whether and how they reflect ethical considerations. Results and discussion We describe the methods that recruiters used to recruit foreign-trained health professionals and the systemic challenges and policies that form the working context for recruiters and recruits. HHR recruiters' reflections on the global flow of health workers from poorer to richer countries mirror much of the content of global-level discourse with regard to HHR recruitment. A predominant market discourse related to shortages of HHR outweighed discussions of human rights and ethical approaches to recruitment policy and action that consider global health impacts. Conclusions We suggest that the concept of corporate social responsibility may provide a useful approach at the local organizational level for developing policies on ethical recruitment. Such local policies and subsequent practices may inform public debate on the health equity implications of the HHR flows from poorer to richer countries inherent in the global health worker labour market, which in turn could influence

  9. Reflections on the ethics of recruiting foreign-trained human resources for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Vivien; Labonté, Ronald; Packer, Corinne

    2011-01-20

    Developed countries' gains in health human resources (HHR) from developing countries with significantly lower ratios of health workers have raised questions about the ethics or fairness of recruitment from such countries. By attracting and/or facilitating migration for foreign-trained HHR, notably those from poorer, less well-resourced nations, recruitment practices and policies may be compromising the ability of developing countries to meet the health care needs of their own populations. Little is known, however, about actual recruitment practices. In this study we focus on Canada (a country with a long reliance on internationally trained HHR) and recruiters working for Canadian health authorities. We conducted interviews with health human resources recruiters employed by Canadian health authorities to describe their recruitment practices and perspectives and to determine whether and how they reflect ethical considerations. We describe the methods that recruiters used to recruit foreign-trained health professionals and the systemic challenges and policies that form the working context for recruiters and recruits. HHR recruiters' reflections on the global flow of health workers from poorer to richer countries mirror much of the content of global-level discourse with regard to HHR recruitment. A predominant market discourse related to shortages of HHR outweighed discussions of human rights and ethical approaches to recruitment policy and action that consider global health impacts. We suggest that the concept of corporate social responsibility may provide a useful approach at the local organizational level for developing policies on ethical recruitment. Such local policies and subsequent practices may inform public debate on the health equity implications of the HHR flows from poorer to richer countries inherent in the global health worker labour market, which in turn could influence political choices at all government and health system levels.

  10. Unpasteurized Shared Human Milk Use in Pediatric Inpatients: Health and Ethical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbas, Kimberly H; Sussman-Karten, Karen; Kamin, Daniel; Huh, Susanna Y

    2017-06-01

    Growing evidence supporting the health benefits of human milk, particularly in the preterm population, has led to rising demand for donor human milk in NICUs and pediatric hospitals. There are no previous reports describing the use of unpasteurized shared human milk (USHM) in the hospital setting, but the use of USHM solicited from community donors through social networks appears to be common. Many pediatric hospitals permit inpatients to receive breast milk that has been screened and pasteurized by a human milk banking organization and will provide pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) only to infants who are preterm or have specific medical conditions. These policies are designed to minimize potential adverse effects from improperly handled or screened donor milk and to target patients who would experience the greatest benefit in health outcomes with donor milk use. We explore the ethical and health implications of 2 cases of medically complex infants who did not meet criteria in our tertiary care hospital for the use of PDHM from a regulated human milk bank and were incidentally found to be using USHM. These cases raise questions about how best to balance the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and patient autonomy in the provision of PDHM, a limited resource. Health care staff should ask about USHM use to provide adequate counseling about the risks and benefits of various feeding options in the context of an infant's medical condition. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Ethics, science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Domingues

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at thinking the relation between ethics, science and technology, emphasising the problem of their re-linking, after the split into judgements of fact and judgements of value, which happened in the beginning of modern times. Once the warlike Aristocracy's ethics and the saint man's moral are examined, one tries to outline the way by taking as a reference the ethics of responsibility, whose prototype is the wise man's moral, which disappeared in the course of modern times, due to the fragmentation of knowing and the advent of the specialist. At the end of the study, the relation between ethics and metaphysics is discussed, aiming at adjusting the anthropological question to the cosmological perspective, as well as at providing the bases of a new humanism, objectifying the humanising of technique and the generation of a new man, literate at science, technology and the humanities.

  12. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Stückelberger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  13. Developing a Scientific Virtue-Based Approach to Science Ethics Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Robert T; O'Rourke, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Responsible conduct of research training typically includes only a subset of the issues that ought to be included in science ethics and sometimes makes ethics appear to be a set of externally imposed rules rather than something intrinsic to scientific practice. A new approach to science ethics training based upon Pennock's notion of the scientific virtues may help avoid such problems. This paper motivates and describes three implementations-theory-centered, exemplar-centered, and concept-centered-that we have developed in courses and workshops to introduce students to this scientific virtue-based approach.

  14. Ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoppers, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

  15. Minors and euthanasia: a systematic review of argument-based ethics literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuman, Giulia; Gastmans, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Euthanasia was first legalised in the Netherlands in 2002, followed by similar legislation in Belgium the same year. Since the beginning, however, only the Netherlands included the possibility for minors older than 12 years to request euthanasia. In 2014, the Belgian Act legalising euthanasia was amended to include requests by minors who possess the capacity of discernment. This amendment sparked great debate, and raised difficult ethical questions about when and how a minor can be deemed competent. We conducted a systematic review of argument-based literature on euthanasia in minors. The search process followed PRISMA guidelines. Thirteen publications were included. The four-principle approach of medical ethics was used to organise the ethical arguments underlying this debate. The justification for allowing euthanasia in minors is buttressed mostly by the principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy. Somewhat paradoxically, both principles are also used in the literature to argue against the extension of legislation to minors. Opponents of euthanasia generally rely on the principle of non-maleficence. The present analysis reveals that the debate surrounding euthanasia in minors is at an early stage. In order to allow a more in-depth ethical discussion, we suggest enriching the four-principle approach by including a care-ethics approach. What is Known: • The Netherlands and Belgium are the only two countries in the world with euthanasia legislation making it possible for minors to receive euthanasia. • This legislation provoked great debate globally, with ethical arguments for and against this legislation. What is New: • A systematic description of the ethical concepts and arguments grounding the debate on euthanasia in minors, as reported in the argument-based ethics literature. • A need has been identified to enrich the debate with a care-ethics approach to avoid oversimplifying the ethical decision-making process.

  16. Case-Based Learning as Pedagogy for Teaching Information Ethics Based on the Dervin Sense-Making Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Mirah J.; Boettcher, Carrie A.; Diego, Juana F.; Karch, Marziah E.; Todd-Diaz, Ashley; Woods, Kristine M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study is to determine the effectiveness of case-based pedagogy in teaching basic principles of information ethics and ethical decision making. Study reports results of pre- and post-assessment completed by 49 library and information science (LIS) graduate students at a Midwestern university. Using Creswell's…

  17. Research ethics in Canada: experience of a group operating a human embryo and fetal tissue bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, N; Bamforth, S; Bagnall, K

    1999-04-01

    A Canadian research group is establishing a human embryo and fetal tissue bank. Its purpose is to provide researchers with frozen or fixed tissue specimens for use in protein and gene expression studies. Several legal and ethical issues have arisen, including questions about consent, use of these rare tissues, cost recovery, and profit-making. These issues are discussed here in light of the present lack of legislation in Canada. We make recommendations in these areas, and suggest that the bank's operations could legally fall under the jurisdiction of the Human Tissue Gift Act.

  18. e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Arief Ramadhan; Dana Indra Sensuse; Aniati Murni Arymurthy

    2011-01-01

    Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government eth...

  19. Science, humanism, judgement, ethics: person-centered medicine as an emergent model of modern clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Medical University of Plovdiv (MUP) has as its motto 'Committed to humanity". But what does humanity in modern medicine mean? Is it possible to practise a form of medicine that is without humanity? In the current article, it is argued that modern medicine is increasingly being practised in a de-personalised fashion, where the patient is understood not as a unique human individual, a person, but rather as a subject or an object and more in the manner of a complex biological machine. Medicine has, it is contended, become distracted from its duty to care, comfort and console as well as to ameliorate, attenuate and cure and that the rapid development of medicine's scientific knowledge is, paradoxically, principally causative. Signal occurrences in the 'patient as a person' movement are reviewed, together with the emergence of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) and patient-centered care (PCC) movements. The characteristics of a model of medicine evolving in response to medicine's current deficiencies--person-centered healthcare (PCH)--are noted and described. In seeking to apply science with humanism, via clinical judgement, within an ethical framework, it is contended that PCH will prove to be far more responsive to the needs of the individual patient and his/her personal circumstances than current models of practice, so that neither a reductive anatomico-pathological, disease-centric model of illness (EBM), nor an aggressive patient-directed, consumerist form of care (PCC) is allowed continued dominance within modern healthcare systems. In conclusion, it is argued that PCH will enable affordable advances in biomedicine and technology to be delivered to patients within a humanistic framework of clinical practice that recognises the patient as a person and which takes full account of his/her stories, values, preferences, goals, aspirations, fears, worries, hopes, cultural context and which responds to his/her psychological, emotional, spiritual and social necessities

  20. Improving epistemological beliefs and moral judgment through an STS-based science ethics education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin; Jeong, Changwoo

    2014-03-01

    This study develops a Science-Technology-Society (STS)-based science ethics education program for high school students majoring in or planning to major in science and engineering. Our education program includes the fields of philosophy, history, sociology and ethics of science and technology, and other STS-related theories. We expected our STS-based science ethics education program to promote students' epistemological beliefs and moral judgment development. These psychological constructs are needed to properly solve complicated moral and social dilemmas in the fields of science and engineering. We applied this program to a group of Korean high school science students gifted in science and engineering. To measure the effects of this program, we used an essay-based qualitative measurement. The results indicate that there was significant development in both epistemological beliefs and moral judgment. In closing, we briefly discuss the need to develop epistemological beliefs and moral judgment using an STS-based science ethics education program.

  1. Effectiveness of a Case-Based Computer Program on Students' Ethical Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jun; Park, Mihyun

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a case-based computer program, using an integrative ethical decision-making model, on the ethical decision-making competency of nursing students in South Korea. This study used a pre- and posttest comparison design. Students in the intervention group used a computer program for case analysis assignments, whereas students in the standard group used a traditional paper assignment for case analysis. The findings showed that using the case-based computer program as a complementary tool for the ethics courses offered at the university enhanced students' ethical preparedness and satisfaction with the course. On the basis of the findings, it is recommended that nurse educators use a case-based computer program as a complementary self-study tool in ethics courses to supplement student learning without an increase in course hours, particularly in terms of analyzing ethics cases with dilemma scenarios and exercising ethical decision making. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. [Outsourcing of nursing human resources from ethical to management: a survey in a Lazio Region Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Amore, Maurizia; Peroni, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, 279 nurses of a Lazio Region Hospital were assessed to verify whether certain Human Resources decisions, such as outsourcing, can negatively influence their working motivation and sense of belonging to a health organization and whether any dissatisfaction can be attributed to poor ethical information within the health service. The research method had a descriptive basis and for data collection a questionnaire with 35 questions was issued. Results showed that nurses felt strongly involved in the study and interesting aspects for management of human resources emerged, depicting an organization lacking in motivation : this confirmed one of the aspects of the study : poor levels of motivation and sense of belonging can be correlated to insufficient ethical information in local health organizations. The main working needs that emerged among the nurses of this hospital regarded economical retribution (90%), security and success (88%) , belonging (86%) and self-satisfaction (77%): the need for power was relatively low (40%). The strong points of the study were : the strong involvement of nurses, the value of the information gathered regarding working motivation, sense of belong to a nursing organization , working needs , ethical information in health environments, organization according to targets. The limits of the study were: limited number of nurses in outsourcing at the time of the study (12%), impossibility of comparing the results with data prior to the outsourcing choices made by the hospital in question.

  3. Reflection-Based Learning for Professional Ethical Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, William T; George, Maura

    2017-04-01

    One way practitioners learn ethics is by reflecting on experience. They may reflect in the moment (reflection-in-action) or afterwards (reflection-on-action). We illustrate how a teaching clinician may transform relationships with patients and teach person-centered care through reflective learning. We discuss reflective learning pedagogies and present two case examples of our preferred method, guided group reflection using narratives. This method fosters moral development alongside professional identity formation in students and advanced learners. Our method for reflective learning addresses and enables processing of the most pressing ethical issues that learners encounter in practice. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  4. A Possible Ethical Imperative Based on the Entropy Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay in an article titled, “Entropy consumption and values in physical science,” (Am. Sci. 1959, 47, 678–696 proposed a Thermodynamic Imperative similar to Kant’s Ethical Categorical Imperative. In this paper, after describing the concept of ethical imperative as elaborated by Kant, we provide a brief discussion of the role of science and its relationship to the classical thermodynamics and the physical implications of the first and the second laws of thermodynamics. We finally attempt to extend and supplement Lindsay’s Thermodynamic Imperative (TI, by another Imperative suggesting simplicity, conservation, and harmony.

  5. Citizenship, human rights, and dementia: Towards a new embodied relational ethic of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Pia; Grigorovich, Alisa; Kontos, Alexis P; Miller, Karen-Lee

    2016-05-01

    Sexual citizenship and sexual rights scholarship have made important contributions to broadening citizenship and more fully accommodating rights related to sexuality. However, this scholarship has concentrated primarily on the sexuality and intimacy-related needs of younger people and those who are not cognitively impaired. Consequently, it has inadvertently served to marginalize persons living with dementia who reside in long-term residential care settings. We argue that supporting sexual rights for persons with dementia requires a particular human rights ontology for citizenship-one that recognizes that corporeality is a fundamental source of self-expression, interdependence, and reciprocal engagement. This is an ontology that underpins our model of relational citizenship and that grounds our articulation of an ethic of embodied relational sexuality. In our view, this ethic offers important direction for the development of policy, legislation, and clinical guidelines to support sexual rights for persons with dementia in long-term residential care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Ethics in Publishing: Complexity Science and Human Factors Offer Insights to Develop a Just Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu

    2016-12-01

    While ethics in publishing has been increasingly debated, there seems to be a lack of a theoretical framework for making sense of existing rules of behavior as well as for designing, managing and enforcing such rules. This letter argues that systems-oriented disciplines, such as complexity science and human factors, offer insights into new ways of dealing with ethics in publishing. Some examples of insights are presented. Also, a call is made for empirical studies that unveil the context and details of both retracted papers and the process of writing and publishing academic papers. This is expected to shed light on the complexity of the publication system as well as to support the development of a just culture, in which all participants are accountable.

  7. Ethics and law in research with human biological samples: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    During the last century a large number of documents (regulations, ethical codes, treatises, declarations, conventions) were published on the subject of ethics and clinical trials, many of them focusing on the protection of research participants. More recently various proposals have been put forward to relax some of the constraints imposed on research by these documents and regulations. It is important to distinguish between risks deriving from direct interventions on human subjects and other types of risk. In Italy the Data Protection Authority has acted in the question of research using previously collected health data and biological samples to simplify the procedures regarding informed consent. The new approach may be of help to other researchers working outside Italy.

  8. Ethical aspects in clinical trials in the CIS, in particular the setting up of ethical committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubar, Olga

    2005-01-01

    The ethical aspects of clinical trials in the CIS are based on the development of systematic ethical review and ethical insight and responsibility on the part of researchers, sponsors, and government agencies and society. This is the main purpose of the Forum for Ethics Committees in the Commonwealth of Independent States (FECCIS) whose establishment and activities are focused on the integration of the CIS into the world system of biomedical research with regard to safeguarding ethical standards of human rights protection and harmonization of regulative and methodological space to safeguard protection of human rights and the dignity of biomedical research participants in the CIS.

  9. Moral Stress, Moral Practice, and Ethical Climate in Community-Based Drug-Use Research: Views From the Front Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B; True, Gala; Alexander, Leslie; Fried, Adam L

    2013-01-01

    The role of front-line researchers, those whose responsibilities include face-to-face contact with participants, is critical to ensuring the responsible conduct of community-based drug use research. To date, there has been little empirical examination of how front-line researchers perceive the effectiveness of ethical procedures in their real-world application and the moral stress they may experience when adherence to scientific procedures appears to conflict with participant protections. This study represents a first step in applying psychological science to examine the work-related attitudes, ethics climate, and moral dilemmas experienced by a national sample of 275 front-line staff members whose responsibilities include face-to-face interaction with participants in community-based drug-use research. Using an anonymous Web-based survey we psychometrically evaluated and examined relationships among six new scales tapping moral stress (frustration in response to perceived barriers to conducting research in a morally appropriate manner); organizational ethics climate; staff support; moral practice dilemmas (perceived conflicts between scientific integrity and participant welfare); research commitment; and research mistrust. As predicted, front-line researchers who evidence a strong commitment to their role in the research process and who perceive their organizations as committed to research ethics and staff support experienced lower levels of moral stress. Front-line researchers who were distrustful of the research enterprise and frequently grappled with moral practice dilemmas reported higher levels of moral stress. Applying psychometrically reliable scales to empirically examine research ethics challenges can illuminate specific threats to scientific integrity and human subjects protections encountered by front-line staff and suggest organizational strategies for reducing moral stress and enhancing the responsible conduct of research.

  10. ETHICS AND MARKETING IN THE KNOWLEDGE BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana HÎNCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the relationship between marketing and ethics. Today we face great challenges given the so-called knowledge society, as through the internet and social networks we can learn anything about anyone, including large corporations and about. The work that we realized is composed of two parts, namely: the ethics part and marketing, and later to stress that ethical marketing concept means and how it can be achieved in our country. Marketing appeared a long time ago, at first in the USA during the first part of the twentieth century. The modern concept of the term marketing refers to the main purpose of the economic activity, which is consumer satisfaction. During the last five decades, along with the development of tourism, marketing interferes with this area and gradually expands to other areas as well. Many authors try to define tourism marketing in certain ways, but eventually tourism marketing is presented as a process of identifying and ensuring the formula by which both consumer satisfaction and the achievement of the entrepreneurial goals become possible. During their daily activity, marketers face various moral issues, but most often the activities they undertake are not clear in terms of ethics.

  11. Web-Based Research Ethics Training for Gerontologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialfa, Charles T.; Lyndon, Jaci

    2008-01-01

    As part of a Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR)-funded Strategic Training Grant, we have developed and delivered a brief course in research ethics directed toward postgraduate students in experimental gerontology. In this paper, we report on the initial offering, its content and delivery, and student reactions to the course. We…

  12. Research Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooly, Melinda; Moore, Emilee; Vallejo, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative research, especially studies in educational contexts, often brings up questions of ethics because the study design involves human subjects, some of whom are under age (e.g. data collected in primary education classrooms). It is not always easy for young researchers to anticipate where ethical issues might emerge while designing their…

  13. Virtue-based Approaches to Professional Ethics: a Plea for More Rigorous Use of Empirical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Spielthenner

    2017-01-01

    Until recently, the method of professional ethics has been largely principle-based. But the failure of this approach to take into sufficient account the character of professionals has led to a revival of virtue ethics. The kind of professional virtue ethics that I am concerned with in this paper is teleological in that it relates the virtues of a profession to the ends of this profession. My aim is to show how empirical research can (in addition to philosophical inquiry) be used to develop vi...

  14. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental

  15. [Construction and validation of the "La Salle Instrument" to evaluate the ethical aspects in biomedical research on human beings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia-Gómez, Gilberto Guzmán; Velasco-Jiménez, María Teresa; Domínguez-González, Alejandro; Meneses-Ruíz, Dulce María; Padilla-García, Raúl Amauri

    2017-01-01

    Research projects must demonstrate not only a rigorous scientific methodology, but also the ethical aspects that require profound reflection of the reviewers. Current regulations establish criteria for research projects on human health, but many of these aspects are subjective. How can the evaluation of such projects be standardized? This is the main subject of the current project. This project comprises two phases. First, the design and construction of an instrument of evaluation based on the fundamental principles of bioethics, which are autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, and other aspects. The second phase consists of content validation through expert. During the phase of reviewing the instrument, it was necessary to make changes by adding, removing, or changing the concepts or criteria, which lead to the construction of the second version of the format. This new instrument was reviewed and analyzed by using the AGREE II instrument, and this version was validated by experts by greater than 95%. There are some recommendations to analyze the ethical aspects in research protocols involving human subjects, but they define the concepts and criteria to be evaluated. By presenting the criteria to be evaluated individually, the "La Salle instrument" allows the evaluation to be more objective and standardized.

  16. Ethics and policies in the face of research into extending human life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    If the prediction of some scientists comes true, then we are only few years away from the appearance of the first generation of human beings who will be able to add one year to each remaining year of life expectancy. Faced with this possibility, it seems appropriate to give thought to the public policies that should be adopted. It is better to anticipate the various future scenarios than react to a reality which is a fait accompli. To date, the debate has mainly focused on the ethical question: is it good or bad for us humans to achieve immortal life? Until now, neither legal guidelines at State level nor those of international organisations which deal with bioethical issues have concerned themselves with this matter. But before discussing policies, two other matters should be addressed: first, to show how the prolongation of human life can be as much the unwanted outcome of legitimate efforts in search of healthy aging, as one of the aims of the post-humanist project; second, to present the most consistent and shared ethical reasons for rejecting the human immortality project.

  17. [Is an act of human love the in vitro fertilization? A proposal ethical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Since 1978, when the first test tube baby, Louis Brown, was born, thousands of children have been born every year through in vitro fertilization. Many families keep attending fertility clinics in order to receive some treatment for their infertility problems and have a child. Children born in this way are worthy human beings. Their parents love them and devote themselves to their children admirably, showing real parental love. However, does this loving kindness justify, from an ethical point of view, any way of desiring and having a son or daughter? Is it really an act of human love to long for a child and satisfy this desire using artificial methods? Is it equally human and worthy to wish them choosing in vitro fertilization than to wish them through an intimate and loving relationship, in which the child emerges as a result of interpersonal donation? I answer these questions by analyzing the ethics proposal formulated by Rhonheimer and Carrasco de Paula. In short, only the intimate and loving sexual union between a man and a woman -as long as it is unconditional love- may be the dignity cause of the existence of a human being. And such union and unconditional requirement are absent in vitro fertilization.

  18. Ethics is for human subjects too: participant perspectives on responsibility in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Susan M; McDonald, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Despite the significant literature as well as energy devoted to ethical review of research involving human subjects, little attention has been given to understanding the experiences of those who volunteer as human subjects. Why and how do they decide to participate in research? Is research participation viewed as a form of social responsibility or as a way of obtaining individual benefits? What if anything do research subjects feel they are owed for participation? And what do they feel that they owe the researcher? Drawing on in-depth individual interviews conducted in 2006 and 2007 with 41 subjects who participated in a variety of types of health research in Canada, this paper focuses on subject perspectives on responsibility in research. Highlighting the range of ways that subjects describe their involvement in research and commitments to being a 'good' subject, we present a typology of narratives that sheds new light on the diverse meanings of research participation. These narratives are not mutually exclusive or prescriptive but are presented as ideal types typifying a set of circumstances and values. As such, they collectively illuminate a range of motivations expressed by human subjects as well as potential sources of vulnerability. The typology adds a new dimension to the literature in this area and has significant implications for researchers seeking more human-subject centred approaches to research recruitment and retention, as well as research ethics boards trying to better anticipate the perspectives of prospective participants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Methodological and ethical issues in research using social media: a metamethod of Human Papillomavirus vaccine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Diana L; Woodworth, Claire F

    2014-12-02

    Online content is a primary source of healthcare information for internet-using adults and a rich resource for health researchers. This paper explores the methodological and ethical issues of engaging in health research using social media. A metamethod was performed on systematically selected studies that used social media as a data source for exploring public awareness and beliefs about Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) and HPV vaccination. Seven electronic databases were searched using a variety of search terms identified for each of three concepts: social media, HPV vaccine, and research method. Abstracts were assessed for eligibility of inclusion; six studies met the eligibility criteria and were subjected to content analysis. A 10-item coding scheme was developed to assess the clarity, congruence and transparency of research design, epistemological and methodological underpinnings and ethical considerations. The designs of the six selected studies were sound, although most studies could have been more transparent about how they built in rigor to ensure the trustworthiness and credibility of findings. Statistical analysis that intended to measure trends and patterns did so without the benefit of randomized sampling and other design elements for ensuring generalizability or reproducibility of findings beyond the specified virtual community. Most researchers did not sufficiently engage virtual users in the research process or consider the risk of privacy incursion. Most studies did not seek ethical approval from an institutional research board or permission from host websites or web service providers. The metamethod exposed missed opportunities for using the dialogical character of social media as well as a lack of attention to the unique ethical issues inherent in operating in a virtual community where social boundaries and issues of public and private are ambiguous. This suggests the need for more self-conscious and ethical research practices when using social media

  20. Ethical aspects of registry-based research in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvigsson JF

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jonas F Ludvigsson,1,2 Siri E Håberg,3 Gun Peggy Knudsen,3 Pierre Lafolie,4,5 Helga Zoega,6 Catharina Sarkkola,7 Stephanie von Kraemer,7 Elisabete Weiderpass,1,7–10 Mette Nørgaard11 1Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 2Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; 3Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; 4Department of Medicine, Clinical Pharmacology Unit, 5The Stockholm Regional Ethical Review Board, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Center of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland; 7Genetic Epidemiology Group, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; 8Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, 9The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, 10Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway; 11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Abstract: National health care registries in the Nordic countries share many attributes, but different legal and ethical frameworks represent a challenge to promoting effective joint research. Internationally, there is a lack of knowledge about how ethical matters are considered in Nordic registry-based research, and a lack of knowledge about how Nordic ethics committees operate and what is needed to obtain an approval. In this paper, we review ethical aspects of registry-based research, the legal framework, the role of ethics review boards in the Nordic countries, and the structure of the ethics application. We discuss the role of informed consent in registry-based research and how to safeguard the integrity of study participants, including vulnerable subjects and children. Our review also provides information on the different government agencies that contribute registry-based data, and a list of the major health registries in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and

  1. Framework for ethical decision-making based on mission, vision and values of the institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotalik, Jaro; Covino, Cathy; Doucette, Nadine; Henderson, Steve; Langlois, Michelle; McDaid, Karen; Pedri, Louisa M

    2014-06-01

    The authors led the development of a framework for ethical decision-making for an Academic Health Sciences Centre. They understood the existing mission, vision, and values statement (MVVs) of the centre as a foundational assertion that embodies an ethical commitment of the institution. Reflecting the Patient and Family Centred Model of Care the institution is living, the MVVs is a suitable base on which to construct an ethics framework. The resultant framework consists of a set of questions for each of the MVVs. Users of the framework are expected to identify two or more possible decisions to address the issue at hand and then, by applying the provided sequence of questions to each, examine these options and determine the overall ethically preferable decision. The construction of such a framework requires the creative involvement of the institution's staff. Thus the development of the framework can represent a training process in ethical decision-making as well as advance the ethical atmosphere of the institution. This novel approach has the advantage of placing the MVVs on active duty, at the centre of ethical decision-making, and lifts it from its otherwise relative obscurity in most institutions.

  2. A virtue ethics guide to best practices for community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A

    2009-01-01

    Rule ethics, or principled thinking, is important in the analysis of risks and benefits of research and informed consent, but is not completely adequate for guiding ethical responses to communities as research participants and collaborators. Virtue ethics theory can be used to guide actions in relationships, which are foundational to the implementation of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Virtues are strengths of character that contribute to a life of flourishing or well-being for individuals and communities. This article provides an overview of virtue ethics theory, identifies common ethical problems in CBPR, and discusses how professional virtues can be used to guide ethical research practice. The virtues of compassion, courage, honesty, humility, justice, and practical reasoning are defined and applied to ethical practice in the development, implementation, and dissemination of CBPR. Best practices for CBPR that consider the well-being of communities are identified. The virtues of compassion and humility foster inclusiveness and integration of community perspectives in research collaboration. Courage requires researchers to step out of the research safety-net to listen to community member voices and wisdom and share power in research decisions. Honesty requires researchers to communicate realistic expectations for research outcomes, share all findings with the community, and consider community perspectives in research dissemination. Systematic involvement of the community in all steps of the research process represents the virtue of practical reasoning. From a justice perspective, CBPR aims to restore communities rather than take from them.

  3. The Ethics of Traditional Chinese and Western Herbal Medicine Research: Views of Researchers and Human Ethics Committees in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and western herbal medicine (WHM research in Australia, little is known about how ethics committees (HRECs assess the ethics of TCM or WHM research. The objectives of this study were to examine the experiences of TCM and WHM researchers and HRECs with the evaluation of ethics applications. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken of HRECs and TCM and WHM researchers in Australia. Anonymous self-completion questionnaires were administered to 224 HRECs and 117 researchers. A response confirming involvement in TCM or WHM research applications was received from 20 HRECs and 42 researchers. The most frequent ethical issues identified by HRECs related to herbal products including information gaps relating to mode of action of herbal medicines and safety when combining herbal ingredients. Researchers concurred that they were frequently requested to provide additional information on multiple aspects including safety relating to the side effects of herbs and herb-drug interactions. Overall adherence with the principles of ethical conduct was high among TCM and WHM researchers although our study did identify the need for additional information regarding assessment of risk and risk management.

  4. ETHICS IN ACCOUNTING IN THE CONTEXT OF KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian TAICU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge-based economy comes with a number of challenges in the field of accounting. Accounting must provide the information that internal and external users need for decision making and, in order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to integrate new IT technologies, standardize reporting and ensure compliance with ethical principles in the accounting profession. The paper aims at presenting the main ethical challenges in accounting in the present and foreseeable contexts.

  5. Ethics and Community-Based Participatory Research: Perspectives From the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Bastida, Elena M.; Tseng, Tung-Sung; McKeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues r...

  6. Ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Dyhrberg, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with certain ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information. Section 1 contains an analysis of research on Internet debates. In particular, it takes into account a famous example of deception for psychology research...... purposes. In section 2, the focus is on research on personal data in texts published on the Internet. Section 3 includes an attempt to formulate some ethical principles and guidelines, which should be regarded as fundamental in research on stored information....

  7. Evaluation of Viewpoints of Health Care Professionals on the Role of Ethics Committees and Hospitals in the Resolution of Clinical Ethical Dilemmas Based on Practice Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Brian S; Carlson, Jestin N; Hegde, Gajanan G; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind

    2016-03-01

    We sought to evaluate whether health care professionals' viewpoints differed on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas based on practice location. We conducted a survey study from December 21, 2013 to March 15, 2014 of health care professionals at six hospitals (one tertiary care academic medical center, three large community hospitals and two small community hospitals). The survey consisted of eight clinical ethics cases followed by statements on whether there was a role for the ethics committee or hospital in their resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. Respondents used a 5-point Likert scale to express their degree of agreement with the premises posed. We used the ANOVA test to evaluate whether respondent views significantly varied based on practice location. 240 health care professionals (108-tertiary care center, 92-large community hospitals, 40-small community hospitals) completed the survey (response rate: 63.6 %). Only three individual queries of 32 showed any significant response variations across practice locations. Overall, viewpoints did not vary across practice locations within question categories on whether the ethics committee or hospital had a role in case resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. In this multicenter survey study, the viewpoints of health care professionals on the role of ethics committees or hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethics cases varied little based on practice location.

  8. Religious morality (and secular humanism) in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention) of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience) journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the major medical journals — i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) or Lancet — be heard, speaking with one “consensual,” authoritative voice? This issue is particularly important in controversial topics impacting medical politics — e.g., public health policy, socio-economics, bioethics, and the so-called redistributive justice in health care. Should all sides be heard when those controversial topics are discussed or only a consensual (monolithic) side? This historical review article discusses those issues and opts for freedom in medical and surgical practice as well as freedom in medical journalism, particularly in opinion pieces such as editorials, commentaries, or letters to the editor, as long as they relate to medicine and, in our special case, to neuroscience and neurosurgery. After answering those questions, and in response to a critical letter to the editor, this review article then expounds comprehensively on the historical and philosophical origins of ethics and religious morality. Necessarily, we discuss the Graeco-Roman legacy and the Judeo-Christian inheritance in the development of ethics and religious morality in Western civilization and their impact on moral conduct in general and on medical and neuroscience ethics in particular. PMID:26110085

  9. Developing an Evaluation Tool for Assessing Clinical Ethics Consultation Skills in Simulation Based Education: The ACES Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Katherine; Parsi, Kayhan; McCarthy, Michael; Siddall, Viva Jo; Kuczewski, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities has created a quality attestation (QA) process for clinical ethics consultants; the pilot phase of reviewing portfolios has begun. One aspect of the QA process which is particularly challenging is assessing the interpersonal skills of individual clinical ethics consultants. We propose that using case simulation to evaluate clinical ethics consultants is an approach that can meet this need provided clear standards for assessment are identified. To this end, we developed the Assessing Clinical Ethics Skills (ACES) tool, which identifies and specifies specific behaviors that a clinical ethics consultant should demonstrate in an ethics case simulation. The aim is for the clinical ethics consultant or student to use a videotaped case simulation, along with the ACES tool scored by a trained rater, to demonstrate their competence as part of their QA portfolio. The development and piloting of the tool is described.

  10. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-09-01

    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, "extreme centrism", and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics-separate and together-have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness . By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  11. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S.; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit. PMID:26345196

  12. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. Dove

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science; and consortia ethics (Big Ethics. These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  13. The role of professional knowledge in case-based reasoning in practical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkus, Rosa Lynn; Gloeckner, Claire; Fortunato, Angela

    2015-06-01

    The use of case-based reasoning in teaching professional ethics has come of age. The fields of medicine, engineering, and business all have incorporated ethics case studies into leading textbooks and journal articles, as well as undergraduate and graduate professional ethics courses. The most recent guidelines from the National Institutes of Health recognize case studies and face-to-face discussion as best practices to be included in training programs for the Responsible Conduct of Research. While there is a general consensus that case studies play a central role in the teaching of professional ethics, there is still much to be learned regarding how professionals learn ethics using case-based reasoning. Cases take many forms, and there are a variety of ways to write them and use them in teaching. This paper reports the results of a study designed to investigate one of the issues in teaching case-based ethics: the role of one's professional knowledge in learning methods of moral reasoning. Using a novel assessment instrument, we compared case studies written and analyzed by three groups of students whom we classified as: (1) Experts in a research domain in bioengineering. (2) Novices in a research domain in bioengineering. (3) The non-research group--students using an engineering domain in which they were interested but had no in-depth knowledge. This study demonstrates that a student's level of understanding of a professional knowledge domain plays a significant role in learning moral reasoning skills.

  14. Mapping and sequencing the human genome: Science, ethics, and public policy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.

    1993-03-31

    Development of Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy followed the standard process of curriculum development at the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), the process is described. The production of this module was a collaborative effort between BSCS and the American Medical Association (AMA). Appendix A contains a copy of the module. Copies of reports sent to the Department of Energy (DOE) during the development process are contained in Appendix B; all reports should be on file at DOE. Appendix B also contains copies of status reports submitted to the BSCS Board of Directors.

  15. Which will Trump: human rights and professional ethics, or torture redux?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jonathan H

    2017-03-01

    Recent political developments in the United States raise concerns about the potential return of aggressive interrogation strategies, particularly in the event of another large-scale terror attack on the U.S. mainland. This essay reviews various legal, ethical and policy responses to revelations of torture during the Bush administration. It asks whether they improve the prospect that, in future, human rights will trump torture, not vice versa. The essay argues that physicians could help prevent further abuses - especially given their access, social status and expertise - but that insufficient steps have been taken to empower them to do so.

  16. ELSI Bibliography: Ethical legal and social implications of the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesley, M.S. [comp.

    1993-11-01

    This second edition of the ELSI Bibliography provides a current and comprehensive resource for identifying publications on the major topics related to the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Since the first edition of the ELSI Bibliography was printed last year, new publications and earlier ones identified by additional searching have doubled our computer database of ELSI publications to over 5600 entries. The second edition of the ELSI Bibliography reflects this growth of the underlying computer database. Researchers should note that an extensive collection of publications in the database is available for public use at the General Law Library of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  17. Public health measures to control tuberculosis in low-income countries: ethics and human rights considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, J D; Cabrera, O A; Singh, J A; Depp, T B; Gostin, L O

    2011-06-01

    In low-income countries, tuberculosis (TB) control measures should be guided by ethical concerns and human rights obligations. Control programs should consider the principles of necessity, reasonableness and effectiveness of means, proportionality, distributive justice, and transparency. Certain measures-detention, infection control, and treatment to prevent transmission-raise particular concerns. While isolation is appropriate under certain circumstances, quarantine is never an acceptable control measure for TB, and any detention must be limited by necessity and conducted humanely. States have a duty to implement hospital infection control to the extent of their available resources and to provide treatment to health care workers (HCWs) infected on the job. HCWs, in turn, have an obligation to provide care unless conditions are unreasonably and unforeseeably unsafe. Finally, states have an obligation to provide adequate access to treatment, as a means of preventing transmission, as broadly as possible and in a non-discriminatory fashion. Along with treatment, states should provide support to increase treatment adherence and retention with respect for patient privacy and autonomy. Compulsory treatment is almost never acceptable. Governments should take care to respect human rights and ethical obligations as they execute TB control programs.

  18. Ethics and Leadership: Integration or Disharmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ethical theories and ethics in war, provides a summary of the three important ethical theories ( utilitarianism , rule- based ethical ...practical merit: utilitarianism , rule- based ethical systems, and virtue ethics . Utilitarian Ethics Utilitarian acts are defined as morally right... utilitarian ethics certainly can be applied to justify some restrictions on the conduct of warfare.23 According to this theory, the solution to

  19. Nursing and euthanasia: a review of argument-based ethics literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Toon; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Gastmans, Chris

    2009-07-01

    This article gives an overview of the nursing ethics arguments on euthanasia in general, and on nurses' involvement in euthanasia in particular, through an argument-based literature review. An in-depth study of these arguments in this literature will enable nurses to engage in the euthanasia debate. We critically appraised 41 publications published between January 1987 and June 2007. Nursing ethics arguments on (nurses' involvement in) euthanasia are guided primarily by the principles of respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice. Ethical arguments related to the nursing profession are described. From a care perspective, we discuss arguments that evaluate to what degree euthanasia can be considered positively or negatively as a form of good nursing care. Most arguments in the principle-, profession- and care-orientated approaches to nursing ethics are used both pro and contra euthanasia in general, and nurses' involvement in euthanasia in particular.

  20. Ethics and community-based participatory research: perspectives from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, Elena M; Tseng, Tung-Sung; McKeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues regarding data collection and sharing. Thereafter, this article concludes with a brief discussion of six principles that can inform the practice of ethical conduct when implementing CBPR studies. This article also lists additional reading resources on the importance of ethics in the conduct of CBPR.

  1. Unintended changes in cognition, mood, and behavior arising from cell-based interventions for neurological conditions: ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, P S; Siegel, A W; Blass, D M; Bok, H; Coyle, J T; Faden, R; Finkel, J; Gearhart, J D; Greely, H T; Hillis, A; Hoke, A; Johnson, R; Johnston, M; Kahn, J; Kerr, D; King, P; Kurtzberg, J; Liao, S M; McDonald, J W; McKhann, G; Nelson, K B; Rao, M; Regenberg, A; Smith, K; Solter, D; Song, H; Sugarman, J; Traystman, R J; Vescovi, A; Yanofski, J; Young, W; Mathews, D J H

    2009-05-01

    The prospect of using cell-based interventions (CBIs) to treat neurological conditions raises several important ethical and policy questions. In this target article, we focus on issues related to the unique constellation of traits that characterize CBIs targeted at the central nervous system. In particular, there is at least a theoretical prospect that these cells will alter the recipients' cognition, mood, and behavior-brain functions that are central to our concept of the self. The potential for such changes, although perhaps remote, is cause for concern and careful ethical analysis. Both to enable better informed consent in the future and as an end in itself, we argue that early human trials of CBIs for neurological conditions must monitor subjects for changes in cognition, mood, and behavior; further, we recommend concrete steps for that monitoring. Such steps will help better characterize the potential risks and benefits of CBIs as they are tested and potentially used for treatment.

  2. Using Virtual Reality to Assess Ethical Decisions in Road Traffic Scenarios: Applicability of Value-of-Life-Based Models and Influences of Time Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon R. Sütfeld

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-driving cars are posing a new challenge to our ethics. By using algorithms to make decisions in situations where harming humans is possible, probable, or even unavoidable, a self-driving car's ethical behavior comes pre-defined. Ad hoc decisions are made in milliseconds, but can be based on extensive research and debates. The same algorithms are also likely to be used in millions of cars at a time, increasing the impact of any inherent biases, and increasing the importance of getting it right. Previous research has shown that moral judgment and behavior are highly context-dependent, and comprehensive and nuanced models of the underlying cognitive processes are out of reach to date. Models of ethics for self-driving cars should thus aim to match human decisions made in the same context. We employed immersive virtual reality to assess ethical behavior in simulated road traffic scenarios, and used the collected data to train and evaluate a range of decision models. In the study, participants controlled a virtual car and had to choose which of two given obstacles they would sacrifice in order to spare the other. We randomly sampled obstacles from a variety of inanimate objects, animals and humans. Our model comparison shows that simple models based on one-dimensional value-of-life scales are suited to describe human ethical behavior in these situations. Furthermore, we examined the influence of severe time pressure on the decision-making process. We found that it decreases consistency in the decision patterns, thus providing an argument for algorithmic decision-making in road traffic. This study demonstrates the suitability of virtual reality for the assessment of ethical behavior in humans, delivering consistent results across subjects, while closely matching the experimental settings to the real world scenarios in question.

  3. Using Virtual Reality to Assess Ethical Decisions in Road Traffic Scenarios: Applicability of Value-of-Life-Based Models and Influences of Time Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütfeld, Leon R; Gast, Richard; König, Peter; Pipa, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    Self-driving cars are posing a new challenge to our ethics. By using algorithms to make decisions in situations where harming humans is possible, probable, or even unavoidable, a self-driving car's ethical behavior comes pre-defined. Ad hoc decisions are made in milliseconds, but can be based on extensive research and debates. The same algorithms are also likely to be used in millions of cars at a time, increasing the impact of any inherent biases, and increasing the importance of getting it right. Previous research has shown that moral judgment and behavior are highly context-dependent, and comprehensive and nuanced models of the underlying cognitive processes are out of reach to date. Models of ethics for self-driving cars should thus aim to match human decisions made in the same context. We employed immersive virtual reality to assess ethical behavior in simulated road traffic scenarios, and used the collected data to train and evaluate a range of decision models. In the study, participants controlled a virtual car and had to choose which of two given obstacles they would sacrifice in order to spare the other. We randomly sampled obstacles from a variety of inanimate objects, animals and humans. Our model comparison shows that simple models based on one-dimensional value-of-life scales are suited to describe human ethical behavior in these situations. Furthermore, we examined the influence of severe time pressure on the decision-making process. We found that it decreases consistency in the decision patterns, thus providing an argument for algorithmic decision-making in road traffic. This study demonstrates the suitability of virtual reality for the assessment of ethical behavior in humans, delivering consistent results across subjects, while closely matching the experimental settings to the real world scenarios in question.

  4. IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  5. Human love--the inner essence of nursing ethics according to Estrid Rodhe. A study using the approach of history of ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Haho, Annu

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the idea pattern of nursing ethics in the textbook written by the Swedish nurse Estrid Rodhe (1911). The purpose is to increase understanding of the ideas in early written history of nursing ethics by using the method of history of ideas. A theoretical premise, but also a fascinating factor in this study, is that the ethics of one profession is always contextual in relation to current period. The historical context of Rodhe's time was a time of difficult societal circumstances in Europe. Nurses' work was demanding, but a distinctive feature was enthusiasm to develop nursing. Discussion of the moral issues of nursing was intense, and the characteristics of a good nurse consisted of being as altruistic and unselfish woman. Based on our analysis, the inner essence of Rodhe's idea pattern consists of human love. It is reflected in her ideas of calling-based altruism, virtuous woman as a personal reason for being a nurse and nurses' ethical duty to implementation and subservience. Rodhe's thinking reflects the conventions of her time. The role of personal moral characteristics of nurses was highlighted and not viewed as separable from the professional. Her textbook represented nursing knowledge of ethics written by a nurse and making her a pioneer of the early written history of nursing in general. Understanding the past helps us comprehend current issues in nursing and makes visible cultural values that form the basis for today and tomorrow. It also provides a possibility to observe the same fundamental features in spite of temporal distance. Here, the history of ideas is a beneficial and fruitful method to increase our understanding of nursing ethics. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. Overall Assessment of Human Research and Ethics Committees in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Mahera; Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar

    2017-04-01

    Growing demand for human health research in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has prompted the need to develop a robust research ethics oversight. Examination of the structure, function, and practices of the human research ethics committees (HRECs), followed by evaluation of standards for measuring research output, was conducted. Results indicate that among the HRECs, 90% followed International Council for Harmonization-Good Clinical Practice guidelines, 66.6% have been in operation for more than 5 years, 95% reviewed proposals within 8 weeks, and 56% reviewed for scientific merit apart from ethics. However, systems to recognize accomplishments of researchers, funding transparency, and adverse event reporting were deployed in less than 30% of all HRECs. Research was incorporated into the vision and mission statements of many (65%) organizations. Research publications, collaborations, and recognitions were used to measure research output and report key performance indicators. In spite, resources to generate research output such as dedicated budget (20%), support staff (20%), and continuous training and mentoring program for medical residents (15%) and HREC members (25%) were somehow lacking. HREC structure and operations in the UAE are similar to other regions of the world. Systems to conduct research and report outcomes are defined in the UAE. Regulatory legislation and allocation of resources to support the clinical research enterprise will not only help to meet growing demand for clinical trials but also transform the quality of patient care in the UAE. It is anticipated that the results of this study will benefit investigators, regulators, pharmaceutical sponsors, and the policy makers in the region.

  7. Scientific Ethics: A New Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, Marcello

    2018-06-04

    Science is an activity of the human intellect and as such has ethical implications that should be reviewed and taken into account. Although science and ethics have conventionally been considered different, it is herewith proposed that they are essentially similar. The proposal set henceforth is to create a new ethics rooted in science: scientific ethics. Science has firm axiological foundations and searches for truth (as a value, axiology) and knowledge (epistemology). Hence, science cannot be value neutral. Looking at standard scientific principles, it is possible to construct a scientific ethic (that is, an ethical framework based on scientific methods and rules), which can be applied to all sciences. These intellectual standards include the search for truth (honesty and its derivatives), human dignity (and by reflection the dignity of all animals) and respect for life. Through these it is thence achievable to draft a foundation of a ethics based purely on science and applicable beyond the confines of science. A few applications of these will be presented. Scientific ethics can have vast applications in other fields even in non scientific ones.

  8. The use of care robots in aged care: A systematic review of argument-based ethics literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemeulebroucke, Tijs; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Gastmans, Chris

    2018-01-01

    As care robots become more commonplace in aged-care settings, the ethical debate on their use becomes increasingly important. Our objective was to examine the ethical arguments and underlying concepts used in the ethical debate on care robot use in aged care. We conducted a systematic literature search for argument-based ethics publications focusing on care robot use in aged-care practices. We used an innovative methodology that consisted of three steps: (a) identifying conceptual-ethical questions, (b) conducting a literature search, and (c) identifying, describing and analyzing the ethical arguments in connection with the conceptual-ethical questions. Twenty-eight appropriate publications were identified. All were published between 2002 and 2016. Four primary ethical approaches were distinguished: (a) a deontological, (b) a principlist, (c) an objective-list, and (d) a care-ethical. All approaches were equally represented across the articles, and all used similar concepts that grounded their diverse ethical arguments. A small group of publications could not be linked to an ethical approach. All included publications presented a strong ethical rationale based on fully elaborated normative arguments. Although the reviewed studies used similar grounding concepts, the studies' arguments were very diverse and sometimes diametrically opposed. Our analysis shows how one envisions care robot use in aged-care settings is influenced by how one views the traditional boundaries of the ethical landscape in aged care. We suggest that an ethical analysis of care robot use employs "democratic spaces," in which all stakeholders in aged care, especially care recipients, have a voice in the ethical debate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethical acceptability of research on human-animal chimeric embryos: summary of opinions by the Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Hiroshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Kato, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Human-animal chimeric embryos are embryos obtained by introducing human cells into a non-human animal embryo. It is envisaged that the application of human-animal chimeric embryos may make possible many useful research projects including producing three-dimensional human organs in animals and verification of the pluripotency of human ES cells or iPS cells in vivo. The use of human-animal chimeric embryos, however, raises several ethical and moral concerns. The most fundamental one is that human-animal chimeric embryos possess the potential to develop into organisms containing human-derived tissue, which may lead to infringing upon the identity of the human species, and thus impairing human dignity. The Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics in the Cabinet Office carefully considered the scientific significance and ethical acceptability of the issue and released its "Opinions regarding the handling of research using human-animal chimeric embryos". The Panel proposed a framework of case-by-case review, and suggested that the following points must be carefully reviewed from the perspective of ethical acceptability: (a) Types of animal embryos and types of animals receiving embryo transfers, particularly in dealing with non-human primates; (b) Types of human cells and organs intended for production, particularly in dealing with human nerve or germ cells; and (c) Extent of the period required for post-transfer studies. The scientific knowledge that can be gained from transfer into an animal uterus and from the production of an individual must be clarified to avoid unnecessary generation of chimeric animals. The time is ripe for the scientific community and governments to start discussing the ethical issues for establishing a global consensus.

  10. Does post-humanism still need ethics? The normativity of an open nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, José Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    In the current era, post-humanism usually adopts two forms. One of these is related to postmodern thought and its critique of Enlightenment ideals, while the other, which is usually referred to as transhumanism, declares itself the heir to optimistic belief in the technological progress of modernity. Nevertheless, both seem like new versions of the struggle between an individualist version of liberalism and its critics. In so far as they are ethical proposals, we may hold them to account for the vagueness of their moral objectives, which only seem to advocate - each in its own way - emancipation and the removal of barriers that may impede an increase in power. This defect is not, though, independent of their rejection of the notion of nature. By contrast, classical ethics does not focus so much on power or emancipation as on the nature of human telos and of his true growth, and it is only from this standpoint that it concerns itself with the means by which this can be achieved.

  11. Compliance with National Ethics Requirements for Human-Subject Research in Non-biomedical Sciences in Brazil: A Changing Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque Rocha, Karina; Vasconcelos, Sonia M R

    2018-02-06

    Ethics regulation for human-subject research (HSR) has been established for about 20 years in Brazil. However, compliance with this regulation is controversial for non-biomedical sciences, particularly for human and social sciences (HSS), the source of a recent debate at the National Commission for Research Ethics. We hypothesized that for these fields, formal requirements for compliance with HSR regulation in graduate programs, responsible for the greatest share of Brazilian science, would be small in number. We analyzed institutional documents (collected from June 2014 to May 2015) from 171 graduate programs at six prestigious Brazilian universities in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, the states that fund most of the science conducted in Brazil. Among these programs, 149 were in HSS. The results suggest that non-compliance with standard regulation seems to be the rule in most of these programs. The data may reflect not only a resistance from scientists in these fields to comply with standard regulations for ethics in HSR but also a disciplinary tradition that seems prevalent when it comes to research ethics in HSR. However, recent encounters between Brazilian biomedical and non-biomedical scientists for debates over ethics in HSR point to a changing culture in the approach to research ethics in the country.

  12. Legal and ethical standards for protecting women's human rights and the practice of conscientious objection in reproductive healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampas, Christina

    2013-12-01

    The practice of conscientious objection by healthcare workers is growing across the globe. It is most common in reproductive healthcare settings because of the religious or moral values placed on beliefs as to when life begins. It is often invoked in the context of abortion and contraceptive services, including the provision of information related to such services. Few states adequately regulate the practice, leading to denial of access to lawful reproductive healthcare services and violations of fundamental human rights. International ethical, health, and human rights standards have recently attempted to address these challenges by harmonizing the practice of conscientious objection with women's right to sexual and reproductive health services. FIGO ethical standards have had an important role in influencing human rights development in this area. They consider regulation of the unfettered use of conscientious objection essential to the realization of sexual and reproductive rights. Under international human rights law, states have a positive obligation to act in this regard. While ethical and human rights standards regarding this issue are growing, they do not yet exhaustively cover all the situations in which women's health and human rights are in jeopardy because of the practice. The present article sets forth existing ethical and human rights standards on the issue and illustrates the need for further development and clarity on balancing these rights and interests. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrating Public Health and Deliberative Public Bioethics: Lessons from the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M; Lee, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Public health policy works best when grounded in firm public health standards of evidence and widely shared social values. In this article, we argue for incorporating a specific method of ethical deliberation--deliberative public bioethics--into public health. We describe how deliberative public bioethics is a method of engagement that can be helpful in public health. Although medical, research, and public health ethics can be considered some of what bioethics addresses, deliberative public bioethics offers both a how and where. Using the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications program as an example of effective incorporation of deliberative processes to integrate ethics into public health policy, we examine how deliberative public bioethics can integrate both public health and bioethics perspectives into three areas of public health practice: research, education, and health policy. We then offer recommendations for future collaborations that integrate deliberative methods into public health policy and practice.

  14. Is problem-based learning an ideal format for developing ethical decision skills?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Harasym

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethical decision making is a complex process, which involves the interaction of knowledge, skills, and attitude. To enhance the teaching and learning on ethics reasoning, multiple teaching strategies have to be applied. A medical ethical reasoning (MER model served as a framework of the development of ethics reasoning and their suggested instructional strategies. Problem-based learning (PBL, being used to facilitate students' critical thinking, self-directed learning, collaboration, and communication skills, has been considered effective on ethics education, especially when incorporated with experiential experience. Unlike lecturing that mainly disseminates knowledge and activates the left brain, PBL encourages “whole-brain” learning. However, PBL has several disadvantages, such as its inefficiency, lack of adequately trained preceptors, and the in-depth, silo learning within a relatively small number of cases. Because each school tends to utilize PBL in different ways, either the curriculum designer or the learning strategy, it is important to maximize the advantages of a PBL session, PBL then becomes an ideal format for refining students' ethical decisions and behaviors.

  15. The relationship between ethics and human rights in the thought of Richard Rorty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Qezelsofla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In general, two theories or school of thoughts had been prevailed in modern moral philosophies until recently. Ethical school of thought of "task-oriented", in which the emphasis is on the nature of the action. At first, this school of thought was considered by Immanuel Kant. Accordingly, doing or will to do every action should be such that become a universal moral law. In contrast, another ethical school of thought known as "utilitarianism ethics" was introduced by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Here, we give priority to those moral actions that can bring the greatest happiness for most people. In three or four recent decades, coinciding with the linguistic and cognitive turn, which has become known as the transition from positivism to post-positivism, another challenge has been raised in discussing philosophy of ethics by Richard Rorty which is related to his claim regarding the requirements of the current multiple world. This claim can make a new relation between morality and human rights. Hence, the main hypothesis of this paper is to clarify the point that Rorty has raised his claim by combining the theory of pragmatism and postmodern Ethics. To prove this hypothesis, this article has been set in two sections, in the first section in order to become familiar with Rorty's creed-breaker thought, the foundations of the philosophy of ethics is discussed. In the second section and under the discussion of ethics based on the rights of human, some of its characteristics will be analyzed. This article has been prepared by a descriptive method through the content analysis of various works of Rorty. Theoretical support for this article is a critical-normative approach. به طور کلی در فلسفه‌های اخلاق مدرن تا این اواخر دو نگره یا مکتب حاکم بوده است. مکتب اخلاق «وظیفه‌گرا»که در آن بر ماهیت کنش تأکید می‌شود. این مکتب ابتدا

  16. An Unexpected Means of Embedding Ethics in Organizations: Preliminary Findings from Values-Based Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Burford

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles constitute a crucial area of debate and discussion in the global conversation around transitions to sustainability, and of particular relevance to the contribution of businesses and other organizations. Scholars in business ethics have recently identified several challenges in this area, such as problems of measurement, rigor, and meaningfulness to practitioners; corporate social responsibility; and institutionalization of ethics in businesses. In this paper, the impacts of a pragmatic values-based evaluation approach originally developed in another field—education for sustainable development—are shown to strongly contribute to many of these challenges. Impacts found across eight organizations include (i deep values conceptualization; (ii increased esteem (iii building capacity for assessment of values-based achievements; (iv values mainstreaming; and (v effective external values communications. It seems that the in-situ development and use of values-based indicators helped to conceptualize locally shared values that underpin decisions, thus embedding the application of (local ethics. Although this study is exploratory, it is clear that the values-based approach shows promise for meeting key challenges in business ethics and wider sustainability, and for new directions for future cross-disciplinary research.

  17. The Frequency of Reporting Ethical Issues in Human Subject Articles Published in Iranian Medical Journals: 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astaneh, Behrooz; Khani, Parisa

    2017-11-10

    Researchers should strictly consider the participants' rights. They are required to document such protections as an ethical approval of the study proposal, the obtaining "informed consent", the authors' "conflict of interests", and the source of "financial support" in the published articles. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of reporting ethical issues in human subject articles published in Iranian medical journals during 2009-2013. In this cross-sectional study, we randomly reviewed 1460 human subject articles published in Iranian medical journals during 2009-2013 in two Persian and English language groups. Data collection was carried out by assessing articles, focusing on the documentation "ethics committee approval", patients' "informed consent", "financial support", "confidentiality", and "conflict of interest". Of 1460 evaluated articles, 443 (30.3%) reported "ethics committee approval", 686 (47.0%) reported "informed consent", 594 (40.7%) reported "financial support", and 341 (23.4%) reported "conflict of interest". 13% of the articles referred to patients' confidentiality in their text. There was a significant association between these ethical documentations and the year of publication. Articles published in English language journals reported "ethics committee approval", "financial support", and "conflict of interest" significantly more than Persian language journals, but the frequency of "informed consent" was similar. Ethical documentation rate in Iranian medical journals is not up to the expected standards of reputable journals which might be related to a lack of awareness and the education of the authors and the journal's editors. Precise reporting of ethical considerations in medical articles by authors are recommended. It is suggested journals and policymakers pay more attention to reporting this issue while providing standard guidelines in this regard.

  18. Toward a bioethical framework for antibiotic use, antimicrobial resistance and for empirically designing ethically robust strategies to protect human health: a research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Marrero, Pablo; Martins Pereira, Sandra; de Sá Brandão, Patrícia Joana; Araújo, Joana; Carvalho, Ana Sofia

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a challenging global and public health issue, raising bioethical challenges, considerations and strategies. Objectives This research protocol presents a conceptual model leading to formulating an empirically based bioethics framework for antibiotic use, AMR and designing ethically robust strategies to protect human health. Methods Mixed methods research will be used and operationalized into five substudies. The bioethical framework will encompass and integrate two theoretical models: global bioethics and ethical decision-making. Results Being a study protocol, this article reports on planned and ongoing research. Conclusions Based on data collection, future findings and using a comprehensive, integrative, evidence-based approach, a step-by-step bioethical framework will be developed for (i) responsible use of antibiotics in healthcare and (ii) design of strategies to decrease AMR. This will entail the analysis and interpretation of approaches from several bioethical theories, including deontological and consequentialist approaches, and the implications of uncertainty to these approaches.

  19. Cultivating engineering ethics and critical thinking: a systematic and cross-cultural education approach using problem-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung

    2011-08-01

    In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering ethics within a cross-cultural context. Next, it presents a systematic model for designing an engineering ethics curriculum based on moral development theory and ethic dilemma analysis. Quantitative and qualitative data from students' oral and written work were collected and analysed to determine directions for improvement. The paper also presents results of an assessment of this interdisciplinary engineering ethics course. This investigation of a disaster is limited strictly to engineering ethics education; it is not intended to assign blame, but rather to spark debate about ethical issues.

  20. Development and pilot testing of an online module for ethics education based on the Nigerian National Code for Health Research Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunrin, Olubunmi A; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Adebamowo, Clement

    2013-01-02

    The formulation and implementation of national ethical regulations to protect research participants is fundamental to ethical conduct of research. Ethics education and capacity are inadequate in developing African countries. This study was designed to develop a module for online training in research ethics based on the Nigerian National Code of Health Research Ethics and assess its ease of use and reliability among biomedical researchers in Nigeria. This was a three-phased evaluation study. Phase one involved development of an online training module based on the Nigerian Code of Health Research Ethics (NCHRE) and uploading it to the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) website while the second phase entailed the evaluation of the module for comprehensibility, readability and ease of use by 45 Nigerian biomedical researchers. The third phase involved modification and re-evaluation of the module by 30 Nigerian biomedical researchers and determination of test-retest reliability of the module using Cronbach's alpha. The online module was easily accessible and comprehensible to 95% of study participants. There were significant differences in the pretest and posttest scores of study participants during the evaluation of the online module (p = 0.001) with correlation coefficients of 0.9 and 0.8 for the pretest and posttest scores respectively. The module also demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability and internal consistency as shown by Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.92 and 0.84 for the pretest and posttest respectively. The module based on the Nigerian Code was developed, tested and made available online as a valuable tool for training in cultural and societal relevant ethical principles to orient national and international biomedical researchers working in Nigeria. It would complement other general research ethics and Good Clinical Practice modules. Participants suggested that awareness of the online module should be increased through seminars

  1. The ethical justification for the use of non-human primates in research: the Weatherall report revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Gardar

    2017-10-14

    The Weatherall report on the use of non-human primates in research was published in 2006. Its main conclusion was that there is a strong scientific case for the use of non-human primates in some cases, but the report stressed the importance of evaluating each case in the light of the availability of alternatives. In addition to arguing for the scientific necessity of using non-human primates in research, the report also provided an ethical justification. As could be expected, the report was harshly criticised by animal rights groups, but in the academic literature, only two critical replies appeared. In what follows, I will describe the ethical justification for non-human primate research as it is laid out in the Weatherall report and then consider the criticism in the academic literature. I conclude that the report's ethical justification for the use of non-human primates in research, in particular in basic neuroscientific research, has not been convincingly challenged by its critics. Since the criticism of the report is limited and represents only a small part of the academic discussion about the use of non-human primates in research, and a still smaller part of the ethical discussion about animal research, it is important that the discussion continue both at the academic and social level. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Medicine--the art of humaneness: on ethics of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, R Z

    1988-08-01

    This essay discusses the ethics of traditional Chinese medicine. After a brief remark on the history of traditional Chinese medical ethics, the author outlines the Confucian ethics which formed the cultural context in which traditional Chinese medicine was evolving and constituted the core of its ethics. Then he argued that how Chinese physicians applied the principles of Confucian ethics in medicine and prescribed the attitude a physician should take to himself, to patients and to his colleagues. In the last part of the essay he discusses the characteristics of traditional Chinese medical ethics.

  3. Ethical issues and best practice in clinically based genomic research: Exeter Stakeholders Meeting Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, D; Bewshea, C; Walker, G; Ahmad, T; Bowen, W; Hall, A; Kelly, S

    2016-09-27

    Current guidelines on consenting individuals to participate in genomic research are diverse. This creates problems for participants and also for researchers, particularly for clinicians who provide both clinical care and research to their patients. A group of 14 stakeholders met on 7 October 2015 in Exeter to discuss the ethical issues and the best practice arising in clinically based genomic research, with particular emphasis on the issue of returning results to study participants/patients in light of research findings affecting research and clinical practices. The group was deliberately multidisciplinary to ensure that a diversity of views was represented. This report outlines the main ethical issues, areas of best practice and principles underlying ethical clinically based genomic research discussed during the meeting. The main point emerging from the discussion is that ethical principles, rather than being formulaic, should guide researchers/clinicians to identify who the main stakeholders are to consult with for a specific project and to incorporate their voices/views strategically throughout the lifecycle of each project. We believe that the mix of principles and practical guidelines outlined in this report can contribute to current debates on how to conduct ethical clinically based genomic research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Ethics and data protection in human biomarker studies in environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleyn, Ludwine; Dumez, Birgit; Van Damme, Karel; Anwar, Wagida A

    2013-08-01

    Human biomarker studies in environmental health are essential tools to study the relationship between health and environment. They should ultimately contribute to a better understanding of environmentally induced adverse health effects and to appropriate preventive actions. To ensure the protection of the rights and dignity of study participants a complex legal and ethical framework is applied, consisting of several international directives, conventions, and guidelines, whether or not translated in domestic laws. Main characteristics of ethics and data protection in studies using biomarkers in the field of environmental health are summarized and current discussions on related questions and bottlenecks highlighted. In the current regulatory context, dominated by the protection of the individual study participant, difficulties are reported due to the different interpretation and implementation of the regulations of concern within and across borders. Advancement of consistency and compatibility is recommended and efforts are ongoing. An increasing demand for secondary use of data and samples poses additional challenges in finding a right balance between the individual rights of the study participants on the one hand and the common interest of, and potential benefit for the public or community at large on the other. Ethics committees could play a key role in assessing problems originating from the sometimes competing needs at individual and societal level. Building trust in science amongst (potential) study participants and within the community allows the inclusion of arguments from the societal perspective. This requires increased attention for respectful communication efforts. Striving for public participation in decision making processes may promote policy relevant research and the related translation of study results into action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethical dilemmas in community-based participatory research: recommendations for institutional review boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Sarah; Travers, Robb; Guta, Adrian; McDonald, Sean; Meagher, Aileen

    2007-07-01

    National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process by fostering the development of partnerships between communities and academics to address community-relevant research priorities. As such, it attempts to redress ethical concerns that have emerged out of more traditional paradigms. Nevertheless, new and emerging ethical dilemmas are commonly associated with CBPR and are rarely addressed in traditional ethical reviews. We conducted a content analysis of forms and guidelines commonly used by institutional review boards (IRBs) in the USA and research ethics boards (REBs) in Canada. Our intent was to see if the forms used by boards reflected common CBPR experience. We drew our sample from affiliated members of the US-based Association of Schools of Public Health and from Canadian universities that offered graduate public health training. This convenience sample (n = 30) was garnered from programs where application forms were available online for download between July and August, 2004. Results show that ethical review forms and guidelines overwhelmingly operate within a biomedical framework that rarely takes into account common CBPR experience. They are primarily focused on the principle of assessing risk to individuals and not to communities and continue to perpetuate the notion that the domain of "knowledge production" is the sole right of academic researchers. Consequently, IRBs and REBs may be unintentionally placing communities at risk by continuing to use procedures inappropriate or unsuitable for CBPR. IRB/REB procedures require a new framework more

  6. Ethical Dilemmas in Community-Based Participatory Research: Recommendations for Institutional Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Robb; Guta, Adrian; McDonald, Sean; Meagher, Aileen

    2007-01-01

    National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process by fostering the development of partnerships between communities and academics to address community-relevant research priorities. As such, it attempts to redress ethical concerns that have emerged out of more traditional paradigms. Nevertheless, new and emerging ethical dilemmas are commonly associated with CBPR and are rarely addressed in traditional ethical reviews. We conducted a content analysis of forms and guidelines commonly used by institutional review boards (IRBs) in the USA and research ethics boards (REBs) in Canada. Our intent was to see if the forms used by boards reflected common CBPR experience. We drew our sample from affiliated members of the US-based Association of Schools of Public Health and from Canadian universities that offered graduate public health training. This convenience sample (n = 30) was garnered from programs where application forms were available online for download between July and August, 2004. Results show that ethical review forms and guidelines overwhelmingly operate within a biomedical framework that rarely takes into account common CBPR experience. They are primarily focused on the principle of assessing risk to individuals and not to communities and continue to perpetuate the notion that the domain of “knowledge production” is the sole right of academic researchers. Consequently, IRBs and REBs may be unintentionally placing communities at risk by continuing to use procedures inappropriate or unsuitable for CBPR. IRB/REB procedures require a new framework

  7. Ethical Issues in Designing Internet-Based Research: Recommendations for Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an overview of internet-based research, highlighting the absence of a standard terminology to define and classify such research. The label internet-based research or online research can cover a diverse range of research designs and methods, involving different degrees of ethical concern regarding privacy, transparency,…

  8. Using Virtual Reality to Assess Ethical Decisions in Road Traffic Scenarios: Applicability of Value-of-Life-Based Models and Influences of Time Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    S?tfeld, Leon R.; Gast, Richard; K?nig, Peter; Pipa, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    Self-driving cars are posing a new challenge to our ethics. By using algorithms to make decisions in situations where harming humans is possible, probable, or even unavoidable, a self-driving car's ethical behavior comes pre-defined. Ad hoc decisions are made in milliseconds, but can be based on extensive research and debates. The same algorithms are also likely to be used in millions of cars at a time, increasing the impact of any inherent biases, and increasing the importance of getting it ...

  9. Reparations for environmental degradation and species extinction: a moral and ethical imperative for human society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available While the history of reparations within Homo sapiens is lengthy, only recently has the concept been applied to events that have caused degradation or damage to natural systems. Some effects have been unmistakable, even to the untrained eye, and reparations have been made in a short temporal span. However, what should be done about ecological damage that has occurred incrementally over large temporal or spatial spans? If all parties involved are no longer living (e.g. slavery, colonialism, should the descendants of one group, who had nothing to do with the situation and are individually innocent, pay descendants of the other, who did not suffer directly? Degradation of the planet's ecological life support system will cause all humans to suffer, directly or indirectly, regardless of the degree to which they contributed to the damage. Repair of ecological damage is an act of enlightened self-interest, as well as an ethical imperative. Although current events may make restoring the planet's ecological life support system seem futile, even irrational, the forces of destruction cannot exceed those of restoration for a substantial period of time without resulting in severe disequilibrium, whether societal or ecological. The only long-term hope for the human species - sustainability - is a constructive, compassionate approach. Regardless of what happens to humankind, it is probably that some species will survive until the sun fails. Even if the human species does not, it seems ethical to make an exit that is notable for acts of compassion rather than acts of rage and revenge.

  10. On change of concepts: From teacher's occupational ethics to professional ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Chuan-bao

    2006-01-01

    The transition from experience-based teachers to expertise-based ones has marked a significant phase in the history of human education.The conceptive transition from the general "occupational ethics" of teachers to "professional ethics"is actually an important aspect of the transition from experience-based to expertise-based teachers.The establishment of teachers' professional ethics bears the saree historical inevitability as the movement of teachers' professionalization.Complying with this trend,we ought to promote the establishment of teachers' professional ethics specifically in view of the improvement in their living conditions and professional development.

  11. Gestational surrogacy for a human immunodeficiency virus seropositive sperm donor: what are the ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen E

    2003-01-01

    Clinics that provide assisted reproductive technology (ART) are guided by general guidelines set forth by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine and its Ethics Committee and are free to set their own policies within those guidelines. This article presents a case in which a university clinic was presented with a novel request. A same-sex male couple, both positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), asked to use one of the couple's sperm to establish a pregnancy in an unrelated gestational surrogate through in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and embryo transfer. The couple's argument in favor of such a plan was that no documented case of HIV seroconversion had so far occurred in recipients of gametes from HIV-positive donors. Since gestational surrogates routinely accept the risks inherent in pregnancy and childbearing, an informed surrogate should be allowed to accept the risks of such an arrangement. They further argued that if no clinic were willing to provide such services, data regarding seroconversion would never be obtained. The university ethics committee examined the fertility clinic's policies and found the clinic's refusal to provide such services to be completely consistent with its policy that allows providing services to HIV-discordant couples, same-sex couples, and gestational surrogates, but that always acts to protect the surrogate from exposure to infectious risk.

  12. The future (r)evolution of preimplantation genetic diagnosis/human leukocyte antigen testing: ethical reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wert, Guido; Liebaers, Inge; Van de Velde, Hilde

    2007-09-01

    There has been increasing support for combining preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for specific diseases with a test for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) because the generation of HLA-matched umbilical cord blood cells may save the life of a diseased sibling. To date, this procedure has taken place in the context of conceiving another child--PGD/HLA testing type 1. However, it may well become possible to perform PGD/HLA testing outside this context, that is, to select matched embryos from which embryonic stem cells could be derived and used in cell therapy--PGD/HLA testing type 2. A proactive ethical analysis is needed and is presented in this article. Although PGD/HLA testing type 1 can be morally justified, the risks, pitfalls, and practical limitations of this procedure make it necessary to develop alternative strategies. PGD/HLA testing type 2 may provide an alternative strategy. From an ethical point of view, the controversial issue is that this procedure creates embryos purely for instrumental use. However, given the dominant view that the preimplantation embryo has only limited moral value, this alternative may be as morally justified as PGD/HLA testing type 1.

  13. Ethical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, David

    2012-01-01

    In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness.

  14. Ethical Aspects of Human Resource Activities Serving Local and Regional Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Morariu Alunica

    2010-01-01

    The correct approach to ethics in public service should be multi-dimensional, since there is no difference to addressing the broader context of ethics in public office (members of Parliament, Government, other officials). The paper examines issues which are relevant for the basic principles and key administrative and legal instruments of ethics management.

  15. Clinical Ethics in Gabon: The Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues Based on Findings from In-Depth Interviews at Three Public Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Daniel; Marckmann, Georg; Ndzie Atangana, Etienne; Strech, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Unlike issues in biomedical research ethics, ethical challenges arising in daily clinical care in Sub-Saharan African countries have not yet been studied in a systematic manner. However this has to be seen as a distinct entity as we argue in this paper. Our aim was to give an overview of the spectrum of clinical ethical issues and to understand what influences clinical ethics in the Sub-Saharan country of Gabon. Materials and Methods In-depth interviews with 18 health care professionals were conducted at three hospital sites in Gabon. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (open and axial coding), giving a qualitative spectrum of categories for clinical ethical issues. Validity was checked at a meeting with study participants and other health care experts in Gabon after analysis of the data. Results Twelve main categories (with 28 further-specified subcategories) for clinical ethical issues were identified and grouped under three core categories: A) micro level: “confidentiality and information”, “interpersonal, relational and behavioral issues”, “psychological strain of individuals”, and “scarce resources”; B) meso level: “structural issues of medical institutions”, “issues with private clinics”, “challenges connected to the family”, and “issues of education, training and competence”; and C) macro level: “influence of society, culture, religion and superstition”, “applicability of western medicine”, “structural issues on the political level”, and “legal issues”. Discussion Interviewees reported a broad spectrum of clinical ethical issues that go beyond challenges related to scarce financial and human resources. Specific socio-cultural, historical and educational backgrounds also played an important role. In fact these influences are central to an understanding of clinical ethics in the studied local context. Further research in the region is necessary to put our study into

  16. Clinical Ethics in Gabon: The Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues Based on Findings from In-Depth Interviews at Three Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Daniel; Marckmann, Georg; Ndzie Atangana, Etienne; Strech, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Unlike issues in biomedical research ethics, ethical challenges arising in daily clinical care in Sub-Saharan African countries have not yet been studied in a systematic manner. However this has to be seen as a distinct entity as we argue in this paper. Our aim was to give an overview of the spectrum of clinical ethical issues and to understand what influences clinical ethics in the Sub-Saharan country of Gabon. In-depth interviews with 18 health care professionals were conducted at three hospital sites in Gabon. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (open and axial coding), giving a qualitative spectrum of categories for clinical ethical issues. Validity was checked at a meeting with study participants and other health care experts in Gabon after analysis of the data. Twelve main categories (with 28 further-specified subcategories) for clinical ethical issues were identified and grouped under three core categories: A) micro level: "confidentiality and information", "interpersonal, relational and behavioral issues", "psychological strain of individuals", and "scarce resources"; B) meso level: "structural issues of medical institutions", "issues with private clinics", "challenges connected to the family", and "issues of education, training and competence"; and C) macro level: "influence of society, culture, religion and superstition", "applicability of western medicine", "structural issues on the political level", and "legal issues". Interviewees reported a broad spectrum of clinical ethical issues that go beyond challenges related to scarce financial and human resources. Specific socio-cultural, historical and educational backgrounds also played an important role. In fact these influences are central to an understanding of clinical ethics in the studied local context. Further research in the region is necessary to put our study into perspective. As many participants reported a lack of awareness of ethical issues amongst other health

  17. Variability in research ethics review of cluster randomized trials: a scenario-based survey in three countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) present unique ethical challenges. In the absence of a uniform standard for their ethical design and conduct, problems such as variability in procedures and requirements by different research ethics committees will persist. We aimed to assess the need for ethics guidelines for CRTs among research ethics chairs internationally, investigate variability in procedures for research ethics review of CRTs within and among countries, and elicit research ethics chairs’ perspectives on specific ethical issues in CRTs, including the identification of research subjects. The proper identification of research subjects is a necessary requirement in the research ethics review process, to help ensure, on the one hand, that subjects are protected from harm and exploitation, and on the other, that reviews of CRTs are completed efficiently. Methods A web-based survey with closed- and open-ended questions was administered to research ethics chairs in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The survey presented three scenarios of CRTs involving cluster-level, professional-level, and individual-level interventions. For each scenario, a series of questions was posed with respect to the type of review required (full, expedited, or no review) and the identification of research subjects at cluster and individual levels. Results A total of 189 (35%) of 542 chairs responded. Overall, 144 (84%, 95% CI 79 to 90%) agreed or strongly agreed that there is a need for ethics guidelines for CRTs and 158 (92%, 95% CI 88 to 96%) agreed or strongly agreed that research ethics committees could be better informed about distinct ethical issues surrounding CRTs. There was considerable variability among research ethics chairs with respect to the type of review required, as well as the identification of research subjects. The cluster-cluster and professional-cluster scenarios produced the most disagreement. Conclusions Research ethics committees

  18. Legal and Ethical Implications of Using Social Media in Human Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Now more than ever we live in a society saturated with technology and media.  We are captured by the technology whirlwind such as the internet, instant messages, emails, and social media such as Twitter and Facebook.  Technologies not only are changing the way people live, work, and interact with each other but also the way companies conduct their businesses.  Social media no doubt is one of such technologies that enables companies to market their products and services in new and unique dimensions.  Beyond marketing, social media is also changing the way human resource professionals recruit and select employees.   Recruiting and selecting potential new employees using social media, is gaining popularity.  There are even software programs that capitalize on the information available on social media sites to assist human resources professionals to source, screen, and track job applicants.  Although there are many advantages in using social media networks to assist HR to select and filter job candidates, there are reasons for concerns.  In this paper, we’ll examine the legal and ethical consequences of using social media in the area of human resource management.   Keywords: Social Media, Facebook, Human Resources, Management.

  19. ETHICS AND CHANGES IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovo Radoš

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, as a practical philosophy, is found in essential relationships and relations with other relevant practical disciplines (economics, law, politics, sport, etc.. Every human activity is ethically grounded. Therefore, human ethics, which includes sport ethics, is one of the fundamental criteria for establishing moral relations in different are as of sport life. Sport morale stems from a universally accepted ethics legal principles that aim at maintaining sport spirit based on the Olympics codex and humanity principles, among which are: consciousness and honesty, righteousness, cultural-behavior principle, openness, and the like. Changes in sport (organizational, structural, competition, etc. need to be adequately adjusted to universal, and generally accepted, values. Avoiding deontological ethics inevitably leads to increased sports immorality (referees_ fixing match results, spectators_ aggressive behavior, cheating using for bidden doping, etc.. Thus, projecting and introducing innovations in the field of sport, which, after all, are necessary and unavoidable in all areas of life, including sport, will eventually show its positive results only if the aforementioned aspects of sport ethics are taken into consideration.

  20. Consensus standards for introductory e-learning courses in human participants research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R; Sprumont, Dominique; Hirtle, Marie; Adebamowo, Clement; Braunschweiger, Paul; Bull, Susan; Burri, Christian; Czarkowski, Marek; Fan, Chien Te; Franck, Caroline; Gefenas, Eugenjius; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Klingmann, Ingrid; Kouyaté, Bocar; Kraehenbhul, Jean-Pierre; Kruger, Mariana; Moodley, Keymanthri; Ntoumi, Francine; Nyirenda, Thomas; Pym, Alexander; Silverman, Henry; Tenorio, Sara

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a workshop held in January 2013 to begin the process of establishing standards for e-learning programmes in the ethics of research involving human participants that could serve as the basis of their evaluation by individuals and groups who want to use, recommend or accredit such programmes. The standards that were drafted at the workshop cover the following topics: designer/provider qualifications, learning goals, learning objectives, content, methods, assessment of participants and assessment of the course. The authors invite comments on the draft standards and eventual endorsement of a final version by all stakeholders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. The Tactile Ethics of Soft Robotics: Designing Wisely for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas; Scheutz, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Soft robots promise an exciting design trajectory in the field of robotics and human-robot interaction (HRI), promising more adaptive, resilient movement within environments as well as a safer, more sensitive interface for the objects or agents the robot encounters. In particular, tactile HRI is a critical dimension for designers to consider, especially given the onrush of assistive and companion robots into our society. In this article, we propose to surface an important set of ethical challenges for the field of soft robotics to meet. Tactile HRI strongly suggests that soft-bodied robots balance tactile engagement against emotional manipulation, model intimacy on the bonding with a tool not with a person, and deflect users from personally and socially destructive behavior the soft bodies and surfaces could normally entice.

  2. A longitudinal simulation-based ethical-legal curriculum for otolaryngology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanous, Amanda; Rappaport, Jamie; Young, Meredith; Park, Yoon Soo; Manoukian, John; Nguyen, Lily H P

    2017-11-01

    To develop, implement, and evaluate a longitudinal, simulation-based ethics and legal curriculum designed specifically for otolaryngology residents. Otolaryngology residents were recruited to participate in a yearly half-day ethical-legal module, the curriculum of which spanned 4 years. Each module included: three simulated scenarios, small-group multisource feedback, and large-group debriefings. Scenarios involved encounters with standardized patients. Residents' ethical-legal knowledge was assessed pre- and postmodule with multiple-choice questions, and ethical reasoning was assessed by a variety of evaluators during the simulated scenario using a locally developed assessment tool. Participants completed an exit survey at the end of each module. Eighteen residents completed four modules from the academic years of 2008 to 2009 to 2011 to 2012. The first year was considered a pilot module, and data were collected for the following 3 years. Knowledge of legal issues improved significantly among residents (mean at pre = 3.40 and post = 4.60, P otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents. This educational program resulted in a both objective and subjective improvement in legal and ethics knowledge and skills. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:2501-2509, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. 76 FR 77815 - Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-543-000] Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Ethical Electric Benefit Co.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  4. Unintended consequences of human research ethics committees: au revoir workplace studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Greg J; Sappey, Jennifer

    2007-07-01

    To protect the welfare and rights of participants in research and to facilitate research that will be of benefit, as well as protect them against litigation, universities and research-funding agencies in Australia adopted the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans (NHMRC 1999). In many other countries there are similar statements. However, the ways in which such statements are often implemented by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) are in conflict with an important stream of industrial sociological research. This stream seeks to deconstruct workplaces and de-layer management rhetoric to understand the realities and complexities of the social relations of production. There is a pluralist basis for much industrial sociology that challenges the unitarist view of the workplace as essentially harmonious. While views of workplaces as being conflictual and exploitative have to be tempered with an understanding of the accommodative and cooperative nature of workplace relations, there is nevertheless a general recognition of acts of resistance, as well as those of cooperation. The way in which the National Statement is typically implemented in Australia means that many HRECs require written, informed consent, which in the first instance will usually be that of management. An unintended consequence is a research focus on consensus, which is at best one-sided and at worst seriously misleading. It is unlikely that managerial consent will be granted unless there is a 'good news story' guaranteed. This article explores the ways in which HRECs may influence workplace research. The publication of the revised National Statement provides a valuable opportunity not to be missed by HRECs to implement more effective and efficient practices which would not have the unintended consequences of the earlier version. This would deserve the support of researchers in industrial sociology and other branches of the social sciences.

  5. "The Project Cannot Be Approved in Its Current Form": Feminist Visual Research Meets the Human Research Ethics Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    This article reflects on a university human research ethics committee's unease regarding a feminist visual pilot study within the field of education. The small exploratory study proposed to explore a migrant mother's production of her son's identity through her family photograph collection. The committee requested substantial…

  6. Steve Clarke, Julian Savulescu, Tony Coady, Alberto Giubilini, and Sagar Sanyal: the ethics of human enhancement: understanding the debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, L.E.

    2017-01-01

    A decade of research on the ethics of human enhancement has produced a vast literature. This collection is an excellent contribution to the field; it fulfills and exceeds the promises of its two subsections: understanding and advancing the debate. Section 1, Understanding the Debate includes eight

  7. Ethical Norms of Traditional Nomadic Culture as Bases for Political Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Бахыт Даулетхановна Жумакаева

    2011-03-01

    Only by cultivating a sense of community, leader's actions would be viewed as standards to follow. So the collective nature of Kazakh nomadic-age ethics was congruent with Soviet interpretation of Marxism, which accounted for their convergence in the Soviet age. However, as the paper argues these moral bases ceased to reflect the reality of present-day Kazakhstan, which urges reconsidering its ethical norms for political behavior to be grounded on the new societal organization, national character, pursuit of individual wealth as a factor of progress, and the global information age.

  8. Ethics and evidence-based medicine: fallibility and responsibility in clinical science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodman, Kenneth W

    2003-01-01

    ... to their "clinical judgment." This tension- between efforts to make medical practice more scientific and the suspicions of many clinicians- has caused one of the greatest practical and ethical challenges in the history of the health professions. This incisive book reviews the history and conceptual origins of evidence-based practice and discusses ...

  9. Evaluating a Web-based Graduate Level Nursing Ethics Course: Thumbs Up or Thumbs Down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Heather; Lockerbie, Linda; Ramsay, Deyanne; Beaman, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Student and teacher opinions were obtained regarding a Web-based ethics course for nursing graduate students. Both groups had positive views of online discussions; critical and reflective thinking was enhanced; technical difficulties were overcome with the help of expert support services; compressed time frame was a drawback; and ways to enhance…

  10. Code of Ethics for Rehabilitation Educators and Counselors: A Call for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burker, Eileen J.; Kazukauskas, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Given the emphasis on evidence-based practice (EBP) in the 2010 Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors, it has become even more critical for rehabilitation educators and rehabilitation counselors to understand EBP, how to implement it in teaching and in practice, and how to access available EBP resources. This paper defines and…

  11. Palliative Sedation for Existential Suffering: A Systematic Review of Argument-Based Ethics Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo; Crokaert, Jasper; Gastmans, Chris

    2018-06-01

    Although unanimity exists on using palliative sedation (PS) for controlling refractory physical suffering in end-of-life situations, using it for controlling refractory existential suffering (PS-ES) is controversial. Complicating the debate is that definitions and terminology for existential suffering are unclear, ambiguous, and imprecise, leading to a lack of consensus for clinical practice. To systematically identify, describe, analyze, and discuss ethical arguments and concepts underpinning the argument-based bioethics literature on PS-ES. We conducted a systematic search of the argument-based bioethics literature in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase ® , The Philosopher's Index, PsycINFO ® , PsycARTICLES ® , Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Pascal-Francis, and Cairn. We included articles published in peer-reviewed journals till December 31, 2016, written in English or French, which focused on ethical arguments related to PS-ES. We used Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies protocol, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, and The Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven for data extraction and synthesis of themes. We identified 18 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Our analysis revealed mind-body dualism, existential suffering, refractoriness, terminal condition, and imminent death as relevant concepts in the ethical debate on PS-ES. The ethical principles of double effect, proportionality, and the four principles of biomedical ethics were used in argumentations in the PS-ES debate. There is a clear need to better define the terminology used in discussions of PS-ES and to ground ethical arguments in a more effective way. Anthropological presuppositions such as mind-body dualism underpin the debate and need to be more clearly elucidated using an interdisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomimicry: a Necessary Eco-Ethical Dimension for a Future Human Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Collado-Ruano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the concept of “global citizenship” from a transdisciplinary methodology and a biomimetic approach. A sustainable human image appears with this epistemological symbiosis, that constitutes the DNA of a genuine tool of civilizational transformation. On the one hand, the transdisciplinary methodology is opened to the multi-referential conception of the three pillars proposed by Basarab Nicolescu (2008: levels of reality, logic of the included middle, and complexity. On the other hand, the concept of biomimicry approached by Janine M. Benyus (2012 identifies nine operating principles of life in order to mimic nature in the reformulation of new sustainable human production systems with the biosphere. The aim of this study is to identify international agreements on environmental and sustainable development, to elaborate some contribution in the post-2015 eco-political-educational strategic framework led by the United Nations with the Sustainable Development Goals. With the purpose of strengthening ties between education and sustainability through symbiotic bridges between nature and culture, the work identifies the vital axises that constitute the interdependence of ecosystems to make a biomimetic application in the social, political, and educational structures of human systems. Then, this paper is an innovational research that seeks to integrate the eco-ethics as a practice in the “Global Citizenship Education” proposed for UNESCO for next decade 2015-2025.

  13. Evidence-based, ethically justified counseling for fetal bilateral renal agenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alana N.; McCullough, Laurence B.; Chervenak, Frank A.; Placencia, Frank X.

    2017-01-01

    Background Not much data are available on the natural history of bilateral renal agenesis, as the medical community does not typically offer aggressive obstetric or neonatal care asbilateral renal agenesis has been accepted as a lethal condition. Aim To provide an evidence-based, ethically justified approach to counseling pregnant women about the obstetric management of bilateral renal agenesis. Study design A systematic literature search was performed using multiple databases. We deploy an ethical analysis of the results of the literature search on the basis of the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics. Results Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria for review. With the exception of a single case study using serial amnioinfusion, there has been no other case of survival following dialysis and transplantation documented. Liveborn babies die during the neonatal period. Counseling pregnant women about management of pregnancies complicated by bilateral renal agenesis should be guided by beneficence-based judgment informed by evidence about outcomes. Conclusions Based on the ethical analysis of the results from this review, without experimental obstetric intervention, neonatal mortality rates will continue to be 100%. Serial amnioinfusion therefore should not be offered as treatment, but only as approved innovation or research. PMID:28222038

  14. Situated Techno-Ethics in Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The continuous inclusion of new technologies in organizations challenges business ethics and creates new problematics in work life. Managers in particular are challenged insofar as they must learn how to adapt general technological hardware to local organizational needs and work habits. Based......? Using a techno-human practice approach—which takes into account both human and non-human entities as the basis of moral judgment—the new technologically-induced ethical dilemmas faced by managers are discussed. A typology of techno-ethics is introduced, which presents situated ways of engaging...... with technologies in businesses. By employing multiple ethics connected to the use of technologies in organizations might make managers more ethically responsible in decisions concerning technologies....

  15. Protest of doctors: a basic human right or an ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Imran Naeem

    2014-03-10

    Peaceful protests and strikes are a basic human right as stated in the United Nations' universal declaration on human rights. But for doctors, their proximity to life and death and the social contract between a doctor and a patient are stated as the reasons why doctors are valued more than the ordinary beings. In Pakistan, strikes by doctors were carried out to protest against lack of service structure, security and low pay. This paper discusses the moral and ethical concerns pertaining to the strikes by medical doctors in the context of Pakistan. The author has carefully tried to balance the discussion about moral repercussions of strikes on patients versus the circumstances of doctors working in public sector hospitals of a developing country that may lead to strikes. Doctors are envisaged as highly respectable due to their direct link with human lives. Under Hippocrates oath, care of the patient is a contractual obligation for the doctors and is superior to all other responsibilities. From utilitarian perspective, doctors' strikes are justifiable only if there is evidence of long term benefits to the doctors, patients and an improvement in service delivery. Despite that, it is hard to justify such benefits against the risks to the patients. Harms that may incur to the patients include: prolongation of sufferings, irreversible damage to health, delay in treatment, death, loss of work and waste of financial resources.In a system of socialized medicine, government owing to greater control over resources and important managerial decisions should assume greater responsibility and do justice to all stakeholders including doctors as well as patients. If a doctor is underpaid, has limited options for career growth and is forced to work excessively, then not only quality of medical care and ability to act in the best interests of patients is adversely affected, it may also lead to brain drain. There is no single best answer against or in favor of doctors' industrial

  16. Protest of doctors: a basic human right or an ethical dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Peaceful protests and strikes are a basic human right as stated in the United Nations’ universal declaration on human rights. But for doctors, their proximity to life and death and the social contract between a doctor and a patient are stated as the reasons why doctors are valued more than the ordinary beings. In Pakistan, strikes by doctors were carried out to protest against lack of service structure, security and low pay. This paper discusses the moral and ethical concerns pertaining to the strikes by medical doctors in the context of Pakistan. The author has carefully tried to balance the discussion about moral repercussions of strikes on patients versus the circumstances of doctors working in public sector hospitals of a developing country that may lead to strikes. Discussion Doctors are envisaged as highly respectable due to their direct link with human lives. Under Hippocrates oath, care of the patient is a contractual obligation for the doctors and is superior to all other responsibilities. From utilitarian perspective, doctors’ strikes are justifiable only if there is evidence of long term benefits to the doctors, patients and an improvement in service delivery. Despite that, it is hard to justify such benefits against the risks to the patients. Harms that may incur to the patients include: prolongation of sufferings, irreversible damage to health, delay in treatment, death, loss of work and waste of financial resources. In a system of socialized medicine, government owing to greater control over resources and important managerial decisions should assume greater responsibility and do justice to all stakeholders including doctors as well as patients. If a doctor is underpaid, has limited options for career growth and is forced to work excessively, then not only quality of medical care and ability to act in the best interests of patients is adversely affected, it may also lead to brain drain. Summary There is no single best answer against or

  17. Place-Based Care Ethics: A Field Philosophy Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goralnik, Lissy; Dobson, Tracy; Nelson, Michael Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we argue for the need for a thoughtful and intentional pedagogy in experiential environmental learning that educates for empathetic relationships with humans, nonhuman others, and natural systems, or field philosophy. After discussing the tensions in various ecofeminist perspectives, we highlight relevant ecofeminist ideas and thread…

  18. Ethical considerations of human investigation in developing countries: the AIDS dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M

    1988-10-20

    In the efforts to develop a vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), attention has focused on sub-Saharan Africa, where large populations at risk for HIV infection could be studied easily. Cross cultural bioethics must be examined to address the ethical implications and cultural obstacles of such research. Autonomy and informed consent are difficult to achieve in cultures with limited personal choice. In some cultures, individual personhood is secondary to social relationships in the tribe or village. Language barriers, illiteracy, and the lack of knowledge about modern science all make it difficult to adequately inform participants. While the Helsinki Declaration emphasizes that a subject's well-being takes precedence over the interests of science and society, health policy decisions in nonautonomous populations often place state interests over the individual. Political sensitivities have been aroused by attempts to attribute the origin of AIDS to western or central Africa, leading political controversy and discrimination against Africans. Foreign researchers often exclude African participation once they have obtained the body fluid samples for study. Without joint collaboration and education, human research in developing countries can easily become exploitative. Justice dictates that research subjects be chosen for scientific reasons, not due to easy availability or ability to be manipulated. In vaccine development, Africans should not experience a disproportionate amount of risk without an equal share in the benefits. Furthermore, malnutrition, malaria, tuberculosis, and many other diseases present more urgent health problems to the developing world than AIDS. The health care priorities of the developing nations must be considered.

  19. Revisiting eco-ethics and econ-ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Kinne

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern humanity can survive only if traditional ethics are extended to include eco-ethics and econ-ethics. Success or failure in developing and implementing these new ethical constructs will affect the fate of our species Homo sapiens and that of millions of other forms of life. In the long run failure to accept and apply eco-ethics and econ-ethics would reduce the capacities of Planet Earth to support life.

  20. Undergraduate research involving human subjects should not be granted ethical approval unless it is likely to be of publishable quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Cathal T; McDonald, Lisa J; McCormack, Niamh P

    2014-06-01

    Small-scale research projects involving human subjects have been identified as being effective in developing critical appraisal skills in undergraduate students. In deciding whether to grant ethical approval to such projects, university research ethics committees must weigh the benefits of the research against the risk of harm or discomfort to the participants. As the learning objectives associated with student research can be met without the need for human subjects, the benefit associated with training new healthcare professionals cannot, in itself, justify such risks. The outputs of research must be shared with the wider scientific community if it is to influence future practice. Our survey of 19 UK universities indicates that undergraduate dissertations associated with the disciplines of medicine, dentistry and pharmacy are not routinely retained in their library catalogues, thus closing a major avenue to the dissemination of their findings. If such research is unlikely to be published in a peer-reviewed journal, presented at a conference, or otherwise made available to other researchers, then the risks of harm, discomfort or inconvenience to participants are unlikely to be offset by societal benefits. Ethics committees should be satisfied that undergraduate research will be funnelled into further research that is likely to inform clinical practice before granting ethical approval.

  1. Hazy Boundaries: Virtual Communities and Research Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kantanen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines ethical issues specific to research into virtual communities. Drawing on an empirical case with online forums of education experts, we identify the following key issues: publicity versus privacy of the community; the definition of human subjects research; participant recruitment; informed consent; and ethical questions associated with observing virtual communities, and with reporting and disseminating research results. We maintain that different research cultures in different countries can present challenges when studying global forums. Acknowledging the ephemeral characteristics of Internet contexts, this paper argues that ethical considerations should be more case-based, instead of relying on one model for all solutions. We suggest that local ethics committees or institutional review boards could, with their expert knowledge of ethics, provide valuable support for researchers operating in the complex and dynamic terrain of Internet research, as well as in fields and research settings where an ethical review is not a standard part of the research process.

  2. Development and pilot testing of an online module for ethics education based on the Nigerian National Code for Health Research Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The formulation and implementation of national ethical regulations to protect research participants is fundamental to ethical conduct of research. Ethics education and capacity are inadequate in developing African countries. This study was designed to develop a module for online training in research ethics based on the Nigerian National Code of Health Research Ethics and assess its ease of use and reliability among biomedical researchers in Nigeria. Methodology This was a three-phased evaluation study. Phase one involved development of an online training module based on the Nigerian Code of Health Research Ethics (NCHRE) and uploading it to the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) website while the second phase entailed the evaluation of the module for comprehensibility, readability and ease of use by 45 Nigerian biomedical researchers. The third phase involved modification and re-evaluation of the module by 30 Nigerian biomedical researchers and determination of test-retest reliability of the module using Cronbach’s alpha. Results The online module was easily accessible and comprehensible to 95% of study participants. There were significant differences in the pretest and posttest scores of study participants during the evaluation of the online module (p = 0.001) with correlation coefficients of 0.9 and 0.8 for the pretest and posttest scores respectively. The module also demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability and internal consistency as shown by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.92 and 0.84 for the pretest and posttest respectively. Conclusion The module based on the Nigerian Code was developed, tested and made available online as a valuable tool for training in cultural and societal relevant ethical principles to orient national and international biomedical researchers working in Nigeria. It would complement other general research ethics and Good Clinical Practice modules. Participants suggested that awareness of the

  3. Development and pilot testing of an online module for ethics education based on the Nigerian National Code for Health Research Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunrin Olubunmi A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formulation and implementation of national ethical regulations to protect research participants is fundamental to ethical conduct of research. Ethics education and capacity are inadequate in developing African countries. This study was designed to develop a module for online training in research ethics based on the Nigerian National Code of Health Research Ethics and assess its ease of use and reliability among biomedical researchers in Nigeria. Methodology This was a three-phased evaluation study. Phase one involved development of an online training module based on the Nigerian Code of Health Research Ethics (NCHRE and uploading it to the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI website while the second phase entailed the evaluation of the module for comprehensibility, readability and ease of use by 45 Nigerian biomedical researchers. The third phase involved modification and re-evaluation of the module by 30 Nigerian biomedical researchers and determination of test-retest reliability of the module using Cronbach’s alpha. Results The online module was easily accessible and comprehensible to 95% of study participants. There were significant differences in the pretest and posttest scores of study participants during the evaluation of the online module (p = 0.001 with correlation coefficients of 0.9 and 0.8 for the pretest and posttest scores respectively. The module also demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability and internal consistency as shown by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.92 and 0.84 for the pretest and posttest respectively. Conclusion The module based on the Nigerian Code was developed, tested and made available online as a valuable tool for training in cultural and societal relevant ethical principles to orient national and international biomedical researchers working in Nigeria. It would complement other general research ethics and Good Clinical Practice modules. Participants

  4. The Challenges of First-in-Human Stem Cell Clinical Trials: What Does This Mean for Ethics and Institutional Review Boards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A. Barker

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based clinical interventions are increasingly advancing through preclinical testing and approaching clinical trials. The complexity and diversity of these approaches, and the confusion created by unproven and untested stem cell-based “therapies,” create a growing need for a more comprehensive review of these early-stage human trials to ensure they place the patients at minimal risk of adverse events but are also based on solid evidence of preclinical efficacy with a clear scientific rationale for that effect. To address this issue and supplement the independent review process, especially that of the ethics and institutional review boards who may not be experts in stem cell biology, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR has developed a set of practical questions to cover the major issues for which clear evidence-based answers need to be obtained before approving a stem cell-based trial. Keywords: human stem cell-derived interventions, early phase clinical trials, institutional review and ethics boards, review process, guidelines

  5. Doing the right thing! A model for building a successful hospital-based ethics committee in Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Cole

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There exists a need throughout the North to increase capacity to address issues of health ethics and for community members to better understand and share their perspectives on this topic. Ethics comes down to weighing rights and wrongs, evaluating differing needs and understandings, acknowledging the many shades of grey and doing our best to come up with the just, fair and moral approach to the question at hand. Northern regions must collaborate to share capacity, successes and experiences in order to meet the unique needs of northern health care institutions and move forward on this issue. While guidelines for ethical research with indigenous populations exist, little has been published about an Inuit approach to health ethics more broadly. Design . To fill a critical need and to meet accreditation standards, the Qikiqtani General Hospital (QGH in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada, is in the process of building an Ethics Committee. Capitalizing on partnerships with other bodies both in northern and southern Canada has proved an efficient and effective way to develop local solutions to challenges that have been experienced both at QGH and other jurisdictions. Methods . The Ottawa Hospital Ethics Office and the active ethics committee at Stanton General Hospital in Yellowknife, NT, contributed expertise and experience, and helped provide some direction for the QGH ethics committee. At the local level, based on our shared commitment to health care ethics, the Qaujigiartiit Health Research Centre is an invaluable partner whose parallel efforts to develop a northern Health Research Ethics Board (REB gives great synergy to the QGH Ethics Committee. Results . Passion and commitment, as well as administrative support and endorsement from health care leaders, are the aspects of successful initiatives that we have identified to date. Using the information from both the experiences of other partners, as well as information gathered at a retreat held in

  6. On ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1996-01-01

    From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

  7. A Review of Research Ethics in Internet-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, Ian; Cox, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Internet-based research methods can include: online surveys, web page content analysis, videoconferencing for online focus groups and/or interviews, analysis of "e-conversations" through social networking sites, email, chat rooms, discussion boards and/or blogs. Over the last ten years, an upsurge in internet-based research (IBR) has led…

  8. Biblical Ethics and Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the question of unification versus relationality in ethics. It compares two different ethical approaches from Late Antiquity, highlighting the contrast between Plotinian (Neoplatonic) ethics as striving for perfect unification of the human soul with the divinity...... - and Biblical ethics as a relational ethics, where alterity remains operative in the encounter with the deity, and where the primary ethical demand is to relate properly to fellow creatures and God as other. The latter demand is exemplified by the figure of Job, whose righteousness is interpreted as his...

  9. MEDICAL LAW AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčica Ivanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of interest in this article is the importance of knowing and connecting medical ethics and medical law for the category of health workers. The author believes that knowledge of bioethics which as a discipline deals with the study of ethical issues and health care law as a legal discipline, as well as medical activity in general, result in the awareness of health professionals of human rights, and since the performance of activities of health workers is almost always linked to the question of life and death, then the lack of knowledge of basic legal acts would not be justified at all. The aim of the paper was to present the importance of medical ethics and medical law among the medical staff. A retrospective analysis of the medical literature available on the indexed base KOBSON for the period 2005-2010 was applied. Analysis of all work leads to the conclusion that the balance between ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, trust and cooperation between the two sides that appear over health care can be considered a goal that every health care worker should strive for. This study supports the attitude that lack of knowledge and non-compliance with the ethical principles and medical law when put together can only harm the health care worker. In a way, this is the message to health care professionals that there is a need for the adoption of ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, because the most important position of all health workers is their dedication to the patient as a primary objective and the starting point of ethics.

  10. Ethics and Economics: A Comment on Narvaez's "Revitalizing Human Virtue by Restoring Organic Morality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnameier, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This paper comments on Darcia Narvaez's Kohlberg Memorial Lecture (EJ1111256), published in this issue, with respect to her contrasting ethics and economics, or morality and market. My basic claim is that ethics and economics, properly understood, are just two sides of the same coin. One main point is that all morality solves cooperation problems…

  11. University Students and Ethics of Computer Technology Usage: Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyadat, Waleed; Iyadat, Yousef; Ashour, Rateb; Khasawneh, Samer

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the level of students' awareness about computer technology ethics at the Hashemite University in Jordan. A total of 180 university students participated in the study by completing the questionnaire designed by the researchers, named the Computer Technology Ethics Questionnaire (CTEQ). Results…

  12. Toward Cosmopolitan Ethics in Teacher Education: An Ontological Dimension of Learning Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    There is a globalization trend in teacher education, emphasizing the role of teachers to make judgments based on human rights in their teaching profession. Rather than emphasizing the epistemological dimension of acquiring knowledge "about" human rights through teacher education, an ontological dimension is emphasized in this paper of…

  13. Human rights from the Nuremberg Doctors Trial to the Geneva Declaration. Persons and institutions in medical ethics and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    The "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" and the "Geneva Declaration" by the World Medical Association, both in 1948, were preceded by the foundation of the United Nations in New York (1945), the World Medical Association in London (1946) and the World Health Organization in Geneva (1948). After the end of World War II the community of nations strove to achieve and sustain their primary goals of peace and security, as well as their basic premise, namely the health of human beings. All these associations were well aware of the crimes by medicine, in particular by the accused Nazi physicians at the Nuremberg Doctors Trial (1946/47, sentence: August 1947). During the first conference of the World Medical Association (September 1947) issues of medical ethics played a major role: and a new document was drafted concerning the values of the medical profession. After the catastrophe of the War and the criminal activities of scientists, the late 1940s saw increased scrutiny paid to fundamental questions of human rights and medical ethics, which are still highly relevant for today's medicine and morality. The article focuses on the development of medical ethics and human rights reflected in the statement of important persons, codes and institutions in the field.

  14. [Experience of a research Ethics Committee and the challenges of the new Chilean legislation on research in human beings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún G, Manuel; Pinto C, María Eugenia; Raineri B, Gina G; Amigo, Hugo; Cifuentes O, Lucía; González, María Julieta; Horwitz, Nina; Marshall F, Claudia; Orellana V, Gricel

    2014-07-01

    The welfare of research participants must be guaranteed by international ethical standards. This article communicates the procedures of the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Medicine, University of Chile (CEISH). The new Chilean legislation on research in human beings is also discussed. Law 20.120: "On scientific research in human beings, its genome and forbidding human cloning" establishes the ethical principles that must be accomplished in every research involving human beings. Article 28 of the Law 20.584 "Regulation of the rights and duties of health care users", forbids the participation of handicapped people who cannot express their will in scientific research. Article 13 states that people not related directly with patient care cannot have access to his clinical records (with the exception of people with notarial authorization by the patient). CEISH proposes that, in case of people with intellectual deficiency, the decision to approve a scientific research should be analyzed on an individual basis. If the person is capable of expressing his or her will or has stated his or her consent beforehand, the research can be authorized. If the person cannot express his or her will, the scientific research cannot take place. In prospective studies, a consent from the patient and an authorization of the health authority should be required to access clinical records. In retrospective studies, consent should be obtained from the patient when personal information is going to be used. If the information is nameless, the consent can be disregarded.

  15. Ethical issues for librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Rasche

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It approaches the librarian ethics comprehending the Librarianship constitution from a systemic view. In this way, with the objective to raise issues to discuss professional ethics, it places the librarian in the work world and points approaches between exertion and relation context of the professionals themselves with the human rights and alteration ethics.

  16. The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

  17. Communication, ethics and anthropoethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense of establishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.

  18. Critical Virtue Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schmidt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of Anscombe’s famous paper “Modern Moral Philosophy” (1958, virtue ethics has become a matter of discussion among scholars. At least four charges have been raised against virtue ethics, one of which is the charge of promoting undue enthusiasm regarding the moral fitness of human beings. This article explores the limits of virtue ethics with regard to the frailty of human virtuousness. After giving a report of the charges raised against virtue ethics from the perspective of empirical ethics, the author presents the idea of what he would like to call critical virtue ethics as seen by three Lutheran thinkers: Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Nietzsche and Martin Luther himself. He will demonstrate that the empirical contestation of virtue ethics shows a remarkable resemblance to insights found in Luther, Kant and Nietzsche. And finally, the writer draws tentative conclusions about the future of critical virtue ethics.

  19. COMMUNICATION, ETHICS AND ANTHROPOETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense ofestablishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.

  20. The Ethics of Strategic Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jim; Strbiak, Christy A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the concept of strategic ambiguity in communication, and addresses the ethics of strategic ambiguity from an intrapersonal perspective that considers the congruity of communicators' espoused-ethics, ethics-in-use, and behavior, where ethical judgements are based on the congruity between espoused-ethics and actual behavior. Poses questions…

  1. Ethical Frameworks in Public Health Decision-Making: Defending a Value-Based and Pluralist Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Kalle; Dawson, Angus

    2017-12-01

    A number of ethical frameworks have been proposed to support decision-making in public health and the evaluation of public health policy and practice. This is encouraging, since ethical considerations are of paramount importance in health policy. However, these frameworks have various deficiencies, in part because they incorporate substantial ethical positions. In this article, we discuss and criticise a framework developed by James Childress and Ruth Bernheim, which we consider to be the state of the art in the field. Their framework distinguishes aims, such as the promotion of public health, from constraints on the pursuit of those aims, such as the requirement to avoid limitations to liberty, or the requirement to be impartial. We show how this structure creates both theoretical and practical problems. We then go on to present and defend a more practical framework, one that is neutral in avoiding precommitment to particular values and how they ought to be weighted. We believe ethics is at the very heart of such weightings and our framework is developed to reflect this belief. It is therefore both pluralist and value-based. We compare our new framework to Childress and Bernheim's and outline its advantages. It is justified by its impetus to consider a wide range of alternatives and its tendency to direct decisions towards the best alternatives, as well as by the information provided by the ranking of alternatives and transparent explication of the judgements that motivate this ranking. The new framework presented should be useful to decision-makers in public health, as well as being a means to stimulate further reflection on the role of ethics in public health.

  2. Moderate Morality: An Interest-Based Contractarian Defense & its Applied Result in the Political Ethics of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad Peik Herfeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available What is morality’s scope? Should all our actions be evaluated morally? Is it necessary to be causally responsible for harm to have a responsibility to reduce it? Is there a morally relevant distinction between those consequences of our actions which we intend or do and those which we foresee but do not intend or allow but do not do? Is helping others a matter of supererogation (i.e. beyond the call of moral duty or a matter of obligation? These are crucial questions that need to be debated in normative and applied ethics. However, they were not raised seriously and independently until the last decades of the 20th century. There are several answers to these questions. This paper defends the answers of an approach which is called “moderate morality.” So, at first, it defines “moderate morality,” and pays heed to the views of its opponents, including Peter Singer, Shelly Kagan, and Peter Unger. Then, it tries to defend “moderate morality” based on “interest-based contractarianism.” Finally, it examines “its result in applied ethics” and tries to find a reasonable answer to a crucial question in the “political ethics of international relations” in our globalized era: What moral obligation, if any, do we have individually and as a society toward the people whose basic human rights are being violated not only in our country but also all over the world?

  3. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  4. School-Based Gay-Affirmative Interventions: First Amendment and Ethical Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Public health professionals and educators have developed effective school-based interventions to reduce prejudice and stigma against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. Such interventions can reduce the harm caused to sexual minority youths by stigma and can improve health outcomes. However, critics have warned that these interventions attempt to control speech and religious beliefs protected by the First Amendment. We review this critique and assess the legal and ethical arguments. We conclude that, both legally and ethically, there is great leeway for schools to implement LGBT-affirmative interventions. Still, we recommend that interventionists attend critics’ concerns using principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Using CBPR approaches, interventionists can achieve better community acceptance and cooperation and more successful interventions. PMID:23948002

  5. [Ethics, culture and psychiatry: the ethics of Mediterranean Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ibor, Juan-José; Crespo, Hervás

    2003-09-01

    The defence of the rights of the person, in Mediterranean ethics, is based on a synthesis of civic humanism and liberalism, derived from the spirit of Greek democracy and Enlightenment, and including the achievements of the XIX and XX centuries. It tempers liberalism with the principles of social welfare. Present bioethics, specialy in European countries, try to integrate both the mediterranean ethics of virtues and the anglosaxon ethics of principles, further adding and integrating a social element, the principle of solidarity and distributive justice (equity). Therefore, European ethics do not proclaim the autonomy of persons and the independence of the individual from society, but the interdependency of persons and nations. They advocate a greater equity and a better management of resources in health care.

  6. Publishing SNP genotypes of human embryonic stem cell lines: policy statement of the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppers, Bartha M; Isasi, Rosario; Benvenisty, Nissim; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lomax, Geoffrey; Morris, Clive; Murray, Thomas H; Lee, Eng Hin; Perry, Margery; Richardson, Genevra; Sipp, Douglas; Tanner, Klaus; Wahlström, Jan; de Wert, Guido; Zeng, Fanyi

    2011-09-01

    Novel methods and associated tools permitting individual identification in publicly accessible SNP databases have become a debatable issue. There is growing concern that current technical and ethical safeguards to protect the identities of donors could be insufficient. In the context of human embryonic stem cell research, there are no studies focusing on the probability that an hESC line donor could be identified by analyzing published SNP profiles and associated genotypic and phenotypic information. We present the International Stem Cell Forum (ISCF) Ethics Working Party's Policy Statement on "Publishing SNP Genotypes of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines (hESC)". The Statement prospectively addresses issues surrounding the publication of genotypic data and associated annotations of hESC lines in open access databases. It proposes a balanced approach between the goals of open science and data sharing with the respect for fundamental bioethical principles (autonomy, privacy, beneficence, justice and research merit and integrity).

  7. ELSI Bibliography: Ethical, legal and social implications of the Human Genome Project. 1994 Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesley, M.S.; Ossorio, P.N. [comps.

    1994-09-01

    This report updates and expands the second edition of the ELSI Bibliography, published in 1993. The Bibliography and Supplement provides a comprehensive resource for identifying publications on the major topics related to the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. The Bibliography and Supplement are extracted from a database compiled at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the support of the Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy. The second edition of the ELSI Bibliography was dated May 1993 but included publications added to the database until fall 1993. This Supplement reflects approximately 1,000 entries added to the database during the past year, bringing the total to approximately 7,000 entries. More than half of the new entries were published in the last year, and the remainder are earlier publications not previously included in the database. Most of the new entries were published in the academic and professional literature. The remainder are press reports from newspapers of record and scientific journals. The topical listing of the second edition has been followed in the Supplement, with a few changes. The topics of Cystic Fibrosis, Huntington`s Disease, and Sickle Cell Anemia have been combined in a single topic, Disorders. Also, all the entries published in the past year are included in a new topic, Publications: September 1993--September 1994, which provides a comprehensive view of recent reporting and commentary on the science and ELSI of genetics.

  8. An Ethic of Democratic, Curriculum-Based Teacher Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Daniel J.; Schneider, Jennifer L.; Henderson, James G.

    2017-01-01

    This article opens with an overview of the current policy interest in "teacher leadership" with its particular challenges and opportunities. Teacher-leader interpretations based on standardized instructional management platforms grounded in neoliberalism are critically challenged. The referent for this critical questioning is a normative…

  9. The Ethics of a Democratically-Based Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gale A.

    1993-01-01

    The elite model of education postulates that only a select few have the intellectual capacity, moral values, and personal commitment to make "good" decisions for society. A democratically based classroom, where students are respected for their intellectual abilities, personal integrity, and commitment to achievement, fosters successful…

  10. Simulation-Based Medical Education: An Ethical Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Amitai; Wolpe, Paul Root; Small, Stephen D.; Glick, Shimon

    2003-01-01

    Describes simulation-based learning in medical education and presents four these that make a framework for simulations: (1) best standards of care and training; (2) error management and patient safety; (3) patient autonomy; and (4) social justice and resource allocation. (SLD)

  11. Abusing ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...

  12. Ethics fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession.

  13. Ethical issues and best practice in clinically based genomic research: Exeter Stakeholders Meeting Report

    OpenAIRE

    Carrieri, D; Bewshea, C; Walker, G; Ahmad, T; Bowen, W; Hall, A; Kelly, S

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines on consenting individuals to participate in genomic research are diverse. This creates problems for participants and also for researchers, particularly for clinicians who provide both clinical care and research to their patients. A group of 14 stakeholders met on 7 October 2015 in Exeter to discuss the ethical issues and the best practice arising in clinically based genomic research, with particular emphasis on the issue of returning results to study participants/patients i...

  14. [Disability, inability and vulnerability: on ableism or the pre-eminence of ableist and biomedical approaches of the Human Subjects Ethics Committee of UFSC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Anahi Guedes de

    2016-10-01

    Anthropology has increasingly questioned the hegemony of biomedical knowledge in ethical review processes of social research projects prevailing in Brazil, which was governed until 2012 by the Human Research Ethics Committee of each institution under the auspices of the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP). This was mandated through Resolution No. 196/1996 prevailing in 2012 when this field research was conducted. The scope of this study is to recount and reflect upon the barriers to obtaining approval in 2012 for my master's research project from the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Santa Catarina (CEP/UFSC) in Florianopolis. In this ethnographic experience, in the light of Crip theory, I observed how the "disability," "vulnerability" and "inability" categories are articulated to reveal the ableism and the primacy of the biomedical model in the case of an ethics review at UFSC regarding the participation and legal capacity of persons with disabilities as subjects of research.

  15. Action-Based Jurisprudence: Praxeological Legal Theory in Relation to Economic Theory, Ethics, and Legal Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Graf

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action context. Examples of action-based jurisprudence are found in existing “Austro-libertarian” literature. Legal theory and legal practice must remain distinct and work closely together if justice is to be found in real cases. Legal theorizing was shaped in religious ethical contexts, which contributed to confused field boundaries between law and ethics. The carrot and stick influence of rulers on theorists has distorted conventional economics and jurisprudence in particular directions over the course of centuries. An action-based approach is relatively immune to such sources of distortion in its methods and conclusions, but has tended historically to be marginalized from conventional institutions for this same reason.

  16. Finding common ground: environmental ethics, social justice, and a sustainable path for nature-based health promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Jessica Yun; Lincoln  Larson

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have documented continuous tension between anthropocentric needs and the environment’s capacity to accommodate those needs and support basic human welfare. The way in which society perceives, manages, and ultimately utilizes natural resources can be influenced by underlying environmental ethics, or the moral relationship that humans share with the...

  17. Research ethics I: Responsible conduct of research (RCR)--historical and contemporary issues pertaining to human and animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D

    2011-02-01

    In this series of articles--Research Ethics I, Research Ethics II, and Research Ethics III--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In Research Ethics I, they present a historical overview of the evolution of RCR in the United States then examine the evolution of human and animal experimentation from the birth of scientific medicine through World War II to the present day. They relied on authoritative documents, both historical and contemporary, insightful commentary, and empirical research in order to identify current issues and controversies of potential interest to both faculty and students. The authors have written this article from a historical perspective because they think all readers interested in RCR should appreciate how the history of science and all the good--and harm--it has produced can inform how researchers practice responsible research in the 21st century and beyond.

  18. Controlling our destinies: Historical, philosophical, social and ethical perspectives on the Human Genome Project: Final report, July 1, 1995-June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, P.R.

    1996-09-25

    This report briefly describes the efforts by the organizing committee in preparation for the conference entitled Controlling Our Destinies: Historical, Philosophical, Social, and Ethical Perspectives on the Human Genome Project. The conference was held October 5-8, 1995.

  19. Students as resurrectionists--A multimodal humanities project in anatomy putting ethics and professionalism in historical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Rachel R; Jones, Trahern W; Hussain, Fareeda Taher Nazer; Bringe, Kariline; Harvey, Ronee E; Person-Rennell, Nicole H; Newman, James S

    2010-01-01

    Because medical students have many different learning styles, the authors, medical students at Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine researched the history of anatomical specimen procurement, reviewing topic-related film, academic literature, and novels, to write, direct, and perform a dramatization based on Robert Louis Stevenson's The Body-Snatcher. Into this performance, they incorporated dance, painting, instrumental and vocal performance, and creative writing. In preparation for the performance, each actor researched an aspect of the history of anatomy. These micro-research projects were presented in a lecture before the play. Not intended to be a research study, this descriptive article discusses how student research and ethics discussions became a theatrical production. This addition to classroom and laboratory learning addresses the deep emotional response experienced by some students and provides an avenue to understand and express these feelings. This enhanced multimodal approach to"holistic learning" could be applied to any topic in the medical school curriculum, thoroughly adding to the didactics with history, humanities, and team dynamics.

  20. The Challenges of First-in-Human Stem Cell Clinical Trials: What Does This Mean for Ethics and Institutional Review Boards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Roger A; Carpenter, Melissa K; Forbes, Stuart; Goldman, Steven A; Jamieson, Catriona; Murry, Charles E; Takahashi, Jun; Weir, Gordon

    2018-05-08

    Stem cell-based clinical interventions are increasingly advancing through preclinical testing and approaching clinical trials. The complexity and diversity of these approaches, and the confusion created by unproven and untested stem cell-based "therapies," create a growing need for a more comprehensive review of these early-stage human trials to ensure they place the patients at minimal risk of adverse events but are also based on solid evidence of preclinical efficacy with a clear scientific rationale for that effect. To address this issue and supplement the independent review process, especially that of the ethics and institutional review boards who may not be experts in stem cell biology, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) has developed a set of practical questions to cover the major issues for which clear evidence-based answers need to be obtained before approving a stem cell-based trial. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Photography and Social Media Use in Community-Based Participatory Research with Youth: Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Santacrose, Diana; Liu, Sabrina

    2017-12-01

    Community-based participatory researchers increasingly incorporate photography and social media into their work. Despite its relative infancy, social media has created a powerful network that allows individuals to convey messages quickly to a widespread audience. In addition to its potential benefits, the use of social media in research also carries risk, given the fast pace of exchanges, sharing of personal images and ideas in high accessibility, low privacy contexts and continually shifting options and upgrades. This article contributes to the literature examining ethical considerations for photography and social media use in community-based participatory research. We describe three key ethical dilemmas that we encountered during our participatory photography project with Latina/o youth: (a) use and content of images and risk; (b) incentives and coercion; and (c) social media activity and confidentiality. We provide our responses to these challenges, contextualized in theory and practice, and share lessons learned. We raise the question of how to contend with cultural shifts in boundaries and privacy. We propose that evaluating participant vulnerability versus potential empowerment may be more fitting than the standard approach of assessing risks and benefits. Finally, we recommend upholding the principles of participatory research by co-producing ethical practices with one's participants. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  2. Black boxes on wheels: research challenges and ethical problems in MEA-based robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2016-01-01

    Robotic systems consisting of a neuron culture grown on a multielectrode array (MEA) which is connected to a virtual or mechanical robot have been studied for approximately 15 years. It is hoped that these MEA-based robots will be able to address the problem that robots based on conventional...... and that they are not likely to be solved within the field. After that, I discuss whether MEA-based robotics should be considered pop science. Finally, I investigate the ethical aspects of this research....

  3. The Impact of the Humanities, Ethics and the Liberal Arts on the Practicing Optometrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleything, Willard B.

    1987-01-01

    The strength of the optometric profession lies in its members. Optometric education should include training in the use of the language, both for understanding and to prevent misunderstanding, and should emphasize values and ethics. (MSE)

  4. Humankind Takes up Environmental Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiying, Xu

    2004-01-01

    Environmental ethics examines the relationship between human beings and nature from the moral perspective. It is also a kind of ethics arising from a concern with an earth which is on the verge of losing balance. Environmental ethics originated at the end of the 1940s. Since the 1970s, great progress has been made in environmental ethics. This…

  5. Installing an Ethics Pledge within K-12 Academia: A Restoration of Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBath, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    In May 2009, 33 Harvard M.B.A. Candidates proposed and published an ethics pledge entitled the M.B.A. Oath. It is a "voluntary student-led pledge that the goal of business managers is to 'serve the greater good.' It promises that Harvard M.B.A.[s] will act responsibly, ethically, and refrain from advancing their 'own narrow ambitions' at the…

  6. Data Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Gry; Tranberg, Pernille

    Respect for privacy and the right to control one’s own data are becoming key parameters to gain a competitive edge in today’s business world. Companies, organisations and authorities which view data ethics as a social responsibility, giving it the same importance as environmental awareness...... and respect for human rights, are tomorrow’s winners. Digital trust is paramount to digital growth and prosperity. This book combines broad trend analyses with case studies to examine companies which use data ethics to varying degrees. The authors make the case that citizens and consumers are no longer just...... concerned about a lack of control over their data, but they also have begun to act. In addition, they describe alternative business models, advances in technology and a new European data protection regulation, all of which combine to foster a growing market for data-ethical products and services...

  7. The New World of Human Genetics: A dialogue between Practitioners & the General Public on Ethical, Legal & Social Implications of the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Amy

    2014-12-08

    The history and reasons for launching the Human Genome project and the current uses of genetic human material; Identifying and discussing the major issues stemming directly from genetic research and therapy-including genetic discrimination, medical/ person privacy, allocation of government resources and individual finances, and the effect on the way in which we perceive the value of human life; Discussing the sometimes hidden ethical, social and legislative implications of genetic research and therapy such as informed consent, screening and preservation of genetic materials, efficacy of medical procedures, the role of the government, and equal access to medical coverage.

  8. Seeking an ethical and legal way of procuring transplantable organs from the dying without further attempts to redefine human death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans David

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Because complex organs taken from unequivocally dead people are not suitable for transplantation, human death has been redefined so that it can be certified at some earlier stage in the dying process and thereby make viable organs available without legal problems. Redefinitions based on concepts of "brain death" have underpinned transplant practice for many years although those concepts have never found universal philosophical acceptance. Neither is there consensus about the clinical tests which have been held sufficient to diagnose the irreversible cessation of all brain function – or as much of it as is deemed relevant – while the body remains alive. For these reasons, the certification of death for transplant purposes on "brain death" grounds is increasingly questioned and there has been pressure to return to its diagnosis on the basis of cardiac arrest and the consequent cessation of blood circulation throughout the body. While superficially a welcome return to the traditional and universally accepted understanding of human death, examination of the protocols using such criteria for the diagnosis of death prior to organ removal reveals a materially different scenario in which the circulatory arrest is not certainly final and purely nominal periods of arrest are required before surgery begins. Recognizing the probably unresolvable conflict between allowing enough time to pass after truly final circulatory arrest for a safe diagnosis of death and its minimization for the sake of the wanted organs, Verheijde and colleagues follow others in calling for the abandonment of the "dead donor rule" and the enactment of legislation to permit the removal of organs from the dying, without pretence that they are dead before that surgery. While it may be doubted whether such a "paradigm change" in the ethics of organ procurement would be accepted by society, their call for its consideration as a fully and fairly informed basis for organ

  9. [Animal testing ethics and human testing. Thoughts on our conduct with and our relationship to animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    After many years of experimental work with animals of diverse species, the author felt confronted with the question whether the great expenditure of sacrificed animal life would pay off when compared with the results gained. By self-critically considering his work, he gradually experienced a conversion from an unconcerned experimenter to a man feeling a deep sympathy with his fellow creatures. This motivated him to ponder the true nature of animals. Instead of applying ethics--though justified in its own realm--the author preferred to look at the problem using the General Systems Theory (GST), which can describe "the other side" of any system, the side into which any system may occasionally or necessarily transform. It occurred to him to assume that--provided we see a living organism as a system (as Ludwig von Bertalanffy, the founder of GST, did)--the "other side" of the animal would correspond to an innocent "genius" who suffers for man (thereby assuming a Christ-like position), whereas in its transitory life the true essence of the animal is hidden. Thus, by fancifully viewing the role of animals destined to suffer, a connection between GST and theology or religion arises. The consequence for us would be to pay honour to the test animal, irrespective of whether or not painful experiments could be avoided. The differentiation between a sacrifice (spiritually surrendering for a greater good) and a victim (involuntarily subjected to suffering) reveals that the experimental animal primarily belongs to the latter. But it can be elevated to the former when the full meaning of its suffering becomes obvious. The same holds true for "human testing", if, in contrast to the formidable atrocities, e.g. of concentration camps, the momentum of voluntariness is guaranteed, as pioneers of medical research frequently demonstrated by carrying out experiments on themselves.

  10. [Status of ethical awareness based on 88 medical journals in China and combined evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwen; Wang, Yiren; Li, Lingjiang

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the status of ethical awareness of medical journals in China.
 We surveyed editorial awareness based on 88 medical journals by using self-made questionnaire. Five aspects were selected by literature and systematic analysis: Instruction for authors, the first review stage, the peer-review stage, the editing stage, as well as education and training, which covered 11 indexes in the system. Weight values of indexes were gained by scoring of senior editors, and analytic hierarchy process, TOPSIS method, and weight rank-sun ratio were used to evaluate the status of editorial awareness.
 Of the 88 biomedical journals, 56 (63.6%) had no ethical requirement in the instruction for authors in 2010, 14 (15.9%) were at high level of ethical awareness, 45 (51.1%) were at medium level, and 29(33.0%) were at low level. There were significant differences in the scores of instruction for authors and peer-review stage among the journals administrated by different authorities (H(C)=10.175, H=7.305, Pjournals covered by different databases (H(C)=11.951, 7.661, 6.146, or 8.085, Pjournals (H(C)=6.109, Pjournals in China should be improved. Comprehensive approach is more reliable and practical than that of single approach.

  11. Teaching corner: child family health international : the ethics of asset-based global health education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a U.S.-based nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has more than 25 global health education programs in seven countries annually serving more than 600 interprofessional undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate participants in programs geared toward individual students and university partners. Recognized by Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), CFHI utilizes an asset-based community engagement model to ensure that CFHI's programs challenge, rather than reinforce, historical power imbalances between the "Global North" and "Global South." CFHI's programs are predicated on ethical principles including reciprocity, sustainability, humility, transparency, nonmaleficence, respect for persons, and social justice.

  12. Tuberculosis, human rights and ethics considerations along the route of a highly vulnerable migrant from sub-Saharan Africa to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, V; Jaff, D; Shah, N S; Frick, M

    2017-10-01

    Migrant health is a critical public health issue, and in many countries attention to this topic has focused on the link between migration and communicable diseases, including tuberculosis (TB). When creating public health policies to address the complex challenges posed by TB and migration, countries should focus these policies on evidence, ethics, and human rights. This paper traces a commonly used migration route from sub-Saharan Africa to Europe, identifying situations at each stage in which human rights and ethical values might be affected in relation to TB care. This illustration provides the basis for discussing TB and migration from the perspective of human rights, with a focus on the right to health. We then highlight three strands of discussion in the ethics and justice literature in an effort to develop more comprehensive ethics of migrant health. These strands include theories of global justice and global health ethics, the creation of 'firewalls' to separate enforcement of immigration law from protection of human rights, and the importance of non-stigmatization to health justice. The paper closes by reflecting briefly on how TB programs can better incorporate human rights and ethical principles and values into public health practice.

  13. The role of ethics in information technology decisions: a case-based approach to biomedical informatics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G

    2004-03-18

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a case-based approach to instruction regarding ethical issues raised by the use of information technology (IT) in healthcare. These issues are rarely addressed in graduate degree and continuing professional education programs in health informatics. There are important reasons why ethical issues need to be addressed in informatics training. Ethical issues raised by the introduction of information technology affect practice and are ubiquitous. These issues are frequently among the most challenging to young practitioners who are ill prepared to deal with them in practice. First, the paper provides an overview of methods of moral reasoning that can be used to identify and analyze ethical problems in health informatics. Second, we provide a framework for defining cases that involve ethical issues and outline major issues raised by the use of information technology. Specific cases are used as examples of new dilemmas that are posed by the introduction of information technology in healthcare. These cases are used to illustrate how ethics can be integrated with the other elements of informatics training. The cases discussed here reflect day-to-day situations that arise in health settings that require decisions. Third, an approach that can be used to teach ethics in health informatics programs is outlined and illustrated.

  14. Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essack Zaynab

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB and malaria burden. The development and distribution of safe, effective and affordable vaccines is critical to reduce these epidemics. However, conducting HIV/AIDS, TB, and/or malaria vaccine trials simultaneously in developing countries, or in populations affected by all three diseases, is likely to result in numerous ethical challenges. Methods In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme hosted a consultation on the Convergent Ethical Issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Vaccine Trials in Africa in Durban, South Africa on the 10-11 February 2009. Results Key cross cutting ethical issues were prioritized during the consultation as community engagement; ancillary care obligations; care and treatment; informed consent; and resource sharing. Conclusion The consultation revealed that while there have been few attempts to find convergence on ethical issues between HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trial fields to date, there is much common ground and scope for convergence work between stakeholders in the three fields.

  15. Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas; Koen, Jennifer; Essack, Zaynab

    2010-03-09

    Africa continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria burden. The development and distribution of safe, effective and affordable vaccines is critical to reduce these epidemics. However, conducting HIV/AIDS, TB, and/or malaria vaccine trials simultaneously in developing countries, or in populations affected by all three diseases, is likely to result in numerous ethical challenges. In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme hosted a consultation on the Convergent Ethical Issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Vaccine Trials in Africa in Durban, South Africa on the 10-11 February 2009. Key cross cutting ethical issues were prioritized during the consultation as community engagement; ancillary care obligations; care and treatment; informed consent; and resource sharing. The consultation revealed that while there have been few attempts to find convergence on ethical issues between HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trial fields to date, there is much common ground and scope for convergence work between stakeholders in the three fields.

  16. NHS constitution values for values-based recruitment: a virtue ethics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuizen, Johanna Elise; Callwood, Alison; Gallagher, Ann

    2018-05-17

    Values-based recruitment is used in England to select healthcare staff, trainees and students on the basis that their values align with those stated in the Constitution of the UK National Health Service (NHS). However, it is unclear whether the extensive body of existing literature within the field of moral philosophy was taken into account when developing these values. Although most values have a long historical tradition, a tendency to assume that they have just been invented, and to approach them uncritically, exists within the healthcare sector. Reflection is necessary. We are of the opinion that selected virtue ethics writings, which are underpinned by historical literature as well as practical analysis of the healthcare professions, provide a helpful framework for evaluation of the NHS Constitution values, to determine whether gaps exist and improvements can be made. Based on this evaluation, we argue that the definitions of certain NHS Constitution values are ambiguous. In addition to this, we argue that 'integrity' and 'practical wisdom', two important concepts in the virtue ethics literature, are not sufficiently represented within the NHS Constitution values. We believe that the NHS Constitution values could be strengthened by providing clearer definitions, and by integrating 'integrity' and 'practical wisdom'. This will benefit values-based recruitment strategies. Should healthcare policy-makers in other countries wish to develop a similar values-based recruitment framework, we advise that they proceed reflectively, and take previously published virtue ethics literature into consideration. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Bridging the education-action gap: a near-peer case-based undergraduate ethics teaching programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wing May; Knight, Selena

    2017-10-01

    Undergraduate ethics teaching has made significant progress in the past decade, with evidence showing that students and trainee doctors feel more confident in identifying and analysing ethical issues. There is general consensus that ethics education should enable students and doctors to take ethically appropriate actions, and nurture moral integrity. However, the literature reports that doctors continue to find it difficult to take action when faced with perceived unethical behaviour. This has been evident in recent healthcare scandals, in which care has fallen below acceptable ethical standards, despite the presence of professional ethical guidelines and competencies. The National Foundation Training Programme forms the first 2 years of training for new UK doctors. We designed a Foundation Doctor (FD)-led teaching programme in which medical students were invited to bring cases and experiences from clinical placements for small group discussion facilitated by FDs. The aim was to enable students to act ethically in practice through developing moral sensitivity and moral identity, together with skills in ethical reasoning and tools to address barriers to taking ethical action. FDs were chosen as facilitators, based on the evidence that near-peer is an effective form of teaching in medicine and may provide positive role models for students. This article reviews the background rationale for the programme and its design. Important themes emerging from the case discussions are explored. Student and FD facilitator feedbacks are evaluated, and practical challenges to the implementation of this type of programme are discussed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. The ethics of killing human/great-ape chimeras for their organs: a reply to Shaw et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-González, César

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to critically examine David Shaw, Wybo Dondorp, and Guido de Wert's arguments in favour of the procurement of human organs from human/nonhuman-primate chimeras, specifically from great-ape/human chimeras. My main claim is that their arguments fail and are in need of substantial revision. To prove this I first introduce the topic, and then reconstruct Shaw et al.'s position and arguments. Next, I show that Shaw et al.: (1) failed to properly apply the subsidiarity and proportionality principles; (2) neglected species overlapping cases in their ethical assessment; (3) ignored the ethics literature on borderline persons; and (4) misunderstood McMahan's two-tiered moral theory. These mistakes render an important part of their conclusions either false or problematic to the point that they would no longer endorse them. Finally I will briefly mention a possible multipolar solution to the human organ shortage problem that would reduce the need for chimeras' organs.

  19. Abortion ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  20. Drug use and abuse: the ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, B

    1992-01-01

    Drug abuse is both a personal and a public issue, raising questions about individual rights and the boundaries of law, as well as about national sovereignty and international control. Ethical issues that arise under these headings may be related to certain broad ethical positions. The implications of adopting utilitarian assumptions may be contrasted with basing ethics on a theory of individual rights, closely related to a theory of human nature. Neither position justifies a libertarian presumption against control, for, first, an individual decision to expose one's mind and personality to the control of drugs cannot be ethically justified and, second, there are no ethical reasons, nor any compelling arguments from social and political theory, for decriminalizing non-medical drug use.

  1. Ethics issues in social media-based HIV prevention in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chingche J; Menacho, Luis; Fisher, Celia; Young, Sean D

    2015-07-01

    Questions have been raised regarding participants' safety and comfort when participating in e-health education programs. Although researchers have begun to explore this issue in the United States, little research has been conducted in low- and middle-income countries, where Internet and social media use is rapidly growing. This article reports on a quantitative study with Peruvian men who have sex with men who had previously participated in the Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) program, a Facebook-based HIV education program. The survey assessed participants' ethics-relevant perspectives during recruitment, consent, intervention, and follow-up.

  2. [What kind of ethical education for pharmacists is necessary? Can "the core curriculum model for pharmacology education" provide the needed guidance?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Jun

    2009-07-01

    Section A of "The core curriculum model for pharmacy education" (2002)- "Learning about Humanism"- outlines the educational contents for ethics in pharmaceutical departments. People who read this section are likely to conclude that the cultivation of human sensitivity is of prime importance in ethics education in pharmacy. However, if a pharmacist found herself or himself on the horns of a moral dilemma during clinical practice, she/he may discover that human sensitivity alone may not provide the answer. When searching for ethically appropriate conduct in concrete cases, both moral insight and good judgment are necessary. The main contents of ethics education in a pharmaceutical department should be instruction in the ethics of medicine and pharmacy and practical exercises in handling moral dilemmas that pharmacists might encounter in actual situations. "Humanism" implies not only humanitarianism but also anthropocentricism. Plants, animals, and ecological systems are considered to be objects of ethical concern in some contemporary ethics, such as L. Siep's "Concrete Ethics (Konkrete Ethik, 2004)". The pharmacist's job specifications require her or him to treat laboratory animals ethically and to have environmental consciousness. Humanism-based ethics are too narrow for pharmacy ethics. Pharmacy students should learn a more comprehensive ethics that covers social ethics, bioethics, and environmental ethics. Such ethics and moral training should be given, especially, both before and after long-term practical training in hospitals and pharmacies.

  3. Ethical leadership outcomes in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Maasoumeh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan

    2017-01-01

    Leadership style adopted by nursing managers is a key element in progress and development of nursing and quality of healthcare services received by the patients. In this regard, the role of ethical leadership is of utmost importance. The objective of the study was to elaborate on the ethical leadership and its role in professional progress and growth of nurses in the light of work condition in health providing institutes. The study was carried out as a qualitative study following conventional content analysis method. In total, 14 nursing faculty members and nursing managers at different levels were selected through purposive sampling method. Semi-structured interviews were used for data gathering. The data were analyzed using latent content analysis and constant comparison analysis. Ethical considerations: This study was conducted in accordance with ethical issues in research with human participants and national rules and regulations related to informed consent and confidentiality. The study was approved by the Committee of Ethics in Research at the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran, under the code: sbmu.rec.1393.695 on 15 February 2015. Five subcategories were obtained based on the analysis, which constituted two main categories including "all-inclusive satisfaction" and "productivity." Nursing leaders highlighted the point that their ethical behavior creates "inner satisfaction of the leader," "employees' job satisfaction," and "patients' satisfaction." Improvement of productivity was another outcome of ethical behavior of the leaders. This kind of behavior resulted in "providing better services" and "inspiring ethical behavior in the employees." It has great influence on progress and growth of the nursing profession. By creating an ethical climate, ethical leadership leads to positive and effective outcomes-for the patients as well as for the nurses and the leaders-and professional progress and development of the nursing profession

  4. Human Flourishing from the Foot's Viewpoint Regarding to Aristotle's Ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Mollayousefi Mollayousefi; Sakine Aflatooni Aflatooni

    2011-01-01

    Aristotle's virtue ethics is a teleological ethics, namely, for him, the purpose of achieving moral virtues by human beings is to obtain eudaimonia. The best interpretation of eudaimonia in Aristotle is human flourishing that is the main axis of Aristotle's ethics and also contemporary virtue ethics. Aristotle's analysis of human flourishing that is performed in biological context is based on the concept of ergon or function. Therefore, Aristotle, in description of human flourishing, emphasiz...

  5. Traditional and New Enhancing Human Cybernetic and Nanotechnological Body Modification Technologies: A Comparative Study of Roman Catholic and Transhumanist Ethical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Michael J.

    Advances in cybernetic and nanotechnological body modifications currently allow for enhancements to human physical and mental function which exceed human species-based norms. This thesis examines body modification and human enhancement from two perspectives---Roman Catholicism and Transhumanism--- in order to contribute to bioethical deliberations regarding enhancement technologies. Roman Catholicism has a longstanding tradition of bioethical discourse, informing the healthcare directives of Roman Catholic institutions. Transhumanism is more recent movement that endorses body modifications and human enhancements as a means of individual betterment and social evolution. The thesis first considers definitions of human enhancement and levels of normalcy in connection to cybernetic and nanotechnological bionic implants, and outlines a series of criteria to assess a technology's potential bioethical acceptability: implantability, permanency, power, and public interaction. The thesis then describes Roman Catholicism's response to non-enhancing decorative body modifications (cosmetic surgeries, common decorative modifications such as tattoos and piercings, and uncommon modifications such as scarifications and brandings) in order to establish a basis for possible Roman Catholic responses to enhancing cybernetic and nanotechnological modifications. This is followed by an analysis from a Roman Catholic perspective of the major social issues brought forward by enhancement technologies: commodification, eugenics, vulnerability, and distributive justice. Turning to Transhumanism, the thesis describes the origins and philosophy of the movement, and then discusses the bioethical principles it advances with regard to human enhancement. The thesis concludes by locating points of convergence between Transhumanism and Roman Catholicism that could be the basis of more widely accepted ethical guidelines regarding modification technologies.

  6. Ethics Training in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Guloksuz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.

  7. MEDICAL GENETICS AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Fast development of medical genetics and it’s subdisciplines is noticed in last thirty years. Modern diagnostic methods made possible to establish human genome and its impairment. In human genetics, ethic is main principle in working. Ethic is science about biggest goodness for human or society, and its aim pro­tecting human health.Today's conditions for leaving and science development open a wide way for ethical approaches, but also for non-ethical manipulations with human even before his conception. We must keep to attitude that without law, with our behavior will must conduct our conscience. It is best to have neutral eugenetic attitude, which allows free ethical choice of each individual, in any case, for the well being of man.

  8. Means, ends and the ethics of fear-based public health campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Fairchild, Amy L

    2016-06-01

    Controversy has swirled over the past three decades about the ethics of fear-based public health campaigns. The HIV/AIDS epidemic provided a context in which advocacy groups were almost uniformly hostile to any use of fear, arguing that it was inherently stigmatising and always backfired. Although this argument was often accepted within public health circles, surprisingly, the bioethicists who first grappled with this issue in terms of autonomy and coercion in the 1980s were not single-minded: fear could be autonomy-enhancing. But by the turn of the 21st century, as opponents of fear-based appeals linked them to stigmatisation, ethicists typically rejected fear as inherently unethical. The evidence has increasingly suggested that fear-based campaigns 'work.' Emotionally charged public health messages have, as a consequence, become more commonplace. We conclude that an ethics of public health, which prioritises population well-being, as contrasted with the contemporary focus of bioethics on autonomy, provides a moral warrant for ensuring that populations understand health risk 'in their guts.' This, we argue, does not relieve public health authorities from considering the burdens their efforts may impose on vulnerable populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Ethics in Research on Learning: Dialectics of Praxis and Praxeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SungWon Hwang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative social research designed to develop ways of understanding and explaining lived experience of human beings is a reflexive human endeavor. It is reflexive in that as researchers attempt to better understand their participants, they also come to better understand themselves. Consequently, research ethics itself becomes an ethical project, for it pertains to participant and researcher at the same time: Both are subjects, knower and known. Particularly in case of research on learning, reflexivity arises from the fact that the research itself constitutes learning about learning. How is ethics in research on learning reflexive of, in its praxis and praxeology, ongoing events and changes of the human learning? In this study, from our experience of conducting a project designed to inquire into "learning in unfamiliar environments," we develop pertinent ethical issues through a dialectical process—not unlike that used by G.W.F. HEGEL in Phenomenology of Spirit—grounded in our lived experience and developed in three theoretical claims concerning a praxeology of ethics. First, ethics is an ongoing historical event; second, ethics is based on the communicative praxis of material bodies; and third, ethics involves the creation of new communicative configurations. We conclude that ethics is grounded in a fundamental answerability of human beings for their actions, which requires communicative action that itself is a dialectical process in opening up possibilities for acting in an answerable manner. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0501198

  10. Resolving legal, ethical, and human rights challenges in HIV vaccine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, D

    2000-01-01

    In the absence of a cure for AIDS, attention has turned to the possibility of developing a preventive vaccine for HIV infection. Yet many scientific, ethical, legal, and economic obstacles remain. At the current rate, the development and production of an effective vaccine could take 15 to 20 years or longer. If tens of millions more HIV infections and deaths are to be avoided in the coming decades, vaccine research needs to be greatly expedited. Furthermore, it must be undertaken ethically, and the products of this research must benefit people in developing countries. This article, an edited and updated version of a paper presented at "Putting Third First," addresses challenges arising in HIV preventive vaccine research in developing countries. It does not address clinical research in developing countries relating to treatments or therapeutic vaccines. Nor does it address legal and ethical issues relating to HIV vaccine research in industrialized countries, although similar issues arise in both contexts. The article concludes that while ethical codes are silent on the obligation to undertake research and development, international law provides strong legal obligations--particularly with regard to industrialized states--that should be invoked to accelerate HIV vaccine development, and distribution.

  11. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…

  12. Ethical and human rights dimensions in prenatal HIV/AIDS testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the conflicts between the rights of society and those of mothers-to-be and the unborn, which raise difficult ethical and legal questions ... even though their consideration is essential if the country is to align its practices with existing national laws, as well as international conventions to which it is a ...

  13. Managerji HRM in njihove etične dileme = Human Resource Managers and Their Ethical Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Primožič

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Douglas Renwick (2003 said that the personnel function plays therole of guardian of employees’ wellbeing, but on the other hand, hesaid that personnel managers also tamper with the wellbeing of employees.Looking at Renwick’s theory through Ulrich’s model of personnelmanagers as guardians of employees’ wellbeing, they play therole of strategic partners, managers of the changes and the role of theemployees representatives. Gantz and Hayes (in Payne and Wayland,1999 explicated a few fields where we can talk of ethical conflict whileperforming these roles: discrimination, psychological tests, anti-unionbehaviour, design of work flow, job insecurity, discipline, confidentiality,privacy, and firing because of technological redundancy. In this paperwe explore the field of potential and real ethical conflicts of humanresource managers.What are the most important values of humanresources managers? In which areas do ethical conflicts occur?And how do they solve these conflicts on an everyday basis? We usedquestionnaires to gather data on these issues. We found out that managerswho are in leading positions suffer the most, next are those whohave had long tenure. In this situation ethical codes don’t help much.

  14. The ecological imperative and its application to ethical issues in human genetic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Malcolm Byrnes

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As a species, we are on the cusp of being able to alter that which makes us uniquely human, our genome. Two new genetic technologies, embryo selection and germline engineering, are either in use today or may be developed in the future. Embryo selection acts to alter the human gene pool, reducing genetic diversity, while germline engineering will have the ability to alter directly the genomes of engineered individuals. Our genome has come to be what it is through an evolutionary process extending over millions of years, a process that has involved exceedingly complex and unpredictable interactions between ourselves or our ancestors and myriad other life forms within Earth's biosphere. In this paper, the ecological imperativ e, which states that we must not alter the human genome or the collective human genetic inheritance, will be introduced. It will be argued based on ecological principles that embryo selection and germline engineering are unethical and unwise because they will diminish our survivability as a species, will disrupt our relationship with the natural world, and will destroy the very basis of that which makes us human.

  15. Paradigms of communication ethics by Juozas Keliuotis

    OpenAIRE

    Gudauskas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    The actual principles of social communication and media ethics have a power to support public communication among people. The existing patterns of human behaviour can determine real and concrete conduct both in public space and limited groups. Ethics usually appears in accordance with certain specified ideological or moral views. In Lithuania, Keliuotis (1902–1983) was the first to propose a value system for the sphere of mass media. This system is based on pursuing ideals, which lead to unit...

  16. Sexual exploitation and trafficking of the young and vulnerable: reflections on a legal, ethical, and human rights disgrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Abigail

    2011-08-01

    Sexual exploitation and trafficking of the young and vulnerable has devastating consequences for their physical and emotional development, health, and well-being. The horrific treatment they suffer bears the hallmarks of evil made manifest. Governments have enacted laws pursuant to international treaties, conventions, and protocols. Nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are working to prevent young people from being exploited and trafficked, to identify victims, and to provide services to survivors. Progress in addressing the problem is haltingly slow in relation to its magnitude. The prevalence and persistence of this phenomenon is an ethical, legal, and human rights disgrace.

  17. Access and use of human tissues from the developing world: ethical challenges and a way forward using a tissue trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Scientists engaged in global health research are increasingly faced with barriers to access and use of human tissues from the developing world communities where much of their research is targeted. In part, the problem can be traced to distrust of researchers from affluent countries, given the history of 'scientific-imperialism' and 'biocolonialism' reflected in past well publicized cases of exploitation of research participants from low to middle income countries. Discussion To a considerable extent, the failure to adequately engage host communities, the opacity of informed consent, and the lack of fair benefit-sharing have played a significant role in eroding trust. These ethical considerations are central to biomedical research in low to middle income countries and failure to attend to them can inadvertently contribute to exploitation and erode trust. A 'tissue trust' may be a plausible means for enabling access to human tissues for research in a manner that is responsive to the ethical challenges considered. Summary Preventing exploitation and restoring trust while simultaneously promoting global health research calls for innovative approaches to human tissues research. A tissue trust can reduce the risk of exploitation and promote host capacity as a key benefit. PMID:21266076

  18. Do people with intellectual disability require special human subjects research protections? The interplay of history, ethics, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, Chris; Brosco, Jeffrey P

    2011-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) have a long history of discrimination and stigmatization, and a more recent history of pride and self-advocacy. The early history suggests that people with ID are a vulnerable population and deserve special research protections as do some other groups; the disability rights movement of the late 20th century aligns people with ID more closely with the principle of autonomy that has guided clinical and research ethics for the last 40 years. In examining the history of people with ID and the prevailing framework of human subjects research protections in the United States, we conclude that people with ID do not require special protection in human subjects research. The protections that have already been put in place for all individuals, if conscientiously and effectively implemented, achieve the right balance between safeguarding the interest of human research subjects and empowering individuals who choose to do so to participate in research. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Nursing ethical values and definitions: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Eesa; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Bahrami, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Ethical values offer a framework for behavior assessment, and nursing values influence nurses' goals, strategies, and actions. A literature review was adopted in order to determine and define ethical values for nurses. This literature review was conducted based on the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines. The key words used to search relevant sources were nursing, ethics, ethical values, and nursing values. The search of articles in English was carried out in Medline, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, and Proquest databases. The search of articles in Persian was conducted in databases of Magiran, SID, and Irandoc publications. After assessing and analyzing the obtained data, 17 articles which had a distinct definition of ethical values were chosen and subjected to a thorough study. The search yielded 10 nursing ethical values: Human dignity, privacy, justice, autonomy in decision making, precision and accuracy in caring, commitment, human relationship, sympathy, honesty, and individual and professional competency. This study showed that common ethical values are generally shared within the global community. However, in several areas, influences of social, cultural, and economical status and religious beliefs on values result in a different definition of these values. This study revealed that based on humanistic nature of nursing, common values in nursing protect human dignity and respect to the patients. Recognizing and definition of ethical values can help to improve nursing practice and develop codes of ethics.

  20. Human Rights in Natural Science and Technology Professions’ Codes of Ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Hans Morten

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: No global professional codes for the natural science and technology professions exist. In light of how the application of new technology can affect individuals and communities, this discrepancy warrants greater scrutiny. This article analyzes the most relevant processes and seeks to explain why these processes have not resulted in global codes. Moreover, based on a human rights approach, the article gives recommendations on the future process and content of codes for ...

  1. Research Ethics I: Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR)--Historical and Contemporary Issues Pertaining to Human and Animal Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In "Research Ethics I", they present a historical overview of the evolution of…

  2. Constructing an Ethical Training for Advanced Nursing Practice: An Interactionist and Competency-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariseau-Legault, Pierre; Lallier, Melisa

    2016-07-01

    Advanced practice nurses are working in a highly interdisciplinary and political context. Such situations can influence the deliberative and ethical decision-making processes in which they are also involved. This can subsequently compromise their abilities to protect their moral integrity, to find innovative and nondualistic solutions to complex ethical problems, and to collaborate with other health professionals. The authors constructed a training program inspired by discourse and narrative ethics. The objective pursued was to develop advanced practice nurses' moral integrity, highlight the ethical component of their clinical judgement, and foster the development of their deliberative competencies. The pedagogical process proposed exposes how an ethical curriculum adapted to the context in which advanced practice nurses evolve can address power relationships inherent in ethical decision making. The authors suggest that this pedagogical approach has the potential to optimize the consolidation of ethical, reflective, and deliberative competencies among advanced practice nurses. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(7):399-402.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Biological bases of human musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-Capano, Carla; Volpicelli, Floriana; di Porzio, Umberto

    2017-04-01

    Music is a universal language, present in all human societies. It pervades the lives of most human beings and can recall memories and feelings of the past, can exert positive effects on our mood, can be strongly evocative and ignite intense emotions, and can establish or strengthen social bonds. In this review, we summarize the research and recent progress on the origins and neural substrates of human musicality as well as the changes in brain plasticity elicited by listening or performing music. Indeed, music improves performance in a number of cognitive tasks and may have beneficial effects on diseased brains. The emerging picture begins to unravel how and why particular brain circuits are affected by music. Numerous studies show that music affects emotions and mood, as it is strongly associated with the brain's reward system. We can therefore assume that an in-depth study of the relationship between music and the brain may help to shed light on how the mind works and how the emotions arise and may improve the methods of music-based rehabilitation for people with neurological disorders. However, many facets of the mind-music connection still remain to be explored and enlightened.

  4. Consensus Among International Ethical Guidelines for the Provision of Videoconferencing-Based Mental Health Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Claire E; McGill, Brittany C; Wilson, Helen L; Patterson, Pandora

    2016-01-01

    Background Online technologies may reduce barriers to evidence-based mental health care, yet they also create numerous ethical challenges. Recently, numerous professional organizations and expert groups have produced best-practice guidelines to assist mental health professionals in delivering online interventions in an ethically and clinically sound manner. However, there has been little critical examination of these international best-practice guidelines regarding appropriate electronic mental health (e-mental health) service delivery via technologies such as videoconferencing (including Skype), particularly for specific, vulnerable populations. Further, the extent to which concordance exists between these guidelines remains unclear. Synthesizing this literature to provide clear guidance to both mental health professionals and researchers is critical to ensure continued progress in the field of e-mental health. Objective This study aims to review all currently available ethical and best-practice guidelines relating to videoconferencing-delivered mental health treatments in order to ascertain the recommendations for which international consensus could be found. Additionally, this review examines the extent to which each set of guidance addresses several key special populations, including children and young people, and populations living with illness. Methods This systematic review examined guidelines using a two-armed search strategy, examining (1) professional organizations’ published guidance; and (2) MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE for the past ten years. In order to determine consensus for best-practice, a recommendation was considered "firm" if 50% or more of the reviewed guidelines endorsed it and "tentative" if recommended by fewer guidelines than these. The professional guidelines were also scored by two raters using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE-II) criteria. Results In the study, 19 guidelines were included, yielding 11

  5. Human Resource Ethics in Malaysia: A Study of Malaysian Employees’ Perception of Business Ethics and Its Relatedness to the Local Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kuan, Kenneth Hwai Kien

    2005-01-01

    This research presents an exploratory view of the Malaysian working professional’s attitude towards business ethics. The study was done in view of the dearth of empirical study on this topic in Malaysia. The subject of business ethics is gaining popularity, due mainly to two factors. The first is the higher level of education attained by Malaysians as a result of development. Secondly, the effect of globalisation in which the Western world, primarily led by the United States has imposed their...

  6. Petroleum and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, N.; Train, E.; Chagnoux, H.; Heinzle, P.; Daubresse, M.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Fradin, J.

    2000-01-01

    7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)

  7. Pulmonary Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes: Ethical Implications and Human Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2006-01-01

    Presentation viewgraphs review the health considerations of working with and manufacturing Carbon Nanotubes. The inherent toxicity of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) are reviewed, and how the preparation of the SWNTs are reviewed. The experimental protocol that was used is reviewed, and the results in lungs of rodents are shown. The presentation ends with posing the ethical questions in reference to the manufacture and use of carbon nanotubes.

  8. The Influence of Organizational Commitment and Islamic Work Ethic Toward Job Performance of Teaching Staff at Universities in Surakarta with Institutional Base as a Moderator Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyudi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study are: (1) examine the impact of organizational commitment to job performance of faculty member in Surakarta; (2) examine the impact of Islamic work ethic to job performance; and (3) examine the mediating role of institutional-base on the impact of Islamic work ethic to job performance. The results show that organizational commitment and Islamic work ethic had significance effect to job performance, but institutional-based had no moderating role in the effect of Islam...

  9. Setting up an ethics of ecosystem research structure based on the precautionary principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Ethical practices in ecological field research differ from those in laboratory research in more than the technical setting and the important distinction between population-level and individual-based concerns. The number of stakeholders affected by the conduct of field research is far larger; private landholders, public water utilities, public land managers, local industries, and communities large and small are only some of those who may be impacted. As research review boards move to establish specific ethical practices for field biologists, the process of identifying appropriate standards will affect the degree to which research will ultimately be disrupted. Standards that lead to research protocols that alienate key interests are not likely to be sustainable. Already, standards that have conflicted with the primary values of a key interest have resulted in disruptions to research and scientific progress. One way to manage this problem of deeply competing interests is to avoid the deepest offenses to any relevant interest group in the design of a proposed study. This is an application of the precautionary principle and is likely to generate a more sustainable balance among competing interests. Unfortunately, this process is also likely to be a never-ending, consensus-seeking process. Fortunately, scientists can have enormous influence on the process if they choose to engage in it early. If scientists use their expertise to function as honest brokers among affected interests, their own interest in scientific research progress is likely to be better met.

  10. Landscape design strategies for post-disaster reconstructions based on traditional ethical wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shouli; Hu, Di; Gao, Suping; Lei, Ting; Chen, Qibin

    2018-03-01

    In the face of the black swan events which frequently happened globally, I take the earthquake of Ya'an, happened at 4.20 in Sichuan, as an example of my subject. The results indicate that the social responsibility of landscape architects is a post-disaster reconstruction of a material and spiritual homeland for victims and mental care for individuals, which specifically reflected in the process of rebuilding victims' sense of security. The reconstruction of a sense of security must follow certain ethics and moralities which embody the ecological wisdom. We take a typical case of Ya'an Lushan Snow Mountain Village-the earthquake distress area, we found the incidence of disease was up to 68.6% through the PTSD analysis, indicating the overall absence of a sense of security. To solve the problem and reconstruct people's mental and material homeland, the article discussed the strategies and solutions to post-disaster landscape design based on traditional ethical wisdom.

  11. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

  12. Business Ethics in CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Birkvad Bernth, Camilla; Houmøller Mortensen, Kasper; Calles, Mark Benjamin; Wind, Martin; Saalfeldt, Rie

    2013-01-01

    This project seeks to dissect the advent of CSR in business practice from the view of ethics. We perform this by laying out the theories of CSR, business ethics, deontology and utilitarianism. We then use the case studies of Lundbeck, The Body Shop, and British American Tobacco, to dissect some productions of CSR. These are compared to the above mentioned theories on ethics. We conclude that business ethics and CSR are only as good as the ethical base upon which they are built. This projec...

  13. [Self-reflection, interpersonal behavior and psychoanalytic ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgy, M

    1997-05-01

    In the middle ages, ethical practice included a metaphysical theory of value. In comparison with that, self-reflection and interpersonality should be described as principles of more individual ethics and proceeding from philosophy to psychoanalysis in modern times. Drawing a borderline between human philosophy and metaphysies, Kant defined his so-called categorial imperative as a basic phenomenon of human reciprocity. Ethical relationship to another person, however, requires realization of one's own self, i.e. self-reflection. Hegel's subsequent association of intersubjectivity and selfreflection supplied the basis for Sarte's constitution of consciousness: Existence as existing for the good of the fellow-being. Self-reflection, basing on the sight of one's own self by the other person, leads to Sartre's concept of existential psychoanalysis and to his understanding of ethics. His concept illustrates the decline of significance of philosophy for the analysis of human relationship. Habermas describes self-reflection and interpersonality as fundamental principles of the psychoanalytic therapy and its ethical demands. With the historical concept of the super-ego, Freud established therapeutical one-sidedness and abstinence from ethics; however, as therapeutical interrelationship continued to intensity, ethics of depth psychology also began to develop. This ethical demand was not expressly formulated within the context of psychoanalysis, with the exception of jung and his epigones. Nevertheless, psychoanalytic interaction implies the development of self-reflection, which definitely represents a step forward in the sense of "ethical enlightenment" represented by Kant.

  14. THE CONCEPT OF ETHICAL BEHAVIOR OF PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT BASED ON ISLAMIC SPIRITUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursanty I.A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at constructing the concept of ethical behavior of public accountant based on Islamic spirituality. This research adapts spiritualist paradigm and spiritualist research design to create behavioral concept based on Islamic spirituality. Through zikr (Islam: repeated confession of faith, prayer, and contemplation method, researchers obtained balance in terms of mind, justice, honesty, and love as the instruments to analyze data. This research shows that the balance of mind, justice, honesty, and love reflected in public accountant personality will lead the accountants to personality with humanist values, as the leader on Earth with trustworthy, spreading love to others, beyond the consciousness to be devoted and faithful to Allah God Almighty.

  15. Confessional Ethical Base of Muslim Entrepreneurship in Russian Empire in Late 19th - Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гадиля Гизатуллаевна Корноухова

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the confessional and ethical base of the Muslim entrepreneurship in the Russian Empire in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. The author analyzes the differentiation of the value-institutional system of the broad public on the one hand, and that of entrepreneurs - on the other hand. Whereas the former adhered to the national and ethical values of the traditional culture, the latter - to religious and moral values based on Islam and developed by the Russian Empire reformers of that period.

  16. [Humans or material? Three levels of the discourse about the stem cell research from theological-ethical view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    In the debate on the ethical evaluation of the stem cell research three levels can be differentiated. The first level of argumentation is that of weighing up goods: The possible therapeutical success for thousands of humans seems to justify the consumption of a few embryos. It is show, that this, however, already presupposes - on a second argumentation level - a judgement on the moral status of the embryo. Different moments of time, when human dignity and life protection are ascribe to the embryo, have already been discussed, but in spite of all rationality of the arguments a consensus has not been reached. On this third level of argumentation two fundamental meanings of reality can be differentiated. The empirical-observing and the communicative-participating view. These lead to a different moral evaluation of the embryo. This contribution votes for the priority of the communicative-participating view. It receives addition support by theology and Christian faith.

  17. The dispositions of things: the non-human dimension of power and ethics in patient-centred medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John; Cribb, Alan

    2016-09-01

    This article explores power relations between clinicians, patients and families as clinicians engage in patient-centred ethical work. Specifically, we draw on actor-network theory to interrogate the role of non-human elements in distributing power relations in clinical settings, as clinicians attempt to manage the expectations of patients and families. Using the activities of a multidisciplinary team providing deep brain stimulation to children with severe movement disorders as an example, we illustrate how a patient-centred tool is implicated in establishing relations that constitute four modes of power: 'power over', 'power to', "power storage" and "power/discretion". We argue that understanding the role of non-human elements in structuring power relations can guide and inform bioethical discussions on the suitability of patient-centred approaches in clinical settings. © 2016 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  18. Reproductive cloning in humans and therapeutic cloning in primates: is the ethical debate catching up with the recent scientific advances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, S; Bortolotti, L

    2008-09-01

    After years of failure, in November 2007 primate embryonic stem cells were derived by somatic cellular nuclear transfer, also known as therapeutic cloning. The first embryo transfer for human reproductive cloning purposes was also attempted in 2006, albeit with negative results. These two events force us to think carefully about the possibility of human cloning which is now much closer to becoming a reality. In this paper we tackle this issue from two sides, first summarising what scientists have achieved so far, then discussing some of the ethical arguments in favour and against human cloning which are debated in the context of policy making and public consultation. Therapeutic cloning as a means to improve and save lives has uncontroversial moral value. As to human reproductive cloning, we consider and assess some common objections and failing to see them as conclusive. We do recognise, though, that there will be problems at the level of policy and regulation that might either impair the implementation of human reproductive cloning or make its accessibility restricted in a way that could become difficult to justify on moral grounds. We suggest using the time still available before human reproductive cloning is attempted successfully to create policies and institutions that can offer clear directives on its legitimate applications on the basis of solid arguments, coherent moral principles, and extensive public consultation.

  19. Exploring ethical considerations for the use of biological and physiological markers in population-based surveys in less developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder Adnan A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health information needs of developing countries increasingly include population-based estimates determined by biological and physiological measures. Collection of data on these biomarkers requires careful reassessment of ethical standards and procedures related to issues of safety, informed consent, reporting, and referral policies. This paper reviews the survey practices of health examination surveys that have been conducted in developed nations and discusses their application to similar types of surveys proposed for developing countries. Discussion The paper contends that a unitary set of ethical principles should be followed for surveys around the world that precludes the danger of creating double standards (and implicitly lowers standards for work done in developing countries. Global ethical standards must, however, be interpreted in the context of the unique historical and cultural context of the country in which the work is being done. Factors that influence ethical considerations, such as the relationship between investigators in developed and developing countries are also discussed. Summary The paper provides a set of conclusions reached through this discussion and recommendations for the ethical use of biomarkers in populations-based surveys in developing countries.

  20. Lost in transformation? Reviving ethics of care in hospital cultures of evidence-based healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Haahr, Anita; Dreyer, Pia; Martinsen, Bente

    2017-07-01

    Drawing on previous empirical research, we provide an exemplary narrative to illustrate how patients have experienced hospital care organized according to evidence-based fast-track programmes. The aim of this paper was to analyse and discuss if and how it is possible to include patients' individual perspectives in an evidence-based practice as seen from the point of view of nursing theory. The paper highlights two conflicting courses of development. One is a course of standardization founded on evidence-based recommendations, which specify a set of rules that the patient must follow rigorously. The other is a course of democratization based on patients' involvement in care. Referring to the analysis of the narrative, we argue that, in the current implementation of evidence-based practice, the proposed involvement of patients resembles empty rhetoric. We argue that the principles and values from evidence-based medicine are being lost in the transformation into the current evidence-based hospital culture which potentially leads to a McDonaldization of nursing practice reflected as 'one best way'. We argue for reviving ethics of care perspectives in today's evidence practice as the fundamental values of nursing may potentially bridge conflicts between evidence-based practice and the ideals of patient participation thus preventing a practice of 'McNursing'. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Impact of Ethics on Leadership Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Shazil Turab; Fawad Kashan; Muhammad Asif

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this article, the researchers are trying to figure out how important is ethics in leadership and what ethical factors makes a leader more effective and effective. People still believe that ethics, communication, and skills collectively work together to be an effective and efficient leadership. In this article effectiveness and efficiency of leader is measured based on five factors: ethical communication, ethical quality, ethical collaboration, ethical succession planning, and eth...

  2. Depending on Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Marie Søndergaard

    2007-01-01

    According to the standard reception, Kierkegaard thinks of ethics as a possible stage in human life. In this paper, I do not want to contest this interpretation, but I will argue that it often overlooks how the concept of ethics plays another vital role in Kierkegaard's thinking, namely...... that of establishing a necessary connection between ethics and certain forms of philosophy. To avoid the unfruitful thinking of ‘the speculation', the philosopher must accept that her vantage point is given, not in pure objectivity, but in the fact that she is this particular human being; that is, the ethical...... dimension of her life. In this way, Kierkegaard claims that any philosophy concerning human existence must also include ethical considerations. This is a view also held by Ludwig Wittgenstein, but a comparison of the two philosophers shows that even if Kierkegaard finds such fruitful philosophy possible, he...

  3. Ethics and psychological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    Human subjects and social relations are crucial in research psychologists’ ethical considerations. Lists of ethical criteria - including how to anonymize data, avoid causing harm, handle asymmetries – are pivotal. A situated ethics inspired by new materialism and poststructuralism would, however......, elaborate these focuses to include social orders, discursive power, and more comprehensive material-discursive apparatuses. I will draw on concepts developed by Barad, Foucault and Butler to discuss how ethics can be understood as an intra-acting, emergent element of the research apparatus. Barad’s notion...... the researchers’ moral narcissism in relation to the enactment of social-subjective phenomena in research; on the other hand, it leaves researchers with a broader spectrum of phenomena to include in their ethical considerations. This invites new questions: Which perspectives of human and non-human existence...

  4. The "MelArete" Project: Educating Children to the Ethics of Virtue and of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortari, Luigina; Ubbiali, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The educative project MelArete proposes an interpretation of ethical education: a form of Education to Virtue Ethics in the light of the philosophy of care. Starting from the ontological assumption that care is prime in life and without it the human being cannot flourish in his/her humanity, the project is based on an interpretation of the…

  5. Does a Sentiment-Based Ethics of Caring Improve upon a Principles-Based One? The Problem of Impartial Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James Scott

    2008-01-01

    My task in this paper is to demonstrate, contra Nel Noddings, that Kantian ethics does not have an expectation of treating those closest to one the same as one would a stranger. In fact, Kantian ethics has what I would consider a robust statement of how it is that those around us come to figure prominently in the development of one's ethics. To…

  6. Ethics and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Courtney Page

    . However, social scientists have yet to devote much attention to this ethically contentious and medically complex field. This project aimed to identify and explore social and ethical factors shaping gene therapy practice in clinical settings. It is based on six months of participant observation in a London...... children’s hospital (the UKCH), thirty-two interviews with key actors in the gene therapy field, and scientific and policy document analysis. One of the main interests of this research is with the politics of ethics. The thesis shows that ‘ethical boundary work’ was central to establishing the credibility...... of gene therapy, and the authority of its practitioners. The politics of ethics can also be discerned in practice: the UK research ethics system structures scientific work but cannot account for the various, complex, and on-going ethical dilemmas that patients and practitioners face when undertaking gene...

  7. Clinical ethics and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devettere, R J

    1993-02-01

    Most contemporary accounts of clinical ethics do not explain why clinicians should be ethical. Those few that do attempt an explanation usually claim that clinicians should be ethical because ethical behavior provides an important good for the patient--better care. Both these approaches ignore the customary traditional reason for being ethical, namely, the good of the moral agent. This good was commonly called 'happiness'. The following article shows how the personal happiness of the moral agent provided a major reason for being ethical in the ancient philosophical and biblical traditions and how it continues to play a role in the more modern rights-based, Kantian and utilitarian theories. This history suggests that the personal happiness of the clinician, rightly understood, is a legitimate and important goal of clinical ethics.

  8. Ethical decision making in the conduct of research: role of individual, contextual and organizational factors. Commentary on "Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Philip J

    2012-09-01

    Despite the importance of scientific integrity to the well-being of society, recent findings suggest that training and mentoring in the responsible conduct of research are not very reliable or effective inhibitors of research misbehavior. Understanding how and why individual scientists decide to behave in ways that conform to or violate norms and standards of research is essential to the development of more effective training programs and the creation of more supportive environments. Scholars in business management, psychology, and other disciplines have identified many important factors that affect ethical behavior, including individual, contextual, and organizational factors. Surprisingly little research has been conducted to examine the role of these factors in either the development of ethical decision-making skills, or their applicability to ethical issues commonly encountered in research and other scholarly and professional activities. Interdisciplinary approaches combined with research and discipline relevant paradigms should greatly enhance understanding of the individual contextual and organizational factors involved in ethical and unethical research conduct. Such studies will inform and facilitate the development of more effective ethics education programs in the sciences and engineering professions.

  9. Valuing Our Communities: Ethical Considerations for Economic Evaluation of Community-Based Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Max; Jones, Damon

    2017-12-01

    Restricted public budgets and increasing efforts to link the impact of community interventions to public savings have increased the use of economic evaluation. While this type of evaluation can be important for program planning, it also raises important ethical issues about how we value the time of local stakeholders who support community interventions. In particular, researchers navigate issues of scientific accuracy, institutional inequality, and research utility in their pursuit of even basic cost estimates. We provide an example of how we confronted these issues when estimating the costs of a large-scale community-based intervention. Principles for valuing community members' time and conducting economic evaluations of community programs are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  10. Human genome and philosophy: what ethical challenge will human genome studies bring to the medical practices in the 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzong, Q

    2001-12-01

    A human being or person cannot be reduced to a set of human genes, or human genome. Genetic essentialism is wrong, because as a person the entity should have self-conscious and social interaction capacity which is grown in an interpersonal relationship. Genetic determinism is wrong too, the relationship between a gene and a trait is not a linear model of causation, but rather a non-linear one. Human genome is a complexity system and functions in a complexity system of human body and a complexity of systems of natural/social environment. Genetic determinism also caused the issue of how much responsibility an agent should take for her/his action, and how much degrees of freedom will a human being have. Human genome research caused several conceptual issues. Can we call a gene 'good' or 'bad', 'superior' of 'inferior'? Is a boy who is detected to have the gene of Huntington's chorea or Alzheimer disease a patient? What should the term 'eugenics' mean? What do the terms such as 'gene therapy', 'treatment' and 'enhancement' and 'human cloning' mean etc.? The research of human genome and its application caused and will cause ethical issues. Can human genome research and its application be used for eugenics, or only for the treatment and prevention of diseases? Must the principle of informed consent/choice be insisted in human genome research and its application? How to protecting gene privacy and combating the discrimination on the basis of genes? How to promote the quality between persons, harmony between ethnic groups and peace between countries? How to establish a fair, just, equal and equitable relationship between developing and developed countries in regarding to human genome research and its application?

  11. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  12. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

  13. Clinical governance and research ethics as barriers to UK low-risk population-based health research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Flora

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the Helsinki Declaration was introduced in 1964 as a code of practice for clinical research, it has generally been agreed that research governance is also needed in the field of public health and health promotion research. Recently, a range of factors led to the development of more stringent bureaucratic procedures, governing the conduct of low-risk population-based health research in the United Kingdom. Methods Our paper highlights a case study of the application process to medical research ethics committees in the United Kingdom for a study of the promotion of physical activity by health care providers. The case study presented here is an illustration of the challenges in conducting low-risk population-based health research. Results Our mixed-methods approach involved a questionnaire survey of and semi-structured interviews with health professionals (who were all healthy volunteers. Since our study does not involve the participation of either patients or the general population, one would expect the application to the relevant research ethics committees to be a formality. This proved not to be the case! Conclusion Research ethics committees could be counter-productive, rather than protecting the vulnerable in the research process, they can stifle low-risk population-based health research. Research ethics in health services research is first and foremost the responsibility of the researcher(s, and we need to learn to trust health service researchers again. The burden of current research governance regulation to address the perceived ethical problems is neither appropriate nor adequate. Senior researchers/academics need to educate and train students and junior researchers in the area of research ethics, whilst at the same time reducing pressures on them that lead to unethical research, such as commercial funding, inappropriate government interference and the pressure to publish. We propose that non-invasive low

  14. Ethical challenges and opportunities for nurses in HIV and AIDS community-based participatory research in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Colleen M; Kahwa, Eulalia; Atkinson, Uki; Hepburn-Brown, Cerese; Aiken, Joyette; Dawkins, Pauline; Rae, Tania; Edwards, Nancy; Roelofs, Susan; MacFarlane, Denise

    2013-02-01

    As part of a multinational program of research, we undertook a community-based participatory research project in Jamaica to strengthen nurses' engagement in HIV and AIDS policy. Three leadership hubs were purposefully convened and included small groups of people (6-10) from diverse HIV and AIDS stakeholder groups in Jamaica: frontline nurses and nurse managers in primary and secondary care settings; researchers; health care decision makers; and other community members. People living with HIV or AIDS were among the hub members. Using a relational public health ethics framework, we outline some of the ethical challenges and opportunities experienced by the research team and the leadership hubs. Data included research assistant field notes and hub progress reports. Emerging ethical concerns were associated with relational personhood, social justice, relational autonomy, relational solidarity, and sustainability of the hub activities.

  15. Finding Common Ground: Environmental Ethics, Social Justice, and a Sustainable Path for Nature-Based Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Yun, Jessica; Larson, Lincoln

    2016-08-25

    Decades of research have documented continuous tension between anthropocentric needs and the environment's capacity to accommodate those needs and support basic human welfare. The way in which society perceives, manages, and ultimately utilizes natural resources can be influenced by underlying environmental ethics, or the moral relationship that humans share with the natural world. This discourse often centers on the complex interplay between the tangible and intangible benefits associated with nonhuman nature (e.g., green space), both of which are relevant to public health. When ecosystem degradation is coupled with socio-demographic transitions, additional concerns related to distributional equity and justice can arise. In this commentary, we explore how environmental ethics can inform the connection between the ecosystem services from green space and socially just strategies of health promotion.

  16. Narrative ethics for narrative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Clive

    2015-08-01

    Narrative permeates health care--from patients' stories taken as medical histories to the development of health policy. The narrative approach to health care has involved the move from narratives in health care as objects of study to the lens through which health care is studied and, more recently, to narrative as a form of care. In this paper, I argue that narrative care requires a move in the field of ethics--from a position where narratives are used to inform ethical decision making to one in which narrative is the form and process of ethical decision making. In other words, I argue for a narrative ethics for narrative care. The argument is relatively straightforward. If, as I argue, humans are narrative beings who make sense of themselves, others, and the world in and through narrative, we need to see our actions as both narratively based and narratively contextual and thus understanding the nature, form, and content of the narratives of which we are a part, and the process of narrativity, provides an intersubjective basis for ethical action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. IMPACT OF COMMITMENT TO BUSINESS ETHICS TO NONFINANCIAL BUSINESS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Vig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the relationship between commitment to business ethics and nonfinancial business performance. Data of commitment to business ethics and nonfinancial business performance were collected from 100 participants through a questionnaire survey. The survey was conducted in 2015 in Croatian large and medium sized companies. The questionnaire for assessing commitment to business ethics contained nine different dimensions while the nonfinancial business performance contained three dimensions: client satisfaction, human resource management plus innovativeness and efficiency of business processes. Multiple regression methods were applied in the analysis. The empirical results of three multiple linear regression models show that certain dimension of commitment to business ethics had a positive influence on the nonfinancial performance of the companies. Motivation and rewarding policy for ethical behavior and responding to unethical behavior, as a dimension of commitment to business ethics, has distinctive effects on all three nonfinancial performance dimensions. It was also found that selecting suppliers based on the standards of ethics and compliance has a positive and strong influence on client satisfaction while using ethical criteria in the performance and efficiency evaluation of employees has a positive and significant influence on innovativeness and efficiency of business processes. This research leads to the conclusion that some dimensions of commitment to business ethics can be important predictors of nonfinancial business performance. Therefore, results of the research could be considered as valid motivation for further improvement of commitment to ethics in the business environment.

  18. Preface. Current Issues in Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holy-Luczaj Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary volume consist of papers on various problems in contemporary ethics. It presents the following issues: equalizing the level of positive liberty, the phenomenon of human cooperation, ethical questions related to artificial intelligence, extending ethical obligations toward artifacts, and soteriological threads of alienation criticism of religion.

  19. Everyday Ethics: Reflections on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Gretchen B.; Rallis, Sharon F.

    2010-01-01

    This introductory article frames the contributions for this issue on everyday ethics--moments that demand moral considerations and ethical choices that researchers encounter. We discuss concerns raised within the research community about the tendency to observe merely obligatory ethical procedures as outlined in Human Subjects Review regulations.…

  20. Preface. Current Issues in Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Holy-Luczaj Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    This interdisciplinary volume consist of papers on various problems in contemporary ethics. It presents the following issues: equalizing the level of positive liberty, the phenomenon of human cooperation, ethical questions related to artificial intelligence, extending ethical obligations toward artifacts, and soteriological threads of alienation criticism of religion.