WorldWideScience

Sample records for human ergology research

  1. A ergologia na Argélia The ergology in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fyad Abderrahmane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O depoimento revela aspectos das relações de trabalho, focalizando principalmente nos direitos do trabalho de proteção aos riscos e à saúde. Além disso, apresenta elementos históricos da colaboração entre professores-pesquisadores da Universidade de Oran, na Argélia, e professores-pesquisadores do Departamento de Ergologia da Universidade de Provence, na França, para a implementação de projetos e formação de médicos do trabalho.The testimony reveals aspects of labor relations, focusing primarily on labor rights protection and health risks. Maneover, it presents historical elements of collaboration between teachers and researchers at the Univesity of Oran, Algeria, and research faculty of the Departement of Ergology University of Provence, France for project implementation and training of occupational physicians.

  2. Las dos paradojas de Alain Wisner. Antropotecnología y ergología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Schwartz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two paradoxes seem to appear throughout Alain Wisner’s Anthropotechnology. The first one, from his studies on human labour, leads him to assert that all human beings have equal potentialities, while maintaining at the same time that this universality emerges through history and inheritance which are always specific. The second one leads him to request the cooperation of various areas of human sciences, but without a critical approach, as if they could disregard the consequences of the first paradox.Firstly, it is suggested how it is possible, through the ergological approach, to clear up the first paradox by going deeper into this concept of activity, largely inherited from the wisnerian ergonomy. From an anthropological point of view, it is possible to define live as a universal effort for partly redesigning the frame of local norms which surround human beings and groups.Secondly, the question is : through which crucial scenes the «setting in history» of this universality is developed? Three knots of this « setting in history » are successively considered: body, technical activity and social building of the various spaces where living together proved efficient.In accordance with these points, the basis for a treatment of the second paradox seem yet to be given: if human activity is a permanent crucible for « renormalisations », it constantly reproduces social configurations so that concepts and categories of the human sciences are always partly unprepared in regard to them. Then the question is: how this concept of activity which runs across them all is refracted or taken into account by these sciences? To conclude: if this paper entirely assumes the first paradox, it cannot accept the second one.

  3. A abordagem ergológica e o mundo do trabalho dos comunicadores The perspective of ergology and the communicator's the world of work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Figaro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Com base nos resultados da pesquisa "As mudanças no mundo do trabalho nas empresas de comunicação" da autora, discutem-se, neste artigo, aspectos relativos aos valores e às escolhas inerentes à atividade de trabalho dos comunicadores. Na primeira parte, trata-se da centralidade do trabalho e da comunicação na sociedade contemporânea. Toma-se como referencial teórico o conceito de atividade humana de trabalho, a partir do qual se estabelece a aproximação entre a ontologia do ser social de Marx e a abordagem ergológica. Na segunda parte, discute-se a contradição que se apresenta na prática profissional do comunicador em relação ao direito à informação. Essa contradição, entre prática profissional e direito à informação, foi apontada como um dos resultados da investigação. A pesquisa analisou os dados obtidos por meio de entrevistas com uma amostra de comunicadores, funcionários em duas empresas do ramo da comunicação. A discussão permite evidenciar os valores profissionais e as injunções do sistema de produção nos debates e conflitos que o jornalista enfrenta consigo mesmo ao fazer suas escolhas para realizar o trabalho. Esses embates são enfrentados pelo profissional no contexto do sistema de grandes conglomerados de empresas de comunicação e fusão de mídias. Ao final, faz-se um balanço geral dos resultados.On the basis of the results presented on the research project entitled "Changes of the world of work on the communication companies", this article discusses characteristics of the values and choices inherent to the work activity of professionals of communication. The first part discusses the centrality of the work and of the communication on the contemporaneous society. Here the theoretical reference is the concept of human activity of work, from which an approximation between the ontology of the social being of Marx and the ergological approach is established. On the second part of the article we

  4. Human Research Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  5. National Human Genome Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Director Organization Reports & Publications Español The National Human Genome Research Institute conducts genetic and genomic research, funds ... Landscape Social Media Videos Image Gallery Fact Sheets Human Genome Project Clinical Studies Genomic Careers DNA Day Calendar ...

  6. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  7. [Network Research on Human Papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Paniagua, Ramón; Furuya, María ElenaYuriko

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the research in important health questions at a national and institutional levels, the Human Papillomavirus Research Network of the Health Research Coordination of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social offers this supplement with the purpose of assisting patients that daily look for attention due to the human papillomavirus or to cervical cancer.

  8. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  9. Researching Human Rights in Prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Naylor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines two issues: the author’s recent research on the capacity of prisons to incorporate human rights considerations into their routine management; and the methods employed in this research in prisons in two Australian jurisdictions. The first element examines the impact of formal human rights instruments on prison management and on the lived experiences of prisoners, and the potential for the practical application of human rights obligations in this environment. The second gives closer analysis to the specific use of qualitative methodologies in carrying out this research, and the potential implications of methodology for subsequent acceptance of research findings by governments.

  10. Biological Databases for Human Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zou; Lina Ma; Jun Yu; Zhang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation.

  11. Biological Databases for Human Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dong; Ma, Lina; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation. PMID:25712261

  12. Protecting human subjects in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orticio, Lily P

    2009-01-01

    The quest for advancing scientific knowledge through human experimentations using vulnerable groups is traced back to ancient history, when Herophilus performed vivisections on prisoners. The violation of the rights of human subjects through the 20th century led to the formulation of the Nuremberg Code in 1947 and the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. In the United States, the most infamous was the Tuskegee public health study that resulted in the enactment of the National Research Act that authorized the creation of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects in Biomedical and Behavioral Research in 1974. In spite of existing federal regulations, the system of protecting human subjects is still flawed. Transparency of conflict ofinterest, clarity, and strict adherence to institutional guidelines are critical in safeguarding the rights and safety of human subjects and the integrity of research. Education on ethics and emerging complex ethical issues, global awareness, and governmental cooperation and sanctions are important steps in addressing the inadequacies in protecting the most vulnerable populations in experimentations worldwide. Investigators must always remember that the primary safeguards of protecting human life rest in their hands.

  13. 48 CFR 207.172 - Human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compliance with 32 CFR Part 219, Protection of Human Subjects; and (b) Must have a Human Research Protection... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human research. 207.172... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.172 Human research. Any...

  14. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  15. Human Tissue Research: Who Owns the Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Allen B.

    1987-01-01

    Ownership issues in the results of research generally and of human tissue research specifically are explored. While acknowledging some uncertainty in the law, it is found that human tissue may be lawfully accessed for research and that use of human tissue does not modify the general allocation of interests. (MSE)

  16. Ethical Considerations in Human Movement Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Highlights ethical issues for human subject research, identifying principles that form the construct of a code of research ethics and evaluating against this construct past human experimentation and current research in human movement studies. The efficacy of legislation and self-regulation is examined. Particular attention is given to the context…

  17. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  18. 75 FR 45130 - Guidance for Industry and Researchers on the Radioactive Drug Research Committee: Human Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Researchers on the Radioactive Drug Research Committee: Human Research Without an Investigational New Drug Application; Availability... the availability of a draft guidance for industry and researchers entitled ``The Radioactive...

  19. Human Research Program Integrated Research Plan. Revision A January 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes the portfolio of Human Research Program (HRP) research and technology tasks. The IRP is the HRP strategic and tactical plan for research necessary to meet HRP requirements. The need to produce an IRP is established in HRP-47052, Human Research Program - Program Plan, and is under configuration management control of the Human Research Program Control Board (HRPCB). Crew health and performance is critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) is essential to enabling extended periods of space exploration because it provides knowledge and tools to mitigate risks to human health and performance. Risks include physiological and behavioral effects from radiation and hypogravity environments, as well as unique challenges in medical support, human factors, and behavioral or psychological factors. The Human Research Program (HRP) delivers human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. Without HRP results, NASA will face unknown and unacceptable risks for mission success and post-mission crew health. This Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes HRP s approach and research activities that are intended to address the needs of human space exploration and serve HRP customers and how they are integrated to provide a risk mitigation tool. The scope of the IRP is limited to the activities that can be conducted with the resources available to the HRP; it does not contain activities that would be performed if additional resources were available. The timescale of human space exploration is envisioned to take many decades. The IRP illustrates the program s research plan through the timescale of early lunar missions of extended duration.

  20. Uterus transplantation: animal research and human possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, Mats; Diaz-Garcia, Cesar; Hanafy, Ash; Olausson, Michael; Tzakis, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Uterus transplantation research has been conducted toward its introduction in the human as a treatment of absolute uterine-factor infertility, which is considered to be the last frontier to conquer for infertility research. In this review we describe the patient populations that may benefit from uterus transplantation. The animal research on uterus transplantation conducted during the past two decades is summarized, and we describe our views regarding a future research-based human attempt.

  1. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA as well as industry and academia fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the preliminary Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: physiological and performance capabilities; suit design parameters; EVA human health and performance modeling; EVA tasks and concepts of operations; EVA informatics; human-suit sensors; suit

  2. Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Elisa

    2001-03-01

    Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in

  3. Human Research Program Integrated Research Plan. Revision C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Crew health and performance are critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) is essential to enabling extended periods of space exploration because it provides knowledge and tools to mitigate risks to human health and performance. Risks include physiological effects from radiation and hypogravity environments, as well as unique challenges in medical support, human factors, and behavioral or psychological factors. The Human Research Program (HRP) delivers human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. Without HRP results, NASA will face unknown and unacceptable risks for mission success and post-mission crew health. This Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes (1) HRP's approach and research activities that are intended to address the needs of human space exploration and serve HRP customers and (2) the method of integration for risk mitigation. The scope of the IRP is limited to the activities that can be conducted with the resources available to the HRP; it does not contain activities that would be performed if additional resources were available. The timescale of human space exploration is envisioned to take many decades. The IRP illustrates the program s research plan through the timescale of early lunar missions of extended duration.

  4. Human Research and Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, James

    2008-01-01

    The disavowal of positivist science by many educational researchers has resulted in a deepening polarization of research agendas and an epistemological divide that appears increasingly difficult to span. Despite a turning away from science altogether by some, and thus toward various forms of poststructuralist inquiry, this has not held back the…

  5. Mapping Frontier Research in the Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whereas the classical sciences were organized around academic disciplines, knowledge production today is increasingly interdisciplinary and distributed across a variety of societal sectors. Classical disciplines have not only specialized and multiplied; they are increasingly interacting with extra...... of impact and styles of reasoning, both in classical and interdisciplinary fields of the humanities. From this perspective, a more composite picture of human culture, language and history can emerge from humanities research. It goes beyond the picture of rational agents, and situates human interaction...

  6. Human Subjects Research and the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitskey, Beth W.; Thomsen, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Physics Education Research is a form of social science research in that it uses human subjects. As physicists we need to be aware of the ethical and legal ramifications of performing this research, taking into account the fundamental differences between working with substances and working with people. For several decades, the federal government…

  7. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  8. Updating freeze: Aligning animal and human research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Oitzl, M.S.; Roelofs, K.

    2014-01-01

    Freezing is widely used as the main outcome measure for fear in animal studies. Freezing is also getting attention more frequently in human stress research, as it is considered to play an important role in the development of psychopathology. Human models on defense behavior are largely based on anim

  9. Educational Research: The Importance of the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    It is one sign of the lack of understanding of the value of the humanities, to educational research and inquiry as well as to our world more widely, that such justifications of them as are offered frequently take a crudely instrumental form. The humanities (which in this essay are not distinguished from the arts) are welcomed insofar as they are…

  10. Research on disaster prevention by human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Kang, Sun Duck; Jo, Young Do [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Mining, by its very nature, requires workers and technology to function in an unpredictable environment that can not easily be engineered to accommodate human factors. Miners' physical and cognitive capabilities are sometimes stretched to the point that 'human error' in performance result. Mine safety researchers estimate that 50-85% of all mining injuries are due, in large part, to human error. Further research suggests that the primary causes of these errors in performance lie outside the individual and can be minimized by improvements in equipment design, work environments, work procedures and training. The human factors research is providing the science needed to determine which aspects of the mining environment can be made more worker-friendly and how miners can work more safely in environments that can not be improved. Underground mines have long been recognized as an innately hazardous and physically demanding work environment. Recently, mining is becoming a more complicated process as more sophisticated technologies are introduced. The more complicated or difficult the tasks to be performed, the more critical it is to have a systematic understanding of the humans, the technology, the environments, and how they interact. Human factors is a key component in solving most of today's mine safety and health problems. Human factors research primarily centered around solving problems in the following four areas: 1) How mining methods and equipment affect safety, 2) Evaluating the fit between miner's physical capabilities and the demands of their job, 3) Improving miner's ability to perceive and react to hazards, 4) Understanding how organizational and managerial variables influence safety. Human factor research was begun during the World war II. National Coal Board (British Coal) of Great Britain commenced ergonomics in 1969, and Bureau of Mine of United States started human factor researches in same year. Japan has very short history

  11. Human research ethics committees in technical universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, David; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Pont, Sylvia

    2014-07-01

    Human research ethics has developed in both theory and practice mostly from experiences in medical research. Human participants, however, are used in a much broader range of research than ethics committees oversee, including both basic and applied research at technical universities. Although mandated in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia, non-medical research involving humans need not receive ethics review in much of Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Our survey of the top 50 technical universities in the world shows that, where not specifically mandated by law, most technical universities do not employ ethics committees to review human studies. As the domains of basic and applied sciences expand, ethics committees are increasingly needed to guide and oversee all such research regardless of legal requirements. We offer as examples, from our experience as an ethics committee in a major European technical university, ways in which such a committee provides needed services and can help ensure more ethical studies involving humans outside the standard medical context. We provide some arguments for creating such committees, and in our supplemental article, we provide specific examples of cases and concerns that may confront technical, engineering, and design research, as well as outline the general framework we have used in creating our committee.

  12. Selecting measures for human factors research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantowitz, B H

    1992-08-01

    Selecting measures is a necessary component of human factors research. Proper selection must take into account the representation problem (how is the assignment of numbers to objects or phenomena justified?) and the uniqueness problem (to what degree is this assignment unique?). Other key human factors measurement issues include subject representativeness, variable representativeness, and setting representativeness. It is difficult to create a single measure that captures essential characteristics of complex systems. Several examples illustrate how theory can guide measurement selection in such diverse human factors research as vigilance, turning off warning alarms, information requirements for military command centers, subjective workload, heart-rate signal analysis, and heat stress in nuclear power plants.

  13. Human Experimentation: Impact on Health Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacalis, T. Demetri; Griffis, Kathleen

    1980-01-01

    The problems of the use of humans as subjects of medical research and the protection of their rights are discussed. Issues include the use of informed consent, the evaluation of risks and benefits, and the review of research plans by a committee. (JD)

  14. Research in the Humanities: Ideals and Idols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombrich, E. H.

    1973-01-01

    Research in the humanities should be done in areas of interest, under circumstances conducive to intellectual study and should not be undertaken for the purposes of gathering all information on a subject, for the purpose of seeking the novel, in order to apply the latest research tools, or totally because the subject is being taught and…

  15. Human Research Program: 2010 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    2010 was a year of solid performance for the Human Research Program in spite of major changes in NASA's strategic direction for Human Spaceflight. Last year, the Program completed the final steps in solidifying the management foundation, and in 2010 we achieved exceptional performance from all elements of the research and technology portfolio. We transitioned from creating building blocks to full execution of the management tools for an applied research and technology program. As a team, we continue to deliver the answers and technologies that enable human exploration of space. While the Agency awaits strategic direction for human spaceflight, the Program is well positioned and critically important to helping the Agency achieve its goals.

  16. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Report is will also continue at a frequency determined by HRP management. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of

  17. Collaborative Research in the Digital Humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration within digital humanities is both a pertinent and a pressing topic as the traditional mode of the humanist, working alone in his or her study, is supplemented by explicitly co-operative, interdependent and collaborative research. This is particularly true where computational methods are employed in large-scale digital humanities projects. This book, which celebrates the contributions of Harold Short to this field, presents fourteen essays by leading authors in the digital humanities. It addresses several issues of collaboration, from the multiple perspectives of institutions, pro

  18. Integrating Spaceflight Human System Risk Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Anton, Wilma; Havenhill, Maria; Shelhamer, Mark; Canga, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA is working to increase the likelihood of human health and performance success during exploration missions as well as to maintain the subsequent long-term health of the crew. To manage the risks in achieving these goals, a system modelled after a Continuous Risk Management framework is in place. "Human System Risks" (Risks) have been identified, and approximately 30 are being actively addressed by NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). Research plans for each of HRP's Risks have been developed and are being executed. Inter-disciplinary ties between the research efforts supporting each Risk have been identified; however, efforts to identify and benefit from these connections have been mostly ad hoc. There is growing recognition that solutions developed to address the full set of Risks covering medical, physiological, behavioural, vehicle, and organizational aspects of exploration missions must be integrated across Risks and disciplines. This paper discusses how a framework of factors influencing human health and performance in space is being applied as the backbone for bringing together sometimes disparate information relevant to the individual Risks. The resulting interrelated information enables identification and visualization of connections between Risks and research efforts in a systematic and standardized manner. This paper also discusses the applications of the visualizations and insights into research planning, solicitation, and decision-making processes.

  19. Interior Design Research: A Human Ecosystem Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Denise A.

    1992-01-01

    The interior ecosystems model illustrates effects on the human organism of the interaction of the natural, behavioral, and built environment. Examples of interior lighting and household energy consumption show the model's flexibility for organizing study variables in interior design research. (SK)

  20. Interior Design Research: A Human Ecosystem Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Denise A.

    1992-01-01

    The interior ecosystems model illustrates effects on the human organism of the interaction of the natural, behavioral, and built environment. Examples of interior lighting and household energy consumption show the model's flexibility for organizing study variables in interior design research. (SK)

  1. Integrating spaceflight human system risk research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Anton, Wilma; Havenhill, Maria; Shelhamer, Mark; Canga, Michael

    2017-10-01

    NASA is working to increase the likelihood of exploration mission success and to maintain crew health, both during exploration missions and long term after return to Earth. To manage the risks in achieving these goals, a system modelled after a Continuous Risk Management framework is in place. ;Human System Risks; (Risks) have been identified, and 32 are currently being actively addressed by NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). Research plans for each of HRP's Risks have been developed and are being executed. Inter-disciplinary ties between the research efforts supporting each Risk have been identified; however, efforts to identify and benefit from these connections have been mostly ad hoc. There is growing recognition that solutions developed to address the full set of Risks covering medical, physiological, behavioural, vehicle, and organizational aspects of exploration missions must be integrated across Risks and disciplines. This paper discusses how a framework of factors influencing human health and performance in space is being applied as the backbone for bringing together sometimes disparate information relevant to the individual Risks. The resulting interrelated information enables identification and visualization of connections between Risks and research efforts in a systematic and standardized manner. This paper also discusses the applications of the visualizations and insights into research planning, solicitation, and decision-making processes.

  2. Research on Chinese Visible Human Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangShaoxiang

    2003-01-01

    “Visible Human Project (VHP)” was initiated by US National Library of Medicine in 1989, and in August 1991, the library signed a contract with Health Science Center of the University of Col-orado to formally carry out the project. According-ly, research team at the University of Colorado col-lected a structural data set of human body after obtaining successive sectiona/ images. A digital image data set of a complete human male cadaver was acquired and made available for public use in November 1994, which aroused worldwide enthu-siasm in this field, and remarkable social and eco-nomic benefit has been gained. Thereafter, some countries initiated their visible human project one after another. Korea started 5-year“Visible Kore-an Human (VKH)” project (Mar. 2000--Feb.2005) in 2000, and the first data set derived from apatient with cerebroma was acquired in 2001. Chi-na began its project in 1999. The first data set of Chinese visible human was obtained at The Third Military Medical University in October 2002. Before that, by utilizing data made public by US VHP, Chi-nese scientists in informatics had exerted them-selves on preliminary work to pave the way for fur-ther achievement. Now that VHP research is such a promising scientific field to meet the need of digital era and will be increasingly common in many areas related with structure and function of human body,the deployment of Chinese Visible Human Project(CVHP) is of great strategic significance with re-gard to science and technology.

  3. A gestão coletiva dos serviços de saúde pública: uma perspectiva ergológica The colective management of public health services: an ergological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Botelho França

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir da análise de situações de trabalho, observa-se que a gestão do trabalho não é responsabilidade do indivíduo, mas das entidades coletivas relativamente pertinentes. São elas que possibilitam as renormatizações, construindo negociações de modo que as renormatizações não ocorram em um movimento individualista, mas na sinergia da construção de um patrimônio histórico. São retomadas reflexões realizadas em dois serviços de um hospital público no Brasil e, com uma perspectiva ergológica, discute-se que essas entidades coletivas não são previamente estabelecidas, pois emergem do debate de normas e de valores que acontecem no desenvolver das atividades. No serviço de marcação de exames e no serviço de enfermaria, as normas correspondem simultaneamente a normas relativas aos procedimentos e à organização do trabalho, mas também dizem respeito ao tratamento singular de situações específicas dos pacientes que colocam em debate valores sem escala de medida (do bem comum e valores mensuráveis (mercantis. O processo que se dá tem consequência tanto para o trabalho de gerentes e trabalhadores dos serviços quanto para o do interventor-ergologista, para os quais compreender melhor em conjunto a interrelação entre esses valores e como melhor trabalhar com eles no processo de gestão torna-se uma tarefa primordial.From the analysis of work situations, it is observed that the management of work is not the responsibility of the individual but of relatively pertinent collective entities. They are what enable the renormalizations, building talks so that the renormalizations do not occur in an individualistic movement, but in the synergy of the construction of a historical heritage. Reflexions concerning two services of a public hospital in Brazil are retaken and, with an ergological perspective, it is discussed that these collective entities are not predetermined, as they emerge from the debates of norms and values

  4. A ATIVIDADE DO TRABALHO COMO MEIO PARA MANUTENÇÃO DA SAÚDE DOCENTE: UMA PERSPECTIVA ERGOLÓGICA. WORK ACTIVITY AS A WAY OF MAINTAINING TEACHER’S HEALTH: AN ERGOLOGIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Júnior, Paulo Roberto

    2011-11-01

    for solutions to the phenomena, justifies its implementation. Its general purpose was to find out which strategies were used by these teachers for health maintenance. The reports were analyzed based on the ergologic referential proposed by Yves Schwartz and his team. Based on this perspective it was possible to conclude that "healthy teachers" constantly create and recreate strategies to solve problems in everyday work. In the confrontation between subjectivity and history of labor standards, educators produce renormalizations that explain their success in the struggle for the pursuit and maintenance of health.

  5. 3 CFR - Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of July 30, 2009 Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research..., scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic stem cell research, to the extent...

  6. International Space Station Research Benefits for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Fuglesang, Christer; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The ISS partnership has seen a substantial increase in research accomplished, crew efforts devoted to research, and results of ongoing research and technology development. The ISS laboratory is providing a unique environment for research and international collaboration that benefits humankind. Benefits come from the engineering development, the international partnership, and from the research results. Benefits can be of three different types: scientific discovery, applications to life on Earth, and applications to future exploration. Working across all ISS partners, we identified key themes where the activities on the ISS improve the lives of people on Earth -- not only within the partner nations, but also in other nations of the world. Three major themes of benefits to life on earth emerged from our review: benefits to human health, education, and Earth observation and disaster response. Other themes are growing as use of the ISS continues. Benefits to human health range from advancements in surgical technology, improved telemedicine, and new treatments for disease. Earth observations from the ISS provide a wide range of observations that include: marine vessel tracking, disaster monitoring and climate change. The ISS participates in a number of educational activities aimed to inspire students of all ages to learn about science, technology, engineering and mathematics. To date over 63 countries have directly participated in some aspect of ISS research or education. In summarizing these benefits and accomplishments, ISS partners are also identifying ways to further extend the benefits to people in developing countries for the benefits of humankind.

  7. Human Hallucinogen Research: Guidelines for Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W.; Richards, William A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been a renewal of human research with classical hallucinogens (psychedelics). This paper first briefly discusses the unique history of human hallucinogen research, and then reviews the risks of hallucinogen administration and safeguards for minimizing these risks. Although hallucinogens are relatively safe physiologically and are not considered drugs of dependence, their administration involves unique psychological risks. The most likely risk is overwhelming distress during drug action (“bad trip”), which could lead to potentially dangerous behavior such as leaving the study site. Less common are prolonged psychoses triggered by hallucinogens. Safeguards against these risks include the exclusion of volunteers with personal or family history of psychotic disorders or other severe psychiatric disorders, establishing trust and rapport between session monitors and volunteer before the session, careful volunteer preparation, a safe physical session environment, and interpersonal support from at least two study monitors during the session. Investigators should probe for the relatively rare hallucinogen persisting perception disorder in follow up contact. Persisting adverse reactions are rare when research is conducted along these guidelines. Incautious research may jeopardize participant safety and future research. However, carefully conducted research may inform the treatment of psychiatric disorders, and may lead to advances in basic science. PMID:18593734

  8. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help medical ...

  9. [Ethical principles in human scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1994-07-01

    Hippocrates was the first physician to use the scientific method to find rational and not religious or mythic causes, for the etiology of diseases. Hippocrates and Aristoteles did not dare to dissect the human body. Afterwards however, many scientists such as Herophilus, Erasitastrus, Vesalus and Fallopio, performed experiments in human beings using vivisection. According to that age's ideas, there was no cruelty in performing vivisection in criminals, since useful knowledge for the progress of medicine and relief of diseases was obtained. Only during the nineteenth century and with Claude Bernard (1865), the ethical principles of systematic scientific research in humans were defined. These principles were violated by nazi physicians during Hitler's dictatorship in Germany (1933-1945). As a response to these horrors, the Ethical Codes of Nuremberg (1947) and Geneva (1948), that reestablished all the strength of Hippocratic principles, were dictated. The Nuremberg rules enact that a research subject must give a voluntary consent, that the experiment must by necessary and exempt of death risk, that the research must be qualified and that the experiment must be discontinued if there is a risk for the subject. The Geneva statement is a modernized hippocratic oath that protects patient's life above all. These classical rules, in force at the present time, are the essential guides that must be applied by physicians and researchers.

  10. Usability: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2009-01-01

    The Usability project addresses the need for research in the area of metrics and methodologies used in hardware and software usability testing in order to define quantifiable and verifiable usability requirements. A usability test is a human-in-the-loop evaluation where a participant works through a realistic set of representative tasks using the hardware/software under investigation. The purpose of this research is to define metrics and methodologies for measuring and verifying usability in the aerospace domain in accordance with FY09 focus on errors, consistency, and mobility/maneuverability. Usability metrics must be predictive of success with the interfaces, must be easy to obtain and/or calculate, and must meet the intent of current Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Methodologies must work within the constraints of the aerospace domain, be cost and time efficient, and be able to be applied without extensive specialized training.

  11. Future directions in human-environment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Emilio F; Lopez, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Human-environment research in the 21st century will need to change in major ways. It will need to integrate the natural and the social sciences; it will need to engage stakeholders and citizens in the design of research and in the delivery of science for the benefit of society; it will need to address ethical and democratic goals; and it will need to address a myriad of important theoretical and methodological challenges that continue to impede progress in the advance of sustainability science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. RESEARCH ON HUMAN RESOURCES MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan-Bela FARKAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies on the human resources performance of the educational system have proved that pupils/students’ educational success depends, to a high degree, on the level of human resource motivation, as well as on their degree of professional satisfaction. Teachers’ who show a high level of motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic, invest more into their activity, are more creative and more efficient in problem solving. The paper debates the results of an empirical study regarding the influence of pre-university teachers’ motivation and satisfaction regarding the general work conditions on their work performance by measuring the present motivation and satisfaction level. Furthermore, the determinant factors of their satisfaction with the work place are determined and analyzed. Finally, based on the statistical data process we will conclude and debate on the research hypothesis validation and the empirical model related to motivation – satisfaction – performance interdependences.

  13. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  14. Bioinformatics Approaches for Human Gut Microbiome Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiome has received much attention because many studies have reported that the human gut microbiome is associated with several diseases. The very large datasets that are produced by these kinds of studies means that bioinformatics approaches are crucial for their analysis. Here, we systematically reviewed bioinformatics tools that are commonly used in microbiome research, including a typical pipeline and software for sequence alignment, abundance profiling, enterotype determination, taxonomic diversity, identifying differentially abundant species/genes, gene cataloging, and functional analyses. We also summarized the algorithms and methods used to define metagenomic species and co-abundance gene groups to expand our understanding of unclassified and poorly understood gut microbes that are undocumented in the current genome databases. Additionally, we examined the methods used to identify metagenomic biomarkers based on the gut microbiome, which might help to expand the knowledge and approaches for disease detection and monitoring.

  15. A Framework for Human Microbiome Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    microbiome ) exist throughout the human body, with fundamental roles in human health and disease . The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human...roles in human health and disease . The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human Microbiome Project Consortium has established a population...human health and disease . The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human Microbiome Project Consortium has established a population-scale

  16. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, Ernest V., II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human's ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. This DRP concentrates on three areas associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI which are applicable to NASA robot systems: 1) Video Overlays, 2) Camera Views, and 3) Command Modalities. The first study focused on video overlays that investigated how Augmented Reality (AR) symbology can be added to the human-robot interface to improve teleoperation performance. Three types of AR symbology were explored in this study, command guidance (CG), situation guidance (SG), and both (SCG). CG symbology gives operators explicit instructions on what commands to input, whereas SG symbology gives operators implicit cues so that operators can infer the input commands. The combination of CG and SG provided operators with explicit and implicit cues allowing the operator to choose which symbology to utilize. The objective of the study was to understand how AR symbology affects the human operator's ability to align a robot arm to a target using a flight stick and the ability to allocate attention between the symbology and external views of the world. The study evaluated the effects type of symbology (CG and SG) has on operator tasks performance and attention allocation during teleoperation of a robot arm. The second study expanded on the first study by evaluating the effects of the type of

  17. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; Stone, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  18. Review of human hand microbiome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Wilson, Sarah L; Nurinova, Nilufar I; Zapka, Carrie A; Fierer, Noah; Wilson, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances have increased our understanding of the human microbiome, including the skin microbiome. Despite the importance of the hands as a vector for infection transmission, there have been no comprehensive reviews of recent advances in hand microbiome research or overviews of the factors that influence the composition of the hand microbiome. A comprehensive and systematic database search was conducted for skin microbiome-related articles published from January 1, 2008 to April 1, 2015. Only primary research articles that used culture-independent, whole community analysis methods to study the healthy hand skin microbiome were included. Eighteen articles were identified containing hand microbiome data. Most focused on bacteria, with relatively little reported on fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Bacteria from four phyla were found across all studies of the hand microbiome (most to least relative abundance): Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes. Key factors that impacted the hand microbiome composition included temporal and biogeographical dynamics, as well as intrinsic (age, gender) and extrinsic (product use, cohabitants, pet-ownership) variables. There was more temporal variability in the composition of the hand microbiome than in other body sites, making identification of the "normal" microbiome of the hands challenging. The microbiome of the hands is in constant flux as the hands are a critical vector for transmitting microorganisms between people, pets, inanimate objects and our environments. Future studies need to resolve methodological influences on results, and further investigate factors which alter the hand microbiome including the impact of products applied to hands. Increased understanding of the hand microbiome and the skin microbiome in general, will open the door to product development for disease prevention and treatment, and may lead to other applications, including novel diagnostic and forensic approaches.

  19. Differential network analysis in human cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ryan; Datta, Somnath; Datta, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    A complex disease like cancer is hardly caused by one gene or one protein singly. It is usually caused by the perturbation of the network formed by several genes or proteins. In the last decade several research teams have attempted to construct interaction maps of genes and proteins either experimentally or reverse engineer interaction maps using computational techniques. These networks were usually created under a certain condition such as an environmental condition, a particular disease, or a specific tissue type. Lately, however, there has been greater emphasis on finding the differential structure of the existing network topology under a novel condition or disease status to elucidate the perturbation in a biological system. In this review/tutorial article we briefly mention some of the research done in this area; we mainly illustrate the computational/statistical methods developed by our team in recent years for differential network analysis using publicly available gene expression data collected from a well known cancer study. This data includes a group of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a group with acute myeloid leukemia. In particular, we describe the statistical tests to detect the change in the network topology based on connectivity scores which measure the association or interaction between pairs of genes. The tests under various scores are applied to this data set to perform a differential network analysis on gene expression for human leukemia. We believe that, in the future, differential network analysis will be a standard way to view the changes in gene expression and protein expression data globally and these types of tests could be useful in analyzing the complex differential signatures.

  20. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Resnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  1. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...

  2. Protections for Subjects in Human Research with Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    All pesticide research using human subjects must meet our strict protective standards before we would consider using them in evaluating pesticides. EPA's regulation “Protections for Subjects in Human Research” was promulgated in 2006 and amended in 2013.

  3. Social justice and research using human biological material: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commercial medical research that uses human biological material, such as blood samples or other ... and provide that a person from whose body human biological material is withdrawn for .... part of investigators and institutions. This could be ...

  4. Human subject research for engineers a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    de Winter, Joost C F

    2017-01-01

    This Brief introduces engineers to the main principles in ethics, research design, statistics, and publishing of human subject research. In recent years, engineering has become strongly connected to disciplines such as biology, medicine, and psychology. Often, engineers (and engineering students) are expected to perform human subject research. Typical human subject research topics conducted by engineers include human-computer interaction (e.g., evaluating the usability of software), exoskeletons, virtual reality, teleoperation, modelling of human behaviour and decision making (often within the framework of ‘big data’ research), product evaluation, biometrics, behavioural tracking (e.g., of work and travel patterns, or mobile phone use), transport and planning (e.g., an analysis of flows or safety issues), etc. Thus, it can be said that knowledge on how to do human subject research is indispensable for a substantial portion of engineers. Engineers are generally well trained in calculus and mechanics, but m...

  5. Genetic Modification of Preimplantation Embryos: Toward Adequate Human Research Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo mo...

  6. Computer science security research and human subjects: emerging considerations for research ethics boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Elizabeth; Aycock, John; Dexter, Scott; Dittrich, David; Hvizdak, Erin

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the growing concerns with computer science research, and in particular, computer security research and its relationship with the committees that review human subjects research. It offers cases that review boards are likely to confront, and provides a context for appropriate consideration of such research, as issues of bots, clouds, and worms enter the discourse of human subjects review.

  7. Human Research Program Science Management: Overview of Research and Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of NASA's Human Research Science Management Program is presented. The topics include: 1) Human Research Program Goals; 2) Elements and Projects within HRP; 3) Development and Maintenance of Priorities; 4) Acquisition and Evaluation of Research and Technology Proposals; and 5) Annual Reviews

  8. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  9. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  10. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  11. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  12. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  13. Research on Human-Robot Joint System for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei

    The lunar exploration in China is in progress. In order to reduce human workload and costs, and conduct researches more effectively and efficiently, human-robot joint systems are necessary for lunar exploration. The concept of human-robot joint system for lunar exploration is studied in this paper. The possible collaborative ways between human and robots and the collaborative activities which can be conducted for lunar exploration are discussed. Moreover, the preliminary configuration of a human-robot joint system is presented.

  14. Space Human Factors: Research to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Human Factors has been instrumental in preventing potential on-orbit hazards and increasing overall crew safety. Poor performance & operational learning curves on-orbit are mitigated. Human-centered design is applied to optimize design and minimize potentially hazardous conditions, especially with larger crew sizes and habitat constraints. Lunar and Mars requirements and design developments are enhanced, based on ISS Lessons Learned.

  15. 76 FR 58023 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... Review, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  16. 76 FR 28056 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group, Genome Research Review... Scientific Review, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda,...

  17. 77 FR 28888 - National Human Genome Research Institute Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, ] Rockville,...

  18. Reimagining Human Research Protections for 21st Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietz, Matthew; Bae, Deborah; Bigby, Barbara; Devereaux, Mary; Fowler, James; Waldo, Ann; Weibel, Nadir; Patrick, Kevin; Klemmer, Scott; Melichar, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background Evolving research practices and new forms of research enabled by technological advances require a redesigned research oversight system that respects and protects human research participants. Objective Our objective was to generate creative ideas for redesigning our current human research oversight system. Methods A total of 11 researchers and institutional review board (IRB) professionals participated in a January 2015 design thinking workshop to develop ideas for redesigning the IRB system. Results Ideas in 5 major domains were generated. The areas of focus were (1) improving the consent form and process, (2) empowering researchers to protect their participants, (3) creating a system to learn from mistakes, (4) improving IRB efficiency, and (5) facilitating review of research that leverages technological advances. Conclusions We describe the impetus for and results of a design thinking workshop to reimagine a human research protections system that is responsive to 21st century science. PMID:28007687

  19. NAS Human Factors Safety Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts an integrated program of research on the relationship of factors concerning individuals, work groups, and organizations as employees perform...

  20. Human embryonic stem cell research: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J A

    2001-01-01

    The use of human embryonic stem cells to replace damaged cells and tissues promises future hope for the treatment of many diseases. However, many countries now face complex ethical and legal questions as a result of the research needed to develop these cell-replacement therapies. The challenge that must be met is how to permit research on human embryonic tissue to occur while maintaining respect for human life generally.

  1. Resident Research Fundamentals Course Human Research Curves in the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-27

    Division may pay for your basic journal publishing charges (to include costs for tables and black and white photos). We cannot pay for reprints. If you...SGS R&D: Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP): Defense Medical Research & Development Program (DMROP): NIH; Congressionally Directed...30 days before final clearance Is required to publish/present your materials. If you have any questions or concerns. please contact the S9 CRD

  2. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  3. Field and laboratory methods in human milk research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth M; Aiello, Marco O; Fujita, Masako; Hinde, Katie; Milligan, Lauren; Quinn, E A

    2013-01-01

    Human milk is a complex and variable fluid of increasing interest to human biologists who study nutrition and health. The collection and analysis of human milk poses many practical and ethical challenges to field workers, who must balance both appropriate methodology with the needs of participating mothers and infants and logistical challenges to collection and analysis. In this review, we address various collection methods, volume measurements, and ethical considerations and make recommendations for field researchers. We also review frequently used methods for the analysis of fat, protein, sugars/lactose, and specific biomarkers in human milk. Finally, we address new technologies in human milk research, the MIRIS Human Milk Analyzer and dried milk spots, which will improve the ability of human biologists and anthropologists to study human milk in field settings.

  4. Research Workshop on Expert Judgment, Human Error, and Intelligent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Barry G.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop brought together 20 computer scientists, psychologists, and human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers to exchange results and views on human error and judgment bias. Human error is typically studied when operators undertake actions, but judgment bias is an issue in thinking rather than acting. Both topics are generally ignored by the HCI community, which is interested in designs that eliminate human error and bias tendencies. As a result, almost no one at the workshop had met...

  5. Research on automatic human chromosome image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen; Liu, Jian

    2007-11-01

    Human chromosome karyotyping is one of the essential tasks in cytogenetics, especially in genetic syndrome diagnoses. In this thesis, an automatic procedure is introduced for human chromosome image analysis. According to different status of touching and overlapping chromosomes, several segmentation methods are proposed to achieve the best results. Medial axis is extracted by the middle point algorithm. Chromosome band is enhanced by the algorithm based on multiscale B-spline wavelets, extracted by average gray profile, gradient profile and shape profile, and calculated by the WDD (Weighted Density Distribution) descriptors. The multilayer classifier is used in classification. Experiment results demonstrate that the algorithms perform well.

  6. Stem Cells: A Renaissance in Human Biology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-16

    The understanding of human biology and how it relates to that of other species represents an ancient quest. Limited access to human material, particularly during early development, has restricted researchers to only scratching the surface of this inherently challenging subject. Recent technological innovations, such as single cell "omics" and human stem cell derivation, have now greatly accelerated our ability to gain insights into uniquely human biology. The opportunities afforded to delve molecularly into scarce material and to model human embryogenesis and pathophysiological processes are leading to new insights of human development and are changing our understanding of disease and choice of therapy options.

  7. Human dignity and consent in research biobanking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Research biobanking raises numerous ethical questions.1 This ... ethical and legal reflections on the notion of informed consent in ... Faculty of Theology and Philosophy, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, Australia.

  8. The ethics of cloning and human embryo research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Madeleine

    2002-01-01

    The successful cloning experiments that led to Dolly in 1997 have raised many ethical and policy questions. This paper will focus on cloning research in human embryonic cells. The possible gains of the research will be judged against the moral issues of doing research on a person. This paper concludes that while the embryo has some moral status, its moral status is outweighed by the multitude of benefits that embryonic stem cell research will bring to humanity. Policy suggestions are given for dealing with this new and developing field of stem cell research.

  9. [Research on humans suffering from dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmchen, H

    2015-09-01

    The urgent necessity for dementia research is justified by the prevalence and increase in dementia associated with the demographic changes, for which no causal treatment is available; however, during the progressive course dementia destroys the capacity for self-determination of persons affected and thereby an essential prerequisite for participation in research, i.e. a valid consent to a research intervention. Accordingly, not only sufficient information about all issues which are relevant for decision making by potential participants but also a flawless assessment of the capacity to consent are important; however, currently this is not satisfactorily possible. This article attempts to answer questions associated with these problems, such as how consent can be established, including that of a surrogate for consent of potential research participants by whom consent is no longer possible. In a second section the benefit-risk evaluation, which is also underdeveloped, will be dealt with using two concrete research examples, a diagnostic and a therapeutic research intervention for patients with dementia.

  10. What’s Wrong with Human/Nonhuman Chimera Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Insoo

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is poised to lift its funding moratorium on research involving chimeric human/nonhuman embryos, pending further consideration by an NIH steering committee. The kinds of ethical concerns that seem to underlie this research and chimera research more generally can be adequately addressed. PMID:27574863

  11. Ethical Issues in the Use of Humans for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaw, W. L.

    The APA Ethical Principles, the University of Georgia policy, standard research texts, and research literature on specific methodologies, all in relation to ethical issues in human research, are discussed. The 10 APA principles state, in essence, that the investigator is responsible for what happens, that confidentiality and the protection of the…

  12. Human genome program report. Part 2, 1996 research abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report contains Part 2 of a two-part report to reflect research and progress in the US Department of Energy Human Genome Program from 1994 through 1996, with specified updates made just before publication. Part 2 consists of 1996 research abstracts. Attention is focused on the following: sequencing; mapping; informatics; ethical, legal, and social issues; infrastructure; and small business innovation research.

  13. Human Genome Program Report. Part 2, 1996 Research Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report contains Part 2 of a two-part report to reflect research and progress in the US Department of Energy Human Genome Program from 1994 through 1996, with specified updates made just before publication. Part 2 consists of 1996 research abstracts. Attention is focused on the following: sequencing; mapping; informatics; ethical, legal, and social issues; infrastructure; and small business innovation research.

  14. Research Dissemination in Creative Arts, Humanities and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeley, Pat

    2006-01-01

    An ethnographic case study of issues related to research performance and promotion of research was conducted within the Creative and Performing Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (AHSS) disciplines of a regional university. The purpose of the study was to explore a variety of ways in which the research work of those disciplines could be made…

  15. MARINE ACCIDENTS RESEARCHED THROUGH HUMAN FACTOR PRISMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav M Ćorović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We are aware of a large number of marine accidents that result in numerous casualties and even deaths and substantial negative environmental effects. The objective of this paper is to indicate factors that contribute to human errors which is identified as the most frequent cause to marine accidents. Despite rapid technological development and safety legislation, this paper identifies the human factor as the waekest link in maritime safety system. This analysis could lead to decrease of vessel accidents. In addition, starting from the European Maritime Safety Agency data and by linear regression model application, we have obtained the trend of number of ships involved in marine accidents as well as the trend of lives lost in marine accidents  in and around European Union waters.

  16. Adult human brain cell culture for neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Hannah M; Dragunow, Mike

    2010-06-01

    Studies of the brain have progressed enormously through the use of in vivo and in vitro non-human models. However, it is unlikely such studies alone will unravel the complexities of the human brain and so far no neuroprotective treatment developed in animals has worked in humans. In this review we discuss the use of adult human brain cell culture methods in brain research to unravel the biology of the normal and diseased human brain. The advantages of using adult human brain cells as tools to study human brain function from both historical and future perspectives are discussed. In particular, studies using dissociated cultures of adult human microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons are described and the applications of these types of study are evaluated. Alternative sources of human brain cells such as adult neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and slice cultures of adult human brain tissue are also reviewed. These adult human brain cell culture methods could benefit basic research and more importantly, facilitate the translation of basic neuroscience research to the clinic for the treatment of brain disorders. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Research (AIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-15

    Polonis V, Corts K, Hoc"en-Lewis C, Eddy G. Production of functionally defective HIV-l reverse transcriptase can be initiated by a human peripheral blood... Interamericana , Mexico-Buenos Aires - Madrid. 1989. Ruiz Manuscript 1989 Ruiz NM, Ramirez-Rhonda CH. Tratamiento quirurjico de endocarditis. Chapter in...M.D.; Editorial Interamericana , Mexico-Buenos Aires - Madrid, 1989. Ruiz Manuscript 1989 Rivera G, Ruiz NM. Principios generales en el tratemiento

  18. Research on Normal Human Plantar Pressure Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available FSR400 pressure sensor, nRF905 wireless transceiver and MSP40 SCM are used to design the insole pressure collection system, LabVIEW is used to make HMI of data acquisition, collecting a certain amount of normal human foot pressure data, statistical analysis of pressure distribution relations about five stages of swing phase during walking, using the grid closeness degree to identify plantar pressure distribution pattern recognition, and the algorithm simulation, experimental results demonstrated this method feasible.

  19. 75 FR 10488 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NHGRI MAP Review... Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; LRP 2010 Teleconference. Date: April 7,...

  20. 77 FR 61770 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Genomic Medicine RFAs..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) ] Dated: October 4, 2012. David...

  1. 78 FR 20933 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel Loan Repayment Program... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, Room 3055, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rockville,...

  2. 76 FR 35223 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Sequencing Centers...D, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...

  3. 77 FR 60706 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Special Emphasis... Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of...

  4. 75 FR 52538 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel. Date: November 19-20..., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute,...

  5. 75 FR 8374 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Revolutionary..., National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076,...

  6. 78 FR 68856 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  7. 78 FR 14806 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel: Clinically Relevant... grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 4th Floor Conference Room,...

  8. Ethics, standards, and procedures of animal and human chronobiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International report the findings of investigations conducted on laboratory animals and human beings. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to biological rhythm and related research through the ethical conduct of investigations and unbiased and accurate reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose any potential conflict of interest. The journal accepts only papers that are original work, no part of which has been submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts. The journal and its editors endorse the compliance of investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the investigative methods conform to the standards of good research practice. This article updates the ethical policies, standards, and procedures for manuscripts submitted to Chronobiology International that involve human and animal biological rhythm research, both from the perspective of the criteria of quality chronobiology investigation and from the perspective of humane and ethical research on human beings and animals.

  9. Promoting translational research in human and veterinary medical virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-07-26

    Translational research serves as a bench-to-field "translation" of basic scientific research into practical diagnostic procedures and therapies useful in human and veterinary clinical services. The productivity of translational research involving infectious diseases relevant to both human and animal health (e.g., influenza diagnosis and epidemiology using emerging molecular detection and identification methods) can be maximized when both human and veterinary medical virology disciplines are integrated. Influenza viruses are continually evolving through site-specific mutation and segment reassortment, and these processes occur in all potential carrier species - including birds, humans, and many agriculturally important animals. This evolutionary plasticity occasionally allows "novel" influenzas to move from animal hosts to humans, potentially causing destructive pandemics; therefore, a rapid laboratory technique that can detect and identify "novel" influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A technique-focused translational research approach is pursued to enhance detection and characterization of emerging influenza viruses circulating in both humans and other animal hosts. The PLEX-ID System, which incorporates multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, uses deliberately nonspecific primers that amplify all known variants (all H/N subtypes) of influenza virus, including human, other mammalian, and avian influenzas, and is therefore likely to generate analyzable amplicons from any novel influenza that might emerge in any host. Novel technology development and implementation such as the PLEX-ID System forms a key component of human and veterinary medical virology translational research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Justice in human research ethics. A conceptual and practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Ian; Thomson, Colin J H

    2013-03-01

    One of the core values to be applied by a body reviewing the ethics of human research is justice. The inclusion of justice as a requirement in the ethical review of human research is relatively recent and its utility had been largely unexamined until debates arose about the conduct of international biomedical research in the late 1990s. The subsequent amendment of authoritative documents in ways that appeared to shift the meaning of conceptions of justice generated a great deal of controversy. Another difficulty has been that both the theory and the substance of justice that are applied by researchers or reviewers can be frequently seen to be subjective. Both the concept of justice--hether distributive or commutative--and what counts as a just distribution or exchange--are given different weight and meanings by different people. In this paper, the origins and more recent debates about the requirement to consider justice as a criterion in the ethical review of human research are traced, relevant conceptions of justice are distinguished, and the manner in which they can be applied meaningfully in the ethical review of all human research is identified. We also explain the way that these concepts are articulated in, and the intent and function of, specific paragraphs of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (2007). The National Statement identifies a number of issues that should be considered when a human research ethics committee is reviewing the justice aspects of an application. We provide guidance to researchers as to how they can show that there is a fair distribution of burdens and benefits in the participant experience and the research outcomes. We also provide practical guidance to researches on how to think through issues of justice so that they can demonstrate that the design of their research projects meets this ethical requirement.

  11. Human embryonic stem cell research debates: a confucian argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, D F-C

    2005-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cell research can bring about major biomedical breakthroughs and thus contribute enormously to human welfare, yet it raises serious moral problems because it involves using human embryos for experiment. The "moral status of the human embryo" remains the core of such debates. Three different positions regarding the moral status of the human embryo can be categorised: the "all" position, the "none" position, and the "gradualist" position. The author proposes that the "gradualist" position is more plausible than the other two positions. Confucius's moral principle of jen, which proposes a unique theory of "love of gradation", and the principle of yi, which advocates "due treatment for persons", are then explored. The author then argues that our moral obligations to do good to other living organisms, persons, and our families are different. Putting together the "gradualist" position on the human embryo, and Confucius's theories of "love of gradation" and "due treatment for persons", the author concludes that the early embryo has less ethical significance than the later fetus and adult human. The moral obligation we have toward persons is clearer and stronger than that which we have toward human embryos. Embryo research is justifiable if it brings enormous welfare to human persons that cannot be otherwise achieved. The "love of gradation" requires us, however, to extend love and respect towards other entities according to their different status. We should therefore be very cautious in using human embryos for research, acknowledging the gradualist nature of their moral status.

  12. Human memory research: Current hypotheses and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Jaeger

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on human memory has increased significantly in the last few decades. Inconsistencies and controversies inherent to such research, however, are rarely articulated on published reports. The goal of the present article is to present and discuss a series of open questions related to major topics on human memory research that can be addressed by future research. The topics covered here are visual working memory, recognition memory, emotion and memory interaction, and methodological issues of false memories studies. Overall, the present work reveals a series of open questions and alternative analysis which could be useful for the process of hypothesis generation, and consequently for the design and implementation of future research on human memory.

  13. Scientific Merit Review of Directed Research Tasks Within the NASA Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The Human Research Program is instrumental in developing and delivering research findings, health countermeasures, and human systems technologies for spacecraft. :HRP is subdivided into 6 research entities, or Elements. Each Element is charged with providing the Program with knowledge and capabilities to conduct research to address the human health and performance risks as well as advance the readiness levels of technology and countermeasures. Project: An Element may be further subdivided into Projects, which are defined as an integrated set of tasks undertaken to deliver a product or set of products

  14. Research of Human Postural Balance Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Griškevičius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In present article postural balance between subjects with stroke and healthy subjects, is being investigated with eyes opened and eyes closed. In the research participated 30 healthy subjects and 15 subjects with stroke. At the same time two experimental measurements were performed – postural balance was measured using balance platform and oscillations of the centre of mass were observed using two-axial accelerometer. It was noted, that amplitudes of subjects with stroke were larger almost two times than control group’s of healthy subjects. It was find out, that ratios of pressure distribution on both left and right legs are in range from 1 to 0.9 for healthy subjects, and ratios below 0.9 are common for subjects with stroke. When subjects were standing with eyes closed, sway amplitudes were higher and the ratios of load distribution on left and right legs were lower.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Recent technology products from Space Human Factors research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, James P.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Space Human Factors program and the research carried out concerning human factors are discussed with emphasis given to the development of human performance models, data, and tools. The major products from this program are described, which include the Laser Anthropometric Mapping System; a model of the human body for evaluating the kinematics and dynamics of human motion and strength in microgravity environment; an operational experience data base for verifying and validating the data repository of manned space flights; the Operational Experience Database Taxonomy; and a human-computer interaction laboratory whose products are the display softaware and requirements and the guideline documents and standards for applications on human-computer interaction. Special attention is given to the 'Convoltron', a prototype version of a signal processor for synthesizing the head-related transfer functions.

  16. Researching Human Experience: video intervention/prevention assessment (VIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Patashnick

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Human experience is a critical subject for research. By discussing Video Intervention/Prevention Assessment (VIA, a patient-centered health research method where patients teach their clinicians about living with a chronic condition through the creation of visual illness narratives, this paper examines the value of qualitative inquiry and why human experience rarely is investigated directly. An analysis of a sample VIA data is presented to demonstrate how, by utilizing grounded theory and qualitative analysis, one can derive rich and unique information from human experience.

  17. Crowds for Clouds : Recent Trends in Humanities Research Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristel, Conny; Blanke, Tobias; Romary, Laurent; Benardou, Agiati; Champion, Erik; Dallas, Costis; Hughes, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    Humanities have convincingly argued that they need transnational research opportunities and through the digital transformation of their disciplines also have the means to proceed with it on an up to now unknown scale. The digital transformation of research and its resources means that many of the ar

  18. Teaching and Learning Children's Human Rights: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantefors, Lotta; Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper is a research synthesis examining how issues relating to the teaching and learning of children's human rights have been approached in educational research. Drawing theoretically on the European Didaktik tradition, the purpose of the paper is to map and synthesise the educational interest in children's rights…

  19. Promotion of research in human reproduction: global needs and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M F

    1988-01-01

    The WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction was established in 1972, to respond to a global expansion in research needs in human reproduction, especially in the area of fertility regulation. The Programme's limited resources come from voluntary contributions by governments and international agencies. The emphasis is always on the needs of developing countries. The Programme has to keep the field under continuous review, and to direct its limited resources to the major unmet needs. This paper presents, from a global perspective, the needs and priorities in the promotion of research in human reproduction. It is emphasized that research has to be backed up by political commitment and resources if it is to have an impact on reproductive health. The role of determinants of health, other than and beyond the medical services, has also to be recognized. Promotion of research in human reproduction, to serve developing country needs, has to move into two directions. One is the mobilization of a global effort to develop and test technologies, where the available technologies are not satisfactory to meet the needs and where the research is slackening. The second is the strengthening of in-country resources for research to deal with country-specific problems and to enable countries to utilize, to the best, available technologies.

  20. An Emerging Theoretical Perspective for Research in Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    The emergence of a new theoretical framework for research in human development is discussed. The theoretical perspective is contrasted with the classical laboratory experiment, which produces ecologically invalid research because of the restrictions of the artificial laboratory environment. The emerging framework enhances ecological validity by…

  1. Demystifying the IRB: Human Subjects Research in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Maura A.

    2010-01-01

    Many academic librarians are interested in pursuing research studies that involve students, faculty, and other library patrons; these projects must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB). This article reviews federal requirements and regulations for human subjects research and explains the IRB application process. The author discusses…

  2. Crowds for Clouds : Recent Trends in Humanities Research Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristel, Conny; Blanke, Tobias; Romary, Laurent; Benardou, Agiati; Champion, Erik; Dallas, Costis; Hughes, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Humanities have convincingly argued that they need transnational research opportunities and through the digital transformation of their disciplines also have the means to proceed with it on an up to now unknown scale. The digital transformation of research and its resources means that many of the ar

  3. The Impact and Future of Arts and Humanities Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul; Gulbrandsen, Magnus; Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on original international research by a cross-European social science team, this book makes an important contribution to the discussion about the future of arts and humanities research. It explores the responses of these fields to the growing range of questions being asked about the value, i

  4. Humanism and its critiques in nursing research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Michael

    2009-07-01

    This paper raises for debate the issue of how humanist ideas have been taken up by nurse scholars, particularly in research literature. Many nurses from the mid-1970s onwards have described and promoted humanism as an appropriate philosophical basis for nursing practice and research. This has been partly in an attempt to sharply differentiate the profession from medicine, and later, managerialism, which have been represented as reductionist and failing to adequately respond to the whole patient. A summary of definitions of humanism and critiques of humanism in broad philosophical literature is followed by an examination and critique of literature appearing in PubMed published within nursing scholarship from 1976 to 2007 which discusses or promotes humanism in nursing practice or research. Writers have attempted to enhance the importance of nursing by associating it with the humanistic project of accepting responsibility for realizing our human potential. They have promoted a version of research which is qualitative and centres on understanding individual lifeworlds of research participants because of a strong valuing of the experiences and perspectives of the individual. Much of the literature on this topic describes this humanism in dualistic contrast to medico-scientific reductionism and objectivity. Some of the presentations of humanistic nursing lack rigour and can be seen as doing little more than reproducing professional ideology. Scholars and others in the field of nursing could take the trouble to submit these ideologies to proper scrutiny.

  5. Governing the postmortem procurement of human body material for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Kristof; Capitaine, Laura; Pennings, Guido; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2015-03-01

    Human body material removed post mortem is a particularly valuable resource for research. Considering the efforts that are currently being made to study the biochemical processes and possible genetic causes that underlie cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, it is likely that this type of research will continue to gain in importance. However, post mortem procurement of human body material for research raises specific ethical concerns, more in particular with regard to the consent of the research participant. In this paper, we attempt to determine which consent regime should govern the post mortem procurement of body material for research. In order to do so, we assess the various arguments that could be put forward in support of a duty to make body material available for research purposes after death. We argue that this duty does in practice not support conscription but is sufficiently strong to defend a policy of presumed rather than explicit consent.

  6. On The Research of Foreign and Domestic Human Capital Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fuzhu

    2005-01-01

    Human Capital Theory came into being in the middle and later periods of the 20th century.A lot of achievements have been made on the research in its connotation, measures of the value, investment and income, function mechanism and so on, by foreign scholars. In recent 10 years of the new Millennium ahernation, the "steal business effect" and the structure of human capital on the mechanism of economic rise has become the two emphasis in current foreign Human Capital Theory's research. On the basis of foreign researches and Chinese situations, domestic scholars have enriched and developed it, but there are many disparities in its methods, aspects and levels between foreign and domestic researches.

  7. Challenging research on human subjects: justice and uncompensated harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Stephen

    2013-02-01

    Ethical challenges to certain aspects of research on human subjects are not uncommon; examples include challenges to first-in-human trials (Chapman in J Clin Res Bioethics 2(4):1-8, 2011), certain placebo controlled trials (Anderson in J Med Philos 31:65-81, 2006; Anderson and Kimmelman in Kennedy Inst Ethics J 20(1):75-98, 2010) and "sham" surgery (Macklin in N Engl J Med 341:992-996, 1999). To date, however, there are few challenges to research when the subjects are competent and the research is more than minimal risk with no promise of direct benefit. The principal reason given for allowing research that is more than minimal risk without benefit is that we should respect the autonomy of competent subjects. I argue that though the moral intuitions informing respect for autonomy are sound, there is another set of intuitions regarding what we take to be just treatment of another when one agent knowingly causes or allows suffering on another agent. I argue that concerns generated by commutative justice serve as limitations on permissible research. I highlight our intuitions informing this notion of justice by appealing to work done on theodicy; what counts as a morally sufficient reason for God to allow suffering in humans is applicable also to the researcher-subject relationship. I conclude that all human subjects who are exposed to more than minimal risk research should enjoy the same actual protections (e.g., subpart D) as those given subjects who cannot consent.

  8. Applying the community partnership approach to human biology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Julia; Schell, Lawrence M; Cole, Tewentahawih'tha'

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary human biology research employs a unique skillset for biocultural analysis. This skillset is highly appropriate for the study of health disparities because disparities result from the interaction of social and biological factors over one or more generations. Health disparities research almost always involves disadvantaged communities owing to the relationship between social position and health in stratified societies. Successful research with disadvantaged communities involves a specific approach, the community partnership model, which creates a relationship beneficial for researcher and community. Paramount is the need for trust between partners. With trust established, partners share research goals, agree on research methods and produce results of interest and importance to all partners. Results are shared with the community as they are developed; community partners also provide input on analyses and interpretation of findings. This article describes a partnership-based, 20 year relationship between community members of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation and researchers at the University at Albany. As with many communities facing health disparity issues, research with Native Americans and indigenous peoples generally is inherently politicized. For Akwesasne, the contamination of their lands and waters is an environmental justice issue in which the community has faced unequal exposure to, and harm by environmental toxicants. As human biologists engage in more partnership-type research, it is important to understand the long term goals of the community and what is at stake so the research circle can be closed and 'helicopter' style research avoided.

  9. When is surgery research? Towards an operational definition of human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, C E

    2001-02-01

    The distinction between clinical practice and surgical research may seem trivial, but this distinction can become a complex issue when innovative surgeries are substituted for standard care without patient knowledge. Neither the novelty nor the risk of a new surgical procedure adequately defines surgical research. Some institutions tacitly allow the use of new surgical procedures in series of patients without informing individuals that they are participating in a scientific study, as long as no written protocol or hypothesis exists. Institutions can justify this practice by viewing human research in narrow terms as an activity outlined in a formal protocol. Application of limited definitions, however, erodes patients' rights and risks losing public confidence in how biomedical research is conducted. I propose an operational definition of human research also be recognised. Enforcing more rigid and less ambiguous guidelines of human research may curtail enrolment into some studies, but it will also protect patients from being used as subjects without their knowledge.

  10. 76 FR 65204 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Genomic Resource...: Rudy O. Pozzatti, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human...

  11. Ethical issues of the research on human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Yoshitaro

    2008-09-01

    This paper examines the debate on human embryonic stem cell (hES) research. In Japan, as in many Western countries, the moral status of the human embryo has been the main focus. There is a dichotomy between the advocates of research on hES cells and the advocates of the dignity of the embryos. Advocates of research on hES cells claim that the act of abandoning the embryo and the act of using it for research have the same moral status. Critics of research using embryos reject this position, claiming that the embryo has a status incommensurable with other values. This paper points out that the standpoint of the woman providing the embryos has been overlooked in this discussion.

  12. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  13. Human rights, cultural pluralism, and international health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    In the field of bioethics, scholars have begun to consider carefully the impact of structural issues on global population health, including socioeconomic and political factors influencing the disproportionate burden of disease throughout the world. Human rights and social justice are key considerations for both population health and biomedical research. In this paper, I will briefly explore approaches to human rights in bioethics and review guidelines for ethical conduct in international health research, focusing specifically on health research conducted in resource-poor settings. I will demonstrate the potential for addressing human rights considerations in international health research with special attention to the importance of collaborative partnerships, capacity building, and respect for cultural traditions. Strengthening professional knowledge about international research ethics increases awareness of ethical concerns associated with study design and informed consent among researchers working in resource-poor settings. But this is not enough. Technological and financial resources are also necessary to build capacity for local communities to ensure that research results are integrated into existing health systems. Problematic issues surrounding the application of ethical guidelines in resource-poor settings are embedded in social history, cultural context, and the global political economy. Resolving the moral complexities requires a commitment to engaged dialogue and action among investigators, funding agencies, policy makers, governmental institutions, and private industry.

  14. Research report on human media; Human media no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The human multimedia technology corresponding to users` subjective characteristics was researched to realize information environment producing a sense of unity with human. The human media technology realizes a human sensitive information processing model and a common database easily acceptable sensitively by various users. This technology also should be able to fairly accept and transmit individual`s information and knowledge as multimedia information, and in addition it is required to supply a virtual space with presence. In fiscal 1995, the research committee studied the concrete developmental issue for integrating these advanced fundamental technologies, and as practical images planned the prototype systems such as human media interactive plant operation, supply of environment supporting personal intelligent activities, and virtual medical center. The research committee also discussed development of space mobile media to secure energy-saving and safety of automobiles, and an environment simulation system with participation of many people. 34 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. [Human resources and health work: challenges for a research agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Avila; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Campos, Francisco Eduardo; D'Avila, Luciana Souza

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses several key concepts for human resources policy in health in the context of Latin America's regional integration efforts. The article focuses on different concepts of integration to emphasize the analytical distinction between regional and conceptual integration. It also presents labor and human resources concepts before discussing, in the final analysis, the challenges that a common research agenda faces in the context of current health sector reforms in Latin America. The conclusion emphasizes the need to develop a technology and research system capable of supporting the agenda for exchange between MERCOSUR member countries.

  16. Micropolítica do trabalho vivo em ato, ergologia e educação popular: proposição de um dispositivo de formação de trabalhadores da saúde The micropolitics of living work in the act, ergology and popular education: a proposition of a device to train health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suze Rosa Sant'Anna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivos discutir o trabalho em saúde e apresentar um dispositivo para a formação de trabalhadores sob a ótica do conceito ampliado de saúde, fundamentado em três principais referenciais teóricos: a démarche ergológica e seu dispositivo dinâmico a três polos de Yves Schwartz, a cartografia da micropolítica do trabalho vivo em ato de Emerson Elias Merhy e a educação popular em saúde, inspirada em Paulo Freire. Espera-se com este estudo contribuir para a reflexão e a construção de uma estratégia de formação para intensificar a inserção dos estudantes nos cenários de prática que enfatizem a construção compartilhada de conhecimentos e favoreçam especialmente a produção e efetivação de saberes e dos aspectos relacionais que compõem o núcleo tecnológico do cuidado em saúde.This article aims to discuss the work done in the health area and to present a tool to train workers under the light of the expanded concept of health, based on three main theoretical frameworks: Yves Schwartz' ergology demarche and its dynamic threepole tool; Emerson Elias Merhy's cartography of the micropolitics of living work in the act; and the popular health education, inspired in Paulo Freire. It is hoped that this study will contribute to a reflection on and to the construction of a training strategy to enhance the integration of students in practical activities that emphasize the shared construction of knowledge and, especially, encourage the production and realization of knowledge and relational aspects that make up the technological core in health care.

  17. Research on Dynamic Model of the Human Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-lin; WANG Guang-quan; LU Dun-yong

    2005-01-01

    After summarizing the current situation of the research on human body modeling, a new dynamic model containing 5 equivalent masses has been proposed and the corresponding dynamic equations has been deduced too. By using this new model, more detailed information about the situation of the human body under impact and vibration can be obtained. The new model solves the problem that transmission functions of forces inside the human body can't be deduced by using 3-equivalent-mass model. It will find its usage in many applications.

  18. Human Research Program: 2012 Fiscal Year Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenhauser, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Crew health and performance are critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Risks to health and performance include physiologic effects from radiation, hypogravity, and planetary environments, as well as unique challenges in medical treatment, human factors, and support of behavioral health. The scientists and engineers of the Human Research Program (HRP) investigate and reduce the greatest risks to human health and performance, and provide essential countermeasures and technologies for human space exploration. In its seventh year of operation, the HRP continued to refine its management architecture of evidence, risks, gaps, tasks, and deliverables. Experiments continued on the International Space Station (ISS), on the ground in analog environments that have features similar to those of spaceflight, and in laboratory environments. Data from these experiments furthered the understanding of how the space environment affects the human system. These research results contributed to scientific knowledge and technology developments that address the human health and performance risks. As shown in this report, HRP has made significant progress toward developing medical care and countermeasure systems for space exploration missions which will ultimately reduce risks to crew health and performance.

  19. Ethical fundamentals in human subjects research : On equipoise and human dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf - Verhave, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821373

    2010-01-01

    In her PhD thesis Rieke van der Graaf has studied how we can ethically justify human subjects research. In particular she has studied two ethical fundamentals that play a key role in the justification process, that of equipoise and human dignity. Equipoise is often taken to mean that

  20. Ethical fundamentals in human subjects research : On equipoise and human dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf - Verhave, R.

    2010-01-01

    In her PhD thesis Rieke van der Graaf has studied how we can ethically justify human subjects research. In particular she has studied two ethical fundamentals that play a key role in the justification process, that of equipoise and human dignity. Equipoise is often taken to mean that physician-resea

  1. Intervention Research and Its Influence on Nonintervention Research in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunyoung; Chae, Chungil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify how intervention research weighed in nonintervention research in the field of human resource development (HRD) by examining the number, citation frequency and use of experimental studies in HRD academic journals. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 2,700 articles published between 1990 and 2014…

  2. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: water and human health research in CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water and Human Health team researches water related science to address the CSIR’s mandate, national priorities and to improve quality of life for all. The overall aim of the research is to achieve a sustainable balance between the use of water...

  3. An integrated approach to rotorcraft human factors research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Hartzell, E. James; Voorhees, James W.; Bucher, Nancy M.; Shively, R. Jay

    1988-01-01

    As the potential of civil and military helicopters has increased, more complex and demanding missions in increasingly hostile environments have been required. Users, designers, and manufacturers have an urgent need for information about human behavior and function to create systems that take advantage of human capabilities, without overloading them. Because there is a large gap between what is known about human behavior and the information needed to predict pilot workload and performance in the complex missions projected for pilots of advanced helicopters, Army and NASA scientists are actively engaged in Human Factors Research at Ames. The research ranges from laboratory experiments to computational modeling, simulation evaluation, and inflight testing. Information obtained in highly controlled but simpler environments generates predictions which can be tested in more realistic situations. These results are used, in turn, to refine theoretical models, provide the focus for subsequent research, and ensure operational relevance, while maintaining predictive advantages. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of research are described along with examples of experimental results.

  4. Why a True Account of Human Development Requires Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, William; Colby, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This chapter uses moral psychology to illustrate why exemplar methods are essential for building a valid, complete understanding of key domains of human development. Social psychological, economic, and biological-evolutionary paradigms for studying morality rely on samples drawn from the general population. This research reveals a bleak picture of…

  5. Narratives in Teaching and Research for Justice and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Audrey; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Human rights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…

  6. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  7. Neuroscience in ergonomics and human factors research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the possible application of neuroscientific knowledge in human factors research and pratice. Can this knowledge be implemented to improve the design and evaluation of systems and functional environments? Or - to take it one step further - could it bring about the integration of

  8. Research on Sexual Orientation and Human Development: A Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bonnie R.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of research over the past 25 years on sexual orientation and its effects on human development, concluding that gay and lesbian interests and behavior appear to result from a complex interplay of genetic, prenatal, and environmental influences. Notes that gender identity develops early, especially for males, and is difficult…

  9. A large human centrifuge for exploration and exploitation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.W.A. van Loon; J.P. Baeyens; J. Berte; S. Blanc; L. ter Braak; K. Bok; J. Bos; R. Boyle; N. Bravenoer; M. Eekhoff; A. Chouker; G. Clement; P. Cras; E. Cross; M.A. Cusaud; M. De Angelis; C. de Dreu; T. Delavaux; R. Delfos; C. Poelma; P. Denise; D. Felsenberg; K. Fong; C. Fuller; S. Grillner; E. Groen; J. Harlaar; M. Heer; N. Heglund; H. Hinghofer-Szalkay; N. Goswami; M. Hughes-Fulford; S. Iwase; J.M. Karemaker; B. Langdahl; D. Linarsson; C. Lüthen; M. Monici; E. Mulder; M. Narici; P. Norsk; W. Paloski; G.K. Prisk; M. Rutten; P. Singer; D. Stegeman; A. Stephan; G.J.M. Stienen; P. Suedfeld; P. Tesch; O. Ullrich; R. van den Berg; P. Van de Heyning; A. Delahaye; J. Veyt; L. Vico; E. Woodward; L.R. Young; F. Wuyts

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses concepts regarding the development of an Altered Gravity Platform (AGP) that will serve as a research platform for human space exploration. Space flight causes a multitude of physiological problems, many of which are due to gravity level transitions. Going from Earth’s gravity t

  10. Emotional Intelligence Research within Human Resource Development Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnia, Forouzan; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review and synthesize pertinent emotional intelligence (EI) research within the human resource development (HRD) scholarship. Design/methodology/approach: An integrative review of literature was conducted and multiple electronic databases were searched to find the relevant resources. Using the content…

  11. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  12. 75 FR 37813 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ..., Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP), or Julia Gorey, J.D., Executive Director, SACHRP; U.S...-8141; fax: 240-453-6909; e-mail address: Julia.Gorey@hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under the... as sign language interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the...

  13. Narratives in Teaching and Research for Justice and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Audrey; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Human rights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…

  14. Why a True Account of Human Development Requires Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, William; Colby, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This chapter uses moral psychology to illustrate why exemplar methods are essential for building a valid, complete understanding of key domains of human development. Social psychological, economic, and biological-evolutionary paradigms for studying morality rely on samples drawn from the general population. This research reveals a bleak picture of…

  15. Community engagement and the human infrastructure of global health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine F; Kolopack, Pamela; Merritt, Maria W; Lavery, James V

    2014-12-13

    Biomedical research is increasingly globalized with ever more research conducted in low and middle-income countries. This trend raises a host of ethical concerns and critiques. While community engagement (CE) has been proposed as an ethically important practice for global biomedical research, there is no agreement about what these practices contribute to the ethics of research, or when they are needed. In this paper, we propose an ethical framework for CE. The framework is grounded in the insight that relationships between the researcher and the community extend beyond the normal bounds of the researcher-research participant encounter and are the foundation of meaningful engagement. These relationships create an essential "human infrastructure" - a web of relationships between researchers and the stakeholder community-i.e., the diverse stakeholders who have interests in the conduct and/or outcomes of the research. Through these relationships, researchers are able to address three core ethical responsibilities: (1) identifying and managing non-obvious risks and benefits; (2) expanding respect beyond the individual to the stakeholder community; and (3) building legitimacy for the research project. By recognizing the social and political context of biomedical research, CE offers a promising solution to many seemingly intractable challenges in global health research; however there are increasing concerns about what makes engagement meaningful. We have responded to those concerns by presenting an ethical framework for CE. This framework reflects our belief that the value of CE is realized through relationships between researchers and stakeholders, thereby advancing three distinct ethical goals. Clarity about the aims of researcher-stakeholder relationships helps to make engagement programs more meaningful, and contributes to greater clarity about when CE should be recommended or required.

  16. Human cloning, stem cell research. An Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, Aida I

    2009-12-01

    The rapidly changing technologies that involve human subjects raise complex ethical, legal, social, and religious issues. Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hopes for the treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has raised many complex questions. This field causes debate and challenge, not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments, and politicians. There is no consensus on the morality of human cloning, even within specific religious traditions. In countries in which religion has a strong influence on political decision making, the moral status of the human embryo is at the center of the debate. Because of the inevitable consequences of reproductive cloning, it is prohibited in Islam. However, stem cell research for therapeutic purposes is permissible with full consideration, and all possible precautions in the pre-ensoulment stages of early fetus development, if the source is legitimate.

  17. EPM - The European Facility for human physiology research on ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieschel, Mats; Nasca, Rosario; Junk, Peter; Gerhard, Ingo

    2002-07-01

    The European Physiology Modules (EPM) Facility is one of the four major Space Station facilities being developed within the framework of ESA's Microgravity Facilities for Columbus (MFC) programme. In order to allow a wide spectrum of physiological studies in weightlessness conditions, the facility provides the infrastructure to accommodate a variable set of scientific equipment. The initial EPM configuration supports experiments in the fields of neuroscience, bone & muscle research, cardiovascular research and metabolism. The International Space Life Science Working Group (ISLSWG) has recommended co-locating EPM with the 2 NASA Human Research Facility racks.

  18. Human factors research in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry creation of safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, Yasuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    To prevent accident of nuclear power plant, Human Factors Center was built in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in July 1987. It developed an evaluation method of human error cases and an application method of human factors information. Now it continues analysis and application of human factors information, development of training/work support tools and research/experiment of human behavior. Japan-Human Performance Evaluation System (J-HPES) was developed as an analytical system for analysis and evaluation of human factors related to the trouble and for using the result as the common property by storage the analytical results. J-HPES has a standard procedure consisted of collecting and analyzing data and proposing the countermeasures. The analytical results are arranged by 4 kinds of charts by putting into the form of a diagram. Moreover, it tries to find the causes with indirect and potential causes. Two kinds of materials, Caution Report and Human Factors Precept by means of Illustrations, are published. People can gain access to HFC database by URL http://criepi.denken.or.jp/CRIEPI/HFC/DB. To prevent these accidents, creation of human factors culture has been required. Five kinds of teaching materials and the training method are developed. (S.Y.)

  19. Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Human Beings In Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective Diagnose ethical conduct in research involving human beings in Brazil and the last 10 years of activity by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Health Department - Federal District - CEP/SES/DF. Methods This work was based on a documentary research, descriptive and retrospective. It examined the database containing records of cases brought before the CEP/SES/DF, corresponding the period of June 1997 to December 2007. Results were generated in Excel program, version 2007. Results CEP/SES/DF has presented increasing number of research projects submitted to appreciation (n = 1129), composing: 90.4% approved 1.7% disapproved, 7.4% removed/filed and 0.5% excluded. Of these projects, 83% belonged to Group III, 18% multi-centered projects and 10% protocols with foreign participation. Time for approval has decreased over the years (30 to 60 days). Frequent pendencies: End of Free and Informed Consent (30%), Cover Sheet (25%), Methodology (20%), Curriculum vitae (12%), Budget (9%), and Others (4%). Conclusion The assessment of the CEP/SES/DF activities, during a ten-year period has shown its commitment to the legitimacy of research ethics review and scientific production SES/DF. There were some weaknesses such as difficulty in monitoring the accompaniment of the research; interruption of works due to adverse drug reaction; gaps or errors in the protocol submitted by the researcher. These situations are the achieving targets for the elaboration of specific criteria. PMID:20981277

  20. Examining the Social Benefits Principle in Research with Human Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2016-07-04

    The idea that research with human participants should benefit society has become firmly entrenched in various regulations, policies, and guidelines, but there has been little in-depth analysis of this ethical principle in the bioethics literature. In this paper, I distinguish between strong and weak versions and the social benefits principle and examine six arguments for it. I argue that while it is always ethically desirable for research with human subjects to offer important benefits to society (or the public), the reasonable expectation of substantial public benefit should be a necessary condition for regarding research as ethical only when (a) it imposes more than minimal risks on non-consenting subjects; or (b) it is supported by public resources.

  1. Using non-human primates to benefit humans: research and organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Emerging biotechnology may soon allow the creation of genetically human organs inside animals, with non-human primates (henceforth simply "primates") and pigs being the best candidate species. This prospect raises the question of whether creating organs in primates in order to then transplant them into humans would be more (or less) acceptable than using them for research. In this paper, we examine the validity of the purported moral distinction between primates and other animals, and analyze the ethical acceptability of using primates to create organs for human use.

  2. Human subjects protection issues in QUERI implementation research: QUERI Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritchie Mona

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Subjects protections approaches, specifically those relating to research review board oversight, vary throughout the world. While all are designed to protect participants involved in research, the structure and specifics of these institutional review boards (IRBs can and do differ. This variation affects all types of research, particularly implementation research. Methods In 2001, we began a series of inter-related studies on implementing evidence-based collaborative care for depression in Veterans Health Administration primary care. We have submitted more than 100 IRB applications, amendments, and renewals, and in doing so, we have interacted with 13 VA and University IRBs across the United States (U.S.. We present four overarching IRB-related themes encountered throughout the implementation of our projects, and within each theme, identify key challenges and suggest approaches that have proved useful. Where applicable, we showcase process aids developed to assist in resolving a particular IRB challenge. Results There are issues unique to implementation research, as this type of research may not fit within the traditional Human Subjects paradigm used to assess clinical trials. Risks in implementation research are generally related to breaches of confidentiality, rather than health risks associated with traditional clinical trials. The implementation-specific challenges discussed are: external validity considerations, Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, risk-benefit issues, the multiple roles of researchers and subjects, and system-level unit of analysis. Discussion Specific aspects of implementation research interact with variations in knowledge, procedures, and regulatory interpretations across IRBs to affect the implementation and study of best methods to increase evidence-based practice. Through lack of unambiguous guidelines and local liability concerns, IRBs are often at risk of applying both variable and inappropriate or

  3. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Loan Anh; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Liston, Adrian; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes) to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes), cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research.

  4. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Loan Anh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes, cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism. Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research.

  5. A Research Roadmap for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Groth, Katrina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research through the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to extend the life of the currently operating fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. The Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) research pathway within LWRS looks at ways to maintain and improve the safety margins of these plants. The RISMC pathway includes significant developments in the area of thermalhydraulics code modeling and the development of tools to facilitate dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). PRA is primarily concerned with the risk of hardware systems at the plant; yet, hardware reliability is often secondary in overall risk significance to human errors that can trigger or compound undesirable events at the plant. This report highlights ongoing efforts to develop a computation-based approach to human reliability analysis (HRA). This computation-based approach differs from existing static and dynamic HRA approaches in that it: (i) interfaces with a dynamic computation engine that includes a full scope plant model, and (ii) interfaces with a PRA software toolset. The computation-based HRA approach presented in this report is called the Human Unimodels for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER) and incorporates in a hybrid fashion elements of existing HRA methods to interface with new computational tools developed under the RISMC pathway. The goal of this research effort is to model human performance more accurately than existing approaches, thereby minimizing modeling uncertainty found in current plant risk models.

  6. 75 FR 52537 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  7. 75 FR 2148 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group, Genome Research Review... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  8. 78 FR 56905 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; H3AFRICA ELSI Research.... Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, Suite 3055, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD...

  9. 78 FR 24223 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3rd floor Conf. Room 3146, 5635 Fishers...

  10. 76 FR 3643 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: January...

  11. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html.

  12. Tissue-engineered models of human tumors for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Aranzazu; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Drug toxicity often goes undetected until clinical trials, which are the most costly and dangerous phase of drug development. Both the cultures of human cells and animal studies have limitations that cannot be overcome by incremental improvements in drug-testing protocols. A new generation of bioengineered tumors is now emerging in response to these limitations, with potential to transform drug screening by providing predictive models of tumors within their tissue context, for studies of drug safety and efficacy. An area that could greatly benefit from these models is cancer research. Areas covered In this review, the authors first describe the engineered tumor systems, using Ewing's sarcoma as an example of human tumor that cannot be predictably studied in cell culture and animal models. Then, they discuss the importance of the tissue context for cancer progression and outline the biomimetic principles for engineering human tumors. Finally, they discuss the utility of bioengineered tumor models for cancer research and address the challenges in modeling human tumors for use in drug discovery and testing. Expert opinion While tissue models are just emerging as a new tool for cancer drug discovery, they are already demonstrating potential for recapitulating, in vitro, the native behavior of human tumors. Still, numerous challenges need to be addressed before we can have platforms with a predictive power appropriate for the pharmaceutical industry. Some of the key needs include the incorporation of the vascular compartment, immune system components, and mechanical signals that regulate tumor development and function. PMID:25662589

  13. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  14. Human dimensions in cyber operations research and development priorities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, James Chris; Silva, Austin Ray; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Bradshaw, Jeffrey [Institute for Human and Machine Cognition

    2012-11-01

    Within cyber security, the human element represents one of the greatest untapped opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of network defenses. However, there has been little research to understand the human dimension in cyber operations. To better understand the needs and priorities for research and development to address these issues, a workshop was conducted August 28-29, 2012 in Washington DC. A synthesis was developed that captured the key issues and associated research questions. Research and development needs were identified that fell into three parallel paths: (1) human factors analysis and scientific studies to establish foundational knowledge concerning factors underlying the performance of cyber defenders; (2) development of models that capture key processes that mediate interactions between defenders, users, adversaries and the public; and (3) development of a multi-purpose test environment for conducting controlled experiments that enables systems and human performance measurement. These research and development investments would transform cyber operations from an art to a science, enabling systems solutions to be engineered to address a range of situations. Organizations would be able to move beyond the current state where key decisions (e.g. personnel assignment) are made on a largely ad hoc basis to a state in which there exist institutionalized processes for assuring the right people are doing the right jobs in the right way. These developments lay the groundwork for emergence of a professional class of cyber defenders with defined roles and career progressions, with higher levels of personnel commitment and retention. Finally, the operational impact would be evident in improved performance, accompanied by a shift to a more proactive response in which defenders have the capacity to exert greater control over the cyber battlespace.

  15. Bringing humanity into view: action research with Qatar's ambulance service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Gill; Wiggins, Liz

    2017-08-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to argue for the widening of attention in healthcare improvement efforts, to include an awareness of the humanity of people who work in the sector and an appreciation of the part human connection plays in engagement around good quality work. Theoretical frameworks and research approaches which draw on action-based, interpretive and systemic thinking are proposed, as a complement to current practices. Design/methodology/approach The paper describes the early stages of an action research (AR) project, which used the appreciative inquiry "4D" framework to conduct participative inquiry in Hamad Medical Corporation's ambulance service in Qatar, in which staff became co-researchers. Findings The co-researchers were highly motivated to work with improvement goals as a result of their participation in the AR. They, and their managers, saw each other and the work in new ways and discovered that they had much to offer. Research limitations/implications This was a small-scale pilot project, from which findings must be considered tentative. The challenges of establishing good collaboration across language, culture and organisational divides are considerable. Practical implications Appreciative and action-oriented inquiry methods can serve not only to find things out, but also to highlight and give value to aspects of humanity in the workplace that are routinely left invisible in formal processes. This, in turn, can help with quality improvement. Originality/value This paper is a challenge to the orthodox way of viewing healthcare organisations, and improvement processes within them, as reliant on control rather than empowerment. An alternative is to actively include the agency, sense-making capacity and humanity of those involved.

  16. Integrating human factors research and surgery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouhed, Daniel; Gewertz, Bruce; Wiegmann, Doug; Catchpole, Ken

    2012-12-01

    To provide a review of human factors research within the context of surgery. We searched PubMed for relevant studies published from the earliest available date through February 29, 2012. The search was performed using the following keywords: human factors, surgery, errors, teamwork, communication, stress, disruptions, interventions, checklists, briefings, and training. Additional articles were identified by a manual search of the references from the key articles. As 2 human factors specialists, a senior clinician, and a junior clinician, we carefully selected the most appropriate exemplars of research findings with specific relevance to surgical error and safety. Seventy-seven articles of relevance were selected and reviewed in detail. Opinion pieces and editorials were disregarded; the focus was solely on articles based on empirical evidence, with a particular emphasis on prospectively designed studies. The themes that emerged related to the development of human factors theories, the application of those theories within surgery, a specific interest in the concept of flow, and the theoretical basis and value of human-related interventions for improving safety and flow in surgery. Despite increased awareness of safety, errors routinely continue to occur in surgical care. Disruptions in the flow of an operation, such as teamwork and communication failures, contribute significantly to such adverse events. While it is apparent that some incidence of human error is unavoidable, there is much evidence in medicine and other fields that systems can be better designed to prevent or detect errors before a patient is harmed. The complexity of factors leading to surgical errors requires collaborations between surgeons and human factors experts to carry out the proper prospective and observational studies. Only when we are guided by this valid and real-world data can useful interventions be identified and implemented.

  17. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized.

  18. Robotics for recombinant DNA and human genetics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beugelsdijk, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    In October of 1989, molecular biologists throughout the world formally embarked on ultimately determining the set of genetic instructions for a human being. Called by some the Manhattan Project'' a molecular biology, pursuit of this goal is projected to require approximately 3000 man years of effort over a 15-year period. The Humane Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort that has the goal of analyzing the structure of human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and determining the location of all human genes. The Department of Energy (DOE) has designated three of its national laboratories as centers for the Human Genome Project. These are Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). These laboratories are currently working on different, but complementary technology development areas in support of the Human Genome Project. The robotics group at LANL is currently working at developing the technologies that address the problems associated with physical mapping. This article describes some of these problems and discusses some of the robotics approaches and engineering tolls applicable to their solution. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Integrating social sciences and humanities in interdisciplinary research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2016-01-01

    Recent attempts to integrate the social sciences and humanities (SSH) in funding for interdisciplinary research have been challenged by a number of barriers. In funding programmes, such as the EU Horizon 2020, the SSH are absent in most calls for contributions. This article revisits the main policy...... drivers for embedding SSH research in interdisciplinary research. By analysing recent policy initiatives, the article shows how policymakers across the world continue to be ambivalent regarding the role of the SSH. While many stakeholders acknowledge the need to integrate SSH research in solving key...... societal challenges, such as climate change, migration or national security, funding for SSH is limited and tends to focus on strategic interventions and instrumental solutions. By accounting for the diversity of interdisciplinary collaborations the article recommends a more context-sensitive approach...

  20. Proceeding of human exoskeleton technology and discussions on future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Xie, Hanxing; Li, Weilin; Yao, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    After more than half a century of intense efforts, the development of exoskeleton has seen major advances, and several remarkable achievements have been made. Reviews of developing history of exoskeleton are presented, both in active and passive categories. Major models are introduced, and typical technologies are commented on. Difficulties in control algorithm, driver system, power source, and man-machine interface are discussed. Current researching routes and major developing methods are mapped and critically analyzed, and in the process, some key problems are revealed. First, the exoskeleton is totally different from biped robot, and relative studies based on the robot technologies are considerably incorrect. Second, biomechanical studies are only used to track the motion of the human body, the interaction between human and machines are seldom studied. Third, the traditional developing ways which focused on servo-controlling have inborn deficiency from making portable systems. Research attention should be shifted to the human side of the coupling system, and the human ability to learn and adapt should play a more significant role in the control algorithms. Having summarized the major difficulties, possible future works are discussed. It is argued that, since a distinct boundary cannot be drawn in such strong-coupling human-exoskeleton system, the more complex the control system gets, the more difficult it is for the user to learn to use. It is suggested that the exoskeleton should be treated as a simple wearable tool, and downgrading its automatic level may be a change toward a brighter research outlook. This effort at simplification is definitely not easy, as it necessitates theoretical supports from fields such as biomechanics, ergonomics, and bionics.

  1. Automotive Technology and Human Factors Research: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyuki Akamatsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of automotive technology development and human factors research, largely by decade, since the inception of the automobile. The human factors aspects were classified into primary driving task aspects (controls, displays, and visibility, driver workspace (seating and packaging, vibration, comfort, and climate, driver’s condition (fatigue and impairment, crash injury, advanced driver-assistance systems, external communication access, and driving behavior. For each era, the paper describes the SAE and ISO standards developed, the major organizations and conferences established, the major news stories affecting vehicle safety, and the general social context. The paper ends with a discussion of what can be learned from this historical review and the major issues to be addressed. A major contribution of this paper is more than 180 references that represent the foundation of automotive human factors, which should be considered core knowledge and should be familiar to those in the profession.

  2. Why aging research? The moral imperative to retard human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colin

    2010-06-01

    The American philosopher John Rawls describes a fair system of social cooperation as one that is both rational and reasonable. Is it rational and reasonable for societies that (1) are vulnerable to diverse risks of morbidity (e.g., cancer, heart disease) and mortality and (2) are constrained by limited medical resources, to prioritize aging research? In this paper I make the case for answering "yes" on both accounts. Focusing on a plausible example of an applied gerontological intervention (i.e., an antiaging pharmaceutical), I argue that the goal of decelerating the rate of human aging would be a more effective strategy for extending the human health span than the current strategy of just tackling each specific disease of aging. Furthermore, the aspiration to retard human aging is also a reasonable aspiration, for the principle that underlies it (i.e., the duty to prevent harm) is one that no one could reasonably reject.

  3. Challenges of metabolomics in human gut microbiota research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Kirill S; Maier, Tanja V; Walker, Alesia; Heinzmann, Silke S; Forcisi, Sara; Martinez, Inés; Walter, Jens; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The review highlights the role of metabolomics in studying human gut microbial metabolism. Microbial communities in our gut exert a multitude of functions with huge impact on human health and disease. Within the meta-omics discipline, gut microbiome is studied by (meta)genomics, (meta)transcriptomics, (meta)proteomics and metabolomics. The goal of metabolomics research applied to fecal samples is to perform their metabolic profiling, to quantify compounds and classes of interest, to characterize small molecules produced by gut microbes. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are main technologies that are applied in fecal metabolomics. Metabolomics studies have been increasingly used in gut microbiota related research regarding health and disease with main focus on understanding inflammatory bowel diseases. The elucidated metabolites in this field are summarized in this review. We also addressed the main challenges of metabolomics in current and future gut microbiota research. The first challenge reflects the need of adequate analytical tools and pipelines, including sample handling, selection of appropriate equipment, and statistical evaluation to enable meaningful biological interpretation. The second challenge is related to the choice of the right animal model for studies on gut microbiota. We exemplified this using NMR spectroscopy for the investigation of cross-species comparison of fecal metabolite profiles. Finally, we present the problem of variability of human gut microbiota and metabolome that has important consequences on the concepts of personalized nutrition and medicine.

  4. The Trustworthiness Deficit in Postgenomic Research on Human Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sarah S

    2015-01-01

    In the past, work on racial and ethnic variation in brain and behavior was marginalized within genetics. Against the backdrop of genetics' eugenic legacy, wide consensus held such research to be both ethically problematic and methodologically controversial. But today it is finding new opportunistic venues in a global, transdisciplinary, data-rich postgenomic research environment in which such a consensus is increasingly strained. The postgenomic sciences display worrisome deficits in their ability to govern and negotiate standards for making postgenomic claims in the transdisciplinary space between human population variation research, studies of intelligence, neuroscience, and evolutionary biology. Today some researchers are pursuing the genomics of intelligence on a newly grand scale. They are sequencing large numbers of whole genomes of people considered highly intelligent (by varying empirical and social measures) in the hope of finding gene variants predictive of intelligence. Troubling and at times outlandish futurist claims accompany this research. Scientists involved in this research have openly discussed the possibility of marketing prenatal tests for intelligence, of genetic engineering or selective embryo implantation to increase the likelihood of a high-IQ child, and of genotyping children to guide their education. In this permissive and contested environment, what would trustworthy research on the genomics of high intelligence look like?

  5. Paternalism and utilitarianism in research with human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2015-03-01

    In this article I defend a rule utilitarian approach to paternalistic policies in research with human participants. Some rules that restrict individual autonomy can be justified on the grounds that they help to maximize the overall balance of benefits over risks in research. The consequences that should be considered when formulating policy include not only likely impacts on research participants, but also impacts on investigators, institutions, sponsors, and the scientific community. The public reaction to adverse events in research (such as significant injury to participants or death) is a crucial concern that must be taken into account when assessing the consequences of different policy options, because public backlash can lead to outcomes that have a negative impact on science, such as cuts in funding, overly restrictive regulation and oversight, and reduced willingness of individuals to participate in research. I argue that concern about the public reaction to adverse events justifies some restrictions on the risks that competent, adult volunteers can face in research that offers them no significant benefits. The paternalism defended here is not pure, because it involves restrictions on the rights of investigators in order to protect participants. It also has a mixed rationale, because individual autonomy may be restricted not only to protect participants from harm but also to protect other stakeholders. Utility is not the sole justification for paternalistic research policies, since other considerations, such as justice and respect for individual rights/autonomy, must also be taken into account.

  6. Eli Lilly and Company's bioethics framework for human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Current ethics and good clinical practice guidelines address various aspects of pharmaceutical research and development, but do not comprehensively address the bioethical responsibilities of sponsors. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company developed and implemented a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research to guide ethical decisions. (See our companion article that describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique of its usefulness and limitations.) This paper presents the actual framework that serves as a company resource for employee education and bioethics deliberations. The framework consists of four basic ethical principles and 13 essential elements for ethical human biomedical research and resides within the context of our company's mission, vision and values. For each component of the framework, we provide a high-level overview followed by a detailed description with cross-references to relevant well regarded guidance documents. The principles and guidance described should be familiar to those acquainted with research ethics. Therefore the novelty of the framework lies not in the foundational concepts presented as much as the attempt to specify and compile a sponsor's bioethical responsibilities to multiple stakeholders into one resource. When such a framework is employed, it can serve as a bioethical foundation to inform decisions and actions throughout clinical planning, trial design, study implementation and closeout, as well as to inform company positions on bioethical issues. The framework is, therefore, a useful tool for translating ethical aspirations into action - to help ensure pharmaceutical human biomedical research is conducted in a manner that aligns with consensus ethics principles, as well as a sponsor's core values.

  7. An evolving research agenda for human-coastal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D.; Ellis, Michael A.; Brad Murray, A.; Hall, Damon M.

    2016-03-01

    Within the broad discourses of environmental change, sustainability science, and anthropogenic Earth-surface systems, a focused body of work involves the coupled economic and physical dynamics of developed shorelines. Rapid rates of change in coastal environments, from wetlands and deltas to inlets and dune systems, help researchers recognize, observe, and investigate coupling in natural (non-human) morphodynamics and biomorphodynamics. This same intrinsic quality of fast-paced change also makes developed coastal zones exemplars of observable coupling between physical processes and human activities. In many coastal communities, beach erosion is a natural hazard with economic costs that coastal management counters through a variety of mitigation strategies, including beach replenishment, groynes, revetments, and seawalls. As cycles of erosion and mitigation iterate, coastline change and economically driven interventions become mutually linked. Emergent dynamics of two-way economic-physical coupling is a recent research discovery. Having established a strong theoretical basis, research into coupled human-coastal systems has passed its early proof-of-concept phase. This paper frames three major challenges that need resolving in order to advance theoretical and empirical treatments of human-coastal systems: (1) codifying salient individual and social behaviors of decision-making in ways that capture societal actions across a range of scales (thus engaging economics, social science, and policy disciplines); (2) quantifying anthropogenic effects on alongshore and cross-shore sediment pathways and long-term landscape evolution in coastal zones through time, including direct measurement of cumulative changes to sediment cells resulting from coastal development and management practices (e.g., construction of buildings and artificial dunes, bulldozer removal of overwash after major storms); and (3) reciprocal knowledge and data exchange between researchers in coastal

  8. Human Rights Education and the Research Process: Action Research as a Tool for Reflection and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Celma

    2016-01-01

    Human rights education (HRE) aims to achieve a change of mindsets and social attitudes that entails the construction of a culture of respect towards those values it teaches. Although HRE is a recent field of study, its consolidation in Latin America is a fact. During the latest decades several authors have carried out research related to HRE that…

  9. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing.

  10. 78 FR 55752 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Sites for..., Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC...

  11. 76 FR 28056 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome Research... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Human Genome Research...

  12. 76 FR 35224 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  13. 76 FR 5390 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... privacy. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NHGRI Sample Repository..., National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9306, Rockville, MD...

  14. 77 FR 58402 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; R25 DAP Sept. 2012...: National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, 3rd Floor Conference Room, Rockville, MD...

  15. 75 FR 62548 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes... . Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  16. 76 FR 22112 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Special Emphasis Panel... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April...

  17. 76 FR 19780 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane... Assistance Program No. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April...

  18. 75 FR 80509 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 16, 2010. Jennifer S....

  19. 77 FR 20646 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Loan Repayment Program...: National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, 3rd Floor Conference Room, Rockville, MD...

  20. 77 FR 59933 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; ELSI CEERS RFA (SEP... Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9306, Rockville,...

  1. 76 FR 66076 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 19, 2011. Jennifer S....

  2. 77 FR 64816 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  3. 78 FR 77477 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  4. 76 FR 9031 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  5. 75 FR 13558 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome Research... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Human Genome Research...

  6. 75 FR 2147 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. The... of Committee: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: February 8-9, 2010....

  7. 77 FR 35991 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  8. 78 FR 31953 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SEP-UDN Coordinating... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3rd Floor Conference Room, 3146, 5635...

  9. 75 FR 19984 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  10. 78 FR 11898 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  11. 78 FR 70063 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome Research... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL HUMAN GENOME RESEARCH...

  12. 75 FR 8373 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, GWAS Comparing Design... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  13. 75 FR 60467 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome Research Institute... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Human Genome Research Institute,...

  14. 78 FR 47715 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health,...

  15. 76 FR 50486 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  16. 77 FR 50140 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  17. 76 FR 17930 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Genetic... Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9306, Rockville,...

  18. 77 FR 2304 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting... given that the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) will host a series of meetings to enable... for Human Genome Research. Background materials on the proposed reorganization and...

  19. 77 FR 2735 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. The... of Committee: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: February 13-14, 2012....

  20. 78 FR 9707 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; H3Africa (RM-006, RM... Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9306, Rockville, MD 20852, (301)...

  1. 77 FR 22332 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, H3Africa Biorepository... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, 4076, Rockville, MD...

  2. 75 FR 56115 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; CEGS DAP. Date... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: September...

  3. 75 FR 48977 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  4. 76 FR 65204 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome Research Institute... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Human Genome Research Institute,...

  5. 77 FR 31863 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel DAP R25 Eppig.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  6. 77 FR 71604 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel. Date: January 11, 2013..., National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076,...

  7. 75 FR 46951 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. The meeting will be...: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: September 13-14, 2010. Open: September 13,...

  8. 78 FR 107 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3rd Floor Conference Room, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20851... Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  9. 75 FR 32957 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Protein Resource RFA... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  10. 75 FR 44800 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. The... Call). Contact Person: Mark S. Guyer, Director for Extramural Research, National Human Genome...

  11. 77 FR 64816 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome Research Institute... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Human Genome Research Institute,...

  12. 76 FR 22407 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Loan Repayment Program....172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 12, 2011. Jennifer...

  13. 76 FR 79199 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health,...

  14. 77 FR 6810 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; CIDR Contract Renewal... Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9306, Rockville,...

  15. 75 FR 35821 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed..., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health,...

  16. The value of respect in human research ethics: a conceptual analysis and a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, I J; Thomson, C J H

    2014-01-01

    In order to continue to maintain public trust and confidence in human research, participants must be treated with respect. Researchers and Human Research Ethics Committee members need to be aware that modern considerations of this value include: the need for a valid consenting process, the protection of participants who have their capacity for consent compromised; the promotion of dignity for participants; and the effects that human research may have on cultures and communities. This paper explains the prominence of respect as a value when considering the ethics of human research and provides practical advice for both researchers and Human Research Ethics Committee members in developing respectful research practices.

  17. Are Sciences Essential and Humanities Elective? Disentangling Competing Claims for Humanities' Research Public Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos-Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy discourse suggests that arts and humanities research is seen as being less useful to society than other disciplines, notably in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The paper explores how this assumption's construction has been built and whether it is based upon an unfair prejudice: we argue for a prima facie case…

  18. Trends in research involving human beings in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo Eccard da; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho; Pastor, Elza Martínez; Barragan, Elena; Amato, Angélica Amorim

    2015-02-01

    Developing countries have experienced a dramatic increase in the number of clinical studies in the last decades. The aim of this study was to describe 1) the number of clinical trials submitted to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Anvisa) from 2007 to 2012 and the number of human-subject research projects approved by research ethics committees (RECs) and the National Research Ethics Committee (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa, CONEP) in Brazil from 2007 to 2011 and 2) the diseases most frequently studied in Brazilian states in clinical trials approved in the country from 2009 to 2012, based on information from an Anvisa databank. Two databases were used: 1) the National Information System on Research Ethics Involving Human Beings (Sistema Nacional de Informação Sobre Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo Seres Humanos, SISNEP) and 2) Anvisa's Clinical Research Control System (Sistema de Controle de Pesquisa Clínica, SCPC). Data from the SCPC indicated an increase of 32.7% in the number of clinical trials submitted to Anvisa, and data from the SISNEP showed an increase of 69.9% in those approved by RECs and CONEP (from 18 160 in 2007 to 30 860 in 2011). Type 2 diabetes (26.0%) and breast cancer (20.5%)-related to the main causes of mortality in Brazil-were the two most frequently studied diseases. The so-called “neglected diseases,” such as dengue fever, were among the least studied diseases in approved clinical trials, despite their significant impact on social, economic, and health indicators in Brazil. Overall, the data indicated 1) a clear trend toward more research involving human beings in Brazil, 2) good correspondence between diseases most studied in clinical trials approved by Anvisa and the main causes of death in Brazil, and 3) a low level of attention to neglected diseases, an issue that should be considered in setting future research priorities, given their socioeconomic and health effects.

  19. Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schembri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm. The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future.

  20. 75 FR 51828 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... for Human Genome Research. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance..., PhD, Director for Extramural Research, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane...: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: May 16-17, 2011. Open: May 16, 2011, 8:30...

  1. Walnuts (Juglans regia) Chemical Composition and Research in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Angove, Michael J; Tucci, Joe; Dennis, Christina

    2016-06-10

    Walnuts are among the most widely consumed commercially grown tree nuts in the world. Many health benefits have been claimed for the consumption of these, including reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, type II diabetes treatment, and prevention and treatment of certain cancers, and the lessening of symptoms attributed to age-related and other neurological disorders. The health-promoting benefits of walnut consumption are ascribed to its fatty acid profile, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with a particularly high ω3:ω6 ratio-the highest among all the tree nuts. The content of polyphenols and other phytochemicals in walnuts, with their claimed cytotoxic properties, also make them an attractive candidate for research for the prevention of free radical-induced nucleic acid damage. Research of walnut consumption in humans and animals employing a range of data sets and statistical methods suggest that walnuts may be considered a safe potential nutraceutical or possibly pharmaceutical substance. Nevertheless, few reviews of scientific research on the proposed benefits of these nuts exist, in spite of the numerous claims attributed to them in the lay media. This brief review article attempts to disseminate much of the information surrounding walnut consumption, and human health benefits, to other scientists and the interested general reader.

  2. Social Media Research, Human Behavior, and Sustainable Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A bibliometric analysis was conducted to review social media research from different perspectives during the period of 2008–2014 based on the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index database. Using a collection of 10,042 articles related to social media, the bibliometric analysis revealed some interesting patterns and trend of the scientific outputs, major journals, subject categories, spatial distribution, international collaboration, and temporal evolution in keywords usage in social media studies. The research on social media has been characterized by rapid growth and dynamic collaboration, with a rising number of publications and citation. Communication, Sociology, Public, Environment & Occupational Health, Business, and Multidisciplinary Psychology were the five most common categories. Computers in Human Behavior was the journal with the most social media publications, and Computers & Education ranked first according to the average citations. The two most productive countries were the U.S. and UK, delivering about half of the publications. The proportion of China’s internationally collaborative publications was the highest. The University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan, and Harvard University were three most productive institutions. Several keywords, such as “Facebook”, “Twitter”, “communication”, “Social Networking Sites”, “China”, “climate change”, “big data” and “social support” increasingly gained the popularity during the study period, indicating the research trends on human behavior and sustainability.

  3. Heterogeneity of Human Research Ethics Committees and Research Governance Offices across Australia: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smit, Elisabeth; Kearns, Lisa S; Clarke, Linda; Dick, Jonathan; Hill, Catherine L; Hewitt, Alex W

    2016-01-01

    Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) and Research Governance Offices (RGOs) across Australia. In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a "National Ethics Application Form" and three a "Low Negligible Risk" form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22) and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days). We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently.

  4. NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Y. R.; Rasbury, J.; Johnson, J.; Barsten, K.; Saile, L.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    In preparation for exploration-class missions, the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) has compiled a large evidence base, which previously was available only to persons within the NASA community. The evidence base is comprised of several types of data, for example: information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight, derived from several sources (including data on incidence and potential outcomes of these medical conditions, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model's Clinical Finding Forms). In addition, approximately 35 gap reports are included in the evidence base, identifying current understanding of the medical challenges for exploration, as well as any gaps in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions. In an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration with subject matter experts within and outside of NASA, ExMC has developed an online collaboration tool, very similar to a wiki, titled the NASA Human Research Wiki. The platform chosen for this data sharing, and the potential collaboration it could generate, is a MediaWiki-based application that would house the evidence, allow "read only" access to all visitors to the website, and editorial access to credentialed subject matter experts who have been approved by the Wiki's editorial board. Although traditional wikis allow users to edit information in real time, the NASA Human Research Wiki includes a peer review process to ensure quality and validity of information. The wiki is also intended to be a pathfinder project for other HRP elements that may want to use this type of web-based tool. The wiki website will be released with a subset of the data described and will continue to be populated throughout the year.

  5. Problematizing Digital Research Evaluation using DOIs in Practice-Based Arts, Humanities and Social Science Research

    OpenAIRE

    Muriel Swijghuisen Reigersberg

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores emerging practices in research data management in the arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS). It will do so vis-à-vis current citation conventions and impact measurement for research in AHSS. Case study findings on research data inventoried at Goldsmiths’, University of London will be presented. Goldsmiths is a UK research-intensive higher education institution which specialises in arts, humanities and social science research. The paper’s aim is to raise awareness of ...

  6. The Hoops, Hopes, and Hypes of Human Microbiome Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bik, Elisabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in sequencing methods and bioinformatics analysis tools have greatly enabled the culture-independent analysis of complex microbial communities associated with environmental samples, plants, and animals. This has led to a spectacular increase in the number of studies on both membership and functionalities of these hitherto invisible worlds, in particular those of the human microbiome. The wide variety in available microbiome tools and platforms can be overwhelming, and making sound conclusions from scientific research can be challenging. Here, I will review 1) the methodological and analytic hoops a good microbiome study has to jump through, including DNA extraction and choice of bioinformatics tools, 2) the hopes this field has generated for diseases such as autism and inflammatory bowel diseases, and 3) some of the hypes that it has created, e.g., by confusing correlation and causation, and the recent pseudoscientific commercialization of microbiome research. PMID:27698620

  7. An evaluation of human factors research for ultrasonic inservice inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, D.J.; Donohoo, D.T.; Harris, R.V. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine if human factors research has yielded information applicable to upgrading requirements in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, improving methods and techniques in Section V, and/or suggesting relevant research. A preference was established for information and recommendations which have become accepted and standard practice. Manual Ultrasonic Testing/Inservice Inspection (UT/ISI) is a complex task subject to influence by dozens of variables. This review frequently revealed equivocal findings regarding effects of environmental variables as well as repeated indications that inspection performance may be more, and more reliably, influenced by the workers` social environment, including managerial practices, than by other situational variables. Also of significance are each inspector`s relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities, and determination of these is seen as a necessary first step in upgrading requirements, methods, and techniques as well as in focusing research in support of such programs, While understanding the effects and mediating mechanisms of the variables impacting inspection performance is a worthwhile pursuit for researchers, initial improvements in industrial UTASI performance may be achieved by implementing practices already known to mitigate the effects of potentially adverse conditions. 52 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-01-22

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats.

  9. A New Approach to Commercialization of NASA's Human Research Program Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposal describes, "A New Approach to Commercialization of NASA's Human Research Program Technologies." NASA has a powerful research...

  10. Human behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Kobayashi, Susumu; Hong, Zhen; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Wen, Guoqiang; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally classified as a movement disorder because patients mainly complain about motor symptoms. Recently, non-motor symptoms of PD have been recognized by clinicians and scientists as early signs of PD, and they are detrimental factors in the quality of life in advanced PD patients. It is crucial to comprehensively understand the essence of behavioral assessments, from the simplest measurement of certain symptoms to complex neuropsychological tasks. We have recently reviewed behavioral assessments in PD research with animal models (Asakawa et al., 2016). As a companion volume, this article will systematically review the behavioral assessments of motor and non-motor PD symptoms of human patients in current research. The major aims of this article are: (1) promoting a comparative understanding of various behavioral assessments in terms of the principle and measuring indexes; (2) addressing the major strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral assessments for a better selection of tasks/tests in order to avoid biased conclusions due to inappropriate assessments; and (3) presenting new concepts regarding the development of wearable devices and mobile internet in future assessments. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of improving the assessments for non-motor symptoms because of their complex and unique mechanisms in human PD brains.

  11. The NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael; Rasbury, Jack; Johnson, Jordan; Barstend, Kristina; Saile, Lynn; Watkins, Sharmi

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element is one of six elements of the Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC is charged with decreasing the risk of: "Inability to adequately recognize or treat an ill or injured crew member" for exploration-class missions In preparation for exploration-class missions, ExMC has compiled a large evidence base, previously available only to persons within the NASA community. ExMC has developed the "NASA Human Research Wiki" in an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration within and outside of NASA. The ExMC evidence base is comprised of several types of data, including: (1)Information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight (a)Derived from several sources (b)Including data on incidence and potential outcomes, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model s (IMM) Clinical Finding Forms (CliFFs). (2)Approximately 25 gap reports (a)Identify any "gaps" in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions.

  12. Naturalistic Cognition: A Research Paradigm for Human-Centered Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Storkerson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturalistic thinking and knowing, the tacit, experiential, and intuitive reasoning of everyday interaction, have long been regarded as inferior to formal reason and labeled primitive, fallible, subjective, superstitious, and in some cases ineffable. But, naturalistic thinking is more rational and definable than it appears. It is also relevant to design. Inquiry into the mechanisms of naturalistic thinking and knowledge can bring its resources into focus and enable designers to create better, human-centered designs for use in real-world settings. This article makes a case for the explicit, formal study of implicit, naturalistic thinking within the fields of design. It develops a framework for defining and studying naturalistic thinking and knowledge, for integrating them into design research and practice, and for developing a more integrated, consistent theory of knowledge in design. It will (a outline historical definitions of knowledge, attitudes toward formal and naturalistic thinking, and the difficulties presented by the co-presence of formal and naturalistic thinking in design, (b define and contrast formal and naturalistic thinking as two distinct human cognitive systems, (c demonstrate the importance of naturalistic cognition in formal thinking and real-world judgment, (d demonstrate methods for researching naturalistic thinking that can be of use in design, and (e briefly discuss the impact on design theory of admitting naturalistic thinking as valid, systematic, and knowable.

  13. 78 FR 42805 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration Operations Committee; Research... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Research Subcommittee of the Human Exploration and Operations Committee (HEOC) of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports...

  14. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2017-09-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  15. 78 FR 10538 - Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 26 RIN 2070-AJ76 Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides... human subjects and to persons who submit the results of human research with pesticides to EPA. The amendments broaden the applicability of the rules to cover human testing with pesticides submitted to EPA...

  16. 76 FR 66731 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, DAP for CEGS-SEP. Date...@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome...

  17. 76 FR 3917 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, TRND--RFP... Person: Rudy O. Pozzatti, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human...

  18. 75 FR 8977 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Nakamura, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...-402-0838. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome...

  19. 75 FR 67380 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...: Ken D. Nakamura, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome... Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 26,...

  20. 76 FR 36930 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, DAP R-25. Date: July...@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome...

  1. 77 FR 5035 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel Sequencing Technology..., Rockville, MD 20852, (301) 402-0838, nakamurk@mail.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Human...

  2. 76 FR 10909 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Nakamura, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...-402-0838. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome...

  3. 78 FR 47715 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. The meeting will be... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Human...

  4. 77 FR 74676 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute...@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome...

  5. 77 FR 12604 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... >Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, CIDR Contract. Date...: National Human Genome Reseach Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 4076, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  6. 78 FR 21382 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome... Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research...

  7. 76 FR 29772 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; ELSI-SEP. Date: June...: Rudy O. Pozzatti, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Human...

  8. 78 FR 61851 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research... Human Genome Research Institute, 4076 Conference Room, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20852... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  9. 78 FR 20696 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Research... and fact-finding with respect to the research activities within the Human Exploration and Operations... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Research Subcommittee of the Human...

  10. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  11. Climate change, human health, and biomedical research: analysis of the National Institutes of Health research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Christine M; Balbus, John M; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E; Newton, Sheila A; Reid, Britt C; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH's strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health.

  12. Human Research Program Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Gail; Lewandowski, Beth; Nall, Marsha; Norsk, Peter; Linnehan, Rick; Baumann, David

    2015-01-01

    Exercise countermeasures provide benefits that are crucial for successful human spaceflight, to mitigate the spaceflight physiological deconditioning which occurs during exposure to microgravity. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) is managing next generation Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) requirements development and candidate technology maturation to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 (ground prototyping and flight demonstration) for all exploration mission profiles from Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Exploration Missions (up to 21 day duration) to Mars Transit (up to 1000 day duration) missions. These validated and optimized exercise countermeasures systems will be provided to the ISS Program and MPCV Program for subsequent flight development and operations. The International Space Station (ISS) currently has three major pieces of operational exercise countermeasures hardware: the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), the second-generation (T2) treadmill, and the cycle ergometer with vibration isolation system (CEVIS). This suite of exercise countermeasures hardware serves as a benchmark and is a vast improvement over previous generations of countermeasures hardware, providing both aerobic and resistive exercise for the crew. However, vehicle and resource constraints for future exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit will require that the exercise countermeasures hardware mass, volume, and power be minimized, while preserving the current ISS capabilities or even enhancing these exercise capabilities directed at mission specific physiological functional performance and medical standards requirements. Further, mission-specific considerations such as preservation of sensorimotor function, autonomous and adaptable operation, integration with medical data systems, rehabilitation, and in-flight monitoring and feedback are being developed for integration with the exercise

  13. Heterogeneity of Human Research Ethics Committees and Research Governance Offices across Australia: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth De Smit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. Aims To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs and Research Governance Offices (RGOs across Australia. Methods In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA, for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Results Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a “National Ethics Application Form” and three a “Low Negligible Risk” form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22 and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days. Conclusion We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently

  14. A LARGE HUMAN CENTRIFUGE FOR EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack J.W.A. van Loon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses concepts regarding the development of an Altered Gravity Platform (AGP that will serve as a research platform for human space exploration. Space flight causes a multitude of physiological problems, many of which are due to gravity level transitions. Going from Earth's gravity to microgravity generates fluid shifts, space motion sickness, cardiovascular deconditioning among other changes, and returning to a gravity environment again puts the astronauts under similar stressors. A prolonged stay in microgravity provokes additional deleterious changes such as bone loss, muscle atrophy and loss of coordination or specific psychological stresses. To prepare for future manned space exploration missions, a ground-based research test bed for validating countermeasures against the deleterious effects of g-level transitions is needed. The proposed AGP is a large rotating facility (diameter > 150 m, where gravity levels ranging from 1.1 to 1.5g are generated, covering short episodes or during prolonged stays of weeks or even months. On this platform, facilities are built where a crew of 6 to 8 humans can live autonomously. Adaptation from 1 g to higher g levels can be studied extensively and monitored continuously. Similarly, re-adaptation back to 1 g, after a prolonged period of altered g can also be investigated. Study of the physiological and psychological adaptation to changing g-levels will provide instrumental and predictive knowledge to better define the ultimate countermeasures that are needed for future successful manned space exploration missions to the Moon, Mars and elsewhere. The AGP initiative will allow scientific top experts in Europe and worldwide to investigate the necessary scientific, operational, and engineering inputs required for such space missions. Because so many different physiological systems are involved in adaptation to gravity levels, a multidisciplinary approach is crucial. One of the final and crucial

  15. Why a true account of human development requires exemplar research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, William; Colby, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This chapter uses moral psychology to illustrate why exemplar methods are essential for building a valid, complete understanding of key domains of human development. Social psychological, economic, and biological-evolutionary paradigms for studying morality rely on samples drawn from the general population. This research reveals a bleak picture of morality, highlighting its irrational, self-interested, externally controlled aspects. If the subjects in these studies are confused, pliable, or profit-maximizing, these studies conclude that people in general are morally irrational and self-interested. In contrast, studies that investigate morally exceptional individuals reveal a more thoughtful, ideal-driven, self-reflective, creative version of moral functioning. Any account that neglects this high-functioning segment of the range is seriously misleading and cannot provide the basis for aspiration or education. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Hepcidin modulation in human diseases: From research to clinic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Piperno; Raffaella Mariani; Paola Trombini; Domenico Girelli

    2009-01-01

    By modulating hepcidin production, an organism controls intestinal iron absorption, iron uptake and mobilization from stores to meet body iron need. In recent years there has been important advancement in our knowledge of hepcidin regulation that also has implications for understanding the physiopathology of some human disorders. Since the discovery of hepcidin and the demonstration of its pivotal role in iron homeostasis, there has been a substantial interest in developing a reliable assay of the hormone in biological fluids. Measurement of hepcidin in biological fluids can improve our understanding of iron diseases and be a useful tool for diagnosis and clinical management of these disorders. We reviewed the literature and our own research on hepcidin to give an updated status of the situation in this rapidly evolving field.

  17. Interdisciplinary Research between Theoretical Informatics and the Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Jing Tian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the interdisciplinary research between Theoretical Informatics (TI and the Humanities (philosophy, history, literature, etc.. There are five main sections: 1. A brief introduction to TI and its functions in the aspects of worldview and methodology, 2. An illustration of the problems associated with dualism as set out by Plato and René Descartes by means of a theoretical model of the mutual contact and interaction between the material world and the information world, 3. An explanation of the historical view of R. G. Collingwood through informationalism, 4. A discussion of the basic concepts for Humanistic Informatics which is under construction, and 5. A proposal of some approach to the new subject in information science.

  18. Introduction: Kidney Stone Research, Lessons From Human Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Fredric L.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, the prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and calcium phosphate; 10% of struvite; 9% of uric acid; and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stone. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. In this introduction, I have outlined our current thinking of the possible mechanisms involved in stone formation based on our biopsy data collected from a series of human kidney stone formers. In addition, I have presented a set of questions as a means of focusing future research in this field.

  19. Spirituality and humanization according to nursing undergraduates: an action research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Coscrato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To know the conceptions of undergraduates from the Teaching Diploma Program with Bachelor degree in Nursing at a public state-owned higher education institution in an interior city in the State of São Paulo about spirituality and humanization, as well as to propose educative action in that sense. Methodoly. A qualitative study was undertaken, using the action research method. The data were collected in the second semester of 2012 through participant observation, registered in a field diary, and interviews with the help of questionnaires. For the interpretative data analysis, categorization was used. Results. The implicit predominance of the technical-procedure care discourse was observed, to the detriment of the educational care discourse, as complementary constructs, according to the participant' statements. Nevertheless, the educational action permitted constructivism and the problematization of knowledge. Conclusion. Although the results may not reflect the reality at the investigated institution, it is concluded that the academic education of nurse educators is a moment of possibilities to include spirituality and humanization, regarding the development of competences that grant individual support to patients and families, in health promotion and coping with disease situations.

  20. Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alan E.

    2015-06-01

    Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.

  1. The future of human embryonic stem cell research: addressing ethical conflict with responsible scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, David M

    2004-05-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have almost unlimited regenerative capacity and can potentially generate any body tissue. Hence they hold great promise for the cure of degenerative human diseases. But their derivation and the potential for misuse have raised a number of ethical issues. These ethical issues threaten to paralyze pubic funding for ES cell research, leaving experimentation in the hands of the private sector and precluding the public's ability to monitor practices, research alternatives, and effectively address the very ethical issues that are cause for concern in the first place. With new technology being inevitable, and the potential for abuse high, government must stay involved if the public is to play a role in shaping the direction of research. In this essay, I will define levels of ethical conflict that can be delineated by the anticipated advances in technology. From the urgent need to derive new ES cell lines with existing technology, to the most far-reaching goal of deriving genetically identical tissues from an adult patients cells, technology-specific ethical dilemmas can be defined and addressed. This staged approach provides a solid ethical framework for moving forward with ES cell research. Moreover, by anticipating the moral conflicts to come, one can predict the types of scientific advances that could overcome these conflicts, and appropriately direct federal funding toward these goals to offset potentially less responsible research directives that will inevitably go forward via private or foreign funding.

  2. Human Library Researches in China%我国Human Library研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南爱峰

    2012-01-01

    human library概念引入我国时间虽然很短,但近年来研究进展迅速,在图情领域形成了研究热点。系统回顾我国human library研究历程,总结其本土研究短期内飞跃发展、前瞻创新性强及与高校职能结合研究较为充分等特征,从加快理论成果的实践转化、深入挖掘泛社会涵义、架构有机研究体系、加强与国外研究交流等方面提出发展建议。%Though with short history, the human library research in China has made big progress in the recent years and formed a hotspot in the field of library and information. Through systematic review of the study course, such characteristics as rapid development in short time to a relatively high level, forward-looking innovation and strong combination with the function of the universities are summed up. Proposals like speeding up the transformation from theory to practice, digging deeper for pan-social implications, building up organic research system and strengthening exchanges with foreign scholars are followed by.

  3. Human Health Risk Assessment Strategic Research Action Plan 2012-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document outlines the strategic plan for EPA’s Human Health Risk Assessment research efforts, and how they support and are integrated into the overall research portfolio of the Agency’s Office of Research and Development.

  4. Human Research Program 2010 Chair Standing Review Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The 13 Human Research Program (HRP) Standing Review Panel (SRP) Chairs, and in some cases one or two additional panel members (see section XIV, roster) referred to as the Chair (+1) SRP throughout this document, met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 7, 2010 to allow the HRP Elements and Projects to report on their progress over the past year, their current status, and their plans for the upcoming year based on NASA's current goals and objectives for human space exploration. A large focus of the meeting was also used to discuss integration across the HRP scientific disciplines based on a recommendation from the 2009 HRP SRP review. During the one-day meeting, each of the HRP Elements and Projects presented the changes they made to the HRP Integrated Research Plan (IRP Rev. B) over the last year, and what their top three areas of integration are between other HRP Elements/Projects. The Chair (+1) SRP spent sufficient time addressing the panel charge, either as a group or in a separate closed session, and the Chair (+1) SRP and the HRP presenters and observers, in most cases, had sufficient time to discuss during and after the presentations. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, prior to the close of the meeting on December 7, 2010. Overall, the Chair (+1) SRP concluded that most of the HRP Elements/Projects did a commendable job during the past year in addressing integration across the HRP scientific disciplines with the available resources. The Chair (+1) SRP agreed that the idea of integration between HRP Elements/Projects is noble, but believes all parties involved should have the same definition of integration, in order to be successful. The Chair (+1) SRP also believes that a key to successful integration is communication among the HRP Elements/Projects which may present a challenge. The Chair (+1) SRP recommends that the HRP have a workshop on program integration (with HRP Element

  5. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistrian, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) reviewed and discussed the specific gaps and tasks for the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element related to nutrition identified in the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan. There was general consensus that the described gaps and proposed tasks were critical to future NASA mission success. The SRP acknowledged the high scientific quality of the work currently being undertaken by the Nutritional Biochemistry group under the direction of Dr. Scott Smith. In review of the entire HRP, four new gaps were identified that complement the Element's existing research activities. Given the limitations of ground-based analogs for many of the unique physiological and metabolic alterations in space, future studies are needed to quantify nutritional factors that change during actual space flight. In addition, future tasks should seek to better evaluate the time course of physiological and metabolic alterations during flight to better predict alterations during longer duration missions. Finally, given the recent data suggesting a potential role for increased inflammatory responses during space flight, the role of inflammation needs to be explored in detail, including the development of potential countermeasures and new ground based analogs, if this possibility is confirmed.

  6. Hardware Development Process for Human Research Facility Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. The source of hardware requirements is the science community and HRF program. The HRF Science Working Group, consisting of SCientists from various medical disciplines, defined a basic set of equipment with functional requirements. This established the performance requirements of the hardware. HRF program requirements focus on making the hardware safe and operational in a space environment. This includes structural, thermal, human factors, and material requirements. Science and HRF program requirements are defined in a hardware requirements document which includes verification methods. Once the hardware is fabricated, requirements are verified by inspection, test, analysis, or demonstration. All data is compiled and reviewed to certify the hardware for flight. Obviously, the basis for all hardware development activities is requirement definition. Full and complete requirement definition is ideal prior to initiating the hardware development. However, this is generally not the case, but the hardware team typically has functional inputs as a guide. The first step is for engineers to conduct market research based on the functional inputs provided by scientists. CommerCially available products are evaluated against the science requirements as

  7. Human Research Program Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, Anna; Badler, Norman; Butler, Keith; Cummings, Mary; DeLucia, Patricia; Endsley, Mica; Scholtz, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated 22 gaps and 39 tasks in the three risk areas assigned to the SHFE Project. The area where tasks were best designed to close the gaps and the fewest gaps were left out was the Risk of Reduced Safety and Efficiency dire to Inadequate Design of Vehicle, Environment, Tools or Equipment. The areas where there were more issues with gaps and tasks, including poor or inadequate fit of tasks to gaps and missing gaps, were Risk of Errors due to Poor Task Design and Risk of Error due to Inadequate Information. One risk, the Risk of Errors due to Inappropriate Levels of Trust in Automation, should be added. If astronauts trust automation too much in areas where it should not be trusted, but rather tempered with human judgment and decision making, they will incur errors. Conversely, if they do not trust automation when it should be trusted, as in cases where it can sense aspects of the environment such as radiation levels or distances in space, they will also incur errors. This will be a larger risk when astronauts are less able to rely on human mission control experts and are out of touch, far away, and on their own. The SRP also identified 11 new gaps and five new tasks. Although the SRP had an extremely large quantity of reading material prior to and during the meeting, we still did not feel we had an overview of the activities and tasks the astronauts would be performing in exploration missions. Without a detailed task analysis and taxonomy of activities the humans would be engaged in, we felt it was impossible to know whether the gaps and tasks were really sufficient to insure human safety, performance, and comfort in the exploration missions. The SRP had difficulty evaluating many of the gaps and tasks that were not as quantitative as those related to concrete physical danger such as excessive noise and vibration. Often the research tasks for cognitive risks that accompany poor task or

  8. [Clinical research XXIV. From clinical judgment to ethics in research on humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Talavera, Juan O

    2014-01-01

    Bioethics in research is an essential part of the structured review process of an article and it is based on three fundamental principles: respect for persons, beneficence and justice. In addition to not providing valid knowledge, a research with inadequate design, execution and statistical analysis is not ethical either, since these methodological deficiencies will produce information that will not be useful and, therefore, the risks that the participants were exposed to will have been in vain. Beyond scientific validity, there are other aspects that outline if an investigation is ethical, such as the clinical and social value of a study, a fair selection of participants, favorable risk-benefit balance, an independent review, the informed consent and respect for participants and potential participants. Throughout the article here presented, the documents that profile the behavior of investigators to protect the participants, such as the Declaration of Helsinki, the national regulations that rule us and the differences between research without risk, with minimal risk and with greater than minimal risk are discussed. That like in daily life, behavior in research involving human participants must be self-regulated, ie, people with knowledge of the existence of the law discover that the man is outside the realm of nature where work is done under the necessity of natural causality, and falls within the scope of the will; only if the man is free to decide their actions may be a law regulating their action.

  9. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    reduced carbon emissions are central to the design and optimization of future low carbon transport systems. Gaker et al (2011) suggest a framework, and provide insight into the willingness of transport consumers to pay for emission reductions of carbon dioxide from their personal transport choices within the context of other attributes of transport variables. The results of this study, although limited to a small demographic segment of the US population, demonstrate that people can integrate information on greenhouse gas emissions with other transport attributes including cost and time. Likewise, the research shows that the study group was willing to pay for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions associated with their transport choices. The study examined auto purchase choice, transport mode choice and transport route choice, which represent key decisions associated with transport that impact greenhouse gas emissions. Interestingly, they found that the study group was willing to pay for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at a relatively consistent price across these transport choices. Clearly, the study results may not broadly apply to all demographics of users of transport, even in the study domain, due to the small demographic segment that was examined and the fact that the study was conducted in the laboratory. However, the methods used by Gaker et al (2011) are cause for optimism that future studies can obtain much needed mapping of transport preferences and willingness to pay for greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with personal transport choices. Although the Gaker et al (2011) study is directed at understanding the promotion of low carbon transport in the context of existing infrastructures, the ability of these studies to elucidate human behavior and preferences within the trade-offs of transport are critical to the design of future transport systems that seek to meet transport demand with constrained greenhouse gas emissions. Additional studies of

  10. A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring (Principal Investigator)

    2011-09-01

    By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

  11. 77 FR 67385 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research...

  12. 78 FR 66752 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 15, 2013, 01:00 p.m. to October 15, 2013, 02:30 p.m., National...

  13. 76 FR 65738 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research...

  14. 77 FR 55853 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research, September 10, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to September 11, 2012, 5 p.m., National Institutes...

  15. 76 FR 63932 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, ENCODE Technology RFA...- 4280, mckenneyk@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172,...

  16. 75 FR 53703 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes... review and funding cycle. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human...

  17. 77 FR 27471 - National Human Genome Research Institute Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research, May 21, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to May 22, 2012, 5:00 p.m., National Institutes of Health,...

  18. 75 FR 26762 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research... No: 2010-11051] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National...

  19. 76 FR 71581 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research...

  20. 78 FR 65342 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research...

  1. Evolution of Attitudes in the Field of Human Research Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Escobar-Melo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The state of evolution of attitudes in a sample of 142 Medical Students at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogota (at the beginning, middle and ending of their studies in the field of Human Research Ethics (HRE is analytically described. A complex scale of attitudes was used, with three components: affective, beliefs-related and behavioral, further divided into three theoretical categories taken from Bioethics: Subject-End/means- Dignity, Benefit and Justice. The relationship between the current medical education process and the attitudes regarding HRE in the sample are analyzed.A small trend towards progress in all categories and in all components of attitudes throughout medical education is described; neither the Benefit nor the Subject-End/means/Dignity categories evolve in a significant way; some significant differences were observed in the Justice category (beliefs and behavioral and in the Subject-End/means-Dignity category (beliefs component. The results allow for asking about the role of formation and evolution of those attitudes throughout the academic process. In conclusion, attitudes seem to be progressing relatively, without a decisive evolution.

  2. Bioastronautics: optimizing human performance through research and medical innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.

    2002-01-01

    A strategic use of resources is essential to achieving long-duration space travel and understanding the human physiological changes in space, including the roles of food and nutrition in space. To effectively address the challenges of space flight, the Bioastronautics Initiative, undertaken in 2001, expands extramural collaboration and leverages unique capabilities of the scientific community and the federal government, all the while applying this integrated knowledge to Earth-based problems. Integral to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions in space is the reduction of risk of medical complications, particularly during missions of long duration. Cumulative medical experience and research provide the ability to develop evidence-based medicine for prevention, countermeasures, and treatment modalities for space flight. The early approach applied terrestrial clinical judgment to predict medical problems in space. Space medicine has evolved to an evidence-based approach with the use of biomedical data gathered and lessons learned from previous space flight missions to systematically aid in decision making. This approach led, for example, to the determination of preliminary nutritional requirements for space flight, and it aids in the development of nutrition itself as a countermeasure to support nutritional mitigation of adaptation to space.

  3. Bioengineered models of solid human tumors for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano-Kruik, Alessandro; Villasante, Aranzazu; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Summary The lack of controllable in vitro models that can recapitulate the features of solid tumors such as Ewing’s sarcoma limits our understanding of the tumor initiation and progression and impedes the development of new therapies. Cancer research still relies of the use of simple cell culture, tumor spheroids, and small animals. Tissue-engineered tumor models are now being grown in vitro to mimic the actual tumors in patients. Recently, we have established a new protocol for bioengineering the Ewing’s sarcoma, by infusing tumor cell aggregates into the human bone engineered from the patient’s mesenchymal stem cells. The bone niche allows crosstalk between the tumor cells, osteoblasts and supporting cells of the bone, extracellular matrix and the tissue microenvironment. The bioreactor platform used in these experiments also allows the implementation of physiologically relevant mechanical signals. Here, we describe a method to build an in vitro model of Ewing’s sarcoma that mimics the key properties of the native tumor and provides the tissue context and physical regulatory signals. PMID:27115504

  4. Teaching Qualitative Research for Human Services Students: A Three-Phase Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussinsky, Ruhama; Reshef, Arie; Yanay-Ventura, Galit; Yassour-Borochowitz, Dalit

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative research is an inherent part of the human services profession, since it emphasizes the great and multifaceted complexity characterizing human experience and the sociocultural context in which humans act. In the department of human services at Emek Yezreel College, Israel, we have developed a three-phase model to ensure a relatively…

  5. 77 FR 8268 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome...). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome...

  6. 78 FR 64222 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Committee, CEGS-- Initiative to Maximize Research Education in Genomics. Date: November 7-8, 2013. Time: 8..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Human Genome Research...: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National...

  7. 75 FR 8085 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). On July 7, 2009, NIH issued Guidelines ( http...-funded stem cell research, to establish policy and procedures under which the NIH will fund such research...

  8. Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Human Performance Technology: Examples from Behavioral, Cognitive, and Constructivist Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethower, Dale M.

    2000-01-01

    Considers how to integrate theory, research, and practice in human performance technology. Discusses human learning; market pull versus knowledge push; using inquiry to connect theory, research, and practice; constructivist examples; behavioral and cognitive approaches; and differences in research methodologies. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)

  9. Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Human Performance Technology: Examples from Behavioral, Cognitive, and Constructivist Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethower, Dale M.

    2000-01-01

    Considers how to integrate theory, research, and practice in human performance technology. Discusses human learning; market pull versus knowledge push; using inquiry to connect theory, research, and practice; constructivist examples; behavioral and cognitive approaches; and differences in research methodologies. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)

  10. Assessing the Impact of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) assesses the impacts of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed case studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of impacts. Many of these…

  11. Assessing the Impact of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) assesses the impacts of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed case studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of impacts. Many of these…

  12. Where's the emotion? How sport psychology can inform research on emotion in human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.

  13. Handbook of Research on E-Transformation and Human Resources Management Technologies: Organizational Outcomes and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Digital advancements and discoveries are now challenging traditional human resource management services within businesses. The Handbook of Research on E-Transformation and Human Resources Management Technologies: Organizational Outcomes and Challenges provides practical, situated, and unique

  14. Enhancing Interdisciplinary Human System Risk Research Through Modeling and Network Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Shelhamer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) supports research to reduce human health and performance risks inherent in future human space exploration missions. Understanding risk outcomes and contributing factors in an integrated manner allows HRP research to support development of efficient and effective mitigations from cross-disciplinary perspectives, and to enable resilient human and engineered systems for spaceflight. The purpose of this work is to support scientific collaborations and research portfolio management by utilizing modeling for analysis and visualization of current and potential future interdisciplinary efforts.

  15. Principles for ethical research involving humans: ethical professional practice in impact assessment Part I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vanclay, Frank; Baines, James T; Taylor, C. Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    ... methods textbooks, this paper identifies current principles for ethical research involving humans and discusses their implications for impact assessment practice generally and social impact assessment specifically...

  16. New perspectives in human stem cell therapeutic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trounson Alan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but the efficacy data are variable and of mixed benefit. Mechanisms of action of many of these cells are unknown and this raises the concern of unpredictable results in the future. Nevertheless there is considerable optimism that immune suppression and anti-inflammatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells will be of benefit for many conditions such as graft versus host disease, solid organ transplants and pulmonary fibrosis. Where bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells are being studied for heart disease, stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders, again progress is mixed and mostly without significant benefit. However, correction of multiple sclerosis, at least in the short term is encouraging. Clinical trials on the use of embryonic stem cell derivatives for spinal injury and macular degeneration are beginning and a raft of other clinical trials can be expected soon, for example, the use of neural stem cells for killing inoperable glioma and embryonic stem cells for regenerating β islet cells for diabetes. The change in attitude to embryonic stem cell research with the incoming Obama administration heralds a new co-operative environment for study and evaluation of stem cell therapies. The Californian stem cell initiative (California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has engendered global collaboration for this new medicine that will now also be supported by the US Federal Government. The active participation of governments, academia, biotechnology, pharmaceutical companies, and private investment is a powerful consortium for

  17. Human iPSC-derived neurons and lymphoblastoid cells for personalized medicine research in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwitz, David

    2016-01-01

    The development and clinical implementation of personalized medicine crucially depends on the availability of high-quality human biosamples; animal models, although capable of modeling complex human diseases, cannot reflect the large variation in the human genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Although the biosamples available from public biobanks that store human tissues and cells may represent the large human diversity for most diseases, these samples are not always sufficient for developing biomarkers for patient-tailored therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders. Postmortem human tissues are available from many biobanks; nevertheless, collections of neuronal human cells from large patient cohorts representing the human diversity remain scarce. Two tools are gaining popularity for personalized medicine research on neuropsychiatric disorders: human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons and human lymphoblastoid cell lines. This review examines and contrasts the advantages and limitations of each tool for personalized medicine research.

  18. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  19. Hans Jonas' Thought on The Ethics of Research on Human Subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Subjects: Implications for Contemporary Medical Research in. Nigeria. Ebeh J.I1 and ... Keywords: Human Research ethics, Nigeria, Hans Jonas. *Author for corresp .... 1998) reported a case of over sixty embryos that were transplanted into ...

  20. [Advances on research of human exposure to triclosan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenye; Chen, Yiming; Zhang, Peiqi; Xiong, Zhezhen; Wang, Caifeng; Tian, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Triclosan, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, was reported to have been widely detected in various human biological samples such as urine, blood and human milk among foreign populations. In China, limited reports have been found on human exposure to triclosan, and the reported urinary triclosan concentrations were significantly lower than that of American populations. Besides, the potential influencing factors still remain unclear regarding human exposure to triclosan, but evidences suggest that those in middle age and with higher household income and higher social class tend to have higher urinary triclosan concentrations. Furthermore, triclosan exposure tend to differ by sex, geography, heredity, metabolism and life style.

  1. [Experience of a research Ethics Committee and the challenges of the new Chilean legislation on research in human beings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún G, Manuel; Pinto C, María Eugenia; Raineri B, Gina G; Amigo, Hugo; Cifuentes O, Lucía; González, María Julieta; Horwitz, Nina; Marshall F, Claudia; Orellana V, Gricel

    2014-07-01

    The welfare of research participants must be guaranteed by international ethical standards. This article communicates the procedures of the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Medicine, University of Chile (CEISH). The new Chilean legislation on research in human beings is also discussed. Law 20.120: "On scientific research in human beings, its genome and forbidding human cloning" establishes the ethical principles that must be accomplished in every research involving human beings. Article 28 of the Law 20.584 "Regulation of the rights and duties of health care users", forbids the participation of handicapped people who cannot express their will in scientific research. Article 13 states that people not related directly with patient care cannot have access to his clinical records (with the exception of people with notarial authorization by the patient). CEISH proposes that, in case of people with intellectual deficiency, the decision to approve a scientific research should be analyzed on an individual basis. If the person is capable of expressing his or her will or has stated his or her consent beforehand, the research can be authorized. If the person cannot express his or her will, the scientific research cannot take place. In prospective studies, a consent from the patient and an authorization of the health authority should be required to access clinical records. In retrospective studies, consent should be obtained from the patient when personal information is going to be used. If the information is nameless, the consent can be disregarded.

  2. Development and Evaluation of a Study Design Typology for Human Research

    OpenAIRE

    Carini, Simona; Pollock, Brad H.; Lehmann, Harold P.; Bakken, Suzanne; Barbour, Edward M.; Gabriel, Davera; Hagler, Herbert K.; Harper, Caryn R.; Mollah, Shamim A.; Nahm, Meredith; Nguyen, Hien H.; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Sim, Ida

    2009-01-01

    A systematic classification of study designs would be useful for researchers, systematic reviewers, readers, and research administrators, among others. As part of the Human Studies Database Project, we developed the Study Design Typology to standardize the classification of study designs in human research. We then performed a multiple observer masked evaluation of active research protocols in four institutions according to a standardized protocol. Thirty-five protocols were classified by thre...

  3. Human Nature and Research Paradigms: Theory Meets Physical Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Margaret M.

    2005-01-01

    Human nature is a very complex phenomenon. In physical therapy this complexity is enhanced by the need to understand the intersection between the art and science of human behavior and patient care. A paradigm is a set of basic beliefs that represent a worldview, defines the nature of the world and the individual's place in it, and helps to…

  4. Research Directory for Manpower, Personnel, Training, and Human Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Design 89 * * * HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING (lIFE) * AIR FORCE Arnaiz J* Gentex Corp 717-282-3550 Support of the Evaluation of Night Vision Devices...Command 8 48 Armstrong R Mr Human Engineering Lab 10 76 Arnaiz J* Gentex Corp 10 90 Arnold D Office of the Chief of Naval Operations 6 41 Arnold L

  5. Building Human Resources Management Capacity for University Research: The Case at Four Leading Vietnamese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. L.

    2016-01-01

    At research-intensive universities, building human resources management (HRM) capacity has become a key approach to enhancing a university's research performance. However, despite aspiring to become a research-intensive university, many teaching-intensive universities in developing countries may not have created effective research-promoted HRM…

  6. Building Human Resources Management Capacity for University Research: The Case at Four Leading Vietnamese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. L.

    2016-01-01

    At research-intensive universities, building human resources management (HRM) capacity has become a key approach to enhancing a university's research performance. However, despite aspiring to become a research-intensive university, many teaching-intensive universities in developing countries may not have created effective research-promoted HRM…

  7. Unfinished business: ongoing ethical exceptionalism in the oversight of human pluripotent stem cell research in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Françoise; Downie, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we critically examine the arguments for and against the exceptional status given human pluripotent stem cell research in Canada (through the latest [December 2010] revision of the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans), and conclude that this exceptionalism is unwarranted and ethically unsound. In our view, the three federal research granting agencies should honor their longstanding commitment that researchers, research sponsors, and Research Ethics Boards in Canada have access to "a single reference document for all research involving humans conducted under the auspices of institutions eligible for Agency funding." As well, responsibility for the development, interpretation, and implementation of Canada's research ethics guidelines should be under the authority of a single oversight body that is independent of the federal research granting Agencies.

  8. Opening the research agenda for selection of hot spots for human biomonitoring research in Belgium: a participatory research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovanova Hana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium, an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human health. The project is funded and steered by the Flemish government. Methods The involvement of other actors than merely experts is inspired by the 'analytical-deliberative' approach of the National Research Council in the United States and the extended peer community approach. These approaches stress the importance of involving different expert- and social perspectives in order to increase the knowledge base on complex issues. In the procedure used in the project a combination of expert and stakeholder input was essential. The final decision was supported by a multi-criteria analysis of expert assessment and stakeholder advice. Results The endeavour was challenging from the start because of the complicated ambition of including a diversity of actors, potential hotspots, concerns and assessment criteria, but nevertheless the procedure proved its value in both structuring and informing the decision-making process. Moreover the process gained the support of most actors participating in the process, even though the final selection could not satisfy all preferences. Conclusions Opening the research agenda exemplifies the value of inter- and transdisciplinary cooperation as well as the need for a well-structured and negotiated procedure that combines relevant factors and actors with pragmatism. The value of such a process also needs to prove itself in practice after the procedure has been completed: the tension between an ambition of openness on the one hand and a more closed

  9. Still Human: A Call for Increased Focus on Ethical Standards in Cadaver Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Michelle C

    2016-12-01

    Research on human cadavers is an important mechanism of scientific progress and comprises a large industry in the United States. However, despite its importance and influence, there is little ethical or regulatory oversight of cadaver-based research. This lack of transparency raises important ethical questions. Thus, this paper serves as a call for ethicists and regulators to pay increased attention to cadaver research. I argue that cadaver research ought to be considered a subset of human subjects research and held accountable to higher ethical standards. After describing current practices, I argue that oversight of cadaver research as a form of human subjects research is appropriate because cadaver research is similar to other types of human research, participants in cadaver research incur risks of harm, and a current lack of oversight has allowed the cadaver industry to entice research participation through ethically questionable practices. This paper urges greater dialogue among human subjects research ethicists and regulators about what constitutes appropriate protections for participants in cadaver research.

  10. 48 CFR 1352.235-73 - Research involving human subjects-after initial contract award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... women, prisoners, or children, the contractor is also required to follow the guidelines set forth at 45... documentation may include: (1) Copies of the human subjects research protocol, advertisements, recruitment... human subjects research protocol, advertisements, recruitment material, and informed consent forms...

  11. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  12. The Contributions of Human Resource Development Research across Disciplines: A Citation and Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, Chang-Wook; Yoon, Hea Jun; Park, Sunyoung; Jo, Sung Jun

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of the current study is to identify how human resource development (HRD) research has contributed to the knowledge base across social science disciplines during the past two decades. We identified the top 20 Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) journal articles that have been most frequently cited in research articles…

  13. The Contributions of Human Resource Development Research across Disciplines: A Citation and Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, Chang-Wook; Yoon, Hea Jun; Park, Sunyoung; Jo, Sung Jun

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of the current study is to identify how human resource development (HRD) research has contributed to the knowledge base across social science disciplines during the past two decades. We identified the top 20 Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) journal articles that have been most frequently cited in research articles…

  14. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  15. MORPHIN: a web tool for human disease research by projecting model organism biology onto a human integrated gene network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Eiru; Yang, Sunmo; Marcotte, Edward M; Lee, Insuk

    2014-07-01

    Despite recent advances in human genetics, model organisms are indispensable for human disease research. Most human disease pathways are evolutionally conserved among other species, where they may phenocopy the human condition or be associated with seemingly unrelated phenotypes. Much of the known gene-to-phenotype association information is distributed across diverse databases, growing rapidly due to new experimental techniques. Accessible bioinformatics tools will therefore facilitate translation of discoveries from model organisms into human disease biology. Here, we present a web-based discovery tool for human disease studies, MORPHIN (model organisms projected on a human integrated gene network), which prioritizes the most relevant human diseases for a given set of model organism genes, potentially highlighting new model systems for human diseases and providing context to model organism studies. Conceptually, MORPHIN investigates human diseases by an orthology-based projection of a set of model organism genes onto a genome-scale human gene network. MORPHIN then prioritizes human diseases by relevance to the projected model organism genes using two distinct methods: a conventional overlap-based gene set enrichment analysis and a network-based measure of closeness between the query and disease gene sets capable of detecting associations undetectable by the conventional overlap-based methods. MORPHIN is freely accessible at http://www.inetbio.org/morphin.

  16. The phenomenological movement and research in the human sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Amedeo

    2005-01-01

    Phenomenology, as a modern movement in philosophy, has focused discussion upon human subjectivity in new and critically important ways. Because human participants can relate intentionally to objects of the world consciousness manifests relationships to things and others that are other than cause-effect relationships. Consequently, the concepts and practices of the natural sciences are not the best model for the human sciences to follow. Husserl in his philosophy introduced a method for a more adequate approach to the achievements of consciousness and when properly modified the phenomenological method can serve as the basis for the human sciences, including nursing. The use of such a method can make the qualitative analysis of phenomena rigorous and scientific.

  17. Brazilian legal and bioethical approach about donation for research and patents of human body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Márcia Santana; Silla, Lúcia; Goldim, José Roberto; Martins-Costa, Judith

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why the Brazilian legal system does not accept commercialization or commodification of human body parts, including genes or cells. As a consequence, in Brazil, the donation of human body parts for research-including basic or translational-must be made altruistically. For the same reason, the Brazilian patent system cannot be applied to human parts, cells or genes. Here, we present a qualitative analysis of juridical, bioethical, and social reasoning related to the legal status of human body parts especially in biobanks, as well as a description of the Brazilian legal system for clarification. Our aim is to discuss the responsibility of researchers for making available the scientific information resulting from scientific research and biobank storage of human body parts and to ensure the free utilization of knowledge in human health research.

  18. Ethical consideration of experimentation using living human embryos: the Catholic Church's position on human embryonic stem cell research and human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, N

    2003-01-01

    Although the potential applications of human embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning hold promise for the alleged medical benefits, these technologies have posed profound ethical issues because they necessitate the destruction of human embryos. A fundamental point in the issues is the concept of the moral status of human embryos. The Catholic Church has held that human life begins at the moment of conception and therefore, has defended the dignity, inviolable right to life and integrity of human embryos. The Catholic Church has opposed human embryonic stem cell research and any kind of human cloning because they are contrary to the dignity of procreation, of conjugal union and of human embryos. Moreover, these techniques have the risk of creating a sub-category of human beings that are destined basically for the convenience of others. In conclusion, science and technology can never be independent of the criterion of morality, since technology exists for man and must respect his finality.

  19. Processo de trabalho no samu e humanização do sus do ponto de vista da atividade humana The samu work process and the humanization developed by the unique health system from the standpoint of human activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Castro Trajano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Procura-se analisar o trabalho dos profissionais do Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (Samu e a Política Nacional de Humanização do Sistema Único de Saúde (PNH/SUS do ponto de vista da atividade humana. Pergunta-se sobre as possibilidades de 'humanização do processo de trabalho' no Samu e sobre o 'agir competente' da urgência móvel em saúde, a partir de referenciais ergológicos. Para construção do artigo partiu-se de discussões marxistas sobre o processo de trabalho como produção de valores de uso; em seguida, abriu-se diálogo sobre processo de trabalho em saúde com base em autores do campo da saúde coletiva e da PNH. A perspectiva ergológica do trabalho é aprofundada no item seguinte, de modo a contribuir para uma análise da atividade dos trabalhadores do Samu/Belo Horizonte durante o atendimento a uma ocorrência de acidente.It is aimed to analyse the work of the professionals from Samu (Service of Mobile Emergency and the Nacional Humanization Politics (PNH developed by the Unique Health System (SUS from the standpoint of human activity. Wondering about the possibilities of 'humanizing the Samu work process' and about the 'act in competence' in the mobile health emergency since the ergologic regardings. The article has as primary basis marxist references on debating about the work process as production of values of use; forththwith, a dialogue about the work process regarding health care since the authors of Public Heath and PNH field. The ergologic perspective about labor is further discussed on the next item, in such a way that contributes to the analisis of Samu/Belo Horizonte workers activities, during the attendance for an accident occurrence.

  20. Natural Disasters and Human Behavior: Explanation, Research and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Christopher

    1979-01-01

    A survey of published research determined that individual and group reactions to natural disasters differ greatly and depend partially on the predisaster personality. Four models are examined to explain individual and group reactions to natural disasters. A conglomerate model and a possible structure to future disaster research are offered.…

  1. Making an Impact: New Directions for Arts and Humanities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The severity of the global economic crisis has put the spotlight firmly on measuring academic and research performance and productivity and assessing its contribution, value, impact and benefit. While, traditionally, research output and impact were measured by peer-publications and citations, there is increased emphasis on a "market-driven…

  2. Enabling research with human embryonic and fetal tissue resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrelli, Dianne; Lisgo, Steven; Copp, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Congenital anomalies are a significant burden on human health. Understanding the developmental origins of such anomalies is key to developing potential therapies. The Human Developmental Biology Resource (HDBR), based in London and Newcastle UK, was established to provide embryonic and fetal material for a variety of human studies ranging from single gene expression analysis to large scale genomic/transcriptomic studies. Increasingly HDBR material is enabling the derivation of stem cell lines and contributing towards developments in tissue engineering. Use of the HDBR and other fetal tissue resources discussed here will contribute to the long term aims of understanding the causation and pathogenesis of congenital anomalies, and developing new methods for their treatment and prevention. PMID:26395135

  3. Human Resource Management in Virtual Organizations. Research in Human Resource Management Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Robert L., Ed.; Greenberger, David B., Ed.

    This document contains 14 papers on human resources (HR) and human resource management (HRM) in virtual organizations. The following papers are included: "Series Preface" (Rodger Griffeth); "Volume Preface" (Robert L. Heneman, David B. Greenberger); "The Virtual Organization: Definition, Description, and…

  4. Human factors research problems in electronic voice warning system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    The speech messages issued by voice warning systems must be carefully designed in accordance with general principles of human decision making processes, human speech comprehension, and the conditions in which the warnings can occur. The operator's effectiveness must not be degraded by messages that are either inappropriate or difficult to comprehend. Important experimental variables include message content, linguistic redundancy, signal/noise ratio, interference with concurrent tasks, and listener expectations generated by the pragmatic or real world context in which the messages are presented.

  5. Social conditions for human happiness: A review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2015-10-01

    Empirical research on happiness took off in the 1970s and accelerated after the emergence of positive psychology by 2000. Today this has resulted in some 23,000 research findings. In this article, I take stock of the findings on social conditions for happiness and distinguish between conditions at the macro level of society, the meso level of organisations and the micro level of individual conditions. A new review technique is applied, an online findings archive is used, in which research findings on happiness are described in a uniform way and sorted by subject. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. To a Question of Research Team’s Human Capital Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Aivazyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The approach based on the concept of stochastic frontier, to assessing of research team’s human capital, performing research with the financial support of the Science Foundation. The relevance of the problem is determined by the expansion of the use of competitive basis funding for research. As an estimate of research team’s human capital accepted the potential size of the financing in terms of effective use of research team’s human capital. Presents an econometric model, allowed to obtain estimates of the efficiency of research team’s human capital, have received financial support fund for scientific research. As a measure of efficiency is considered matching the size of the financial support of his research team characteristics of human capital. Formulated statistical hypothesis, test results which can be used to improve the competitive application forms and expert profiles, used the fund. It is noted, that when checking the hypothesis of no inefficiency of research team’s human capital, should be used the machine of copula functions, expanding the scope of the stochastic frontier methodology at the expense of rejection of the assumption of independence of the random components of the econometric model and allowing a correct estimates of the efficiency in terms of their dependence.

  7. Human Science for Human Freedom? Piaget's Developmental Research and Foucault's Ethical Truth Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2012-01-01

    The construction of the modern subject and the pursuit of human freedom and autonomy, as well as the practice of human science has been pivotal in the development of modern education. But for Foucault, the subject is only the effect of discourses and power-knowledge arrangements, and modern human science is part of the very arrangement that has…

  8. Human Science for Human Freedom? Piaget's Developmental Research and Foucault's Ethical Truth Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2012-01-01

    The construction of the modern subject and the pursuit of human freedom and autonomy, as well as the practice of human science has been pivotal in the development of modern education. But for Foucault, the subject is only the effect of discourses and power-knowledge arrangements, and modern human science is part of the very arrangement that has…

  9. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail F Davies

    Full Text Available Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs', work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving

  10. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  11. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  12. 77 FR 37408 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... Protections (OHRP), or Julia Gorey, J.D., Executive Director, SACHRP; U.S. Department of Health and Human...; email address: Julia.Gorey@hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under the authority of 42 U.S.C. 217a... as sign language interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the...

  13. 77 FR 58383 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Julia Gorey, J.D., Executive Director, SACHRP; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1101...: Julia.Gorey@hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under the authority of 42 U.S.C. 217a, Section 222 of.... Individuals who plan to attend the meeting and need special assistance, such as sign language...

  14. 75 FR 59264 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... (OHRP), or Julia Gorey, J.D., Executive Director, SACHRP; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services... address: Julia.Gorey@hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under the authority of 42 U.S.C. 217a, Section.... Individuals who plan to attend the meeting and need special assistance, such as sign language...

  15. Serial sections and human embryology: a new research initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, A

    1996-01-01

    The author provides an historical and current view of the work of the Human Developmental Anatomy Center of the National Museum of Health and Medicine of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Washington, DC. A project to create and disseminate electronic images from the extensive holdings, as presented at a 1994 National Institutes of Health conference, is described.

  16. Research to Integrate Productivity Enhancement, Environmental Protection, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the challenges of poverty and environmental sustainability, a different kind of research will be needed. This research will need to embrace the complexity of these systems by redirecting the objectives of research toward enhancing adaptive capacity, by incorporating more participatory approaches, by embracing key principles such as multi-scale analysis and intervention, and by the use of a variety of tools (e.g., systems analysis, information management tools, and impact assessment tools. Integration will be the key concept in the new approach; integration across scales, components, stakeholders, and disciplines. Integrated approaches, as described in this Special Feature, will require changes in the culture and organization of research.

  17. The politics of risk: a human rights paradigm for children's environmental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Maura A

    2006-10-01

    A human rights paradigm for environmental health research makes explicit the relationship between poor health and poverty, inequality, and social and political marginalization, and it aims at civic problem solving. In so doing, it incorporates support for community-based, participatory research and takes seriously the social responsibilities of researchers. For these reasons, a human rights approach may be better able than conventional bioethics to address the unique issues that arise in the context of pediatric environmental health research, particularly the place of environmental justice standards in research. At the same time, as illustrated by disagreements over the ethics of research into lead abatement methods, bringing a human rights paradigm to bear in the context of environmental health research requires resolving important tensions at its heart, particularly the inescapable tension between ethical ideals and political realities.

  18. Research assessment in the humanities: problems and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Galimberti Paola,

    2010-01-01

    Research assessment is going to play a new role in the governance of universities and research institutions. Evaluation of results is evolving from a simple tool for resource allocation towards policy design. In this respect "measuring" implies a different approach to quantitative aspects as well as to an estimation of qualitative criteria that are difficult to define. Bibliometrics became so popular, in spite of its limits, just offering a simple solution to complex problems. The theory behi...

  19. GPS Technology and Human Psychological Research: A Methodological Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S. A. Wolf

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal behaviorists have made extensive use of GPS technology since 1991. In contrast, psychological research has made little use of the technology, even though the technology is relatively inexpensive, familiar, and widespread. Hence, its potential for pure and applied psychological research remains untapped. We describe three methods psychologists could apply to individual differences research, clinical research, or spatial use research. In the context of individual differences research, GPS technology permits us to test hypotheses predicting specific relations among patterns of spatial use and individual differences variables. In a clinical context, GPS technology provides outcome measures that may relate to the outcome of interventions designed to treat psychological disorders that, for example, may leave a person homebound (e.g. Agoraphobia, PTSD, TBI. Finally, GPS technology provides natural measures of spatial use. We, for example, used GPS technology to quantify traffic flow and exhibit use at the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum. Interested parties could easily extend this methodology some aspects of urban planning or business usage.DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.74

  20. The pluralistic water research concept - a new human-water system research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Mariele; Höllermann, Britta; Almoradie, Adrian; Taft, Linda; Garcia-Santos, Glenda

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable water resources management has been and still is a main challenge for decision makers even though for the past number of decades integrative approaches and concepts (e.g. Integrated Water Resources Management - IWRM) have been developed to address problems on floods, droughts, water quality, water quantity, environment and ecology. Although somehow these approaches are aiming to address water related problems in an integrative approach and to some extent include or involve society in the planning and management, they still lack some of the vital components in including the social dimensions and their interaction with water. Understanding these dynamics in a holistic way and how they are shaped by time and space may tackle these shortcomings and provide more effective and sustainable management solutions with respect to a set of potential present social actions and values as well as possible futures. This paper aims to discuss challenges to coherently and comprehensively integrate the social dimensions of different human-water concepts like IWRM, socio-hydrology and waterscape. Against this background it will develop criteria for an integrative approach and present a newly developed concept termed pluralistic water research (PWR) concept. PWR is not only a pluralistic but also an integrative and interdisciplinary approach to acknowledge the social and water dimensions and their interaction and dynamics by considering more than one perspective of a water-related issue, hereby providing a set of multiple (future) developments. Our PWR concept will be illustrated by a case study application of the Canary island La Gomera. Furthermore an outlook on further possible developments of the PWR concept will be presented and discussed.

  1. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN THE ETHICAL CONDUCT OF HUMAN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the concern for human research subject protection has increased markedly in the United States. The nature of research subject participation in controlled exposure environmental health research is such that the individual subject bears the risk of participation w...

  2. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Dental Caries Research Using Human Subjects: Conference Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Joanna

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research are discussed. It is concluded that dentistry must not uncritically accept guidelines meant for a broader class of research, that guidelines can be misapplied, and that researchers must educate themselves on the Commission…

  3. Swinging on the pendulum. Shifting views of justice in human subjects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, A; Kahn, J

    2001-01-01

    Federal policies on human subjects research have performed a near-about face. In the 1970s, policies were motivated chiefly by a belief that subjects needed protection from the harms and risks of research. Now the driving concern is that patients, and the populations they represent, need access to the benefits of research.

  4. Human Resource Development Scholar-Practitioners: Connecting the Broken Divide of Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Claretha H.; Wang, Jia; Zheng, Wei; McLean, Laird

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of combining research and practice in HRD [Human Resource Development] led to continuing debate concerning who are scholar-practitioners and how they combine research and practice in the workplace. A study of seven scholar-practitioners provides some answers for HRD scholar-practitioners on connecting research and practice. The…

  5. Advancing multilevel thinking in human resource management research: applications and guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Maarten; Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tatiana

    Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) researchers have recently turned their attention to using various levels of analysis in examining the relationship between HRM and performance. Despite several calls for research that integrates multiple levels of analysis, HRM research has yet to apply a

  6. The research subject advocate at minority Clinical Research Centers: an added resource for protection of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easa, David; Norris, Keith; Hammatt, Zoë; Kim, Kari; Hernandez, Esther; Kato, Kambrie; Balaraman, Venkataraman; Ho, Tammy; Shomaker, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    In early 2001, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) created the research subject advocate (RSA) position as an additional resource for human subjects protection at NIH-funded Clinical Research Centers (CRCs) to enhance the protection of human participants in clinical research studies. We describe the RSA position in the context of clinical research, with a particular emphasis on the role of the RSA in two of the five CRCs funded by the NIH Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) program. Through participation in protocol development, informed consent procedures, study implementation and follow-up with adverse events, the RSA works closely with research investigators and their staff to protect study participants. The RSA also conducts workshops, training and education sessions, and consultation with investigators to foster enhanced communication and adherence to ethical standards and safety regulations. Although we cannot yet provide substantive evidence of positive outcomes, this article illuminates the value of the RSA position in ensuring that safety of research participants is accorded the highest priority at CRCs. On the basis of initial results, we conclude that the RSA is an effective mechanism for achieving the NIH goal of maintaining the utmost scrutiny of protocols involving human subjects.

  7. Research on Human Sensory Architecture for Cyber Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhejun Kuang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available CPS is complex distributed systems, which contain computing, communications, and control. CPS is a product of the combination of physical world and the cyber world. The cyber world needs a lot of physical equipment to deal with perception and communication, then collect and transfer the information in the real environment, and by computation to forecast what might happen in future real environment, at last through the control strategy to achieve the optimal solution. In short, cyber physical system is the complex systems combination with computation system, sensory system and control system. Cyber physical system through more extensive connection, the physical world more thorough cognition, more effectively control the physical world, make the information world and the physical world closer integration, realize coordination awareness and control of the physical world. The paper through the analysis of the human perception system, build a cyber-physical fusion system based on human perception architecture. 

  8. Research on Human Sensory Architecture for Cyber Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhejun Kuang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available CPS is complex distributed systems, which contain computing, communications, and control. CPS is a product of the combination of physical world and the cyber world. The cyber world needs a lot of physical equipment to deal with perception and communication, then collect and transfer the information in the real environment, and by computation to forecast what might happen in future real environment, at last through the control strategy to achieve the optimal solution. In short, cyber physical system is the complex systems combination with computation system, sensory system and control system. Cyber physical system through more extensive connection, the physical world more thorough cognition, more effectively control the physical world, make the information world and the physical world closer integration, realize coordination awareness and control of the physical world. The paper through the analysis of the human perception system, build a cyber-physical fusion system based on human perception architecture. 

  9. Problematizing Digital Research Evaluation using DOIs in Practice-Based Arts, Humanities and Social Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swijghuisen Reigersberg, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores emerging practices in research data management in the arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS). It will do so vis-à-vis current citation conventions and impact measurement for research in AHSS. Case study findings on research data inventoried at Goldsmiths', University of London will be presented. Goldsmiths is a UK research-intensive higher education institution which specialises in arts, humanities and social science research. The paper's aim is to raise awareness of the subject-specific needs of AHSS scholars to help inform the design of future digital tools for impact analysis in AHSS. Firstly, I shall explore the definition of research data and how it is currently understood by AHSS researchers. I will show why many researchers choose not to engage with digital dissemination techniques and ORCID. This discussion must necessarily include the idea that practice-based and applied AHSS research are processes which are not easily captured in numerical 'sets' and cannot be labelled electronically without giving careful consideration to what a group or data item 'represents' as part of the academic enquiry, and therefore how it should be cited and analysed as part of any impact assessment. Then, the paper will explore: the role of the monograph and arts catalogue in AHSS scholarship; how citation practices and digital impact measurement in AHSS currently operate in relation to authorship and how digital identifiers may hypothetically impact on metrics, intellectual property (IP), copyright and research integrity issues in AHSS. I will also show that, if we are to be truly interdisciplinary, as research funders and strategic thinkers say we should, it is necessary to revise the way we think about digital research dissemination. This will involve breaking down the boundaries between AHSS and other types of research.

  10. Human and animal research guidelines: aligning ethical constructs with new scientific developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsian, Hope

    2011-10-01

    Both human research and animal research operate within established standards and procedures. Although the human research environment has been criticized for its sometimes inefficient and imperfect process, reported abuses of human subjects in research served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and the resulting Belmont Report. No similar, comprehensive and principled effort has addressed the use of animals in research. Although published policies regarding animal research provide relevant regulatory guidance, these policies have not emerged from the process of specifying consistent and reasoned ethical principles. The lack of a fundamental effort to explore the ethical issues and principles regarding the use of animals in research has led to unclear and disparate policies. Recent studies have increased our understanding of animal cognition and emotion, suggesting that animals' potential for experiencing a wide variety of harms, such as pain and fear, is greater than has been previously appreciated. Furthermore, relationships between methods of captivity and certain laboratory procedures and the resulting adverse physical, social and psychological effects have been established. In light of this information, current protections may need to be reconsidered and modified. This paper explores the historical convergence and divergence in the creation of human and animal research guidelines, as well as opportunities to align ethical frameworks with new scientific discoveries.

  11. Sensory Perception in the Human Research and Engineering Directorate: Thrust Areas and Recent Research 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    extending depth of field (DOF) in night - vision goggles (NVGs), the transition from green-phosphor to white-phosphor NVGs, and the incorporation of... goggles versus monocular night - vision goggles . Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army Research Laboratory (US); 2014. Report No.: ARL-TR-6566. Stachowiak C...the intrascene dynamic range of human vision when using night - vision goggles . Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army Research Laboratory (US); in press

  12. Challenges in the research and development of new human vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barbosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The field of vaccinology was born from the observations by the fathers of vaccination, Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur, that a permanent, positive change in the way our bodies respond to life-threatening infectious diseases can be obtained by specific challenge with the inactivated infectious agent performed in a controlled manner, avoiding the development of clinical disease upon exposure to the virulent pathogen. Many of the vaccines still in use today were developed on an empirical basis, essentially following the paradigm established by Pasteur, “isolate, inactivate, and inject” the disease-causing microorganism, and are capable of eliciting uniform, long-term immune memory responses that constitute the key to their proven efficacy. However, vaccines for pathogens considered as priority targets of public health concern are still lacking. The literature tends to focus more often on vaccine research problems associated with specific pathogens, but it is increasingly clear that there are common bottlenecks in vaccine research, which need to be solved in order to advance the development of the field as a whole. As part of a group of articles, the objective of the present report is to pinpoint these bottlenecks, exploring the literature for common problems and solutions in vaccine research applied to different situations. Our goal is to stimulate brainstorming among specialists of different fields related to vaccine research and development. Here, we briefly summarize the topics we intend to deal with in this discussion.

  13. Human Intelligence: An Introduction to Advances in Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in three research traditions are summarized: trait theories of intelligence, information-processing theories of intelligence, and general theories of thinking. Work on fluid and crystallized abilities by J. Horn and R. Snow, mental speed, spatial visualization, cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and the construct of…

  14. Just Google It. Digital Research Practices of Humanities Scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Kemman (Max); M. Kleppe (Martijn); S. Scagliola (Stef)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe transition from analogue to digital archives and the recent explosion of online content offers researchers novel ways of engaging with data. The crucial question for ensuring a balance between the supply and demand-side of data is whether this trend connects to existing scholarly

  15. Just Google It. Digital Research Practices of Humanities Scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Kemman (Max); M. Kleppe (Martijn); S. Scagliola (Stef)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe transition from analogue to digital archives and the recent explosion of online content offers researchers novel ways of engaging with data. The crucial question for ensuring a balance between the supply and demand-side of data is whether this trend connects to existing scholarly pra

  16. Authentic student research projects on physics and the human body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Heck; T. Ellermeijer; E. Kędzierska

    2008-01-01

    Students in Dutch senior secondary education are obliged to perform their own research project of approximately 80 hours. They are stimulated to choose the topic themselves (preferably with relations to two subjects, like physics and mathematics) and have a lot of freedom in the design of the resear

  17. Challenges in the research and development of new human vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, T; Barral-Netto, M

    2013-02-01

    The field of vaccinology was born from the observations by the fathers of vaccination, Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur, that a permanent, positive change in the way our bodies respond to life-threatening infectious diseases can be obtained by specific challenge with the inactivated infectious agent performed in a controlled manner, avoiding the development of clinical disease upon exposure to the virulent pathogen. Many of the vaccines still in use today were developed on an empirical basis, essentially following the paradigm established by Pasteur, "isolate, inactivate, and inject" the disease-causing microorganism, and are capable of eliciting uniform, long-term immune memory responses that constitute the key to their proven efficacy. However, vaccines for pathogens considered as priority targets of public health concern are still lacking. The literature tends to focus more often on vaccine research problems associated with specific pathogens, but it is increasingly clear that there are common bottlenecks in vaccine research, which need to be solved in order to advance the development of the field as a whole. As part of a group of articles, the objective of the present report is to pinpoint these bottlenecks, exploring the literature for common problems and solutions in vaccine research applied to different situations. Our goal is to stimulate brainstorming among specialists of different fields related to vaccine research and development. Here, we briefly summarize the topics we intend to deal with in this discussion.

  18. Research Directory for Manpower, Personnel, Training, and Human Factors, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Allard 703-696-4502 DSN:226-4502 (P) A R Damasio 319-356-4296 PET Studies of Components of High-Level Vision (R) Dr Terry T Allard 703-696-4502 DSN:226...Army Training and Doctrine Command 38, 70 TRADOC Analysis Command 130 INDEX OF RESEARCHERS NAME ORGANIZATION PAGE Vasile, J Betac Corp 15 San Antonio

  19. Cleaning up and standardizing a folktale corpus for humanities research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiser, Iwe Everhardus Christiaan; Theune, Mariët; Meder, Theo; Mambrini, F.; Passarotti, M.; Sporleder, C.

    2012-01-01

    Recordings in the field of folk narrative have been made around the world for many decades. By digitizing and annotating these texts, they are frozen in time and are better suited for searching, sorting and performing research on. This paper describes the first steps of the process of standardizatio

  20. Biobanks and human health research: Balancing progress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-01

    Aug 1, 2015 ... from biobanks to networking and sample and data-sharing. We ... The use of biobank assets will lead to significant benefits ... Department of Medicine, Clinical HIV Research Unit, Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Health ... defined as 'an organisation, institution or person that provides or.

  1. Ordinary Magic: Lessons from Research on Resilience in Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S.

    2009-01-01

    Resilience researchers are intrigued with the challenge of understanding how people overcome risk or adversity to succeed in life. The study of resilience emerged about 40 years ago when a group of scientists studying the origins of behaviour problems and mental illness were surprised to find that many children in "high risk" groups were…

  2. Development and evaluation of a study design typology for human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Simona; Pollock, Brad H; Lehmann, Harold P; Bakken, Suzanne; Barbour, Edward M; Gabriel, Davera; Hagler, Herbert K; Harper, Caryn R; Mollah, Shamim A; Nahm, Meredith; Nguyen, Hien H; Scheuermann, Richard H; Sim, Ida

    2009-11-14

    A systematic classification of study designs would be useful for researchers, systematic reviewers, readers, and research administrators, among others. As part of the Human Studies Database Project, we developed the Study Design Typology to standardize the classification of study designs in human research. We then performed a multiple observer masked evaluation of active research protocols in four institutions according to a standardized protocol. Thirty-five protocols were classified by three reviewers each into one of nine high-level study designs for interventional and observational research (e.g., N-of-1, Parallel Group, Case Crossover). Rater classification agreement was moderately high for the 35 protocols (Fleiss' kappa = 0.442) and higher still for the 23 quantitative studies (Fleiss' kappa = 0.463). We conclude that our typology shows initial promise for reliably distinguishing study design types for quantitative human research.

  3. Human reliability analysis of the Tehran research reactor using the SPAR-H method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barati Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to cover human reliability analysis of the Tehran research reactor using an appropriate method for the representation of human failure probabilities. In the present work, the technique for human error rate prediction and standardized plant analysis risk-human reliability methods have been utilized to quantify different categories of human errors, applied extensively to nuclear power plants. Human reliability analysis is, indeed, an integral and significant part of probabilistic safety analysis studies, without it probabilistic safety analysis would not be a systematic and complete representation of actual plant risks. In addition, possible human errors in research reactors constitute a significant part of the associated risk of such installations and including them in a probabilistic safety analysis for such facilities is a complicated issue. Standardized plant analysis risk-human can be used to address these concerns; it is a well-documented and systematic human reliability analysis system with tables for human performance choices prepared in consultation with experts in the domain. In this method, performance shaping factors are selected via tables, human action dependencies are accounted for, and the method is well designed for the intended use. In this study, in consultations with reactor operators, human errors are identified and adequate performance shaping factors are assigned to produce proper human failure probabilities. Our importance analysis has revealed that human action contained in the possibility of an external object falling on the reactor core are the most significant human errors concerning the Tehran research reactor to be considered in reactor emergency operating procedures and operator training programs aimed at improving reactor safety.

  4. New President, New Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Policy: Comparative International Perspectives and Embryonic Stem Cell Research Laws in France*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabiak-Syed, By Katherine

    2013-12-01

    This article provides an overview of French legislative history, Parliamentary debates, and recent amendments in hESC research policy, as well as additional comparisons with laws across the European Union. Unlike policy discussions in the U.S., French dialogue on hESC research generally rejects the arbitrary division between the status of the embryo and hESCs, recognizing that hESC research necessarily requires the destruction of human embryos. Accordingly, French discourse debates the competing interests of science with secular ethical and civic considerations relating to the symbolic status of the embryo and society's duty to moderate what constitutes appropriate boundaries on research. Parliament recently amended France's hESC research laws to explicitly permit hESC research, signaling the beginning of reform efforts under President Hollande's new power structure, but the inclusion of secular moral considerations in the policy debate will likely restrain the extent of any future changes.

  5. The concept of human dignity in the ethics of genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David K

    2015-05-01

    Despite criticism that dignity is a vague and slippery concept, a number of international guidelines on bioethics have cautioned against research that is contrary to human dignity, with reference specifically to genetic technology. What is the connection between genetic research and human dignity? In this article, I investigate the concept of human dignity in its various historical forms, and examine its status as a moral concept. Unlike Kant's ideal concept of human dignity, the empirical or relational concept takes human dignity as something that is affected by one's circumstances and what others do. I argue that the dignity objection to some forms of genetic research rests on a view of human nature that gives humans a special status in nature - one that is threatened by the potential of genetic research to reduce individuals to their genetic endowment. I distinguish two main philosophical accounts of human nature. One of these, the Aristotelian view, is compatible with the use of genetic technology to help humans realize their inherent potential to a fuller extent.

  6. Making the case for human rights in global health education, research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    If the 2010 CPHA conference is a bellwether of mainstream Canadian public and global health practice, its dearth of human rights papers suggests that, outside a small scholarly cohort, human rights remain marginal therein. This potential 'rights gap' conflicts with growing recognition of the relationship between health and human rights and ergo, the importance of human rights education for health professionals. This gap not only places Canadian health research outside the growing vanguard of academic research on health and human rights, but also ignores a potentially influential tool for achieving health equity. I suggest that human rights make a distinctive contribution to such efforts not replicated within other social justice and equity approaches, making human rights education a crucial complement to other ethical training. These contributions are evident in the normative specificity of the right to health in international law and its legally binding nature, in the success of litigation, the successful advocacy for AIDS treatment and the growing adoption of rights-based approaches to health. Canadian academic and research institutions should take up their rightful place within health and human rights research, education and practice globally, including by ramping up human rights-oriented education for health professionals within Canadian universities.

  7. Using full-mission simulation for human factors research in air transport operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlady, Harry W.; Hennessy, Robert W.; Obermayer, Richard; Vreuls, Donald; Murphy, Miles R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined state-of-the-art mission oriented simulation and its use in human factors research. Guidelines were developed for doing full-mission human factors research on crew member behavior during simulated air transport operations. The existing literature was reviewed. However, interviews with experienced investigators provided the most useful information. The fundamental scientific and practical issues of behavioral research in a simulation environment are discussed. Guidelines are presented for planning, scenario development, and the execution of behavioral research using full-mission simulation in the context of air transport flight operations . Research is recommended to enhance the validity and productivity of full-mission research by: (1) validating the need for high-fidelity simulation of all major elements in the operational environment, (2) improving methods for conducting full-mission research, and (3) examining part-task research on specific problems through the use of vehicles which contain higher levels of abstraction (and lower fidelity) of the operational environment.

  8. Evaluation in health promotion: thoughts from inside a human research ethics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Judy; Flack, Felicity

    2015-12-01

    Health promotion research, quality improvement and evaluation are all activities that raise ethical issues. In this paper, the Chair and a member of human resear ch ethics committees provide an insiders' point of view on how to demonstrate ethical conduct in health promotion research and quality improvement. Several common issues raised by health promotion research and evaluation are discussed including researcher integrity, conflicts of interest, use of information, consent and privacy.

  9. Ethical review of research on human subjects at Unilever: reflections on governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Marti, Vernon; Roberts, Tony

    2014-07-01

    This article considers the process of ethical review of research on human subjects at a very large multinational consumer products company. The commercial context of this research throws up unique challenges and opportunities that make the ethics of the process of oversight distinct from mainstream medical research. Reflection on the justification of governance processes sheds important, contrasting light on the ethics of governance of other forms and context of research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Human Resource Management in Virtual Organizations. Research in Human Resource Management Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Robert L., Ed.; Greenberger, David B., Ed.

    This document contains 14 papers on human resources (HR) and human resource management (HRM) in virtual organizations. The following papers are included: "Series Preface" (Rodger Griffeth); "Volume Preface" (Robert L. Heneman, David B. Greenberger); "The Virtual Organization: Definition, Description, and Identification" (David B. Greenberger,…

  11. Information Processing Theory of Human Performance and Related Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    stimulus sampling models such as that of Estes (1972) or Bjork and Murray (1977)). Perceptual concepts. Perceptual concepts such as the Gestalt concept of...the stimulus. It may that this is appropriate although at least some Gestalt concepts have been assumed to result from inferential processes by their...learning and motivation research and therapy (Vol 2). New York: Academic Press, 1968. Atkinson, R. C. & Shiffrin, R. M. The control of short-term memory

  12. Social Media Research, Human Behavior, and Sustainable Society

    OpenAIRE

    Quan Li; Wenbo Wei; Nian Xiong; Daici Feng; Xinyue Ye; Yongsheng Jiang

    2017-01-01

    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to review social media research from different perspectives during the period of 2008–2014 based on the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index database. Using a collection of 10,042 articles related to social media, the bibliometric analysis revealed some interesting patterns and trend of the scientific outputs, major journals, subject categories, spatial distribution, international collaboration, and temporal evolution in keywords usage...

  13. Human resources for research: building bridges through the Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Karen; Kramer, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    Background The collaboration of scientists between the developed and the developing world is an opportunity to reverse the ‘brain drain' and to enable ‘brain circulation'. Objective Attracting alumni from the Diaspora to strengthen the development of talented scientists will strengthen research in Africa. Design In 2010, the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa (SA), created an Alumni Diaspora Programme to boost international research collaboration and networking between leading medical and health sciences alumni who now live and work at academic institutions abroad with academic colleagues ‘back home'. Based in Johannesburg, a gateway city attracting researchers from all over sub-Saharan Africa, this programme has the potential to capitalise on some of the intellectual capacity that was lost, mostly during the decades of apartheid, and to strengthen capacity, not just in SA, but across the continent. Results and Conclusions The goal of this review is to highlight how this programme has stimulated collaborations and networking with international alumni. PMID:26548635

  14. A Comparison of National Policies on Research Involving Human Subjects to Facilitate Review and Approval of Collaborative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    procedures, undergoing acceptable, occupational training techniques (e.g. military pilots taking centrifuge training). However, experiments on...mean: 20 a living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student ) conducting research obtains (1) data through...which may arise from work activities. Human Tissue Act 2004 A licence is required for removal of tissue and for retention and use of tissue

  15. [Priorities for health policy and systems research focused on human resources in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Chapman, Evelina; Flórez, Carlos E Pinzón; Torres, Rubén

    2013-11-01

    Identify priorities for health policy and systems research related to human resources in Latin America and Caribbean countries. An online survey was designed based on a search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and LILACS that contributed previously prioritized research questions. Respondents, mainly researchers and decision-makers, were identified through various sources. The first round, directed at researchers, aimed at refining and adding research questions and prioritizing questions that researchers regarded as relevant or very relevant. The second round was directed at researchers and decision-makers. A question was considered a priority when 50% (or more) of respondents described it as "relevant" or "very relevant." The first round included 20 questions on human resources and 33/66 researchers responded. Questions suggested by the researchers were added, resulting in 26 questions for the second round, which were sent to 121 researchers and decision-makers. Respondent representation by country was uniform in both rounds. In the second round, 14/26 (54%) questions were described as very relevant. Priority issues related to regulation of the market, integration of education and health care needs, and distribution of human resources. The response rate was 50% in the first round (33/66), and 34% in the second round (41/121). The results of this exercise provide a starting point for mobilization of resources for health policy and systems research. Identification of health systems research priorities is an effective and efficient strategy for reorienting political, financial, management, and social organization efforts for attaining universal health coverage.

  16. "SINCE I MUST PLEASE THOSE BELOW": HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS RESEARCH AND THE LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The ethics of non-invasive scientific research on human skeletal remains are poorly articulated and lack a single, definitive analogue in western law. Laws governing invasive research on human fleshed remains, as well as bio-ethical principles established for research on living subjects, provide effective models for the establishment of ethical guidelines for non-invasive research on human skeletal remains. Specifically, non-invasive analysis of human remains is permissible provided that the analysis and collection of resulting data (1) are accomplished with respect for the dignity of the individual, (2) do not violate the last-known desire of the deceased, (3) do not adversely impact the right of the next of kin to perform a ceremonious and decent disposal of the remains, and (4) do not unduly or maliciously violate the privacy interests of the next of kin.

  17. 75 FR 62738 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... as a result of a settlement agreement resolving a judicial challenge to the promulgation of these... considerations to be addressed in EPA science and ethics reviews of proposed and completed human research...

  18. 75 FR 7481 - Meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Menikoff, M.D., J.D., Director, Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP), or Julia Gorey, J.D... who plan to attend the meeting and need special assistance, such as sign language interpretation...

  19. The Exposome Research Paradigm: an Opportunity to Understand the Environmental Basis for Human Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck Louis, Germaine M; Smarr, Melissa M; Patel, Chirag J

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the exposome research paradigm with particular application to understanding human reproduction and development and its implications for health across a lifespan. The exposome research paradigm has generated considerable discussion about its feasibility and utility for delineating the impact of environmental exposures on human health. Early initiatives are underway, including smaller proof-of-principle studies and larger concerted efforts. Despite the notable challenges underlying the exposome paradigm, analytic techniques are being developed to handle its untargeted approach and correlated and multi-level or hierarchical data structures such initiatives generate, while considering multiple comparisons. The relatively short intervals for critical and sensitive windows of human reproduction and development seem well suited for exposome research and may revolutionize our understanding of later onset diseases. Early initiatives suggest that the exposome paradigm is feasible, but its utility remains to be established with applications to population human health research.

  20. Comparative in Vitro Research of the Human Aortic Bioprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawidowska K.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluate of the usefulness and reliability of structures based on the analysis of recorded parameters determining the flow through the Human Aortic Bioprosthesis (HAB have been dealt with. By flow parameters changes determining the performance environment of prosthesis analyzed change of the motion dynamics of the valve leaflets as a function of pressure, thereby determining the degree of alignment of the prosthesis to the performance conditions. Based on the gathered measurement data a comparative analysis of flow rate valve prostheses for different frequency values of the piston pump imitating the heart, different ejection capacity and pressure conditioning work environment prosthesis were studied. Interpretation of the recorded image gave the basis for determining the Effective Orifice Area (EOC.

  1. Research on biophysical evaluation of the human vestibular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    The human vestibular function was studied by the combined approach of advanced measurement and mathematical modelling. Fundamental measurements of some physical properties of endolymph and perilymph, combined with nystagmus measurements and fluid mechanical analysis of semicircular canal function furthered the theory of canal mechanical response to angular acceleration, caloric stimulation and relating linear acceleration. The effects of adaptation seen at low frequency angular stimulation were studied and modelled to remove some shortcomings of the torsion pendulum models. Otolith function was also studied experimentally and analytically, leading to a new set of models for subjective orientation. Applications to special problems of space, including the case of rotating spacecraft were investigated and the interaction of visual and vestibular cues and their relation to proprioceptive information was explored relative to postural control.

  2. Digging into data using new collaborative infrastructures supporting humanities-based computer science research

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores infrastructure supporting humanities–computer science research in large–scale image data by asking: Why is collaboration a requirement for work within digital humanities projects? What is required for fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration? What are the technical and intellectual approaches to constructing such an infrastructure? What are the challenges associated with digital humanities collaborative work? We reveal that digital humanities collaboration requ...

  3. 77 FR 6799 - Meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Bioethical Issues on that group's recent report Moral Science: Protecting Participants in Human Subjects... Secretary for Health on issues and topics pertaining to or associated with the protection of human research..., SACHRP, prior to the close of business February 23, 2012. Dated: February 3, 2012. Jerry Menikoff...

  4. 75 FR 13137 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... on a revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). Due to a technical problem, comments... . Comments may also be mailed to: NIH Stem Cell Guidelines, MSC 7997, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland...

  5. Expand and Regularize Federal Funding for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Smith, Jason; Scott, Christopher Thomas; McCormick, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research has sparked incredible scientific and public excitement, as well as significant controversy. hESCs are pluripotent, which means, in theory, that they can be differentiated into any type of cell found in the human body. Thus, they evoke great enthusiasm about potential clinical applications. They are…

  6. Learning Research as a Human Science: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; O'Connor, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Taken as a whole, this volume can be viewed as an argument for reframing learning research as a human science, one focused on interpreting learning situations and organizing for improving learning in ways that put human agency, values, and engagement with social practices at the center. Each chapter illuminates one or more elements of a human…

  7. Attitudes of medical students towards human genome research and genetic counselling and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäfer, Mike Steffen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study aimed to describe students' attitudes towards human genome research and towards genetic counselling and testing at cancer patients. The background of this investigation provided the increasing relevance ob human genetics research for clinical practice.Methods: A total of 167 medical students (54% female, aged 24 +/- 2 years from the second phase of their studies were surveyed in obligatory courses at the University of Leipzig, using a standardized questionnaire. Topics of the survey were attitudes towards human genome research and genetic counselling and testing at cancer patients as well as general values and socio-demographic data of the students.Results: The students consider human genome research as relevant and evaluate it positively, mainly based on expectations of medical uses. Genetic counselling and testing at cancer patients as an application of human genetics is also evaluated as important. The students attribute high relevance to clinical procedures for identification of genetic backgrounds for cancer (family history, information about genetic diagnostic. Nevertheless, deficits in their medical education are highlighted und reflected upon: the increased integration of human genetic content into medical curricula is demanded.Discussion: In accordance with the newly formulated „Approbationsordnung für Ärzte", the results suggest that current human genetic development should be more emphasized in medical education. This could be realized by an enlarged ratio of human genetic courses within curricula and by the transformation of these courses from facultative into obligatory.

  8. Expand and Regularize Federal Funding for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Smith, Jason; Scott, Christopher Thomas; McCormick, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research has sparked incredible scientific and public excitement, as well as significant controversy. hESCs are pluripotent, which means, in theory, that they can be differentiated into any type of cell found in the human body. Thus, they evoke great enthusiasm about potential clinical applications. They are…

  9. Developing Library GIS Services for Humanities and Social Science: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ningning; Fosmire, Michael; Branch, Benjamin Dewayne

    2017-01-01

    In the academic libraries' efforts to support digital humanities and social science, GIS service plays an important role. However, there is no general service model existing about how libraries can develop GIS services to best engage with digital humanities and social science. In this study, we adopted the action research method to develop and…

  10. Key provisions humanities research advertising and advertising exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sogorin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic directions of advertising studying as part of the research subject of separate social and humanitarian sciences. The definition of advertising is given. It’s considered as a holistic socio­economic phenomenon, which consists of three basic components: advertising as a product, the final incarnation in the material and ideal forms of the customer’s ideas; advertising as an activity that is advertising as a profession; advertising as an integral part of the social space of the individual. The boundaries of the social and humanitarian scientific field are defined. Accordingly, the study presents the main aspects of advertising in terms of art learning, sociology, cultural studies, history, psychology, political science, philosophy and linguistics. It is proved that the study of socio­humanitarian field is characterized with a permanent disciplinary interaction in the case study of advertising (the pairing of linguistics and psychology, political science and psychology, sociology and psychology. The chief strategies of advertising research within social and humanitarian fields include: a single basic approach strategy: the recognition of advertising as a two­way communication process; communication strategy: the rejection of research within the subject of a separate discipline, active interaction with the related sciences on the subject of the study; application of the principle of mutual academic enrichment; future strategy: focus on new technologies, methods, implementation of schemes of advertising in the social space, the attempts of futurological analysis. The article demonstrates the importance of interdisciplinary scientific cooperation in the study of advertising as a social phenomenon.

  11. Research on human genetics in Iceland. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic Population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characters and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  12. Progress report on research on human genetics in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characteristics and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period from 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  13. Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-10

    conditioning systems.”20 A recent rise in one measure of poverty in the United States is argued by some to suggest that there may be more poor ...conclusions are common to several studies on possible health effects of climate change: the infirm, the elderly, and the poor may be disproportionately...Global Change Research Program, op. cit. 20 Ibid. 21 Madrick, Jeff. A Rise in Child Poverty Rates Is At Risk In U.S., the New York Times on the Web, June

  14. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research.

  15. Ethical Standards of Scientific Research Involving Human Subjects in Brazil: Perspectives Concerning Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Leitão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBrazilian associations for research in human, social and applied social sciences have long sought ethical aspects regulation compatible with the epistemological, theoretical and methodological specificities of these sciences. Consequently, the Brazilian regulatory system (Research Ethics Committees/CEPs of the National Research Ethics Commission/CONEP is currently undergoing an important review process. This article presents the positions taken by the National Association of Research and Postgraduate Studies in Psychology - ANPEPP. The article: (1 highlights the origins of the current ethics review model, based on biomedical research; (2 summarizes criticisms recurrent to this model; (3 identifies the directions required for the improvement of the system; and (4 lists the challenges to be overcome in the current process of creating specific regulations for the human and social sciences. The considerations presented highlight two crucial points that challenge the construction of a specific resolution for research ethics in the human and social sciences: (1 the clear characterization of what is meant by 'research in the human and social sciences' - and that would, therefore, have its ethical review regulated from the perspective of the specific resolution for the human and social sciences; and (2 the definition of parameters from which different risk levels in studies can be identified.

  16. Introduction in Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities Research Articles: How Indonesian Writers Justify Their Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsyad, Safnil; Wardhana, Dian Eka Chandra

    2014-01-01

    The introductory part of a research article (RA) is very important because in this section writers must argue about the importance of their research topic and project so that they can attract their readers' attention to read the whole article. This study analyzes RA introductions written by Indonesian writers in social sciences and humanities…

  17. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated... Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.604 Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote... shall survey the patient or the human research subject and the remote afterloader unit with a...

  18. NMR metabolomics of human blood and urine in disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Iola F; Diaz, Sílvia O; Gil, Ana M

    2014-05-01

    This paper reviews the main applications of NMR metabolomics of blood and urine in disease research, over the last 5 years. The broad range of disease types addressed attests the increasing interest within the academic and medical communities to explore the recognised potential of metabolomics to (1) provide insight into underlying disease pathogenesis and (2) unveil new metabolic markers for disease diagnosis and follow up. Importantly, most recent studies reveal an increasing awareness of possible limitations and pitfalls of the metabolomics approach, together with efforts for improved study design and statistical validation, which are crucial requisites for the sound development of NMR metabolomics and its progress into the clinical setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. How to become a top model: impact of animal experimentation on human Salmonella disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolis, Renée M; Xavier, Mariana N; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work.

  20. The research-teaching nexus in the humanities : variations among academics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Central in this thesis are the various forms the research-teaching nexus can take in the university, especially in the Faculty of Humanities. The importance of a strong relation between research and teaching is advocated by many academics, but debate is going on about the forms this strenghtened

  1. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. de Jong

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for m

  2. Research and management of soil, plant, animal, and human resources in the Middle Rio Grande Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    1996-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station initiated a research program in 1994 called. "Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of soil, plant, animal, and human resources of the Rio Grande Basin". This program is funded by an Ecosystem Management grant from Forest Service Research. Its mission focuses on the development and application of new...

  3. Positioning the arts for intervention design research in the human services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, David P; Calligan, Holly Feen

    2015-12-01

    The arts have been integral to the human experience fostering innovation in social arrangements, strengthening group cohesion, and merging esthetics with the utilitarian properties of technology. For intervention design research in the human services the arts can harness innovation and creativity in meeting human needs and addressing social issues. Given their capacities to stimulate expression of first person experience through interpretative strategies, the arts can equip people and groups, including researchers, with opportunities to express primary experiential knowledge through creative means, portray useful ways of meeting human needs, educate others about the social issues people experience, and formulate intervention strategies or even models to address the causes and consequences of those issues. In this paper, the authors discuss how the arts can inform and deepen human service intervention design and development and, as a result, advance innovation in the human services. They offer a rationale supporting the inclusion of the arts in the design of human service interventions, examine the contributions of the arts to the formulation of intervention concept and developmental research to further improve interventions, and consider how the arts can advance the reflexivity of intervention designers. The authors draw implications for how researchers can position the arts in the nine steps of intervention design and development the authors offer in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Disaster Preparation and Recovery: Lessons from Research on Resilience in Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann S. Masten

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Four decades of theory and research on resilience in human development have yielded informative lessons for planning disaster response and recovery. In developmental theory, resilience following disaster could take multiple forms, including stress resistance, recovery, and positive transformation. Empirical findings suggest that fundamental adaptive systems play a key role in the resilience of young people facing diverse threats, including attachment, agency, intelligence, behavior regulation systems, and social interactions with family, peers, school, and community systems. Although human resilience research emphasizes the adaptive well-being of particular individuals, there are striking parallels in resilience theory across the developmental and ecological sciences. Preparing societies for major disasters calls for the integration of human research on resilience with the theory and knowledge gained from other disciplines concerned with resilience in complex, dynamic systems, and particularly those systems that interact with human individuals as disaster unfolds.

  5. The Singapore approach to human stem cell research, therapeutic and reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian, Catherine Tay Swee; Leng, Tien Sim

    2005-06-01

    With the controversial ethical issues on the creation of human embryos through cloning for therapeutic research, which holds more promise of medical breakthroughs that the world could ever imagine and the acknowledgement by many scientists that this technology may not lead in the near future to therapies; this country report discusses the approach Singapore takes on human stem cell research, interjected with the authors' own arguments and suggestions especially on research compensation injuries, an often neglected important issue. International comparative viewpoints taken by the major countries in the world are also included in the appendix.

  6. Climate change effects on human health in a gender perspective: some trends in Arctic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukarenko Natalia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change and environmental pollution have become pressing concerns for the peoples in the Arctic region. Some researchers link climate change, transformations of living conditions and human health. A number of studies have also provided data on differentiating effects of climate change on women's and men's well-being and health. Objective: To show how the issues of climate and environment change, human health and gender are addressed in current research in the Arctic. The main purpose of this article is not to give a full review but to draw attention to the gaps in knowledge and challenges in the Arctic research trends on climate change, human health and gender. Methods: A broad literature search was undertaken using a variety of sources from natural, medical, social science and humanities. The focus was on the keywords. Results: Despite the evidence provided by many researchers on differentiating effects of climate change on well-being and health of women and men, gender perspective remains of marginal interest in climate change, environmental and health studies. At the same time, social sciences and humanities, and gender studies in particular, show little interest towards climate change impacts on human health in the Arctic. As a result, we still observe the division of labour between disciplines, the disciplinary-bound pictures of human development in the Arctic and terminology confusion. Conclusion: Efforts to bring in a gender perspective in the Arctic research will be successful only when different disciplines would work together. Multidisciplinary research is a way to challenge academic/disciplinary homogeneity and their boundaries, to take advantage of the diversity of approaches and methods in production of new integrated knowledge. Cooperation and dialogue across disciplines will help to develop adequate indicators for monitoring human health and elaborating efficient policies and strategies to the benefit of both

  7. Human factors multi-technique approach to teenage engagement in digital technologies health research

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Alexandra R; Craven, Michael P; Atkinson, Sarah; Simons, Lucy; Cobb, Sue; Mazzola, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the use of multi-techniques for teenage HCI health research. Through four case studies we present information about adolescents as users of healthcare services and technologies, adolescent personal development and the human factors approaches through which teenagers have been involved in healthcare research projects. In each case study; comprising of the design or evaluation of a new digital technology for supporting health or well-being, the techniques used by researche...

  8. Deliberate Microbial Infection Research Reveals Limitations to Current Safety Protections of Healthy Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, David L; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T; Mimnall, Rebecca K

    2015-08-01

    Here we identify approximately 40,000 healthy human volunteers who were intentionally exposed to infectious pathogens in clinical research studies dating from late World War II to the early 2000s. Microbial challenge experiments continue today under contemporary human subject research requirements. In fact, we estimated 4,000 additional volunteers who were experimentally infected between 2010 and the present day. We examine the risks and benefits of these experiments and present areas for improvement in protections of participants with respect to safety. These are the absence of maximum limits to risk and the potential for institutional review boards to include questionable benefits to subjects and society when weighing the risks and benefits of research protocols. The lack of a duty of medical care by physician-investigators to research subjects is likewise of concern. The transparency of microbial challenge experiments and the safety concerns raised in this work may stimulate further dialogue on the risks to participants of human experimentation.

  9. Humanities for the Environment—A Manifesto for Research and Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Holm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human preferences, practices and actions are the main drivers of global environmental change in the 21st century. It is crucial, therefore, to promote pro-environmental behavior. In order to accomplish this, we need to move beyond rational choice and behavioral decision theories, which do not capture the full range of commitments, assumptions, imaginaries, and belief systems that drive those preferences and actions. Humanities disciplines, such as philosophy, history, religious studies, gender studies, language and literary studies, psychology, and pedagogics do offer deep insights into human motivations, values, and choices. We believe that the expertise of such fields for transforming human preferences, practices and actions is ignored at society’s peril. We propose an agenda that focuses global humanities research on stepping up to the challenges of planetary environmental change. We have established Environmental Humanities Observatories through which to observe, explore and enact the crucial ways humanistic disciplines may help us understand and engage with global ecological problems by providing insight into human action, perceptions, and motivation. We present this Manifesto as an invitation for others to join the “Humanities for the Environment” open global consortium of humanities observatories as we continue to develop a shared research agenda.

  10. Where are human subjects in Big Data research? The emerging ethics divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Metcalf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are growing discontinuities between the research practices of data science and established tools of research ethics regulation. Some of the core commitments of existing research ethics regulations, such as the distinction between research and practice, cannot be cleanly exported from biomedical research to data science research. Such discontinuities have led some data science practitioners and researchers to move toward rejecting ethics regulations outright. These shifts occur at the same time as a proposal for major revisions to the Common Rule—the primary regulation governing human-subjects research in the USA—is under consideration for the first time in decades. We contextualize these revisions in long-running complaints about regulation of social science research and argue data science should be understood as continuous with social sciences in this regard. The proposed regulations are more flexible and scalable to the methods of non-biomedical research, yet problematically largely exclude data science methods from human-subjects regulation, particularly uses of public datasets. The ethical frameworks for Big Data research are highly contested and in flux, and the potential harms of data science research are unpredictable. We examine several contentious cases of research harms in data science, including the 2014 Facebook emotional contagion study and the 2016 use of geographical data techniques to identify the pseudonymous artist Banksy. To address disputes about application of human-subjects research ethics in data science, critical data studies should offer a historically nuanced theory of “data subjectivity” responsive to the epistemic methods, harms and benefits of data science and commerce.

  11. Where are human subjects in Big Data research? The emerging ethics divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Metcalf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are growing discontinuities between the research practices of data science and established tools of research ethics regulation. Some of the core commitments of existing research ethics regulations, such as the distinction between research and practice, cannot be cleanly exported from biomedical research to data science research. Such discontinuities have led some data science practitioners and researchers to move toward rejecting ethics regulations outright. These shifts occur at the same time as a proposal for major revisions to the Common Rule—the primary regulation governing human-subjects research in the USA—is under consideration for the first time in decades. We contextualize these revisions in long-running complaints about regulation of social science research and argue data science should be understood as continuous with social sciences in this regard. The proposed regulations are more flexible and scalable to the methods of non-biomedical research, yet problematically largely exclude data science methods from human-subjects regulation, particularly uses of public datasets. The ethical frameworks for Big Data research are highly contested and in flux, and the potential harms of data science research are unpredictable. We examine several contentious cases of research harms in data science, including the 2014 Facebook emotional contagion study and the 2016 use of geographical data techniques to identify the pseudonymous artist Banksy. To address disputes about application of human-subjects research ethics in data science, critical data studies should offer a historically nuanced theory of “data subjectivity” responsive to the epistemic methods, harms and benefits of data science and commerce.

  12. Informed consent in human subject research: a comparison of current international and Nigerian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadare, Joseph O; Porteri, Corinna

    2010-03-01

    Informed consent is a basic requirement for the conduct of ethical research involving human subjects. Currently, the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association and the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) are widely accepted as international codes regulating human subject research and the informed consent sections of these documents are quite important. Debates on the applicability of these guidelines in different socio-cultural settings are ongoing and many workers have advocated the need for national or regional guidelines. Nigeria, a developing country, has recently adopted its national guideline regulating human subject research: the National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC) code. A content analysis of the three guidelines was done to see if the Nigerian guidelines confer any additional protection for research subjects. The concept of a Community Advisory Committee in the Nigerian guideline is a novel one that emphasizes research as a community burden and should promote a form of "research friendship" to foster the welfare of research participants. There is also the need for a regular update of the NHREC code so as to address some issues that were not considered in its current version.

  13. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Ethical Views of Buddhist, Hindu and Catholic Leaders in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Mathana Amaris Fiona; Noor, Siti Nurani Mohd

    2016-04-01

    Embryonic Stem Cell Research (ESCR) raises ethical issues. In the process of research, embryos may be destroyed and, to some, such an act entails the 'killing of human life'. Past studies have sought the views of scientists and the general public on the ethics of ESCR. This study, however, explores multi-faith ethical viewpoints, in particular, those of Buddhists, Hindus and Catholics in Malaysia, on ESCR. Responses were gathered via semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Three main ethical quandaries emerged from the data: (1) sanctity of life, (2) do no harm, and (3) 'intention' of the research. Concerns regarding the sanctity of life are directed at particular research protocols which interfere with religious notions of human ensoulment and early consciousness. The principle of 'do no harm' which is closely related to ahimsa prohibits all acts of violence. Responses obtained indicate that respondents either discourage research that inflicts harm on living entities or allow ESCR with reservations. 'Intention' of the research seems to be an interesting and viable rationale that would permit ESCR for the Buddhists and Hindus. Research that is intended for the purpose of alleviating human suffering is seen as being ethical. This study also notes that Catholics oppose ESCR on the basis of the inviolability of human life.

  14. Methodological debates in human rights research: a case study of human trafficking in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.

    2012-01-01

    Debates over human trafficking are riddled with methodological dilemmas. Agencies with vested interests in the anti-trafficking agenda advance claims about numbers of victims, level of organized trafficking and scale of exploitation, but with limited data and using questionable techniques. Skeptics,

  15. Undergraduate students' development of social, cultural, and human capital in a networked research experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer Jo; Conaway, Evan; Dolan, Erin L.

    2016-12-01

    Recent calls for reform in undergraduate biology education have emphasized integrating research experiences into the learning experiences of all undergraduates. Contemporary science research increasingly demands collaboration across disciplines and institutions to investigate complex research questions, providing new contexts and models for involving undergraduates in research. In this study, we examined the experiences of undergraduates participating in a multi-institution and interdisciplinary biology research network. Unlike the traditional apprenticeship model of research, in which a student participates in research under the guidance of a single faculty member, students participating in networked research have the opportunity to develop relationships with additional faculty and students working in other areas of the project, at their own and at other institutions. We examined how students in this network develop social ties and to what extent a networked research experience affords opportunities for students to develop social, cultural, and human capital. Most studies of undergraduate involvement in science research have focused on documenting student outcomes rather than elucidating how students gain access to research experiences or how elements of research participation lead to desired student outcomes. By taking a qualitative approach framed by capital theories, we have identified ways that undergraduates utilize and further develop various forms of capital important for success in science research. In our study of the first 16 months of a biology research network, we found that undergraduates drew upon a combination of human, cultural, and social capital to gain access to the network. Within their immediate research groups, students built multidimensional social ties with faculty, peers, and others, yielding social capital that can be drawn upon for information, resources, and support. They reported developing cultural capital in the form of learning to

  16. Undergraduate students' development of social, cultural, and human capital in a networked research experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer Jo; Conaway, Evan; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-04-01

    Recent calls for reform in undergraduate biology education have emphasized integrating research experiences into the learning experiences of all undergraduates. Contemporary science research increasingly demands collaboration across disciplines and institutions to investigate complex research questions, providing new contexts and models for involving undergraduates in research. In this study, we examined the experiences of undergraduates participating in a multi-institution and interdisciplinary biology research network. Unlike the traditional apprenticeship model of research, in which a student participates in research under the guidance of a single faculty member, students participating in networked research have the opportunity to develop relationships with additional faculty and students working in other areas of the project, at their own and at other institutions. We examined how students in this network develop social ties and to what extent a networked research experience affords opportunities for students to develop social, cultural, and human capital. Most studies of undergraduate involvement in science research have focused on documenting student outcomes rather than elucidating how students gain access to research experiences or how elements of research participation lead to desired student outcomes. By taking a qualitative approach framed by capital theories, we have identified ways that undergraduates utilize and further develop various forms of capital important for success in science research. In our study of the first 16 months of a biology research network, we found that undergraduates drew upon a combination of human, cultural, and social capital to gain access to the network. Within their immediate research groups, students built multidimensional social ties with faculty, peers, and others, yielding social capital that can be drawn upon for information, resources, and support. They reported developing cultural capital in the form of learning to

  17. Advancing probiotic research in humans in the United States: Challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Shane, Andi L; Merenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    This is a summary from a workshop convened as part of the 13(th) annual meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics. A group of 24 stakeholders, including clinical experts, researchers, federal government officials, funding agencies, lawyers and industry experts met to review the challenges of the current regulatory approach to human research on probiotics in the USA and to discuss ways to move research forward. There was agreement that some of the current regulatory requirements imposed on probiotic research in the United States hindered research progress and increased cost without improving study subject safety. Many situations were outlined by clinical investigators demonstrating the impact of regulatory delays on research progress. Additionally, research is compromised when study designs and outcomes require manipulation so as to invoke less burdensome regulatory requirements. These responses by investigators to regulatory requirements have placed United States' researchers at a disadvantage. The public ultimately suffer when research to clarify the role of these products on health is stalled. Workshop participants concurred that regulatory oversight should balance study subject vulnerability with documented safety for the intended use for the probiotic strain, and that human research on foods and supplements should not be be regulated as drug research. Challenges and potential improvement strategies are discussed.

  18. Researchers and firing squads: questions concerning the use of frozen human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Patrick

    2011-10-01

    Is it morally acceptable to use human embryos left over from fertility treatments in research that would harm or destroy them? Many answer "no" to this question on the grounds that all human beings, including human embryos, have a basic moral status that forbids such use. There are some, though, who accept this claim about the basic moral status of human embryos but who believe nevertheless that frozen human embryos which were generated for fertility treatments but which are no longer wanted for that project are a morally acceptable source of human embryonic stem cells and are acceptable subjects of other forms of research that would destroy them in course. The reasoning offered in defense of this position typically employs the claim that since these embryos are going to be discarded anyway, their possibly fruitful use by researchers is a preferable alternative and one that is not inconsistent with their basic moral status. Howard Curzer has offered a well-developed argument of this sort, defending the use of these embryos in the ways mentioned while at the same time allowing for their equal basic moral status. This article challenges Curzer's case and offers reasons to reject the moral acceptability of using even these to-be-discarded embryos as research material.

  19. Human Microbiome and Learning Healthcare Systems: Integrating Research and Precision Medicine for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, Kim H; Mack, David R; Stintzi, Alain; O'Doherty, Kieran C

    2017-03-10

    Healthcare institutions face widespread challenges of delivering high-quality and cost-effective care, while keeping up with rapid advances in biomedical knowledge and technologies. Moreover, there is increased emphasis on developing personalized or precision medicine targeted to individuals or groups of patients who share a certain biomarker signature. Learning healthcare systems (LHS) have been proposed for integration of research and clinical practice to fill major knowledge gaps, improve care, reduce healthcare costs, and provide precision care. To date, much discussion in this context has focused on the potential of human genomic data, and not yet on human microbiome data. Rapid advances in human microbiome research suggest that profiling of, and interventions on, the human microbiome can provide substantial opportunity for improved diagnosis, therapeutics, risk management, and risk stratification. In this study, we discuss a potential role for microbiome science in LHSs. We first review the key elements of LHSs, and discuss possibilities of Big Data and patient engagement. We then consider potentials and challenges of integrating human microbiome research into clinical practice as part of an LHS. With rapid growth in human microbiome research, patient-specific microbial data will begin to contribute in important ways to precision medicine. Hence, we discuss how patient-specific microbial data can help guide therapeutic decisions and identify novel effective approaches for precision care of inflammatory bowel disease. To the best of our knowledge, this expert analysis makes an original contribution with new insights poised at the emerging intersection of LHSs, microbiome science, and postgenomics medicine.

  20. Human-animal chimera: a neuro driven discussion? Comparison of three leading European research countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Trujillo, Laura Yenisa; Engel-Glatter, Sabrina

    2015-06-01

    Research with human-animal chimera raises a number of ethical concerns, especially when neural stem cells are transplanted into the brains of non-human primates (NHPs). Besides animal welfare concerns and ethical issues associated with the use of embryonic stem cells, the research is also regarded as controversial from the standpoint of NHPs developing cognitive or behavioural capabilities that are regarded as "unique" to humans. However, scientists are urging to test new therapeutic approaches for neurological diseases in primate models as they better mimic human physiology than all current animal models. As a response, various countries have issued reports on the topic. Our paper summarizes the ethical issues raised by research with human-animal brain chimeras and compares the relevant regulatory instruments and different recommendations issued in national reports from three important European research nations: Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. We assess and discuss the focus and priorities set by the different reports, review various reasons for and perspectives on the importance of the brain in chimera research, and identify critical points in the reports that warrant further specification and debate.

  1. What do human factors and ergonomics professionals value in research publications? Re-examining the research-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Williamson, Ann; Shorrock, Steven T

    2014-01-01

    The research-practice gap is of concern in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) as there is a belief that HF/E research may not be making an impact on practice in the 'real world'. A potential issue is what researchers and practitioners perceive as important in HF/E journal articles as a primary means of conveying research findings to practitioners. This study examined the characteristics that make scientific journal articles appeal to HF/E researchers and practitioners using a web-based survey. HF/E researchers and practitioners were more similar than expected in judgements of important attributes and the selection of articles. Both practitioners and researchers considered practical significance to be more important than theoretical significance, in direct contrast to professionals from a related discipline--psychology. Well-written articles were appreciated across disciplines. The results signal a strong interest in practical applications in HF/E, but a relative lack of focus on development of theories that should be the basis for practical applications.

  2. Human Participants in Engineering Research: Notes from a Fledgling Ethics Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, David; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Pont, Sylvia

    2015-08-01

    For the past half-century, issues relating to the ethical conduct of human research have focused largely on the domain of medical, and more recently social-psychological research. The modern regime of applied ethics, emerging as it has from the Nuremberg trials and certain other historical antecedents, applies the key principles of: autonomy, respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice to human beings who enter trials of experimental drugs and devices (Martensen in J Hist Med Allied Sci 56(2):168-175, 2001). Institutions such as Institutional Review Boards (in the U.S.) and Ethics Committees (in Europe and elsewhere) oversee most governmentally-funded medical research around the world, in more than a hundred nations that are signers of the Declaration of Helsinki (World Medical Association 2008). Increasingly, research outside of medicine has been recognized to pose potential risks to human subjects of experiments. Ethics committees now operate in the US, Canada, the U.K. and Australia to oversee all governmental-funded research, and in other jurisdictions, the range of research covered by such committees is expanding. Social science, anthropology, and other fields are falling under more clear directives to conduct a formal ethical review for basic research involving human participants (Federman et al. in Responsible research: a systems approach to protecting research participants. National Academies Press, Washington, 2003, p. 36). The legal and institutional response for protecting human subjects in the course of developing non-medical technologies, engineering, and design is currently vague, but some universities are establishing ethics committees to oversee their human subjects research even where the experiments involved are non-medical and not technically covered by the Declaration of Helsinki. In The Netherlands, as in most of Europe, Asia, Latin America, or Africa, no laws mandate an ethical review of non-medical research. Yet, nearly 2

  3. Mind the gap: Griffith University's approach to the governance of ethical conduct in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gary

    2007-01-01

    It is perhaps not coincidental that, at the same time the apparent institutional risks associated with the conduct of human research are increasing, so are the complaints from researchers about research ethics committees. Rather than seeking to implement systems that more efficiently catch wrong-doing, in 2003 Griffith University began implementing an alternative approach. This new approach focused on resourcing the reflective practice of researchers through every stage of their work--well before, and long after, they seek ethical clearance for that work. Institutions have a key role to play in human research ethics, and this can be usefully situated within the broader framework of the institution's governance framework. This paper summarises the new approach that Griffith University adopted in 2003, the implementation of this 'model', the experience to date, and the road ahead.

  4. Ethics of animal research in human disease remediation, its institutional teaching; and alternatives to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheluvappa, Rajkumar; Scowen, Paul; Eri, Rajaraman

    2017-08-01

    Animals have been used in research and teaching for a long time. However, clear ethical guidelines and pertinent legislation were instated only in the past few decades, even in developed countries with Judeo-Christian ethical roots. We compactly cover the basics of animal research ethics, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation across the developed world, "our" fundamentals of institutional animal research ethics teaching, and emerging alternatives to animal research. This treatise was meticulously constructed for scientists interested/involved in animal research. Herein, we discuss key animal ethics principles - Replacement/Reduction/Refinement. Despite similar undergirding principles across developed countries, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation vary. The chronology and evolution of mandatory institutional ethical reviewing of animal experimentation (in its pioneering nations) are summarised. This is followed by a concise rendition of the fundamentals of teaching animal research ethics in institutions. With the advent of newer methodologies in human cell-culturing, novel/emerging methods aim to minimise, if not avoid the usage of animals in experimentation. Relevant to this, we discuss key extant/emerging alternatives to animal use in research; including organs on chips, human-derived three-dimensional tissue models, human blood derivates, microdosing, and computer modelling of various hues. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element: Evidence Report - Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The most serious risks of long-duration flight involve radiation, behavioral stresses, and physiological deconditioning. Artificial gravity (AG), by substituting for the missing gravitational cues and loading in space, has the potential to mitigate the last of these risks by preventing the adaptive responses from occurring. The rotation of a Mars-bound spacecraft or an embarked human centrifuge offers significant promise as an effective, efficient multi-system countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. Virtually all of the identified risks associated with bone loss, muscle weakening, cardiovascular deconditioning, and sensorimotor disturbances might be alleviated by the appropriate application of AG. However, experience with AG in space has been limited and a human-rated centrifuge is currently not available on board the ISS. A complete R&D program aimed at determining the requirements for gravity level, gravity gradient, rotation rate, frequency, and duration of AG exposure is warranted before making a decision for implementing AG in a human spacecraft.

  6. Human immune system mice: current potential and limitations for translational research on human antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuyyuru, Raja; Patton, John; Manser, Tim

    2011-12-01

    It has recently become possible to generate chimeric mice durably engrafted with many components of the human immune system (HIS mice). We have characterized the maturation and function of the B cell compartment of HIS mice. The antibody response of HIS mice to T cell-dependent B cell antigens is limited, and contributing factors may be the general immaturity of the B cell compartment, infrequent helper T cells selected on human MHC class II antigens, and incomplete reconstitution of secondary lymphoid organs and their microenvironments. In contrast, HIS mice generate protective antibody responses to the bacterium Borrelia hermsii, which acts as a T cell-independent antigen in mice, but do not respond to purified polysaccharide antigens (PPS). We speculate that the anti-B. hermsii response of HIS mice is derived from an abundant B cell subset that may be analogous to B1 B cells in mice. We suggest that failure of HIS mice to respond to PPS is due to the lack of a B cell subset that may originate from adult bone marrow and is highly dependent on human interleukin-7 for development.

  7. Paying human subjects in research: where are we, how did we get here, and now what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWalde, Ari; Kurzban, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Both international and federal regulations exist to ensure that scientists perform research on human subjects in an environment free of coercion and in which the benefits of the research are commensurate with the risks involved. Ensuring that these conditions hold is difficult, and perhaps even more so when protocols include the issue of monetary compensation of research subjects. The morality of paying human research subjects has been hotly debated for over 40 years, and the grounds for this debate have ranged from discussion of legal rights, economic rights, philosophical principles of vulnerability and altruism to bioethical concepts of consent, best-interest determination, and justice theory. However, the thought surrounding these issues has evolved over time, and the way we think about the role of the human research subject today is markedly different than the way we thought in the past. Society first thought of the research subject as an altruist, necessarily giving of his time to benefit society as a whole. As time progressed, many suggested that the subject should not need to sacrifice himself for research: if something goes wrong, someone should compensate the subject for injuries. The concept of redress evolved into a system in which subjects were offered money as an inducement to participate in research, sometimes merely to offset the monetary costs of participation, but sometimes even to mitigate the risks of the study. This article examines ethical and legal conversations regarding compensation from the 1960s through today, examining theories of the ethics of compensation both comparatively and critically. In conclusion, we put forward an ethical framework for treating paid research subjects, with an attempt to use this framework as a means of resolving some of the more difficult problems with paying human subjects in research.

  8. Potential of human twin embryos generated by embryo splitting in assisted reproduction and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Laila; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2017-03-01

    Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans. A number of countries have formulated bans either through laws, decrees or official statements. However, in general, these laws specifically define cloning as an embryo that is generated via nuclear transfer (NT) and do not mention embryo splitting. Only the UK includes under cloning both embryo splitting and NT in the same legislation. On the contrary, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine does not have a major ethical objection to transferring two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome with the aim of producing a single pregnancy, stating that 'since embryo splitting has the potential to improve the efficacy of IVF treatments for infertility, research to investigate the technique is ethically acceptable'. Embryo splitting has been introduced successfully to the veterinary medicine several decades ago and today is a part of standard practice. We present here an overview of embryo splitting experiments in humans and non-human primates and discuss the potential of this technology in assisted reproduction and research. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify studies on embryo splitting in humans and non-human primates. 'Embryo splitting' and 'embryo twinning' were used as the keywords, alone or in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topics of biology of preimplantation embryos. A very limited number of studies have been conducted in humans and non-human

  9. Ethical Issues Surrounding the Use of Modern Human Remains for Research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, N; Dempers, J J

    2017-02-01

    Chapter 8 of the South African National Health Act 61 of 2003 (NHA) that deals with the donation of human tissue was promulgated in 2012. The new Act is perceived to impose restrictions on low-risk research involving human remains. This study aimed to identify the issues raised by a research ethics committee (REC) when reviewing protocols where human remains are used as data source. REC minutes from 2009 to 2014 were reviewed, and issues raised by the committee were categorized. In total, 127 protocols submitted to the committee over 6 years involved human remains. Queries relating to science (22.2%) and administration (18.9%) were the most common, whereas queries relating to legal issues constituted only 10.2%. Ethical issues centered on informed consent regarding sensitive topics such as HIV, DNA, and deceased children. The change in legislation did not change the number or type of legal issues identified by the REC.

  10. De Novo Human Cardiac Myocytes for Medical Research: Promises and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Veronique; Cheng, Kang; Liao, Shudan; Lu, Aizhu; Zheng, Yong; Chen, Yawen; Xie, Yucai

    2017-01-01

    The advent of cellular reprogramming technology has revolutionized biomedical research. De novo human cardiac myocytes can now be obtained from direct reprogramming of somatic cells (such as fibroblasts), from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, which are reprogrammed from somatic cells), and from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Such de novo human cardiac myocytes hold great promise for in vitro disease modeling and drug screening and in vivo cell therapy of heart disease. Here, we review the technique advancements for generating de novo human cardiac myocytes. We also discuss several challenges for the use of such cells in research and regenerative medicine, such as the immature phenotype and heterogeneity of de novo cardiac myocytes obtained with existing protocols. We focus on the recent advancements in addressing such challenges.

  11. Overcoming the limited availability of human milk oligosaccharides: challenges and opportunities for research and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Lars; Contractor, Nikhat; Barile, Daniela; Pohl, Nicola; Prudden, Anthony R; Boons, Geert-Jan; Jin, Yong-Su; Jennewein, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are complex sugars highly abundant in human milk but currently not present in infant formula. Rapidly accumulating evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies, combined with epidemiological associations and correlations, suggests that HMOs benefit infants through multiple mechanisms and in a variety of clinical contexts. Until recently, however, research on HMOs has been limited by an insufficient availability of HMOs. Most HMOs are found uniquely in human milk, and thus far it has been prohibitively tedious and expensive to isolate and synthesize them. This article reviews new strategies to overcome this lack of availability by generating HMOs through chemoenzymatic synthesis, microbial metabolic engineering, and isolation from human donor milk or dairy streams. Each approach has its advantages and comes with its own challenges, but combining the different methods and acknowledging their limitations creates new opportunities for research and application with the goal of improving maternal and infant health.

  12. Future human health research directions for the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn G. Donaldson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted in the mid-1980s and early 1990s demonstrated that persistent organic pollutants (POPs and metals were reaching the Arctic ecosystem at unexpectedly high levels, many of which had no Arctic or Canadian sources. Epidemiological and toxicological studies in Canada and in other countries have found that these contaminants may pose a risk to human health. The objective of this paper is to provide the foundation for the discussion on future northern human health research under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP in Canada. This short discussion of human health priorities will help guide a path forward for future northern human health research in Canada to address on-going and new health concerns related to contaminants exposure in the Canadian Arctic.

  13. Application of research and information to human resources policies: regional goals for the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Marcos; Rigoli, Felix

    2015-12-01

    Objective Report experiences involving the use of research and information systems to support national human resources policies through benchmarking between different countries, with comparisons over time and between similar countries or regions. Method In 2007, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) promoted a set of goals for all the countries in the Americas to improve the situation of health human resources, using a uniform methodology and research process carried out by Observatories of Human Resources. Results The analysis focused on the progress made in relation to the main challenges in the Southern Cone countries, with a special emphasis on Brazil, noting improvements in the distribution of professionals in the regions. Conclusion These experiences showed how research and the use of information systems can stimulate the expansion of good practices in the training, retention and development of the health workforce in the Americas.

  14. [Introduction of neuroethics: out of clinic, beyond academia in human brain research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushi, Tamami; Sakura, Osamu

    2008-11-01

    Higher cognitive function in human brain is one of well-developed fields of neuroscience research in the 21st century. Especially functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near infrared recording system have brought so many non-clinical researchers whose background is such as cognitive psychology, economics, politics, pedagogy, and so on, to the human brain mapping study. Authors have introduced the ethical issues related to incidental findings during the fMRI recording for non-clinical purpose, which is a typical problem derived from such expanded human brain research under non clinical condition, that is, neuroethics. In the present article we would introduce neuroethical issues in contexts of "out of clinic" and "beyond academia".

  15. Measuring research in Humanities and Social Sciences: information from a new Italian data infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, T.; Malgarini, M

    2016-07-01

    Measuring research output in Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) is particularly important, since in these fields scientific production is much more heterogeneous than in Natural and Life Sciences, and as such it is not well represented in standard international databases normally used to assess research output and impact. For these reason, ANVUR has recently started a new data infrastructure, aimed at gathering information about scienticic production, research infrastructures and research groups active in the Italian Universities. On the basis of these data, the aim of this paper is to provide a first characterization of Italian research Departments active in HSS, clustering them according to their level of research productivity and infrastructure availability. On the basis of our analysis, it is generally possible to distinguish among two main groups of Departments, respectively characterized by higher productivity but lower research quality, or by higher shares of excellent articles, but lower overall number of publications. (Author)

  16. Towards human exploration of space: the THESEUS review series on cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal research priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, André E.; André E. Larina, Irina; Momken, Iman; Blanc, Stéphane; White, Olivier; Prisk, Kim; Linnarsson, Dag

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The THESEUS project (Towards Human Exploration of Space: aEUropean Strategy) was initiated within the seventh FrameworkProgramme by the European Commission. This project aimed toprovide a cross-cutting, life science-based roadmap for Europe’sstrategy towards human exploration of space, especially for deepspace missions and its relevance to applications on Earth. Toaddress these challenges, relevance of space research on thecardiovascular system, the lungs and kidneys, ...

  17. THE HUMAN CAPITAL APPROACH AND ITS APPLICABILITY TO ENTREPRENEURSHIP RESEARCH: AN EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    García Lillo, Francisco; Marco Lajara, Bartolomé

    2002-01-01

    The concept of human capital is implicit' in many empirical studies of both survival and success chances of new businesses. These studies investigate the effects of the founder's education, career history, family, occupational background, and so on. However, few studies make explicit their connection to the framework of human capital theory in entrepreneurship research. The current study attempts to fill this gap in the literature by examining from this perspective, how factors such as achi...

  18. In Situ Resource Utilization Technology Research and Facilities Supporting the NASA's Human Systems Research and Technology Life Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Sibille, Laurent; Sacksteder, Kurt; Owens, Chuck

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Science program has transitioned research required in support of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration. Research disciplines including the Materials Science, Fluid Physics and Combustion Science are now being applied toward projects with application in the planetary utilization and transformation of space resources. The scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure in these traditional fields developed at multiple NASA Centers and by external research partners provide essential capabilities to support the agency s new exploration thrusts including In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Among the technologies essential to human space exploration, the production of life support consumables, especially oxygen and; radiation shielding; and the harvesting of potentially available water are realistically achieved for long-duration crewed missions only through the use of ISRU. Ongoing research in the physical sciences have produced a body of knowledge relevant to the extraction of oxygen from lunar and planetary regolith and associated reduction of metals and silicon for use meeting manufacturing and repair requirements. Activities being conducted and facilities used in support of various ISRU projects at the Glenn Research Center and Marshall Space Flight Center will be described. The presentation will inform the community of these new research capabilities, opportunities, and challenges to utilize their materials, fluids and combustion science expertise and capabilities to support the vision for space exploration.

  19. In Situ Resource Utilization Technology Research and Facilities Supporting the NASA's Human Systems Research and Technology Life Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Sibille, Laurent; Sacksteder, Kurt; Owens, Chuck

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Science program has transitioned research required in support of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration. Research disciplines including the Materials Science, Fluid Physics and Combustion Science are now being applied toward projects with application in the planetary utilization and transformation of space resources. The scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure in these traditional fields developed at multiple NASA Centers and by external research partners provide essential capabilities to support the agency s new exploration thrusts including In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Among the technologies essential to human space exploration, the production of life support consumables, especially oxygen and; radiation shielding; and the harvesting of potentially available water are realistically achieved for long-duration crewed missions only through the use of ISRU. Ongoing research in the physical sciences have produced a body of knowledge relevant to the extraction of oxygen from lunar and planetary regolith and associated reduction of metals and silicon for use meeting manufacturing and repair requirements. Activities being conducted and facilities used in support of various ISRU projects at the Glenn Research Center and Marshall Space Flight Center will be described. The presentation will inform the community of these new research capabilities, opportunities, and challenges to utilize their materials, fluids and combustion science expertise and capabilities to support the vision for space exploration.

  20. Recognition memory and the medial temporal lobe: from monkey research to human pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, M; Barbeau, E

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a historical overview of decades of research on recognition memory, the process that allows both humans and animals to tell familiar from novel items. The emphasis is put on how monkey research improved our understanding of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) role and how tasks designed for monkeys influenced research in humans. The story starts in the early 1950s. Back then, memory was not a fashionable scientific topic. It was viewed as a function of the whole brain and not of specialized brain areas. All that changed in 1957-1958 when Brenda Milner, a neuropsychologist from Montreal, described patient H.M. He forgot all events as he lived them despite a fully preserved intelligence. He had received a MTL resection to relieve epilepsy. H.M. (1926-2008) would become the most influential patient in brain science. Which structures among those included in H.M.'s large lesion were important for recognition memory could not be evaluated in humans. It was gradually understood only after the successful development of a monkey model of human amnesia by Mishkin in 1978. Selective lesions and two behavioral tasks, delayed nonmatching-to-sample and visual paired comparison, were used to distinguish the contribution of the hippocampus from that of adjacent cortical areas. Driven by findings in non-human primates, human research on recognition memory is now trying to solve the question of whether the different structures composing MTL contributes to familiarity and recollection, the two possible forms taken by recognition. We described in particular two French patients, FRG and JMG, whose deficits support the currently dominant model attributing to the perirhinal cortex a critical role in recognition memory. Research on recognition memory has implications for the clinician as it may help understanding the cognitive deficits observed in different diseases. An illustration of such approach, linking basic and applied research, is provided for Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-08-25

    Aug 25, 2011 ... completely replaced animals with computer modeling, manikins and ... distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original ... developed internal guidelines on the use of animals in research in 2004 [13]. ... Only one institution used human cell cultures as a replacement to live animal use.

  2. Implementing genomics and pharmacogenomics in the clinic: The National Human Genome Research Institute's genomic medicine portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolio, Teri A

    2016-10-01

    Increasing knowledge about the influence of genetic variation on human health and growing availability of reliable, cost-effective genetic testing have spurred the implementation of genomic medicine in the clinic. As defined by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), genomic medicine uses an individual's genetic information in his or her clinical care, and has begun to be applied effectively in areas such as cancer genomics, pharmacogenomics, and rare and undiagnosed diseases. In 2011 NHGRI published its strategic vision for the future of genomic research, including an ambitious research agenda to facilitate and promote the implementation of genomic medicine. To realize this agenda, NHGRI is consulting and facilitating collaborations with the external research community through a series of "Genomic Medicine Meetings," under the guidance and leadership of the National Advisory Council on Human Genome Research. These meetings have identified and begun to address significant obstacles to implementation, such as lack of evidence of efficacy, limited availability of genomics expertise and testing, lack of standards, and difficulties in integrating genomic results into electronic medical records. The six research and dissemination initiatives comprising NHGRI's genomic research portfolio are designed to speed the evaluation and incorporation, where appropriate, of genomic technologies and findings into routine clinical care. Actual adoption of successful approaches in clinical care will depend upon the willingness, interest, and energy of professional societies, practitioners, patients, and payers to promote their responsible use and share their experiences in doing so.

  3. Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell research trends: complementation and diversification of the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobold, Sabine; Guhr, Anke; Kurtz, Andreas; Löser, Peter

    2015-05-12

    Research in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is rapidly developing and there are expectations that this research may obviate the need to use human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), the ethics of which has been a subject of controversy for more than 15 years. In this study, we investigated approximately 3,400 original research papers that reported an experimental use of these types of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and were published from 2008 to 2013. We found that research into both cell types was conducted independently and further expanded, accompanied by a growing intersection of both research fields. Moreover, an in-depth analysis of papers that reported the use of both cell types indicates that hESCs are still being used as a "gold standard," but in a declining proportion of publications. Instead, the expanding research field is diversifying and hESC and hiPSC lines are increasingly being used in more independent research and application areas. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research Trends: Complementation and Diversification of the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Kobold

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs is rapidly developing and there are expectations that this research may obviate the need to use human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, the ethics of which has been a subject of controversy for more than 15 years. In this study, we investigated approximately 3,400 original research papers that reported an experimental use of these types of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs and were published from 2008 to 2013. We found that research into both cell types was conducted independently and further expanded, accompanied by a growing intersection of both research fields. Moreover, an in-depth analysis of papers that reported the use of both cell types indicates that hESCs are still being used as a “gold standard,” but in a declining proportion of publications. Instead, the expanding research field is diversifying and hESC and hiPSC lines are increasingly being used in more independent research and application areas.

  5. How Does Iranian's Legal System Protect Human Vulnerability and Personal Integrity in Medical Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoubi, Mohammad Taghi; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    The astonishing advance of medical science in recent decades has had endless advantages for humans, including improved level of health, prevention of disease and advances in treatment. These advances depend to a great extent on conducting continuous research. However, besides its enormous advantages, the sole interest of medical science undermines the principles of respect for human vulnerability and personal integrity, in both positive and negative approaches. The positive approach refers to the people who participate in research and practice, while the negative approach refers to people who are deprived of research and practice. The authors of this work, based on legal or moral grounds try to analyse the tension between the principle of respect for human vulnerability and personal integrity and the interest of medical science. Undoubtedly, in applying scientific knowledge and medical practice human vulnerability should be taken into account. In this regard, especially vulnerable individuals and groups should be protected and the personal integrity of such individuals respected. In the light of the merits of Islamic law, this paper is designed to examine the significance of the principles of human vulnerability and personal integrity in medical research by studying the international documents as formalised by UNESCO in order to explore the place of these principles in the Iranian legal system. PMID:23408269

  6. [Human brain resource--experience at the Brain Research Institute,University of Niigata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2010-10-01

    Through 40 years of neuropathological practice,the Brain Research Institute, University of Niigata (BRI-Niigata), Japan has accumulated extensive human brain resource,including fresh-frozen brain slices,for scientific research. Over 30,000 slices obtained from consecutive autopsies have been systematically stored in 25 deep freezers. Establishment of effective networks between brain banks and institutional collections in Japan is essential for promoting scientific activities that require human brain resource. We at the BRI-Niigata are eager to contribute to the establishment of such networks.

  7. Africa's neglected area of human resources for health research - the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Marais, D L; Becerra-Posada, F; Ghannem, H

    2012-03-07

    Building the skills for doing, managing and delivering health research is essential for every country's development. Yet, human resources for health research (HRHR) are seldom considered in Africa and elsewhere. Africa's health research capacity has grown considerably, with potential to increase this growth. However, a systemic way of defining, co-ordinating and growing the HRHR needed to support health systems development is missing. Reviewing the status of HRHR in Africa, we assert that it consists of uncoordinated, small-scale activities, primarily driven from outside Africa. We present examples of ongoing HRHR capacity building initiatives in Africa. There is no overarching framework, strategy or body for African countries to optimise research support and capacity in HRHR. A simple model is presented to help countries plan and strategise for a comprehensive approach to research capacity strengthening. Everyone engaged with global, regional and national research for health enterprises must proactively address human resource planning for health research in Africa. Unless this is made explicit in global and national agendas, Africa will remain only an interested spectator in the decisions, prioritisation, funding allocations, conduct and interpretation, and in the institutional, economic and social benefits of health research, rather than owning and driving its own health research agendas.

  8. Regulating the research enterprise: international norms and the right to bodily integrity in human experiment litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunstroth, John

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes international law claims in human subject litigation, arguing that the failure of federal courts or Congress to oversee this kind of litigation by providing or recognizing a federal cause of action for research torts is an injustice. It is about two distinct and somewhat arcane areas of the law, international law and the law of human subjects research. Because they draw on different historical, social and conceptual frameworks, each has its own descriptive section in the article. In the first section, the author briefly describes international law and its place in the U.S. constitutional order. This section explains why international law claims are routinely rejected by the courts. In the second section, the author discusses the moral underpinnings of the research enterprise and explains how the values of science contradict the values of human rights and medicine. The author concludes that Congress or the judiciary should recognize the social magnitude of the research enterprise, the difference between the values of science and the values of medicine, and the meaninglessness of individual informed consent when considered on a population level. Citizens should be provided with a clearly defined cause of action for research harms to human subjects.

  9. Differential impact of science policy on subfields of human embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seongwuk; Cho, Seong Beom

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we examine how restrictive policy influenced performance in human embryonic stem cell research (hESC) between 1998 and 2008. In previous research, researchers argued whether restrictive policy decreased the performance of stem cell research in some nations, especially in the US. Here, we hypothesize that this policy influenced specific subfields of the hESC research. To investigate the selective policy effects, we categorize hESC research publications into three subfields-derivation, differentiation, and medical application research. Our analysis shows that restrictive policy had different effects on different subfields. In general, the US outperformed in overall hESC research throughout these periods. In the derivation of hESC, however, the US almost lost its competence under restrictive policy. Interestingly, the US scientific community showed prominent resilience in hESC research through international collaboration. We concluded that the US resilience and performance stemmed from the wide breadth of research portfolio of US scientists across the hESC subfields, combined with their strategic efforts to collaborate internationally on derivation research.

  10. The research-practice relationship in ergonomics and human factors--surveying and bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Shorrock, Steven T

    2011-05-01

    Significant discord has been aired regarding the widening research-practice gap in several disciplines (e.g. psychology, healthcare), especially with reference to research published in academic journals. The research-practice gap has profound and wide-ranging implications for the adequacy of ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) research and the implementation of research findings into practice. However, no substantive research on this issue has been identified in E/HF. Using an online questionnaire, practitioners were asked about their application of scientific research findings published in peer-reviewed journals and to suggest ways to improve research application in practice. A total of 587 usable responses were collected, spanning 46 countries. This article describes some of the key differences and correlations concerning reading, usefulness and barriers to application among respondents, who varied in terms of organisational type, percentage of work time devoted to application vs. research, society membership and experience. Various solutions proposed by the survey respondents on ways to bridge the research-practice gap are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between research and practice in E/HF has long been a subject of discussion, with commentators pointing to tension and possible implications for the adequacy of the discipline. Findings from a cross-sectional survey provide ergonomics practitioners' views on research, leading to discussion of strategies for achieving better integration.

  11. Fear Generalization in Humans: Systematic Review and Implications for Anxiety Disorder Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Simon; Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Vervliet, Bram; Roche, Bryan; Hermans, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Fear generalization, in which conditioned fear responses generalize or spread to related stimuli, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. The behavioral consequences of maladaptive fear generalization are that aversive experiences with one stimulus or event may lead one to regard other cues or situations as potential threats that should be avoided, despite variations in physical form. Theoretical and empirical interest in the generalization of conditioned learning dates to the earliest research on classical conditioning in nonhumans. Recently, there has been renewed focus on fear generalization in humans due in part to its explanatory power in characterizing disorders of fear and anxiety. Here, we review existing behavioral and neuroimaging empirical research on the perceptual and non-perceptual (conceptual and symbolic) generalization of fear and avoidance in healthy humans and patients with anxiety disorders. The clinical implications of this research for understanding the etiology and treatment of anxiety is considered and directions for future research described.

  12. Political interventions in U.S. human embryo research: an ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    For more than 30 years, beginning with the Reagan administration's refusal to support and provide oversight for embryo research, and continuing to the present in congressionally imposed limits on funding for such research, progress in infertility medicine and the development of stem cell therapies has been seriously delayed by a series of political interventions. In almost all cases, these interventions result from a view of the moral status of human embryo premised largely on religious assumptions. Although some believe that these interventions are valid expressions of religious values in the public sector, it is argued here that they, in fact, contradict Rawls's conception of public reasoning. Both the prohibition of research involving the human embryo as well as bans on federal funding for embryo-related research place the particular religious views of some citizens above the pressing health needs of almost all, and thus violate the ideal of civility implicit in the Rawlsian standard.

  13. Isocyanates and human health: Multi-stakeholder information needs and research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockey, JE; Redlich, CA; Streicher, R; Pfahles-Hutchens, A; Hakkinen, PJ; Ellison, GL; Harber, P; Utell, M; Holland, J; Comai, A; White, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Objective Outline the knowledge gaps and research priorities identified by a broad-base of stakeholders involved in the planning and participation of an international conference and research agenda workshop on isocyanates and human health held in Potomac, Maryland in April 2013. Methods A multi-modal iterative approach was employed for data collection including pre-conference surveys, review of a 2001 consensus conference on isocyanates, oral and poster presentations, focused break-out sessions, panel discussions and post-conference research agenda workshop. Results Participants included representatives of consumer and worker health, health professionals, regulatory agencies, academic and industry scientists, labor, and trade associations. Conclusions Recommendations were summarized regarding knowledge gaps and research priorities in the following areas: worker and consumer exposures; toxicology, animal models, and biomarkers; human cancer risk; environmental exposure and monitoring; and respiratory epidemiology and disease, and occupational health surveillance. PMID:25563538

  14. Genomic research with human samples. Points of view from scientists and research subjects about disclosure of results and risks of genomic research. Ethical and empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle Mansilla, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical researchers often now ask subjects to donate samples to be deposited in biobanks. This is not only of interest to researchers, patients and society as a whole can benefit from the improvements in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention that the advent of genomic medicine portends. However, there is a growing debate regarding the social and ethical implications of creating biobanks and using stored human tissue samples for genomic research. Our aim was to identify factors related to both scientists and patients' preferences regarding the sort of information to convey to subjects about the results of the study and the risks related to genomic research. The method used was a survey addressed to 204 scientists and 279 donors from the U.S. and Spain. In this sample, researchers had already published genomic epidemiology studies; and research subjects had actually volunteered to donate a human sample for genomic research. Concerning the results, patients supported more frequently than scientists their right to know individual results from future genomic research. These differences were statistically significant after adjusting by the opportunity to receive genetic research results from the research they had previously participated and their perception of risks regarding genetic information compared to other clinical data. A slight majority of researchers supported informing participants about individual genomic results only if the reliability and clinical validity of the information had been established. Men were more likely than women to believe that patients should be informed of research results even if these conditions were not met. Also among patients, almost half of them would always prefer to be informed about individual results from future genomic research. The three main factors associated to a higher support of a non-limited access to individual results were: being from the US, having previously been offered individual information and considering

  15. Framework for national and multicultural research on the impact of human rights violations in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Introduction: This framework examines the scope of problems and attempts to achieve a shared approach to research on monitoring, assessment and intervention strategies applicable to children, families and communities. It comprises three main components: 1. monitoring, 2. assessment and diagnosis, 3...... of such research in the widest possible manner, an increased public awareness of the situation of children in crisis is created which will hopefully contribute to the transformation of conditions which condone the violation of Human Rights of children...

  16. What’s new in using platelet research? To unravel thrombopathies and other human disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Freson, Kathleen; Labarque, Veerle; Thys, Chantal; Wittevrongel, Christine; Van Geet, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This review on platelet research focuses on defects of adhesion, cytoskeletal organisation, signal transduction and secretion. Platelet defects can be studied by different laboratory platelet functional assays and morphological studies. Easy bruising or a suspected platelet-based bleeding disorder is of course the most obvious reason to test the platelet function in a patient. However, nowadays platelet research also contributes to our understanding of human pathology in other disciplines suc...

  17. Donating embryos for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research: a committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    hESC research is an ethically acceptable use of human embryos that are in excess of those needed to meet the fertility goals of patients. The ethical basis for this view and issues to be considered during the informed consent process for the donation of embryos are developed in this document. This report replaces the Committee's 2009 report, "Donating spare embryos for stem cell research" (Fertil Steril 2009;91:667-70).

  18. One Health approach to identify research needs in bovine and human babesioses: workshop report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElwain Terry F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the United States. A collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the One Health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in April 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. The impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as Texas cattle fever, associated with the re-infestation of the U.S. by cattle fever ticks. Results The involvement of wildlife in the ecology of cattle fever ticks jeopardizes the ability of state and federal agencies to keep the national herd free of Texas cattle fever. Similarly, there has been a progressive increase in the number of cases of human babesiosis over the past 25 years due to an increase in the white-tailed deer population. Human babesiosis due to cattle-associated Babesia divergens and Babesia divergens-like organisms have begun to appear in residents of the United States. Research needs for human and bovine babesioses were identified and are presented herein. Conclusions The translation of this research is expected to provide veterinary and public health systems with the tools to mitigate the impact of bovine and human babesioses. However, economic, political, and social commitments are urgently required, including increased national funding for animal and human Babesia research, to prevent the re-establishment of cattle fever ticks and the increasing problem of human babesiosis in the United States.

  19. Hypnosis, human nature, and complexity: integrating neuroscience approaches into hypnosis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnier, Amanda J; McConkey, Kevin M

    2003-07-01

    Hypnosis research has contributed much to the understanding of human behavior and experience, both normal and abnormal. This paper considers ways in which neuroscience approaches may be integrated into hypnosis research to continue and enhance that contribution, as well as further reveal the nature of hypnosis itself. The authors review the influences on and advances in hypnosis research over the last century; illustrate the investigative value of hypnosis to selected phenomena across the areas of doing, feeling, believing, and remembering; and specify elements for the successful integration of neuroscience approaches into hypnosis research. The authors believe that hypnosis research offers powerful techniques to isolate psychological processes in ways that allow their neural bases to be mapped. Successful integration will be achieved when researchers add levels of explanation, rather than shift the emphasis from one level or feature to another.

  20. Global Dental Research Productivity and Its Association With Human Development, Gross National Income, and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Rampa, Sankeerth; Nalliah, Romesh P; Elangovan, Satheesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the associations between country level factors (such as human development, economic productivity, and political stability) and their dental research productivity. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of bibliometric data from Scopus search engine. Human Development Index (HDI), Gross National Income per capita (GNI), and Failed State Index measures were the independent variables. Outcomes were "Total number of publications (articles or articles in press) in the field of dentistry" and "Total number of publications in the field of dentistry per million population." Non-parametric tests were used to examine the association between the independent and outcome variables. During the year 2013, a total of 11,952 dental research articles were published across the world. The top 5 publishing countries were United States, Brazil, India, Japan, and United Kingdom. "Very High" HDI countries had significantly higher number of total dental research articles and dental research articles per million population when compared to the "High HDI," "Medium HDI," and "Low HDI" countries (p human development and economic development of a country are linearly correlated with dental research productivity. Dental research productivity also increases with increasing political stability of a country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Monkey-based research on human disease: the implications of genetic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jarrod

    2014-11-01

    Assertions that the use of monkeys to investigate human diseases is valid scientifically are frequently based on a reported 90-93% genetic similarity between the species. Critical analyses of the relevance of monkey studies to human biology, however, indicate that this genetic similarity does not result in sufficient physiological similarity for monkeys to constitute good models for research, and that monkey data do not translate well to progress in clinical practice for humans. Salient examples include the failure of new drugs in clinical trials, the highly different infectivity and pathology of SIV/HIV, and poor extrapolation of research on Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke. The major molecular differences underlying these inter-species phenotypic disparities have been revealed by comparative genomics and molecular biology - there are key differences in all aspects of gene expression and protein function, from chromosome and chromatin structure to post-translational modification. The collective effects of these differences are striking, extensive and widespread, and they show that the superficial similarity between human and monkey genetic sequences is of little benefit for biomedical research. The extrapolation of biomedical data from monkeys to humans is therefore highly unreliable, and the use of monkeys must be considered of questionable value, particularly given the breadth and potential of alternative methods of enquiry that are currently available to scientists.

  2. Human Resources development and research capacity and their impact on economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ježić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to provide an analysis of the development of the Republic of Croatia and 110 selected countries in terms of human resource development index components and the components of the Technological Achievement Index. Developmental lags of the Republic of Croatia were determined by the bird’s eye view method in terms of the observed developmental indicators, and suggestions were provided for their development. The impact of the analysed indicators and their components on the economic growth of the Republic of Croatia and the selected countries was established by regression analysis. The paper provides possible developmental guidelines for certain components. The results of the research proved that the Human Resources Development Index is insufficient in the analysis of economic development, as well as the existence of the expected correlation between trained human resources, which enable technological progress, and economic growth of a country. Taking into consideration the correlation between the growth of the Human Resources Development Index, Research Capacity Index, Technology and Innovation Index, and the Ability to Absorb Knowledge and Technology Index and economic growth, which was determined by the application of a model, Croatia has to make additional investments in the growth of human capital and labour productivity in order to reduce developmental lags.

  3. Ethics and methods for biological rhythm research on animals and human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    2010-10-01

    This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve

  4. Methods of investigation for cardiac autonomic dysfunction in human research studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardi, Luciano; Spallone, Vincenza; Stevens, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This consensus document provides evidence-based guidelines regarding the evaluation of diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) for human research studies as a result of the work of the CAN Subcommittee of the Toronto Diabetic Neuropathy Expert Group. The CAN subcommittee critically......, for studying the pathophysiology of CAN and new therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  5. Database as a Tool for Promoting Research Activities in the Classroom: An Example in Teaching Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo; Ferraris, Maria

    1988-01-01

    Describes Datamondo, an instructional package that introduces the use of a newspaper database in humanities teaching at the secondary level in Italy. The effectiveness of the package in developing basic linguistic skills and as a research tool is evaluated. (8 references) (Author/CLB)

  6. History of the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, while quite a mouthful, is aptly named, since it has contributed substantially to the legacy of Jean Mayer, to the scientific stature of the USDA and, in Atwater’s tradition, to the d...

  7. Human behavior and environmental sustainability : Problems, driving forces, and research topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, Charles; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Social and behavioral research is crucial for securing environmental sustainability and improving human living environments. To put the following articles into broader perspective, we first give an overview of worldwide developments in environmental quality and trends in resource use. Second, five g

  8. Exploring human centred approaches in market research and product development - Three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.; Koning, N. de; Pikaart, A.

    2004-01-01

    How can human centred approaches in market research and product development improve the process and results of innovation? Based on case studies two recommendations are formulated: 1) use a comprehensive view on man for studying people's behaviour, needs and wishes while they use products or service

  9. Reframing Photographic Research Methods in Human Geography: A Long-Term Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a long-term reflection on the introduction of a photographic research project into a third-year undergraduate Human Geography module. The findings indicate that, whilst the students valued the project, it did impact on their overall performance, their evaluation of the module and the ways in which they spoke about it. The paper…

  10. Methodology & Themes of Human-Robot Interaction: A Growing Research Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Dautenhahn

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses challenges of Human-Robot Interaction, which is a highly inter- and multidisciplinary area. Themes that are important in current research in this lively and growing field are identified and selected work relevant to these themes is discussed.

  11. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH AND SCREENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility Research and ScreeningDavid Miller1, David Dix2, Robert Reid3, Susan Wykes3 and Stephen Krawetz3 1Reproductive Biology Group, University of Leeds, UK2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmenta...

  12. Exploring human centred approaches in market research and product development - Three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.; Koning, N. de; Pikaart, A.

    2004-01-01

    How can human centred approaches in market research and product development improve the process and results of innovation? Based on case studies two recommendations are formulated: 1) use a comprehensive view on man for studying people's behaviour, needs and wishes while they use products or

  13. NASA Human Research Program (HRP). International Space Station Medical Project (ISSMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the various flight investigations performed on the International Space Station as part of the NASA Human Research Program (HRP). The evaluations include: 1) Stability; 2) Periodic Fitness Evaluation with Oxygen Uptake Measurement; 3) Nutrition; 4) CCISS; 5) Sleep; 6) Braslet; 7) Integrated Immune; 8) Epstein Barr; 9) Biophosphonates; 10) Integrated cardiovascular; and 11) VO2 max.

  14. 76 FR 11248 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ...: Jerry Menikoff, M.D., J.D., Director, Office for Human Research Protections, or Julia Gorey, J.D..., Rockville, Maryland 20852; 240-453-6900, fax: 240-453-6909; e-mail address: Julia.Gorey@hhs.gov... as sign language interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the...

  15. Human behavior and environmental sustainability : Problems, driving forces, and research topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, Charles; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Social and behavioral research is crucial for securing environmental sustainability and improving human living environments. To put the following articles into broader perspective, we first give an overview of worldwide developments in environmental quality and trends in resource use. Second, five

  16. Reframing Photographic Research Methods in Human Geography: A Long-Term Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a long-term reflection on the introduction of a photographic research project into a third-year undergraduate Human Geography module. The findings indicate that, whilst the students valued the project, it did impact on their overall performance, their evaluation of the module and the ways in which they spoke about it. The paper…

  17. AN INTEGRATED RESEARCH AGENDA TO EVALUATE TAP WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND HUMAN HEALTH: PART 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Integrated Research Agenda to Evaluate Tap Water Disinfection Byproducts and Human Health: Part I Michele Lynberg1, David Ashley 2, Pauline Mendola3, J. R. Nuckols4, Kenneth Cantor5, Benjamin Blount 2, Philip Singer6, Charles Wilkes7, Lorraine Backer1, and Peter Langlo...

  18. Frameworks for Africa-UK Research Collaboration in the Social Sciences and Humanities: African University Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the British Academy's Africa Panel to examine the challenges facing African universities when undertaking collaborative research with UK and other international partners, particularly in the social sciences and humanities. It draws principally on a consultation undertaken by the Association of Commonwealth…

  19. Genetic Testing and Its Implications: Human Genetics Researchers Grapple with Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabino, Isaac

    2003-01-01

    Contributes systematic data on the attitudes of scientific experts who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. Finds that they are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. Calls for greater genetic literacy. (Contains 87 references.) (Author/NB)

  20. Are sciences essential and humanities elective? Disentangling competing claims for humanities’ research public value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmos-Penuela, Julia; Benneworth, P.; Castro-Martinez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy discourse suggests that arts and humanities research is seen as being less useful to society than other disciplines, notably in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The paper explores how this assumption’s construction has been built and whether it is based upon an unfair