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Sample records for human epithelial stem

  1. Transcriptional profiling of putative human epithelial stem cells

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    Koçer Salih S

    2008-07-01

    may be enriched for stem cells. This study is the first comprehensive gene expression profile of putative human epithelial stem cells and their progeny that were isolated directly from neonatal foreskin tissue. Our study is important for understanding self renewal and differentiation of epidermal stem cells, and for elucidating signaling pathways involved in those processes. The generated data base may serve those working with other human epithelial tissue progenitors.

  2. Generation of folliculogenic human epithelial stem cells from induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruifeng; Zheng, Ying; Burrows, Michelle; Liu, Shujing; Wei, Zhi; Nace, Arben; Guo, Wei; Kumar, Suresh; Cotsarelis, George; Xu, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial stem cells (EpSCs) in the hair follicle bulge are required for hair follicle growth and cycling. The isolation and propagation of human EpSCs for tissue engineering purposes remains a challenge. Here we develop a strategy to differentiate human iPSCs (hiPSCs) into CD200+/ITGA6+ EpSCs that can reconstitute the epithelial components of the hair follicle and interfollicular epidermis. The hiPSC-derived CD200+/ITGA6+ cells show a similar gene expression signature as EpSCs directly isolated from human hair follicles. Human iPSC-derived CD200+/ITGA6+ cells are capable of generating all hair follicle lineages including the hair shaft, and the inner and outer root sheaths in skin reconstitution assays. The regenerated hair follicles possess a KRT15+ stem cell population and produce hair shafts expressing hair-specific keratins. These results suggest an approach for generating large numbers of human EpSCs for tissue engineering and new treatments for hair loss, wound healing and other degenerative skin disorders.

  3. Rapid, Directed Differentiation of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells from Human Embryonic or Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Foltz, LP; Clegg, DO

    2017-01-01

    We describe a robust method to direct the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). The purpose of providing a detailed and thorough protocol is to clearly demonstrate each step and to make this readily available to researchers in the field. This protocol results in a homogenous layer of RPE with minimal or no manual dissection needed. The method presented here has been shown to be effective for induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and human embry...

  4. Lifespan Extension and Sustained Expression of Stem Cell Phenotype of Human Breast Epithelial Stem Cells in a Medium with Antioxidants

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    Kai-Hung Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported the isolation and culture of a human breast epithelial cell type with stem cell characteristics (Type I HBEC from reduction mammoplasty using the MSU-1 medium. Subsequently, we have developed several different normal human adult stem cell types from different tissues using the K-NAC medium. In this study, we determined whether this low calcium K-NAC medium with antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine and L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate is a better medium to grow human breast epithelial cells. The results clearly show that the K-NAC medium is a superior medium for prolonged growth (cumulative population doubling levels ranged from 30 to 40 of normal breast epithelial cells that expressed stem cell phenotypes. The characteristics of these mammary stem cells include deficiency in gap junctional intercellular communication, expression of Oct-4, and the ability to differentiate into basal epithelial cells and to form organoid showing mammary ductal and terminal end bud-like structures. Thus, this new method of growing Type I HBECs will be very useful in future studies of mammary development, breast carcinogenesis, chemoprevention, and cancer therapy.

  5. Differentiation and molecular profiling of human embryonic stem cell-derived corneal epithelial cells.

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    Brzeszczynska, J; Samuel, K; Greenhough, S; Ramaesh, K; Dhillon, B; Hay, D C; Ross, J A

    2014-06-01

    It has been suggested that the isolation of scalable populations of limbal stem cells may lead to radical changes in ocular therapy. In particular, the derivation and transplantation of corneal stem cells from these populations may result in therapies providing clinical normality of the diseased or damaged cornea. Although feasible in theory, the lack of donor material in sufficient quantity and quality currently limits such a strategy. A potential scalable source of corneal cells could be derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). We developed an in vitro and serum-free corneal differentiation model which displays significant promise. Our stepwise differentiation model was designed with reference to development and gave rise to cells which displayed similarities to epithelial progenitor cells which can be specified to cells displaying a corneal epithelial phenotype. We believe our approach is novel, provides a robust model of human development and in the future, may facilitate the generation of corneal epithelial cells that are suitable for clinical use. Additionally, we demonstrate that following continued cell culture, stem cell-derived corneal epithelial cells undergo transdifferentiation and exhibit squamous metaplasia and therefore, also offer an in vitro model of disease.

  6. Isolation and functional interrogation of adult human prostate epithelial stem cells at single cell resolution.

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    Hu, Wen-Yang; Hu, Dan-Ping; Xie, Lishi; Li, Ye; Majumdar, Shyama; Nonn, Larisa; Hu, Hong; Shioda, Toshi; Prins, Gail S

    2017-08-01

    Using primary cultures of normal human prostate epithelial cells, we developed a novel prostasphere-based, label-retention assay that permits identification and isolation of stem cells at a single cell level. Their bona fide stem cell nature was corroborated using in vitro and in vivo regenerative assays and documentation of symmetric/asymmetric division. Robust WNT10B and KRT13 levels without E-cadherin or KRT14 staining distinguished individual stem cells from daughter progenitors in spheroids. Following FACS to isolate label-retaining stem cells from label-free progenitors, RNA-seq identified unique gene signatures for the separate populations which may serve as useful biomarkers. Knockdown of KRT13 or PRAC1 reduced sphere formation and symmetric self-renewal highlighting their role in stem cell maintenance. Pathways analysis identified ribosome biogenesis and membrane estrogen-receptor signaling enriched in stem cells with NF-ĸB signaling enriched in progenitors; activities that were biologically confirmed. Further, bioassays identified heightened autophagy flux and reduced metabolism in stem cells relative to progenitors. These approaches similarly identified stem-like cells from prostate cancer specimens and prostate, breast and colon cancer cell lines suggesting wide applicability. Together, the present studies isolate and identify unique characteristics of normal human prostate stem cells and uncover processes that maintain stem cell homeostasis in the prostate gland. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and functional interrogation of adult human prostate epithelial stem cells at single cell resolution

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    Wen-Yang Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using primary cultures of normal human prostate epithelial cells, we developed a novel prostasphere-based, label-retention assay that permits identification and isolation of stem cells at a single cell level. Their bona fide stem cell nature was corroborated using in vitro and in vivo regenerative assays and documentation of symmetric/asymmetric division. Robust WNT10B and KRT13 levels without E-cadherin or KRT14 staining distinguished individual stem cells from daughter progenitors in spheroids. Following FACS to isolate label-retaining stem cells from label-free progenitors, RNA-seq identified unique gene signatures for the separate populations which may serve as useful biomarkers. Knockdown of KRT13 or PRAC1 reduced sphere formation and symmetric self-renewal highlighting their role in stem cell maintenance. Pathways analysis identified ribosome biogenesis and membrane estrogen-receptor signaling enriched in stem cells with NF-ĸB signaling enriched in progenitors; activities that were biologically confirmed. Further, bioassays identified heightened autophagy flux and reduced metabolism in stem cells relative to progenitors. These approaches similarly identified stem-like cells from prostate cancer specimens and prostate, breast and colon cancer cell lines suggesting wide applicability. Together, the present studies isolate and identify unique characteristics of normal human prostate stem cells and uncover processes that maintain stem cell homeostasis in the prostate gland.

  8. Small-Molecule Induction Promotes Corneal Epithelial Cell Differentiation from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Alexandra Mikhailova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs offer unique opportunities for developing novel cell-based therapies and disease modeling. In this study, we developed a directed differentiation method for hiPSCs toward corneal epithelial progenitor cells capable of terminal differentiation toward mature corneal epithelial-like cells. In order to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of our method, we replicated signaling cues active during ocular surface ectoderm development with the help of two small-molecule inhibitors in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF in serum-free and feeder-free conditions. First, small-molecule induction downregulated the expression of pluripotency markers while upregulating several transcription factors essential for normal eye development. Second, protein expression of the corneal epithelial progenitor marker p63 was greatly enhanced, with up to 95% of cells being p63 positive after 5 weeks of differentiation. Third, corneal epithelial-like cells were obtained upon further maturation.

  9. Leptin and Adiponectin Modulate the Self-renewal of Normal Human Breast Epithelial Stem Cells.

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    Esper, Raymond M; Dame, Michael; McClintock, Shannon; Holt, Peter R; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Wicha, Max S; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-12-01

    Multiple mechanisms are likely to account for the link between obesity and increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, are of particular interest due to their opposing biologic functions and associations with breast cancer risk. In the current study, we investigated the effects of leptin and adiponectin on normal breast epithelial stem cells. Levels of leptin in human adipose explant-derived conditioned media positively correlated with the size of the normal breast stem cell pool. In contrast, an inverse relationship was found for adiponectin. Moreover, a strong linear relationship was observed between the leptin/adiponectin ratio in adipose conditioned media and breast stem cell self-renewal. Consistent with these findings, exogenous leptin stimulated whereas adiponectin suppressed breast stem cell self-renewal. In addition to local in-breast effects, circulating factors, including leptin and adiponectin, may contribute to the link between obesity and breast cancer. Increased levels of leptin and reduced amounts of adiponectin were found in serum from obese compared with age-matched lean postmenopausal women. Interestingly, serum from obese women increased stem cell self-renewal by 30% compared with only 7% for lean control serum. Taken together, these data suggest a plausible explanation for the obesity-driven increase in postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Leptin and adiponectin may function as both endocrine and paracrine/juxtacrine factors to modulate the size of the normal stem cell pool. Interventions that disrupt this axis and thereby normalize breast stem cell self-renewal could reduce the risk of breast cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Multipotent Basal Stem Cells, Maintained in Localized Proximal Niches, Support Directed Long-Ranging Epithelial Flows in Human Prostates

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    Mohammad Moad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic mitochondrial DNA mutations serve as clonal marks providing access to the identity and lineage potential of stem cells within human tissues. By combining quantitative clonal mapping with 3D reconstruction of adult human prostates, we show that multipotent basal stem cells, confined to discrete niches in juxta-urethral ducts, generate bipotent basal progenitors in directed epithelial migration streams. Basal progenitors are then dispersed throughout the entire glandular network, dividing and differentiating to replenish the loss of apoptotic luminal cells. Rare lineage-restricted luminal stem cells, and their progeny, are confined to proximal ducts and provide only minor contribution to epithelial homeostasis. In situ cell capture from clonal maps identified delta homolog 1 (DLK1 enrichment of basal stem cells, which was validated in functional spheroid assays. This study establishes significant insights into niche organization and function of prostate stem and progenitor cells, with implications for disease.

  11. Three-dimensional epithelial tissues generated from human embryonic stem cells.

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    Hewitt, Kyle J; Shamis, Yulia; Carlson, Mark W; Aberdam, Edith; Aberdam, Daniel; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2009-11-01

    The use of pluripotent human embryonic stem (hES) cells for tissue engineering may provide advantages over traditional sources of progenitor cells because of their ability to give rise to multiple cell types and their unlimited expansion potential. We derived cell populations with properties of ectodermal and mesenchymal cells in two-dimensional culture and incorporated these divergent cell populations into three-dimensional (3D) epithelial tissues. When grown in specific media and substrate conditions, two-dimensional cultures were enriched in cells (EDK1) with mesenchymal morphology and surface markers. Cells with a distinct epithelial morphology (HDE1) that expressed cytokeratin 12 and beta-catenin at cell junctions became the predominant cell type when EDK1 were grown on surfaces enriched in keratinocyte-derived extracellular matrix proteins. When these cells were incorporated into the stromal and epithelial tissue compartments of 3D tissues, they generated multilayer epithelia similar to those generated with foreskin-derived epithelium and fibroblasts. Three-dimensional tissues demonstrated stromal cells with morphologic features of mature fibroblasts, type IV collagen deposition in the basement membrane, and a stratified epithelium that expressed cytokeratin 12. By deriving two distinct cell lineages from a common hES cell source to fabricate complex tissues, it is possible to explore environmental cues that will direct hES-derived cells toward optimal tissue form and function.

  12. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) as an elastic biodegradable film for human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorkio, Anni; Haimi, Suvi; Verdoold, Vincent; Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati; Grijpma, Dirk; Skottman, Heli

    2017-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (hESC-RPE) cell therapies show tremendous potential for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. A tissue engineering approach, where cells are delivered to the subretinal space on a biodegradable carrier as a sheet, shows great

  13. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) as an elastic biodegradable film for human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorkio, Anni; Haimi, Suvi; Verdoold, Vincent; Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati; Grijpma, Dirk; Skottman, Heli

    Human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (hESC-RPE) cell therapies show tremendous potential for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. A tissue engineering approach, where cells are delivered to the subretinal space on a biodegradable carrier as a sheet, shows great

  14. Telomerase-immortalized non-malignant human prostate epithelial cells retain the properties of multipotent stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongzhen; Zhou Jianjun; Miki, Jun; Furusato, Bungo; Gu Yongpeng; Srivastava, Shiv; McLeod, David G.; Vogel, Jonathan C.; Rhim, Johng S.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding prostate stem cells may provide insight into the origin of prostate cancer. Primary cells have been cultured from human prostate tissue but they usually survive only 15-20 population doublings before undergoing senescence. We report here that RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells, a clonal cell line from hTERT-immortalized primary non-malignant tissue-derived human prostate epithelial cell line (RC170N/h), retain multipotent stem cell properties. The RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells expressed a human embryonic stem cell marker, Oct-4, and potential prostate epithelial stem cell markers, CD133, integrin α2β1 hi and CD44. The RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells proliferated in KGM and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and 5 μg/ml insulin (DMEM + 10% FBS + Ins.) medium, and differentiated into epithelial stem cells that expressed epithelial cell markers, including CK5/14, CD44, p63 and cytokeratin 18 (CK18); as well as the mesenchymal cell markers, vimentin, desmin; the neuron and neuroendocrine cell marker, chromogranin A. Furthermore the RC170 N/h/clone 7 cells differentiated into multi tissues when transplanted into the sub-renal capsule and subcutaneously of NOD-SCID mice. The results indicate that RC170N/h/clone 7 cells retain the properties of multipotent stem cells and will be useful as a novel cell model for studying the mechanisms of human prostate stem cell differentiation and transformation

  15. Human corneal epithelial subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Chris Bath

    2013-01-01

    Corneal epithelium is being regenerated throughout life by limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) believed to be located in histologically defined stem cell niches in corneal limbus. Defective or dysfunctional LESCs result in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) causing pain and decreased visual acuity...... subpopulations in human corneal epithelium using a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing for global transcriptomic profiling. We compared dissociation cultures, using either expansion on γ-irradiated NIH/3T3 feeder cells in serum-rich medium or expansion directly on plastic in serum...

  16. A Refined Culture System for Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Intestinal Epithelial Organoids

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    Yu Takahashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gut epithelial organoids are routinely used to investigate intestinal biology; however, current culture methods are not amenable to genetic manipulation, and it is difficult to generate sufficient numbers for high-throughput studies. Here, we present an improved culture system of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived intestinal organoids involving four methodological advances. (1 We adopted a lentiviral vector to readily establish and optimize conditioned medium for human intestinal organoid culture. (2 We obtained intestinal organoids from human iPSCs more efficiently by supplementing WNT3A and fibroblast growth factor 2 to induce differentiation into definitive endoderm. (3 Using 2D culture, followed by re-establishment of organoids, we achieved an efficient transduction of exogenous genes in organoids. (4 We investigated suspension organoid culture without scaffolds for easier harvesting and assays. These techniques enable us to develop, maintain, and expand intestinal organoids readily and quickly at low cost, facilitating high-throughput screening of pathogenic factors and candidate treatments for gastrointestinal diseases.

  17. Efflux protein expression in human stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells.

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    Kati Juuti-Uusitalo

    Full Text Available Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells in the back of the eye nourish photoreceptor cells and form a selective barrier that influences drug transport from the blood to the photoreceptor cells. At the molecular level, ATP-dependent efflux transporters have a major role in drug delivery in human RPE. In this study, we assessed the relative expression of several ATP-dependent efflux transporter genes (MRP1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, p-gp, and BCRP, the protein expression and localization of MRP1, MRP4, and MRP5, and the functionality of MRP1 efflux pumps at different maturation stages of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC and RPE derived from the hESC (hESC-RPE. Our findings revealed that the gene expression of ATP-dependent efflux transporters MRP1, -3, -4, -5, and p-gp fluctuated during hESC-RPE maturation from undifferentiated hESC to fusiform, epithelioid, and finally to cobblestone hESC-RPE. Epithelioid hESC-RPE had the highest expression of MRP1, -3, -4, and P-gp, whereas the most mature cobblestone hESC-RPE had the highest expression of MRP5 and MRP6. These findings indicate that a similar efflux protein profile is shared between hESC-RPE and the human RPE cell line, ARPE-19, and suggest that hESC-RPE cells are suitable in vitro RPE models for drug transport studies. Embryonic stem cell model might provide a novel tool to study retinal cell differentiation, mechanisms of RPE-derived diseases, drug testing and targeted drug therapy.

  18. Corneal epithelial wound healing and bactericidal effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells.

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    Bermudez, Maria A; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Eiro, Noemi; Treviño, Mercedes; Gonzalez, Francisco; Yebra-Pimentel, Eva; Giraldez, Maria Jesus; Macia, Manuel; Lamelas, Maria Luz; Saa, Jorge; Vizoso, Francisco; Perez-Fernandez, Roman

    2015-01-22

    To evaluate the effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells (CM-hUCESCs) on corneal epithelial healing in a rat model of dry eye after alkaline corneal epithelial ulcer. We also tested the bactericidal effect of CM-hUCESCs. Dry eye was induced in rats by extraocular lacrimal gland excision, and corneal ulcers were produced using NaOH. Corneal histologic evaluation was made with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines. We also studied the bactericidal effect of CM-hUCESCs in vitro and on infected corneal contact lenses (CLs) using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. In addition, in order to investigate proteins from CM-hUCESCs that could mediate these effects, we carried out a human cytokine antibody array. After injury, dry eyes treated with CM-hUCESCs significantly improved epithelial regeneration and showed reduced corneal macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α) and TNF-α mRNA expression as compared to untreated eyes and eyes treated with culture medium or sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic drops. In addition, we found in CM-hUCESCs high levels of proteins, such as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 and 2, fibroblast growth factor 6 and 7, urokinase receptor, and hepatocyte growth factor, that could mediate these effects. In vitro, CM-hUCESCs showed a clear bactericidal effect on both E. coli and S. epidermidis and CLs infected with S. epidermidis. Analyses of CM-hUCESCs showed elevated levels of proteins that could be involved in the bactericidal effect, such as the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands 1, 6, 8, 10, and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 5 and 20. Treatment with CM-hUCESCs improved wound healing of alkali-injured corneas and showed a strong bactericidal effect on CLs. Patients using CLs and suffering from dry eye, allergies induced by commercial solutions, or small corneal injuries could benefit from this treatment

  19. Generation of corneal epithelial cells from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human dermal fibroblast and corneal limbal epithelium.

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    Ryuhei Hayashi

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be established from somatic cells. However, there is currently no established strategy to generate corneal epithelial cells from iPS cells. In this study, we investigated whether corneal epithelial cells could be differentiated from iPS cells. We tested 2 distinct sources: human adult dermal fibroblast (HDF-derived iPS cells (253G1 and human adult corneal limbal epithelial cells (HLEC-derived iPS cells (L1B41. We first established iPS cells from HLEC by introducing the Yamanaka 4 factors. Corneal epithelial cells were successfully induced from the iPS cells by the stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA differentiation method, as Pax6(+/K12(+ corneal epithelial colonies were observed after prolonged differentiation culture (12 weeks or later in both the L1B41 and 253G1 iPS cells following retinal pigment epithelial and lens cell induction. Interestingly, the corneal epithelial differentiation efficiency was higher in L1B41 than in 253G1. DNA methylation analysis revealed that a small proportion of differentially methylated regions still existed between L1B41 and 253G1 iPS cells even though no significant difference in methylation status was detected in the specific corneal epithelium-related genes such as K12, K3, and Pax6. The present study is the first to demonstrate a strategy for corneal epithelial cell differentiation from human iPS cells, and further suggests that the epigenomic status is associated with the propensity of iPS cells to differentiate into corneal epithelial cells.

  20. A human thymic epithelial cell culture system for the promotion of lymphopoiesis from hematopoietic stem cells.

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    Beaudette-Zlatanova, Britte C; Knight, Katherine L; Zhang, Shubin; Stiff, Patrick J; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos; Le, Phong T

    2011-05-01

    A human thymic epithelial cell (TEC) line expressing human leukocyte antigen-ABC and human leukocyte antigen-DR was engineered to overexpress murine Delta-like 1 (TEC-Dl1) for the purpose of establishing a human culture system that supports T lymphopoiesis from hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Cord blood or bone marrow HPCs were co-cultured with either the parental TEC line expressing low levels of the Notch ligands, Delta-like 1 and Delta-like 4, or with TEC-Dl1 to determine if these cell lines support human lymphopoiesis. In co-cultures with cord blood or bone marrow HPCs, TEC-Dl1 cells promote de novo generation of CD7(pos)CD1a(pos) T-lineage committed cells. Most CD7(pos)CD1a(hi) cells are CD4(pos)CD8(pos) double-positive (DP). We found that TEC-Dl1 cells are insufficient to generate mature CD3(hi) CD4(pos) or CD3(hi) CD8(pos) single-positive (SP) T cells from the CD4(pos)CD8(pos) DP T cells; however, we detected CD3(lo) cells within the DP and SP CD4 and CD8 populations. The CD3(lo) SP cells expressed lower levels of interleukin-2Rα and interleukin-7Rα compared to CD3(lo) DP cells. In contrast to the TEC-Dl1 line, the parental TEC-84 line expressing low levels of human Notch ligands permits HPC differentiation to the B-cell lineage. We report for the first time a human TEC line that supports lymphopoiesis from cord blood and bone marrow HPC. The TEC cell lines described herein provide a novel human thymic stroma model to study the contribution of human leukocyte antigen molecules and Notch ligands to T-cell commitment and maturation and could be utilized to promote lymphopoiesis for immune cell therapy. Copyright © 2011 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro expansion of human gastric epithelial stem cells and their responses to bacterial infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartfeld, Sina; Bayram, Tülay; van de Wetering, Marc; Huch, Meritxell; Begthel, Harry; Kujala, Pekka; Vries, Robert; Peters, Peter J; Clevers, Hans

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We previously established long-term, 3-dimensional culture of organoids from mouse tissues (intestine, stomach, pancreas, and liver) and human intestine and pancreas. Here we describe conditions required for long-term 3-dimensional culture of human gastric stem cells. The

  2. Human stem cell-derived retinal epithelial cells activate complement via collectin 11 in response to stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, Giorgia; Gonzalez-Cordero, Anai; Gardner, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    induced-pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived RPE cells, particularly with regard to the complement pathway. We focused on collectin-11 (CL-11), a pattern recognition molecule that can trigger complement activation in renal epithelial tissue. We found evidence of constitutive and hypoxia-induced expression......, failed to activate complement. The presence of CL-11 in healthy murine and human retinal tissues confirmed the biological relevance of CL-11. Our data describe a new trigger mechanism of complement activation that could be important in disease pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions....

  3. Safety of Cultivated Limbal Epithelial Stem Cell Transplantation for Human Corneal Regeneration

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    J. Behaegel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ex vivo cultivated limbal stem cell transplantation is a promising technique for the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency. While the results of the clinical trials have been extensively reported since the introduction of the technique in 1997, little has been reported regarding the potential health risks associated with production processes and transplantation techniques. Culture procedures require the use of animal and/or human-derived products, which carry the potential of introducing toxic or infectious agents through contamination with known or unknown additives. Protocols vary widely, and the risks depend on the local institutional methods. Good manufacturing practice and xeno-free culture protocols could reduce potential health risks but are not yet a common practice worldwide. In this review, we focus on the safety of both autologous- and allogeneic-cultivated limbal stem cell transplantation, with respect to culture processes, surgical approaches, and postoperative strategies.

  4. Osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of induced mesenchymal stem cells generated through epithelial-mesenchyme transition of cultured human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jin-Kyu; Mehrazarin, Shebli; Oh, Ju-Eun; Bhalla, Anu; Oo, Jenessa; Chen, Wei; Lee, Min; Kim, Reuben H; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K

    2014-11-01

    Revascularization of necrotic pulp has been successful in the resolution of periradicular inflammation; yet, several case studies suggest the need for cell-based therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative for de novo pulp regeneration. Because the availability of MSCs may be limited, especially in an aged population, the current study reports an alternative approach in generating MSCs from epidermal keratinocytes through a process called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We induced EMT in primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) by transient transfection of small interfering RNA targeting the p63 gene. The resulting cells were assayed for their mesenchymal marker expression, proliferation capacities as a monolayer and in a 3-dimensional collagen scaffold, and differentiation capacities. Transient transfection of p63 small-interfering RNA successfully abolished the expression of endogenous p63 in NHEKs and induced the expression of mesenchymal markers (eg, vimentin and fibronectin), whereas epithelial markers (eg, E-cadherin and involucrin) were lost. The NHEKs exhibiting the EMT phenotype acquired extended replicative potential and an increased telomere length compared with the control cells. Similar to the established MSCs, the NHEKs with p63 knockdown showed attachment onto the 3-dimensional collagen scaffold and underwent progressive proliferation and differentiation. Upon differentiation, these EMT cells expressed alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, and osteonectin and readily formed mineralized nodules detected by alizarin S red staining, showing osteo-/odontogenic differentiation. The induction of EMT in primary NHEKs by means of transient p63 knockdown allows the generation of induced MSCs from autologous sources. These cells may be used for tissues engineering purposes, including that of dental pulp. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 and transforming growth factor-β signaling to promote epithelial transition of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Melina; Tan, Xiao-Wei; Goh, Tze-Wei; Hin-Fai Yam, Gary; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2017-09-02

    This study was aimed to investigate the epithelial differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. STEMPRO human ADSCs at passage 2 were treated with CHIR99021 (GSK3 inhibitor), E-616452 (TGFβ1 receptor kinase inhibitor), A-83-01 (TGFβ type 1 receptor inhibitor), valproic acid (histone deacetylase inhibitor), tranylcypromine (monoamine oxidase inhibitor) and all-trans retinoic acid for 72 h. The mesenchymal-epithelial transition was shown by down-regulation of mesenchymal genes (Slug, Zinc Finger E-box Binding Homeobox 1 ZEB1, integrin α5 ITGA5 and vimentin VIM) and up-regulation of epithelial genes (E-cadherin, Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule EpCAM, Zonula Occludens-1 ZO-1, occludin, deltaN p63 δNp63, Transcription Factor 4 TCF4 and Twist Family bHLH Transcription Factor TWIST), compared to untreated ADSCs. Cell morphology and stress fiber pattern were examined and the treated cells became less migratory in scratch wound closure assay. The formation of cell junction complexes was observed under transmission electron microscopy. Global gene expression using GeneChip ® Human Genome U133 Array (Affymetrix) showed that the treatment up-regulated 540 genes (containing genes for cell cycle, cytoskeleton reorganization, chemotaxis, epithelium development and regulation of cell migration) and down-regulated 483 genes. Human ADSCs were transited to epithelial lineage by inhibiting GSK3 and TGFβ signaling. It can be an adult stem cell source for epithelial cell-based therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Subretinal Implantation of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Derived From Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Improved Survival When Implanted as a Monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Bruno; Thomas, Padmaja; Thomas, Biju; Ribeiro, Ramiro; Hu, Yuntao; Brant, Rodrigo; Ahuja, Ashish; Zhu, Danhong; Liu, Laura; Koss, Michael; Maia, Mauricio; Chader, Gerald; Hinton, David R.; Humayun, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate cell survival and tumorigenicity of human embryonic stem cell–derived retinal pigment epithelium (hESC-RPE) transplantation in immunocompromised nude rats. Cells were transplanted as a cell suspension (CS) or as a polarized monolayer plated on a parylene membrane (PM). Methods. Sixty-nine rats (38 male, 31 female) were surgically implanted with CS (n = 33) or PM (n = 36). Cohort subsets were killed at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Both ocular tissues and systemic organs (brain, liver, kidneys, spleen, heart, and lungs) were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. Every fifth section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed histologically. Adjacent sections were processed for immunohistochemical analysis (as needed) using the following antibodies: anti-RPE65 (RPE-specific marker), anti-TRA-1-85 (human cell marker), anti-Ki67 (proliferation marker), anti-CD68 (macrophage), and anti-cytokeratin (epithelial marker). Results. The implanted cells were immunopositive for the RPE65 and TRA-1-85. Cell survival (P = 0.006) and the presence of a monolayer (P < 0.001) of hESC-RPE were significantly higher in eyes that received the PM. Gross morphological and histological analysis of the eye and the systemic organs after the surgery revealed no evidence of tumor or ectopic tissue formation in either group. Conclusions. hESC-RPE can survive for at least 12 months in an immunocompromised animal model. Polarized monolayers of hESC-RPE show improved survival compared to cell suspensions. The lack of teratoma or any ectopic tissue formation in the implanted rats bodes well for similar results with respect to safety in human subjects. PMID:23833067

  7. Hybrid clone cells derived from human breast epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells exhibit properties of cancer stem/initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauck, Daria; Keil, Silvia; Niggemann, Bernd; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2017-08-02

    The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been associated with cancer progression since it was determined that normal cell × tumor cell fusion-derived hybrid cells could exhibit novel properties, such as enhanced metastatogenic capacity or increased drug resistance, and even as a mechanism that could give rise to cancer stem/initiating cells (CS/ICs). CS/ICs have been proposed as cancer cells that exhibit stem cell properties, including the ability to (re)initiate tumor growth. Five M13HS hybrid clone cells, which originated from spontaneous cell fusion events between M13SV1-EGFP-Neo human breast epithelial cells and HS578T-Hyg human breast cancer cells, and their parental cells were analyzed for expression of stemness and EMT-related marker proteins by Western blot analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The frequency of ALDH1-positive cells was determined by flow cytometry using AldeRed fluorescent dye. Concurrently, the cells' colony forming capabilities as well as the cells' abilities to form mammospheres were investigated. The migratory activity of the cells was analyzed using a 3D collagen matrix migration assay. M13HS hybrid clone cells co-expressed SOX9, SLUG, CK8 and CK14, which were differently expressed in parental cells. A variation in the ALDH1-positive putative stem cell population was observed among the five hybrids ranging from 1.44% (M13HS-7) to 13.68% (M13HS-2). In comparison to the parental cells, all five hybrid clone cells possessed increased but also unique colony formation and mammosphere formation capabilities. M13HS-4 hybrid clone cells exhibited the highest colony formation capacity and second highest mammosphere formation capacity of all hybrids, whereby the mean diameter of the mammospheres was comparable to the parental cells. In contrast, the largest mammospheres originated from the M13HS-2 hybrid clone cells, whereas these cells' mammosphere formation capacity was comparable to the parental breast cancer cells. All M13HS

  8. Human epithelial hair follicle stem cells and their progeny: current state of knowledge, the widening gap in translational research and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Talveen S; Haslam, Iain S; Poblet, Enrique; Jiménez, Francisco; Gandarillas, Alberto; Izeta, Ander; Paus, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Epithelial hair follicle stem cells (eHFSCs) are required to generate, maintain and renew the continuously cycling hair follicle (HF), supply cells that produce the keratinized hair shaft and aid in the reepithelialization of injured skin. Therefore, their study is biologically and clinically important, from alopecia to carcinogenesis and regenerative medicine. However, human eHFSCs remain ill defined compared to their murine counterparts, and it is unclear which murine eHFSC markers really apply to the human HF. We address this by reviewing current concepts on human eHFSC biology, their immediate progeny and their molecular markers, focusing on Keratin 15 and 19, CD200, CD34, PHLDA1, and EpCAM/Ber-EP4. After delineating how human eHFSCs may be selectively targeted experimentally, we close by defining as yet unmet key challenges in human eHFSC research. The ultimate goal is to transfer emerging concepts from murine epithelial stem cell biology to human HF physiology and pathology. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Epithelial cell polarity, stem cells and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    , deregulation of adhesion and polarity proteins can cause misoriented cell divisions and increased self-renewal of adult epithelial stem cells. In this Review, we highlight some advances in the understanding of how loss of epithelial cell polarity contributes to tumorigenesis.......After years of extensive scientific discovery much has been learned about the networks that regulate epithelial homeostasis. Loss of expression or functional activity of cell adhesion and cell polarity proteins (including the PAR, crumbs (CRB) and scribble (SCRIB) complexes) is intricately related...

  10. Easy xeno-free and feeder-free method for isolating and growing limbal stromal and epithelial stem cells of the human cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djida Ghoubay-Benallaoua

    Full Text Available Epithelial and stromal stem cells are required to maintain corneal transparency. The aim of the study was to develop a new method to isolate and grow both corneal stromal (SSC and epithelial limbal (LSC stem cells from small human limbal biopsies under culture conditions in accordance with safety requirements mandatory for clinical use in humans. Superficial limbal explants were retrieved from human donor corneo-scleral rims. Human limbal cells were dissociated by digestion with collagenase A, either after epithelial scraping or with no scraping. Isolated cells were cultured with Essential 8 medium (E8, E8 supplemented with EGF (E8+ or Green's medium with 3T3 feeder-layers. Cells were characterized by immunostaining, RT-qPCR, colony forming efficiency, sphere formation, population doubling, second harmonic generation microscopy and differentiation potentials. LSC were obtained from unscraped explants in E8, E8+ and Green's media and were characterized by colony formation and expression of PAX6, ΔNP63α, Bmi1, ABCG2, SOX9, CK14, CK15 and vimentin, with a few cells positive for CK3. LSC underwent 28 population doublings still forming colonies. SSC were obtained from both scraped and unscraped explants in E8 and E8+ media and were characterized by sphere formation, expression of PAX6, SOX2, BMI1, NESTIN, ABCG2, KERATOCAN, VIMENTIN, SOX9, SOX10 and HNK1, production of collagen fibrils and differentiation into keratocytes, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, neurons, adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes. SSC underwent 48 population doublings still forming spheres, Thus, this new method allows both SSC and LSC to be isolated from small superficial limbal biopsies and to be primary cultured in feeder-free and xeno-free conditions, which will be useful for clinical purposes.

  11. Human stem cell-derived retinal epithelial cells activate complement via collectin 11 in response to stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, Giorgia; Gonzalez-Cordero, Anai; Gardner, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness and is associated with complement dysregulation. The disease is a potential target for stem cell therapy but success is likely to be limited by the inflammatory response. We investigated the innate immune properties of human ind...

  12. Contacting co-culture of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells alters barrier function of human embryonic stem cell derived retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skottman, H; Muranen, J; Lähdekorpi, H; Pajula, E; Mäkelä, K; Koivusalo, L; Koistinen, A; Uusitalo, H; Kaarniranta, K; Juuti-Uusitalo, K

    2017-10-01

    Here we evaluated the effects of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hREC) on mature human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The hESC-RPE cells (Regea08/017, Regea08/023 or Regea11/013) and hREC (ACBRI 181) were co-cultured on opposite sides of transparent membranes for up to six weeks. Thereafter barrier function, small molecule permeability, localization of RPE and endothelial cell marker proteins, cellular fine structure, and growth factor secretion of were evaluated. After co-culture, the RPE specific CRALBP and endothelial cell specific von Willebrand factor were appropriately localized. In addition, the general morphology, pigmentation, and fine structure of hESC-RPE cells were unaffected. Co-culture increased the barrier function of hESC-RPE cells, detected both with TEER measurements and cumulative permeability of FD4 - although the differences varied among the cell lines. Co-culturing significantly altered VEGF and PEDF secretion, but again the differences were cell line specific. The results of this study showed that co-culture with hREC affects hESC-RPE functionality. In addition, co-culture revealed drastic cell line specific differences, most notably in growth factor secretion. This model has the potential to be used as an in vitro outer blood-retinal barrier model for drug permeability testing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure and barrier properties of human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells are affected by extracellular matrix protein coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkio, Anni; Hongisto, Heidi; Kaarniranta, Kai; Uusitalo, Hannu; Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati; Skottman, Heli

    2014-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions play a vital role in cell morphology, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cells. We investigated the role of ECM proteins on the structure and function of human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (hESC-RPE) cells during their differentiation and maturation from hESCs into RPE cells in adherent differentiation cultures on several human ECM proteins found in native human Bruch's membrane, namely, collagen I, collagen IV, laminin, fibronectin, and vitronectin, as well as on commercial substrates of xeno-free CELLstart™ and Matrigel™. Cell pigmentation, expression of RPE-specific proteins, fine structure, as well as the production of basal lamina by hESC-RPE on different protein coatings were evaluated after 140 days of differentiation. The integrity of hESC-RPE epithelium and barrier properties on different coatings were investigated by measuring transepithelial resistance. All coatings supported the differentiation of hESC-RPE cells as demonstrated by early onset of cell pigmentation and further maturation to RPE monolayers after enrichment. Mature RPE phenotype was verified by RPE-specific gene and protein expression, correct epithelial polarization, and phagocytic activity. Significant differences were found in the degree of RPE cell pigmentation and tightness of epithelial barrier between different coatings. Further, the thickness of self-assembled basal lamina and secretion of the key ECM proteins found in the basement membrane of the native RPE varied between hESC-RPE cultured on compared protein coatings. In conclusion, this study shows that the cell culture substrate has a major effect on the structure and basal lamina production during the differentiation and maturation of hESC-RPE potentially influencing the success of cell integrations and survival after cell transplantation.

  14. [Effects of human amniotic epithelial stem cells-derived exosomes on healing of wound with full-thickness skin defect in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B; Wu, G F; Zhang, Y J; Zhang, W; Yang, F F; Xiao, D; Zeng, K X; Shi, J H; Su, L L; Hu, D H

    2017-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the effects of human amniotic epithelial stem cells-derived exosomes on healing of wound with full-thickness skin defect in rats. Methods: (1) Human amniotic epithelial stem cells were isolated from the amnion tissue of 5 full-term pregnant women in Department of Obstetrics of our hospital by the method of trypsin digestion, and their morphology was observed. The third passage of cells were stained with rhodamine-phalloidin for cytoskeleton observation. The third passage of cells were identified with flow cytometry through the detection of expressions of cell surface markers CD29, CD31, CD34, CD90, CD105, SSEA3, SSEA4 and immunity-related marker human leukocyte antigen-D related site (HLA-DR). The third passage of cells were also assessed the ability of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. (2) The third passage of human amniotic epithelial stem cells were cultured in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% exosome-free fetal bovine serum. Exosomes were isolated from culture supernatant by the method of ultracentrifugation and represented with scanning electron microscope for morphologic observation. (3) Six adult SD rats were anesthetized, and four 1 cm×1 cm sized wounds with full-thickness skin defect were made on the back of each rat. The wounds on the back of each rat were divided into control group, 25 μg/mL exosomes group, 50 μg/mL exosomes group, and 100 μg/mL exosomes group according to the random number table (with 6 wounds in each group), and a total volume of 100 μL phosphate buffered saline, 25 μg/mL exosomes, 50 μg/mL exosomes, and 100 μg/mL exosomes were evenly injected around the wound through multiple subcutaneous sites, respectively. The wound healing rate was calculated based on measurement on post injury day (PID) 7, 14, and 21. On PID 21, the healed wound tissue of each group was collected and stained with HE to observe and count skin accessories, and the arrangement of collagen fibers was observed with Masson

  15. Xeno-Free and Defined Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Functionally Integrate in a Large-Eyed Preclinical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Plaza Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells could replace lost tissue in geographic atrophy (GA but efficacy has yet to be demonstrated in a large-eyed model. Also, production of hESC-RPE has not yet been achieved in a xeno-free and defined manner, which is critical for clinical compliance and reduced immunogenicity. Here we describe an effective differentiation methodology using human laminin-521 matrix with xeno-free and defined medium. Differentiated cells exhibited characteristics of native RPE including morphology, pigmentation, marker expression, monolayer integrity, and polarization together with phagocytic activity. Furthermore, we established a large-eyed GA model that allowed in vivo imaging of hESC-RPE and host retina. Cells transplanted in suspension showed long-term integration and formed polarized monolayers exhibiting phagocytic and photoreceptor rescue capacity. We have developed a xeno-free and defined hESC-RPE differentiation method and present evidence of functional integration of clinically compliant hESC-RPE in a large-eyed disease model.

  16. Human omental adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium alters the proteomic profile of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang YL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yanling Zhang,1,* Weihong Dong,1,* Junjie Wang,2 Jing Cai,1 Zehua Wang1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Renhe Hospital, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been reported to participate in the formation of supportive tumor stroma. The abilities of proliferation and invasion of human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC cells were significantly enhanced when indirectly cocultured with human omental adipose-derived MSCs (O-ADSCs in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, EOC cells were cultured with conditioned medium (CM from O-ADSCs (O-ADSC, and the effect of O-ADSC CM on the proteomic profile of EOC cells was assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The 2-DE assays revealed a global increase in protein expression in the EOC cells treated with CM. Nine proteins were identified from 11 selected protein spots with differential expression after treatment with CM from O-ADSCs. All the nine proteins have been linked to carcinoma and apoptosis, and the migration ability of tumor cells can be regulated by these proteins. Moreover, the upregulation of prohibitin and serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 in EOC cells treated with CM was further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results suggest that O-ADSCs affect the proteomic profile of EOC cells via paracrine mechanism in favor of EOC progression. Keywords: ovarian cancer, mesenchymal stromal cells, mesenchymal stem cells, omentum, proteomic

  17. ROCK inhibitor primes human induced pluripotent stem cells to selectively differentiate towards mesendodermal lineage via epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Maricela; Luu, Rebeccah J; Ramos, Michael E P; Nam, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Robust control of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hIPSC) differentiation is essential to realize its patient-tailored therapeutic potential. Here, we demonstrate a novel application of Y-27632, a small molecule Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, to significantly influence the differentiation of hIPSCs in a lineage-specific manner. The application of Y-27632 to hIPSCs resulted in a decrease in actin bundling and disruption of colony formation in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Such changes in cell and colony morphology were associated with decreased expression of E-cadherin, a cell-cell junctional protein, proportional to the increased exposure to Y-27632. Interestingly, gene and protein expression of pluripotency markers such as NANOG and OCT4 were not downregulated by an exposure to Y-27632 up to 36h. Simultaneously, epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transition markers were upregulated with an exposure to Y-27632. These EMT-like changes in the cells with longer exposure to Y-27632 resulted in a significant increase in the subsequent differentiation efficiency towards mesendodermal lineage. In contrast, an inhibitory effect was observed when cells were subjected to ectodermal differentiation after prolonged exposure to Y-27632. Collectively, these results present a novel method for priming hIPSCs to modulate their differentiation potential with a simple application of Y-27632. Copyright © 2016 Helmholtz Zentrum München. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ROCK inhibitor primes human induced pluripotent stem cells to selectively differentiate towards mesendodermal lineage via epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricela Maldonado

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Robust control of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hIPSC differentiation is essential to realize its patient-tailored therapeutic potential. Here, we demonstrate a novel application of Y-27632, a small molecule Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK inhibitor, to significantly influence the differentiation of hIPSCs in a lineage-specific manner. The application of Y-27632 to hIPSCs resulted in a decrease in actin bundling and disruption of colony formation in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Such changes in cell and colony morphology were associated with decreased expression of E-cadherin, a cell-cell junctional protein, proportional to the increased exposure to Y-27632. Interestingly, gene and protein expression of pluripotency markers such as NANOG and OCT4 were not downregulated by an exposure to Y-27632 up to 36 h. Simultaneously, epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT transition markers were upregulated with an exposure to Y-27632. These EMT-like changes in the cells with longer exposure to Y-27632 resulted in a significant increase in the subsequent differentiation efficiency towards mesendodermal lineage. In contrast, an inhibitory effect was observed when cells were subjected to ectodermal differentiation after prolonged exposure to Y-27632. Collectively, these results present a novel method for priming hIPSCs to modulate their differentiation potential with a simple application of Y-27632.

  19. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain mouse embryonic stem cell pluripotency via epigenetic regulation of the c-Myc promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te; Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Tianjin; Guo, Lihe; Huang, Qin; Jiang, Lizhen; Du, Xiling; Xu, Fuhui; Liu, Zhixue; Lai, Dongmei

    2010-02-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are typically cultured on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) added to maintain them in an undifferentiated state. We have previously shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) can be used as feeder cells to maintain mouse ESC pluripotency, but the mechanism for this is unknown. In the present study, we found that CpG islands 5' of the c-Myc gene remain hypomethylated in mouse ESCs cultured on hAECs. In addition, levels of acetylation of histone H3 and trimethylation of histone H3K4 in the c-Myc gene promoter were higher in ES cells cultured on hAECs than those in ES cells cultured on MEFs. These data suggested that hAECs can alter mouse ESC gene expression via epigenetic modification of c-Myc, providing a possible mechanism for the hAEC-induced maintenance of ESCs in an undifferentiated state.

  20. Differentiation of Neonatal Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Prostate Epithelial Cells: A Model to Study Prostate Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    38, 40, 41]. Because these “ mela - noma stem cells” (MSC) are sometimes so numerous, some have argued that the CSC model may not apply to melanoma...40]. There are data from two groups indicating that mela - noma lesions contain a CSC subset character- ized by CD271 expression [25, 26]. In a...neuronal proteins and neuron- like differentiation has been long recognized in neoplastic melanocytes [46, 47]. Certain mela - noma cell lines that

  1. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Hackett

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population.Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels.The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium.

  2. Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells Obtained from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Possess Functional Visual Cycle Enzymes in Vitro and in Vivo*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tadao; Lee, Mee Jee; Palczewska, Grazyna; Marsili, Stefania; Tesar, Paul J.; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Takahashi, Masayo; Maeda, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    Differentiated retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells have been obtained from human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells. However, the visual (retinoid) cycle in hiPS-RPE cells has not been adequately examined. Here we determined the expression of functional visual cycle enzymes in hiPS-RPE cells compared with that of isolated wild-type mouse primary RPE (mpRPE) cells in vitro and in vivo. hiPS-RPE cells appeared morphologically similar to mpRPE cells. Notably, expression of certain visual cycle proteins was maintained during cell culture of hiPS-RPE cells, whereas expression of these same molecules rapidly decreased in mpRPE cells. Production of the visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal, and retinosome formation also were documented in hiPS-RPE cells in vitro. When mpRPE cells with luciferase activity were transplanted into the subretinal space of mice, bioluminance intensity was preserved for >3 months. Additionally, transplantation of mpRPE into blind Lrat−/− and Rpe65−/− mice resulted in the recovery of visual function, including increased electrographic signaling and endogenous 11-cis-retinal production. Finally, when hiPS-RPE cells were transplanted into the subretinal space of Lrat−/− and Rpe65−/− mice, their vision improved as well. Moreover, histological analyses of these eyes displayed replacement of dysfunctional RPE cells by hiPS-RPE cells. Together, our results show that hiPS-RPE cells can exhibit a functional visual cycle in vitro and in vivo. These cells could provide potential treatment options for certain blinding retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:24129572

  3. An Update on Ocular Surface Epithelial Stem Cells: Cornea and Conjunctiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human ocular surface (front surface of the eye is formed by two different types of epithelia: the corneal epithelium centrally and the conjunctival epithelium that surrounds this. These two epithelia are maintained by different stem cell populations (limbal stem cells for the corneal epithelium and the conjunctival epithelial stem cells. In this review, we provide an update on our understanding of these epithelia and their stem cells systems, including embryology, new markers, and controversy around the location of these stem cells. We also provide an update on the translation of this understanding into clinical applications for the treatment of debilitating ocular surface diseases.

  4. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial cells by lipoxin A4 through AhR-cAMP-dependent pathway. Bi-Huan Cheng1,2, Li-Wei Pan2, Sheng-Rong Zhang3, Bin-Yu Ying2, Ben-Ji. Wang2, Guo-Liang Lin2 and Shi-Fang Ding1*. 1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong ...

  5. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Hisha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP, were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine.

  6. Sequential cancer mutations in cultured human intestinal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; van Jaarsveld, Richard H.; Ponsioen, Bas; Zimberlin, Cheryl; van Boxtel, Ruben; Buijs, Arjan; Sachs, Norman; Overmeer, René M.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Begthel, Harry; Korving, Jeroen; van de Wetering, Marc; Schwank, Gerald; Logtenberg, Meike; Cuppen, Edwin; Snippert, Hugo J.; Medema, Jan Paul; Kops, Geert J. P. L.; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Crypt stem cells represent the cells of origin for intestinal neoplasia. Both mouse and human intestinal stem cells can be cultured in medium containing the stem-cell-niche factors WNT, R-spondin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and noggin over long time periods as epithelial organoids that remain

  7. Wnt Signalling in Gastrointestinal Epithelial Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin J. Flanagan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signalling regulates several cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and migration, and is critical for embryonic development. Stem cells are defined by their ability for self-renewal and the ability to be able to give rise to differentiated progeny. Consequently, they are essential for the homeostasis of many organs including the gastrointestinal tract. This review will describe the huge advances in our understanding of how stem cell functions in the gastrointestinal tract are regulated by Wnt signalling, including how deregulated Wnt signalling can hijack these functions to transform cells and lead to cancer.

  8. Human airway xenograft models of epithelial cell regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchelle Edith

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regeneration and restoration of the airway epithelium after mechanical, viral or bacterial injury have a determinant role in the evolution of numerous respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma and cystic fibrosis. The study in vivo of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to restore a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Recently, human tracheal xenografts have been developed in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and nude mice. In this review we recall that human airway cells implanted in such conditioned host grafts can regenerate a well-differentiated and functional human epithelium; we stress the interest in these humanized mice in assaying candidate progenitor and stem cells of the human airway mucosa.

  9. Stem cells in the human breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Polyak, Kornelia

    2010-01-01

    The origins of the epithelial cells participating in the development, tissue homeostasis, and cancer of the human breast are poorly understood. However, emerging evidence suggests a role for adult tissue-specific stem cells in these processes. In a hierarchical manner, these generate the two main...... mammary cell lineages, producing an increasing number of cells with distinct properties. Understanding the biological characteristics of human breast stem cells and their progeny is crucial in attempts to compare the features of normal stem cells and cancer precursor cells and distinguish these from...... nonprecursor cells and cells from the bulk of a tumor. A historical overview of research on human breast stem cells in primary tissue and in culture reveals the progress that has been made in this area, whereas a focus on the cell-of-origin and reprogramming that occurs during neoplastic conversion provides...

  10. Molecular mechanisms of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced inverted U-shaped dose responsiveness in anchorage independent growth and cell proliferation of human breast epithelial cells with stem cell characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Nam-Shik; Hu, Hongbo; Park, Jin-Sung; Park, Joon-Suk; Kim, Jong-Sik; An, Sungwhan; Kong, Gu; Aruoma, Okezie I.; Lee, Yong-Soon; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2005-01-01

    Although 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has a variety of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects in experimental animals, its role in human carcinogenicity remain controversial. A simian virus 40-immortalized cell line from normal human breast epithelial cells with stem cells and luminal characteristics (M13SV1) was used to study whether TCDD can induce AIG positive colony formation and cause increased cell numbers in a inverted U-shaped dose-response manner. TCDD activated Akt, ERK2, and increased the expression of CYP1A1, PAI-2, IL-lb mRNA, and ERK2 protein levels. TCDD was able to increased phosphorylation and expression of ERK2 in same dose-response manner as AIG positive colony formation. Thus, TCDD induced tumorigenicity in M13SV1, possibly through the phosphorylation of ERK2 and/or Akt. Further, cDNA microarray with 7448 sequence-verified clones was used to profile various gene expression patterns after treatment of TCDD. Three clear patterns could be delineated: genes that were dose-dependently up-regulated, genes expressed in either U-shape and/or inverted U-shape. The fact that these genes are intrinsically related to breast epithelial cell proliferation and survival clearly suggests that they may be involved in the TCDD-induced breast tumorigenesis

  11. Human glomerular epithelial cell proteoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.J.; Jenner, L.; Mason, R.M.; Davies, M.

    1990-01-01

    Proteoglycans synthesized by cultures of human glomerular epithelial cells have been isolated and characterized. Three types of heparan sulfate were detected. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan I (HSPG-I; Kav 6B 0.04) was found in the cell layer and medium and accounted for 12% of the total proteoglycans synthesized. HSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.25) accounted for 18% of the proteoglycans and was located in the medium and cell layer. A third population (9% of the proteoglycan population), heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HS-GAG; Kav 6B 0.4-0.8), had properties consistent with single glycosaminoglycan chains or their fragments and was found only in the cell layer. HSPG-I and HSPG-II from the cell layer had hydrophobic properties; they were released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. HS-GAG lacked these properties, consisted of low-molecular-mass heparan sulfate oligosaccharides, and were intracellular. HSPG-I and -II released to the medium lacked hydrophobic properties. The cells also produced three distinct types of chondroitin sulfates. The major species, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan I (CSPG-I) eluted in the excluded volume of a Sepharose CL-6B column, accounted for 30% of the proteoglycans detected, and was found in both the cell layer and medium. Cell layer CSPG-I bound to octyl-Sepharose. It was released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. CSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.1-0.23) accounted for 10% of the total 35S-labeled macromolecules and was found predominantly in the culture medium. A small amount of CS-GAG (Kav 6B 0.25-0.6) is present in the cell extract and like HS-GAG is intracellular. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that HSPG-I and -II and CSPG-I and -II are lost from the cell layer either by direct release into the medium or by internalization where they are metabolized to single glycosaminoglycan chains and subsequently to inorganic sulfate

  12. Overexpression of microRNA-194 suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in targeting stem cell transcription factor Sox3 in endometrial carcinoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Baolan; Yue, Yan; Wang, Renxiao; Zhang, Yi; Jin, Quanfang; Zhou, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition is the key process driving cancer metastasis. MicroRNA-194 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers and its downregulation indicates a poor prognosis in human endometrial carcinoma. Self-renewal factor Sox3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition at gastrulation and is also involved epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers. We intended to determine the roles of Sox3 in inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer stem cells and the possible role of microRNA-194 in controlling Sox3 expression. Firstly, we found that Sox3 and microRNA-194 expressions were associated with the status of endometrial cancer stem cells in a panel of endometrial carcinoma tissue, the CD133+ cell was higher in tumorsphere than in differentiated cells, and overexpression of microRNA-194 would decrease CD133+ cell expression. Silencing of Sox3 in endometrial cancer stem cell upregulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin, downregulated the mesenchymal marker vimentin, and significantly reduced cell invasion in vitro; overexpression of Sox3 reversed these phenotypes. Furthermore, we discovered that the expression of Sox3 was suppressed by microRNA-194 through direct binding to the Sox3 3'-untranslated region. Ectopic expression of microRNA-194 in endometrial cancer stem cells induced a mesenchymal-epithelial transition by restoring E-cadherin expression, decreasing vimentin expression, and inhibiting cell invasion in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of microRNA-194 inhibited endometrial cancer stem cell invasion or metastasis in vivo by injection of adenovirus microRNA-194. These findings demonstrate the novel mechanism by which Sox3 contributes to endometrial cancer stem cell invasion and suggest that repression of Sox3 by microRNA-194 may have therapeutic potential to suppress endometrial carcinoma metastasis. The cancer stem cell marker, CD133, might be the surface marker of endometrial cancer stem

  13. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Aparicio-Domingo (Patricia); M. Romera Hernández (Mónica); J.J. Karrich (Julien J.); F.H.J. Cornelissen (Ferry); N. Papazian (Natalie); D.J. Lindenbergh-Kortleve (Dicky); J.A. Butler (James A.); L. Boon (Louis); M. Coles (Mark); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); T. Cupedo (Tom)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDisruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence

  14. Reconstitution of mammary epithelial morphogenesis by murine embryonic stem cells undergoing hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Jiang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the context of the intact epithelium-free mammary stroma, non-mammary epithelial cells may be sequestered and reprogrammed to perform mammary epithelial cell functions and to adopt mammary epithelial characteristics during reconstruction of mammary epithelium in regenerating mammary tissue in vivo.To examine whether other types of progenitor cells are able to contribute to mammary branching morphogenesis, we examined the potential of murine embryonic stem (mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to support mammary reconstitution in vivo. We observed that cells from day 14 embryoid bodies (EBs under hematopoietic differentiation condition, but not supernatants derived from these cells, when transplanted into denuded mammary fat pads, were able to contribute to both the luminal and myoepithelial lineages in branching ductal structures resembling the ductal-alveolar architecture of the mammary tree. No teratomas were observed when these cells were transplanted in vivo.Our data provide evidence for the dominance of the tissue-specific mammary stem cell niche and its role in directing mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to reprogram into mammary epithelial cells and to promote mammary epithelial morphogenesis. These studies should also provide insights into regeneration of damaged mammary gland and the role of the mammary microenvironment in reprogramming cell fate.

  15. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  16. DNA repair in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Lechner, J.F.; Grafstrom, R.C.; Harris, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the response of human cell types (bronchial epithelial cells and fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts) to various DNA damaging agents. Repair of DNA single strand breaks (SSB) induced by 5 krads of X-ray was similar for all cell types; approximately 90% of the DNA SSB were rejoined within one hour. During excision repair of DNA damage from u.v.-radiation, the frequencies of DNA SSB as estimated by the alkaline elution technique, were similar in all cell types. Repair replication as measured by BND cellulose chromatography was also similar in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after u.v.-irradiation. Similar levels of SSB were also observed in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after exposure to chemical carcinogens: 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene; benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE); or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Significant repair replication of BPDE-induced DNA damage was detected in both bronchial epithelial and fibroblastic cells, although the level in fibroblasts was approximately 40% of that in epithelial cells. The pulmonary carcinogen asbestos did not damage DNA. DNA-protein crosslinks induced by formaldehyde were rapidly removed in bronchial cells. Further, epithelial and fibroblastic cells, which were incubated with formaldehyde and the polymerase inhibitor combination of cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea, accumulated DNA SSB at approximately equal frequencies. These results should provide a useful background for further investigations of the response of human bronchial cells to various DNA damaging agents

  17. Synchrotron- and focal plane array-based Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy differentiates the basalis and functionalis epithelial endometrial regions and identifies putative stem cell regions of human endometrial glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophilou, Georgios; Morais, Camilo L M; Halliwell, Diane E; Lima, Kássio M G; Drury, Josephine; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Stringfellow, Helen F; Hapangama, Dharani K; Martin, Francis L

    2018-05-09

    The cyclical process of regeneration of the endometrium suggests that it may contain a cell population that can provide daughter cells with high proliferative potential. These cell lineages are clinically significant as they may represent clonogenic cells that may also be involved in tumourigenesis as well as endometriotic lesion development. To determine whether the putative stem cell location within human uterine tissue can be derived using vibrational spectroscopy techniques, normal endometrial tissue was interrogated by two spectroscopic techniques. Paraffin-embedded uterine tissues containing endometrial glands were sectioned to 10-μm-thick parallel tissue sections and were floated onto BaF 2 slides for synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy and globar focal plane array-based FTIR spectroscopy. Different spectral characteristics were identified depending on the location of the glands examined. The resulting infrared spectra were subjected to multivariate analysis to determine associated biophysical differences along the length of longitudinal and crosscut gland sections. Comparison of the epithelial cellular layer of transverse gland sections revealed alterations indicating the presence of putative transient-amplifying-like cells in the basalis and mitotic cells in the functionalis. SR-FTIR microspectroscopy of the base of the endometrial glands identified the location where putative stem cells may reside at the same time pointing towards ν s PO 2 - in DNA and RNA, nucleic acids and amide I and II vibrations as major discriminating factors. This study supports the view that vibration spectroscopy technologies are a powerful adjunct to our understanding of the stem cell biology of endometrial tissue. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  18. Human umbilical blood mononuclear cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells serve as interleukin-21 gene delivery vehicles for epithelial ovarian cancer therapy in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weihua; Wang, Jing; He, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Hongyi; Yu, Fangliu; Jiang, Longwei; Chen, Dengyu; Chen, Junsong; Dou, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer causes more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system, and its overall cure rate remains low. The present study investigated human umbilical blood mononuclear cell (UBMC)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UBMC-MSCs) as interleukin-21 (IL-21) gene delivery vehicles for ovarian cancer therapy in nude mice. MSCs were isolated from UBMCs and the expanded cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Cultured UBMCs were differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes using appropriate media and then the UBMC-MSCs were transfected with recombinant pIRES2-IL-21-enhancement green fluorescent protein. UBMC-MSCs expressing IL-21 were named as UBMC-MSC-IL-21. Mice with A2780 ovarian cancer were treated with UBMC-MSC-IL-21 intravenously, and the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by the tumor volume and mouse survival. To address the mechanism of UBMC-MSC-IL-21 against ovarian cancer, the expression of IL-21, natural killer glucoprotein 2 domain and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related molecules A/B were detected in UBMC-MSC-IL-21 and in the tumor sites. Interferon-γ-secreting splenocyte numbers and natural killer cytotoxicity were significantly increased in the UBMC-MSC-IL-21-treated mice as compared with the UBMC-MSCs or the UBMC-MSC-mock plasmid-treated mice. Most notably, tumor growth was delayed and survival was prolonged in ovarian-cancer-bearing mice treated with UBMC-MSC-IL-21. Our data provide important evidence that UBMC-MSCs can serve as vehicles for IL-21 gene delivery and inhibit the established tumor. Copyright © 2011 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Sensing radiosensitivity of human epidermal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachidi, Walid; Harfourche, Ghida; Lemaitre, Gilles; Amiot, Franck; Vaigot, Pierre; Martin, Michele T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Radiosensitivity of stem cells is a matter of debate. For mouse somatic stem cells, both radiosensitive and radioresistant stem cells have been described. By contrast, the response of human stem cells to radiation has been poorly studied. As epidermis is a radiosensitive tissue, we evaluated in the present work the radiosensitivity of cell populations enriched for epithelial stem cells of human epidermis. Methods and materials: The total keratinocyte population was enzymatically isolated from normal human skin. We used flow cytometry and antibodies against cell surface markers to isolate basal cell populations from human foreskin. Cell survival was measured after a dose of 2 Gy with the XTT assay at 72 h after exposure and with a clonogenic assay at 2 weeks. Transcriptome analysis using oligonucleotide microarrays was performed to assess the genomic cell responses to radiation. Results: Cell sorting based on two membrane proteins, α6 integrin and the transferrin receptor CD71, allowed isolation of keratinocyte populations enriched for the two types of cells found in the basal layer of epidermis: stem cells and progenitors. Both the XTT assay and the clonogenic assay showed that the stem cells were radioresistant whereas the progenitors were radiosensitive. We made the hypothesis that upstream DNA damage signalling might be different in the stem cells and used microarray technology to test this hypothesis. The stem cells exhibited a much more reduced gene response to a dose of 2 Gy than the progenitors, as we found that 6% of the spotted genes were regulated in the stem cells and 20% in the progenitors. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we found that radiation exposure induced very specific pathways in the stem cells. The most striking responses were the repression of a network of genes involved in apoptosis and the induction of a network of cytokines and growth factors. Conclusion: These results show for the first time that keratinocyte

  20. Endothelial Induced EMT in Breast Epithelial Cells with Stem Cell Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla; Fridriksdottir, Agla J. R.; Ringnér, Markus; Villadsen, Rene; Borg, Ake; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Petersen, Ole William; Magnusson, Magnus K.; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell proper...

  1. Isolation and in vitro expansion of human colonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, P.; Sato, T.; Merlos-Suarez, A.; Barriga, F.M.; Iglesias, M.; Rossell, D.; Auer, H.; Gallardo, M.; Blasco, M.A.; Sancho, E.; Clevers, H.; Batlle, E.

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe the isolation of stem cells of the human colonic epithelium. Differential cell surface abundance of ephrin type-B receptor 2 (EPHB2) allows the purification of different cell types from human colon mucosa biopsies. The highest EPHB2 surface levels correspond to epithelial colonic

  2. Epithelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells display p16INK4A senescence, hypermotility, and differentiation properties shared by many P63+ somatic cell types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Sally; Hercule, Paula; Barron, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    hESderK cells and keratinocytes a substantially extended lifespan. When exposed to transforming growth factor beta or to an incompletely processed form of Laminin-332, three lifespan-extended or immortalized hESderK lines that we studied became directionally hypermotile, a wound healing and invasion......(+)/K14(+) urothelial and tracheobronchial epithelial cells. Primary and immortalized lines of these cell types had growth requirements and hypermotility responses similar to keratinocytes and bmi1 expression facilitated their immortalization by engineering to express the catalytic subunit of telomerase...

  3. Identification of putative dental epithelial stem cells in a lizard with life-long tooth replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handrigan, Gregory R; Leung, Kelvin J; Richman, Joy M

    2010-11-01

    Most dentate vertebrates, including humans, replace their teeth and yet the process is poorly understood. Here, we investigate whether dental epithelial stem cells exist in a polyphyodont species, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Since the gecko dental epithelium lacks a histologically distinct site for stem cells analogous to the mammalian hair follicle bulge, we performed a pulse-chase experiment on juvenile geckos to identify label-retaining cells (LRCs). We detected LRCs exclusively on the lingual side of the dental lamina, which exhibits low proliferation rates and is not involved in tooth morphogenesis. Lingual LRCs were organized into pockets of high density close to the successional lamina. A subset of the LRCs expresses Lgr5 and other genes that are markers of adult stem cells in mammals. Also similar to mammalian stem cells, the LRCs appear to proliferate in response to gain of function of the canonical Wnt pathway. We suggest that the LRCs in the lingual dental lamina represent a population of stem cells, the immediate descendents of which form the successional lamina and, ultimately, the replacement teeth in the gecko. Furthermore, their location on the non-tooth-forming side of the dental lamina implies that dental stem cells are sequestered from signals that might otherwise induce them to differentiate.

  4. Cell lineage identification and stem cell culture in a porcine model for the study of intestinal epithelial regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liara M Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Significant advances in intestinal stem cell biology have been made in murine models; however, anatomical and physiological differences between mice and humans limit mice as a translational model for stem cell based research. The pig has been an effective translational model, and represents a candidate species to study intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC driven regeneration. The lack of validated reagents and epithelial culture methods is an obstacle to investigating IESC driven regeneration in a pig model. In this study, antibodies against Epithelial Adhesion Molecule 1 (EpCAM and Villin marked cells of epithelial origin. Antibodies against Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA, Minichromosome Maintenance Complex 2 (MCM2, Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and phosphorylated Histone H3 (pH3 distinguished proliferating cells at various stages of the cell cycle. SOX9, localized to the stem/progenitor cells zone, while HOPX was restricted to the +4/'reserve' stem cell zone. Immunostaining also identified major differentiated lineages. Goblet cells were identified by Mucin 2 (MUC2; enteroendocrine cells by Chromogranin A (CGA, Gastrin and Somatostatin; and absorptive enterocytes by carbonic anhydrase II (CAII and sucrase isomaltase (SIM. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated morphologic and sub-cellular characteristics of stem cell and differentiated intestinal epithelial cell types. Quantitative PCR gene expression analysis enabled identification of stem/progenitor cells, post mitotic cell lineages, and important growth and differentiation pathways. Additionally, a method for long-term culture of porcine crypts was developed. Biomarker characterization and development of IESC culture in the porcine model represents a foundation for translational studies of IESC-driven regeneration of the intestinal epithelium in physiology and disease.

  5. Advanced three-dimensional culture of equine intestinal epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A Stieler; Freund, J M; Gonzalez, L M

    2018-03-01

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells are critical to epithelial repair following gastrointestinal injury. The culture of intestinal stem cells has quickly become a cornerstone of a vast number of new research endeavours that range from determining tissue viability to testing drug efficacy for humans. This study aims to describe the methods of equine stem cell culture and highlights the future benefits of these techniques for the advancement of equine medicine. To describe the isolation and culture of small intestinal stem cells into three-dimensional (3D) enteroids in horses without clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities. Descriptive study. Intestinal samples were collected by sharp dissection immediately after euthanasia. Intestinal crypts containing intestinal stem cells were dissociated from the underlying tissue layers, plated in a 3D matrix and supplemented with growth factors. After several days, resultant 3D enteroids were prepared for immunofluorescent imaging and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to detect and characterise specific cell types present. Intestinal crypts were cryopreserved immediately following collection and viability assessed. Intestinal crypts were successfully cultured and matured into 3D enteroids containing a lumen and budding structures. Immunofluorescence and PCR were used to confirm the existence of stem cells and all post mitotic, mature cell types, described to exist in the horse intestinal epithelium. Previously frozen crypts were successfully cultured following a freeze-thaw cycle. Tissues were all derived from normal horses. Application of this technique for the study of specific disease was not performed at this time. The successful culture of equine intestinal crypts into 3D "mini-guts" allows for in vitro studies of the equine intestine. Additionally, these results have relevance to future development of novel therapies that harness the regenerative potential of equine intestine in horses with gastrointestinal disease

  6. Selective interactions between epithelial tumour cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hombauer, H; Minguell, J J

    2000-01-01

    This work is a comparative study on the features displayed by an epithelial metastatic breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) when set in co-culture with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or a feeder layer of 3T3 fibroblasts. MSC, a subset of non-haematopoietic cells in the marrow stroma, display a potential for self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation into precursors for bone, cartilage, connective and muscular tissue. Adhesion of MCF-7 cells to monolayers of MSC or 3T3 was high...

  7. Bone marrow contributes to epithelial cancers in mice and humans as developmental mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogle, Christopher R; Theise, Neil D; Fu, Dongtao; Ucar, Deniz; Lee, Sean; Guthrie, Steven M; Lonergan, Jean; Rybka, Witold; Krause, Diane S; Scott, Edward W

    2007-08-01

    Bone marrow cells have the capacity to contribute to distant organs. We show that marrow also contributes to epithelial neoplasias of the small bowel, colon, and lung, but not the skin. In particular, epithelial neoplasias found in patients after hematopoietic cell transplantations demonstrate that human marrow incorporates into neoplasias by adopting the phenotype of the surrounding neoplastic environment. To more rigorously evaluate marrow contribution to epithelial cancer, we employed mouse models of intestinal and lung neoplasias, which revealed specifically that the hematopoietic stem cell and its progeny incorporate within cancer. Furthermore, this marrow involvement in epithelial cancer does not appear to occur by induction of stable fusion. Whereas previous claims have been made that marrow can serve as a direct source of epithelial neoplasia, our results indicate a more cautionary note, that marrow contributes to cancer as a means of developmental mimicry. Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest is found at the end of this article.

  8. Cultivate Primary Nasal Epithelial Cells from Children and Reprogram into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulm, Ashley; Mayhew, Christopher N; Debley, Jason; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Ji, Hong

    2016-03-10

    Nasal epithelial cells (NECs) are the part of the airways that respond to air pollutants and are the first cells infected with respiratory viruses. They are also involved in many airway diseases through their innate immune response and interaction with immune and airway stromal cells. NECs are of particular interest for studies in children due to their accessibility during clinical visits. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been generated from multiple cell types and are a powerful tool for modeling human development and disease, as well as for their potential applications in regenerative medicine. This is the first protocol to lay out methods for successful generation of iPSCs from NECs derived from pediatric participants for research purposes. It describes how to obtain nasal epithelial cells from children, how to generate primary NEC cultures from these samples, and how to reprogram primary NECs into well-characterized iPSCs. Nasal mucosa samples are useful in epidemiological studies related to the effects of air pollution in children, and provide an important tool for studying airway disease. Primary nasal cells and iPSCs derived from them can be a tool for providing unlimited material for patient-specific research in diverse areas of airway epithelial biology, including asthma and COPD research.

  9. Indian hedgehog regulates intestinal stem cell fate through epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosinski, C.; Stange, D.E.; Xu, C.; Chan, A.S.; Ho, C.; Yuen, S.T.; Mifflin, R.C.; Powell, D.W.; Clevers, H.; Leung, S.Y.; Chen, X.N.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are regulated by the mesenchymal environment via physical interaction and diffusible factors. We examined the role of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in mesenchymal organization and the mechanisms by which perturbations in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions

  10. Dissection of a stem cell hierarchy in the human breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubner Fridriksdottir, Agla Jael

    and apoptosis during each menstrual cycle. These changes are most prominent during pregnancy, lactation and involution after breast feeding. These highly dynamic changes are thought to rely on the presence of a breast epithelial stem cell population (reviewed in (Fridriksdottir et al. 2005)). Nevertheless......, cellular pathways that contribute to adult human breast gland architecture and cell lineages have not been described. Here, I identify a candidate stem cell niche in ducts, and zones containing progenitor cells in lobules (Villadsen and Fridriksdottir et al. 2007). Putative stem cells residing in ducts......-rich extracellular matrix gel. Staining for the epithelial lineage markers, cytokeratins K14 and K19, further reveals multipotent cells in the stem cell zone and three lineage- restricted cell types outside this zone. Multiparameter cell sorting and functional characterization with reference to anatomical sites...

  11. Hedgehog Signaling Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Pancreatic Cancer Stem-Like Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Zhengkui; Liu, Xiaoran; Gao, Hongqiao; Zhuang, Yan; Yang, Pei; Kornmann, Marko; Tian, Xiaodong; Yang, Yinmo

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is crucially involved in tumorigenesis. This study aimed to assess the role of Hh signaling in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stemness properties and chemoresistance of human pancreatic Panc-1 cancer stem cells (CSCs). Panc-1 cells were transfected with recombinant lentiviral vectors to silence SMO and serum-free floating-culture system was used to isolate Panc-1 tumorspheres. The expression of CSC and EMT markers was detected by flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Malignant behaviors of Panc-1 CSC were evaluated by tumorigenicity assays and nude mouse lung metastasis model. We found that tumorspheres derived from pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1 possessed self-renewal, differentiation and stemness properties. Hh pathway and EMT were active in Panc-1 tumorspheres. Inhibition of Hh signaling by SMO knockdown inhibited self-renewal, EMT, invasion, chemoresistance, pulmonary metastasis, tumorigenesis of pancreatic CSCs. In conclusion, Hh signaling contributes to the maintenance of stem-like properties and chemoresistance of pancreatic CSC and promotes the tumorigenesis and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Hh pathway is a potential molecular target for the development of therapeutic strategies for pancreatic CSCs. PMID:26918054

  12. Plasticity between Epithelial and Mesenchymal States Unlinks EMT from Metastasis-Enhancing Stem Cell Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Beerling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forced overexpression and/or downregulation of proteins regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT has been reported to alter metastasis by changing migration and stem cell capacity of tumor cells. However, these manipulations artificially keep cells in fixed states, while in vivo cells may adapt transient and reversible states. Here, we have tested the existence and role of epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in metastasis of mammary tumors without artificially modifying EMT regulators. In these tumors, we found by intravital microscopy that the motile tumor cells have undergone EMT, while their epithelial counterparts were not migratory. Moreover, we found that epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity renders any EMT-induced stemness differences, as reported previously, irrelevant for metastatic outgrowth, because mesenchymal cells that arrive at secondary sites convert to the epithelial state within one or two divisions, thereby obtaining the same stem cell potential as their arrived epithelial counterparts. We conclude that epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity supports migration but additionally eliminates stemness-enhanced metastatic outgrowth differences.

  13. Chromosome aberration induction in human diploid fibroblast and epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.

    1986-01-01

    The relative sensitivity of cultured human fibroblasts and epithelial cells to radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations was investigated. Lung fibroblast and kidney epithelial cells from the same fetus were compared, as were skin fibroblasts and epithelial keratinocytes from the same foreskin sample. After exposure of proliferating fetal cells to 1.5 Gy X-rays there was a very similar aberration yield in the fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Observations of either little or no difference in chromosomal sensitivity between human fibroblasts and epithelial cells give added confidence that quantitative cytogenetic data obtained from cultured fibroblasts are relevant to the question of sensitivity of epithelial cells which are the predominant cell type in human cancers. (author)

  14. Oral epithelial stem cells – implications in normal development and cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagerakis, Silvana; Pannone, Giuseppe; Zheng, Li; About, Imad; Taqi, Nawar; Nguyen, Nghia P.T.; Matossian, Margarite; McAlpin, Blake; Santoro, Angela; McHugh, Jonathan; Prince, Mark E.; Papagerakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa is continuously exposed to environmental forces and has to be constantly renewed. Accordingly, the oral mucosa epithelium contains a large reservoir of epithelial stem cells necessary for tissue homeostasis. Despite considerable scientific advances in stem cell behavior in a number of tissues, fewer studies have been devoted to the stem cells in the oral epithelium. Most of oral mucosa stem cells studies are focused on identifying cancer stem cells (CSC) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) among other head and neck cancers. OSCCs are the most prevalent epithelial tumors of the head and neck region, marked by their aggressiveness and invasiveness. Due to their highly tumorigenic properties, it has been suggested that CSC may be the critical population of cancer cells in the development of OSCC metastasis. This review presents a brief overview of epithelium stem cells with implications in oral health, and the clinical implications of the CSC concept in OSCC metastatic dissemination. PMID:24803391

  15. induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular basis of arsenite (As +3 )-induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells. ... Libyan Journal of Medicine ... Methods: After performing cytotoxic assays on a human epithelial carcinoma cell line, expression analysis was done by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and ...

  16. Hypoxia is a key regulator of limbal epithelial stem cell growth and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bath, Chris; Yang, Sufang; Muttuvelu, Danson

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth and differentiation of limbal epithelial stem cell cultures could be controlled through manipulation of the oxygen tension. Limbal epithelial cells were isolated from corneoscleral disks, and cultured using either feeder cells in a growth......, progression through cell cycle, colony forming efficiency (CFE), and expression of stem cell (ABCG2 and p63α) and differentiation (CK3) markers was determined throughout the culture period of up to 18 days. Low oxygen levels favored a stem cell phenotype with a lower proliferative rate, high CFE......, and a relatively higher expression of ABCG2 and p63α, while higher levels of oxygen led not only to decreased CFE but also to increased proportion of differentiated cells positive for CK3. Hypoxic cultures may thus potentially improve stem cell grafts for cultured limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET)....

  17. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self......-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type of cells, e.g., to osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and possibly other cell types including hepatocytes and astrocytes. Due to their ease of culture and multipotentiality, hMSC are increasingly employed as a source for cells suitable for a number...

  18. A functional model for adult stem cells in epithelial tissues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, J.; Katsaros, C.; Torensma, R.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2009-01-01

    Tissue turnover, regeneration, and repair take place throughout life. Stem cells are key players in these processes. The characteristics and niches of the stem cell populations in different tissues, and even in related tissues, vary extensively. In this review, stem cell differentiation and stem

  19. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing, E-mail: caijingmmm@hotmail.com; Wang, Zehua, E-mail: zehuawang@163.net

    2015-09-10

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs.

  20. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing; Wang, Zehua

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs

  1. Generation of Functional Thymic Epithelium from Human Embryonic Stem Cells that Supports Host T Cell Development

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Audrey V.; Russ, Holger A.; Khan, Imran S.; LaFlam, Taylor N.; Metzger, Todd C.; Anderson, Mark S.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Inducing immune tolerance to prevent rejection is a key step toward successful engraftment of stem-cell-derived tissue in a clinical setting. Using human pluripotent stem cells to generate thymic epithelial cells (TECs) capable of supporting T cell development represents a promising approach to reach this goal; however, progress toward generating functional TECs has been limited. Here, we describe a robust in vitro method to direct differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into th...

  2. Roles of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in epithelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yajing; Sun, Zhaorui; Qiu, Xuefeng; Li, Yan; Qin, Jizheng; Han, Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to be able to differentiate into epithelial lineage, but the precise mechanisms controlling this process are unclear. Our aim is to explore the roles of Wnt/β-catenin in the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Using indirect co-culture of rat MSCs with rat airway epithelial cells (RTE), MSCs expressed several airway epithelial markers (cytokeratin 18, tight junction protein occudin, cystic fibrosis transmembrance regulator). The protein levels of some important members in Wnt/β-catenin signaling were determined, suggested down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin with epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, Wnt3α can inhibit the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. A loss of β-catenin induced by Dickkopf-1 can enhance MSCs differentiation into epithelial cells. Lithium chloride transiently activated β-catenin expression and subsequently decreased β-catenin level and at last inhibited MSCs to differentiate into airway epithelium. Taken together, our study indicated that RTE cells can trigger epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling may promote MSCs to differentiate towards airway epithelial cells.

  3. ER Stress Causes Rapid Loss of Intestinal Epithelial Stemness through Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarom Heijmans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells generate rapidly dividing transit-amplifying cells that have lost the capacity for self-renewal but cycle for a number of times until they exit the cell cycle and undergo terminal differentiation. We know very little of the type of signals that trigger the earliest steps of stem cell differentiation and mediate a stem cell to transit-amplifying cell transition. We show that in normal intestinal epithelium, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and activity of the unfolded protein response (UPR are induced at the transition from stem cell to transit-amplifying cell. Induction of ER stress causes loss of stemness in a Perk-eIF2α-dependent manner. Inhibition of Perk-eIF2α signaling results in stem cell accumulation in organoid culture of primary intestinal epithelium. Our findings show that the UPR plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal epithelial stem cell differentiation.

  4. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Interleukin-6 Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Acquisition of Epithelial Stem-Like Cell Properties in Ameloblastoma Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Zhang, Qunzhou; Shanti, Rabie M; Shi, Shihong; Chang, Ting-Han; Carrasco, Lee; Alawi, Faizan; Le, Anh D

    2017-09-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a biological process associated with cancer stem-like or cancer-initiating cell formation, contributes to the invasiveness, metastasis, drug resistance, and recurrence of the malignant tumors; it remains to be determined whether similar processes contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of ameloblastoma (AM), a benign but locally invasive odontogenic neoplasm. Here, we demonstrated that EMT- and stem cell-related genes were expressed in the epithelial islands of the most common histologic variant subtype, the follicular AM. Our results revealed elevated interleukin (IL)-6 signals that were differentially expressed in the stromal compartment of the follicular AM. To explore the stromal effect on tumor pathogenesis, we isolated and characterized both mesenchymal stromal cells (AM-MSCs) and epithelial cells (AM-EpiCs) from follicular AM and demonstrated that, in in vitro culture, AM-MSCs secreted a significantly higher level of IL-6 as compared to the counterpart AM-EpiCs. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that exogenous and AM-MSC-derived IL-6 induced the expression of EMT- and stem cell-related genes in AM-EpiCs, whereas such effects were significantly abrogated either by a specific inhibitor of STAT3 or ERK1/2, or by knockdown of Slug gene expression. These findings suggest that AM-MSC-derived IL-6 promotes tumor-stem like cell formation by inducing EMT process in AM-EpiCs through STAT3 and ERK1/2-mediated signaling pathways, implying a role in the etiology and progression of the benign but locally invasive neoplasm. Stem Cells 2017;35:2083-2094. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Different Effects of BORIS/CTCFL on Stemness Gene Expression, Sphere Formation and Cell Survival in Epithelial Cancer Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Alberti

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells are cancer cells characterized by stem cell properties and represent a small population of tumor cells that drives tumor development, progression, metastasis and drug resistance. To date, the molecular mechanisms that generate and regulate cancer stem cells are not well defined. BORIS (Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites or CTCFL (CTCF-like is a DNA-binding protein that is expressed in normal tissues only in germ cells and is re-activated in tumors. Recent evidences have highlighted the correlation of BORIS/CTCFL expression with poor overall survival of different cancer patients. We have previously shown an association of BORIS-expressing cells with stemness gene expression in embryonic cancer cells. Here, we studied the role of BORIS in epithelial tumor cells. Using BORIS-molecular beacon that was already validated, we were able to show the presence of BORIS mRNA in cancer stem cell-enriched populations (side population and spheres of cervical, colon and breast tumor cells. BORIS silencing studies showed a decrease of sphere formation capacity in breast and colon tumor cells. Importantly, BORIS-silencing led to down-regulation of hTERT, stem cell (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and BMI1 and cancer stem cell markers (ABCG2, CD44 and ALDH1 genes. Conversely, BORIS-induction led to up-regulation of the same genes. These phenotypes were observed in cervical, colon and invasive breast tumor cells. However, a completely different behavior was observed in the non-invasive breast tumor cells (MCF7. Indeed, these cells acquired an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype after BORIS silencing. Our results demonstrate that BORIS is associated with cancer stem cell-enriched populations of several epithelial tumor cells and the different phenotypes depend on the origin of tumor cells.

  6. Human embryonic stem cells handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine was awarded jointly to Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent it became imperative to write down the review for a book entirely devoted to human embryonic stem cells (hES, those cells that are a urgent need for researchers, those cells that rekindle the ethical debates and finally, last but not least, those cells whose study paved the way to obtain induced pluripotent stem cells by the OSKC’s Yamanaka method (the OSKC acronim refers, for those not familiar with the topic, to the four stemness genes used to transfect somatic fibroblasts: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc....

  7. Generation of stratified squamous epithelial progenitor cells from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yoshida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells in regenerative medicine will bypass ethical issues associated with use of embryonic stem cells. In addition, patient-specific IPS cells can be useful to elucidate the pathophysiology of genetic disorders, drug screening, and tailor-made medicine. However, in order to apply iPS cells to mitotic tissue, induction of tissue stem cells that give rise to progeny of the target organ is required. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We induced stratified epithelial cells from mouse iPS cells by co-culture with PA6 feeder cells (SDIA-method with use of BMP4. Clusters of cells positive for the differentiation markers KRT1 or KRT12 were observed in KRT14-positive colonies. We successfully cloned KRT14 and p63 double-positive stratified epithelial progenitor cells from iPS-derived epithelial cells, which formed stratified epithelial sheets consisting of five- to six-polarized epithelial cells in vitro. When these clonal cells were cultured on denuded mouse corneas, a robust stratified epithelial layer was observed with physiological cell polarity including high levels of E-cadherin, p63 and K15 expression in the basal layer and ZO-1 in the superficial layer, recapitulating the apico-basal polarity of the epithelium in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that KRT14 and p63 double-positive epithelial progenitor cells can be cloned from iPS cells in order to produce polarized multilayer epithelial cell sheets.

  8. Acquisition cancer stemness, mesenchymal transdifferentiation, and chemoresistance properties by chronic exposure of oral epithelial cells to arecoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tung Yuan; Peng, Chih-Yu; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Chou, Ming-Yung; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2016-12-20

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), one of the most deadliest malignancies in the world, is caused primarily by areca nut chewing in Southeast Asia. The mechanisms by which areca nut participates in OSCC tumorigenesis are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of low dose long-term arecoline (10 μg/mL, 90-days), a major areca nut alkaloid, on enhancement cancer stemness of human oral epithelial (OE) cells. OE cells with chronic arecoline exposure resulted in increased ALDH1 population, CD44 positivity, stemness-related transcription factors (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2), epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) traits, chemoresistance, migration/invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth as compared to their untreated controls. Mechanistically, ectopic miR-145 over-expression in chronic arecoline-exposed OE (AOE) cells inhibited the cancer stemness and xenografic. In AOE cells, luciferase reporter assays further revealed that miR-145 directly targets the 3' UTR regions of Oct4 and Sox2 and overexpression of Sox2/Oct4 effectively reversed miR-145-regulated cancer stemness-associated phenomenas. Additionally, clinical results further revealed that Sox2 and Oct4 expression was inversely correlated with miR-145 in the tissues of areca quid chewing-associated OSCC patients. This study hence attempts to provide novel insight into areca nut-induced oral carcinogenesis and new intervention for the treatment of OSCC patients, especially in areca nut users.

  9. Plasticity between Epithelial and Mesenchymal States Unlinks EMT from Metastasis-Enhancing Stem Cell Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerling, Evelyne; Seinstra, Daniëlle; de Wit, Elzo; Kester, Lennart; van der Velden, Daphne; Maynard, Carrie; Schäfer, Ronny; van Diest, Paul; Voest, Emile; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Vrisekoop, Nienke; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    Forced overexpression and/or downregulation of proteins regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported to alter metastasis by changing migration and stem cell capacity of tumor cells. However, these manipulations artificially keep cells in fixed states, while in vivo cells

  10. Implantation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Tracheal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshie, Susumu; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Otsuki, Koshi; Murono, Shigeyuki; Omori, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    Compared with using autologous tissue, the use of artificial materials in the regeneration of tracheal defects is minimally invasive. However, this technique requires early epithelialization on the inner side of the artificial trachea. After differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), tracheal epithelial tissues may be used to produce artificial tracheas. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that after differentiation from fluorescent protein-labeled iPSCs, tracheal epithelial tissues survived in nude rats with tracheal defects. Red fluorescent tdTomato protein was electroporated into mouse iPSCs to produce tdTomato-labeled iPSCs. Embryoid bodies derived from these iPSCs were then cultured in differentiation medium supplemented with growth factors, followed by culture on air-liquid interfaces for further differentiation into tracheal epithelium. The cells were implanted with artificial tracheas into nude rats with tracheal defects on day 26 of cultivation. On day 7 after implantation, the tracheas were exposed and examined histologically. Tracheal epithelial tissue derived from tdTomato-labeled iPSCs survived in the tracheal defects. Moreover, immunochemical analyses showed that differentiated tissues had epithelial structures similar to those of proximal tracheal tissues. After differentiation from iPSCs, tracheal epithelial tissues survived in rat bodies, warranting the use of iPSCs for epithelial regeneration in tracheal defects.

  11. Human Primary Intestinal Epithelial Cells as an Improved In Vitro Model for Cryptosporidium parvum Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Nichols, Joan; Gomez, Guillermo; White, A. Clinton

    2013-01-01

    The study of human intestinal pathogens has been limited by the lack of methods for the long-term culture of primary human intestinal epithelial cells (PECs). The development of infection models with PECs would allow a better understanding of host-parasite interactions. The objective of this study was to develop a novel method for prolonged in vitro cultivation of PECs that can be used to study Cryptosporidium infection. We isolated intact crypts from human intestines removed during weight loss surgery. The fragments of intestinal layers were cultivated with culture medium supplemented with growth factors and antiapoptotic molecules. After 7 days, the PECs formed self-regenerating cell clusters, forming villi that resemble intestinal epithelium. The PECs proliferated and remained viable for at least 60 days. The cells expressed markers for intestinal stem cells, epithelial cells, and mature enterocytes. The PECs were infected with Cryptosporidium. In contrast to older models in which parasite numbers decay, the burden of parasites increased for >120 h. In summary, we describe here a novel method for the cultivation of self-regenerating human epithelial cells from small intestinal crypts, which contain both intestinal stem cells and mature villus cells. We present data that suggest these cells support Cryptosporidium better than existing cell lines. PECs should provide an improved tool for studying host-parasite interactions involving Cryptosporidium and other intestinal pathogens. PMID:23509153

  12. Regulation of Pituitary Stem Cells by Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Events and Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Leonard Y. M.; Davis, Shannon W.; Brinkmeier, Michelle L.; Camper, Sally A.; Pérez-Millán, María Inés

    2017-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland is comprised of specialized cell-types that produce and secrete polypeptide hormones in response to hypothalamic input and feedback from target organs. These specialized cells arise from stem cells that express SOX2 and the pituitary transcription factor PROP1, which is necessary to establish the stem cell pool and promote an epithelial to mesenchymal-like transition, releasing progenitors from the niche. The adult anterior pituitary responds to physiological challenge by mobilizing the SOX2-expressing progenitor pool and producing additional hormone-producing cells. Knowledge of the role of signaling pathways and extracellular matrix components in these processes may lead to improvements in the efficiency of differentiation of embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells into hormone producing cells in vitro. Advances in our basic understanding of pituitary stem cell regulation and differentiation may lead to improved diagnosis and treatment for patients with hypopituitarism. PMID:27650955

  13. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases.

  14. Marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: role in epithelial tumor cell determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Fernando A; Sierralta, Walter D; Epuñan, Maria J; Minguell, José J

    2004-01-01

    Marrow stroma represents an advantageous environment for development of micrometastatic cells. Within the cellular structure of marrow stroma, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been postulated as an interacting target for disseminated cancer cells. The studies reported here were performed to gain more information on the interaction of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 with human bone marrow-derived MSC cells and to investigate whether this interaction affects tumor cell properties. The results showed that after co-culture with MSC, changes were detected in the morphology, proliferative capacity and aggregation pattern of MCF-7 cells, but these parameters were not affected after the co-culture of MSC cells with a non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10. Since the indirect culture of MCF-7 with MSC or its products also resulted in functional changes in the tumor cells, we evaluated whether these effects could be attributed to growth factors produced by MSC cells. It was found that VEGF and IL-6 mimic the effects produced by MSC or its products on the proliferation and aggregation properties of MCF-7, cells, respectively. Thus, it seems that after entry of disseminated tumor cells into the marrow space, their proliferative and morphogenetic organization patterns are modified after interaction with distinct stromal cells and/or with specific signals from the marrow microenvironment.

  15. Neural differentiation of choroid plexus epithelial cells: role of human traumatic cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the key producer of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, the choroid plexus (CP provides a unique protective system in the central nervous system. CSF components are not invariable and they can change based on the pathological conditions of the central nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of non-traumatic and traumatic CSF on the differentiation of multipotent stem-like cells of CP into the neural and/or glial cells. CP epithelial cells were isolated from adult male rats and treated with human non-traumatic and traumatic CSF. Alterations in mRNA expression of Nestin and microtubule-associated protein (MAP2, as the specific markers of neurogenesis, and astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in cultured CP epithelial cells were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. The data revealed that treatment with CSF (non-traumatic and traumatic led to increase in mRNA expression levels of MAP2 and GFAP. Moreover, the expression of Nestin decreased in CP epithelial cells treated with non-traumatic CSF, while treatment with traumatic CSF significantly increased its mRNA level compared to the cells cultured only in DMEM/F12 as control. It seems that CP epithelial cells contain multipotent stem-like cells which are inducible under pathological conditions including exposure to traumatic CSF because of its compositions.

  16. Endothelial induced EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valgardur Sigurdsson

    Full Text Available Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M derived from D492, show reduced expression of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad to N-Cadherin (N-Cad and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44(high/CD24(low ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close to the vascular rich areas show no or decreased expression of E-Cad and increased N-Cad expression suggesting EMT. Collectively, we have shown in a 3D culture model that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal-like breast cancer contains cells with an EMT phenotype, most prominently close to vascular rich areas of these tumors. We conclude that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT and may play a role in progression of basal-like breast cancer.

  17. Endothelial induced EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla; Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Ringnér, Markus; Villadsen, Rene; Borg, Ake; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Petersen, Ole William; Magnusson, Magnus K; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M) derived from D492, show reduced expression of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad) to N-Cadherin (N-Cad) and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44(high)/CD24(low) ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close to the vascular rich areas show no or decreased expression of E-Cad and increased N-Cad expression suggesting EMT. Collectively, we have shown in a 3D culture model that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal-like breast cancer contains cells with an EMT phenotype, most prominently close to vascular rich areas of these tumors. We conclude that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT and may play a role in progression of basal-like breast cancer.

  18. Canine Mammary Cancer Stem Cells are Radio- and Chemo-Resistant and Exhibit an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Lisa Y.; Cervantes-Arias, Alejandro; Else, Rod W.; Argyle, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer among female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distant metastases. In humans, solid tumors are made up of heterogeneous cell populations, which perform different roles in the tumor economy. A small subset of tumor cells can hold or acquire stem cell characteristics, enabling them to drive tumor growth, recurrence and metastasis. In veterinary medicine, the molecular drivers of canine mammary carcinoma are as yet undefined. Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. We show that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres, a characteristic of stem cells, and that they express embryonic stem cell markers associated with pluripotency. Moreover, canine CSCs are relatively resistant to the cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, indicating that failure of clinical therapy to eradicate canine mammary cancer may be due to the survival of CSCs. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of stem cell characteristics. Our results show that canine CSCs predominantly express mesenchymal markers and are more invasive than parental cells, indicating that these cells have a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGFβ and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. Our findings indicate that EMT induction can enrich for cells with CSC properties, and provide further insight into canine CSC biology

  19. Canine Mammary Cancer Stem Cells are Radio- and Chemo-Resistant and Exhibit an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Lisa Y., E-mail: lisa.pang@ed.ac.uk; Cervantes-Arias, Alejandro; Else, Rod W.; Argyle, David J. [Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and Roslin Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-30

    Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer among female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distant metastases. In humans, solid tumors are made up of heterogeneous cell populations, which perform different roles in the tumor economy. A small subset of tumor cells can hold or acquire stem cell characteristics, enabling them to drive tumor growth, recurrence and metastasis. In veterinary medicine, the molecular drivers of canine mammary carcinoma are as yet undefined. Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. We show that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres, a characteristic of stem cells, and that they express embryonic stem cell markers associated with pluripotency. Moreover, canine CSCs are relatively resistant to the cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, indicating that failure of clinical therapy to eradicate canine mammary cancer may be due to the survival of CSCs. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of stem cell characteristics. Our results show that canine CSCs predominantly express mesenchymal markers and are more invasive than parental cells, indicating that these cells have a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGFβ and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. Our findings indicate that EMT induction can enrich for cells with CSC properties, and provide further insight into canine CSC biology.

  20. Human papillomavirus: cause of epithelial lacrimal sac neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian; von Buchwald, Christian; Cassonnet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac are rare but important entities that may carry grave prognoses. In this study the prevalence and possible role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac were evaluated. METHODS: Five papillomas and six...... 11 RNA was demonstrated in two papillomas. CONCLUSIONS: By analysing 11 epithelial lacrimal sac papillomas and carcinomas using PCR, DNA ISH and RNA ISH, we found HPV DNA in all investigated transitional epithelium tumours of the lacrimal sac. HPV RNA was present in two of eight epithelial lacrimal...... sac tumours positive for HPV DNA. As RNA degrades fast in paraffin-embedded tissue, only a small fraction of DNA-positive tumours can be expected to be RNA-positive. We therefore suggest that HPV infection is associated with the development of lacrimal sac papillomas and carcinomas....

  1. Concise Review: Kidney Generation with Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizane, Ryuji; Miyoshi, Tomoya; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2017-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health care problem, resulting in increased cardiovascular mortality and often leading to end-stage kidney disease, where patients require kidney replacement therapies such as hemodialysis or kidney transplantation. Loss of functional nephrons contributes to the progression of CKD, which can be attenuated but not reversed due to inability to generate new nephrons in human adult kidneys. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), by virtue of their unlimited self-renewal and ability to differentiate into cells of all three embryonic germ layers, are attractive sources for kidney regenerative therapies. Recent advances in stem cell biology have identified key signals necessary to maintain stemness of human nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) in vitro, and led to establishment of protocols to generate NPCs and nephron epithelial cells from human fetal kidneys and hPSCs. Effective production of large amounts of human NPCs and kidney organoids will facilitate elucidation of developmental and pathobiological pathways, kidney disease modeling and drug screening as well as kidney regenerative therapies. We summarize the recent studies to induce NPCs and kidney cells from hPSCs, studies of NPC expansion from mouse and human embryonic kidneys, and discuss possible approaches in vivo to regenerate kidneys with cell therapies and the development of bioengineered kidneys. Stem Cells 2017;35:2209-2217. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Effect of heme oxygenase-1 transduced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on damaged intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Wu, Ben-Juan; Zheng, Wei-Ping; Yin, Ming-Li; Liu, Tao; Song, Hong-Li

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on the damaged human intestinal epithelial barrier in vitro. Rat MSCs were isolated from bone marrow and transduced with rat HO-1 recombinant adenovirus (HO-MSCs) for stable expression of HO-1. Colorectal adenocarinoma 2 (Caco2) cells were treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) to establish a damaged colon epithelial model. Damaged Caco2 were cocultured with MSCs, Ad-MSCs, Ad-HO + MSCs or HO-MSCs. mRNA and protein expression of Zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and human HO-1 and the release of cytokines were measured. ZO-1 and human HO-1 in Caco2 were significantly decreased after treatment with TNF-α; and this effect was reduced when coculture with MSCs from bone marrow. Expression of ZO-1 was not significantly affected by Caco2 treatment with TNF-α, Ad-HO, and MSCs. In contrast, ZO-1 and human HO-1 increased significantly when the damaged Caco2 was treated with HO-MSCs. HO-MSCs showed the strongest effect on the expression of ZO-1 in colon epithelial cells. Coculture with HO-MSCs showed the most significant effects on reducing the expression of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and increasing the expression of IL-10. HO-MSCs protected the intestinal epithelial barrier, in which endogenous HO-1 was involved. HO-MSCs play an important role in the repair process by reducing the release of inflammatory cytokines and increasing the release of anti-inflammatory factors. These results suggested that HO-MSCs from bone marrow were more effective in repairing the damaged intestinal epithelial barrier, and the effectiveness of MSCs was improved by HO-1 gene transduction, which provides favorable support for the application of stem cell therapy in the intestinal diseases. © 2017 The Authors. Cell Biology International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Cell Biology.

  3. Human thymic epithelial cells express functional HLA-DP molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Röpke, C; Nielsen, M

    1996-01-01

    T lymphocytes, we examined whether human thymic epithelial cells (TEC) expressed HLA-DP molecules. We present evidence that TEC obtained from short time culture express low but significant levels of HLA-DP molecules. The expression of HLA-DP molecules was comparable to or higher than the expression...... of HLA-DP allospecific primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) CD4 T cell lines. IFN-gamma treatment strongly upregulated the HLA-DP allospecific PLT responses whereas other PLT responses remained largely unchanged. In conclusion, these data indicate that human thymus epithelial cells express significant levels...

  4. Long-term expansion of epithelial organoids from human colon, adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and Barrett's epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshiro; Stange, Daniel E; Ferrante, Marc; Vries, Robert G J; Van Es, Johan H; Van den Brink, Stieneke; Van Houdt, Winan J; Pronk, Apollo; Van Gorp, Joost; Siersema, Peter D; Clevers, Hans

    2011-11-01

    We previously established long-term culture conditions under which single crypts or stem cells derived from mouse small intestine expand over long periods. The expanding crypts undergo multiple crypt fission events, simultaneously generating villus-like epithelial domains that contain all differentiated types of cells. We have adapted the culture conditions to grow similar epithelial organoids from mouse colon and human small intestine and colon. Based on the mouse small intestinal culture system, we optimized the mouse and human colon culture systems. Addition of Wnt3A to the combination of growth factors applied to mouse colon crypts allowed them to expand indefinitely. Addition of nicotinamide, along with a small molecule inhibitor of Alk and an inhibitor of p38, were required for long-term culture of human small intestine and colon tissues. The culture system also allowed growth of mouse Apc-deficient adenomas, human colorectal cancer cells, and human metaplastic epithelia from regions of Barrett's esophagus. We developed a technology that can be used to study infected, inflammatory, or neoplastic tissues from the human gastrointestinal tract. These tools might have applications in regenerative biology through ex vivo expansion of the intestinal epithelia. Studies of these cultures indicate that there is no inherent restriction in the replicative potential of adult stem cells (or a Hayflick limit) ex vivo. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Human airway epithelial cells investigated by atomic force microscopy: A hint to cystic fibrosis epithelial pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasalvia, Maria [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Castellani, Stefano [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); D’Antonio, Palma [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Perna, Giuseppe [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Carbone, Annalucia [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Colia, Anna Laura; Maffione, Angela Bruna [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Capozzi, Vito [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Conese, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.conese@unifg.it [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease stems from mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, leading to a chronic respiratory disease. Actin cytoskeleton is disorganized in CF airway epithelial cells, likely contributing to the CF-associated basic defects, i.e. defective chloride secretion and sodium/fluid hypersorption. In this work, we aimed to find whether this alteration could be pointed out by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigation, as roughness and Young's elastic module. Moreover, we also sought to determine whether disorganization of actin cytoskeleton is linked to hypersoption of apical fluid. Not only CFBE41o- (CFBE) cells, immortalized airway epithelial cells homozygous for the F508del CFTR allele, showed a different morphology in comparison with 16HBE14o- (16HBE) epithelial cells, wild-type for CFTR, but also they displayed a lack of stress fibers, suggestive of a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. AFM measurements showed that CFBE cells presented a higher membrane roughness and decreased rigidity as compared with 16HBE cells. CFBE overexpressing wtCFTR became more elongated than the parental CFBE cell line and presented actin stress fibers. CFBE cells absorbed more fluid from the apical compartment. Study of fluid absorption with the F-actin-depolymerizing agent Latrunculin B demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal disorganization increased fluid absorption, an effect observed at higher magnitude in 16HBE than in CFBE cells. For the first time, we demonstrate that actin cytoskeleton disorganization is reflected by AFM parameters in CF airway epithelial cells. Our data also strongly suggest that the lack of stress fibers is involved in at least one of the early step in CF pathophysiology at the levels of the airways, i.e. fluid hypersorption. - Highlights: • CF bronchial epithelial (CFBE) cells show a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. • CFBE cells present high roughness and low rigidity in

  6. Human airway epithelial cells investigated by atomic force microscopy: A hint to cystic fibrosis epithelial pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasalvia, Maria; Castellani, Stefano; D’Antonio, Palma; Perna, Giuseppe; Carbone, Annalucia; Colia, Anna Laura; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Capozzi, Vito; Conese, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease stems from mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, leading to a chronic respiratory disease. Actin cytoskeleton is disorganized in CF airway epithelial cells, likely contributing to the CF-associated basic defects, i.e. defective chloride secretion and sodium/fluid hypersorption. In this work, we aimed to find whether this alteration could be pointed out by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigation, as roughness and Young's elastic module. Moreover, we also sought to determine whether disorganization of actin cytoskeleton is linked to hypersoption of apical fluid. Not only CFBE41o- (CFBE) cells, immortalized airway epithelial cells homozygous for the F508del CFTR allele, showed a different morphology in comparison with 16HBE14o- (16HBE) epithelial cells, wild-type for CFTR, but also they displayed a lack of stress fibers, suggestive of a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. AFM measurements showed that CFBE cells presented a higher membrane roughness and decreased rigidity as compared with 16HBE cells. CFBE overexpressing wtCFTR became more elongated than the parental CFBE cell line and presented actin stress fibers. CFBE cells absorbed more fluid from the apical compartment. Study of fluid absorption with the F-actin-depolymerizing agent Latrunculin B demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal disorganization increased fluid absorption, an effect observed at higher magnitude in 16HBE than in CFBE cells. For the first time, we demonstrate that actin cytoskeleton disorganization is reflected by AFM parameters in CF airway epithelial cells. Our data also strongly suggest that the lack of stress fibers is involved in at least one of the early step in CF pathophysiology at the levels of the airways, i.e. fluid hypersorption. - Highlights: • CF bronchial epithelial (CFBE) cells show a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. • CFBE cells present high roughness and low rigidity in the

  7. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  8. Regulatory T Cells in Skin Facilitate Epithelial Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niwa; Zirak, Bahar; Rodriguez, Robert Sanchez; Pauli, Mariela L; Truong, Hong-An; Lai, Kevin; Ahn, Richard; Corbin, Kaitlin; Lowe, Margaret M; Scharschmidt, Tiffany C; Taravati, Keyon; Tan, Madeleine R; Ricardo-Gonzalez, Roberto R; Nosbaum, Audrey; Bertolini, Marta; Liao, Wilson; Nestle, Frank O; Paus, Ralf; Cotsarelis, George; Abbas, Abul K; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2017-06-01

    The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is critically dependent on the function of tissue-resident immune cells and the differentiation capacity of tissue-resident stem cells (SCs). How immune cells influence the function of SCs is largely unknown. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in skin preferentially localize to hair follicles (HFs), which house a major subset of skin SCs (HFSCs). Here, we mechanistically dissect the role of Tregs in HF and HFSC biology. Lineage-specific cell depletion revealed that Tregs promote HF regeneration by augmenting HFSC proliferation and differentiation. Transcriptional and phenotypic profiling of T regs and HFSCs revealed that skin-resident Tregs preferentially express high levels of the Notch ligand family member, Jagged 1 (Jag1). Expression of Jag1 on Tregs facilitated HFSC function and efficient HF regeneration. Taken together, our work demonstrates that Tregs in skin play a major role in HF biology by promoting the function of HFSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stem cell factor expression after renal ischemia promotes tubular epithelial survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geurt Stokman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia leads to apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells and results in decreased renal function. Tissue repair involves re-epithelialization of the tubular basement membrane. Survival of the tubular epithelium following ischemia is therefore important in the successful regeneration of renal tissue. The cytokine stem cell factor (SCF has been shown to protect the tubular epithelium against apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a mouse model for renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, we studied how expression of c-KIT on tubular epithelium and its ligand SCF protect cells against apoptosis. Administration of SCF specific antisense oligonucleotides significantly decreased specific staining of SCF following ischemia. Reduced SCF expression resulted in impaired renal function, increased tubular damage and increased tubular epithelial apoptosis, independent of inflammation. In an in vitro hypoxia model, stimulation of tubular epithelial cells with SCF activated survival signaling and decreased apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate an important role for c-KIT and SCF in mediating tubular epithelial cell survival via an autocrine pathway.

  10. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Ryohichi; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Han, Areum; Soria-Valles, Clara; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Lu, Yi-Fen; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Serrao, Erik; Rowe, R. Grant; Malleshaiah, Mohan; Wong, Irene; Sousa, Patricia; Zhu, Ted N.; Ditadi, Andrea; Keller, Gordon; Engelman, Alan N.; Snapper, Scott B.; Doulatov, Sergei; Daley, George Q.

    2018-01-01

    A variety of tissue lineages can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by mimicking embryonic development through stepwise exposure to morphogens, or by conversion of one differentiated cell type into another by enforced expression of master transcription factors. Here, to yield functional human haematopoietic stem cells, we perform morphogen-directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into haemogenic endothelium followed by screening of 26 candidate haematopoietic stem-cell-specifying transcription factors for their capacity to promote multi-lineage haematopoietic engraftment in mouse hosts. We recover seven transcription factors (ERG, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXA10, LCOR, RUNX1 and SPI1) that are sufficient to convert haemogenic endothelium into haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that engraft myeloid, B and T cells in primary and secondary mouse recipients. Our combined approach of morphogen-driven differentiation and transcription-factor-mediated cell fate conversion produces haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells and holds promise for modelling haematopoietic disease in humanized mice and for therapeutic strategies in genetic blood disorders. PMID:28514439

  11. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) st...... for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia....

  12. Molecular regulation of human hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Galen, P.L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Peter van Galen focuses on understanding the determinants that maintain the stem cell state. Using human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as a model, processes that govern self-renewal and tissue regeneration were investigated. Specifically, a role for microRNAs in balancing the human HSC

  13. Endothelial induced EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla

    2011-01-01

    endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M) derived from D492, show reduced expression...... of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad) to N-Cadherin (N-Cad) and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44(high)/CD24(low) ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D......492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close...

  14. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived limbal epithelial cells (LiPSC) as a cellular alternative for in vitro ocular toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberdam, Edith; Petit, Isabelle; Sangari, Linda; Aberdam, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great potential to produce unlimited amount of differentiated cells as cellular source for regenerative medicine but also for in vitro drug screening and cytotoxicity tests. Ocular toxicity testing is mandatory to evaluate the risks of drugs and cosmetic products before their application to human patients by preventing eye irritation or insult. Since the global ban to use animals, many human-derived alternatives have been proposed, from ex-vivo enucleated postmortem cornea, primary corneal cell culture and immortalized corneal epithelial cell lines. All of them share limitations for their routine use. Using an improved protocol, we derived limbal epithelial cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells, named LiPSC, that are able to be passaged and differentiate further into corneal epithelial cells. Comparative RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry analysis and zymography assays demonstrate that LiPSC are morphologically and molecularly similar to the adult stem cells. Moreover, contrary to HCE, LiPSC and primary limbal cells display similarly sensitive to cytotoxicity treatment among passages. Our data strongly suggest that LiPSC could become a powerful alternative cellular model for cosmetic and drug tests.

  15. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived limbal epithelial cells (LiPSC as a cellular alternative for in vitro ocular toxicity testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Aberdam

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great potential to produce unlimited amount of differentiated cells as cellular source for regenerative medicine but also for in vitro drug screening and cytotoxicity tests. Ocular toxicity testing is mandatory to evaluate the risks of drugs and cosmetic products before their application to human patients by preventing eye irritation or insult. Since the global ban to use animals, many human-derived alternatives have been proposed, from ex-vivo enucleated postmortem cornea, primary corneal cell culture and immortalized corneal epithelial cell lines. All of them share limitations for their routine use. Using an improved protocol, we derived limbal epithelial cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells, named LiPSC, that are able to be passaged and differentiate further into corneal epithelial cells. Comparative RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry analysis and zymography assays demonstrate that LiPSC are morphologically and molecularly similar to the adult stem cells. Moreover, contrary to HCE, LiPSC and primary limbal cells display similarly sensitive to cytotoxicity treatment among passages. Our data strongly suggest that LiPSC could become a powerful alternative cellular model for cosmetic and drug tests.

  16. Epithelial WNT Ligands Are Essential Drivers of Intestinal Stem Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Y. Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal stem cells (ISCs maintain and repair the intestinal epithelium. While regeneration after ISC-targeted damage is increasingly understood, injury-repair mechanisms that direct regeneration following injuries to differentiated cells remain uncharacterized. The enteric pathogen, rotavirus, infects and damages differentiated cells while sparing all ISC populations, thus allowing the unique examination of the response of intact ISC compartments during injury-repair. Upon rotavirus infection in mice, ISC compartments robustly expand and proliferating cells rapidly migrate. Infection results specifically in stimulation of the active crypt-based columnar ISCs, but not alternative reserve ISC populations, as is observed after ISC-targeted damage. Conditional ablation of epithelial WNT secretion diminishes crypt expansion and ISC activation, demonstrating a previously unknown function of epithelial-secreted WNT during injury-repair. These findings indicate a hierarchical preference of crypt-based columnar cells (CBCs over other potential ISC populations during epithelial restitution and the importance of epithelial-derived signals in regulating ISC behavior.

  17. System for tracking transplanted limbal epithelial stem cells in the treatment of corneal stem cell deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, J.; Sangwal, V.; MacNeil, S.; Matcher, S. J.

    2015-03-01

    The prevailing hypothesis for the existence and healing of the avascular corneal epithelium is that this layer of cells is continually produced by stem cells in the limbus and transported onto the cornea to mature into corneal epithelium. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD), in which the stem cell population is depleted, can lead to blindness. LSCD can be caused by chemical and thermal burns to the eye. A popular treatment, especially in emerging economies such as India, is the transplantation of limbal stem cells onto damaged limbus with hope of repopulating the region. Hence regenerating the corneal epithelium. In order to gain insights into the success rates of this treatment, new imaging technologies are needed in order to track the transplanted cells. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is well known for its high resolution in vivo images of the retina. A custom OCT system has been built to image the corneal surface, to investigate the fate of transplanted limbal stem cells. We evaluate two methods to label and track transplanted cells: melanin labelling and magneto-labelling. To evaluate melanin labelling, stem cells are loaded with melanin and then transplanted onto a rabbit cornea denuded of its epithelium. The melanin displays strongly enhanced backscatter relative to normal cells. To evaluate magneto-labelling the stem cells are loaded with magnetic nanoparticles (20-30nm in size) and then imaged with a custom-built, magneto-motive OCT system.

  18. [Characterization of epithelial primary culture from human conjunctiva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, L; Blázquez, A; Muñoz-Negrete, F J; López, S; Rebolleda, G; Domínguez, F; Pérez-Esteban, A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate primary cultures from human conjunctiva supplemented with fetal bovine serum, autologous serum, and platelet-rich autologous serum, over human amniotic membrane and lens anterior capsules. One-hundred and forty-eight human conjunctiva explants were cultured in CnT50(®) supplemented with 1, 2.5, 5 and 10% fetal bovine serum, autologous serum and platelet-rich autologous serum. Conjunctival samples were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2 and 95% HR, for 3 weeks. The typical phenotype corresponding to conjunctival epithelial cells was present in all primary cultures. Conjunctival cultures had MUC5AC-positive secretory cells, K19-positive conjunctival cells, and MUC4-positive non-secretory conjunctival cells, but were not corneal phenotype (cytokeratin K3-negative) and fibroblasts (CD90-negative). Conjunctiva epithelial progenitor cells were preserved in all cultures; thus, a cell culture in CnT50(®) supplemented with 1 to 5% autologous serum over human amniotic membrane can provide better information of epithelial cell differentiation for the conjunctival surface reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies in human skin epithelial cell carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolism and DNA adduct formation of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) by human epidermal keratinocytes pretreated with inhibitors or inducer of cytochrame P450 was studied. To study DNA adduct analysis, cultures were pretreated as described above, and then treated with non-radiolabeled BP. DNA was prepared from these cultures, digested to the nucleotide level, and 32 P-postlabeled for adduct analysis. Cultures pretreated with BHA, 7,8-BF or disulfiralm formed significantly fewer BPDE I-dB adducts than non-pretreated cultures, while cultures pretreated with MeBHA formed more BPDE-I-dG adducts. MeBHA increased BP activation and adduct formation inhuman keratinocyte in cultures by inducing a specific isoenzyme of cytochrome P450 which preferentially increases the oxidative metabolism of BP to 7,8 diol BP and 7,8 diol BP to BPDE I. To approximate an in vivo human system, metabolism of BPDE I by human skin xenografts treated with cell cycles modulators was studied. When treated with BPDE I, specific carcinogen-DNA adducts were formed. Separation and identification of these adducts by the 32 P-postlabeling technique indicated that the 7R- and 7S-BPDE I-dG adducts were the major adducts

  20. Potential antitumor therapeutic strategies of human amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, N-H; Hwang, K-A; Kim, S U; Kim, Y-B; Hyun, S-H; Jeung, E-B; Choi, K-C

    2012-08-01

    As stem cells are capable of self-renewal and can generate differentiated progenies for organ development, they are considered as potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. Along with this capacity, stem cells have the therapeutic potential for treating human diseases including cancers. According to the origins, stem cells are broadly classified into two types: embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells. In terms of differentiation potential, ESCs are pluripotent and adult stem cells are multipotent. Amnion, which is a membranous sac that contains the fetus and amniotic fluid and functions in protecting the developing embryo during gestation, is another stem cell source. Amnion-derived stem cells are classified as human amniotic membrane-derived epithelial stem cells, human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells. They are in an intermediate stage between pluripotent ESCs and lineage-restricted adult stem cells, non-tumorigenic, and contribute to low immunogenicity and anti-inflammation. Furthermore, they are easily available and do not cause any controversial issues in their recovery and applications. Not only are amnion-derived stem cells applicable in regenerative medicine, they have anticancer capacity. In non-engineered stem cells transplantation strategies, amnion-derived stem cells effectively target the tumor and suppressed the tumor growth by expressing cytotoxic cytokines. Additionally, they also have a potential as novel delivery vehicles transferring therapeutic genes to the cancer formation sites in gene-directed enzyme/prodrug combination therapy. Owing to their own advantageous properties, amnion-derived stem cells are emerging as a new candidate in anticancer therapy.

  1. Engineered human broncho-epithelial tissue-like assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional human broncho-epithelial tissue-like assemblies (TLAs) are produced in a rotating wall vessel (RWV) with microcarriers by coculturing mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (BTC) and bronchial epithelium cells (BEC). These TLAs display structural characteristics and express markers of in vivo respiratory epithelia. TLAs are useful for screening compounds active in lung tissues such as antiviral compounds, cystic fibrosis treatments, allergens, and cytotoxic compounds.

  2. Deep RNA-Seq analysis reveals unexpected features of human prostate basal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingxiao Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among American men [1]. The prostate gland mainly contains basal and luminal cells, which are constructed as a pseudostratified epithelium. Annotation of prostate epithelial transcriptomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Here, for the first time, we describe a whole-genome transcriptome analysis of human benign prostatic basal and luminal populations by using deep RNA sequencing (GSE67070 [2]. Combined with comprehensive molecular and biological characterizations, we show that the differential gene expression profiles account for their distinct functional phenotypes. Strikingly, in contrast to luminal cells, basal cells preferentially express gene categories associated with stem cells, neural and neuronal development, and RNA processing. Of clinical relevance, the treatment failed castration-resistant and anaplastic prostate cancers molecularly resemble a basal-like phenotype. We also identified genes associated with patient clinical outcome. Therefore, we provide a gene expression resource for understanding human prostate epithelial lineages, and link the cell-type specific gene signatures to subtypes of prostate cancer development. Keywords: Prostate epithelial cells, Basal cells, Luminal cells, RNA-seq

  3. Guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, National Research Council

    2005-01-01

    Since 1998, the volume of research being conducted using human embryonic stem (hES) cells has expanded primarily using private funds because of restrictions on the use of federal funds for such research...

  4. 3 CFR - Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of July 30, 2009 Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research..., scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic stem cell research, to the extent...

  5. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal plasticity of cancer stem cells: therapeutic targets in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Jayachandran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remains one of the most common and lethal malignancies worldwide despite the development of various therapeutic strategies. A better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for HCC initiation and progression is essential for the development of more effective therapies. The cancer stem cell (CSC model has provided new insights into the development and progression of HCC. CSCs are specialized tumor cells that are capable of self-renewal and have long-term repopulation potential. As they are important mediators of tumor proliferation, invasion, metastasis, therapy resistance, and cancer relapse, the selective targeting of this crucial population of cells has the potential to improve HCC patient outcomes and survival. In recent years, the role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT in the advancement of HCC has gained increasing attention. This multi-step reprograming process resulting in a phenotype switch from an epithelial to a mesenchymal cellular state has been closely associated with the acquisition of stem cell-like attributes in tumors. Moreover, CSC mediates tumor metastasis by maintaining plasticity to transition between epithelial or mesenchymal states. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the reprograming switches that determine the progression through EMT and generation of CSC is essential for developing clinically relevant drug targets. This review provides an overview of the proposed roles of CSC in HCC and discusses recent results supporting the emerging role of EMT in facilitating hepatic CSC plasticity. In particular, we discuss how these important new insights may facilitate rational development of combining CSC- and EMT-targeted therapies in the future.

  6. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

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    Hua Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C 6 root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C 6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 10 6 cells/mL, 3 μL/injection, 25 injections immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C 6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also significantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effectively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals.

  7. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress by deletion of Grp78 depletes Apc mutant intestinal epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lidth de Jeude, J F; Meijer, B J; Wielenga, M C B; Spaan, C N; Baan, B; Rosekrans, S L; Meisner, S; Shen, Y H; Lee, A S; Paton, J C; Paton, A W; Muncan, V; van den Brink, G R; Heijmans, J

    2017-06-15

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells are highly sensitive to differentiation induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Colorectal cancer develops from mutated intestinal epithelial stem cells. The most frequent initiating mutation occurs in Apc, which results in hyperactivated Wnt signalling. This causes hyperproliferation and reduced sensitivity to chemotherapy, but whether these mutated stem cells are sensitive to ER stress induced differentiation remains unknown. Here we examined this by generating mice in which both Apc and ER stress repressor chaperone Grp78 can be conditionally deleted from the intestinal epithelium. For molecular studies, we used intestinal organoids derived from these mice. Homozygous loss of Apc alone resulted in crypt elongation, activation of the Wnt signature and accumulation of intestinal epithelial stem cells, as expected. This phenotype was however completely rescued on activation of ER stress by additional deletion of Grp78. In these Apc-Grp78 double mutant animals, stem cells were rapidly lost and repopulation occurred by non-mutant cells that had escaped recombination, suggesting that Apc-Grp78 double mutant stem cells had lost self-renewal capacity. Although in Apc-Grp78 double mutant mice the Wnt signature was lost, these intestines exhibited ubiquitous epithelial presence of nuclear β-catenin. This suggests that ER stress interferes with Wnt signalling downstream of nuclear β-catenin. In conclusion, our findings indicate that ER stress signalling results in loss of Apc mutated intestinal epithelial stem cells by interference with the Wnt signature. In contrast to many known inhibitors of Wnt signalling, ER stress acts downstream of β-catenin. Therefore, ER stress poses a promising target in colorectal cancers, which develop as a result of Wnt activating mutations.

  8. Generation of a TALEN-mediated, p63 knock-in in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Hayashi, Ryuhei; Quantock, Andrew J; Nishida, Kohji

    2017-12-01

    The expression of p63 in surface ectodermal cells during development of the cornea, skin, oral mucosa and olfactory placodes is integral to the process of cellular self-renewal and the maintenance of the epithelial stem cell status. Here, we used TALEN technology to generate a p63 knock-in (KI) human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cell line in which p63 expression can be visualized via enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression. The KI-hiPS cells maintained pluripotency and expressed the stem cell marker gene, ΔNp63α. They were also able to successfully differentiate into functional corneal epithelial cells as assessed by p63 expression in reconstructed corneal epithelium. This approach enables the tracing of p63-expressing cell lineages throughout epithelial development, and represents a promising application in the field of stem cell research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A supramolecular look at microenvironmental regulation of limbal epithelial stem cells and the differentiation of their progeny

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    Marcela Aldrovani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Various approaches have been taken to improve our knowledge of the microenvironmental regulation of limbal epithelial stem cells. Researchers have extensively investigated the roles of growth factors, survival factors, cytokines, enzymes, and permeable molecules secreted by the limbal cells. However, recent evidence suggests that stem cell fate (i.e., self-renewal or differentiation can also be influenced by biophysical and mechanical cues related to the supramolecular organization and the liquid crystalline (mesophase nature of the stromal extracellular matrix. These cues can be sensed by stem cells and transduced into intracellular biochemical and functional responses, a process known as mechanotransduction. The objective of this review is to offer perspectives on the supramolecular microenvironmental regulation of limbal epithelial stem cells and the differentiation of their progeny.

  10. The fate of epithelial cells in the human large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Gibson, P R

    1999-08-01

    One hundred and forty biopsies of the colon and rectum, collected during routine colonoscopies of 51 patients aged 19 to 74 years, were examined using light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that surface epithelial cells undergo apoptosis, passing through fenestrations in the basement membrane to where they enter the lamina propria and are taken up by macrophages; and it is hypothesized that apoptotic cells are carried through the fenestrations on a current of fluid. The study also found that epithelial cells positioned over the crypts are better attached and more robust than those more distant from the crypt opening; and it is further hypothesized that, after reaching the top of the crypts, some goblet cells cease secreting mucus and pass onto the surface compartment of absorptive cells. An unexpected finding was that the lower regions of the crypts commonly contain isolated necrotic colonocytes. Apoptotic cells were rarely observed in the crypt epithelium. The findings of this study support the "recycling" model of epithelial cell death in the surface compartment of the human colon.

  11. Invasion of Human Oral Epithelial Cells by Prevotella intermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Brian R.; Leung, K.-P.; Progulske-Fox, Ann

    1998-01-01

    Invasion of oral epithelial cells by pathogenic oral bacteria may represent an important virulence factor in the progression of periodontal disease. Here we report that a clinical isolate of Prevotella intermedia, strain 17, was found to invade a human oral epithelial cell line (KB), whereas P. intermedia 27, another clinical isolate, and P. intermedia 25611, the type strain, were not found to invade the cell line. Invasion was quantified by the recovery of viable bacteria following a standard antibiotic protection assay and observed by electron microscopy. Cytochalasin D, cycloheximide, monodansylcadaverine, and low temperature (4°C) inhibited the internalization of P. intermedia 17. Antibodies raised against P. intermedia type C fimbriae and against whole cells inhibited invasion, but the anti-type-C-fimbria antibody inhibited invasion to a greater extent than the anti-whole-cell antibody. This work provides evidence that at least one strain of P. intermedia can invade an oral epithelial cell line and that the type C fimbriae and a cytoskeletal rearrangement are required for this invasion. PMID:9826397

  12. Determinants of the epithelial-muscular axis on embryonic stem cell-derived gut-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Takaki, Miyako; Misawa, Hiromi; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Sasahira, Tomonori; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Fujii, Kiyomu; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Dome-like structures with epithelial-muscular layers resembling the gut have been derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These domes have been reported to show spontaneous contractions and are called ES gut. In the present study, we examined the epithelial-muscular axis of these domes by detecting differentiation markers. A normal epithelial-muscular axis was exhibited in the domes with spontaneous motility, whereas the domes without spontaneous motility showed either an inverted or obscure axis. To investigate the factors affecting the epithelial-muscular axis, we examined the expression of hedgehog signaling factors in the domes. Expression of hedgehog family factors was detected in the epithelial components of the domes with motility, whereas this expression was inverted or obscure in the domes without motility. Out of the 25 domes, 10 of the 10 motility (+) domes showed a normal epithelial-muscular axis, whereas 14 of the 15 motility (-) domes lacked a normal epithelial-muscular axis. This implies that activin A upregulated the expression of sonic hedgehog and intestinal alkaline phosphatase in the embryoid bodies. These findings suggest that the motility of the ES gut depends on the domes' epithelial-muscular axis. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Human stem cells for craniomaxillofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Morteza; Kirkpatrick, William Niall Alexander; Cameron, Malcolm Gregor; Pauklin, Siim; Vallier, Ludovic

    2014-07-01

    Human stem cell research represents an exceptional opportunity for regenerative medicine and the surgical reconstruction of the craniomaxillofacial complex. The correct architecture and function of the vastly diverse tissues of this important anatomical region are critical for life supportive processes, the delivery of senses, social interaction, and aesthetics. Craniomaxillofacial tissue loss is commonly associated with inflammatory responses of the surrounding tissue, significant scarring, disfigurement, and psychological sequelae as an inevitable consequence. The in vitro production of fully functional cells for skin, muscle, cartilage, bone, and neurovascular tissue formation from human stem cells, may one day provide novel materials for the reconstructive surgeon operating on patients with both hard and soft tissue deficit due to cancer, congenital disease, or trauma. However, the clinical translation of human stem cell technology, including the application of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in novel regenerative therapies, faces several hurdles that must be solved to permit safe and effective use in patients. The basic biology of hPSCs remains to be fully elucidated and concerns of tumorigenicity need to be addressed, prior to the development of cell transplantation treatments. Furthermore, functional comparison of in vitro generated tissue to their in vivo counterparts will be necessary for confirmation of maturity and suitability for application in reconstructive surgery. Here, we provide an overview of human stem cells in disease modeling, drug screening, and therapeutics, while also discussing the application of regenerative medicine for craniomaxillofacial tissue deficit and surgical reconstruction.

  14. Sequestration of human cytomegalovirus by human renal and mammary epithelial cells

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    Twite, Nicolas [Institute for Medical Immunology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium); Andrei, Graciela [Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven (Belgium); Kummert, Caroline [ImmuneHealth, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium); Donner, Catherine [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erasme Hospital, Route de Lennik 808, 1070 Brussels (Belgium); Perez-Morga, David [Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Institut de Biologie et Médecine Moléculaires, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies (Belgium); De Vos, Rita [Pathology Department, U.Z. Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 12, Leuven (Belgium); Snoeck, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Snoeck@Rega.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven (Belgium); Marchant, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.marchant@ulb.ac.be [Institute for Medical Immunology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium); ImmuneHealth, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Urine and breast milk represent the main routes of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) transmission but the contribution of renal and mammary epithelial cells to viral excretion remains unclear. We observed that kidney and mammary epithelial cells were permissive to HCMV infection and expressed immediate early, early and late antigens within 72 h of infection. During the first 24 h after infection, high titers of infectious virus were measured associated to the cells and in culture supernatants, independently of de novo synthesis of virus progeny. This phenomenon was not observed in HCMV-infected fibroblasts and suggested the sequestration and the release of HCMV by epithelial cells. This hypothesis was supported by confocal and electron microscopy analyses. The sequestration and progressive release of HCMV by kidney and mammary epithelial cells may play an important role in the excretion of the virus in urine and breast milk and may thereby contribute to HCMV transmission. - Highlights: • Primary renal and mammary epithelial cells are permissive to HCMV infection. • HCMV is sequestered by epithelial cells and this phenomenon does not require viral replication. • HCMV sequestration by epithelial cells is reduced by antibodies and IFN-γ.

  15. Genome Editing in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Stevermer, Jared; Saha, Krishanu

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) enables the generation of reporter lines and knockout cell lines. Zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas9 technology have recently increased the efficiency of proper gene editing by creating double strand breaks (DSB) at defined sequences in the human genome. These systems typically use plasmids to transiently transcribe nucleases within the cell. Here, we describe the process for preparing hPSCs for transient expression of nucleases via electroporation and subsequent analysis to create genetically modified stem cell lines.

  16. Snail1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and tumor initiating stem cell characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Hien; Ding, Wei; Emerson, Dow; Rountree, C Bart

    2011-01-01

    Tumor initiating stem-like cells (TISCs) are a subset of neoplastic cells that possess distinct survival mechanisms and self-renewal characteristics crucial for tumor maintenance and propagation. The induction of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) by TGFβ has been recently linked to the acquisition of TISC characteristics in breast cancer. In HCC, a TISC and EMT phenotype correlates with a worse prognosis. In this work, our aim is to elucidate the underlying mechanism by which cells acquire tumor initiating characteristics after EMT. Gene and protein expression assays and Nanog-promoter luciferase reporter were utilized in epithelial and mesenchymal phenotype liver cancer cell lines. EMT was analyzed with migration/invasion assays. TISC characteristics were analyzed with tumor-sphere self-renewal and chemotherapy resistance assays. In vivo tumor assay was performed to investigate the role of Snail1 in tumor initiation. TGFβ induced EMT in epithelial cells through the up-regulation of Snail1 in Smad-dependent signaling. Mesenchymal liver cancer post-EMT demonstrates TISC characteristics such as tumor-sphere formation but are not resistant to cytotoxic therapy. The inhibition of Snail1 in mesenchymal cells results in decreased Nanog promoter luciferase activity and loss of self-renewal characteristics in vitro. These changes confirm the direct role of Snail1 in some TISC traits. In vivo, the down-regulation of Snail1 reduced tumor growth but was not sufficient to eliminate tumor initiation. In summary, TGFβ induces EMT and TISC characteristics through Snail1 and Nanog up-regulation. In mesenchymal cells post-EMT, Snail1 directly regulates Nanog expression, and loss of Snail1 regulates tumor growth without affecting tumor initiation

  17. Aging effects on intestinal homeostasis associated with expansion and dysfunction of intestinal epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorefield, Emily C; Andres, Sarah F; Blue, R Eric; Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Mah, Amanda T; Santoro, M Agostina; Ding, Shengli

    2017-08-29

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) are critical to maintain intestinal epithelial function and homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that aging promotes IESC dysfunction using old (18-22 months) and young (2-4 month) Sox9-EGFP IESC reporter mice. Different levels of Sox9-EGFP permit analyses of active IESC (Sox9-EGFP Low ), activatable reserve IESC and enteroendocrine cells (Sox9-EGFP High ), Sox9-EGFP Sublow progenitors, and Sox9-EGFP Negative differentiated lineages. Crypt-villus morphology, cellular composition and apoptosis were measured by histology. IESC function was assessed by crypt culture, and proliferation by flow cytometry and histology. Main findings were confirmed in Lgr5-EGFP and Lgr5-LacZ mice. Aging-associated gene expression changes were analyzed by Fluidigm mRNA profiling. Crypts culture from old mice yielded fewer and less complex enteroids. Histology revealed increased villus height and Paneth cells per crypt in old mice. Old mice showed increased numbers and hyperproliferation of Sox9-EGFP Low IESC and Sox9-EGFP High cells. Cleaved caspase-3 staining demonstrated increased apoptotic cells in crypts and villi of old mice. Gene expression profiling revealed aging-associated changes in mRNAs associated with cell cycle, oxidative stress and apoptosis specifically in IESC. These findings provide new, direct evidence for aging associated IESC dysfunction, and define potential biomarkers and targets for translational studies to assess and maintain IESC function during aging.

  18. Illustration of extensive extracellular matrix at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minuth Will W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates to treat diseased renal parenchyma. However, implanted stem/progenitor cells are exposed to a harmful atmosphere of degenerating parenchyma. To minimize hampering effects after an implantation investigations are in progress to administer these cells within an artificial polyester interstitum supporting survival. Learning from nature the renal stem/progenitor cell niche appears as a valuable model. At this site epithelial stem/progenitor cells within the collecting duct ampulla face mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Both cell types do not have close contact but are separated by a wide interstitium. Methods To analyze extracellular matrix in this particular interstitium, special contrasting for transmission electron microscopy was performed. Kidneys of neonatal rabbits were fixed in solutions containing glutaraldehyde (GA or in combination with cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red and tannic acid. Results GA revealed a basal lamina at the ampulla and a bright but inconspicuously looking interstitial space. In contrast, GA containing cupromeronic blue exhibits numerous proteoglycan braces lining from the ampulla towards the interstitial space. GA containing ruthenium red or tannic acid demonstrates clouds of extracellular matrix protruding from the basal lamina of the ampulla to the surface of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Conclusions The actual data show that the interstitium between epithelial and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells contains much more and up to date unknown extracellular matrix than earlier observed by classical GA fixation.

  19. Expression of stem cell markers in the human fetal kidney.

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    Sally Metsuyanim

    Full Text Available In the human fetal kidney (HFK self-renewing stem cells residing in the metanephric mesenchyme (MM/blastema are induced to form all cell types of the nephron till 34(th week of gestation. Definition of useful markers is crucial for the identification of HFK stem cells. Because wilms' tumor, a pediatric renal cancer, initiates from retention of renal stem cells, we hypothesized that surface antigens previously up-regulated in microarrays of both HFK and blastema-enriched stem-like wilms' tumor xenografts (NCAM, ACVRIIB, DLK1/PREF, GPR39, FZD7, FZD2, NTRK2 are likely to be relevant markers. Comprehensive profiling of these putative and of additional stem cell markers (CD34, CD133, c-Kit, CD90, CD105, CD24 in mid-gestation HFK was performed using immunostaining and FACS in conjunction with EpCAM, an epithelial surface marker that is absent from the MM and increases along nephron differentiation and hence can be separated into negative, dim or bright fractions. No marker was specifically localized to the MM. Nevertheless, FZD7 and NTRK2 were preferentially localized to the MM and emerging tubules (50% of HFK cells and predominantly co-express EpCAM(bright, indicating they are mostly markers of differentiation. Furthermore, localization of NCAM exclusively in the MM and in its nephron progenitor derivatives but also in stroma and the expression pattern of significantly elevated renal stem/progenitor genes Six2, Wt1, Cited1, and Sall1 in NCAM(+EpCAM(- and to a lesser extent in NCAM(+EpCAM(+ fractions confirmed regional identity of cells and assisted us in pinpointing the presence of subpopulations that are putative MM-derived progenitor cells (NCAM(+EpCAM(+FZD7(+, MM stem cells (NCAM(+EpCAM(-FZD7(+ or both (NCAM(+FZD7(+. These results and concepts provide a framework for developing cell selection strategies for human renal cell-based therapies.

  20. Stanniocalcin-1 regulates re-epithelialization in human keratinocytes.

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    Bonnie H Y Yeung

    Full Text Available Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1, a glycoprotein hormone, is believed to be involved in various biological processes such as inflammation, oxidative responses and cell migration. Riding on these emerging evidences, we hypothesized that STC1 may participate in the re-epithelialization during wound healing. Re-epithelialization is a critical step that involves keratinocyte lamellipodia (e-lam formation, followed by cell migration. In this study, staurosporine (STS treatment induced human keratinocyte (HaCaT e-lam formation on fibronectin matrix and migration via the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK, the surge of intracellular calcium level [Ca²⁺]i and the inactivation of Akt. In accompanied with these migratory features, a time- and dose-dependent increase in STC1 expression was detected. STC1 gene expression was found not the downstream target of FAK-signaling as illustrated by FAK inhibition using PF573228. The reduction of [Ca²⁺]i by BAPTA/AM blocked the STS-mediated keratinocyte migration and STC1 gene expression. Alternatively the increase of [Ca²⁺]i by ionomycin exerted promotional effect on STS-induced STC1 gene expression. The inhibition of Akt by SH6 and GSK3β by lithium chloride (LiCl could respectively induce and inhibit the STS-mediated e-lam formation, cell migration and STC1 gene expression. The STS-mediated e-lam formation and cell migration were notably hindered or induced respectively by STC1 knockdown or overexpression. This notion was further supported by the scratched wound assay. Collectively the findings provide the first evidence that STC1 promotes re-epithelialization in wound healing.

  1. Stanniocalcin-1 regulates re-epithelialization in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Bonnie H Y; Wong, Chris K C

    2011-01-01

    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1), a glycoprotein hormone, is believed to be involved in various biological processes such as inflammation, oxidative responses and cell migration. Riding on these emerging evidences, we hypothesized that STC1 may participate in the re-epithelialization during wound healing. Re-epithelialization is a critical step that involves keratinocyte lamellipodia (e-lam) formation, followed by cell migration. In this study, staurosporine (STS) treatment induced human keratinocyte (HaCaT) e-lam formation on fibronectin matrix and migration via the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), the surge of intracellular calcium level [Ca²⁺]i and the inactivation of Akt. In accompanied with these migratory features, a time- and dose-dependent increase in STC1 expression was detected. STC1 gene expression was found not the downstream target of FAK-signaling as illustrated by FAK inhibition using PF573228. The reduction of [Ca²⁺]i by BAPTA/AM blocked the STS-mediated keratinocyte migration and STC1 gene expression. Alternatively the increase of [Ca²⁺]i by ionomycin exerted promotional effect on STS-induced STC1 gene expression. The inhibition of Akt by SH6 and GSK3β by lithium chloride (LiCl) could respectively induce and inhibit the STS-mediated e-lam formation, cell migration and STC1 gene expression. The STS-mediated e-lam formation and cell migration were notably hindered or induced respectively by STC1 knockdown or overexpression. This notion was further supported by the scratched wound assay. Collectively the findings provide the first evidence that STC1 promotes re-epithelialization in wound healing.

  2. HLA engineering of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riolobos, Laura; Hirata, Roli K; Turtle, Cameron J; Wang, Pei-Rong; Gornalusse, German G; Zavajlevski, Maja; Riddell, Stanley R; Russell, David W

    2013-06-01

    The clinical use of human pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives is limited by the rejection of transplanted cells due to differences in their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. This has led to the proposed use of histocompatible, patient-specific stem cells; however, the preparation of many different stem cell lines for clinical use is a daunting task. Here, we develop two distinct genetic engineering approaches that address this problem. First, we use a combination of gene targeting and mitotic recombination to derive HLA-homozygous embryonic stem cell (ESC) subclones from an HLA-heterozygous parental line. A small bank of HLA-homozygous stem cells with common haplotypes would match a significant proportion of the population. Second, we derive HLA class I-negative cells by targeted disruption of both alleles of the Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) gene in ESCs. Mixed leukocyte reactions and peptide-specific HLA-restricted CD8(+) T cell responses were reduced in class I-negative cells that had undergone differentiation in embryoid bodies. These B2M(-/-) ESCs could act as universal donor cells in applications where the transplanted cells do not express HLA class II genes. Both approaches used adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors for efficient gene targeting in the absence of potentially genotoxic nucleases, and produced pluripotent, transgene-free cell lines.

  3. HLA Engineering of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riolobos, Laura; Hirata, Roli K; Turtle, Cameron J; Wang, Pei-Rong; Gornalusse, German G; Zavajlevski, Maja; Riddell, Stanley R; Russell, David W

    2013-01-01

    The clinical use of human pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives is limited by the rejection of transplanted cells due to differences in their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. This has led to the proposed use of histocompatible, patient-specific stem cells; however, the preparation of many different stem cell lines for clinical use is a daunting task. Here, we develop two distinct genetic engineering approaches that address this problem. First, we use a combination of gene targeting and mitotic recombination to derive HLA-homozygous embryonic stem cell (ESC) subclones from an HLA-heterozygous parental line. A small bank of HLA-homozygous stem cells with common haplotypes would match a significant proportion of the population. Second, we derive HLA class I–negative cells by targeted disruption of both alleles of the Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) gene in ESCs. Mixed leukocyte reactions and peptide-specific HLA-restricted CD8+ T cell responses were reduced in class I–negative cells that had undergone differentiation in embryoid bodies. These B2M−/− ESCs could act as universal donor cells in applications where the transplanted cells do not express HLA class II genes. Both approaches used adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors for efficient gene targeting in the absence of potentially genotoxic nucleases, and produced pluripotent, transgene-free cell lines. PMID:23629003

  4. Mechanical compression attenuates normal human bronchial epithelial wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavia Nikita

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway narrowing associated with chronic asthma results in the transmission of injurious compressive forces to the bronchial epithelium and promotes the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and the denudation of the bronchial epithelium. While the individual effects of compression or denudation are well characterized, there is no data to elucidate how these cells respond to the application of mechanical compression in the presence of a compromised epithelial layer. Methods Accordingly, differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to one of four conditions: 1 unperturbed control cells, 2 single scrape wound only, 3 static compression (6 hours of 30 cmH2O, and 4 6 hours of static compression after a scrape wound. Following treatment, wound closure rate was recorded, media was assayed for mediator content and the cytoskeletal network was fluorescently labeled. Results We found that mechanical compression and scrape injury increase TGF-β2 and endothelin-1 secretion, while EGF content in the media is attenuated with both injury modes. The application of compression after a pre-existing scrape wound augmented these observations, and also decreased PGE2 media content. Compression stimulated depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and significantly attenuated wound healing. Closure rate was partially restored with the addition of exogenous PGE2, but not EGF. Conclusion Our results suggest that mechanical compression reduces the capacity of the bronchial epithelium to close wounds, and is, in part, mediated by PGE2 and a compromised cytoskeleton.

  5. CD73 Regulates Stemness and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Ovarian Cancer-Initiating Cells

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    Michela Lupia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Cancer-initiating cells (CICs have been implicated in tumor development and aggressiveness. In ovarian carcinoma (OC, CICs drive tumor formation, dissemination, and recurrence, as well as drug resistance, thus accounting for the high death-to-incidence ratio of this neoplasm. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie such a pathogenic role of ovarian CICs (OCICs remain elusive. Here, we have capitalized on primary cells either from OC or from its tissues of origin to obtain the transcriptomic profile associated with OCICs. Among the genes differentially expressed in OCICs, we focused on CD73, which encodes the membrane-associated 5′-ectonucleotidase. The genetic inactivation of CD73 in OC cells revealed that this molecule is causally involved in sphere formation and tumor initiation, thus emerging as a driver of OCIC function. Furthermore, functional inhibition of CD73 via either a chemical compound or a neutralizing antibody reduced sphere formation and tumorigenesis, highlighting the druggability of CD73 in the context of OCIC-directed therapies. The biological function of CD73 in OCICs required its enzymatic activity and involved adenosine signaling. Mechanistically, CD73 promotes the expression of stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated genes, implying a regulation of OCIC function at the transcriptional level. CD73, therefore, is involved in OCIC biology and may represent a therapeutic target for innovative treatments aimed at OC eradication. : Cavallaro et al. characterized the transcriptome of OCIC-enriched primary cultures and found CD73 as an upregulated gene. CD73 was then shown to regulate the expression of stemness and EMT-associated genes. The expression and function of CD73 in OCICs is required for tumor initiation, and CD73-targeted drugs decrease the rate of tumor take and inhibit cancer growth. Keywords: CD73, ovarian cancer, cancer-initiating cells, cancer stem cells, EMT, adenosine

  6. MUC-1-ESA+ progenitor cells in normal benign and malignant human breast epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xinquan; Li, Huixiang; Xu, Kejia; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2009-01-01

    The existence of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells has been demonstrated in MUC-1-/ ESA+ subpopulations of breast epithelial cells. However, knowledge about the expression and localization in benign and malignant breast lesions is unknown. Using a double-staining immunohistochemistry method, we investigated MUC-1-/ESA+ cells in 10 normal breast tissues, 49 cases with fibrocystic disease, 40 fibroadenomas, 36 invasive ductal carcinomas and the breast cancer ce...

  7. Normal and malignant epithelial cells with stem-like properties have an extended G2 cell cycle phase that is associated with apoptotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biddle Adrian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subsets of cells with stem-like properties have been previously isolated from human epithelial cancers and their resistance to apoptosis-inducing stimuli has been related to carcinoma recurrence and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents of cells with stem-like properties in both normal and malignant human epithelia. Methods Cells isolated from fresh human head and neck carcinomas (n = 11, cell lines derived from head and neck, prostate and breast human carcinomas (n = 7, and from normal human oral mucosa (n = 5, were exposed to various apoptosis-inducing stimuli (UV, Tumour Necrosis Factor, Cisplatin, Etoposide, and Neocarzinostatin. Flow cytometry for CD44 and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA expression, colony morphology, tumour sphere formation and rapid adherence assays were used to identify the subset of cells with stem-like properties. Apoptosis, cell cycle and expression of various cell cycle checkpoint proteins were assessed (Western Blot, qPCR. The role of G2-checkpoint regulators Chk1 and Chk2 was investigated by use of debromohymenialdisine (DBH and siRNA. Results In both cancer biopsies and carcinoma cell lines a subset of CD44high cells showed increased clonogenicity, a significantly lower rate of apoptosis, and a significantly higher proportion of cells in the G2-phase of the cell cycle. An inverse correlation between the percentage of cells in G2-phase and the rate of apoptosis was found. Pulse-chase with iododeoxyuridine (IdU demonstrated that CD44high carcinoma cells spent longer time in G2, even in un-treated controls. These cells expressed higher levels of G2 checkpoint proteins, and their release from G2 with BDH or Chk1 siRNA increased their rate of apoptosis. Low passage cultures of normal keratinocytes were also found to contain a subset of CD44high cells showing increased clonogenicity, and a similar pattern of G2-block

  8. Normal and malignant epithelial cells with stem-like properties have an extended G2 cell cycle phase that is associated with apoptotic resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Lisa J; Costea, Daniela Elena; Gammon, Luke; Fazil, Bilal; Biddle, Adrian; Mackenzie, Ian C

    2010-01-01

    Subsets of cells with stem-like properties have been previously isolated from human epithelial cancers and their resistance to apoptosis-inducing stimuli has been related to carcinoma recurrence and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents of cells with stem-like properties in both normal and malignant human epithelia. Cells isolated from fresh human head and neck carcinomas (n = 11), cell lines derived from head and neck, prostate and breast human carcinomas (n = 7), and from normal human oral mucosa (n = 5), were exposed to various apoptosis-inducing stimuli (UV, Tumour Necrosis Factor, Cisplatin, Etoposide, and Neocarzinostatin). Flow cytometry for CD44 and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA) expression, colony morphology, tumour sphere formation and rapid adherence assays were used to identify the subset of cells with stem-like properties. Apoptosis, cell cycle and expression of various cell cycle checkpoint proteins were assessed (Western Blot, qPCR). The role of G2-checkpoint regulators Chk1 and Chk2 was investigated by use of debromohymenialdisine (DBH) and siRNA. In both cancer biopsies and carcinoma cell lines a subset of CD44 high cells showed increased clonogenicity, a significantly lower rate of apoptosis, and a significantly higher proportion of cells in the G2-phase of the cell cycle. An inverse correlation between the percentage of cells in G2-phase and the rate of apoptosis was found. Pulse-chase with iododeoxyuridine (IdU) demonstrated that CD44 high carcinoma cells spent longer time in G2, even in un-treated controls. These cells expressed higher levels of G2 checkpoint proteins, and their release from G2 with BDH or Chk1 siRNA increased their rate of apoptosis. Low passage cultures of normal keratinocytes were also found to contain a subset of CD44 high cells showing increased clonogenicity, and a similar pattern of G2-block associated with apoptotic resistance. These data

  9. The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Nielsen, Helga Lind; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn

    2001-01-01

    The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that neopl...

  10. Regulation of potassium transport in human lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, Peter K; Warwar, Ronald; Brown, Thomas L; Adragna, Norma C

    2006-01-01

    The major K influx pathways and their response to thiol modification by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitors were characterized in human lens epithelial B3 (HLE-B3) cells with Rb as K congener. Ouabain (0.1 mM) and bumetanide (5 microM) discriminated between the Na/K pump ( approximately 35% of total Rb influx) and Na-K-2Cl cotransport (NKCC) ( approximately 50%). Cl-replacement with nitrate or sulfamate revealed 100 microM, activated the Na/K pump and abolished NKCC but did not affect KCC. The data suggest at least partial inverse regulation of KCC and NKCC in HLE-B3 cells by signaling cascades involving serine, threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation equilibria.

  11. Some Ethical Concerns About Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue Liang

    2016-10-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells can be obtained from somatic cells, and their derivation does not require destruction of embryos, thus avoiding ethical problems arising from the destruction of human embryos. This type of stem cell may provide an important tool for stem cell therapy, but it also results in some ethical concerns. It is likely that abnormal reprogramming occurs in the induction of human induced pluripotent stem cells, and that the stem cells generate tumors in the process of stem cell therapy. Human induced pluripotent stem cells should not be used to clone human beings, to produce human germ cells, nor to make human embryos. Informed consent should be obtained from patients in stem cell therapy.

  12. Culture models of human mammary epithelial cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    2000-11-10

    Human pre-malignant breast diseases, particularly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)3 already display several of the aberrant phenotypes found in primary breast cancers, including chromosomal abnormalities, telomerase activity, inactivation of the p53 gene and overexpression of some oncogenes. Efforts to model early breast carcinogenesis in human cell cultures have largely involved studies in vitro transformation of normal finite lifespan human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to immortality and malignancy. We present a model of HMEC immortal transformation consistent with the know in vivo data. This model includes a recently described, presumably epigenetic process, termed conversion, which occurs in cells that have overcome stringent replicative senescence and are thus able to maintain proliferation with critically short telomeres. The conversion process involves reactivation of telomerase activity, and acquisition of good uniform growth in the absence and presence of TFGB. We propose th at overcoming the proliferative constraints set by senescence, and undergoing conversion, represent key rate-limiting steps in human breast carcinogenesis, and occur during early stage breast cancer progression.

  13. Depleted uranium induces neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; LaCerte, Carolyne; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-02-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) is commonly used in military armor and munitions, and thus, exposure of soldiers and noncombatants is frequent and widespread. Previous studies have shown that DU has both chemical and radiological toxicity and that the primary route of exposure of DU to humans is through inhalation and ingestion. However, there is limited research information on the potential carcinogenicity of DU in human bronchial cells. Accordingly, we determined the neoplastic transforming ability of particulate DU to human bronchial epithelial cells (BEP2D). We observed the loss of contact inhibition and anchorage independent growth in cells exposed to DU after 24 h. We also characterized these DU-induced transformed cell lines and found that 40% of the cell lines exhibit alterations in plating efficiency and no significant changes in the cytotoxic response to DU. Cytogenetic analyses showed that 53% of the DU-transformed cell lines possess a hypodiploid phenotype. These data indicate that human bronchial cells are transformed by DU and exhibit significant chromosome instability consistent with a neoplastic phenotype.

  14. Phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of fullerol in human lens epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Joan E.; Wielgus, Albert R.; Boyes, William K.; Andley, Usha; Chignell, Colin F.

    2008-01-01

    The water-soluble, hydroxylated fullerene [fullerol, nano-C 60 (OH) 22-26 ] has several clinical applications including use as a drug carrier to bypass the blood ocular barriers. We have assessed fullerol's potential ocular toxicity by measuring its cytotoxicity and phototoxicity induced by UVA and visible light in vitro with human lens epithelial cells (HLE B-3). Accumulation of nano-C 60 (OH) 22-26 in the cells was confirmed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm and cell viability estimated using MTS and LDH assays. Fullerol was cytotoxic to HLE B-3 cells maintained in the dark at concentrations higher than 20 μM. Exposure to either UVA or visible light in the presence of > 5 μM fullerol-induced phototoxic damage. When cells were pretreated with non-toxic antioxidants: 20 μM lutein, 1 mM N-acetyl cysteine, or 1 mM L-ascorbic acid prior to irradiation, only the singlet oxygen quencher-lutein significantly protected against fullerol photodamage. Apoptosis was observed in lens cells treated with fullerol whether or not the cells were irradiated, in the order UVA > visible light > dark. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that in the presence of the endogenous lens protein α-crystallin, large aggregates of fullerol were reduced. In conclusion, fullerol is both cytotoxic and phototoxic to human lens epithelial cells. Although the acute toxicity of water-soluble nano-C 60 (OH) 22-26 is low, these compounds are retained in the body for long periods, raising concern for their chronic toxic effect. Before fullerols are used to deliver drugs to the eye, they should be tested for photo- and cytotoxicity in vivo

  15. PKH26 staining defines distinct subsets of normal human colon epithelial cells at different maturation stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pastò

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colon crypts are characterized by a hierarchy of cells distributed along the crypt axis. Aim of this paper was to develop an in vitro system for separation of epithelial cell subsets in different maturation stages from normal human colon. METHODOLOGY AND MAJOR FINDINGS: Dissociated colonic epithelial cells were stained with PKH26, which allows identification of distinct populations based on their proliferation rate, and cultured in vitro in the absence of serum. The cytofluorimetric expression of CK20, Msi-1 and Lgr5 was studied. The mRNA levels of several stemness-associated genes were also compared in cultured cell populations and in three colon crypt populations isolated by microdissection. A PKH(pos population survived in culture and formed spheroids; this population included subsets with slow (PKH(high and rapid (PKH(low replicative rates. Molecular analysis revealed higher mRNA levels of both Msi-1 and Lgr-5 in PKH(high cells; by cytofluorimetric analysis, Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells were only found within PKH(high cells, whereas Msi-1(+/Lgr5(- cells were also observed in the PKH(low population. As judged by qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of several stemness-associated markers (Bmi-1, EphB2, EpCAM, ALDH1 was highly enriched in Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells. While CK20 expression was mainly found in PKH(low and PKH(neg cells, a small PKH(high subset co-expressed both CK20 and Msi-1, but not Lgr5; cells with these properties also expressed Mucin, and could be identified in vivo in colon crypts. These results mirrored those found in cells isolated from different crypt portions by microdissection, and based on proliferation rates and marker expression they allowed to define several subsets at different maturation stages: PKH(high/Lgr5(+/Msi-1(+/CK20(-, PKH(high/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/CK20(+, PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/Ck20(-, and PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(-/CK20(+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the possibility of deriving in vitro, without any

  16. CXCL9 Regulates TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, Sarah L; Walsh, Sinead M; Fabre, Aurélie; Reviriego, Carlota; Worrell, Julie C; Counihan, Ian P; Lumsden, Robert V; Cramton-Barnes, Jennifer; Belperio, John A; Donnelly, Seamas C; Boylan, Denise; Marchal-Sommé, Joëlle; Kane, Rosemary; Keane, Michael P

    2015-09-15

    Epithelial to mesenchymal cell transition (EMT), whereby fully differentiated epithelial cells transition to a mesenchymal phenotype, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). CXCR3 and its ligands are recognized to play a protective role in pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the presence and extent of EMT and CXCR3 expression in human IPF surgical lung biopsies and assessed whether CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL9 modulate EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. Coexpression of the epithelial marker thyroid transcription factor-1 and the mesenchymal marker α-smooth muscle actin and CXCR3 expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining of IPF surgical lung biopsies. Epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence in human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells treated with TGF-β1 and CXCL9, with Smad2, Smad3, and Smad7 expression and cellular localization examined by Western blotting. We found that significantly more cells were undergoing EMT in fibrotic versus normal areas of lung in IPF surgical lung biopsy samples. CXCR3 was expressed by type II pneumocytes and fibroblasts in fibrotic areas in close proximity to cells undergoing EMT. In vitro, CXCL9 abrogated TGF-β1-induced EMT. A decrease in TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 occurred with CXCL9 treatment. This was associated with increased shuttling of Smad7 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it inhibits Smad phosphorylation. This suggests a role for EMT in the pathogenesis of IPF and provides a novel mechanism for the inhibitory effects of CXCL9 on TGF-β1-induced EMT. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Medium Promotes Proliferation and Migration of Alveolar Epithelial Cells under Septic Conditions In Vitro via the JNK-P38 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC based therapies may be useful for treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We investigated the impact of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived MSC (hUC-MSC secreted factors on alveolar epithelial cells under septic conditions and determined the relevant intracellular signaling pathways. Methods: Human alveolar epithelial cells (AEC and primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC were subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS with or without the presence of hUC-MSC-conditioned medium (CM. Proliferation and migration of AEC and SAEC were determined via an MTT assay, a wound healing assay and a transwell migration assay (only for AEC. Protein phosphorylation was determined by western blot and the experiments were repeated in presence of small-molecule inhibitors. The hMSC-secretory proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry. Results: MSC-CM enhanced proliferation and migration. Activation of JNK and P38, but not ERK, was required for the proliferation and migration of AEC and SAEC. Pretreatment of AEC or SAEC with SP600125, an inhibitor of JNK1 or SB200358, an inhibitor of P38, significantly reduced cell proliferation and migration. An array of proteins including TGF-beta receptor type-1, TGF-beta receptor type-2, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 which influencing the proliferation and migration of AEC and SAEC were detected in MSC-CM. Conclusion: Our data suggest MSC promote epithelial cell repair through releasing a repertoire of paracrine factors via activation of JNK and P38 MAPK.

  18. Tacrolimus Modulates TGF-β Signaling to Induce Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Bennett

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a process which describes the trans-differentiation of epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells, is pivotal in stem cell behavior, development and wound healing, as well as contributing to disease processes including fibrosis and cancer progression. Maintenance immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs has become routine management for renal transplant patient, but unfortunately the nephrotoxicity of these drugs has been well documented. HK-2 cells were exposed to Tacrolimus (FK506 and EMT markers were assessed by RT PCR and western blot. FK506 effects on TGF-β mRNA were assessed by RT PCR and TGF-β secretion was measured by ELISA. The impact of increased TGF-β secretion on Smad signaling pathways was investigated. The impact of inhibition of TGF-β signaling on EMT processes was assessed by scratch-wound assay. The results presented in this study suggest that FK506 initiates EMT processes in the HK-2 cell line, with altered expression of epithelial and myofibroblast markers evident. Additionally, the study demonstrates that FK506 activation of the TGF-β/ SMAD pathways is an essential step in the EMT process. Overall the results demonstrate that EMT is heavily involved in renal fibrosis associated with CNI nephrotoxicity.

  19. Modeling human infertility with pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human fertility is dependent upon the correct establishment and differentiation of the germline. This is because no other cell type in the body is capable of passing a genome and epigenome from parent to child. Terminally differentiated germline cells in the adult testis and ovary are called gametes. However, the initial specification of germline cells occurs in the embryo around the time of gastrulation. Most of our knowledge regarding the cell and molecular events that govern human germline specification involves extrapolating scientific principles from model organisms, most notably the mouse. However, recent work using next generation sequencing, gene editing and differentiation of germline cells from pluripotent stem cells has revealed that the core molecular mechanisms that regulate human germline development are different from rodents. Here, we will discuss the major molecular pathways required for human germline differentiation and how pluripotent stem cells have revolutionized our ability to study the earliest steps in human embryonic lineage specification in order to understand human fertility.

  20. Establishment of a Novel Lingual Organoid Culture System: Generation of Organoids Having Mature Keratinized Epithelium from Adult Epithelial Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kanno, Shohei; Tokuyama, Yoko; Komai, Yoshihiro; Ohe, Shuichi; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Omachi, Taichi; Ueno, Hiroo

    2013-11-01

    Despite the strong need for the establishment of a lingual epithelial cell culture system, a simple and convenient culture method has not yet been established. Here, we report the establishment of a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Histological analyses showed that the generated organoids had both a stratified squamous epithelial cell layer and a stratum corneum. Very recently, we showed via a multicolor lineage tracing method that Bmi1-positive stem cells exist at the base of the epithelial basal layer in the interpapillary pit. Using our new culture system, we found that organoids could be generated by single Bmi1-positive stem cells and that in the established organoids, multiple Bmi1-positive stem cells were generated at the outermost layer. Moreover, we observed that organoids harvested at an early point in culture could be engrafted and maturate in the tongue of recipient mice and that the organoids generated from carcinogen-treated mice had an abnormal morphology. Thus, this culture system presents valuable settings for studying not only the regulatory mechanisms of lingual epithelium but also lingual regeneration and carcinogenesis.

  1. Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells to Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: An Approach Toward Retinal Degenerative Diseases Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Parvini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells as the cells with a capacity for self-renewal and differentiation into various specificcell types have been highly regarded in regenerative medicine studies. To repair the eye disease damages, thedifferentiation into retinal pigment epithelial cells of pluripotent stem cells has gained great importance inrecent decades because the inappropriate function of these cells is the main cause of degenerative diseases suchas the age-related macular degeneration. Millions of people in the world suffer this disease.To restore the damaged cells and, finally, to improve the vision, numerous studies have been conducted on usingpluripotent stem cells, their differentiation into retinal pigment epithelial cells, and finally, their applicationin cell therapy. Based on this, many researchers have attempted to produce highly efficient retinal pigmentepithelial cells, such that they show a proper function after transplant, along with the host cells. In this reviewarticle, the importance and the role of pigment epithelial cells, as well as, the studies on the in vitro productionof these cells were examined

  2. CD73 Regulates Stemness and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Ovarian Cancer-Initiating Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Michela; Angiolini, Francesca; Bertalot, Giovanni; Freddi, Stefano; Sachsenmeier, Kris F; Chisci, Elisa; Kutryb-Zajac, Barbara; Confalonieri, Stefano; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Giovannoni, Roberto; Colombo, Nicoletta; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Cavallaro, Ugo

    2018-04-10

    Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) have been implicated in tumor development and aggressiveness. In ovarian carcinoma (OC), CICs drive tumor formation, dissemination, and recurrence, as well as drug resistance, thus accounting for the high death-to-incidence ratio of this neoplasm. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie such a pathogenic role of ovarian CICs (OCICs) remain elusive. Here, we have capitalized on primary cells either from OC or from its tissues of origin to obtain the transcriptomic profile associated with OCICs. Among the genes differentially expressed in OCICs, we focused on CD73, which encodes the membrane-associated 5'-ectonucleotidase. The genetic inactivation of CD73 in OC cells revealed that this molecule is causally involved in sphere formation and tumor initiation, thus emerging as a driver of OCIC function. Furthermore, functional inhibition of CD73 via either a chemical compound or a neutralizing antibody reduced sphere formation and tumorigenesis, highlighting the druggability of CD73 in the context of OCIC-directed therapies. The biological function of CD73 in OCICs required its enzymatic activity and involved adenosine signaling. Mechanistically, CD73 promotes the expression of stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated genes, implying a regulation of OCIC function at the transcriptional level. CD73, therefore, is involved in OCIC biology and may represent a therapeutic target for innovative treatments aimed at OC eradication. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Oksuz, Betul Akgol [Genome Technology Center, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Shen, Steven [Center for Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten's ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased migration, xenograft growth in nude mice, and the activation of multiple cancer-related pathways in transformed clones as determined by RNA sequencing. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) exposed to tungsten developed carcinogenic properties. In a soft agar assay, tungsten-treated cells formed more colonies than controls and the tungsten-transformed clones formed tumors in nude mice. RNA-sequencing data revealed that the tungsten-transformed clones altered the expression of many cancer-associated genes when compared to control clones. Genes involved in lung cancer, leukemia, and general cancer genes were deregulated by tungsten. Taken together, our data show the carcinogenic potential of tungsten. Further tests are needed, including in vivo and human studies, in order to validate tungsten as a carcinogen to humans. - Highlights: • Tungsten (W) induces cell transformation and increases migration in vitro. • W increases xenograft growth in nude mice. • W altered the expression of cancer-related genes such as those involved in leukemia. • Some of the dysregulated leukemia genes include, CD74, CTGF, MST4, and HOXB5. • For the first time, data is presented that demonstrates tungsten's carcinogenic potential.

  4. Human amnion epithelial cells expressing HLA-G as novel cell-based treatment for liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Stephen C; Gramignoli, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Despite routine liver transplantation and supporting medical therapies, thousands of patients currently wait for an organ and there is an unmet need for more refined and widely available regenerative strategies to treat liver diseases. Cell transplants attempt to maximize the potential for repair and/or regeneration in liver and other organs. Over 40years of laboratory pre-clinical research and 25years of clinical procedures have shown that certain liver diseases can be treated by the infusion of isolated cells (hepatocyte transplant). However, like organ transplants, hepatocyte transplant suffers from a paucity of tissues useful for cell production. Alternative sources have been investigated, yet with limited success. The tumorigenic potential of pluripotent stem cells together with their primitive level of hepatic differentiation, have limited the use of stem cell populations. Stem cell sources from human placenta, and the amnion tissue in particular are receiving renewed interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Unlike pluripotent stem cells, human amnion epithelial (AE) cells are easily available without ethical or religious concerns; they do not express telomerase and are not immortal or tumorigenic when transplanted. In addition, AE cells have been reported to express genes normally expressed in mature liver, when transplanted into the liver. Moreover, because of the possibility of an immune-privileged status related to their expression of HLA-G, it might be possible to transplant human AE cells without immunosuppression of the recipient. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Krüppel-like factor 5 is essential for proliferation and survival of mouse intestinal epithelial stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandayam O. Nandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5 is a pro-proliferative transcription factor that is expressed in dividing epithelial cells of the intestinal crypt. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 has been identified as a stem cell marker in both small intestinal and colonic epithelial cells. To determine whether KLF5 regulates proliferation of intestinal stem cells, we investigated the effects of Klf5 deletion specifically from the intestinal stem cells in adult mice. Mice with inducible intestinal stem cell-specific deletion of Klf5 (Lgr5-Klf5fl/fl were injected with tamoxifen for 5 consecutive days to induce Lgr5-driven Cre expression. Intestinal and colonic tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry at various time points up to 112 days following start of tamoxifen treatment. Klf5 is co-localized in the crypt-based columnar (CBC cells that express Lgr5. By 11 days following the start of tamoxifen treatment, Lgr5-positive crypts from which Klf5 was deleted exhibited a loss of proliferation that was accompanied by an increase in apoptosis. Beginning at 14 days following the start of tamoxifen treatment, both Klf5 expression and proliferation were re-established in the transit-amplifying epithelial cells but not in the Lgr5-positive CBC cells. By 112 days post-treatment, up to 90% of the Lgr5-positive cells from which Klf5 was deleted were lost from the intestinal crypts. These results indicate a critical role for KLF5 in the survival and maintenance of intestinal stem cells.

  6. Long-term expansion of epithelial organoids from human colon, adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and Barrett's epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, T.; Stange, D.E.; Ferrante, M.; Vries, R.G.J.; van Es, J.H.; van den Brink, S.; Houdt, W.J.; Pronk, A.; van Gorp, J.; Siersema, P.D.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We previously established long-term culture conditions under which single crypts or stem cells derived from mouse small intestine expand over long periods. The expanding crypts undergo multiple crypt fission events, simultaneously generating villus-like epithelial domains that

  7. Plasma polymer-coated contact lenses for the culture and transfer of corneal epithelial cells in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karl David; Low, Suet; Mariappan, Indumathi; Abberton, Keren Maree; Short, Robert; Zhang, Hong; Maddileti, Savitri; Sangwan, Virender; Steele, David; Daniell, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Extensive damage to the limbal region of the cornea leads to a severe form of corneal blindness termed as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Whereas most cases of corneal opacity can be treated with full thickness corneal transplants, LSCD requires stem cell transplantation for successful ocular surface reconstruction. Current treatments for LSCD using limbal stem cell transplantation involve the use of murine NIH 3T3 cells and human amniotic membranes as culture substrates, which pose the threat of transmission of animal-derived pathogens and donor tissue-derived cryptic infections. In this study, we aimed to produce surface modified therapeutic contact lenses for the culture and delivery of corneal epithelial cells for the treatment of LSCD. This approach avoids the possibility of suture-related complications and is completely synthetic. We used plasma polymerization to deposit acid functional groups onto the lenses at various concentrations. Each surface was tested for its suitability to promote corneal epithelial cell adhesion, proliferation, retention of stem cells, and differentiation and found that acid-based chemistries promoted better cell adhesion and proliferation. We also found that the lenses coated with a higher percentage of acid functional groups resulted in a higher number of cells transferred onto the corneal wound bed in rabbit models of LSCD. Immunohistochemistry of the recipient cornea confirmed the presence of autologous, transplanted 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells. Hematoxylin staining has also revealed the presence of a stratified epithelium at 26 days post-transplantation. This study provides the first evidence for in vivo transfer and survival of cells transplanted from a contact lens to the wounded corneal surface. It also proposes the possibility of using plasma polymer-coated contact lenses with high acid functional groups as substrates for the culture and transfer of limbal cells in the treatment of LSCD.

  8. A taxonomy of epithelial human cancer and their metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Moor Bart

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has allowed to molecularly characterize many different cancer sites. This technology has the potential to individualize therapy and to discover new drug targets. However, due to technological differences and issues in standardized sample collection no study has evaluated the molecular profile of epithelial human cancer in a large number of samples and tissues. Additionally, it has not yet been extensively investigated whether metastases resemble their tissue of origin or tissue of destination. Methods We studied the expression profiles of a series of 1566 primary and 178 metastases by unsupervised hierarchical clustering. The clustering profile was subsequently investigated and correlated with clinico-pathological data. Statistical enrichment of clinico-pathological annotations of groups of samples was investigated using Fisher exact test. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA and DAVID functional enrichment analysis were used to investigate the molecular pathways. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests were used to investigate prognostic significance of gene signatures. Results Large clusters corresponding to breast, gastrointestinal, ovarian and kidney primary tissues emerged from the data. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma clustered together with follicular differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which supports recent morphological descriptions of thyroid follicular carcinoma-like tumors in the kidney and suggests that they represent a subtype of chromophobe carcinoma. We also found an expression signature identifying primary tumors of squamous cell histology in multiple tissues. Next, a subset of ovarian tumors enriched with endometrioid histology clustered together with endometrium tumors, confirming that they share their etiopathogenesis, which strongly differs from serous ovarian tumors. In addition, the clustering of colon and breast tumors correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics

  9. Niclosamide inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor growth in lapatinib-resistant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjun; Chen, Xiaosong; Ward, Toby; Mao, Yan; Bockhorn, Jessica; Liu, Xiaofei; Wang, Gen; Pegram, Mark; Shen, Kunwei

    2016-02-01

    Acquired resistance to lapatinib, a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 kinase inhibitor, remains a clinical problem for women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer, as metastasis is commonly observed in these patients. Niclosamide, an anti-helminthic agent, has recently been shown to exhibit cytotoxicity to tumor cells with stem-like characteristics. This study was designed to identify the mechanisms underlying lapatinib resistance and to determine whether niclosamide inhibits lapatinib resistance by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Here, two human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer cell lines, SKBR3 and BT474, were exposed to increasing concentrations of lapatinib to establish lapatinib-resistant cultures. Lapatinib-resistant SKBR3 and BT474 cells exhibited up-regulation of the phenotypic epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers Snail, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin, accompanied by activation of nuclear factor-кB and Src and a concomitant increase in stem cell marker expression (CD44(high)/CD24(low)), compared to naive lapatinib-sensitive SKBR3 and BT474 cells, respectively. Interestingly, niclosamide reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition, induced apoptosis and inhibited cell growth by perturbing aberrant signaling pathway activation in lapatinib-resistant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cells. The ability of niclosamide to alleviate stem-like phenotype development and invasion was confirmed. Collectively, our results demonstrate that lapatinib resistance correlates with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and that niclosamide inhibits lapatinib-resistant cell viability and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These findings suggest a role of niclosamide or derivatives optimized for more favorable bioavailability not only in reversing lapatinib resistance but also in reducing metastatic potential during the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor

  10. Fluorescent labelling of intestinal epithelial cells reveals independent long-lived intestinal stem cells in a crypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, Nobukatsu; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Hayashi, Ryohei; Fukushima, Keita; Hibiya, Shuji; Fukuda, Masayoshi; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Yui, Shiro; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lentivirus mixed with Matrigel enables direct infection of intestinal organoids. • Our original approach allows the marking of a single stem cell in a crypt. • Time-lapse imaging shows the dynamics of a single stem cell. • Our lentivirus transgene system demonstrates plural long-lived stem cells in a crypt. - Abstract: Background and aims: The dynamics of intestinal stem cells are crucial for regulation of intestinal function and maintenance. Although crypt stem cells have been identified in the intestine by genetic marking methods, identification of plural crypt stem cells has not yet been achieved as they are visualised in the same colour. Methods: Intestinal organoids were transferred into Matrigel® mixed with lentivirus encoding mCherry. The dynamics of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using time-lapse imaging, and the localisation of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using 3D immunofluorescence. Results: We established an original method for the introduction of a transgene into an organoid generated from mouse small intestine that resulted in continuous fluorescence of the mCherry protein in a portion of organoid cells. Three-dimensional analysis using confocal microscopy showed a single mCherry-positive cell in an organoid crypt that had been cultured for >1 year, which suggested the presence of long-lived mCherry-positive and -negative stem cells in the same crypt. Moreover, a single mCherry-positive stem cell in a crypt gave rise to both crypt base columnar cells and transit amplifying cells. Each mCherry-positive and -negative cell contributed to the generation of organoids. Conclusions: The use of our original lentiviral transgene system to mark individual organoid crypt stem cells showed that long-lived plural crypt stem cells might independently serve as intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of a completely functional villus

  11. Fluorescent labelling of intestinal epithelial cells reveals independent long-lived intestinal stem cells in a crypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horita, Nobukatsu [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kiichiro, E-mail: kii.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Therapeutics for Gastrointestinal Diseases, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Hayashi, Ryohei [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Hiroshima University (Japan); Fukushima, Keita; Hibiya, Shuji; Fukuda, Masayoshi; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Yui, Shiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Okamoto, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Department of Advanced Therapeutics for Gastrointestinal Diseases, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Watanabe, Mamoru [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Lentivirus mixed with Matrigel enables direct infection of intestinal organoids. • Our original approach allows the marking of a single stem cell in a crypt. • Time-lapse imaging shows the dynamics of a single stem cell. • Our lentivirus transgene system demonstrates plural long-lived stem cells in a crypt. - Abstract: Background and aims: The dynamics of intestinal stem cells are crucial for regulation of intestinal function and maintenance. Although crypt stem cells have been identified in the intestine by genetic marking methods, identification of plural crypt stem cells has not yet been achieved as they are visualised in the same colour. Methods: Intestinal organoids were transferred into Matrigel® mixed with lentivirus encoding mCherry. The dynamics of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using time-lapse imaging, and the localisation of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using 3D immunofluorescence. Results: We established an original method for the introduction of a transgene into an organoid generated from mouse small intestine that resulted in continuous fluorescence of the mCherry protein in a portion of organoid cells. Three-dimensional analysis using confocal microscopy showed a single mCherry-positive cell in an organoid crypt that had been cultured for >1 year, which suggested the presence of long-lived mCherry-positive and -negative stem cells in the same crypt. Moreover, a single mCherry-positive stem cell in a crypt gave rise to both crypt base columnar cells and transit amplifying cells. Each mCherry-positive and -negative cell contributed to the generation of organoids. Conclusions: The use of our original lentiviral transgene system to mark individual organoid crypt stem cells showed that long-lived plural crypt stem cells might independently serve as intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of a completely functional villus.

  12. Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying, E-mail: ying.chen@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V.R. [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Knott, Jason G. [Developmental Epigenetics Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University (United States); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Epithelial-like phenotype of trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells. •Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells exhibit trophoblast function. •Trophoblasts from iPS cells provides a proof-of-concept in regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: Background: During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm attaches to the endometrial epithelium and continues to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, which are the major components of a placenta. Aberrant trophoblast proliferation and differentiation are associated with placental diseases. However, due to ethical and practical issues, there is almost no available cell or tissue source to study the molecular mechanism of human trophoblast differentiation, which further becomes a barrier to the study of the pathogenesis of trophoblast-associated diseases of pregnancy. In this study, our goal was to generate a proof-of-concept model for deriving trophoblast lineage cells from induced pluripotency stem (iPS) cells from human fibroblasts. In future studies the generation of trophoblast lineage cells from iPS cells established from patient’s placenta will be extremely useful for studying the pathogenesis of individual trophoblast-associated diseases and for drug testing. Methods and results: Combining iPS cell technology with BMP4 induction, we derived trophoblast lineage cells from human iPS cells. The gene expression profile of these trophoblast lineage cells was distinct from fibroblasts and iPS cells. These cells expressed markers of human trophoblasts. Furthermore, when these cells were differentiated they exhibited invasive capacity and placental hormone secretive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Conclusion: Trophoblast lineage cells can be successfully derived from human iPS cells, which provide a proof-of-concept tool to recapitulate pathogenesis of patient placental trophoblasts in vitro.

  13. Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying; Wang, Kai; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V.R.; Knott, Jason G.; Leach, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Epithelial-like phenotype of trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells. •Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells exhibit trophoblast function. •Trophoblasts from iPS cells provides a proof-of-concept in regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: Background: During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm attaches to the endometrial epithelium and continues to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, which are the major components of a placenta. Aberrant trophoblast proliferation and differentiation are associated with placental diseases. However, due to ethical and practical issues, there is almost no available cell or tissue source to study the molecular mechanism of human trophoblast differentiation, which further becomes a barrier to the study of the pathogenesis of trophoblast-associated diseases of pregnancy. In this study, our goal was to generate a proof-of-concept model for deriving trophoblast lineage cells from induced pluripotency stem (iPS) cells from human fibroblasts. In future studies the generation of trophoblast lineage cells from iPS cells established from patient’s placenta will be extremely useful for studying the pathogenesis of individual trophoblast-associated diseases and for drug testing. Methods and results: Combining iPS cell technology with BMP4 induction, we derived trophoblast lineage cells from human iPS cells. The gene expression profile of these trophoblast lineage cells was distinct from fibroblasts and iPS cells. These cells expressed markers of human trophoblasts. Furthermore, when these cells were differentiated they exhibited invasive capacity and placental hormone secretive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Conclusion: Trophoblast lineage cells can be successfully derived from human iPS cells, which provide a proof-of-concept tool to recapitulate pathogenesis of patient placental trophoblasts in vitro

  14. Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)-Phenotypic Cells: Are They Cousins or Twins?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Dejuan; Li, Yiwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cells within a tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and maintain tumor-initiating capacity through differentiation into the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the whole tumor. These tumor-initiating cells could provide a resource for cells that cause tumor recurrence after therapy. Although the cell origin of CSCs remains to be fully elucidated, mounting evidence has demonstrated that Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), induced by different factors, is associated with tumor aggressiveness and metastasis and these cells share molecular characteristics with CSCs, and thus are often called cancer stem-like cells or tumor-initiating cells. The acquisition of an EMT phenotype is a critical process for switching early stage carcinomas into invasive malignancies, which is often associated with the loss of epithelial differentiation and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Recent studies have demonstrated that EMT plays a critical role not only in tumor metastasis but also in tumor recurrence and that it is tightly linked with the biology of cancer stem-like cells or cancer-initiating cells. Here we will succinctly summarize the state-of-our-knowledge regarding the molecular similarities between cancer stem-like cells or CSCs and EMT-phenotypic cells that are associated with tumor aggressiveness focusing on solid tumors

  15. Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT-Phenotypic Cells: Are They Cousins or Twins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlul H. Sarkar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are cells within a tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and maintain tumor-initiating capacity through differentiation into the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the whole tumor. These tumor-initiating cells could provide a resource for cells that cause tumor recurrence after therapy. Although the cell origin of CSCs remains to be fully elucidated, mounting evidence has demonstrated that Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT, induced by different factors, is associated with tumor aggressiveness and metastasis and these cells share molecular characteristics with CSCs, and thus are often called cancer stem-like cells or tumor-initiating cells. The acquisition of an EMT phenotype is a critical process for switching early stage carcinomas into invasive malignancies, which is often associated with the loss of epithelial differentiation and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Recent studies have demonstrated that EMT plays a critical role not only in tumor metastasis but also in tumor recurrence and that it is tightly linked with the biology of cancer stem-like cells or cancer-initiating cells. Here we will succinctly summarize the state-of-our-knowledge regarding the molecular similarities between cancer stem-like cells or CSCs and EMT-phenotypic cells that are associated with tumor aggressiveness focusing on solid tumors.

  16. The expression of Egfl7 in human normal tissues and epithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chun; Yang, Lian-Yue; Wu, Fan; Tao, Yi-Ming; Liu, Lin-Sen; Zhang, Jin-Fan; He, Ya-Ning; Tang, Li-Li; Chen, Guo-Dong; Guo, Lei

    2013-04-23

    To investigate the expression of Egfl7 in normal adult human tissues and human epithelial tumors.
 RT-PCR and Western blot were employed to detect Egfl7 expression in normal adult human tissues and 10 human epithelial tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, malignant glioma, ovarian cancer and renal cancer. Immunohistochemistry and cytoimmunofluorescence were subsequently used to determine the localization of Egfl7 in human epithelial tumor tissues and cell lines. ELISA was also carried out to examine the serum Egfl7 levels in cancer patients. In addition, correlations between Egfl7 expression and clinicopathological features as well as prognosis of HCC and breast cancer were also analyzed on the basis of immunohistochemistry results.
 Egfl7 was differentially expressed in 19 adult human normal tissues and was overexpressed in all 10 human epithelial tumor tissues. The serum Egfl7 level was also significantly elevated in cancer patients. The increased Egfl7 expression in HCC correlated with vein invasion, absence of capsule formation, multiple tumor nodes and poor prognosis. Similarly, upregulation of Egfl7 in breast cancer correlated strongly with TNM stage, lymphatic metastasis, estrogen receptor positivity, Her2 positivity and poor prognosis. 
 Egfl7 is significantly upregulated in human epithelial tumor tissues, suggesting Egfl7 to be a potential biomarker for human epithelial tumors, especially HCC and breast cancer.

  17. The role of CD133 in normal human prostate stem cells and malignant cancer-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Griend, Donald J; Karthaus, Wouter L; Dalrymple, Susan; Meeker, Alan; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Isaacs, John T

    2008-12-01

    Resolving the specific cell of origin for prostate cancer is critical to define rational targets for therapeutic intervention and requires the isolation and characterization of both normal human prostate stem cells and prostate cancer-initiating cells (CIC). Single epithelial cells from fresh normal human prostate tissue and prostate epithelial cell (PrEC) cultures derived from them were evaluated for the presence of subpopulations expressing stem cell markers and exhibiting stem-like growth characteristics. When epithelial cell suspensions containing cells expressing the stem cell marker CD133+ are inoculated in vivo, regeneration of stratified human prostate glands requires inductive prostate stromal cells. PrEC cultures contain a small subpopulation of CD133+ cells, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified CD133+ PrECs self-renew and regenerate cell populations expressing markers of transit-amplifying cells (DeltaNp63), intermediate cells (prostate stem cell antigen), and neuroendocrine cells (CD56). Using a series of CD133 monoclonal antibodies, attachment and growth of CD133+ PrECs requires surface expression of full-length glycosylated CD133 protein. Within a series of androgen receptor-positive (AR+) human prostate cancer cell lines, CD133+ cells are present at a low frequency, self-renew, express AR, generate phenotypically heterogeneous progeny negative for CD133, and possess an unlimited proliferative capacity, consistent with CD133+ cells being CICs. Unlike normal adult prostate stem cells, prostate CICs are AR+ and do not require functional CD133. This suggests that (a) AR-expressing prostate CICs are derived from a malignantly transformed intermediate cell that acquires "stem-like activity" and not from a malignantly transformed normal stem cell and (b) AR signaling pathways are a therapeutic target for prostate CICs.

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Colon Cancer Cells through Direct Cell-to-Cell Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko Takigawa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that in an orthotopic nude mouse model of human colon cancer, bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs migrated to the tumor stroma and promoted tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we evaluated the proliferation and migration ability of cancer cells cocultured with MSCs to elucidate the mechanism of interaction between cancer cells and MSCs. Proliferation and migration of cancer cells increased following direct coculture with MSCs but not following indirect coculture. Thus, we hypothesized that direct contact between cancer cells and MSCs was important. We performed a microarray analysis of gene expression in KM12SM colon cancer cells directly cocultured with MSCs. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT–related genes such as fibronectin (FN, SPARC, and galectin 1 was increased by direct coculture with MSCs. We also confirmed the upregulation of these genes with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression was not elevated in cancer cells indirectly cocultured with MSCs. Among the EMT-related genes upregulated by direct coculture with MSCs, we examined the immune localization of FN, a well-known EMT marker. In coculture assay in chamber slides, expression of FN was seen only at the edges of cancer clusters where cancer cells directly contacted MSCs. FN expression in cancer cells increased at the tumor periphery and invasive edge in orthotopic nude mouse tumors and human colon cancer tissues. These results suggest that MSCs induce EMT in colon cancer cells via direct cell-to-cell contact and may play an important role in colon cancer metastasis.

  19. Effect of Lead on Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hye Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a ubiquitous metal in the environment, but no studies have examined lead toxicity on the middle ear. Here, we investigated lead toxicity and its mechanism in human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs. Moreover, we investigated the protective effects of amniotic membrane extract (AME and chorionic membrane extract (CME against lead toxicity in HMEECs. Cell viability was analyzed using the cell counting kit, and reactive oxygen species (ROS activity was measured using a cellular ROS detection kit. After lead(II acetate trihydrate treatment, mRNA levels of various genes were assessed by semiquantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Following treatment with AME or CME after lead exposure, the changes in cell viability, ROS activity, and gene expression were analyzed. Exposure to >100 μg/mL of lead(II acetate trihydrate caused a significant decrease in cell viability and increased ROS production in HMEECs. Lead exposure significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and mucins. Administration of AME or CME restored cell viability, reduced ROS activity, and ameliorated mRNA levels. Our findings suggest that environmental lead exposure is related to the development of otitis media, and AME and CME may have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects against lead toxicity.

  20. Early Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Reprograms Human Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Chiribao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, has the peculiarity, when compared with other intracellular parasites, that it is able to invade almost any type of cell. This property makes Chagas a complex parasitic disease in terms of prophylaxis and therapeutics. The identification of key host cellular factors that play a role in the T. cruzi invasion is important for the understanding of disease pathogenesis. In Chagas disease, most of the focus is on the response of macrophages and cardiomyocytes, since they are responsible for host defenses and cardiac lesions, respectively. In the present work, we studied the early response to infection of T. cruzi in human epithelial cells, which constitute the first barrier for establishment of infection. These studies identified up to 1700 significantly altered genes regulated by the immediate infection. The global analysis indicates that cells are literally reprogrammed by T. cruzi, which affects cellular stress responses (neutrophil chemotaxis, DNA damage response, a great number of transcription factors (including the majority of NFκB family members, and host metabolism (cholesterol, fatty acids, and phospholipids. These results raise the possibility that early host cell reprogramming is exploited by the parasite to establish the initial infection and posterior systemic dissemination.

  1. Nanoceria have no genotoxic effect on human lens epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierscionek, Barbara K; Yasseen, Akeel A [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom); Li, Yuebin; Schachar, Ronald A; Chen, Wei [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Colhoun, Liza M, E-mail: b.pierscionek@ulster.ac.uk, E-mail: weichen@uta.edu [Centre for Vision and Vascular Sciences, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Grosvenor Road, Belfast, BT12 6BA (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-22

    There are no treatments for reversing or halting cataract, a disease of the structural proteins in the eye lens, that has associations with other age-related degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. The incidence of cataract and associated conditions is increasing as the average age of the population rises. Protein folding diseases are difficult to assess in vivo as proteins and their age-related changes are assessed after extraction. Nanotechnology can be used to investigate protein changes in the intact lens as well as for a potential means of drug delivery. Nanoparticles, such as cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) which have antioxidant properties, may even be used as a means of treating cataract directly. Prior to use in treatments, nanoparticle genotoxicity must be tested to assess the extent of any DNA or chromosomal damage. Sister chromatid exchanges were measured and DNA damage investigated using the alkaline COMET assay on cultured human lens epithelial cells, exposed to 5 and 10 {mu}g ml{sup -1} of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (nanoceria). Nanoceria at these dosages did not cause any DNA damage or significant increases in the number of sister chromatid exchanges. The absence of genotoxic effects on lens cells suggests that nanoceria, in the doses and exposures tested in this study, are not deleterious to the eye lens and have the potential for use in studying structural alterations, in developing non-surgical cataract treatments and in investigating other protein folding diseases.

  2. Effect of Formaldehyde on Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hye Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is a familiar indoor air pollutant found in everything from cosmetics to clothing, but its impact on the middle ear is unknown. This study investigated whether FA causes cytotoxicity, inflammation, or induction of apoptosis in human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs. Cell viability was investigated using the trypan blue assay and a cell counting kit (CCK-8 in HMEECs treated with FA for 4 or 24 h. The expression of genes encoding the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and mucin (MUC5AC was analyzed using RT-PCR. Activation of the apoptosis pathway was determined by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, cytochrome oxidase, caspase-9/Mch6/Apaf 3, and Caspase-Glo® 3/7 activities. The CCK-8 assay and trypan blue assay results showed a reduction in cell viability in FA-treated HMEECs. FA also increased the cellular expression of TNF-α and MUC5AC and reduced the activities of MMP and cytochrome oxidase. Caspase-9 activity increased in cells stimulated for 4 h, as well as caspase-3/7 activity in cells stimulated for 24 h. The decreased cell viability, the induction of inflammation and mucin gene expression, and the activation of the apoptosis pathway together indicate a link between environmental FA exposure and the development of otitis media.

  3. Feature Importance for Human Epithelial (HEp-2 Cell Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Gupta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indirect Immuno-Fluorescence (IIF microscopy imaging of human epithelial (HEp-2 cells is a popular method for diagnosing autoimmune diseases. Considering large data volumes, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD systems, based on image-based classification, can help in terms of time, effort, and reliability of diagnosis. Such approaches are based on extracting some representative features from the images. This work explores the selection of the most distinctive features for HEp-2 cell images using various feature selection (FS methods. Considering that there is no single universally optimal feature selection technique, we also propose hybridization of one class of FS methods (filter methods. Furthermore, the notion of variable importance for ranking features, provided by another type of approaches (embedded methods such as Random forest, Random uniform forest is exploited to select a good subset of features from a large set, such that addition of new features does not increase classification accuracy. In this work, we have also, with great consideration, designed class-specific features to capture morphological visual traits of the cell patterns. We perform various experiments and discussions to demonstrate the effectiveness of FS methods along with proposed and a standard feature set. We achieve state-of-the-art performance even with small number of features, obtained after the feature selection.

  4. A Chemical Probe that Labels Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Nao Hirata

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A small-molecule fluorescent probe specific for human pluripotent stem cells would serve as a useful tool for basic cell biology research and stem cell therapy. Screening of fluorescent chemical libraries with human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and subsequent evaluation of hit molecules identified a fluorescent compound (Kyoto probe 1 [KP-1] that selectively labels human pluripotent stem cells. Our analyses indicated that the selectivity results primarily from a distinct expression pattern of ABC transporters in human pluripotent stem cells and from the transporter selectivity of KP-1. Expression of ABCB1 (MDR1 and ABCG2 (BCRP, both of which cause the efflux of KP-1, is repressed in human pluripotent stem cells. Although KP-1, like other pluripotent markers, is not absolutely specific for pluripotent stem cells, the identified chemical probe may be used in conjunction with other reagents.

  5. Human papilloma virus DNAs immortalize normal human mammary epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, V.; Zajchowski, D.; Kulesa, V.; Sager, R.

    1990-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are most commonly associated with cervical carcinoma in patients and induce immortalization of human keratinocytes in culture. HPV has not been associated with breast cancer. This report describes the immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (76N) by plasmid pHPV18 or pHPV16, each containing the linearized viral genome. Transfectants were grown continuously for more than 60 passages, whereas 76N cells senesce after 18-20 passages. The transfectants also differ from 76N cells in cloning in a completely defined medium called D2 and growing a minimally supplemented defined medium (D3) containing epidermal growth factor. All transfectant tested contain integrated HPV DNA, express HPV RNA, and produce HPV E7 protein. HPV transfectants do not form tumors in a nude mouse assay. It is concluded that products of the HPV genome induce immortalization of human breast epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. This result raises the possibility that HPV might be involved in breast cancer. Furthermore, other tissue-specific primary epithelial cells that are presently difficult to grown and investigate may also be immortalized by HPV

  6. Polystyrene nanoparticles activate ion transport in human airway epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available J McCarthy1, X Gong2, D Nahirney2, M Duszyk2, MW Radomski11School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panoz Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Over the last decade, nanotechnology has provided researchers with new nanometer materials, such as nanoparticles, which have the potential to provide new therapies for many lung diseases. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of polystyrene nanoparticles on epithelial ion channel function.Methods: Human submucosal Calu-3 cells that express cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and baby hamster kidney cells engineered to express the wild-type CFTR gene were used to investigate the actions of negatively charged 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles on short-circuit current in Calu-3 cells by Ussing chamber and single CFTR Cl- channels alone and in the presence of known CFTR channel activators by using baby hamster kidney cell patches.Results: Polystyrene nanoparticles caused sustained, repeatable, and concentration-dependent increases in short-circuit current. In turn, these short-circuit current responses were found to be biphasic in nature, ie, an initial peak followed by a plateau. EC50 values for peak and plateau short-circuit current responses were 1457 and 315.5 ng/mL, respectively. Short-circuit current was inhibited by diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, a CFTR Cl- channel blocker. Polystyrene nanoparticles activated basolateral K+ channels and affected Cl- and HCO3- secretion. The mechanism of short-circuit current activation by polystyrene nanoparticles was found to be largely dependent on calcium-dependent and cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of CFTR Cl- channels. Recordings from isolated inside-out patches using baby hamster kidney cells confirmed the direct activation of CFTR Cl- channels by the nanoparticles.Conclusion: This is the first study to identify

  7. Stem cell therapy to protect and repair the developing brain: a review of mechanisms of action of cord blood and amnion epithelial derived cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie eCastillo-Melendez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the research, clinical and wider community there is great interest in the use of stem cells to reduce the progression, or indeed repair brain injury. Perinatal brain injury may result from acute or chronic insults sustained during fetal development, during the process of birth, or in the newborn period. The most readily identifiable outcome of perinatal brain injury is cerebral palsy, however this is just one consequence in a spectrum of mild to severe neurological deficits. As we review, there are now clinical trials taking place worldwide targeting cerebral palsy with stem cell therapies. It will likely be many years before strong evidence-based results emerge from these trials. With such trials underway, it is both appropriate and timely to address the physiological basis for the efficacy of stem-like cells in preventing damage to, or regenerating, the newborn brain. Appropriate experimental animal models are best placed to deliver this information. Cell availability, the potential for immunological rejection, ethical and logistical considerations, together with the propensity for native cells to form terratomas, make it unlikely that embryonic or fetal stem cells will be practical. Fortunately, these issues do not pertain to the use of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs, or umbilical cord blood (UCB stem cells that are readily and economically obtained from the placenta and umbilical cord discarded at birth. These cells have the potential for transplantation to the newborn where brain injury is diagnosed or even suspected. We will explore the novel characteristics of hAECs and undifferentiated UCB cells, as well as UCB-derived endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells, and how immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties are principal mechanisms of action that are common to these cells, and which in turn may ameliorate the cerebral hypoxia and inflammation that are final pathways in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain

  8. Culture of human intestinal epithelial cell using the dissociating enzyme thermolysin and endothelin-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Liu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Epithelium, a highly dynamic system, plays a key role in the homeostasis of the intestine. However, thus far a human intestinal epithelial cell line has not been established in many countries. Fetal tissue was selected to generate viable cell cultures for its sterile condition, effective generation, and differentiated character. The purpose of the present study was to culture human intestinal epithelial cells by a relatively simple method. Thermolysin was added to improve the yield of epithelial cells, while endothelin-3 was added to stimulate their growth. By adding endothelin-3, the achievement ratio (viable cell cultures/total cultures was enhanced to 60% of a total of 10 cultures (initiated from 8 distinct fetal small intestines, allowing the generation of viable epithelial cell cultures. Western blot, real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining showed that cytokeratins 8, 18 and mouse intestinal mucosa-1/39 had high expression levels in human intestinal epithelial cells. Differentiated markers such as sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV also showed high expression levels in human intestinal epithelial cells. Differentiated human intestinal epithelial cells, with the expression of surface markers (cytokeratins 8, 18 and mouse intestinal mucosa-1/39 and secretion of cytokines (sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV, may be cultured by the thermolysin and endothelin-3 method and maintained for at least 20 passages. This is relatively simple, requiring no sophisticated techniques or instruments, and may have a number of varied applications.

  9. Proinflammatory effects of cookstove emissions on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, B; Volckens, J

    2013-02-01

    Approximately half of the world's population uses biomass fuel for indoor cooking and heating. This form of combustion typically occurs in open fires or primitive stoves. Human exposure to emissions from indoor biomass combustion is a global health concern, causing an estimated 1.5 million premature deaths each year. Many 'improved' stoves have been developed to address this concern; however, studies that examine exposure-response with cleaner-burning, more efficient stoves are few. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of traditional and cleaner-burning stove emissions on an established model of the bronchial epithelium. We exposed well-differentiated, normal human bronchial epithelial cells to emissions from a single biomass combustion event using either a traditional three-stone fire or one of two energy-efficient stoves. Air-liquid interface cultures were exposed using a novel, aerosol-to-cell deposition system. Cellular expression of a panel of three pro-inflammatory markers was evaluated at 1 and 24 h following exposure. Cells exposed to emissions from the cleaner-burning stoves generated significantly fewer amounts of pro-inflammatory markers than cells exposed to emissions from a traditional three-stone fire. Particulate matter emissions from each cookstove were substantially different, with the three-stone fire producing the largest concentrations of particles (by both number and mass). This study supports emerging evidence that more efficient cookstoves have the potential to reduce respiratory inflammation in settings where solid fuel combustion is used to meet basic domestic needs. Emissions from more efficient, cleaner-burning cookstoves produced less inflammation in well-differentiated bronchial lung cells. The results support evidence that more efficient cookstoves can reduce the health burden associated with exposure to indoor pollution from the combustion of biomass. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Ozone exposure increases respiratory epithelial permeability in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrl, H.R.; Vincent, L.M.; Kowalsky, R.J.; Horstman, D.H.; O'Neil, J.J.; McCartney, W.H.; Bromberg, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ozone is a respiratory irritant that has been shown to cause an increase in the permeability of the respiratory epithelium in animals. We used inhaled aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-labeled diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) to investigate whether human respiratory epithelial permeability is similarly affected by exposure to ozone. In a randomized, crossover double-blinded study, 8 healthy, nonsmoking young men were exposed for 2 h to purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone while performing intermittent high intensity treadmill exercise (minute ventilation = 66.8 L/min). SRaw and FVC were measured before and at the end of exposures. Seventy-five minutes after the exposures, the pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was measured by sequential posterior lung imaging with a computer-assisted gamma camera. Ozone exposure caused respiratory symptoms in all 8 subjects and was associated with a 14 +/- 2.8% (mean +/- SEM) decrement in FVC (p less than 0.001) and a 71 +/- 22% increase in SRaw (p = 0.04). Compared with the air exposure day, 7 of the 8 subjects showed increased /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance after the ozone exposure, with the mean value increasing from 0.59 +/- 0.08 to 1.75 +/- 0.43%/min (p = 0.03). These data show that ozone exposure sufficient to produce decrements in the pulmonary function of human subjects also causes an increase in /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

  11. Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ► Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ► Si

  12. Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cheng-Chia [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Chao, E-mail: cyc@csmu.edu.tw [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ► Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ► Si

  13. DNMT1 Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cells, Which Promotes Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsohl Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis is a multistep process associated with the induction of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and cancer stem cells (CSCs. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating EMT and the CSC phenotype, little is known of how these processes are regulated by epigenetics. Here we demonstrate that reduced expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 plays an important role in the induction of EMT and the CSC phenotype by prostate cancer (PCa cells, with enhanced tumorigenesis and metastasis. First, we observed that reduction of DNMT1 by 5-azacitidine (5-Aza promotes EMT induction as well as CSCs and sphere formation in vitro. Reduced expression of DNMT1 significantly increased PCa migratory potential. We showed that the increase of EMT and CSC activities by reduction of DNMT1 is associated with the increase of protein kinase C. Furthermore, we confirmed that silencing DNMT1 is correlated with enhancement of the induction of EMT and the CSC phenotype in PCa cells. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay reveals that reduction of DNMT1 promotes the suppression of H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 on the Zeb2 and KLF4 promoter region in PCa cells. Critically, we found in an animal model that significant tumor growth and more disseminated tumor cells in most osseous tissues were observed following injection of 5-Aza pretreated–PCa cells compared with vehicle-pretreated PCa cells. Our results suggest that epigenetic alteration of histone demethylation regulated by reduction of DNMT1 may control induction of EMT and the CSC phenotype, which facilitates tumorigenesis in PCa cells and has important therapeutic implications in targeting epigenetic regulation.

  14. Ocular Surface Reconstruction with Cultivated Limbal Epithelial Cells in Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency: One-year Follow-up Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Durak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the 1-year follow-up results of cultivated limbal epithelial cell (CLEC transplantation in unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD. Ma te ri al and Met hod: One-year follow-up results of five unilateral LSCD patients who had undergone CLEC transplantation were evaluated. Parameters for this evaluation were: fluorescein staining of ocular surface, corneal vascularization and status of epithelium with slit lamp, and visual acuity. 1.5-mm limbal biopsy was performed from the superior limbus of the healthy eyes, broke into two equal pieces, expanded on human amniotic membrane (hAM and inserts for 14 days until getting 20 mm in size. CLECs on hAMs were used directly, and cells on inserts were usedafter detachment procedure. The symblepharon and pannus tissues were removed, superficial keratectomy was performed. CLEC on hAMs were transplanted with the epithelial side up onto the bare corneal stroma, sutured to the conjunctiva with 10-0 nylon sutures. Free CLEC layer from insert was placed on hAM as a second layer, additional hAM was used as a protective layer all over other tissues. Re sults: Median age was 44.4 years (14-71. The etiology was chemical burn in all patients. Median duration of symptoms was 10 years (2-18, median follow-up period was 12.6 (12-12.5 months. Preoperative best corrected visual acuities (BCVA were light perception in three patients, counting fingers at 50 cm in one patient and 3/10 in one patient. Visions were improved in all patients. Postoperative BCVA 12 months after the surgery were between counting fingers at 3 meters to 6/10. There was a temporary hemorrhage between the two layers of hAMs in one patient at the early postoperative period. Peripheral corneal vascularization has occurred in three patients, in patient corneal vascularization has reached to the paracentral area. Dis cus si on: CLEC transplantation is an efficient treatment option for unilateral LSCD in mid-long term. (Turk J

  15. Detonation Nanodiamond Toxicity in Human Airway Epithelial Cells Is Modulated by Air Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detonational nanodiamonds (DND), a nanomaterial with an increasing range of industrial and biomedical applications, have previously been shown to induce a pro-inflammatory response in cultured human airway epithelial cells (HAEC). We now show that surface modifications induced by...

  16. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue. A meta-analysis of observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Faber, Mette Tuxen; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue....

  17. Lineage tracing in the adult mouse corneal epithelium supports the limbal epithelial stem cell hypothesis with intermittent periods of stem cell quiescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J. Dorà

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC hypothesis proposes that LESCs in the corneal limbus maintain the corneal epithelium both during normal homeostasis and wound repair. The alternative corneal epithelial stem cell (CESC hypothesis proposes that LESCs are only involved in wound repair and CESCs in the corneal epithelium itself maintain the corneal epithelium during normal homeostasis. We used tamoxifen-inducible, CreER-loxP lineage tracing to distinguish between these hypotheses. Clones of labelled cells were induced in adult CAGG-CreER;R26R-LacZ reporter mice and their distributions analysed after different chase periods. Short-lived clones, derived from labelled transient amplifying cells, were shed during the chase period and long-lived clones, derived from stem cells, expanded. At 6 weeks, labelled clones appeared at the periphery, extended centripetally as radial stripes and a few reached the centre by 14 weeks. Stripe numbers depended on the age of tamoxifen treatment. Stripes varied in length, some were discontinuous, few reached the centre and almost half had one end at the limbus. Similar stripes extended across the cornea in CAGG-CreER;R26R-mT/mG reporter mice. The distributions of labelled clones are inconsistent with the CESC hypothesis and support the LESC hypothesis if LESCs cycle between phases of activity and quiescence, each lasting several weeks.

  18. Study of epithelial differentiation and protein expression of keratinocyte-mesenchyme stem cell co-cultivation on electrospun nylon/B. vulgaris extract composite scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinzadeh, Simzar [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soleimani, Masoud [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, TarbiatModares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vossoughi, Manuchehr [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranjbarvan, Parviz [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamedi, Shokoh [Department of Persian Pharmacy, School of Persian and Complementary Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zamanlui, Soheila [Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Institute, Tehran Central Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudifard, Matin, E-mail: mahmodifard@mehr.sharif.edu [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering Department, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    Employing of the composite electrospun scaffold containing herbal extract in conjugation with co-culturing of cells can open up new window to the design of efficient biomaterials for skin tissue regeneration. Here, we introduce the synergistic effect of composite electrospun nanofibrous scaffold of nylon66 loaded with Beta vulgaris (B. vulgaris) (extract of beet roots, a plants whose widely used in Iranian folk medicine as wound healing medicine) and co-culture of mesenchymal stem-cells (MSCs)-human keratinocyte (H-keratino) differentiation towards epithelial lineage. In vitro biocompatibility was examined through MTT assay and epithelial differentiation checked by real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assay after co-culturing of MSCs and H-keratino on proposed scaffold. Significant enhancement in cell proliferation was detected after cell culturing on the composite type of electrospun scaffold containing B. vulgaris. Moreover, after 14 days of co-culturing process, gene expression results revealed that both composite and non-composite nylon66 electrospun scaffold promote epithelial differentiation compared to mono-cell culturing of H-keratino in terms of several markers as Cytokeratin 10, Cytokeratin 14 and Involucrin and ICC of some dermal proteins like Cytokeratin 14 and Loricrin. To the best of our knowledge, findings of this study will introduce new way for the generation of novel biomaterials for the development of current skin tissue engineering. - Highlights: • New way for the generation of novel biomaterials for the development of current skin tissue engineering. • Fabrication of novel composite scaffold containing Beta vulgaris through electrospinning • Synergistic effect was found on epithelial differentiation through co-culture of keratinocyte and MSC on proposed composite NFM.

  19. Study of epithelial differentiation and protein expression of keratinocyte-mesenchyme stem cell co-cultivation on electrospun nylon/B. vulgaris extract composite scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Simzar; Soleimani, Masoud; Vossoughi, Manuchehr; Ranjbarvan, Parviz; Hamedi, Shokoh; Zamanlui, Soheila; Mahmoudifard, Matin

    2017-01-01

    Employing of the composite electrospun scaffold containing herbal extract in conjugation with co-culturing of cells can open up new window to the design of efficient biomaterials for skin tissue regeneration. Here, we introduce the synergistic effect of composite electrospun nanofibrous scaffold of nylon66 loaded with Beta vulgaris (B. vulgaris) (extract of beet roots, a plants whose widely used in Iranian folk medicine as wound healing medicine) and co-culture of mesenchymal stem-cells (MSCs)-human keratinocyte (H-keratino) differentiation towards epithelial lineage. In vitro biocompatibility was examined through MTT assay and epithelial differentiation checked by real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assay after co-culturing of MSCs and H-keratino on proposed scaffold. Significant enhancement in cell proliferation was detected after cell culturing on the composite type of electrospun scaffold containing B. vulgaris. Moreover, after 14 days of co-culturing process, gene expression results revealed that both composite and non-composite nylon66 electrospun scaffold promote epithelial differentiation compared to mono-cell culturing of H-keratino in terms of several markers as Cytokeratin 10, Cytokeratin 14 and Involucrin and ICC of some dermal proteins like Cytokeratin 14 and Loricrin. To the best of our knowledge, findings of this study will introduce new way for the generation of novel biomaterials for the development of current skin tissue engineering. - Highlights: • New way for the generation of novel biomaterials for the development of current skin tissue engineering. • Fabrication of novel composite scaffold containing Beta vulgaris through electrospinning • Synergistic effect was found on epithelial differentiation through co-culture of keratinocyte and MSC on proposed composite NFM

  20. Culture of human intestinal epithelial cell using the dissociating enzyme thermolysin and endothelin-3

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Z.; Zhang, P.; Zhou, Y.; Qin, H.; Shen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelium, a highly dynamic system, plays a key role in the homeostasis of the intestine. However, thus far a human intestinal epithelial cell line has not been established in many countries. Fetal tissue was selected to generate viable cell cultures for its sterile condition, effective generation, and differentiated character. The purpose of the present study was to culture human intestinal epithelial cells by a relatively simple method. Thermolysin was added to improve the yield of epithel...

  1. Intestinal Stem Cell Dynamics: A Story of Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Michael C; Flanagan, Dustin J; Sansom, Owen J

    2018-06-01

    Stem cell dynamics define the probability of accumulating mutations within the intestinal epithelium. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Nicholson et al. (2018) report that human intestinal stem cell dynamics differ significantly from those of mice and establish that oncogenic mutations are more likely to expand; therefore, "normal" epithelium may carry multiple mutations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB

  3. Radiosensitizing effect of epothilone B on human epithelial cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgart, T.; Kriesen, S.; Hildebrandt, G.; Manda, K. [Univ. of Rostock (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Klautke, G.; Fietkau, R. [Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kuznetsov, S.A.; Weiss, D.G. [Univ. of Rostock (Germany). Inst. of Biological Sciences, Cell Biology, and Biosystems Technology

    2012-02-15

    A combined modality treatment employing radiation and chemotherapy plays a central role in the management of solid tumors. In our study, we examined the cytotoxic and radiosensitive effect of the microtubule stabilizer epothilone B on two human epithelial tumor cell lines in vitro and its influence on the microtubule assembly. Cancer cells were treated with epothilone B in proliferation assays and in combination with radiation in colony-forming assays. For the analysis of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and the influence of the drug on its repair a {gamma}H2AX foci assay was used. To determine the effect of epothilone B on the microtubule assembly in cells and on purified tubulin, immunofluorescence staining and tubulin polymerization assay, respectively, were conducted. Epothilone B induced a concentration- and application-dependent antiproliferative effect on the cells, with IC{sub 50} values in the low nanomolar range. Colony forming assays showed a synergistic radiosensitive effect on both cell lines which was dependent on incubation time and applied concentration of epothilone B. The {gamma}H2AX assays demonstrated that ionizing radiation combined with the drug resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in the number of double-strand breaks and suggested a reduction in DNA repair capacity. Epothilone B produced enhanced microtubule bundling and abnormal spindle formation as revealed by immunofluorescence microscopy and caused microtubule formation from purified tubulin. The results of this study showed that epothilone B displays cytotoxic antitumor activity at low nanomolar concentrations and also enhances the radiation response in the tumor cells tested; this may be induced by a reduced DNA repair capacity triggered by epothilone B. It was also demonstrated that epothilone B in fact targets microtubules in a more effective manner than paclitaxel. (orig.)

  4. Regulated proteolysis of Trop2 drives epithelial hyperplasia and stem cell self-renewal via β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Tanya; Goldstein, Andrew S; Cai, Houjian; Drake, Justin M; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N

    2012-10-15

    The cell surface protein Trop2 is expressed on immature stem/progenitor-like cells and is overexpressed in many epithelial cancers. However the biological function of Trop2 in tissue maintenance and tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Trop2 is a regulator of self-renewal, proliferation, and transformation. Trop2 controls these processes through a mechanism of regulated intramembrane proteolysis that leads to cleavage of Trop2, creating two products: the extracellular domain and the intracellular domain. The intracellular domain of Trop2 is released from the membrane and accumulates in the nucleus. Heightened expression of the Trop2 intracellular domain promotes stem/progenitor self-renewal through signaling via β-catenin and is sufficient to initiate precursor lesions to prostate cancer in vivo. Importantly, we demonstrate that loss of β-catenin or Trop2 loss-of-function cleavage mutants abrogates Trop2-driven self-renewal and hyperplasia in the prostate. These findings suggest that heightened expression of Trop2 is selected for in epithelial cancers to enhance the stem-like properties of self-renewal and proliferation. Defining the mechanism of Trop2 function in self-renewal and transformation is essential to identify new therapeutic strategies to block Trop2 activation in cancer.

  5. In Vitro Cardiomyogenic Potential of Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Xuan; Delo, Dawn M.; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for damaged cardiac tissue is currently limited by a number of factors, including the inability to obtain sufficient cell numbers, the potential tumorigenicity of certain types of stem cells, and the possible link between stem cell therapy and the development of malignant arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated whether human amniotic fluid-derived stem (hAFS) cells could be a potential source of cells for cardiac cell therapy by testing the in vitro differentiation capab...

  6. Human amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffold in the repair of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-gang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment and functional reconstruction after central nervous system injury is a major medical and social challenge. An increasing number of researchers are attempting to use neural stem cells combined with artificial scaffold materials, such as fibroin, for nerve repair. However, such approaches are challenged by ethical and practical issues. Amniotic tissue, a clinical waste product, is abundant, and amniotic epithelial cells are pluripotent, have low immunogenicity, and are not the subject of ethical debate. We hypothesized that amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffolds would be conducive to the repair of spinal cord injury. To test this, we isolated and cultured amniotic epithelial cells, and constructed complexes of these cells and silk fibroin scaffolds. Implantation of the cell-scaffold complex into a rat model of spinal cord injury resulted in a smaller glial scar in the damaged cord tissue than in model rats that received a blank scaffold, or amniotic epithelial cells alone. In addition to a milder local immunological reaction, the rats showed less inflammatory cell infiltration at the transplant site, milder host-versus-graft reaction, and a marked improvement in motor function. These findings confirm that the transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffold can promote the repair of spinal cord injury. Silk fibroin scaffold can provide a good nerve regeneration microenvironment for amniotic epithelial cells.

  7. In-vivo expansion of autologous limbal stem cell using simple limbal epithelial transplantation for treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Ikeda; Panchal, Bhavik Uttam; Basu, Sayan; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-01-01

    A 20-year-old man from Bangladesh suffered accidental alkali injury to his right eye in May 2010 leading to total limbal stem cell deficiency. An amniotic membrane graft was performed 5 days after the accident and the patient presented to our institute 6 months later. On ocular examination, his best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/50 with a 360° pannus at the periphery and central area was spared but had stromal scarring. He underwent simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) taki...

  8. Genome editing: a robust technology for human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Pandian; Song, Minjung; Ramakrishna, Suresh

    2017-09-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells comprise induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells, which have tremendous potential for biological and therapeutic applications. The development of efficient technologies for the targeted genome alteration of stem cells in disease models is a prerequisite for utilizing stem cells to their full potential. Genome editing of stem cells is possible with the help of synthetic nucleases that facilitate site-specific modification of a gene of interest. Recent advances in genome editing techniques have improved the efficiency and speed of the development of stem cells for human disease models. Zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system are powerful tools for editing DNA at specific loci. Here, we discuss recent technological advances in genome editing with site-specific nucleases in human stem cells.

  9. The Role of Limbal Epithelial Stem Cells in Regulating Corneal (Lymphangiogenic Privilege and the Micromilieu of the Limbal Niche following UV Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Notara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornea is a clear structure, void of blood, and lymphatic vessels, functioning as our window to the world. Limbal epithelial stem cells, occupying the area between avascular cornea and vascularized conjunctiva, have been implicated in tissue border maintenance, preventing conjunctivalisation and propagation of blood and lymphatic vessels into the cornea. Defects in limbal epithelial stem cells are linked to corneal neovascularisation, including lymphangiogenesis, chronic inflammation, conjunctivalisation, epithelial abnormalities including the presence of goblet cells, breaks in Bowman’s membrane, persistent epithelial defects and ulceration, ocular surface squamous neoplasia, lipid keratopathy, pain, discomfort, and compromised vision. It has been postulated that pterygium is an example of focal limbal deficiency. Previous reports showing changes occurring in limbal epithelium during pterygium pathogenesis suggest that there is a link to stem cell damage. In this light, pterygium can serve as a model disease of UV-induced stem cell damage also characterised by corneal blood and lymphangiogenesis. This review focuses on the role of corneal and limbal epithelial cells and the stem cell niche in maintaining corneal avascularity and corneal immune privilege and how this may be deregulated following UV exposure. We present an overview of the PUBMED literature in the field as well as recent work from our laboratories.

  10. Human Ocular Epithelial Cells Endogenously Expressing SOX2 and OCT4 Yield High Efficiency of Pluripotency Reprogramming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wai Poon

    Full Text Available A variety of pluripotency reprogramming frequencies from different somatic cells has been observed, indicating cell origin is a critical contributor for efficiency of pluripotency reprogramming. Identifying the cell sources for efficient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs generation, and defining its advantages or disadvantages on reprogramming, is therefore important. Human ocular tissue-derived conjunctival epithelial cells (OECs exhibited endogenous expression of reprogramming factors OCT4A (the specific OCT 4 isoform on pluripotency reprogramming and SOX2. We therefore determined whether OECs could be used for high efficiency of iPSCs generation. We compared the endogenous expression levels of four pluripotency factors and the pluripotency reprograming efficiency of human OECs with that of ocular stromal cells (OSCs. Real-time PCR, microarray analysis, Western blotting and immunostaining assays were employed to compare OECiPSCs with OSCiPSCs on molecular bases of reprogramming efficiency and preferred lineage-differentiation potential. Using the traditional KMOS (KLF4, C-MYC, OCT4 and SOX2 reprogramming protocol, we confirmed that OECs, endogenously expressing reprogramming factors OCT4A and SOX2, yield very high efficiency of iPSCs generation (~1.5%. Furthermore, higher efficiency of retinal pigmented epithelial differentiation (RPE cells was observed in OECiPSCs compared to OSCiPSCs or skin fibroblast iMR90iPSCs. The findings in this study suggest that conjunctival-derived epithelial (OECs cells can be easier converted to iPSCs than conjunctival-derived stromal cells (OSCs. This cell type may also have advantages in retinal pigmented epithelial differentiation.

  11. Human Ocular Epithelial Cells Endogenously Expressing SOX2 and OCT4 Yield High Efficiency of Pluripotency Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Ming-Wai; He, Jia; Fang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhao; Wang, Weixin; Wang, Junwen; Qiu, Fangfang; Tse, Hung-Fat; Li, Wei; Liu, Zuguo; Lian, Qizhou

    2015-01-01

    A variety of pluripotency reprogramming frequencies from different somatic cells has been observed, indicating cell origin is a critical contributor for efficiency of pluripotency reprogramming. Identifying the cell sources for efficient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generation, and defining its advantages or disadvantages on reprogramming, is therefore important. Human ocular tissue-derived conjunctival epithelial cells (OECs) exhibited endogenous expression of reprogramming factors OCT4A (the specific OCT 4 isoform on pluripotency reprogramming) and SOX2. We therefore determined whether OECs could be used for high efficiency of iPSCs generation. We compared the endogenous expression levels of four pluripotency factors and the pluripotency reprograming efficiency of human OECs with that of ocular stromal cells (OSCs). Real-time PCR, microarray analysis, Western blotting and immunostaining assays were employed to compare OECiPSCs with OSCiPSCs on molecular bases of reprogramming efficiency and preferred lineage-differentiation potential. Using the traditional KMOS (KLF4, C-MYC, OCT4 and SOX2) reprogramming protocol, we confirmed that OECs, endogenously expressing reprogramming factors OCT4A and SOX2, yield very high efficiency of iPSCs generation (~1.5%). Furthermore, higher efficiency of retinal pigmented epithelial differentiation (RPE cells) was observed in OECiPSCs compared to OSCiPSCs or skin fibroblast iMR90iPSCs. The findings in this study suggest that conjunctival-derived epithelial (OECs) cells can be easier converted to iPSCs than conjunctival-derived stromal cells (OSCs). This cell type may also have advantages in retinal pigmented epithelial differentiation.

  12. Differential Regulation of Gene Expression of Alveolar Epithelial Cell Markers in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma-Derived A549 Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kondo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy appears to be promising for restoring damaged or irreparable lung tissue. However, establishing a simple and reproducible protocol for preparing lung progenitor populations is difficult because the molecular basis for alveolar epithelial cell differentiation is not fully understood. We investigated an in vitro system to analyze the regulatory mechanisms of alveolus-specific gene expression using a human alveolar epithelial type II (ATII cell line, A549. After cloning A549 subpopulations, each clone was classified into five groups according to cell morphology and marker gene expression. Two clones (B7 and H12 were further analyzed. Under serum-free culture conditions, surfactant protein C (SPC, an ATII marker, was upregulated in both H12 and B7. Aquaporin 5 (AQP5, an ATI marker, was upregulated in H12 and significantly induced in B7. When the RAS/MAPK pathway was inhibited, SPC and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1 expression levels were enhanced. After treatment with dexamethasone (DEX, 8-bromoadenosine 3′5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, surfactant protein B and TTF-1 expression levels were enhanced. We found that A549-derived clones have plasticity in gene expression of alveolar epithelial differentiation markers and could be useful in studying ATII maintenance and differentiation.

  13. YAP regulates the expression of Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 in mouse and human oral and skin epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Shuangyun; Lin, Qingjie; Wang, Xiu-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a Hippo signaling transcriptional coactivator that plays pivotal roles in stem cell proliferation, organ size control, and tumor development. The downstream targets of YAP have been shown to be highly context dependent. In this study, we used the embryonic mouse tooth germ as a tool to search for the downstream targets of YAP in ectoderm-derived tissues. Yap deficiency in the dental epithelium resulted in a small tooth germ with reduced epithelial cell proliferation. We compared the gene expression profiles of embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) Yap conditional knockout and YAP transgenic mouse tooth germs using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) and further confirmed the differentially expressed genes using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. We found that YAP regulates the expression of Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 in oral and dental epithelial tissues as well as in the epidermis of skin during embryonic and adult stages. Sphere formation assay suggested that Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 are functionally involved in YAP-regulated epithelial progenitor cell proliferation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay implies that YAP may regulate Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 expression through TEAD transcription factors. These results provide mechanistic insights into abnormal YAP activities in mice and humans. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Efficient differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to definitive endoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Kevin A; Agulnick, Alan D; Eliazer, Susan; Kelly, Olivia G; Kroon, Evert; Baetge, Emmanuel E

    2005-12-01

    The potential of human embryonic stem (hES) cells to differentiate into cell types of a variety of organs has generated much excitement over the possible use of hES cells in therapeutic applications. Of great interest are organs derived from definitive endoderm, such as the pancreas. We have focused on directing hES cells to the definitive endoderm lineage as this step is a prerequisite for efficient differentiation to mature endoderm derivatives. Differentiation of hES cells in the presence of activin A and low serum produced cultures consisting of up to 80% definitive endoderm cells. This population was further enriched to near homogeneity using the cell-surface receptor CXCR4. The process of definitive endoderm formation in differentiating hES cell cultures includes an apparent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and a dynamic gene expression profile that are reminiscent of vertebrate gastrulation. These findings may facilitate the use of hES cells for therapeutic purposes and as in vitro models of development.

  15. Clinical potentials of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Cristina; Serzanti, Marialaura; Consiglio, Antonella; Memo, Maurizio; Dell'Era, Patrizia

    2017-08-01

    Aging, injuries, and diseases can be considered as the result of malfunctioning or damaged cells. Regenerative medicine aims to restore tissue homeostasis by repairing or replacing cells, tissues, or damaged organs, by linking and combining different disciplines including engineering, technology, biology, and medicine. To pursue these goals, the discipline is taking advantage of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), a peculiar type of cell possessing the ability to differentiate into every cell type of the body. Human PSCs can be isolated from the blastocysts and maintained in culture indefinitely, giving rise to the so-called embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, since 2006, it is possible to restore in an adult cell a pluripotent ESC-like condition by forcing the expression of four transcription factors with the rejuvenating reprogramming technology invented by Yamanaka. Then the two types of PSC can be differentiated, using standardized protocols, towards the cell type necessary for the regeneration. Although the use of these derivatives for therapeutic transplantation is still in the preliminary phase of safety and efficacy studies, a lot of efforts are presently taking place to discover the biological mechanisms underlying genetic pathologies, by differentiating induced PSCs derived from patients, and new therapies by challenging PSC-derived cells in drug screening.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of embelin in A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Seung; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Yumi; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Kwanil; Jung, Hee-Jae; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is the most common type in asthma, which is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung. In this study, we investigated whether embelin (Emb), the major component of Ardisia japonica BL. (AJB), exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on allergic asthma via inhibition of NF-κB activity using A549 cells and asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Inflammation was induced in A549 cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, by IL-1β (10 ng/ml) treatment for 4 h. The effects of Emb on NF-κB activity and COX-2 protein expression in inflamed airway epithelial cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues were analyzed via western blot. The secretion levels of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines, including IL-4, 6, 9, 13, TNF-α and eotaxin, were measured by a multiplex assay. Emb significantly blocked NF-κB activity in IL-1β-treated A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. COX-2 expression was also reduced in both IL-1β-treated A549 cells and asthmatic tissues Emb application. Emb significantly reduced the secretion of IL-4, IL-6 and eotaxin in human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues by inhibiting activity of NF-κB. The results of this study suggest that Emb may be used as an anti-inflammatory agent via inhibition of NF-κB and related cytokines.

  17. Comparative proteome analysis of human epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagné Jean-Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial ovarian cancer is a devastating disease associated with low survival prognosis mainly because of the lack of early detection markers and the asymptomatic nature of the cancer until late stage. Using two complementary proteomics approaches, a differential protein expression profile was carried out between low and highly transformed epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines which realistically mimic the phenotypic changes observed during evolution of a tumour metastasis. This investigation was aimed at a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation, proliferation and neoplastic progression of ovarian cancer. Results The quantitative profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer model cell lines TOV-81D and TOV-112D generated using iTRAQ analysis and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry revealed some proteins with altered expression levels. Several of these proteins have been the object of interest in cancer research but others were unrecognized as differentially expressed in a context of ovarian cancer. Among these, series of proteins involved in transcriptional activity, cellular metabolism, cell adhesion or motility and cytoskeleton organization were identified, suggesting their possible role in the emergence of oncogenic pathways leading to aggressive cellular behavior. Conclusion The differential protein expression profile generated by the two proteomics approaches combined to complementary characterizations studies will open the way to more exhaustive and systematic representation of the disease and will provide valuable information that may be helpful to uncover the molecular mechanisms related to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  18. Unmasking Stem/Progenitor Cell Properties in Differentiated Epithelial Cells Using Short-term Transplantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    ...) To determine the range of mammary stem cell types participating in gland regeneration. 2) To develop the short-term transplantation assay as a means by which critical regulators of stem and progenitor cell behavior can be discovered and evaluated. Relevance: Studies will provide a direct test of prevailing stem cell models.

  19. Unmasking Stem/Progenitor Cell Properties in Differentiated Epithelial Cells Using Short-term Transplantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    ...) To determine the range of mammary stem cell types participating in gland regeneration. 2) To develop the short-term transplantation assay as a means by which critical regulators of stem and progenitor cell behavior can be discovered and evaluated. Relevance: Studies will provide a direct test of prevailing stem cell models.

  20. Human embryonic stem cells: preclinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda Kanchan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have been extensively discussed in public and scientific communities for their potential in treating diseases and injuries. However, not much has been achieved in turning them into safe therapeutic agents. The hurdles in transforming hESCs to therapies start right with the way these cells are derived and maintained in the laboratory, and goes up-to clinical complications related to need for patient specific cell lines, gender specific aspects, age of the cells, and several post transplantation uncertainties. The different types of cells derived through directed differentiation of hESC and used successfully in animal disease and injury models are described briefly. This review gives a brief outlook on the present and the future of hESC based therapies, and talks about the technological advances required for a safe transition from laboratory to clinic.

  1. Donor-derived stem-cells and epithelial mesenchymal transition in squamous cell carcinoma in transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verneuil, Laurence; Leboeuf, Christophe; Bousquet, Guilhem; Brugiere, Charlotte; Elbouchtaoui, Morad; Plassa, Louis-François; Peraldi, Marie-Noelle; Lebbé, Celeste; Ratajczak, Philippe; Janin, Anne

    2015-12-08

    Skin squamous-cell-carcinoma (SCC), is the main complication in long-term kidney-transplant recipients, and it can include donor-derived cells. Preclinical models demonstrated the involvement of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the progression of skin SCC, and the role of Snail, an EMT transcription factor, in cancer stem-cell survival and expansion.Here, we studied stem-cells and EMT expression in SCCs and concomitant actinic keratoses (AK) in kidney-transplant recipients. In SCC and AK in 3 female recipients of male kidney-transplants, donor-derived Y chromosome in epidermal stem cells was assessed using combined XY-FISH/CD133 immunostaining, and digital-droplet-PCR on laser-microdissected CD133 expressing epidermal cells.For EMT study, double immunostainings of CD133 with vimentin or snail and slug, electron microscopy and immunostainings of keratinocytes junctions were performed. Digital droplet PCR was used to check CDH1 (E-cadherin) expression level in laser-microdissected cells co-expressing CD133 and vimentin or snail and slug.The numbers of Y-chromosome were assessed using digital droplet PCR in laser-microdissected cells co-expressing CD133 and vimentin, or snail and slug, and in CD133 positive cells not expressing any EMT maker. We identified donor-derived stem-cells in basal layers and invasive areas in all skin SCCs and in concomitant AKs, but not in surrounding normal skin.The donor-derived stem-cells expressed the EMT markers, vimentin, snail and slug in SCCs but not in AKs. The expression of the EMT transcription factor, SNAI1, was higher in stem-cells when they expressed vimentin. They were located in invasive areas of SCCs. In these areas, the expressions of claudin-1 and desmoglein 1 were reduced or absent, and within the basal layer there were features of basal membrane disappearance.Donor-derived stem cells were in larger numbers in stem cells co-expressing vimentin or snail and slug than in stem cells not expressing any EMT marker

  2. A Comparative Study of the Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Limbal Epithelial Stem Cells for Ocular Surface Reconstruction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holáň, Vladimír; Trošan, Peter; Čejka, Čestmír; Javorková, Eliška; Zajícová, Alena; Heřmánková, Barbora; Chudíčková, Milada; Čejková, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 9 (2015), s. 1052-1063 ISSN 2157-6564 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12580S; GA MZd NT14102; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : limbal stem cells * mesenchymal stem cells * alkali-injured ocular surface * corneal regeneration * stem cell-based therapy Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 4.247, year: 2015

  3. The Use of an IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Peptide to Control Inflammation in the Treatment of Corneal Limbal Epithelial Stem Cell Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD may be treated using ex vivo limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs derived from cadaveric donor tissue. However, continuing challenges exist around tissue availability, inflammation, and transplant rejection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS or recombinant human IL-1β stimulated primary human keratocyte and LESC models were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of a short chain, IL-1 receptor antagonist peptide for use in LESC sheet growth to control inflammation. The peptide was characterized using mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. Peptide cytotoxicity, patterns of cell cytokine expression in response to LPS or IL-1β stimulation, and peptide suppression of this response were investigated by MTS/LDH assays, ELISA, and q-PCR. Cell differences in LPS stimulated toll-like receptor 4 expression were investigated using immunocytochemistry. A significant reduction in rIL-1β stimulated inflammatory cytokine production occurred following LESC and keratocyte incubation with anti-inflammatory peptide and in LPS stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 production following keratocyte incubation with peptide (1 mg/mL P<0.05. LESCs produced no cytokine response to LPS stimulation and showed no TLR4 expression. The peptide supported LESC growth when adhered to a silicone hydrogel contact lens indicating potential use in improved LESC grafting through suppression of inflammation.

  4. Cellular interactions via conditioned media induce in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells or mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiguchi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We have attempted in vivo nephron generation using conditioned media. •Vascular and tubular cells do cross-talks on cell proliferation and tubular changes. •Tubular cells suppress these changes in mesenchymal stem cells. •Tubular cells differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into tubular cells. •Nephrons can be created from implanted tubular cells or mesenchymal stem cells. -- Abstract: There are some successful reports of kidney generation by utilizing the natural course of kidney development, namely, the use of an artificially treated metanephros, blastocyst or ureteric bud. Under a novel concept of cellular interactions via conditioned media (CMs), we have attempted in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells (TECs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here we used 10× CMs of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and TECs, which is the first to introduce a CM into the field of organ regeneration. We first present stimulative cross-talks induced by these CMs between VECs and TECs on cell proliferation and morphological changes. In MSCs, TEC-CM suppressed these changes, however, induced cytokeratin expression, indicating the differentiation of MSCs into TECs. As a result, glomerular and tubular structures were created following the implantation of TECs or MSCs with both CMs. Our findings suggest that the cellular interactions via CMs might induce in vivo nephron generation from TECs or MSCs. As a promoting factor, CMs could also be applied to the regeneration of other organs and tissues

  5. Epimorphin regulates bile duct formation via effects on mitosis orientation in rat liver epithelial stem-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junnian Zhou

    Full Text Available Understanding how hepatic precursor cells can generate differentiated bile ducts is crucial for studies on epithelial morphogenesis and for development of cell therapies for hepatobiliary diseases. Epimorphin (EPM is a key morphogen for duct morphogenesis in various epithelial organs. The role of EPM in bile duct formation (DF from hepatic precursor cells, however, is not known. To address this issue, we used WB-F344 rat epithelial stem-like cells as model for bile duct formation. A micropattern and a uniaxial static stretch device was used to investigate the effects of EPM and stress fiber bundles on the mitosis orientation (MO of WB cells. Immunohistochemistry of liver tissue sections demonstrated high EPM expression around bile ducts in vivo. In vitro, recombinant EPM selectively induced DF through upregulation of CK19 expression and suppression of HNF3alpha and HNF6, with no effects on other hepatocytic genes investigated. Our data provide evidence that EPM guides MO of WB-F344 cells via effects on stress fiber bundles and focal adhesion assembly, as supported by blockade EPM, beta1 integrin, and F-actin assembly. These blockers can also inhibit EPM-induced DF. These results demonstrate a new biophysical action of EPM in bile duct formation, during which determination of MO plays a crucial role.

  6. Outcome of cataract surgery following simple limbal epithelial transplantation for lime injury-induced limbal stem cell deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Dhanyasree

    2015-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman presented to us after being diagnosed elsewhere with right eye total limbal stem cell deficiency resulting from a lime burn. She was advised to undergo limbal stem cell transplantation, but failed to immediately do so. Two years later, she underwent cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET). As she had severe loss of vision with persisting conjunctival nodule and symblepharon 2 years following surgery, an impression of failed CLET was formed. Subsequently, simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) was performed. Nine months later, she developed a cataract in her right eye; the cataract was extracted and posterior chamber intraocular lens implanted. The unaided visual acuity improved from light perception at presentation to 20/60 at 1-week postoperatively. At 5 months follow-up, the patient continued to maintain 20/60 visual acuity in her right eye. This case describes the outcome of cataract surgery following SLET, emphasising the need to perform cataract surgery in complicated cataracts for a better visual prognosis. PMID:26698204

  7. Amniotic membrane transplantation for reconstruction of corneal epithelial surface in cases of partial limbal stem cell deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwan Virender

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the efficacy of amniotic membrane for treatment of partial limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD. Methods: Medical records of four patients with partial LSCD who underwent pannus resection and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT were reviewed for ocular surface stability and improvement in visual acuity. Clinico-histopathological correlation was done with the resected pannus tissue. Results: All the eyes exhibited stable corneal epithelial surface by an average of 7 weeks postoperatively with improvement in subjective symptoms. Best corrected visual acuity improved from preoperative (range: 6/9p-6/120 to postoperative (range: 6/6p-6/15 by an average of 4.5 lines on Snellen visual acuity charts. Histopathological examination of excised tissue showed features of conjunctivalisation. Conclusion: Amniotic membrane transplantation appears to be an effective means of reconstructing the corneal epithelial surface and for visual rehabilitation of patients with partial limbal stem cell deficiency. It may be considered as an alternative primary procedure to limbal transplantation in these cases.

  8. In vitro safety evaluation of human nasal epithelial cell monolayers exposed to carrageenan sinus wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanpour, Mahnaz; Murphy, Jae; Smith, Jason L P; Vreugde, Sarah; Psaltis, Alkis James

    2017-12-01

    Carrageenans have shown to reduce the viral load in nasal secretions and lower the incidence of secondary infections in children with common cold. Despite the widespread use of carrageenans in topical applications, the effect of carrageenans on the sinonasal epithelial barrier has not been elucidated. We investigate the effect of different carrageenans on the sinonasal epithelial barrier and inflammatory response in vitro. Iota and Kappa carrageenan delivered in saline irrigation solutions applied to air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary human nasal epithelial cells from chronic rhinosinusitis patients and controls. Epithelial barrier structure was assessed by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and immunolocalization of F actin. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF), toxicity, and inflammatory response was studied. Kappa or Iota carrageenan in the different solutions was not toxic, did not have detrimental effects on epithelial barrier structure and CBF. Rather, application of Kappa carrageenan significantly increased TEER and suppressed interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion in ALI cultures from CRS patients. Kappa or Iota carrageenan solution was safe and did not negatively affect epithelial barrier function. Kappa carrageenan increased TEER and decreased IL-6 production in CRS patients, indicating positive effects on epithelial barrier function in vitro. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  9. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain human iPS cell pluripotency via inhibited endogenous microRNA-145 and increased Sox2 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Te, E-mail: liute79@yahoo.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shanghai Geriatric Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200031 (China); Cheng, Weiwei [International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Huang, Yongyi [Laboratoire PROTEE, Batiment R, Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, 83957 LA GARDE Cedex (France); Huang, Qin; Jiang, Lizhen [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Guo, Lihe, E-mail: liute79@yahoo.com [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Currently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from patient or disease-specific sources and share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells. This makes them attractive for personalized medicine, drug screens or cellular therapy. Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state are a major challenge. Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells, or spermatogonial stem cells, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of endogenous microRNA-145 regulation on Sox2 expression in human iPS cells by HuAECs feeder cells regulation, and in turn on human iPS cells pluripotency. We found that human IPS cells transfected with a microRNA-145 mutant expressed Sox2 at high levels, allowing iPS to maintain a high level of AP activity in long-term culture and form teratomas in SCID mice. Expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS transfected with the microRNA-145 mutant, compared with iPS was transfected with microRNA-145. Besides, the expression of Drosha proteins of the microRNA-processor complex, required for the generation of precursor pre-miRNA, was significantly increased in human iPS cells cultured on MEF but not on HuAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that endogenous Sox2 expression may be regulated by microRNA-145 in human iPS cells with HuAECs feeder cells, and Sox2 is a crucial component required for maintenance of them in an undifferentiated, proliferative state capable of self-renewal. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 inhibits Sox2 expression in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 suppresses the self-renewal and pluripotency of human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs regulate expression of microRNA-145 and Sox2 in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs feeder

  10. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain human iPS cell pluripotency via inhibited endogenous microRNA-145 and increased Sox2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Te; Cheng, Weiwei; Huang, Yongyi; Huang, Qin; Jiang, Lizhen; Guo, Lihe

    2012-01-01

    Currently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from patient or disease-specific sources and share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells. This makes them attractive for personalized medicine, drug screens or cellular therapy. Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state are a major challenge. Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells, or spermatogonial stem cells, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of endogenous microRNA-145 regulation on Sox2 expression in human iPS cells by HuAECs feeder cells regulation, and in turn on human iPS cells pluripotency. We found that human IPS cells transfected with a microRNA-145 mutant expressed Sox2 at high levels, allowing iPS to maintain a high level of AP activity in long-term culture and form teratomas in SCID mice. Expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS transfected with the microRNA-145 mutant, compared with iPS was transfected with microRNA-145. Besides, the expression of Drosha proteins of the microRNA-processor complex, required for the generation of precursor pre-miRNA, was significantly increased in human iPS cells cultured on MEF but not on HuAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that endogenous Sox2 expression may be regulated by microRNA-145 in human iPS cells with HuAECs feeder cells, and Sox2 is a crucial component required for maintenance of them in an undifferentiated, proliferative state capable of self-renewal. Highlights: ► microRNA-145 inhibits Sox2 expression in human iPS cells. ► microRNA-145 suppresses the self-renewal and pluripotency of human iPS cells. ► HuAECs regulate expression of microRNA-145 and Sox2 in human iPS cells. ► HuAECs feeder layers maintain human iPS cells pluripotency. ► HuAECs negatively regulates the synthesis of

  11. Proteomic profiling of acrolein adducts in human lung epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Page C.; Deng, Bin; Hondal, Robert J.; Matthews, Dwight E.; van der Vliet, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Acrolein (2,3-propenal) is a major indoor and outdoor air pollutant originating largely from tobacco smoke or organic combustion. Given its high reactivity, the adverse effects of inhaled acrolein are likely due to direct interactions with the airway epithelium, resulting in altered epithelial function, but only limited information exists to date regarding the primary direct cellular targets for acrolein. Here, we describe a global proteomics approach to characterize the spectrum of airway epithelial protein targets for Michael adduction in acrolein-exposed bronchial epithelial (HBE1) cells, based on biotin hydrazide labeling and avidin purification of biotinylated proteins or peptides for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Identified protein targets included a number of stress proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, and several key proteins involved in redox signaling, including thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione S-transferase π. Because of the central role of thioredoxin reductase in cellular redox regulation, additional LC-MS/MS characterization was performed on purified mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase to identify the specific site of acrolein adduction, revealing the catalytic selenocysteine residue as the target responsible for enzyme inactivation. Our findings indicate that these approaches are useful in characterizing major protein targets for acrolein, and will enhance mechanistic understanding of the impact of acrolein on cell biology. PMID:21704744

  12. Propagation of human spermatogonial stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; Mizrak, Sefika C; van Daalen, Saskia K M; Korver, Cindy M; Roepers-Gajadien, Hermien L; Koruji, Morteza; Hovingh, Suzanne; de Reijke, Theo M; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; van der Veen, Fulco; de Rooij, Dirk G; Repping, Sjoerd; van Pelt, Ans M M

    2009-11-18

    Young boys treated with high-dose chemotherapy are often confronted with infertility once they reach adulthood. Cryopreserving testicular tissue before chemotherapy and autotransplantation of spermatogonial stem cells at a later stage could theoretically allow for restoration of fertility. To establish in vitro propagation of human spermatogonial stem cells from small testicular biopsies to obtain an adequate number of cells for successful transplantation. Study performed from April 2007 to July 2009 using testis material donated by 6 adult men who underwent orchidectomy as part of prostate cancer treatment. Testicular cells were isolated and cultured in supplemented StemPro medium; germline stem cell clusters that arose were subcultured on human placental laminin-coated dishes in the same medium. Presence of spermatogonia was determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence for spermatogonial markers. To test for the presence of functional spermatogonial stem cells in culture, xenotransplantation to testes of immunodeficient mice was performed, and migrated human spermatogonial stem cells after transplantation were detected by COT-1 fluorescence in situ hybridization. The number of colonized spermatogonial stem cells transplanted at early and later points during culture were counted to determine propagation. Propagation of spermatogonial stem cells over time. Testicular cells could be cultured and propagated up to 15 weeks. Germline stem cell clusters arose in the testicular cell cultures from all 6 men and could be subcultured and propagated up to 28 weeks. Expression of spermatogonial markers on both the RNA and protein level was maintained throughout the entire culture period. In 4 of 6 men, xenotransplantation to mice demonstrated the presence of functional spermatogonial stem cells, even after prolonged in vitro culture. Spermatogonial stem cell numbers increased 53-fold within 19 days in the testicular cell culture and

  13. Comparison of the glycosphingolipids of human-induced pluripotent stem cells and human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säljö, Karin; Barone, Angela; Vizlin-Hodzic, Dzeneta; Johansson, Bengt R; Breimer, Michael E; Funa, Keiko; Teneberg, Susann

    2017-04-01

    High expectations are held for human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) since they are established from autologous tissues thus overcoming the risk of allogeneic immune rejection when used in regenerative medicine. However, little is known regarding the cell-surface carbohydrate antigen profile of hiPSC compared with human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Here, glycosphingolipids were isolated from an adipocyte-derived hiPSC line, and hiPSC and hESC glycosphingolipids were compared by concurrent characterization by binding assays with carbohydrate-recognizing ligands and mass spectrometry. A high similarity between the nonacid glycosphingolipids of hiPSC and hESC was found. The nonacid glycosphingolipids P1 pentaosylceramide, x2 pentaosylceramide and H type 1 heptaosylceramide, not previously described in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), were characterized in both hiPSC and hESC. The composition of acid glycosphingolipids differed, with increased levels of GM3 ganglioside, and reduced levels of GD1a/GD1b in hiPSC when compared with hESC. In addition, the hESC glycosphingolipids sulf-globopentaosylceramide and sialyl-globotetraosylceramide were lacking in hiPSC. Neural stem cells differentiating from hiPSC had a reduced expression of sialyl-lactotetra, whereas expression of the GD1a ganglioside was significantly increased. Thus, while sialyl-lactotetra is a marker of undifferentiated hPSC, GD1a is a novel marker of neural differentiation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Nucleosome Organization in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puya G Yazdi

    Full Text Available The fundamental repeating unit of eukaryotic chromatin is the nucleosome. Besides being involved in packaging DNA, nucleosome organization plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and cellular identity. Currently, there is much debate about the major determinants of the nucleosome architecture of a genome and its significance with little being known about its role in stem cells. To address these questions, we performed ultra-deep sequencing of nucleosomal DNA in two human embryonic stem cell lines and integrated our data with numerous epigenomic maps. Our analyses have revealed that the genome is a determinant of nucleosome organization with transcriptionally inactive regions characterized by a "ground state" of nucleosome profiles driven by underlying DNA sequences. DNA sequence preferences are associated with heterogeneous chromatin organization around transcription start sites. Transcription, histone modifications, and DNA methylation alter this "ground state" by having distinct effects on both nucleosome positioning and occupancy. As the transcriptional rate increases, nucleosomes become better positioned. Exons transcribed and included in the final spliced mRNA have distinct nucleosome profiles in comparison to exons not included at exon-exon junctions. Genes marked by the active modification H3K4m3 are characterized by lower nucleosome occupancy before the transcription start site compared to genes marked by the inactive modification H3K27m3, while bivalent domains, genes associated with both marks, lie exactly in the middle. Combinatorial patterns of epigenetic marks (chromatin states are associated with unique nucleosome profiles. Nucleosome organization varies around transcription factor binding in enhancers versus promoters. DNA methylation is associated with increasing nucleosome occupancy and different types of methylations have distinct location preferences within the nucleosome core particle. Finally, computational

  15. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkum, Kelsey L; Stemler, Kristina M; White, Lynn S; Loza, Andrew J; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-12-22

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy.

  16. Human Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes: An Alternative ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical spills and associated deaths in the US has increased 2.6-fold and 16-fold from 1983 to 2012, respectfully. In addition, the number of chemicals to which humans are exposed to in the environment has increased almost 10-fold from 2001 to 2013 within the US. Internationally, a WHO report on the global composite impact of chemicals on health reported that 16% of the total burden of cardiovascular disease was attributed to environmental chemical exposure with 2.5 million deaths per year. Clearly, the cardiovascular system, at all its various developmental and life stages, represents a critical target organ system that can be adversely affected by existing and emerging chemicals (e.g., engineered nanomaterials) in a variety of environmental media. The ability to assess chemical cardiac risk and safety is critically needed but extremely challenging due to the number and categories of chemicals in commerce, as indicated. This presentation\\session will evaluate the use of adult human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes, and existing platforms, as an alternative model to evaluate environmental chemical cardiac toxicity as well as provide key information for the development of predictive adverse outcomes pathways associated with environmental chemical exposures. (This abstract does not represent EPA policy) Rapid and translatable chemical safety screening models for cardiotoxicity current status for informing regulatory decisions, a workshop sponsored by the Society

  17. Current applications of human pluripotent stem cells: possibilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pai-Jiun; Yen, Men-Luh; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Yen, B Linju

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are self-renewable cells with the differentiation capacity to develop into somatic cells with biological functions. This ability to sustain a renewable source of multi- and/or pluripotential differentiation has brought new hope to the field of regenerative medicine in terms of cell therapy and tissue engineering. Moreover, stem cells are invaluable tools as in vitro models for studying diverse fields, from basic scientific questions such as developmental processes and lineage commitment, to practical application including drug screening and testing. The stem cells with widest differentiation potential are pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), which are rare cells with the ability to generate somatic cells from all three germ layers. PSCs are considered the most optimal choice for therapeutic potential of stem cells, bringing new impetus to the field of regenerative medicine. In this article, we discuss the therapeutic potential of human PSCs (hPSCs) including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), reviewing the current preclinical and clinical data using these stem cells. We describe the classification of different sources of hPSCs, ongoing research, and currently encountered clinical obstacles of these novel and versatile human stem cells.

  18. The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William Petersen, Ole; Lind Nielsen, Helga; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J

    2001-01-01

    The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that neoplastic breast epithelial cells may be substantially more plastic in their differentiation repertoire than previously anticipated. Thus, along with an increasing availability of markers for the myoepithelial lineage, at least a partial differentiation towards this lineage is being revealed frequently. It has also become clear that conversions towards the mesenchymal lineage actually occur, referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Indeed, some of the so-called myofibroblasts surrounding the tumor may have an epithelial origin rather than a mesenchymal origin. Because myoepithelial cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition-derived cells, genuine stromal cells and myofibroblasts share common markers, we now need to define a more ambitious set of markers to distinguish these cell types in the microenvironment of the tumors. This is necessary because the different microenvironments may confer different clinical outcomes. The aim of this commentary is to describe some of the inherent complexities in defining cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment of breast cancer and to expand wherever possible on the implications for tumor suppression and progression

  19. The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Ole William; Nielsen, Helga Lind; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, Ren& #233; ; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J.

    2001-05-12

    The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that neoplastic breast epithelial cells may be substantially more plastic in their differentiation repertoire than previously anticipated. Thus, along with an increasing availability of markers for the myoepithelial lineage, at least a partial differentiation towards this lineage is being revealed frequently. It has also become clear that conversions towards the mesenchymal lineage actually occur, referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Indeed, some of the so-called myofibroblasts surrounding the tumor may indeed have an epithelial origin rather than a mesenchymal origin. Because myoepithelial cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition-derived cells, genuine stromal cells and myofibroblasts share common markers, we now need to define a more ambitious set of markers to distinguish these cell types in the microenvironment of the tumors. This is necessary because the different microenvironments may confer different clinical outcomes. The aim of this commentary is to describe some of the inherent complexities in defining cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment of breast cancer and to expand wherever possible on the implications for tumor suppression and progression.

  20. Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronical epithelial cells exposed to zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to zincJenna M. Currier1,2, Wan-Yun Cheng1, Rory Conolly1, Brian N. Chorley1Zinc is a ubiquitous contaminant of ambient air that presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung...

  1. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of 3 cases with human papillomavirus DNA sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, S E; Tokman Yildirim, Benay; Sarisoy, S

    2011-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a benign proliferative viral infection of the oral mucosa that is related to Human Papil-lomavirus (HPV), mainly subtypes 13 and 32. Although this condition is known to exist in numerous populations and ethnic groups, the reported cases among Caucasians are relatively rare. It presents as asymptomatic papules or nodules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. Histopathologically, it is characterized by parakeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, focal acanthosis, fusion, and horizontal outgrowth of epithelial ridges and the cells named mitozoids. The purpose of this case report was to present 3 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia in a pediatric age group. Histopathological and clinical features of cases are discussed and DNA sequencing analysis is reported in which HPV 13, HPV 32, and HPV 11 genomes are detected.

  2. Molecular aging and rejuvenation of human muscle stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Morgan E; Suetta, Charlotte; Conboy, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    . Our findings establish key evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of human stem cell aging. We find that satellite cells are maintained in aged human skeletal muscle, but fail to activate in response to muscle attrition, due to diminished activation of Notch compounded by elevated transforming growth...... factor beta (TGF-beta)/phospho Smad3 (pSmad3). Furthermore, this work reveals that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/phosphate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) signalling declines in human muscle with age, and is important for activating Notch in human muscle stem cells. This molecular......Very little remains known about the regulation of human organ stem cells (in general, and during the aging process), and most previous data were collected in short-lived rodents. We examined whether stem cell aging in rodents could be extrapolated to genetically and environmentally variable humans...

  3. Human Papillomavirus Infections and Cancer Stem Cells of Tumors from the Uterine Cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jacqueline; Ruíz, Graciela; Organista-Nava, Jorge; Gariglio, Patricio; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Different rate of development of productive infections (as low grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias), or high grade lesions and cervical malignant tumors associated with infections of the Transformation zone (TZ) by High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV), could suggest that different epithelial host target cells could exist. If there is more than one target cell, their differential infection by HR-HPV may play a central role in the development of cervical cancer. Recently, the concept that cancer might arise from a rare population of cells with stem cell-like properties has received support in several solid tumors, including cervical cancer (CC). According to the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, CC can now be considered a disease in which stem cells of the TZ are converted to cervical cancer stem cells by the interplay between HR-HPV viral oncogenes and cellular alterations that are thought to be finally responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Current studies of CSC could provide novel insights regarding tumor initiation and progression, their relation with viral proteins and interplay with the tumor micro-environment. This review will focus on the biology of cervical cancer stem cells, which might contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for cervical tumor development. PMID:23341858

  4. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors control pluripotent adult stem cell migration in vivo in planarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnave, Prasad; Aboukhatwa, Ellen; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Thompson, James; Hill, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Migration of stem cells underpins the physiology of metazoan animals. For tissues to be maintained, stem cells and their progeny must migrate and differentiate in the correct positions. This need is even more acute after tissue damage by wounding or pathogenic infection. Inappropriate migration also underpins metastasis. Despite this, few mechanistic studies address stem cell migration during repair or homeostasis in adult tissues. Here, we present a shielded X-ray irradiation assay that allows us to follow stem cell migration in planarians. We demonstrate the use of this system to study the molecular control of stem cell migration and show that snail-1, snail-2 and zeb-1 EMT transcription factor homologs are necessary for cell migration to wound sites and for the establishment of migratory cell morphology. We also observed that stem cells undergo homeostatic migration to anterior regions that lack local stem cells, in the absence of injury, maintaining tissue homeostasis. This requires the polarity determinant notum. Our work establishes planarians as a suitable model for further in-depth study of the processes controlling stem cell migration in vivo. PMID:28893948

  5. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors control pluripotent adult stem cell migration in vivo in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnave, Prasad; Aboukhatwa, Ellen; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Thompson, James; Hill, Mark A; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2017-10-01

    Migration of stem cells underpins the physiology of metazoan animals. For tissues to be maintained, stem cells and their progeny must migrate and differentiate in the correct positions. This need is even more acute after tissue damage by wounding or pathogenic infection. Inappropriate migration also underpins metastasis. Despite this, few mechanistic studies address stem cell migration during repair or homeostasis in adult tissues. Here, we present a shielded X-ray irradiation assay that allows us to follow stem cell migration in planarians. We demonstrate the use of this system to study the molecular control of stem cell migration and show that snail-1 , snail-2 and zeb-1 EMT transcription factor homologs are necessary for cell migration to wound sites and for the establishment of migratory cell morphology. We also observed that stem cells undergo homeostatic migration to anterior regions that lack local stem cells, in the absence of injury, maintaining tissue homeostasis. This requires the polarity determinant notum Our work establishes planarians as a suitable model for further in-depth study of the processes controlling stem cell migration in vivo . © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Markers of Pluripotency in Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells and Their Differentiation to Progenitor of Cortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Castro, Irma Lydia; García-López, Guadalupe; Ávila-González, Daniela; Flores-Herrera, Héctor; Molina-Hernández, Anayansi; Portillo, Wendy; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Díaz, Néstor Fabián

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have promise for regenerative medicine due to their auto-renovation and differentiation capacities. Nevertheless, there are several ethical and methodological issues about these cells that have not been resolved. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) have been proposed as source of pluripotent stem cells. Several groups have studied hAEC but have reported inconsistencies about their pluripotency properties. The aim of the present study was the in vitro characterization of hAEC collected from a Mexican population in order to identify transcription factors involved in the pluripotency circuitry and to determine their epigenetic state. Finally, we evaluated if these cells differentiate to cortical progenitors. We analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively the expression of the transcription factors of pluripotency (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4 and REX1) by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR in hAEC. Also, we determined the presence of OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, SSEA3, SSEA4, TRA-1-60, E-cadherin, KLF4, TFE3 as well as the proliferation and epigenetic state by immunocytochemistry of the cells. Finally, hAEC were differentiated towards cortical progenitors using a protocol of two stages. Here we show that hAEC, obtained from a Mexican population and cultured in vitro (P0-P3), maintained the expression of several markers strongly involved in pluripotency maintenance (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, TFE3, KLF4, SSEA3, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and E-cadherin). Finally, when hAEC were treated with growth factors and small molecules, they expressed markers characteristic of cortical progenitors (TBR2, OTX2, NeuN and β-III-tubulin). Our results demonstrated that hAEC express naïve pluripotent markers (KLF4, REX1 and TFE3) as well as the cortical neuron phenotype after differentiation. This highlights the need for further investigation of hAEC as a possible source of hPSC. PMID:26720151

  7. Impaired epithelial differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells from ectodermal dysplasia-related patients is rescued by the small compound APR-246/PRIMA-1MET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom-Feuerstein, Ruby; Serror, Laura; Aberdam, Edith; Müller, Franz-Josef; van Bokhoven, Hans; Wiman, Klas G; Zhou, Huiqing; Aberdam, Daniel; Petit, Isabelle

    2013-02-05

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a group of congenital syndromes affecting a variety of ectodermal derivatives. Among them, ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome is caused by single point mutations in the p63 gene, which controls epidermal development and homeostasis. Phenotypic defects of the EEC syndrome include skin defects and limbal stem-cell deficiency. In this study, we designed a unique cellular model that recapitulated major embryonic defects related to EEC. Fibroblasts from healthy donors and EEC patients carrying two different point mutations in the DNA binding domain of p63 were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. EEC-iPSC from both patients showed early ectodermal commitment into K18(+) cells but failed to further differentiate into K14(+) cells (epidermis/limbus) or K3/K12(+) cells (corneal epithelium). APR-246 (PRIMA-1(MET)), a small compound that restores functionality of mutant p53 in human tumor cells, could revert corneal epithelial lineage commitment and reinstate a normal p63-related signaling pathway. This study illustrates the relevance of iPSC for p63 related disorders and paves the way for future therapy of EEC.

  8. Comparison of Gene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells, hESC-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Barbet; Isabelle Peiffer; Antoinette Hatzfeld; Pierre Charbord; Jacques A. Hatzfeld

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy to identify developmental/differentiation and plasma membrane marker genes of the most primitive human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs). Using sensitive and quantitative TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) methodology, we compared the expression of 381 genes in human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs), hESC-derived MSCs ...

  9. Translocation of SiO2-NPs across in vitro human bronchial epithelial monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, I; Vranic, S; Boland, S; Borot, M C; Marano, F; Baeza-Squiban, A

    2013-01-01

    Safe development and application of nanotechnologies in many fields require better knowledge about their potential adverse effects on human health. Evidence of abilities of nanoparticles (NPs) to cross epithelial barriers and reach secondary organs via the bloodstream led us to investigate the translocation of SiO 2 NPs of 50 nm (50 nm-SiO 2 -NPs) across human bronchial epithelial cells that are primary targets after exposure to inhaled NPs. We quantified the translocation of fluorescently labelled SiO 2 NPs at non-cytotoxic concentrations (5 and 10 μg/cm 2 ) across Calu-3 epithelial monolayer. After 14 days in culture Calu-3 cells seeded onto 3 μm-polycarbonate Transwell membranes formed an efficient bronchial barrier assessed by measurement of the transepithelial electric resistance and quantification of the permeability of the monolayer. After 24 hours of exposure, we observed a significant translocation of NPs that was more important when the initial NP concentration decreased. Confocal microscopy observations revealed NP uptake by cells and an important NP retention inside the porous membrane. In conclusion, 50 nm-SiO 2 -NPs can cross the human bronchial epithelial barrier without affecting the integrity of the epithelial cell monolayer.

  10. Differential growth factor induction and modulation of human gastric epithelial regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetreault, Marie-Pier; Chailler, Pierre; Rivard, Nathalie; Menard, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    While several autocrine/paracrine growth factors (GFs) can all stimulate epithelial regeneration in experimentally wounded primary gastric cultures, clinical relevance for their non-redundant cooperative actions in human gastric ulcer healing is suggested by the sequential pattern of GF gene induction in vivo. Using new HGE cell lines able to form a coherent monolayer with tight junctions as well as using primary human gastric epithelial cultures, we show that EGF, TGFα, HGF and IGFs accelerate epithelial restitution upon wounding, independently of the TGFβ pathway (as opposed to intestinal cells). However, they differently modulate cell behavior: TGFα exerts strong effects (even more than EGF) on cytoplasmic spreading and non-oriented protruding activity of bordering cells whereas HGF preferentially coordinates single lamella formation, cell elongation and migration into the wound. IGF-I and IGF-II rather induce the alignment of bordering cells and maintain a compact monolayer front. The number of mitotic cells maximally increases with EGF, followed by TGFα and IGF-I,-II. The current study demonstrates that GFs differentially regulate the regeneration of human gastric epithelial cells through specific modulation of cell shape adaptation, migration and proliferation, further stressing that a coordination of GF activities would be necessary for the normal progression of post-wounding epithelial repair

  11. Phosphorylation dynamics during early differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, D.; Munoz, J.; Braam, S.R.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Linding, R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells self-renew indefinitely and possess characteristic protein-protein networks that remodel during differentiation. How this occurs is poorly understood. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we analyzed the (phospho)proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during

  12. Human embryonic stem cells and microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu İskender

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs possess a great potential in the field of regenerative medicine by their virtue of pluripotent potential with indefinite proliferation capabilities. They can self renew themselves and differentiate into three embryonic germ layers. Although they are conventionally grown on mitotically inactivated mouse feeder cells, there are in vitro culture systems utilizing feeder cells of human origin in order to prevent cross-species contamination. Recently established in vitro culture systems suggested that direct interaction with feeder cells is not necessary but rather attachment to a substrate is required to ensure long-term, efficient hESC culture in vitro. This substrate is usually composed of a mixture of extracellular matrix components representing in vivo natural niche. In hESC biology, the mechanism of interaction of hESCs with extracellular matrix molecules remained insufficiently explored area of research due to their transient nature of interaction with the in vivo niche. However, an in vitro culture system established using extracellular matrix molecules may provide a safer alternative to culture systems with feeder cells while paving the way to Good Manufacturing Practice-GMP production of hESCs for therapeutic purposes. Therefore, it is essential to study the interaction of extracellular matrix molecules with hESCs in order to standardize in vitro culture systems for large-scale production of hESCs in a less labor-intensive way. This would not only provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms that control pluripotency but also serve to dissect the molecular signaling pathways of directed differentiation for prospective therapeutic applications in the future. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 486-495

  13. In-vivo expansion of autologous limbal stem cell using simple limbal epithelial transplantation for treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Ikeda; Panchal, Bhavik Uttam; Basu, Sayan; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-01-01

    A 20-year-old man from Bangladesh suffered accidental alkali injury to his right eye in May 2010 leading to total limbal stem cell deficiency. An amniotic membrane graft was performed 5 days after the accident and the patient presented to our institute 6 months later. On ocular examination, his best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/50 with a 360° pannus at the periphery and central area was spared but had stromal scarring. He underwent simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) taking a limbal biopsy from his left eye and was prescribed steroid and antibiotic eye drops postoperatively as per the standard regimen. At 2 year follow-up, the patient's ocular surface is stable with improvement in  BCVA to 20/25 post-SLET. PMID:23704435

  14. Biology of lung cancer: genetic mutation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    At present, most cases of unresectable cancer cannot be cured. Genetic mutations, EMT, and cancer stem cells are three major issues linked to poor prognosis in such cases, all connected by inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity. Issues on inter-/intra-tumor heterogeneity of genetic mutation could be resolved with recent and future technologies of deep sequencers, whereas, regarding such issues as the "same genome, different epigenome/phenotype", we expect to solve many of these problems in the future through further research in stem cell biology. We herein review and discuss the three major issues in the biology of cancers, especially from the standpoint of stem cell biology.

  15. Response of cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells to X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.; Stampfer, M.R.; Smith, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of X rays on the reproductive death of cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells was examined. Techniques were developed for isolating and culturing normal human mammary epithelial cells which provide sufficient cells at second passage for radiation studies, and an efficient clonogenic assay suitable for measuring radiation survival curves. It was found that the survival curves for epithelial cells from normal breast tissue were exponential and had D 0 values of about 109-148 rad for 225 kVp X rays. No consistent change in cell radiosensitivity with the age of donor was observed, and no sublethal damage repair in these cells could be detected with the split-dose technique

  16. Human epithelial cells increase their rigidity with ageing in vitro: direct measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdyyeva, Tamara K; Woodworth, Craig D; Sokolov, Igor

    2005-01-01

    The decrease in elasticity of epithelial tissues with ageing contributes to many human diseases. This change was previously attributed to increased crosslinking of extracellular matrix proteins. Here we show that individual human epithelial cells also become significantly more rigid during ageing in vitro. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we found that the Young's modulus of viable cells was consistently increased two- to four-fold in older versus younger cells. Direct visualization of the cytoskeleton using a novel method involving the AFM suggested that increased rigidity of ageing cells was due to a higher density of cytoskeletal fibres. Our results identify a unique mechanism that might contribute to the age-related loss of elasticity in epithelial tissues

  17. Effects of organophosphorus flame retardant TDCPP on normal human corneal epithelial cells: Implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; Liu, Rong-Yan; Li, Chao; Gao, Peng; Cui, Xin-Yi; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-11-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is one of the most detected organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in the environment, especially in indoor dust. Continuous daily exposure to TDCPP-containing dust may adversely impact human cornea. However, its detrimental effects on human corneal epithelium are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the cell apoptosis in normal human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) after TDCPP exposure and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our data indicated a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability after TDCPP exposure with LC 50 at 202 μg/mL. A concentration-dependent apoptotic sign was observed in HCECs after exposing to ≥2 μg/mL TDCPP. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induction was evidenced by up-regulation of its biomarker genes (ATF-4, CHOP, BiP, and XBP1). Furthermore, alternation of Bcl-2/Bax expression, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cellular ATP content decrease, and caspase-3 and -9 activity increase were observed after exposing to 2 or 20 μg/mL TDCPP. Taken together, the data implicated the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in TDCPP-induced HCEC apoptosis, probably mediated by mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Our findings showed TDCPP exposure induced toxicity to human cornea. Due to TDCPP's presence at high levels in indoor dust, further study is warranted to evaluate its health risk on human corneas. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Moving epithelia: Tracking the fate of mammalian limbal epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nick

    2015-09-01

    Lineage tracing allows the destiny of a stem cell (SC) and its progeny to be followed through time. In order to track their long-term fate, SC must be permanently marked to discern their distribution, division, displacement and differentiation. This information is essential for unravelling the mysteries that govern their replenishing activity while they remain anchored within their niche microenvironment. Modern-day lineage tracing uses inducible genetic recombination to illuminate cells within embryonic, newborn and adult tissues, and the advent of powerful high-resolution microscopy has enabled the behaviour of labelled cells to be monitored in real-time in a living organism. The simple structural organization of the mammalian cornea, including its accessibility and transparency, renders it the ideal tissue to study SC fate using lineage tracing assisted by non-invasive intravital microscopy. Despite more than a century of research devoted to understanding how this tissue is maintained and repaired, many limitations and controversies continue to plague the field, including uncertainties about the specificity of current SC markers, the number of SC within the cornea, their mode of division, their location, and importantly the signals that dictate cell migration. This communication will highlight historical discoveries as well as recent developments in the corneal SC field; more specifically how the progeny of these cells are mobilised to replenish this dynamic tissue during steady-state, disease and transplantation. Also discussed is how insights gleaned from animal studies can be used to advance our knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms that govern modelling and remodelling of the human cornea in health and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic Exposure to Particulate Nickel Induces Neoplastic Transformation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie L. Holmes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is a well-known human lung carcinogen with the particulate form being the most potent; however, the carcinogenic mechanism remains largely unknown. Few studies have investigated the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel in its target cell, human bronchial epithelial cells. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of particulate nickel in human lung epithelial cells. We found that nickel subsulfide induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells (BEP2D. Chronic exposure to nickel subsulfide readily induced cellular transformation, inducing 2.55, 2.9 and 2.35 foci per dish after exposure to 1, 2.5 and 5 μg/cm2 nickel subsulfide, respectively. Sixty-one, 100 and 70 percent of the foci isolated from 1, 2.5, and 5 μg/cm2 nickel subsulfide treatments formed colonies in soft agar and the degree of soft agar colony growth increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, chronic exposure to particulate nickel induces genotoxicity and cellular transformation in human lung epithelial cells.

  20. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tracy Chui-hsu; Craise, L.M; Prioleau, J.C.; Stampfer, M.R.; Rhim, J.S.

    1990-11-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude nice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiation cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tracy Chui-hsu; Craise, L.M; Prioleau, J.C.; Stampfer, M.R.; Rhim, J.S.

    1990-11-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude nice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiation cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  2. [CCL21 promotes the metastasis of human pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells via epithelial- mesenchymal transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Chen, Fangfang; Duan, Tanghai; Zhu, Haitao; Xie, Xiaodong; Wu, Yingying; Zhang, Zhijian; Wang, Dongqing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying that chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) promotes the metastasis ability of human pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells. Transwell(TM) was used to access the chemotaxis effect of CCL21 on Panc-1 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to detect the expression of C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) mRNA in the upper and lower chambers. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting were employed to examine the expressions of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins and CD133 of Panc-1 cells in the lower chamber, which were compared with those of the upper chamber as the control. The numbers of the Panc-1 cells induced by 0, 50, 100, 200 ng/mL CCL21 were 13.00 ± 3.00, 78.00 ± 9.00, 161.00 ± 11.00, 281.00 ± 17.00, respectively; with the increase of the concentration of CCL21, there were more cells migrating from the upper to the lower chamber; and the cells in the lower chamber expressed higher level of CCR7 mRNA than the ones staying in the upper chamber. The relative protein expressions of MMP-9, vimentin, E-cadherin and CD133 in the lower chamber were 0.42 ± 0.04, 0.36 ± 0.03, 0.12 ± 0.02, 0.46 ± 0.03, respectively, which were statistically significantly different from those in the upper chamber (0.15 ± 0.02, 0.25 ± 0.02, 0.25 ± 0.03, 0.13 ± 0.02, respectively). CCL21/CCR7 axis maybe play an important role in the metastasis of pancreatic cancer stem cells by EMT and up-regulation of MMP-9.

  3. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayasu Egawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted.

  4. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Griffin, Heather; Doorbar, John

    2015-01-01

    Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted. PMID:26193301

  5. Generation and purification of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwach, Verena; Passier, Robert

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 International Society of Differentiation Efficient and reproducible generation and purification of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) is crucial for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug screening and study of developmental events during cardiac specification. Established

  6. Research on human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells transfected with pIRES2-EGFP-VEGF165 using liposome. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  7. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  8. Bio-synthesis of gold nanoparticles by human epithelial cells, in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larios-Rodriguez, E; Rangel-Ayon, C; Herrera-Urbina, R; Castillo, S J; Zavala, G

    2011-01-01

    Healthy epithelial cells, in vivo, have the ability to synthesize gold nanoparticles when aqueous tetrachloroauric acid is made to react with human skin. Neither a reducing agent nor a protecting chemical is needed for this bio-synthesis method. The first indication of gold nanoparticle formation is the staining of the skin, which turns deep purple. Stereoscopic optical micrographs of human skin tissue in contact with aqueous tetrachloroauric acid clearly show the staining of the epithelial cells. The UV-Vis spectrum of these epithelial cells shows an absorption band with a maximum at 553 nm. This absorption peak is within the wavelength region where the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of aqueous colloidal gold exhibits a maximum. Transmission electron micrographs show that gold nanoparticles synthesized by epithelial cells have sizes between 1 and 100 nm. The electron diffraction pattern of these nanoparticles reveals a crystalline structure whose interplanar distances correspond to fcc metallic gold. Transmission electron micrographs of ultra-thin (70 nm thick) slices of epithelial cells clearly and undoubtedly demonstrate that gold nanoparticles are inside the cell. According to high resolution transmission electron micrographs of intracellular single gold nanoparticles, they have the shape of a polyhedron.

  9. Bio-synthesis of gold nanoparticles by human epithelial cells, in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larios-Rodriguez, E; Rangel-Ayon, C; Herrera-Urbina, R [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Metalurgia, Universidad de Sonora, Rosales y Luis Encinas S/N, Hermosillo, Sonora, C.P. 83000 (Mexico); Castillo, S J [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Rosales y Luis Encinas S/N, Hermosillo, Sonora, C.P. 83000 (Mexico); Zavala, G, E-mail: elarios@polimeros.uson.mx [Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-09-02

    Healthy epithelial cells, in vivo, have the ability to synthesize gold nanoparticles when aqueous tetrachloroauric acid is made to react with human skin. Neither a reducing agent nor a protecting chemical is needed for this bio-synthesis method. The first indication of gold nanoparticle formation is the staining of the skin, which turns deep purple. Stereoscopic optical micrographs of human skin tissue in contact with aqueous tetrachloroauric acid clearly show the staining of the epithelial cells. The UV-Vis spectrum of these epithelial cells shows an absorption band with a maximum at 553 nm. This absorption peak is within the wavelength region where the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of aqueous colloidal gold exhibits a maximum. Transmission electron micrographs show that gold nanoparticles synthesized by epithelial cells have sizes between 1 and 100 nm. The electron diffraction pattern of these nanoparticles reveals a crystalline structure whose interplanar distances correspond to fcc metallic gold. Transmission electron micrographs of ultra-thin (70 nm thick) slices of epithelial cells clearly and undoubtedly demonstrate that gold nanoparticles are inside the cell. According to high resolution transmission electron micrographs of intracellular single gold nanoparticles, they have the shape of a polyhedron.

  10. Structure of neuro-endocrine and neuro-epithelial interactions in human foetal pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivova, Yuliya; Proshchina, Alexandra; Barabanov, Valeriy; Leonova, Olga; Saveliev, Sergey

    2016-12-01

    In the pancreas of many mammals including humans, endocrine islet cells can be integrated with the nervous system components into neuro-insular complexes. The mechanism of the formation of such complexes is not clearly understood. The present study evaluated the interactions between the nervous system components, epithelial cells and endocrine cells in the human pancreas. Foetal pancreas, gestational age 19-23 weeks (13 cases) and 30-34 weeks (7 cases), were studied using double immunohistochemical labeling with neural markers (S100 protein and beta III tubulin), epithelial marker (cytokeratin 19 (CK19)) and antibodies to insulin and glucagon. We first analyse the structure of neuro-insular complexes using confocal microscopy and provide immunohistochemical evidences of the presence of endocrine cells within the ganglia or inside the nerve bundles. We showed that the nervous system components contact with the epithelial cells located in ducts or in clusters outside the ductal epithelium and form complexes with separate epithelial cells. We observed CK19-positive cells inside the ganglia and nerve bundles which were located separately or were integrated with the islets. Therefore, we conclude that neuro-insular complexes may forms as a result of integration between epithelial cells and nervous system components at the initial stages of islets formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition Mediated by CDH1 Promotes Spontaneous Reprogramming of Male Germline Stem Cells to Pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui An

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultured spermatogonial stem cells (GSCs can spontaneously form pluripotent cells in certain culture conditions. However, GSC reprogramming is a rare event that is largely unexplained. We show GSCs have high expression of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET suppressors resulting in a developmental barrier inhibiting GSC reprogramming. Either increasing OCT4 or repressing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β signaling promotes GSC reprogramming by upregulating CDH1 and boosting MET. Reducing ZEB1 also enhances GSC reprogramming through its direct effect on CDH1. RNA sequencing shows that rare GSCs, identified as CDH1+ after trypsin digestion, are epithelial-like cells. CDH1+ GSCs exhibit enhanced reprogramming and become more prevalent during the course of reprogramming. Our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the spontaneous emergence of pluripotent cells from GSC cultures; namely, rare GSCs upregulate CDH1 and initiate MET, processes normally kept in check by ZEB1 and TGF-β signaling, thereby ensuring germ cells are protected from aberrant acquisition of pluripotency.

  12. New perspectives in human stem cell therapeutic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trounson Alan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but the efficacy data are variable and of mixed benefit. Mechanisms of action of many of these cells are unknown and this raises the concern of unpredictable results in the future. Nevertheless there is considerable optimism that immune suppression and anti-inflammatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells will be of benefit for many conditions such as graft versus host disease, solid organ transplants and pulmonary fibrosis. Where bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells are being studied for heart disease, stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders, again progress is mixed and mostly without significant benefit. However, correction of multiple sclerosis, at least in the short term is encouraging. Clinical trials on the use of embryonic stem cell derivatives for spinal injury and macular degeneration are beginning and a raft of other clinical trials can be expected soon, for example, the use of neural stem cells for killing inoperable glioma and embryonic stem cells for regenerating β islet cells for diabetes. The change in attitude to embryonic stem cell research with the incoming Obama administration heralds a new co-operative environment for study and evaluation of stem cell therapies. The Californian stem cell initiative (California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has engendered global collaboration for this new medicine that will now also be supported by the US Federal Government. The active participation of governments, academia, biotechnology, pharmaceutical companies, and private investment is a powerful consortium for

  13. Human cancer stem cells are a target for cancer prevention using (-)-epigallocatechin gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Hirota; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Rawangkan, Anchalee; Suganuma, Masami

    2017-12-01

    Our previous experiments show that the main constituent of green-tea catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), completely prevents tumor promotion on mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene followed by okadaic acid and that EGCG and green tea extract prevent cancer development in a wide range of target organs in rodents. Therefore, we focused our attention on human cancer stem cells (CSCs) as targets of cancer prevention and treatment with EGCG. The numerous reports concerning anticancer activity of EGCG against human CSCs enriched from cancer cell lines were gathered from a search of PubMed, and we hope our review of the literatures will provide a broad selection for the effects of EGCG on various human CSCs. Based on our theoretical study, we discuss the findings as follows: (1) Compared with the parental cells, human CSCs express increased levels of the stemness markers Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, CD44, CD133, as well as the EMT markers, Twist, Snail, vimentin, and also aldehyde dehydrogenase. They showed decreased levels of E-cadherin and cyclin D1. (2) EGCG inhibits the transcription and translation of genes encoding stemness markers, indicating that EGCG generally inhibits the self-renewal of CSCs. (3) EGCG inhibits the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotypes of human CSCs. (4) The inhibition of EGCG of the stemness of CSCs was weaker compared with parental cells. (5) The weak inhibitory activity of EGCG increased synergistically in combination with anticancer drugs. Green tea prevents human cancer, and the combination of EGCG and anticancer drugs confers cancer treatment with tissue-agnostic efficacy.

  14. Characterizing the radioresponse of pluripotent and multipotent human stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Lan

    Full Text Available The potential capability of stem cells to restore functionality to diseased or aged tissues has prompted a surge of research, but much work remains to elucidate the response of these cells to genotoxic agents. To more fully understand the impact of irradiation on different stem cell types, the present study has analyzed the radioresponse of human pluripotent and multipotent stem cells. Human embryonic stem (ES cells, human induced pluripotent (iPS cells, and iPS-derived human neural stem cells (iPS-hNSCs cells were irradiated and analyzed for cell survival parameters, differentiation, DNA damage and repair and oxidative stress at various times after exposure. While irradiation led to dose-dependent reductions in survival, the fraction of surviving cells exhibited dose-dependent increases in metabolic activity. Irradiation did not preclude germ layer commitment of ES cells, but did promote neuronal differentiation. ES cells subjected to irradiation exhibited early apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression, but otherwise showed normal repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Cells surviving irradiation also showed acute and persistent increases in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that were significant at nearly all post-irradiation times analyzed. We suggest that stem cells alter their redox homeostasis to adapt to adverse conditions and that radiation-induced oxidative stress plays a role in regulating the function and fate of stem cells within tissues compromised by radiation injury.

  15. Studies Using an in Vitro Model Show Evidence of Involvement of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells in Human Embryo Implantation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Nishikawa-Uchida, Sayaka; Oda, Hideyuki; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Akiko; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    Human embryo implantation is a critical multistep process consisting of embryo apposition/adhesion, followed by penetration and invasion. Through embryo penetration, the endometrial epithelial cell barrier is disrupted and remodeled by an unknown mechanism. We have previously developed an in vitro model for human embryo implantation employing the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR and the human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. Using this model we have shown that stimulation with ovarian steroid hormones (17β-estradiol and progesterone, E2P4) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances the attachment and adhesion of JAR spheroids to Ishikawa. In the present study we showed that the attachment and adhesion of JAR spheroids and treatment with E2P4 or SAHA individually induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in Ishikawa cells. This was evident by up-regulation of N-cadherin and vimentin, a mesenchymal cell marker, and concomitant down-regulation of E-cadherin in Ishikawa cells. Stimulation with E2P4 or SAHA accelerated Ishikawa cell motility, increased JAR spheroid outgrowth, and enhanced the unique redistribution of N-cadherin, which was most prominent in proximity to the adhered spheroids. Moreover, an N-cadherin functional blocking antibody attenuated all events but not JAR spheroid adhesion. These results collectively provide evidence suggesting that E2P4- and implanting embryo-induced EMT of endometrial epithelial cells may play a pivotal role in the subsequent processes of human embryo implantation with functional control of N-cadherin. PMID:22174415

  16. Overexpression of human sperm protein 17 increases migration and decreases the chemosensitivity of human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fang-qiu; Han, Yan-ling; Liu, Qun; Wu, Bo; Huang, Wen-bin; Zeng, Su-yun

    2009-01-01

    Most deaths from ovarian cancer are due to metastases that are resistant to conventional therapies. But the factors that regulate the metastatic process and chemoresistance of ovarian cancer are poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the aberrant expression of human sperm protein 17 (HSp17) in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells and tried to analyze its influences on the cell behaviors like migration and chemoresistance. Immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry were used to identify HSp17 in paraffin embedded ovarian malignant tumor specimens and peritoneal metastatic malignant cells. Then we examined the effect of HSp17 overexpression on the proliferation, migration, and chemoresistance of ovarian cancer cells to carboplatin and cisplatin in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line, HO8910. We found that HSp17 was aberrantly expressed in 43% (30/70) of the patients with primary epithelial ovarian carcinomas, and in all of the metastatic cancer cells of ascites from 8 patients. The Sp17 expression was also detected in the metastatic lesions the same as in ovarian lesions. None of the 7 non-epithelial tumors primarily developed in the ovaries was immunopositive for HSp17. Overexpression of HSp17 increased the migration but decreased the chemosensitivity of ovarian carcinoma cells to carboplatin and cisplatin. HSp17 is aberrantly expressed in a significant proportion of epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Our results strongly suggest that HSp17 plays a role in metastatic disease and resistance of epithelial ovarian carcinoma to chemotherapy

  17. The protective effect of resveratrol on human lens epithelial cells against ultraviolet-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue - Fang Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the protective effect of resveratrol on human lens epithelial cells against ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. METHODS:Subcultured human lens epithelial cell line, ultraviolet induced cell apoptosis, 20μmol/L resveratrol pretreated cell, the indicators change was observed: rate of apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and apoptosis-related factors of caspses-3 and caspase-9 were detected by colorimetric detection, ultrastructure changes were observed under transmission electron microscope. RESULTS: Flow cytometry instrument testing found that resveratrol can suppress the apoptosis induced by ultraviolet irradiation, caspses-3 and caspase-9 content in positive control group were significantly higher than that of the negative control group at the same time period, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05; caspses-3 and caspase-9 content in experimental group were lower than that in the positive control group at the same time, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. In addition, the damage of human lens epithelial cells was alleviated with the incubation time of resveratrol elongated. CONCLUSION:Resveratrol may inhibit ultraviolet-induced apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells, it has preventive function against radioactive cataract, and it can provide reliable evidence for pursuing effective medicine to prevent and treat cataract.

  18. TGF-β1 induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in human bronchial epithelial cells is enhanced by IL-1β but not abrogated by corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraw Bruce L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic persistent asthma is characterized by ongoing airway inflammation and airway remodeling. The processes leading to airway remodeling are poorly understood, and there is increasing evidence that even aggressive anti-inflammatory therapy does not completely prevent this process. We sought to investigate whether TGFβ1 stimulates bronchial epithelial cells to undergo transition to a mesenchymal phenotype, and whether this transition can be abrogated by corticosteroid treatment or enhanced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Methods BEAS-2B and primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells were stimulated with TGFβ1 and expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and zymography. In some cases the epithelial cells were also incubated with corticosteroids or IL-1β. Results were analyzed using non-parametric statistical tests. Results Treatment of BEAS-2B or primary human bronchial epithelial cells with TGFβ1 significantly reduced the expression level of the epithelial adherence junction protein E-cadherin. TGFβ1 then markedly induced mesenchymal marker proteins such as collagen I, tenascin C, fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin mRNA in a dose dependant manner. The process of mesenchymal transition was accompanied by a morphological change towards a more spindle shaped fibroblast cell type with a more motile and invasive phenotype. Corticosteroid pre-treatment did not significantly alter the TGFβ1 induced transition but IL-1β enhanced the transition. Conclusion Our results indicate, that TGFβ1 can induce mesenchymal transition in the bronchial epithelial cell line and primary cells. Since asthma has been strongly associated with increased expression of TGFβ1 in the airway, epithelial to mesenchymal transition may contribute to the contractile and fibrotic remodeling process that accompanies chronic asthma.

  19. Adrenomedullin stimulates cyclic AMP production in the airway epithelial cells of guinea-pigs and in the human epithelial cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kawaguchi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of adrenomedullin (AM on airway epithelial cells. Primary cultures of guinea-pig tracheal epithelial cells and the human bronchiolar epithelial cell line NCI-H441 were used. Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and stable end-products of nitric oxide were assayed. Adrenomedullin (10−6 mol/L stimulated cAMP production in guinea-pig epithelial cells. Indomethacin (10−5 mol/L significantly decreased the basal level of intracellular cAMP in guinea-pig epithelial cells, but not in NCI-H441 cells. However, AM did not stimulate production of PGE2, a major product that can increase cAMP formation. In the case of NCI-H441 cells, AM (10−8 – 10−6 mol/L did not significantly affect intracellular cGMP levels or nitrite content in conditioned medium. Adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP each stimulated cAMP production in NCI-H441 cells, but AM-stimulated cAMP production was antagonized by the CGRP fragment CGRP8–37. These findings suggest that AM stimulates cAMP production and functionally competes with CGRP for binding sites in airway epithelial cells, at least in human epithelial cells, but that it does not stimulate the release of PGE2 and nitric oxide. Though cyclooxygenase products contribute to some extent to cAMP formation in guinea-pigs, AM independently stimulates intracellular cAMP formation in airway epithelial cells.

  20. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel trafficking and function by sodium 4-phenylbutyrate in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Planès, Carole; Escudier, Estelle; Fanen, Pascale; Coste, André; Clerici, Christine

    2007-11-23

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) has been shown to correct the cellular trafficking of several mutant or nonmutant plasma membrane proteins such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator through the expression of 70-kDa heat shock proteins. The objective of the study was to determine whether 4-PBA may influence the functional expression of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC). Using primary cultures of HNEC, we demonstrate that 4-PBA (5 mm for 6 h) markedly stimulated amiloride-sensitive sodium channel activity and that this was related to an increased abundance of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits in the apical membrane. The increase in ENaC cell surface expression (i) was due to insertion of newly ENaC subunits as determined by brefeldin A experiments and (ii) was not associated with cell surface retention of ENaC subunits because endocytosis of ENaC subunits was unchanged. In addition, we find that ENaC co-immunoprecipitated with the heat shock protein constitutively expressed Hsc70, that has been reported to modulate ENaC trafficking, and that 4-PBA decreased Hsc70 protein level. Finally, we report that in cystic fibrosis HNEC obtained from two cystic fibrosis patients, 4-PBA increased functional expression of ENaC as demonstrated by the increase in amiloride-sensitive sodium transport and in alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunit expression in the apical membrane. Our results suggest that in HNEC, 4-PBA increases the functional expression of ENaC through the insertion of new alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits into the apical membrane and also suggest that 4-PBA could modify ENaC trafficking by reducing Hsc70 protein expression.

  1. Antigen presentation and MHC class II expression by human esophageal epithelial cells: role in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Daniel J; Pooni, Aman; Mak, Nanette; Hurlbut, David J; Basta, Sameh; Justinich, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a crucial role in initiating immune responses. Under pathological conditions, epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces act as nonprofessional APCs, thereby regulating immune responses at the site of exposure. Epithelial cells in the esophagus may contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) by presenting antigens on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Our goal was to demonstrate the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to process and present antigens on the MHC class II system and to investigate the contribution of epithelial cell antigen presentation to EoE. Immunohistochemistry detected HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 expression and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected interferon-γ (IFNγ) in esophageal biopsies. Antigen presentation was studied using the human esophageal epithelial cell line HET-1A by reverse transcriptase-PCR, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. T helper cell lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and IL-2 secretion. IFNγ and MHC class II were increased in mucosa of patients with EoE. IFNγ increased mRNA of HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR, and CIITA in HET-1A cells. HET-1A engulfed cell debris and processed ovalbumin. HET-1A cells expressed HLA-DR after IFNγ treatment. HET-1A stimulated T helper cell activation. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to act as nonprofessional APCs in the presence of IFNγ. Esophageal epithelial cell antigen presentation may contribute to the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Qualitatively Monitoring Binding and Expression of the Transcription Factors Sp1 and NFI as a Useful Tool to Evaluate the Quality of Primary Cultured Epithelial Stem Cells in Tissue Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Bel, Gaëtan; Ghio, Sergio Cortez; Larouche, Danielle; Germain, Lucie; Guérin, Sylvain L

    2018-05-27

    Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and Western blots are simple, efficient, and rapid methods to study DNA-protein interactions and protein expression, respectively. Primary cultures and subcultures of epithelial cells are widely used for the production of tissue-engineered substitutes and are gaining popularity as a model for gene expression studies. The preservation of stem cells through the culture process is essential to produce high quality substitutes. However, the increase in the number of cell passages is associated with a decrease in their ability to proliferate until senescence is reached. This process is likely to be mediated by the altered expression of nuclear-located transcription factors such as Sp1 and NFI, whose expression has been documented to be required for cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation. In some of our recent studies, we observed a correlation between reconstructed tissues exhibiting poor histological and structural characteristics and a low expression of Sp1 in their constituting epithelial cells. Therefore, monitoring both the expression and DNA binding of these transcription factors in human skin and corneal epithelial cells is a useful tool for characterizing the quality of primary cultured epithelial cells.

  3. Development of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Fen; Wu, Mengyao; Wang, Zack Z

    2015-07-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), provide a new cell source for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug discovery, and preclinical toxicity screening. Understanding of the onset and the sequential process of hematopoietic cells from differentiated hPSCs will enable the achievement of personalized medicine and provide an in vitro platform for studying of human hematopoietic development and disease. During embryogenesis, hemogenic endothelial cells, a specified subset of endothelial cells in embryonic endothelium, are the primary source of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells. In this review, we discuss current status in the generation of multipotent hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from hPSCs via hemogenic endothelial cells. We also review the achievements in direct reprogramming from non-hematopoietic cells to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Further characterization of hematopoietic differentiation in hPSCs will improve our understanding of blood development and expedite the development of hPSC-derived blood products for therapeutic purpose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Stem cell markers in the heart of the human newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Faa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of cardiac progenitor cells in mammals raises the possibility that the human heart contains a population of stem cells capable of generating cardiomyocytes and coronary vessels. Several recent studies now show that the different cell types that characterize the adult human heart arise from a common ancestor. Human cardiac stem cells differentiate into cardiomyocytes, and, in lesser extent, into smooth muscle and endothelial cells. The characterization of human cardiac stem cells (CSCs has important clinical implications. In recent years, CD117 (c-kit has been reported to mark a subtype of stem/progenitor cells in the human heart, with stem cell-like properties, including the ability to self-renewal and clonogenicity multipotentiality. Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano

  5. Semaphorin 3 C drives epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasiveness, and stem-like characteristics in prostate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kevin J; Hui, Daniel H F; Lee, Wilson W; Dong, Mingshu; Tombe, Tabitha; Jiao, Ivy Z F; Khosravi, Shahram; Takeuchi, Ario; Peacock, James W; Ivanova, Larissa; Moskalev, Igor; Gleave, Martin E; Buttyan, Ralph; Cox, Michael E; Ong, Christopher J

    2017-09-13

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is among the most commonly-occurring cancers worldwide and a leader in cancer-related deaths. Local non-invasive PCa is highly treatable but limited treatment options exist for those with locally-advanced and metastatic forms of the disease underscoring the need to identify mechanisms mediating PCa progression. The semaphorins are a large grouping of membrane-associated or secreted signalling proteins whose normal roles reside in embryogenesis and neuronal development. In this context, semaphorins help establish chemotactic gradients and direct cell movement. Various semaphorin family members have been found to be up- and down-regulated in a number of cancers. One family member, Semaphorin 3 C (SEMA3C), has been implicated in prostate, breast, ovarian, gastric, lung, and pancreatic cancer as well as glioblastoma. Given SEMA3C's roles in development and its augmented expression in PCa, we hypothesized that SEMA3C promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem-like phenotypes in prostate cells. In the present study we show that ectopic expression of SEMA3C in RWPE-1 promotes the upregulation of EMT and stem markers, heightened sphere-formation, and cell plasticity. In addition, we show that SEMA3C promotes migration and invasion in vitro and cell dissemination in vivo.

  6. Human retinal pigment epithelial cell-induced apoptosis in activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Wiencke, A K; la Cour, M

    1998-01-01

    human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can induce apoptosis in activated T cells. METHODS: Fas ligand (FasL) expression was detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Cultured RPE cells were cocultured with T-cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes for 6 hours to 2 days. Induction...... of apoptosis was detected by 7-amino-actinomycin D and annexin V staining. RESULTS: Retinal pigment epithelial cells expressed FasL and induced apoptosis in activated Fas+ T cells. Blocking of Fas-FasL interaction with antibody strongly inhibited RPE-mediated T-cell apoptosis. Retinal pigment epithelial cells...... induced apoptosis in several activated T-cell populations and T-cell lines, including T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-CD3-negative T-cell lines. In contrast, RPE cells induced little or no apoptosis in resting peripheral T cells. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II monoclonal antibodies, which...

  7. Human retinal pigment epithelial cell-induced apoptosis in activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Wiencke, A K; la Cour, M

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The immune privilege of the eye has been thought to be dependent on physical barriers and absence of lymphatic vessels. However, the immune privilege may also involve active immunologic processes, as recent studies have indicated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether...... human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can induce apoptosis in activated T cells. METHODS: Fas ligand (FasL) expression was detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Cultured RPE cells were cocultured with T-cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes for 6 hours to 2 days. Induction...... of apoptosis was detected by 7-amino-actinomycin D and annexin V staining. RESULTS: Retinal pigment epithelial cells expressed FasL and induced apoptosis in activated Fas+ T cells. Blocking of Fas-FasL interaction with antibody strongly inhibited RPE-mediated T-cell apoptosis. Retinal pigment epithelial cells...

  8. Oxytetracycline Inhibits Mucus Secretion and Inflammation in Human Airway Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Said Ahmad; Ishinaga, Hajime; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, but its nonantibacterial effects in the human respiratory tract are unknown. In this study, the effects of oxytetracycline on mucus secretion and inflammation were examined by PCR and ELISA in the human airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292. Oxytetracycline (10 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced MUC5AC gene expression and MUC5AC protein levels in NCI-H292 cells. It also downregulated IL-8 and IL-1β gene expression and IL-1β protein levels. Our findings demonstrated that oxytetracycline suppressed mucus production and inflammation in human respiratory epithelial cells, providing further evidence for the usefulness of oxytetracycline for human airway inflammatory diseases. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Platelets are a possible regulator of human endometrial re-epithelialization during menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suginami, Koh; Sato, Yukiyasu; Horie, Akihito; Matsumoto, Hisanori; Kyo, Satoru; Araki, Yoshihiko; Konishi, Ikuo; Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The human endometrium periodically breaks down and regenerates. As platelets have been reported to contribute to the tissue remodeling process, we examined the possible involvement of platelets in endometrial regeneration. The distribution of extravasating platelets throughout the menstrual cycle was immunohistochemically examined using human endometrial tissues. EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells, a human endometrial epithelial cell-derived immortalized cell line, were co-cultured with platelets, and the effects of platelets on the epithelialization response of EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells were investigated by attachment and permeability assays, immunohistochemical staining, and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical study showed numerous extravasated platelets in the subluminar stroma during the menstrual phase. The platelets promoted the cell-to-matrigel attachment of EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells concomitantly with the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. They also promoted cell-to-cell contact among EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells in parallel with E-cadherin expression. These results indicate the possible involvement of platelets in the endometrial epithelial re-epithelialization process. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Regulation of hTERT Expression and Function in Newly Immortalized p53(+) Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    human mammary epithelial cell types by human papilloma virus 16 e6 or e7. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1995; 92:3687-91. 54. Shay JW, Pereira-Smith OM, Wright...Liu X-L, Chu Q, Gao Q, Band V. Immortalization of distinct human mammary epithelial cell types by human papilloma virus 16 e6 or e7. Proc Nat Acad

  11. Role of Notch signaling in cell-fate determination of human mammary stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dontu, Gabriela; Jackson, Kyle W; McNicholas, Erin; Kawamura, Mari J; Abdallah, Wissam M; Wicha, Max S

    2004-01-01

    Notch signaling has been implicated in the regulation of cell-fate decisions such as self-renewal of adult stem cells and differentiation of progenitor cells along a particular lineage. Moreover, depending on the cellular and developmental context, the Notch pathway acts as a regulator of cell survival and cell proliferation. Abnormal expression of Notch receptors has been found in different types of epithelial metaplastic lesions and neoplastic lesions, suggesting that Notch may act as a proto-oncogene. The vertebrate Notch1 and Notch4 homologs are involved in normal development of the mammary gland, and mutated forms of these genes are associated with development of mouse mammary tumors. In order to determine the role of Notch signaling in mammary cell-fate determination, we have utilized a newly described in vitro system in which mammary stem/progenitor cells can be cultured in suspension as nonadherent 'mammospheres'. Notch signaling was activated using exogenous ligands, or was inhibited using previously characterized Notch signaling antagonists. Utilizing this system, we demonstrate that Notch signaling can act on mammary stem cells to promote self-renewal and on early progenitor cells to promote their proliferation, as demonstrated by a 10-fold increase in secondary mammosphere formation upon addition of a Notch-activating DSL peptide. In addition to acting on stem cells, Notch signaling is also able to act on multipotent progenitor cells, facilitating myoepithelial lineage-specific commitment and proliferation. Stimulation of this pathway also promotes branching morphogenesis in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures. These effects are completely inhibited by a Notch4 blocking antibody or a gamma secretase inhibitor that blocks Notch processing. In contrast to the effects of Notch signaling on mammary stem/progenitor cells, modulation of this pathway has no discernable effect on fully committed, differentiated, mammary epithelial cells. These studies

  12. Wnt/β-catenin signaling in adult mammalian epithelial stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, Kai; Clevers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Adult stem cells self-renew and replenish differentiated cells in various organs and tissues throughout a mammal's life. Over the last 25 years an ever-growing body of knowledge has unraveled the essential regulation of adult mammalian epithelia by the canonical Wnt signaling with its key

  13. Spindle orientation bias in gut epithelial stem cell compartments is lost in precancerous tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quyn, A.J.; Appleton, P.L.; Carey, F.A.; Steele, R.J.; Barker, N.; Clevers, H.; Ridgway, R.A.; Sansom, O.J.; Nathke, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of asymmetric divisions for stem cell function and maintenance is well established in the developing nervous system and the skin; however, its role in gut epithelium and its importance for tumorigenesis is still debated. We demonstrate alignment of mitotic spindles perpendicular to

  14. Electrical Guidance of Human Stem Cells in the Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited migration of neural stem cells in adult brain is a roadblock for the use of stem cell therapies to treat brain diseases and injuries. Here, we report a strategy that mobilizes and guides migration of stem cells in the brain in vivo. We developed a safe stimulation paradigm to deliver directional currents in the brain. Tracking cells expressing GFP demonstrated electrical mobilization and guidance of migration of human neural stem cells, even against co-existing intrinsic cues in the rostral migration stream. Transplanted cells were observed at 3 weeks and 4 months after stimulation in areas guided by the stimulation currents, and with indications of differentiation. Electrical stimulation thus may provide a potential approach to facilitate brain stem cell therapies.

  15. Human intestinal tissue with adult stem cell properties derived from pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forster, Ryan; Chiba, Kunitoshi; Schaeffer, Lorian; Regalado, Samuel G; Lai, Christine S; Gao, Qing; Kiani, Samira; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans; Cost, Gregory J; Chan, Andy; Rebar, Edward J; Urnov, Fyodor D; Gregory, Philip D; Pachter, Lior; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Hockemeyer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been proposed as a source for transplantation therapies and are rapidly becoming valuable tools for human disease modeling. However, many applications are limited due to the lack of robust differentiation paradigms that allow for the

  16. Human embryonic stem cell lines model experimental human cytomegalovirus latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkert, Rhiannon R; Kalejta, Robert F

    2013-05-28

    Herpesviruses are highly successful pathogens that persist for the lifetime of their hosts primarily because of their ability to establish and maintain latent infections from which the virus is capable of productively reactivating. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a betaherpesvirus, establishes latency in CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells during natural infections in the body. Experimental infection of CD34(+) cells ex vivo has demonstrated that expression of the viral gene products that drive productive infection is silenced by an intrinsic immune defense mediated by Daxx and histone deacetylases through heterochromatinization of the viral genome during the establishment of latency. Additional mechanistic details about the establishment, let alone maintenance and reactivation, of HCMV latency remain scarce. This is partly due to the technical challenges of CD34(+) cell culture, most notably, the difficulty in preventing spontaneous differentiation that drives reactivation and renders them permissive for productive infection. Here we demonstrate that HCMV can establish, maintain, and reactivate in vitro from experimental latency in cultures of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), for which spurious differentiation can be prevented or controlled. Furthermore, we show that known molecular aspects of HCMV latency are faithfully recapitulated in these cells. In total, we present ESCs as a novel, tractable model for studies of HCMV latency.

  17. Mechanism research of miR-181 regulating human lens epithelial cell apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the expression of miR-181 in the lens tissue of cataract and the regulating mechanism of miR-181 on apoptosis of human lens epithelial cell.METHODS:Real time q-PCR was used to measure the expression of miR-181 in the anterior lens capsules of age-related cataract and human lens epithelial cell apoptosis model. miR-181 mimic and inhibitor were transfected using Lipofectamine 2 000 to regulate the expression of miR-181, and then Real time q-PCR was used to verify transfection efficiency. Flow cytometry was used to detect the change of cell apoptosis rate. RESULTS: Compared with control group, the expression of miR-181 was significantly higher in both the anterior lens capsules of age-related cataract and human lens epithelial cell apoptosis model; the relative expression of miR-181 in lens epithelial cells transfected with miR-181 mimic was increased, whereas decreased in cells transfected with miR-181 inhibitor; the apoptosis rate of cells transfected with miR-181 mimic was increased, while reduced in miR-181 inhibitor group. Each result was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: High expression of miR-181 is detected in anterior lens capsule of age-related cataract. miR-181 might play a certain role in the pathogenesis of cataract via promoting human lens epithelial cell apoptosis. miR-181 probably becomes a new approach for the nonoperative treatment of cataract, but the concrete mechanism still needs to be further studied.

  18. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells, mediated by a long non-coding RNA, HOTAIR, are involved in cell malignant transformation induced by cigarette smoke extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi; Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Bairu; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Shi, Le; Lu, Xiaolin; Liu, Qizhan

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of lung diseases, including cancer, caused by cigarette smoke is increasing, but the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation induced by cigarette smoke remain unclear. This report describes a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and experiments utilizing lncRNAs to integrate inflammation with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. The present study shows that, induced by CSE, IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, leads to activation of STAT3, a transcription activator. A ChIP assay determined that the interaction of STAT3 with the promoter regions of HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) increased levels of HOTAIR. Blocking of IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody, decreasing STAT3, and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced HOTAIR expression. Moreover, for HBE cells cultured in the presence of HOTAIR siRNA for 24 h, the CSE-induced EMT, formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates HOTAIR in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT and to CSCs induced by CSE. These data define a link between inflammation and EMT, processes involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE. This link, mediated through lncRNAs, establishes a mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • STAT3 directly regulates the levels of LncRNA HOTAIR. • LncRNA HOTAIR mediates the link between inflammation and EMT. • LncRNA HOTAIR is involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE

  19. Imaging of Human Hepatic Stem Cells In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Report on progress in MRI and PET of stem cell tracking. Human hepatic stem cell imaging for both MRI and PET have been accomplished within SCID/nod mice, and succeeded in cell specificity labeling with in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo image tracking. For MRI, stem cell labeling was accomplished by two methods: (1) in vitro labeling the stem cells just prior to in vivo transplantation, and/or (2) transplanting the stem cells into SCID/nod mice and in vivo specificity labeling the cells just prior to MRI. For labeling techniques 1 and 2, multiple image controls were utilized and include: (A) stem cells(-) and contrast label(-), (B) stem cells(+) and contrast label(-), and (C) stem cells(-) and contrast label(+) help to confirm signal noise background interference, which is a result of slight nonspecific cell labeling. Contrast labeled stem cells are directly transplanted into liver tissues, the tissues excised, and immediately MR imaged to determine cell dispersion dynamics. In this method, the contrast labeled cells appear as void foci throughout the organs. The images are imported into Metamorph imaging software and analyzed for foci radii, diameter, and to discern spheroid volumes. Then, cell numbers are extrapolated to understand ''imaged'' cell aggregate requirements using this technique. For this ex vivo method, a cell aggregate of ∼100 stem cells is required to MRI monitor signal activities. For in vivo imaging, contrast labeled human stem cells within SCID/nod mice are also confirmed as small foci voids and are evident within liver tissues. Initially, these short-term studies where accomplished by in vitro labeling stem cells, transplanting the cells, then in vivo imaging the tissues between days 3-15. Next and to avoid imaged time limitations of detaching contrast agents, the proliferative stem cells were labeled after transplantation, and before MR imaging. This was accomplished to confirm the ability to specifically label unique cell subsets after the

  20. Sex-Dependent Gene Expression in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ronen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Males and females have a variety of sexually dimorphic traits, most of which result from hormonal differences. However, differences between male and female embryos initiate very early in development, before hormonal influence begins, suggesting the presence of genetically driven sexual dimorphisms. By comparing the gene expression profiles of male and X-inactivated female human pluripotent stem cells, we detected Y-chromosome-driven effects. We discovered that the sex-determining gene SRY is expressed in human male pluripotent stem cells and is induced by reprogramming. In addition, we detected more than 200 differentially expressed autosomal genes in male and female embryonic stem cells. Some of these genes are involved in steroid metabolism pathways and lead to sex-dependent differentiation in response to the estrogen precursor estrone. Thus, we propose that the presence of the Y chromosome and specifically SRY may drive sex-specific differences in the growth and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.

  1. Gene expression analysis uncovers novel Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) effects in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Qiu, Weiliang; Sathirapongsasuti, J. Fah.; Cho, Michael H.; Mancini, John D.; Lao, Taotao; Thibault, Derek M.; Litonjua, Gus; Bakke, Per S.; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hersh, Craig P.; Anderson, Christopher; Geigenmuller, Ute; Raby, Benjamin A.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Perrella, Mark A.; Choi, Augustine M.K.; Quackenbush, John; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog Interacting Protein (HHIP) was implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, it remains unclear how HHIP contributes to COPD pathogenesis. To identify genes regulated by HHIP, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) stably infected with HHIP shRNAs. HHIP silencing led to differential expression of 296 genes; enrichment for variants nominally associated with COPD was found. Eighteen of the differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR in Beas-2B cells. Seven of 11 validated genes tested in human COPD and control lung tissues demonstrated significant gene expression differences. Functional annotation indicated enrichment for extracellular matrix and cell growth genes. Network modeling demonstrated that the extracellular matrix and cell proliferation genes influenced by HHIP tended to be interconnected. Thus, we identified potential HHIP targets in human bronchial epithelial cells that may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. PMID:23459001

  2. Hurdles to clinical translation of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neofytou, Evgenios; O'Brien, Connor Galen; Couture, Larry A; Wu, Joseph C

    2015-07-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells are known to have the capacity to renew indefinitely, being intrinsically able to differentiate into many different cell types. These characteristics have generated tremendous enthusiasm about the potential applications of these cells in regenerative medicine. However, major challenges remain with the development and testing of novel experimental stem cell therapeutics in the field. In this Review, we focus on the nature of the preclinical challenges and discuss potential solutions that could help overcome them. Furthermore, we discuss the use of allogeneic versus autologous stem cell products, including a review of their respective advantages and disadvantages, major clinical requirements, quality standards, time lines, and costs of clinical grade development.

  3. TLR-dependent human mucosal epithelial cell responses to microbial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eMassari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractToll-Like Receptor (TLR signaling represents one of the best studied pathways to implement defense mechanisms against invading microbes in humans as well as in animals. TLRs respond to specific microbial ligands and to danger signals produced by the host during infection, and initiate downstream cascades that activate both innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs are expressed by professional immune cells and by the large majority of non-hematopoietic cells, including epithelial cells. In epithelial tissues, TLR functions are particularly important because these sites are constantly exposed to microorganisms, due to their location at the host interface with the environment. While at these sites, specific defense mechanisms and inflammatory responses are initiated via TLR signaling against pathogens, suppression or lack of TLR activation is also observed in response to the commensal microbiota. The mechanisms by which TLR signaling is regulated in mucosal epithelial cells include differential expression and levels of TLRs (and their signaling partners, their cellular localization and positioning within the tissue in a fashion that favors responses to pathogens while dampening responses to commensals and maintaining tissue homeostasis in physiologic conditions. In this review, the expression and activation of TLRs in mucosal epithelial cells of several sites of the human body are examined. Specifically, the oral cavity, the ear canal and eye, the airways, the gut and the reproductive tract are discussed, along with how site-specific host defense mechanisms are implemented via TLR signaling.

  4. Development and Characterization of a Human and Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cell Monolayer Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kozuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We describe the development and characterization of a mouse and human epithelial cell monolayer platform of the small and large intestines, with a broad range of potential applications including the discovery and development of minimally systemic drug candidates. Culture conditions for each intestinal segment were optimized by correlating monolayer global gene expression with the corresponding tissue segment. The monolayers polarized, formed tight junctions, and contained a diversity of intestinal epithelial cell lineages. Ion transport phenotypes of monolayers from the proximal and distal colon and small intestine matched the known and unique physiology of these intestinal segments. The cultures secreted serotonin, GLP-1, and FGF19 and upregulated the epithelial sodium channel in response to known biologically active agents, suggesting intact secretory and absorptive functions. A screen of over 2,000 pharmacologically active compounds for inhibition of potassium ion transport in the mouse distal colon cultures led to the identification of a tool compound. : Siegel and colleagues describe their development of a human and mouse intestinal epithelial cell monolayer platform that maintains the cellular, molecular, and functional characteristics of tissue for each intestinal segment. They demonstrate the platform's application to drug discovery by screening a library of over 2,000 compounds to identify an inhibitor of potassium ion transport in the mouse distal colon. Keywords: intestinal epithelium, organoids, monolayer, colon, small intestine, phenotype screening assays, enteroid, colonoid

  5. The ethics of patenting human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-09-01

    Just as human embryonic stem cell research has generated controversy about the uses of human embryos for research and therapeutic applications, human embryonic stem cell patents raise fundamental ethical issues. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted foundational patents, including a composition of matter (or product) patent to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), the University of Wisconsin-Madison's intellectual property office. In contrast, the European Patent Office rejected the same WARF patent application for ethical reasons. This article assesses the appropriateness of these patents placing the discussion in the context of the deontological and consequentialist ethical issues related to human embryonic stem cell patenting. It advocates for a patent system that explicitly takes ethical factors into account and explores options for new types of intellectual property arrangements consistent with ethical concerns.

  6. Human pluripotent stem cells: an emerging model in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zengrong; Huangfu, Danwei

    2013-02-01

    Developmental biology has long benefited from studies of classic model organisms. Recently, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, have emerged as a new model system that offers unique advantages for developmental studies. Here, we discuss how studies of hPSCs can complement classic approaches using model organisms, and how hPSCs can be used to recapitulate aspects of human embryonic development 'in a dish'. We also summarize some of the recently developed genetic tools that greatly facilitate the interrogation of gene function during hPSC differentiation. With the development of high-throughput screening technologies, hPSCs have the potential to revolutionize gene discovery in mammalian development.

  7. Is Human-induced Pluripotent Stem Cell the Best Optimal?

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Wang; Jie Kong; Yi-Yao Cui; Peng Liu; Jian-Yan Wen

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Since the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology a decade ago, enormous progress has been made in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Human iPSCs have been widely used for disease modeling, drug discovery, and cell therapy development. In this review, we discuss the progress in applications of iPSC technology that are particularly relevant to drug discovery and regenerative medicine, and consider the remaining challenges and the emerging opportunities in...

  8. Hurdles to clinical translation of human induced pluripotent stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Neofytou, Evgenios; O’Brien, Connor Galen; Couture, Larry A.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells are known to have the capacity to renew indefinitely, being intrinsically able to differentiate into many different cell types. These characteristics have generated tremendous enthusiasm about the potential applications of these cells in regenerative medicine. However, major challenges remain with the development and testing of novel experimental stem cell therapeutics in the field. In this Review, we focus on the nature of the preclinical challenges and discuss p...

  9. Alloimmune Responses of Humanized Mice to Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel G. Kooreman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in using embryonic stem cell (ESC and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC derivatives for tissue regeneration. However, an increased understanding of human immune responses to stem cell-derived allografts is necessary for maintaining long-term graft persistence. To model this alloimmunity, humanized mice engrafted with human hematopoietic and immune cells could prove to be useful. In this study, an in-depth analysis of graft-infiltrating human lymphocytes and splenocytes revealed that humanized mice incompletely model human immune responses toward allogeneic stem cells and their derivatives. Furthermore, using an “allogenized” mouse model, we show the feasibility of reconstituting immunodeficient mice with a functional mouse immune system and describe a key role of innate immune cells in the rejection of mouse stem cell allografts.

  10. Development of a 3D co-culture model using human stem ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphogenetic tissue fusion is a critical and complex event in embryonic development and failure of this event leads to birth defects, such as cleft palate. Palatal fusion requires adhesion and subsequent dissolution of the medial epithelial layer of the mesenchymal palatal shelves, and is regulated by the growth factors EGF and TGFβ, and others, although the complete regulatory mechanism is not understood. Three dimensional (3D) organotypic models allow us to mimic the native architecture of human tissue to facilitate the study of tissue dynamics and their responses to developmental toxicants. Our goal was to develop and characterize a spheroidal model of palatal fusion to investigate the mechanisms regulating fusion with exposure to growth factors and chemicals in the ToxCast program known to disrupt this event. We present a spheroidal model using human umbilical-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) spheroid cores cultured for 13 days and then coated with MaxGel™ basement membrane and a layer of human progenitor epithelial keratinocytes (hPEK) (hMSC+hPEK spheroids). We characterized the growth, differentiation, proliferation and fusion activity of the model. Spheroid diameter was dependent on hMSC seeding density, size of the seeding wells, time in culture, and type of medium. hMSC spheroid growth was enhanced with osteogenic differentiation medium. Alkaline phosphatase activity in the hMSC spheroid, indicating osteogenic differentiation, increased in inte

  11. Generation of neuropeptidergic hypothalamic neurons from human pluripotent stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Merkle, Florian T.; Maroof, Asif; Wataya, Takafumi; Sasai, Yoshiki; Studer, Lorenz; Eggan, Kevin; Schier, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic neurons orchestrate many essential physiological and behavioral processes via secreted neuropeptides, and are relevant to human diseases such as obesity, narcolepsy and infertility. We report the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into many of the major types of neuropeptidergic hypothalamic neurons, including those producing pro-opiolemelanocortin, agouti-related peptide, hypocretin/orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, oxytocin, arginine vasopressin, corticotropin...

  12. Cardiotoxicity evaluation using human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Wang, Xijie; Wang, Shuyan; Song, Zheng; Wang, Jiaxian; Ma, Jing

    2017-03-09

    Cardiotoxicity remains an important concern in drug discovery. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) have become an attractive platform to evaluate cardiotoxicity. However, the consistency between human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) in prediction of cardiotoxicity has yet to be elucidated. Here we screened the toxicities of four representative drugs (E-4031, isoprenaline, quinidine, and haloperidol) using both hESC-CMs and hiPSC-CMs, combined with an impedance-based bioanalytical method. It showed that both hESC-CMs and hiPSC-CMs can recapitulate cardiotoxicity and identify the effects of well-characterized compounds. The combined platform of hPSC-CMs and an impedance-based bioanalytical method could improve preclinical cardiotoxicity screening, holding great potential for increasing drug development accuracy.

  13. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) negatively regulate triple-negative breast cancer growth and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Ahn, Sunjoo; Cheney, Misty D; Yepuru, Muralimohan; Miller, Duane D; Steiner, Mitchell S; Dalton, James T

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the most highly expressed steroid receptor in breast cancer with 75-95% of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and 40-70% of ER-negative breast cancers expressing AR. Though historically breast cancers were treated with steroidal androgens, their use fell from favor because of their virilizing side effects and the emergence of tamoxifen. Nonsteroidal, tissue selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) may provide a novel targeted approach to exploit the therapeutic benefits of androgen therapy in breast cancer. Since MDA-MB-453 triple-negative breast cancer cells express mutated AR, PTEN, and p53, MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells stably expressing wildtype AR (MDA-MB-231-AR) were used to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative effects of SARMs. Microarray analysis and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) co-culture signaling studies were performed to understand the mechanisms of action. Dihydrotestosterone and SARMs, but not bicalutamide, inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231-AR. The SARMs reduced the MDA-MB-231-AR tumor growth and tumor weight by greater than 90%, compared to vehicle-treated tumors. SARM treatment inhibited the intratumoral expression of genes and pathways that promote breast cancer development through its actions on the AR. SARM treatment also inhibited the metastasis-promoting paracrine factors, IL6 and MMP13, and subsequent migration and invasion of epithelial:MSC co-cultures. 1. AR stimulation inhibits paracrine factors that are important for MSC interactions and breast cancer invasion and metastasis. 2. SARMs may provide promise as novel targeted therapies to treat AR-positive triple-negative breast cancer.

  14. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs negatively regulate triple-negative breast cancer growth and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Narayanan

    Full Text Available The androgen receptor (AR is the most highly expressed steroid receptor in breast cancer with 75-95% of estrogen receptor (ER-positive and 40-70% of ER-negative breast cancers expressing AR. Though historically breast cancers were treated with steroidal androgens, their use fell from favor because of their virilizing side effects and the emergence of tamoxifen. Nonsteroidal, tissue selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs may provide a novel targeted approach to exploit the therapeutic benefits of androgen therapy in breast cancer.Since MDA-MB-453 triple-negative breast cancer cells express mutated AR, PTEN, and p53, MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells stably expressing wildtype AR (MDA-MB-231-AR were used to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative effects of SARMs. Microarray analysis and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell (MSC co-culture signaling studies were performed to understand the mechanisms of action.Dihydrotestosterone and SARMs, but not bicalutamide, inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231-AR. The SARMs reduced the MDA-MB-231-AR tumor growth and tumor weight by greater than 90%, compared to vehicle-treated tumors. SARM treatment inhibited the intratumoral expression of genes and pathways that promote breast cancer development through its actions on the AR. SARM treatment also inhibited the metastasis-promoting paracrine factors, IL6 and MMP13, and subsequent migration and invasion of epithelial:MSC co-cultures.1. AR stimulation inhibits paracrine factors that are important for MSC interactions and breast cancer invasion and metastasis. 2. SARMs may provide promise as novel targeted therapies to treat AR-positive triple-negative breast cancer.

  15. Cytotoxicity of ophthalmic solutions with and without preservatives to human corneal endothelial cells, epithelial cells and conjunctival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Yaguchi, Shigeo; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Koide, Ryohei

    2008-08-01

    The cytotoxicity of a range of commercial ophthalmic solutions in the presence and absence of preservatives was assessed in human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs), corneal epithelia and conjunctival epithelia using in vitro techniques. Cell survival was measured using the WST-1 assay for endothelial cells and the MTT assay for epithelial cells. Commercially available timolol, carteolol, cromoglicate, diclofenac, bromfenac and hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solutions were assessed for cytotoxicity in the presence and absence of preservatives. The preservatives benzalkonium, chlorobutanol and polysorbate were also tested. The survival of cells exposed to test ophthalmic solutions was expressed as a percentage of cell survival in the control solution (distilled water added to media) after 48 h exposure. HCEC survival was 20-30% in ophthalmic solutions diluted 10-fold. The survival of HCEC was significantly greater in all solutions in the absence of preservative than in the presence of preservative. The survival of corneal and conjunctival epithelia was consistent with that of HCECs for all test ophthalmic solutions. The preservatives polysorbate and benzalkonium were highly cytotoxic with cell survival decreasing to 20% at the concentration estimated in commercial ophthalmic solutions. By comparison, the survival of cells exposed to chlorobutanol was 80% or greater. The cytotoxicity of ophthalmic solutions to HCEC, corneal epithelia and conjunctival epithelia decreased in the absence of preservative.

  16. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human fetal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Pascale V

    2016-02-01

    Pluripotency defines the ability of stem cells to differentiate into all the lineages of the three germ layers and self-renew indefinitely. Somatic cells can regain the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells following ectopic expression of a set of transcription factors or, in certain circumstances, via modulation of culture conditions and supplementation with small molecule, that is, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, we discuss the use of fetal tissues for reprogramming, focusing in particular on stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid, and the development of chemical reprogramming. We next address the advantages and disadvantages of deriving pluripotent cells from fetal tissues and the potential clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem-like phenotypes within chitosan-hyaluronan membrane-derived 3D tumor spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Jang; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Cancer drug development has to go through rigorous testing and evaluation processes during pre-clinical in vitro studies. However, the conventional two-dimensional (2D) in vitro culture is often discounted by the insufficiency to present a more typical tumor microenvironment. The multicellular tumor spheroids have been a valuable model to provide more comprehensive assessment of tumor in response to therapeutic strategies. Here, we applied chitosan-hyaluronan (HA) membranes as a platform to promote three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid formation. The biological features of tumor spheroids of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells on chitosan-HA membranes were compared to those of 2D cultured cells in vitro. The cells in tumor spheroids cultured on chitosan-HA membranes showed higher levels of stem-like properties and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, such as NANOG, SOX2, CD44, CD133, N-cadherin, and vimentin, than 2D cultured cells. Moreover, they exhibited enhanced invasive activities and multidrug resistance by the upregulation of MMP2, MMP9, BCRC5, BCL2, MDR1, and ABCG2 as compared with 2D cultured cells. The grafting densities of HA affected the tumor sphere size and mRNA levels of genes on the substrates. These evidences suggest that chitosan-HA membranes may offer a simple and valuable biomaterial platform for rapid generation of tumor spheroids in vitro as well as for further applications in cancer stem cell research and cancer drug screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vulnerability of Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells to Oncogenic Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    control expression of many of these miRNA genes. Many of the epigenetically regulated miRNAs identified are deregulated in breast cancer-derived...review board and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations. At the time of surgery, a 1 to 3 cm section of the tumor was immediately...transformation process for- ward; the early deregulation of the HOX gene family clusters, which are decisively linked to human carcinogenesis, are one clear

  19. IL-13 regulates human nasal epithelial cell differentiation via H3K4me3 modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu L

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lei Yu,1 Na Li,1 Jisheng Zhang,2 Yan Jiang1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, 2Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China Introduction: Epigenetic regulation has been shown to play an important role in the development of inflammatory diseases, including chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. The latter are characterized by epithelial mis-differentiation and infiltration of inflammatory cytokines. H3K4me3 has been shown to be involved in regulating lineage commitment. However, the underlying mechanisms, especially in human nasal epithelial cells (HNEpC, remain underexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of H3K4me3 in HNEpC differentiation treated with the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Patients and methods: The expression levels of mRNA and proteins were investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays and Western blot in nasal polyp tissues and human nasal epithelial cells respectively. We measured these levels of H3K4me3, MLL1 and targeted genes compared with control subjects.Results: We demonstrate that expression of H3K4me3 and its methyltransferase MLL1 was significantly upregulated in IL-13-treated HNEpC. This elevation was also observed in nasal polyps. Expression of cilia-related transcription factors FOXJ1 and DNAI2 decreased, while goblet cell-derived genes CLCA1 and MUC5a increased upon IL-13 treatment. Mechanistically, knockdown of MLL1 restored expression of these four genes induced by IL-13. Conclusion: These findings suggest that H3K4me3 is a critical regulator in control of nasal epithelial cell differentiation. MLL1 may be a potential therapeutic target for nasal inflammatory diseases. Keywords: IL-13, H3K4me3 modification, nasal epithelial cell, differentiation 

  20. Epigenetic influences of low-dose bisphenol A in primary human breast epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Yu-I; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Liu, Joseph; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Huang Yiwen; Zuo Tao; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Lin, Ching-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Huang, Tim H.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during early development may increase breast cancer risk later in life. The changes may persist into puberty and adulthood, suggesting an epigenetic process being imposed in differentiated breast epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which early memory of BPA exposure is imprinted in breast progenitor cells and then passed onto their epithelial progeny are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine epigenetic changes in breast epithelial cells treated with low-dose BPA. We also investigated the effect of BPA on the ERα signaling pathway and global gene expression profiles. Compared to control cells, nuclear internalization of ERα was observed in epithelial cells preexposed to BPA. We identified 170 genes with similar expression changes in response to BPA. Functional analysis confirms that gene suppression was mediated in part through an ERα-dependent pathway. As a result of exposure to BPA or other estrogen-like chemicals, the expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) became epigenetically silenced in breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, increased DNA methylation in the LAMP3 CpG island was this repressive mark preferentially occurred in ERα-positive breast tumors. These results suggest that the in vitro system developed in our laboratory is a valuable tool for exposure studies of BPA and other xenoestrogens in human cells. Individual and geographical differences may contribute to altered patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation in susceptible loci. Combination of our exposure model with epigenetic analysis and other biochemical assays can give insight into the heritable effect of low-dose BPA in human cells.

  1. Chimeric animal models in human stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Joel C; Boulland, Jean-Luc; Halasi, Gabor; Kasumacic, Nedim

    2009-01-01

    The clinical use of stem cells for regenerative medicine is critically dependent on preclinical studies in animal models. In this review we examine some of the key issues and challenges in the use of animal models to study human stem cell biology-experimental standardization, body size, immunological barriers, cell survival factors, fusion of host and donor cells, and in vivo imaging and tracking. We focus particular attention on the various imaging modalities that can be used to track cells in living animals, comparing their strengths and weaknesses and describing technical developments that are likely to lead to new opportunities for the dynamic assessment of stem cell behavior in vivo. We then provide an overview of some of the most commonly used animal models, their advantages and disadvantages, and examples of their use for xenotypic transplantation of human stem cells, with separate reviews of models involving rodents, ungulates, nonhuman primates, and the chicken embryo. As the use of human somatic, embryonic, and induced pluripotent stem cells increases, so too will the range of applications for these animal models. It is likely that increasingly sophisticated uses of human/animal chimeric models will be developed through advances in genetic manipulation, cell delivery, and in vivo imaging.

  2. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katano, Takahito; Ootani, Akifumi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Toda, Shuji; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment

  3. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katano, Takahito [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Ootani, Akifumi [Department of Gastroenterology and GI Endoscopy Center, Shin-Kokura Hospital, Federation of National Public Service Personnel Mutual Aid Associations, 1-3-1 Kanada, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-0816 (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Mizoshita, Tsutomu, E-mail: tmizoshi@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Toda, Shuji [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Joh, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment.

  4. N-Myc Drives Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Initiated from Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John K.; Phillips, John W.; Smith, Bryan A.; Park, Jung Wook; Stoyanova, Tanya; McCaffrey, Erin F.; Baertsch, Robert; Sokolov, Artem; Meyerowitz, Justin G.; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Shokat, Kevan M.; Gustafson, W. Clay; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY MYCN amplification and overexpression are common in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). However, the impact of aberrant N-Myc expression in prostate tumorigenesis and the cellular origin of NEPC have not been established. We define N-Myc and activated AKT1 as oncogenic components sufficient to transform human prostate epithelial cells to prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC with phenotypic and molecular features of aggressive, late-stage human disease. We directly show that prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC can arise from a common epithelial clone. Further, N-Myc is required for tumor maintenance and destabilization of N-Myc through Aurora A kinase inhibition reduces tumor burden. Our findings establish N-Myc as a driver of NEPC and a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27050099

  5. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells repairs brachial plexus injury:pathological and biomechanical analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Yang; Min Luo; Peng Li; Hai Jin

    2014-01-01

    A brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits by stretching the C6 nerve root. Imme-diately after the stretching, a suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was injected into the injured brachial plexus. The results of tensile mechanical testing of the brachial plexus showed that the tensile elastic limit strain, elastic limit stress, maximum stress, and maximum strain of the injured brachial plexuses were signiifcantly increased at 24 weeks after the injection. The treat-ment clearly improved the pathological morphology of the injured brachial plexus nerve, as seen by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the functions of the rabbit forepaw were restored. These data indicate that the injection of human amniotic epithelial cells contributed to the repair of brachial plexus injury, and that this technique may transform into current clinical treatment strategies.

  6. Comparison of radiosensitivities of human autologous normal and neoplastic thyroid epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Kopecky, K.J.; Hiraoka, T.; Ezaki, H.; Clifton, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to examine differences between the radiosensitivities of normal and neoplastic epithelial cells of the human thyroid. Freshly excised thyroid tissues from the tumours of eight patients with papillary carcinoma (PC) and five with follicular adenoma (FA) were cultured in vitro separately from normal thyroid tissue obtained from the surgical margins of the same patients. Plating efficiency of unirradiated control tissue was lower, on average for tumour tissue compared with normal tissue. Radiosensitivity, measured by the 37% inactivation dose D 0 , was greater for carcinoma tissue than for normal tissue in seven out of eight PC cases. Adenomatous tissue was less radiosensitive than normal tissue in four out of five FA cases. This is the first report comparing the radiosensitivity of autologous normal and abnormal epithelial tissue from the human thyroid. (author)

  7. PKC activation induces inflammatory response and cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Kim

    Full Text Available A variety of airborne pathogens can induce inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells, which is a crucial component of host defence. However, excessive inflammatory responses and chronic inflammation also contribute to different diseases of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC is one of the essential mechanisms of inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells. In the present study, we stimulated human bronchial lung epithelial (BEAS-2B cells with the phorbol ester Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu, and examined gene expression profile using microarrays. Microarray analysis suggests that PKC activation induced dramatic changes in gene expression related to multiple cellular functions. The top two interaction networks generated from these changes were centered on NFκB and TNF-α, which are two commonly known pathways for cell death and inflammation. Subsequent tests confirmed the decrease in cell viability and an increase in the production of various cytokines. Interestingly, each of the increased cytokines was differentially regulated at mRNA and/or protein levels by different sub-classes of PKC isozymes. We conclude that pathological cell death and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells in various situations may be mediated through PKC related signaling pathways. These findings suggest that PKCs can be new targets for treatment of lung diseases.

  8. Effects of conditioned media from human amniotic epithelial cells on corneal alkali injuries in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Park, Young-Woo; Ahn, Jae-Sang; Ahn, Jeong-Taek; Kim, Se-Eun; Jeong, Man-Bok; Seo, Min-Su; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of conditioned media (CM) from human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs) on the corneal wound healing process. Eighteen rabbits (36 eyes) were used and randomly assigned to three groups according treatment: CM from HAECs (group 1), vehicle alone (group 2), and saline (group 3). Corneal alkali injuries were induced with 1 N sodium hydroxide. Each reagent used for treatment evaluation was injected into the dorsal bulbar subconjunctiva and the area of the corneal epithelial defect was measured every other day. Two animals from each group were euthanized at a time on days 3, 7, and 15, and the cornea was removed for histological examination. The sum of the epithelial defect areas measured on day 0 to day 6 as well as day 0 to day 14 in group 1 was significantly smaller than those of other groups. Histological examination revealed that the group 1 corneas had less inflammatory cell infiltration and showed more intact epithelial features compared to the other groups. These results suggest that CM from HAECs promote corneal wound healing in rabbits. PMID:23388445

  9. A rapid separation of two distinct populations of mouse corneal epithelial cells with limbal stem cell characteristics by centrifugation on percoll gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krulová, Magdalena; Pokorná, Kateřina; Lenčová, Anna; Frič, Jan; Zajícová, Alena; Filipec, Martin; Forrester, J. V.; Holáň, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 9 (2008), s. 3903-3908 ISSN 0146-0404 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520804; GA MŠk 1M0506; GA ČR GD310/08/H077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : limbal stem cells * Percoll gradient * corneal epithelial cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2008

  10. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  11. Modelling Neurodegenerative Diseases Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are being modelled in-vitro using human patient-specific, induced pluripotent stem cells and transgenic embryonic stem cells to determine more about disease mechanisms, as well as to discover new treatments for patients. Current research in modelling Alzheimer’s disease......, frontotemporal dementia and Parkinson’s disease using pluripotent stem cells is described, along with the advent of gene-editing, which has been the complimentary tool for the field. Current methods used to model these diseases are predominantly dependent on 2D cell culture methods. Outcomes reveal that only...... that includes studying more complex 3D cell cultures, as well as accelerating aging of the neurons, may help to yield stronger phenotypes in the cultured cells. Thus, the use and application of pluripotent stem cells for modelling disease have already shown to be a powerful approach for discovering more about...

  12. IL-17 suppresses immune effector functions in human papillomavirus-associated epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmann, Christina; Mattarollo, Stephen R; Bridge, Jennifer A; Frazer, Ian H; Blumenthal, Antje

    2014-09-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) causes epithelial hyperplasia that can progress to cancer and is thought to depend on immunosuppressive mechanisms that prevent viral clearance by the host. IL-17 is a cytokine with diverse functions in host defense and in the pathology of autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammatory diseases, and cancer. We analyzed biopsies from patients with HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 and murine skin displaying HPV16 E7 protein-induced epithelial hyperplasia, which closely models hyperplasia in chronic HPV lesions. Expression of IL-17 and IL-23, a major inducer of IL-17, was elevated in both human HPV-infected and murine E7-expressing lesions. Using a skin-grafting model, we demonstrated that IL-17 in HPV16 E7 transgenic skin grafts inhibited effective host immune responses against the graft. IL-17 was produced by CD3(+) T cells, predominantly CD4(+) T cells in human, and CD4(+) and γδ T cells in mouse hyperplastic lesions. IL-23 and IL-1β, but not IL-18, induced IL-17 production in E7 transgenic skin. Together, these findings demonstrate an immunosuppressive role for IL-17 in HPV-associated epithelial hyperplasia and suggest that blocking IL-17 in persistent viral infection may promote antiviral immunity and prevent progression to cancer. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J.

    1995-01-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to α-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMVΒ vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells

  14. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to {alpha}-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMV{Beta} vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells.

  15. Primary human polarized small intestinal epithelial barriers respond differently to a hazardous and an innocuous protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, A D; Zimmermann, C; Delaney, B; Hurley, B P

    2017-08-01

    An experimental platform employing human derived intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line monolayers grown on permeable Transwell ® filters was previously investigated to differentiate between hazardous and innocuous proteins. This approach was effective at distinguishing these types of proteins and perturbation of monolayer integrity, particularly transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), was the most sensitive indicator. In the current report, in vitro indicators of monolayer integrity, cytotoxicity, and inflammation were evaluated using primary (non-transformed) human polarized small intestinal epithelial barriers cultured on Transwell ® filters to compare effects of a hazardous protein (Clostridium difficile Toxin A [ToxA]) and an innocuous protein (bovine serum albumin [BSA]). ToxA exerted a reproducible decrease on barrier integrity at doses comparable to those producing effects observed from cell line-derived IEC monolayers, with TEER being the most sensitive indicator. In contrast, BSA, tested at concentrations substantially higher than ToxA, did not cause changes in any of the tested variables. These results demonstrate a similarity in response to certain proteins between cell line-derived polarized IEC models and a primary human polarized small intestinal epithelial barrier model, thereby reinforcing the potential usefulness of cell line-derived polarized IECs as a valid experimental platform to differentiate between hazardous and non-hazardous proteins. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. uPAR-controlled oncolytic adenoviruses eliminate cancer stem cells in human pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrevals, Luciano; Mato-Berciano, Ana; Urtasun, Nerea; Mazo, Adela; Fillat, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors contain cancer stem cells highly resistant to chemotherapy. The identification of therapies that can eliminate this population of cells might provide with more effective treatments. In the current work we evaluated the potential of oncolytic adenoviruses to act against pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSC). PCSC from two patient-derived xenograft models were isolated from orthotopic pancreatic tumors treated with saline, or with the chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine. An enrichment in the number of PCSC expressing the cell surface marker CD133 and a marked enhancement on tumorsphere formation was observed in gemcitabine treated tumors. No significant increase in the CD44, CD24, and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA) positive cells was observed. Neoplastic sphere-forming cells were susceptible to adenoviral infection and exposure to oncolytic adenoviruses resulted in elevated cytotoxicity with both Adwt and the tumor specific AduPARE1A adenovirus. In vivo, intravenous administration of a single dose of AduPARE1A in human-derived pancreatic xenografts led to a remarkable anti-tumor effect. In contrast to gemcitabine AduPARE1A treatment did not result in PCSC enrichment. No enrichment on tumorspheres neither on the CD133(+) population was detected. Therefore our data provide evidences of the relevance of uPAR-controlled oncolytic adenoviruses for the elimination of pancreatic cancer stem cells. © 2013.

  17. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina; Kaufmann, Andreas M.; Albers, Andreas E.

    2011-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  18. BENIGN EPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA ASSOCIATED WITH BETA-HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Molochkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study an association between acrochordon and human papilloma virus (HPV using quantitative analysis of viral desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA; to detect different phenotypes of beta-HPV. Materials and methods: We examined 52  patients (22 immuno-suppressed patients and 30 immunocompetent subjects in the Dermatovenereology and Dermato-Oncology Department and Chronic Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation Department of the Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI. Control group included 49 healthy donors. Burr biopsy samples (micro-samples of acrochordon and intact skin (apper arm were collected in sterile conditions. After sample procession and DNA isolation using DNK-sorb-C kit (Central Research Institute for Epidemiology – CRIE, polymerase chain reaction for HPV was performed with real-time fluorescent hybridization detection. For DNA amplification and detection we used RotorGene 3000 analyzer (Corbett Research, Australia. In the beta-HPV assay, recombinant plasmids were used as positive controls and control human beta-globin gene fragments (CRIE. 4 oligo-nucleotide systems (group-specific primers and probes were used for the detection of beta-HPV DNA. Results: Preliminary data indicated that acrochordons of open and covered skin regions were common in renal transplant recipients. Beta-HPV DNA was more frequent in acrochordons and intact skin (64% and 54% of renal transplant recipients compared to healthy donors (47%. 57% of renal transplant recipients demonstrated mixed infection in acrochordons. Conclusion: HPV DNA was frequently detected in acrochordons and intact skin of renal transplant recipients. In immunocompetent patients prevalence of HPV DNA in acrochordons was significantly higher compared to intact skin.

  19. Human spermatogonial stem cells display limited proliferation in vitro under mouse spermatogonial stem cell culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Jose V; Rombaut, Charlotte; Simon, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; Goossens, Ellen

    2016-11-01

    To study the ability of human spermatogonial stem cells (hSSCs) to proliferate in vitro under mouse spermatogonial stem cell (mSSC) culture conditions. Experimental basic science study. Reproductive biology laboratory. Cryopreserved testicular tissue with normal spermatogenesis obtained from three donors subjected to orchiectomy due to a prostate cancer treatment. Testicular cells used to create in vitro cell cultures corresponding to the following groups: [1] unsorted human testicular cells, [2] differentially plated human testicular cells, and [3] cells enriched with major histocompatibility complex class 1 (HLA - )/epithelial cell surface antigen (EPCAM + ) in coculture with inactivated testicular feeders from the same patient. Analyses and characterization including immunocytochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for somatic and germ cell markers, testosterone and inhibin B quantification, and TUNEL assay. Putative hSSCs appeared in singlets, doublets, or small groups of up to four cells in vitro only when testicular cells were cultured in StemPro-34 medium supplemented with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with HLA - /EPCAM + resulted in an enrichment of 27% VASA + /UTF1 + hSSCs, compared to 13% in unsorted controls. Coculture of sorted cells with inactivated testicular feeders gave rise to an average density of 112 hSSCs/cm 2 after 2 weeks in vitro compared with unsorted cells (61 hSSCs/cm 2 ) and differentially plated cells (49 hSSCS/cm 2 ). However, putative hSSCs rarely stained positive for the proliferation marker Ki67, and their presence was reduced to the point of almost disappearing after 4 weeks in vitro. We found that hSSCs show limited proliferation in vitro under mSSC culture conditions. Coculture of HLA - /EPCAM + sorted cells with testicular

  20. Tumor budding cells, cancer stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-type cells in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitopoulou, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Moreover, PDAC escapes early detection and resists treatment. Multiple combinations of genetic alterations are known to occur in PDAC including mutational activation of KRAS, inactivation of p16/CDKN2A and SMAD4 (DPC4) and dysregulation of PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling. Through their interaction with Wingless-INT pathway, the downstream molecules of these pathways have been implicated in the promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Emerging evidence has demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs), small populations of which have been identified in PDAC, and EMT-type cells play critical roles in drug resistance, invasion, and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. EMT may be histologically represented by the presence of tumor budding which is described as the occurrence of single tumor cells or small clusters (<5) of dedifferentiated cells at the invasive front of gastrointestinal (including colorectal, oesophageal, gastric, and ampullary) carcinomas and is linked to poor prognosis. Tumor budding has recently been shown to occur frequently in PDAC and to be associated with adverse clinicopathological features and decreased disease-free and overall survival. The aim of this review is to present a short overview on the morphological and molecular aspects that underline the relationship between tumor budding cells, CSCs, and EMT-type cells in PDAC.

  1. Tumor Budding Cells, Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition-type Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKaramitopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is one of the most lethal cancers with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Moreover, PDAC escapes early detection and resists treatment. Multiple combinations of genetic alterations are known to occur in PDAC including mutational activation of KRAS, inactivation of p16/CDKN2A and SMAD4 (DPC4 and dysregulation of PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling. Through their interaction with WNT pathway, the downstream molecules of these pathways have been implicated in the promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs, small populations of which have been identified in PDAC, and EMT-type cells play critical roles in drug resistance, invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. EMT may be histologically represented by the presence of tumor budding which is described as the occurrence of single tumor cells or small clusters (<5 of dedifferentiated cells at the invasive front of gastrointestinal (including colorectal, oesophageal, gastric and ampullary carcinomas and is linked to poor prognosis. Tumor budding has recently been shown to occur frequently in PDAC and to be associated with adverse clinicopathological features and decreased disease-free and overall survival. The aim of this review is to present a short overview on the morphological and molecular aspects that underline the relationship between tumor budding cells, CSCs and EMT-type cells in PDAC.

  2. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition: a hallmark in metastasis formation linking circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książkiewicz, Magdalena; Markiewicz, Aleksandra; Zaczek, Anna J

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of either regional or distant metastases is an indicator of poor prognosis for cancer patients. The mechanism of their formation has not yet been fully uncovered, which limits the possibility of developing new therapeutic strategies. Nevertheless, the discovery of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which are responsible for tumor dissemination, and cancer stem cells (CSCs), required for tumor growth maintenance, shed light on the metastatic cascade. It seems that CTCs and CSCs are not necessarily separate populations of cancer cells, as CTCs generated in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can bear features characteristic of CSCs. This article describes the mechanisms of CTC and CSC formation and characterizes their molecular hallmarks. Moreover, we present different types of EMT occurring in physiological and pathological conditions, and we demonstrate its crucial role in providing CTCs with a CSC phenotype. The article delineates molecular changes acquired by cancer cells undergoing EMT that facilitate metastasis formation. Deeper understanding of those processes is of fundamental importance for the development of new strategies of early cancer detection and effective cancer treatment approaches that will be translated into clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Superoxide production and expression of NAD(P)H oxidases by transformed and primary human colonic epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Andresen, Lars; Pedersen, G

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)) generation through the activity of reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) or reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases has been demonstrated in a variety of cell types, but not in human colonic epithelial cells....

  4. INHIBITION OF PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY MEDIATES EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR SIGNALING IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have implicated zinc in the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation. We previously showed that exposure to metal-laden PM inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HAEC) and leads t...

  5. Entrance and Survival of Brucella pinnipedialis Hooded Seal Strain in Human Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72 – 96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  6. [Expression of thioredoxin-2 in human lens epithelial cells with oxidative damage and its significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xuanyi; Zhao, Qingxia; Li, Di

    2018-03-28

    To explore whether thioredoin-2 (Trx-2) is involved in the development of cataract and to study the effect of Trx-2 on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury in human lens epithelial cells.
 Methods: A total of 10 volunteers (removing the lens due totraumatism) and 30 patients received phacoemulsification (age more than 60 years) were selected. The expression of Trx-2 protein in lens epithelial cells from cataract patients and volunteers were detected by the immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase (SP) method. SRA01/04 cells were cultured and were divided into six groups according to different treatment: a control group, H2O2-treated groups at 20, 50 or 
100 μmol/L, a negative control group (transfected with pCMV6 plasmid plus 100 μmol/L H2O2), and a Trx-2 overexpression group (transfected with pCMV6-Trx-2 plasmid plus 100 μmol/L H2O2). Methyl thiazolyltetrazolium (MTT) assay and flow cytometry was performed to measure the cell viability and apoptosis for SRA01/04 cells, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), the content of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in human lens epithelial cells were measured via chemical chromatometry. Western blot was used to measure the protein levels of Trx-2, B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3.
 Results: Compared with the volunteers, the expression of Trx-2 was significantly decreased in lens epithelial cells in patients with cataract (PTrx-2 protein in the 20, 50 or 100 μmol/L H2O2 groups was decreased (all PTrx-2 and Bcl-2 expression and up-regulated Bax and caspase-3 expression (all PTrx-2 overexpression group (PTrx-2 and Bcl-2 expression and down-regulated Bax and caspase-3 expression (PTrx-2 might be involved in the apoptosis of lens epithelial cells in patients with cataract. The overexpression of Trx-2 obviously attenuated H2O2-induced injury of human lens epithelial cells, which might be associated with the

  7. Human dental pulp stem cells: Applications in future regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Pravin D; Jethmalani, Yogita D

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are pluripotent cells, having a property of differentiating into various types of cells of human body. Several studies have developed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various human tissues, peripheral blood and body fluids. These cells are then characterized by cellular and molecular markers to understand their specific phenotypes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are having a MSCs phenotype and they are differentiated into neuron, cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, liver cells and β cells of islet of pancreas. Thus, DPSCs have shown great potentiality to use in regenerative medicine for treatment of various human diseases including dental related problems. These cells can also be developed into induced pluripotent stem cells by incorporation of pluripotency markers and use for regenerative therapies of various diseases. The DPSCs are derived from various dental tissues such as human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, periodontal ligament and dental follicle tissue. This review will overview the information about isolation, cellular and molecular characterization and differentiation of DPSCs into various types of human cells and thus these cells have important applications in regenerative therapies for various diseases. This review will be most useful for postgraduate dental students as well as scientists working in the field of oral pathology and oral medicine. PMID:26131314

  8. Nuclear Nox4 Role in Stemness Power of Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullia Maraldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC are an attractive source for cell therapy due to their multilineage differentiation potential and accessibility advantages. However the clinical application of human stem cells largely depends on their capacity to expand in vitro, since there is an extensive donor-to-donor heterogeneity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and cellular oxidative stress are involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes of stem cells, including pluripotency, proliferation, differentiation, and stress resistance. The mode of action of ROS is also dependent on the localization of their target molecules. Thus, the modifications induced by ROS can be separated depending on the cellular compartments they affect. NAD(PH oxidase family, particularly Nox4, has been known to produce ROS in the nucleus. In the present study we show that Nox4 nuclear expression (nNox4 depends on the donor and it correlates with the expression of transcription factors involved in stemness regulation, such as Oct4, SSEA-4, and Sox2. Moreover nNox4 is linked with the nuclear localization of redox sensitive transcription factors, as Nrf2 and NF-κB, and with the differentiation potential. Taken together, these results suggest that nNox4 regulation may have important effects in stem cell capability through modulation of transcription factors and DNA damage.

  9. Generation of branching ureteric bud tissues from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae, Shin-Ichi; Ryosaka, Makoto; Toyoda, Taro; Matsuse, Kyoko; Oshima, Yoichi; Tsujimoto, Hiraku; Okumura, Shiori; Shibasaki, Aya; Osafune, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Recent progress in kidney regeneration research is noteworthy. However, the selective and robust differentiation of the ureteric bud (UB), an embryonic renal progenitor, from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) remains to be established. The present study aimed to establish a robust induction method for branching UB tissue from hPSCs towards the creation of renal disease models. Here, we found that anterior intermediate mesoderm (IM) differentiates from anterior primitive streak, which allowed us to successfully develop an efficient two-dimensional differentiation method of hPSCs into Wolffian duct (WD) cells. We also established a simplified procedure to generate three-dimensional WD epithelial structures that can form branching UB tissues. This system may contribute to hPSC-based regenerative therapies and disease models for intractable disorders arising in the kidney and lower urinary tract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Arsenic compromises conducting airway epithelial barrier properties in primary mouse and immortalized human cell cultures.

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    Cara L Sherwood

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a lung toxicant that can lead to respiratory illness through inhalation and ingestion, although the most common exposure is through contaminated drinking water. Lung effects reported from arsenic exposure include lung cancer and obstructive lung disease, as well as reductions in lung function and immune response. As part of their role in innate immune function, airway epithelial cells provide a barrier that protects underlying tissue from inhaled particulates, pathogens, and toxicants frequently found in inspired air. We evaluated the effects of a five-day exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic {<4μM [~300 μg/L (ppb] as NaAsO2} on airway epithelial barrier function and structure. In a primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE cell model we found that both micromolar (3.9 μM and submicromolar (0.8 μM arsenic concentrations reduced transepithelial resistance, a measure of barrier function. Immunofluorescent staining of arsenic-treated MTE cells showed altered patterns of localization of the transmembrane tight junction proteins claudin (Cl Cl-1, Cl-4, Cl-7 and occludin at cell-cell contacts when compared with untreated controls. To better quantify arsenic-induced changes in tight junction transmembrane proteins we conducted arsenic exposure experiments with an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-. We found that arsenic exposure significantly increased the protein expression of Cl-4 and occludin as well as the mRNA levels of Cl-4 and Cl-7 in these cells. Additionally, arsenic exposure resulted in altered phosphorylation of occludin. In summary, exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can alter both the function and structure of airway epithelial barrier constituents. These changes likely contribute to the observed arsenic-induced loss in basic innate immune defense and increased infection in the airway.

  11. Scavenger receptors in human airway epithelial cells: role in response to double-stranded RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Dieudonné

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs cooperate in response to danger signals to adjust the host immune response. The TLR3 agonist double stranded (dsRNA is an efficient activator of innate signalling in bronchial epithelial cells. In this study, we aimed at defining the role played by scavenger receptors expressed by bronchial epithelial cells in the control of the innate response to dsRNA both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of several scavenger receptor involved in pathogen recognition was first evaluated in human bronchial epithelial cells in steady-state and inflammatory conditions. Their implication in the uptake of dsRNA and the subsequent cell activation was evaluated in vitro by competition with ligand of scavenger receptors including maleylated ovalbumin and by RNA silencing. The capacity of maleylated ovalbumin to modulate lung inflammation induced by dsRNA was also investigated in mice. Exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α increased expression of the scavenger receptors LOX-1 and CXCL16 and the capacity to internalize maleylated ovalbumin, whereas activation by TLR ligands did not. In contrast, the expression of SR-B1 was not modulated in these conditions. Interestingly, supplementation with maleylated ovalbumin limited dsRNA uptake and inhibited subsequent activation of bronchial epithelial cells. RNA silencing of LOX-1 and SR-B1 strongly blocked the dsRNA-induced cytokine production. Finally, administration of maleylated ovalbumin in mice inhibited the dsRNA-induced infiltration and activation of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar spaces and lung draining lymph nodes. Together, our data characterize the function of SR-B1 and LOX-1 in bronchial epithelial cells and their implication in dsRNA-induced responses, a finding that might be relevant during respiratory viral infections.

  12. Cigarette smoke modulates expression of human rhinovirus-induced airway epithelial host defense genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Proud

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (HRV infections trigger acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. The human airway epithelial cell is the primary site of HRV infection and responds to infection with altered expression of multiple genes, the products of which could regulate the outcome to infection. Cigarette smoking aggravates asthma symptoms, and is also the predominant risk factor for the development and progression of COPD. We, therefore, examined whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE modulates viral responses by altering HRV-induced epithelial gene expression. Primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to medium alone, CSE alone, purified HRV-16 alone or to HRV-16+ CSE. After 24 h, supernatants were collected and total cellular RNA was isolated. Gene array analysis was performed to examine mRNA expression. Additional experiments, using real-time RT-PCR, ELISA and/or western blotting, validated altered expression of selected gene products. CSE and HRV-16 each induced groups of genes that were largely independent of each other. When compared to gene expression in response to CSE alone, cells treated with HRV+CSE showed no obvious differences in CSE-induced gene expression. By contrast, compared to gene induction in response to HRV-16 alone, cells exposed to HRV+CSE showed marked suppression of expression of a number of HRV-induced genes associated with various functions, including antiviral defenses, inflammation, viral signaling and airway remodeling. These changes were not associated with altered expression of type I or type III interferons. Thus, CSE alters epithelial responses to HRV infection in a manner that may negatively impact antiviral and host defense outcomes.

  13. Human stem cell based corneal tissue mimicking structures using laser-assisted 3D bioprinting and functional bioinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkio, Anni; Koch, Lothar; Koivusalo, Laura; Deiwick, Andrea; Miettinen, Susanna; Chichkov, Boris; Skottman, Heli

    2018-07-01

    There is a high demand for developing methods to produce more native-like 3D corneal structures. In the present study, we produced 3D cornea-mimicking tissues using human stem cells and laser-assisted bioprinting (LaBP). Human embryonic stem cell derived limbal epithelial stem cells (hESC-LESC) were used as a cell source for printing epithelium-mimicking structures, whereas human adipose tissue derived stem cells (hASCs) were used for constructing layered stroma-mimicking structures. The development and optimization of functional bioinks was a crucial step towards successful bioprinting of 3D corneal structures. Recombinant human laminin and human sourced collagen I served as the bases for the functional bioinks. We used two previously established LaBP setups based on laser induced forward transfer, with different laser wavelengths and appropriate absorption layers. We bioprinted three types of corneal structures: stratified corneal epithelium using hESC-LESCs, lamellar corneal stroma using alternating acellular layers of bioink and layers with hASCs, and finally structures with both a stromal and epithelial part. The printed constructs were evaluated for their microstructure, cell viability and proliferation, and key protein expression (Ki67, p63α, p40, CK3, CK15, collagen type I, VWF). The 3D printed stromal constructs were also implanted into porcine corneal organ cultures. Both cell types maintained good viability after printing. Laser-printed hESC-LESCs showed epithelial cell morphology, expression of Ki67 proliferation marker and co-expression of corneal progenitor markers p63α and p40. Importantly, the printed hESC-LESCs formed a stratified epithelium with apical expression of CK3 and basal expression of the progenitor markers. The structure of the 3D bioprinted stroma demonstrated that the hASCs had organized horizontally as in the native corneal stroma and showed positive labeling for collagen I. After 7 days in porcine organ cultures, the 3D bioprinted

  14. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Enacts Wnt Signaling in Intestinal Homeostasis and Contributes to the Instigation of Stemness in Diseases Entailing Epithelial Hyperplasia or Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oittinen, Mikko; Popp, Alina; Kurppa, Kalle; Lindfors, Katri; Mäki, Markku; Kaikkonen, Minna U; Viiri, Keijo

    2017-02-01

    Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates the homeostasis of intestinal epithelium by controlling the balance between intestinal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation but epigenetic mechanisms enacting the process are not known. We hypothesized that epigenetic regulator, Polycomb Repressive Complex-2 (PRC2), is involved in Wnt-mediated epithelial homeostasis on the crypt-villus axis and aberrancies therein are implicated both in celiac disease and in intestinal malignancies. We found that PRC2 establishes repressive crypt and villus specific trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) signature on genes responsible for, for example, nutrient transport and cell killing in crypts and, for example, proliferation and differentiation in mature villi, suggesting that PRC2 facilitates the Wnt-governed intestinal homeostasis. When celiac patients are on gluten-containing diet PRC2 is out-of-bounds active and consequently its target genes were found affected in intestinal epithelium. Significant set of effective intestinal PRC2 targets are also differentially expressed in colorectal adenoma and carcinomas. Our results suggest that PRC2 gives rise and maintains polar crypt and villus specific H3K27me3 signatures. As H3K27me3 is a mark enriched in developmentally important genes, identified intestinal PRC2 targets are possibly imperative drivers for enterocyte differentiation and intestinal stem cell maintenance downstream to Wnt-signaling. Our work also elucidates the mechanism sustaining the crypt hyperplasia in celiac disease and suggest that PRC2-dependent fostering of epithelial stemness is a common attribute in intestinal diseases in which epithelial hyperplasia or neoplasia prevails. Finally, this work demonstrates that in intestine PRC2 represses genes having both pro-stemness and pro-differentiation functions, fact need to be considered when designing epigenetic therapies including PRC2 as a drug target. Stem Cells 2017;35:445-457. © 2016 Alpha

  15. Interleukin-13-induced MUC5AC is regulated by 15-lipoxygenase 1 pathway in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinming; Maskrey, Ben; Balzar, Silvana; Chibana, Kazuyuki; Mustovich, Anthony; Hu, Haizhen; Trudeau, John B; O'Donnell, Valerie; Wenzel, Sally E

    2009-05-01

    15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15LO1) and MUC5AC are highly expressed in asthmatic epithelial cells. IL-13 is known to induce 15LO1 and MUC5AC in human airway epithelial cells in vitro. Whether 15LO1 and/or its product 15-HETE modulate MUC5AC expression is unknown. To determine the expression of 15LO1 in freshly harvested epithelial cells from subjects with asthma and normal control subjects and to determine whether IL-13-induced 15LO1 expression and activation regulate MUC5AC expression in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Human airway epithelial cells from subjects with asthma and normal subjects were evaluated ex vivo for 15LO1 and MUC5AC expression. The impact of 15LO1 on MUC5AC expression in vitro was analyzed by inhibiting 15LO1 through pharmacologic (PD146176) and siRNA approaches in human bronchial epithelial cells cultured under air-liquid interface. We analyzed 15 hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) by liquid chromatography/UV/mass spectrometry. MUC5AC and 15LO1 were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, immunofluoresence, and Western blot. Epithelial 15LO1 expression increased with asthma severity (P < 0.0001). 15LO1 significantly correlated with MUC5AC ex vivo and in vitro. IL-13 increased 15LO1 expression and stimulated formation of two molecular species of 15-HETE esterified to phosphotidylethanolamine (15-HETE-PE). Inhibition of 15LO1 suppressed 15-HETE-PE and decreased MUC5AC expression in the presence of IL-13 stimulation. The addition of exogenous 15-HETE partially restored MUC5AC expression. Epithelial 15LO1 expression increases with increasing asthma severity. IL-13 induction of 15-HETE-PE enhances MUC5AC expression in human airway epithelial cells. High levels of 15LO1 activity could contribute to the increases of MUC5AC observed in asthma.

  16. Electronic cigarette liquid increases inflammation and virus infection in primary human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Jiang, Di; Minor, Maisha; Chu, Hong Wei

    2014-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is rapidly increasing in the United States, especially among young people since e-cigarettes have been perceived as a safer alternative to conventional tobacco cigarettes. However, the scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes on the lung is extremely limited. The major goal of our current study is to determine if e-cigarette use alters human young subject airway epithelial functions such as inflammatory response and innate immune defense against respiratory viral (i.e., human rhinovirus, HRV) infection. We examined the effects of e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid) on pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g., IL-6) production, HRV infection and host defense molecules (e.g., short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1, SPLUNC1) in primary human airway epithelial cells from young healthy non-smokers. Additionally, we examined the role of SPLUNC1 in lung defense against HRV infection using a SPLUNC1 knockout mouse model. We found that nicotine-free e-liquid promoted IL-6 production and HRV infection. Addition of nicotine into e-liquid further amplified the effects of nicotine-free e-liquid. Moreover, SPLUNC1 deficiency in mice significantly increased lung HRV loads. E-liquid inhibited SPLUNC1 expression in primary human airway epithelial cells. These findings strongly suggest the deleterious health effects of e-cigarettes in the airways of young people. Our data will guide future studies to evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes on lung health in human populations, and help inform the public about potential health risks of e-cigarettes.

  17. Electronic cigarette liquid increases inflammation and virus infection in primary human airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Wu

    Full Text Available The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes is rapidly increasing in the United States, especially among young people since e-cigarettes have been perceived as a safer alternative to conventional tobacco cigarettes. However, the scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes on the lung is extremely limited. The major goal of our current study is to determine if e-cigarette use alters human young subject airway epithelial functions such as inflammatory response and innate immune defense against respiratory viral (i.e., human rhinovirus, HRV infection.We examined the effects of e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid on pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g., IL-6 production, HRV infection and host defense molecules (e.g., short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1, SPLUNC1 in primary human airway epithelial cells from young healthy non-smokers. Additionally, we examined the role of SPLUNC1 in lung defense against HRV infection using a SPLUNC1 knockout mouse model. We found that nicotine-free e-liquid promoted IL-6 production and HRV infection. Addition of nicotine into e-liquid further amplified the effects of nicotine-free e-liquid. Moreover, SPLUNC1 deficiency in mice significantly increased lung HRV loads. E-liquid inhibited SPLUNC1 expression in primary human airway epithelial cells. These findings strongly suggest the deleterious health effects of e-cigarettes in the airways of young people. Our data will guide future studies to evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes on lung health in human populations, and help inform the public about potential health risks of e-cigarettes.

  18. Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbank, Susanne; van Griensven, Martijn; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Peterbauer-Scherb, Anja

    Human amniotic membrane is a highly promising cell source for tissue engineering. The cells thereof, human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), may be immunoprivileged, they represent an early developmental status, and their application is ethically uncontroversial. Cell banking strategies may use freshly isolated cells or involve in vitro expansion to increase cell numbers. Therefore, we have thoroughly characterized the effect of in vitro cultivation on both phenotype and differentiation potential of hAEC. Moreover, we present different strategies to improve expansion including replacement of animal-derived supplements by human platelet products or the introduction of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase to extend the in vitro lifespan of amniotic cells. Characterization of the resulting cultures includes phenotype, growth characteristics, and differentiation potential, as well as immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties.

  19. Three-dimensional neuroepithelial culture from human embryonic stem cells and its use for quantitative conversion to retinal pigment epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhu

    Full Text Available A goal in human embryonic stem cell (hESC research is the faithful differentiation to given cell types such as neural lineages. During embryonic development, a basement membrane surrounds the neural plate that forms a tight, apico-basolaterally polarized epithelium before closing to form a neural tube with a single lumen. Here we show that the three-dimensional epithelial cyst culture of hESCs in Matrigel combined with neural induction results in a quantitative conversion into neuroepithelial cysts containing a single lumen. Cells attain a defined neuroepithelial identity by 5 days. The neuroepithelial cysts naturally generate retinal epithelium, in part due to IGF-1/insulin signaling. We demonstrate the utility of this epithelial culture approach by achieving a quantitative production of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells from hESCs within 30 days. Direct transplantation of this RPE into a rat model of retinal degeneration without any selection or expansion of the cells results in the formation of a donor-derived RPE monolayer that rescues photoreceptor cells. The cyst method for neuroepithelial differentiation of pluripotent stem cells is not only of importance for RPE generation but will also be relevant to the production of other neuronal cell types and for reconstituting complex patterning events from three-dimensional neuroepithelia.

  20. Utilization of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as feeder layers to sustain propagation of human embryonic stem cells in the undifferentiated state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kehua; Cai, Zhe; Li, Yang; Shu, Jun; Pan, Lin; Wan, Fang; Li, Hong; Huang, Xiaojie; He, Chun; Liu, Yanqiu; Cui, Xiaohui; Xu, Yang; Gao, Yan; Wu, Liqun; Cao, Shanxia; Li, Lingsong

    2011-08-01

    Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are usually maintained in the undifferentiated state by culturing on feeder cells layers of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). However, MEFs are not suitable to support human ES cells used for clinical purpose because of risk of zoonosis from animal cells. Therefore, human tissue-based feeder layers need to be developed for human ES cells for clinical purpose. Hereof we report that human amniotic mesenchymal cells (hAMCs) could act as feeder cells for human ES cells, because they are easily obtained and relatively exempt from ethical problem. Like MEFs, hAMCs could act as feeder cells for human ES cells to grow well on. The self-renewal rate of human ES cells cultured on hAMCs feeders was higher than that on MEFs and human amniotic epithelial cells determined by measurement of colonial diameters and growth curve as well as cell cycle analysis. Both immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting showed that human ES cells cultured on hAMCs expressed stem cell markers such as Oct-3/4, Sox2, and NANOG. Verified by embryoid body formation in vitro and teratoma formation in vivo, we found out that after 20 passages of culture, human ES cells grown on hAMCs feeders could still retain the potency of differentiating into three germ layers. Taken together, our data suggested hAMCs may be safe feeder cells to sustain the propagation of human ES cells in undifferentiated state for future therapeutic use.

  1. Salinomycin induces cell death and differentiation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma stem cells despite activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and Akt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Selena Z; Blair, Katherine J; Rahimy, Elham; Kiang, Alan; Abhold, Eric; Fan, Jian-Bing; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Altuna, Xabier; Ongkeko, Weg M

    2012-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) are believed to play a crucial role in cancer recurrence due to their resistance to conventional chemotherapy and capacity for self-renewal. Recent studies have reported that salinomycin, a livestock antibiotic, selectively targets breast cancer stem cells 100-fold more effectively than paclitaxel. In our study we sought to determine the effects of salinomycin on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) stem cells. MTS and TUNEL assays were used to study cell proliferation and apoptosis as a function of salinomycin exposure in JLO-1, a putative HNSCC stem cell culture. MTS and trypan blue dye exclusion assays were performed to investigate potential drug interactions between salinomycin and cisplatin or paclitaxel. Stem cell-like phenotype was measured by mRNA expression of stem cell markers, sphere-forming capacity, and matrigel invasion assays. Immunoblotting was also used to determine expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and Akt phosphorylation. Arrays by Illumina, Inc. were used to profile microRNA expression as a function of salinomycin dose. In putative HNSCC stem cells, salinomycin was found to significantly inhibit cell viability, induce a 71.5% increase in levels of apoptosis, elevate the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and work synergistically with cisplatin and paclitaxel in inducing cell death. It was observed that salinomycin significantly inhibited sphere forming-capability and repressed the expression of CD44 and BMI-1 by 3.2-fold and 6.2-fold, respectively. Furthermore, salinomycin reduced invasion of HNSCC stem cells by 2.1 fold. Contrary to expectations, salinomycin induced the expression of EMT markers Snail, vimentin, and Zeb-1, decreased expression of E-cadherin, and also induced phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream targets GSK3-β and mTOR. These results demonstrate that in HNSCC cancer stem cells, salinomycin can cause cell death and decrease stem cell properties despite activation of both EMT and

  2. Anti-apoptotic effects of Z alpha1-antitrypsin in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, C M

    2010-05-01

    alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha(1)-AT) deficiency is a genetic disease which manifests as early-onset emphysema or liver disease. Although the majority of alpha(1)-AT is produced by the liver, it is also produced by bronchial epithelial cells, amongst others, in the lung. Herein, we investigate the effects of mutant Z alpha(1)-AT (ZAAT) expression on apoptosis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) and delineate the mechanisms involved. Control, M variant alpha(1)-AT (MAAT)- or ZAAT-expressing cells were assessed for apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, cell viability, phosphorylation of Bad, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation and induced expression of a selection of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Expression of ZAAT in 16HBE14o- cells, like MAAT, inhibited basal and agonist-induced apoptosis. ZAAT expression also inhibited caspase-3 activity by 57% compared with control cells (p = 0.05) and was a more potent inhibitor than MAAT. Whilst ZAAT had no effect on the activity of Bad, its expression activated NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression above control or MAAT-expressing cells. In 16HBE14o- cells but not HEK293 cells, ZAAT upregulated expression of cIAP-1, an upstream regulator of NF-kappaB. cIAP1 expression was increased in ZAAT versus MAAT bronchial biopsies. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which ZAAT may promote human bronchial epithelial cell survival.

  3. Interleukin-17A induces bicarbonate secretion in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindler, James L.; Bertrand, Carol A.; Lee, Robert J.; Karasic, Thomas; Aujla, Shean; Pilewski, Joseph M.; Frizzell, Raymond A.; Kolls, Jay K.

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune functions of human airways include mucociliary clearance and antimicrobial peptide activity. Both functions may be affected by changes in epithelial ion transport. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), which has a receptor at the basolateral membrane of airway epithelia, is a T cell cytokine that has been shown to increase mucus secretion and antimicrobial peptide production by human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Furthermore, IL-17A levels are increased in sputum from patients during pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis. Therefore, we investigated the effects of IL-17A on basal, amiloride-sensitive, and forskolin-stimulated ion transport in mature, well-differentiated HBE cells. Exposure of HBE monolayers to IL-17A for 48 h induced a novel forskolin-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in addition to forskolin-stimulated chloride secretion and resulted in alkalinization of liquid on the mucosal surface of polarized cells. IL-17A-induced bicarbonate secretion was cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent, mucosal chloride-dependent, partially Na+-dependent, and sensitive to serosal, but not mucosal, stilbene inhibition. These data suggest that IL-17A modulates epithelial bicarbonate secretion and implicate a mechanism by which airway surface liquid pH changes may be abnormal in cystic fibrosis. PMID:19074559

  4. IL-29 Enhances CXCL10 Production in TNF-α-stimulated Human Oral Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Hosokawa, Ikuko; Shindo, Satoru; Ozaki, Kazumi; Matsuo, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    Interleukin-29 (IL-29) is a cytokine belonging to the Type III interferon family. It was recently detected in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients. However, the role of IL-29 in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of IL-29 on C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) production in human oral epithelial cells. We measured CXCL10 production in TR146 cells, which is a human oral epithelial cell line, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We used a Western blot analysis to detect IL-29 receptor expression and the phosphorylation levels of signal transduction molecules, including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and nuclear factor (NF)- κB p65, in the TR146 cells. The TR146 cells expressed the IL-29 receptor. IL-29 induced CXCL10 production in the TR146 cells. IL-29 significantly enhanced CXCL10 production in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated TR146 cells. The p38 MAPK, STAT3, and NF-κB pathways were found to be related to the IL-29-induced enhancement of CXCL10 production in TNF-α-stimulated TR146 cells. IL-29 promotes T helper 1-cell accumulation in periodontal lesions by inducing CXCL10 production in oral epithelial cells.

  5. The parietal epithelial cell is crucially involved in human idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, Henry; Smeets, Bart; van der Laak, Jeroen; Steenbergen, Eric; Wetzels, Jack

    2005-10-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the most common patterns of glomerular injury encountered in human renal biopsies. Epithelial hyperplasia, which can be prominent in FSGS, has been attributed to dedifferentiation and proliferation of podocytes. Based on observations in a mouse model of FSGS, we pointed to the role of parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In the present study we investigated the relative role of PECs and podocytes in human idiopathic FSGS. We performed a detailed study of lesions from a patient with recurrent idiopathic FSGS by serial sectioning, marker analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction of glomeruli. We have studied the expression of markers for podocytes, PECs, mesangial cells, endothelium, and myofibroblasts. We also looked at proliferation and composition of the deposited extracellular matrix (ECM). We found that proliferating epithelial cells in FSGS lesions are negative for podocyte and macrophage markers, but stain for PEC markers. The composition of the matrix deposited by these cells is identical to Bowman's capsule. Our study demonstrates that PECs are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of FSGS lesions.

  6. Improved genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, S.R.; Denning, C.; van den Brink, S.; Kats, P.; Hochstenbach, R.; Passier, R.; Mummery, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Low efficiency of transfection limits the ability to genetically manipulate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and differences in cell derivation and culture methods require optimization of transfection protocols. We transiently transferred multiple independent hESC lines with different growth

  7. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadix, Juan Antonio; Orlova, Valeria V.; Giacomelli, Elisa; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; Mummery, Christine L.; Pérez-Pomares, José M.; Passier, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced) to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA)

  8. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCM-1 was derived from a failed to fertilise egg undergoing parthenogenetic stimulation. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  9. Patenting human stem cells: an urgent need for a clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2008-09-01

    Patenting human stem cells has become one of the most controversial issues of the bioethics field at the beginning of the XXIst century, at least in industrial countries. This article relates the story of the long legal adventure that preceded the ruling of the Warf case by the Enlarged board of appeal of the European Patent Office on 25th November 2008.

  10. Nanotopography Promotes Pancreatic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Cha, Kyoung Je; Han, Jiyou; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Dong Sung; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2016-03-22

    Although previous studies suggest that nanotopographical features influence properties and behaviors of stem cells, only a few studies have attempted to derive clinically useful somatic cells from human pluripotent stem cells using nanopatterned surfaces. In the present study, we report that polystyrene nanopore-patterned surfaces significantly promote the pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. We compared different diameters of nanopores and showed that 200 nm nanopore-patterned surfaces highly upregulated the expression of PDX1, a critical transcription factor for pancreatic development, leading to an approximately 3-fold increase in the percentage of differentiating PDX1(+) pancreatic progenitors compared with control flat surfaces. Furthermore, in the presence of biochemical factors, 200 nm nanopore-patterned surfaces profoundly enhanced the derivation of pancreatic endocrine cells producing insulin, glucagon, or somatostatin. We also demonstrate that nanopore-patterned surface-induced upregulation of PDX1 is associated with downregulation of TAZ, suggesting the potential role of TAZ in nanopore-patterned surface-mediated mechanotransduction. Our study suggests that appropriate cytokine treatments combined with nanotopographical stimulation could be a powerful tool for deriving a high purity of desired cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Nóra; Veréb, Zoltán; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Német, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Ágota

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. ► Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. ► MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  13. Generation of neuropeptidergic hypothalamic neurons from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Florian T; Maroof, Asif; Wataya, Takafumi; Sasai, Yoshiki; Studer, Lorenz; Eggan, Kevin; Schier, Alexander F

    2015-02-15

    Hypothalamic neurons orchestrate many essential physiological and behavioral processes via secreted neuropeptides, and are relevant to human diseases such as obesity, narcolepsy and infertility. We report the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into many of the major types of neuropeptidergic hypothalamic neurons, including those producing pro-opiolemelanocortin, agouti-related peptide, hypocretin/orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, oxytocin, arginine vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) or thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Hypothalamic neurons can be generated using a 'self-patterning' strategy that yields a broad array of cell types, or via a more reproducible directed differentiation approach. Stem cell-derived human hypothalamic neurons share characteristic morphological properties and gene expression patterns with their counterparts in vivo, and are able to integrate into the mouse brain. These neurons could form the basis of cellular models, chemical screens or cellular therapies to study and treat common human diseases. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Using organotypic (raft) epithelial tissue cultures for the biosynthesis and isolation of infectious human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbun, Michelle A; Patterson, Nicole A

    2014-08-01

    Papillomaviruses have a strict tropism for epithelial cells, and they are fully reliant on cellular differentiation for completion of their life cycles, resulting in the production of progeny virions. Thus, a permissive environment for full viral replication in vitro-wherein virion morphogenesis occurs under cooperative viral and cellular cues-requires the cultivation of epithelium. Presented in the first section of this unit is a protocol to grow differentiating epithelial tissues that mimic many important morphological and biochemical aspects of normal skin. The technique involves growing epidermal cells atop a dermal equivalent consisting of live fibroblasts and a collagen lattice. Epithelial stratification and differentiation ensues when the keratinocyte-dermal equivalent is placed at the air-liquid interface. The apparent floating nature of the cell-matrix in this method led to the nickname "raft" cultures. The general technique can be applied to normal low passage keratinocytes, to cells stably transfected with papillomavirus genes or genomes, or keratinocytes established from neoplastic lesions. However, infectious papillomavirus particles have only been isolated from organotypic epithelial cultures initiated with cells that maintain oncogenic human papillomavirus genomes in an extrachomosomal replicative form. The second section of this unit is dedicated to a virion isolation method that minimizes aerosol and skin exposure to these human carcinogens. Although the focus of the protocols is on the growth of tissues that yields infectious papillomavirus progeny, this culture system facilitates the investigation of these fastidious viruses during their complex replicative cycles, and raft tissues can be manipulated and harvested at any point during the process. Importantly, a single-step virus growth cycle is achieved in this process, as it is unlikely that progeny virions are released to initiate subsequent rounds of infection. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley

  15. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Broncho-epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human broncho-epithelial (HBE) tissue-like assemblies (3D HBE TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (wtPIV3 JS) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infections with both viruses. Therefore, TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host's immune system.

  16. Nanoscale Mechanical Stimulation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nikukar

    2014-05-01

    We observed significant responses after 1 and 2-week stimulations in cell number, cell shapes and phenotypical markers. Microarray was performed for all groups. Cell count showed normal cell growth with stimulation. However, cell surface area, cell perimeter, and arboration after 1-week stimulation showed significant increases. Immunofluorescent studies have showed significant increase in osteocalcin production after stimulation. Conclusions: Nanoscale mechanical vibration showed significant changes in human mesenchymal stem cell behaviours. Cell morphology changed to become more polygonal and increased expression of the osteoblast markers were noted. These findings with gene regulation changes suggesting nanoscale mechanostimulation has stimulated osteoblastogenesis.  Keywords:  Mesenchymal, Nanoscale, Stem Cells.

  17. Mapping the calcitonin receptor in human brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, Rebekah L; Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2016-01-01

    understanding of these hormone systems by mapping CTR expression in the human brain stem, specifically the medulla oblongata. Widespread CTR-like immunoreactivity was observed throughout the medulla. Dense CTR staining was noted in several discrete nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract...... receptors (AMY) are a heterodimer formed by the coexpression of CTR with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). CTR with RAMP1 responds potently to both amylin and CGRP. The brain stem is a major site of action for circulating amylin and is a rich site of CGRP binding. This study aimed to enhance our...

  18. Tumorigenicity studies for human pluripotent stem cell-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takuya; Yasuda, Satoshi; Sato, Yoji

    2013-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), i.e. human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, are able to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types. Because of these abilities, numerous attempts have been made to utilize hPSCs in regenerative medicine/cell therapy. hPSCs are, however, also tumorigenic, that is, they can give rise to the progressive growth of tumor nodules in immunologically unresponsive animals. Therefore, assessing and managing the tumorigenicity of all final products is essential in order to prevent ectopic tissue formation, tumor development, and/or malignant transformation elicited by residual pluripotent stem cells after implantation. No detailed guideline for the tumorigenicity testing of hPSC-derived products has yet been issued for regenerative medicine/cell therapy, despite the urgent necessity. Here, we describe the current situations and issues related to the tumorigenicity testing of hPSC-derived products and we review the advantages and disadvantages of several types of tumorigenicity-associated tests. We also refer to important considerations in the execution and design of specific studies to monitor the tumorigenicity of hPSC-derived products.

  19. MAPK Activation Is Essential for Waddlia chondrophila Induced CXCL8 Expression in Human Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skye Storrie

    Full Text Available Waddlia chondrophila (W. chondrophila is an emerging agent of respiratory and reproductive disease in humans and cattle. The organism is a member of the order Chlamydiales, and shares many similarities at the genome level and in growth studies with other well-characterised zoonotic chlamydial agents, such as Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus. The current study investigated the growth characteristics and innate immune responses of human and ruminant epithelial cells in response to infection with W. chondrophila.Human epithelial cells (HEp2 were infected with W. chondrophila for 24h. CXCL8 release was significantly elevated in each of the cell lines by active-infection with live W. chondrophila, but not by exposure to UV-killed organisms. Inhibition of either p38 or p42/44 MAPK significantly inhibited the stimulation of CXCL8 release in each of the cell lines. To determine the pattern recognition receptor through which CXCL8 release was stimulated, wild-type HEK293 cells which express no TLR2, TLR4, NOD2 and only negligible NOD1 were infected with live organisms. A significant increase in CXCL8 was observed.W. chondrophila actively infects and replicates within both human and ruminant epithelial cells stimulating CXCL8 release. Release of CXCL8 is significantly inhibited by inhibition of either p38 or p42/44 MAPK indicating a role for this pathway in the innate immune response to W. chondrophila infection. W. chondrophila stimulation of CXCL8 secretion in HEK293 cells indicates that TLR2, TLR4, NOD2 and NOD1 receptors are not essential to the innate immune response to infection.

  20. Response of human limbal epithelial cells to wounding on 3D RAFT tissue equivalents: effect of airlifting and human limbal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Isobel; Levis, Hannah J; Daniels, Julie T

    2014-10-01

    Limbal epithelial stem cell deficiency can cause blindness but may be treated by human limbal epithelial cell (hLE) transplantation, normally on human amniotic membrane. Clinical outcomes using amnion can be unreliable and so we have developed an alternative tissue equivalent (TE), RAFT (Real Architecture for 3D Tissue), which supports hLE expansion, and stratification when airlifted. Human limbal fibroblasts (hLF) may be incorporated into RAFT TEs, where they support overlying hLE and improve phenotype. However, the impact of neither airlifting nor hLF on hLE function has been investigated. hLE on RAFT TEs (±hLF and airlifting) were wounded using heptanol and re-epithelialisation (fluorescein diacetate staining), and percentage putative stem cell marker p63α and proliferative marker Ki67 expression (wholemount immunohistochemistry), measured. Airlifted, hLF- RAFT TEs were unable to close the wound and p63α expression was 7 ± 0.2% after wounding. Conversely, non-airlifted, hLF- RAFT TEs closed the wound within 9 days and p63α expression was higher at 22 ± 5% (p < 0.01). hLE on both hLF- and hLF+ RAFT TEs (non-airlifted) closed the wound and p63α expression was 26 ± 8% and 36 ± 3% respectively (ns). Ki67 expression by hLE increased from 1.3 ± 0.5% before wounding to 7.89 ± 2.53% post-wounding for hLF- RAFT TEs (p < 0.01), and 0.8 ± 0.08% to 17.68 ± 10.88% for hLF+ RAFT TEs (p < 0.05), suggesting that re-epithelialisation was a result of proliferation. These data suggest that neither airlifting nor hLF are necessarily required to maintain a functional epithelium on RAFT TEs, thus simplifying and shortening the production process. This is important when working towards clinical application of regenerative medicine products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Successful isolation, in vitro expansion and characterization of stem cells from Human Dental Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Preethy SP; Srinivasan T; Tholcopiyan L; Thamaraikannan P; Srinivasan V; Murugan P; Manjunath S; Kannan TA; Shalini R; Sunil PM; Manikandhan R; Muthu MS; Abraham S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells isolated from post natal human dental pulp, (Dental pulp stem cells-DPSCs) which is from permanent teeth and SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth),the Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) and Stem cells from root Apical papilla(SCAP)have the potential to differentiate into cells of a variety of tissues including heart, muscle, cartilage, bone, nerve, salivary glands, teeth etc(1,2,3,4).This multipotential a...

  2. Hypothiocyanite produced by human and rat respiratory epithelial cells inactivates extracellular H1N2 influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Aaron; Pang, Lan; Hanson, Jarod; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Streich, Rebecca; Lafontaine, Eric R; Nagy, Tamás; Tripp, Ralph A; Rada, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study whether an extracellular, oxidative antimicrobial mechanism inherent to tracheal epithelial cells is capable of inactivating influenza H1N2 virus. Epithelial cells were isolated from tracheas of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Both primary human and rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells were differentiated in air-liquid interface cultures. A/swine/Illinois/02860/09 (swH1N2) influenza A virions were added to the apical side of airway cells for 1 h in the presence or absence of lactoperoxidase or thiocyanate. Characterization of rat epithelial cells (morphology, Duox expression) occurred via western blotting, PCR, hydrogen peroxide production measurement and histology. The number of viable virions was determined by plaque assays. Statistical difference of the results was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Our data show that rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells develop a differentiated, polarized monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance, mucin production and expression of dual oxidases. Influenza A virions are inactivated by human and rat epithelial cells via a dual oxidase-, lactoperoxidase- and thiocyanate-dependent mechanism. Differentiated air-liquid interface cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells provide a novel model to study airway epithelium-influenza interactions. The dual oxidase/lactoperoxidase/thiocyanate extracellular oxidative system producing hypothiocyanite is a fast and potent anti-influenza mechanism inactivating H1N2 viruses prior to infection of the epithelium.

  3. Biobanking human embryonic stem cell lines: policy, ethics and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Søren

    2015-12-01

    Stem cell banks curating and distributing human embryonic stem cells have been established in a number of countries and by a number of private institutions. This paper identifies and critically discusses a number of arguments that are used to justify the importance of such banks in policy discussions relating to their establishment or maintenance. It is argued (1) that 'ethical arguments' are often more important in the establishment phase and 'efficiency arguments' more important in the maintenance phase, and (2) that arguments relating to the interests of embryo and gamete donors are curiously absent from the particular stem cell banking policy discourse. This to some extent artificially isolates this discourse from the broader discussions about the flows of reproductive materials and tissues in modern society, and such isolation may lead to the interests of important actors being ignored in the policy making process.

  4. VEGF promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of human glioblastoma stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Naoki; Soeda, Akio; Inagaki, Akihito; Onodera, Masafumi; Maruyama, Hidekazu; Hara, Akira; Kunisada, Takahiro; Mori, Hideki; Iwama, Toru

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in malignant brain tumors, and these CSCs may play a pivotal role in tumor initiation, growth, and recurrence. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and the neurogenesis of neural stem cells. Using CSCs derived from human glioblastomas and a retrovirus expressing VEGF, we examined the effects of VEGF on the properties of CSCs in vitro and in vivo. Although VEGF did not affect the property of CSCs in vitro, the injection of mouse brains with VEGF-expressing CSCs led to the massive expansion of vascular-rich GBM, tumor-associated hemorrhage, and high morbidity, suggesting that VEGF promoted tumorigenesis via angiogenesis. These results revealed that VEGF induced the proliferation of VEC in the vascular-rich tumor environment, the so-called stem cell niche

  5. SnapShot : Growing Organoids from Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, Toshiro; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Tissue stem cells require unique niche microenvironments. In the presence of specific combinations of niche factors, mouse and human epithelial tissues from stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas duct, and liver bile duct efficiently form stereotypic organoids. The platform of epitheloid

  6. Apoptosis induction of human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells by noscapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasoul Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Endometriosis is a complex gynecologic disease with unknown etiology. Noscapine has been introduced as a cancer cell suppressor. Endometriosis was considered as a cancer like disorder, The aim of present study was to investigate noscapine apoptotic effect on human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells in vitro. Materials and Methods:In this in vitro study, endometrial biopsies from endometriosis patients (n=9 were prepared and digested by an enzymatic method (collagenase I, 2 mg/ml. Stromal and epithelial cells were separated by sequential filtration through a cell strainer and ficoll layering. The cells of each sample were divided into five groups: control (0, 10, 25, 50 and 100 micromole/liter (µM concentration of noscapine and were cultured for three different periods of times; 24, 48 and 72 hr. Cell viability was assessed by colorimetric assay. Nitric oxide (NO concentration was measured by Griess reagent. Cell death was analyzed by Acridine Orange (AO–Ethidium Bromide (EB double staining and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL assay. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Viability of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells significantly decreased in 10, 25, 50 and 100 µM noscapine concentration in 24, 48, 72 hr (P

  7. Down-regulation of a calmodulin-related gene during transformation of human mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaswen, P.; Smoll, A.; Stampfer, M.R.; Peehl, D.M.; Trask, D.K.; Sager, R.

    1990-01-01

    A human cDNA library obtained from cultured normal mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) was searched by subtractive hybridization for genes whose decrease in expression might be relevant to epithelial transformation. One clone identified by this procedure corresponded to a 1.4 kilobase mRNA, designated NB-1, whose expression was decreased >50-fold in HMECs tumorigenically transformed in vitro after exposure to benzo[α]pyrene and Kirsten sarcoma virus. Sequence analysis of NB-1 cDNA revealed an open reading frame with a high degree of homology to calmodulin. NB-1 expression could be demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction amplification in normal breast, prostate, cervix, and epidermal tissues. The presence of NB-1 transcripts was variable in primary breast carcinoma tissues and undetectable in tumor-derived cell lines of breast, prostate, or other origins. NB-1 mRNA expression could be down-regulated in cultured HMECs by exposure to reconstituted extracellular matrix material, while exposure to transforming growth factor type β increased its relative abundance. The protein encoded by NB-1 may have Ca 2 plus binding properties and perform functions similar to those of authentic calmodulin. Its possible roles in differentiation and/or suppression of tumorigenicity in epithelial tissues remain to be examined

  8. In vitro effects of three blood derivatives on human corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Vanesa; Andollo, Noelia; Etxebarria, Jaime; Durán, Juan A; Morales, María-Celia

    2012-08-15

    We compared the effects of three blood derivatives, autologous serum (AS), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and serum derived from plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF), on a human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell line to evaluate their potential as an effective treatment for corneal epithelial disorders. The concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and fibronectin were quantified by ELISA. The proliferation and viability of HCE cells were measured by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. Cell morphology was assessed by phase-contrast microscopy. The patterns of expression of several connexin, involucrin, and integrin α6 genes were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. We found significantly higher levels of EGF in PRGF compared to AS and PRP. However, AS and PRGF induced robust proliferation of HCE cells. In addition, PRGF cultured cells grew as heterogeneous colonies, exhibiting differentiated and non-differentiated cell phenotypes, whereas AS- and PRP-treated cultures exhibited quite homogeneous colonies. Finally, PRGF upregulated the expression of several genes associated with communication and cell differentiation, in comparison to AS or PRP. PRGF promotes biological processes required for corneal epithelialization, such as proliferation and differentiation. Since PRGF effects are similar to those associated with routinely used blood derivatives, the present findings warrant further research on PRGF as a novel alternative treatment for ocular surface diseases.

  9. Establishment of three-dimensional cultures of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M.; Menter, David G.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Reddy, Shrikanth A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of epithelial cells offer singular advantages for studies of morphogenesis or the role of cancer genes in oncogenesis. In this study, as part of establishing a 3D culture system of pancreatic duct epithelial cells, we compared human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDE-E6E7) with pancreatic cancer cell lines. Our results show, that in contrast to cancer cells, HPDE-E6E7 organized into spheroids with what appeared to be apical and basal membranes and a luminal space. Immunostaining experiments indicated that protein kinase Akt was phosphorylated (Ser473) and CTMP, a negative Akt regulator, was expressed in both HPDE-E6E7 and cancer cells. However, a nuclear pool of CTMP was detectable in HPDE-E6E7 cells that showed a dynamic concentrated expression pattern, a feature that further distinguished HPDE-E637 cells from cancer cells. Collectively, these data suggest that 3D cultures of HPDE-E6E7 cells are useful for investigating signaling and morphological abnormalities in pancreatic cancer cells

  10. Recovery from radiation-induced damage in primary cultures of human epithelial thyroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Hiraoka, Toshio; Enno, Masumi; Takeichi, Nobuo.

    1985-01-01

    Human thyroid epithelial tissues from 23 individuals were obtained from surgical tissue, and cultured in vitro. Dose response survival curves showed thyroid cells, when compared to mammary epithelial and skin fibroblast cells of human origin, to be only slightly more radiosensitive to X-rays. Cell survival curves from the cell strains showed wide variability in radiation sensitivity. Of the 23 cell strains tested, 21 strains displayed significant shoulders (nonzero quasi-threshold (D q ) values and extrapolation number (n) values greater than 1) at low dose exposures. The ability of human cells to recover from radiation damage was further studied by dose fractionation. Two cell strains were given a total X-ray dose of 304 cGy in two equal fractions separated by varying time intervals. Maximal cell survival was observed when the time interval exceeded two hours. When the two cell strains were exposed to 152 cGy of X-rays followed four hours later by second graded doses, cell survival was enhanced as compared to survival after single dose exposures. However, no benefit of dose splitting was observed when cells were exposed to low second doses. These results support previous studies showing that human cells are capable of repair but require relatively large doses to elicit a repair response. (author)

  11. Recovery from radiation-induced damage in primary cultures of human epithelial thyroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Hiraoka, Toshio; Enno, Masumi; Takeichi, Nobuo.

    1985-09-01

    Human thyroid epithelial tissue from 23 individuals was obtained from surgical tissue, and cultured in vitro. Dose-response survival curves showed thyroid cells, when compared to mammary epithelial and skin fibroblast cells of human origin, to be only slightly more radiosensitive to X rays. Cell survival curves from the cell strains showed wide variability in radiation sensitivity. Of the 23 cell strains tested, 21 strains displayed significant shoulders (nonzero quasi-threshold (Dsub(q)) values and extrapolation number (n) values greater than 1)* at low dose exposures. The ability of human cells to recover from radiation damage was further studied by dose fractionation. Two cell strains were given a total X-ray dose of 304 cGy in two equal fractions separated by varying time intervals. Maximal cell survival was observed when the time interval exceeded two hours. When the two cell strains were exposed to 152 cGy of X rays followed four hours later by second graded doses, cell survival was enhanced as compared to survival after single dose exposures. However, no benefit of dose splitting was observed when cells were exposed to low second doses. These results support previous studies showing that human cells are capable of repair but require relatively large doses to elicit a repair response. (author)

  12. Human induced pluripotent stem cells: A disruptive innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, J; Bouckenheimer, J; Sansac, C; Lemaître, J-M; Assou, S

    2016-01-01

    This year (2016) will mark the 10th anniversary of the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The finding that the transient expression of four transcription factors can radically remodel the epigenome, transcriptome and metabolome of differentiated cells and reprogram them into pluripotent stem cells has been a major and groundbreaking technological innovation. In this review, we discuss the major applications of this technology that we have grouped in nine categories: a model to study cell fate control; a model to study pluripotency; a model to study human development; a model to study human tissue and organ physiology; a model to study genetic diseases in a dish; a tool for cell rejuvenation; a source of cells for drug screening; a source of cells for regenerative medicine; a tool for the production of human organs in animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Generation of Spinal Motor Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, David P; Kiskinis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are characterized by their unique ability to self-renew indefinitely, as well as to differentiate into any cell type of the human body. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) share these salient characteristics with ESCs and can easily be generated from any given individual by reprogramming somatic cell types such as fibroblasts or blood cells. The spinal motor neuron (MN) is a specialized neuronal subtype that synapses with muscle to control movement. Here, we present a method to generate functional, postmitotic, spinal motor neurons through the directed differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs by the use of small molecules. These cells can be utilized to study the development and function of human motor neurons in healthy and disease states.

  14. Generation of Megakaryocytes and Platelets from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have the potential to produce any tissue type in the body and thus represent a source of cells for regenerative medicine. Here we have shown that human platelets can be produced from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells in a defined culture system. We describe a serum- and feeder-free culture system that enabled the generation of megakaryocyte (Mk) progenitors and functional platelets from hPSCs. After 13 days the differentiated population included precursor cells that formed colonies containing differentiated Mks, and after 20 days these Mks were able to fragment into platelet-like particles that were functional. This protocol represents an important step towards the generation of human platelets for therapeutic use.

  15. Human cloning, stem cell research. An Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, Aida I

    2009-12-01

    The rapidly changing technologies that involve human subjects raise complex ethical, legal, social, and religious issues. Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hopes for the treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has raised many complex questions. This field causes debate and challenge, not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments, and politicians. There is no consensus on the morality of human cloning, even within specific religious traditions. In countries in which religion has a strong influence on political decision making, the moral status of the human embryo is at the center of the debate. Because of the inevitable consequences of reproductive cloning, it is prohibited in Islam. However, stem cell research for therapeutic purposes is permissible with full consideration, and all possible precautions in the pre-ensoulment stages of early fetus development, if the source is legitimate.

  16. 75 FR 8085 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is requesting public comment on a revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). On July 7, 2009, NIH...

  17. 75 FR 13137 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is extending the public comment period on a revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). Due to a...

  18. Sulfation of chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine by human lung endothelial and epithelial cells: Role of the human SULT1A3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Shin; Yasuda, Tomoko; Liu, Ming-Yih; Shetty, Sreerama; Idell, Steven; Boggaram, Vijayakumar; Suiko, Masahito; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Fu Jian; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2011-01-01

    During inflammation, potent reactive oxidants formed may cause chlorination and nitration of both free and protein-bound tyrosine. In addition to serving as biomarkers of inflammation-mediated oxidative stress, elevated levels of chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine have been linked to the pathogenesis of lung and vascular disorders. The current study was designed to investigate whether the lung cells are equipped with mechanisms for counteracting these tyrosine derivatives. By metabolic labeling, chlorotyrosine O-[ 35 S]sulfate and nitrotyrosine O-[ 35 S]sulfate were found to be generated and released into the labeling media of human lung endothelial and epithelial cells labeled with [ 35 S]sulfate in the presence of added chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine. Enzymatic assays using the eleven known human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) revealed SULT1A3 as the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the sulfation of chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated the expression of SULT1A3 in the lung endothelial and epithelial cells used in this study. Kinetic constants of the sulfation of chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine by SULT1A3 were determined. Collectively, these results suggest that sulfation by SULT1A3 in lung endothelial and epithelial cells may play a role in the inactivation and/or disposal of excess chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine generated during inflammation.

  19. Exogenous HIV-1 Nef upsets the IFN-γ-induced impairment of human intestinal epithelial integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Quaranta

    Full Text Available The mucosal tissues play a central role in the transmission of HIV-1 infection as well as in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Despite several clinical studies reported intestinal dysfunction during HIV infection, the mechanisms underlying HIV-induced impairments of mucosal epithelial barrier are still unclear. It has been postulated that HIV-1 alters enterocytic function and HIV-1 proteins have been detected in several cell types of the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of the accessory HIV-1 Nef protein on human epithelial cell line.We used unstimulated or IFN-γ-stimulated Caco-2 cells, as a model for homeostatic and inflamed gastrointestinal tracts, respectively. We investigated the effect of exogenous recombinant Nef on monolayer integrity analyzing its uptake, transepithelial electrical resistance, permeability to FITC-dextran and the expression of tight junction proteins. Moreover, we measured the induction of proinflammatory mediators. Exogenous Nef was taken up by Caco-2 cells, increased intestinal epithelial permeability and upset the IFN-γ-induced reduction of transepithelial resistance, interfering with tight junction protein expression. Moreover, Nef inhibited IFN-γ-induced apoptosis and up-regulated TNF-α, IL-6 and MIP-3α production by Caco-2 cells while down-regulated IL-10 production. The simultaneous exposure of Caco-2 cells to Nef and IFN-γ did not affect cytokine secretion respect to untreated cells. Finally, we found that Nef counteracted the IFN-γ induced arachidonic acid cascade.Our findings suggest that exogenous Nef, perturbing the IFN-γ-induced impairment of intestinal epithelial cells, could prolong cell survival, thus allowing for accumulation of viral particles. Our results may improve the understanding of AIDS pathogenesis, supporting the discovery of new therapeutic interventions.

  20. Human lactoferrin stimulates skin keratinocyte function and wound re-epithelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; Wu, J J; Ma, Q; Cui, T; Andreopoulos, F M; Gil, J; Valdes, J; Davis, S C; Li, J

    2010-07-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLF), a member of the transferrin family, is known for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies on various nonskin cell lines indicate that hLF may have a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation. To study the potential role of hLF in wound re-epithelialization. The effects of hLF on cell growth, migration, attachment and survival were assessed, with a rice-derived recombinant hLF (holo-rhLF), using proliferation analysis, scratch migration assay, calcein-AM/propidium iodide staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) method, respectively. The mechanisms of hLF on cell proliferation and migration were explored using specific pathway inhibitors. The involvement of lactoferrin receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) was examined with RNA interference technique. An in vivo swine second-degree burn wound model was also used to assess wound re-epithelialization. Studies revealed that holo-rhLF significantly stimulated keratinocyte proliferation which could be blocked by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 1 inhibitor. Holo-rhLF also showed strong promoting effects on keratinocyte migration, which could be blocked by either inhibition of the MAPK, Src and Rho/ROCK pathways, or downregulation of the LRP1 receptor. With cells under starving or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate exposure, the addition of holo-rhLF was found greatly to increase cell viability and inhibit cell apoptosis. Additionally, holo-rhLF significantly increased the rate of wound re-epithelialization in swine second-degree burn wounds. Our studies demonstrate the direct effects of holo-rhLF on wound re-epithelialization including the enhancement of keratinocyte proliferation and migration as well as the protection of cells from apoptosis. The data strongly indicate its potential therapeutic applications in wound healing.

  1. Male germline stem cells in non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, several studies have attempted to decipher the biology of mammalian germline stem cells (GSCs. These studies provide evidence that regulatory mechanisms for germ cell specification and migration are evolutionarily conserved across species. The characteristics and functions of primate GSCs are highly distinct from rodent species; therefore the findings from rodent models cannot be extrapolated to primates. Due to limited availability of human embryonic and testicular samples for research purposes, two non-human primate models (marmoset and macaque monkeys are extensively employed to understand human germline development and differentiation. This review provides a broader introduction to the in vivo and in vitro germline stem cell terminology from primordial to differentiating germ cells. Primordial germ cells (PGCs are the most immature germ cells colonizing the gonad prior to sex differentiation into testes or ovaries. PGC specification and migratory patterns among different primate species are compared in the review. It also reports the distinctions and similarities in expression patterns of pluripotency markers (OCT4A, NANOG, SALL4 and LIN28 during embryonic developmental stages, among marmosets, macaques and humans. This review presents a comparative summary with immunohistochemical and molecular evidence of germ cell marker expression patterns during postnatal developmental stages, among humans and non-human primates. Furthermore, it reports findings from the recent literature investigating the plasticity behavior of germ cells and stem cells in other organs of humans and monkeys. The use of non-human primate models would enable bridging the knowledge gap in primate GSC research and understanding the mechanisms involved in germline development. Reported similarities in regulatory mechanisms and germ cell expression profile in primates demonstrate the preclinical significance of monkey models for development of

  2. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal, Mesenchymal) Stem-like cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem

    2012-01-01

    EBs using BMP2 (bone morphogenic protein 2) combined with standard osteoblast induction medium led to weak osteoblastic induction. Conversely, subcutaneous in vivo implantation of day 20 hEBs in immune deficient mice, mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) as an osteoconductive scaffold......Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is a pre-requisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESC into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human...... stromal (mesenchymal, skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESC in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid...

  3. Transplantation of an LGR6+ Epithelial Stem Cell-Enriched Scaffold for Repair of Full-Thickness Soft-Tissue Defects: The In Vitro Development of Polarized Hair-Bearing Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Denver M; Wetter, Nathan; Madsen, Christopher; Reichensperger, Joel; Cosenza, Nicole; Cox, Lisa; Harrison, Carrie; Neumeister, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Recent literature has shown that full-thickness wounds, devoid of the stem cell niche, can subsequently be reconstructed with functional skin elements following migration of the LGR6 epithelial stem cell into the wound bed. In this study, the authors use a variety of LGR6 epithelial stem cell-seeded scaffolds to determine therapeutic utility and regenerative potential in the immediate reconstruction of full-thickness wounds. Isolated LGR6 epithelial stem cells were seeded onto a spectrum of acellular matrices and monitored in both in vitro and in vivo settings to determine their relative capacity to regenerate tissues and heal wounds. Wound beds containing LGR6 stem cell-seeded scaffolds showed significantly augmented rates of healing, epithelialization, and hair growth compared with controls. Gene and proteomic expression studies indicate that LGR6 stem cell-seeded constructs up-regulate WNT, epidermal growth factor, and angiogenesis pathways. Finally, the addition of stromal vascular fraction to LGR6 stem cell-seeded constructs induces polarized tissue formation, nascent hair growth, and angiogenesis within wounds. LGR6 stem cells are able to undergo proliferation, differentiation, and migration following seeding onto a variety of collagen-based scaffolding. In addition, deployment of these constructs induces epithelialization, hair growth, and angiogenesis within wound beds. The addition of stromal vascular fraction to LGR6 stem cell-containing scaffolds initiated an early form of tissue polarization, providing for the first time a clinically applicable stem cell-based construct that is capable of the repair of full-thickness wounds and hair regeneration. Therapeutic, V.

  4. Epithelial hyperplasia in human polycystic kidney diseases. Its role in pathogenesis and risk of neoplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, J.; Evan, A. P.; Gardner, K. D.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of tubular epithelial hyperplasia in polycystic kidney diseases has become apparent during the last decade. Micropapillary hyperplasia occurs in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, in localized cystic disease, and in acquired cystic disease. Neoplastic or severely dysplastic epithelial hyperplasia occurs in von Hippel-Lindau disease. A histopathologically distinctive epithelial hyperplasia occurs in tuberous sclerosis. In each of these conditions, epithelial hyperplas...

  5. Diploid, but not haploid, human embryonic stem cells can be derived from microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Li, Rong; Huang, Jin; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have shown tremendous potential in regenerative medicine, and the recent progress in haploid embryonic stem cells provides new insights for future applications of embryonic stem cells. Disruption of normal fertilized embryos remains controversial; thus, the development of a new source for human embryonic stem cells is important for their usefulness. Here, we investigated the feasibility of haploid and diploid embryo reconstruction and embryonic stem cell derivation using microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes. Diploid and haploid zygotes were successfully reconstructed, but a large proportion of them still had a tripolar spindle assembly. The reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, although the loss of chromosomes was observed in these zygotes. Finally, triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells were derived from tripronuclear and reconstructed zygotes (from which only one pronucleus was removed), but haploid human embryonic stem cells were not successfully derived from the reconstructed zygotes when two pronuclei were removed. Both triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells showed the general characteristics of human embryonic stem cells. These results indicate that the lower embryo quality resulting from abnormal spindle assembly contributed to the failure of the haploid embryonic stem cell derivation. However, the successful derivation of diploid embryonic stem cells demonstrated that microsurgical tripronuclear zygotes are an alternative source of human embryonic stem cells. In the future, improving spindle assembly will facilitate the application of triploid zygotes to the field of haploid embryonic stem cells. PMID:23255130

  6. Construction of predictive promoter models on the example of antibacterial response of human epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wingender Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binding of a bacteria to a eukaryotic cell triggers a complex network of interactions in and between both cells. P. aeruginosa is a pathogen that causes acute and chronic lung infections by interacting with the pulmonary epithelial cells. We use this example for examining the ways of triggering the response of the eukaryotic cell(s, leading us to a better understanding of the details of the inflammatory process in general. Results Considering a set of genes co-expressed during the antibacterial response of human lung epithelial cells, we constructed a promoter model for the search of additional target genes potentially involved in the same cell response. The model construction is based on the consideration of pair-wise combinations of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS. It has been shown that the antibacterial response of human epithelial cells is triggered by at least two distinct pathways. We therefore supposed that there are two subsets of promoters activated by each of them. Optimally, they should be "complementary" in the sense of appearing in complementary subsets of the (+-training set. We developed the concept of complementary pairs, i.e., two mutually exclusive pairs of TFBS, each of which should be found in one of the two complementary subsets. Conclusions We suggest a simple, but exhaustive method for searching for TFBS pairs which characterize the whole (+-training set, as well as for complementary pairs. Applying this method, we came up with a promoter model of antibacterial response genes that consists of one TFBS pair which should be found in the whole training set and four complementary pairs. We applied this model to screening of 13,000 upstream regions of human genes and identified 430 new target genes which are potentially involved in antibacterial defense mechanisms.

  7. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei; Lu, Guifang; Li, Xia; Deng, Yubin; Zeng, Mian

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activated the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. -- Graphical abstract: Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cells apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •It has been observed that LPS insult significantly increased apoptosis in A549 cells. •Both Akt and ERK signaling are critical adapter molecules to mediate the ghrelin-mediated proliferative effect. •Ghrelin may have a therapeutic effect in the prevention of LPS-induced apoptosis.

  8. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei; Lu, Guifang; Li, Xia [Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Deng, Yubin, E-mail: dengyub@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Research Center of Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Zeng, Mian, E-mail: zengmian2004@163.com [Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activated the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. -- Graphical abstract: Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cells apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •It has been observed that LPS insult significantly increased apoptosis in A549 cells. •Both Akt and ERK signaling are critical adapter molecules to mediate the ghrelin-mediated proliferative effect. •Ghrelin may have a therapeutic effect in the prevention of LPS-induced apoptosis.

  9. Effects of alpha-particles on survival and chromosomal aberrations in human mammary epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Gialanella, G.; Pugliese, M.; Nappo, M.; Yang, T. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the radiation responses of a human mammary epithelial cell line, H184B5 F5-1 M/10. This cell line was derived from primary mammary cells after treatment with chemicals and heavy ions. The F5-1 M/10 cells are immortal, density-inhibited in growth, and non-tumorigenic in athymic nude mice and represent an in vitro model of the human epithelium for radiation studies. Because epithelial cells are the target of alpha-particles emitted from radon daughters, we concentrated our studies on the efficiency of alpha-particles. Confluent cultures of M/10 cells were exposed to accelerated alpha-particles [beam energy incident at the cell monolayer = 3.85 MeV, incident linear energy transfer (LET) in cell = 109 keV/microns] and, for comparison, to 80 kVp x-rays. The following endpoints were studied: (1) survival, (2) chromosome aberrations at the first postirradiation mitosis, and (3) chromosome alterations at later passages following irradiation. The survival curve was exponential for alpha-particles (D0 = 0.73 +/- 0.04 Gy), while a shoulder was observed for x-rays (alpha/beta = 2.9 Gy; D0 = 2.5 Gy, extrapolation number 1.6). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-LET alpha-particles for human epithelial cell killing was 3.3 at 37% survival. Dose-response curves for the induction of chromosome aberrations were linear for alpha-particles and linearquadratic for x-rays. The RBE for the induction of chromosome aberrations varied with the type of aberration scored and was high (about 5) for chromosome breaks and low (about 2) for chromosome exchanges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  10. Characterization of primary human mammary epithelial cells isolated and propagated by conditional reprogrammed cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liting; Qu, Ying; Gomez, Liliana J; Chung, Stacey; Han, Bingchen; Gao, Bowen; Yue, Yong; Gong, Yiping; Liu, Xuefeng; Amersi, Farin; Dang, Catherine; Giuliano, Armando E; Cui, Xiaojiang

    2018-02-20

    Conditional reprogramming methods allow for the inexhaustible in vitro proliferation of primary epithelial cells from human tissue specimens. This methodology has the potential to enhance the utility of primary cell culture as a model for mammary gland research. However, few studies have systematically characterized this method in generating in vitro normal human mammary epithelial cell models. We show that cells derived from fresh normal breast tissues can be propagated and exhibit heterogeneous morphologic features. The cultures are composed of CK18, desmoglein 3, and CK19-positive luminal cells and vimentin, p63, and CK14-positive myoepithelial cells, suggesting the maintenance of in vivo heterogeneity. In addition, the cultures contain subpopulations with different CD49f and EpCAM expression profiles. When grown in 3D conditions, cells self-organize into distinct structures that express either luminal or basal cell markers. Among these structures, CK8-positive cells enclosing a lumen are capable of differentiation into milk-producing cells in the presence of lactogenic stimulus. Furthermore, our short-term cultures retain the expression of ERα, as well as its ability to respond to estrogen stimulation. We have investigated conditionally reprogrammed normal epithelial cells in terms of cell type heterogeneity, cellular marker expression, and structural arrangement in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) systems. The conditional reprogramming methodology allows generation of a heterogeneous culture from normal human mammary tissue in vitro . We believe that this cell culture model will provide a valuable tool to study mammary cell function and malignant transformation.

  11. Differentiation of isolated human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ji-Ming; Duan, Hong-Tao; Kong, Jia-Hui; Wang, Yue-Xin; Dong, Meng; Bi, Xue; Song, Jian

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether umbilical cord human mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) was able to differentiate into neural stem cell and neuron in vitro. METHODS The umbilical cords were obtained from pregnant women with their written consent and the approval of the Clinic Ethnics Committee. UC-MSC were isolated by adherent culture in the medium contains 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), then they were maintained in the medium contain 10% FBS and induced to neural cells in neural differentiation medium. We investigated whether UC-MSC was able to differentiate into neural stem cell and neuron in vitro by using flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence (IF) analyzes. RESULTS A substantial number of UC-MSC was harvested using the tissue explants adherent method at about 2wk. Flow cytometric study revealed that these cells expressed common markers of MSCs, such as CD105 (SH2), CD73 (SH3) and CD90. After induction of differentiation of neural stem cells, the cells began to form clusters; RT-PCR and IF showed that the neuron specific enolase (NSE) and neurogenic differentiation 1-positive cells reached 87.3%±14.7% and 72.6%±11.8%, respectively. Cells showed neuronal cell differentiation after induced, including neuron-like protrusions, plump cell body, obviously and stronger refraction. RT-PCR and IF analysis showed that microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and nuclear factor-M-positive cells reached 43.1%±10.3% and 69.4%±19.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION Human umbilical cord derived MSCs can be cultured and proliferated in vitro and differentiate into neural stem cells, which may be a valuable source for cell therapy of neurodegenerative eye diseases. PMID:26949608

  12. Differentiation of isolated human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether umbilical cord human mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC was able to differentiate into neural stem cell and neuron in vitro. METHODS: The umbilical cords were obtained from pregnant women with their written consent and the approval of the Clinic Ethnics Committee. UC-MSC were isolated by adherent culture in the medium contains 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS, then they were maintained in the medium contain 10% FBS and induced to neural cells in neural differentiation medium. We investigated whether UC-MSC was able to differentiate into neural stem cell and neuron in vitro by using flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunofluorescence (IF analyzes. RESULTS: A substantial number of UC-MSC was harvested using the tissue explants adherent method at about 2wk. Flow cytometric study revealed that these cells expressed common markers of MSCs, such as CD105 (SH2, CD73 (SH3 and CD90. After induction of differentiation of neural stem cells, the cells began to form clusters; RT-PCR and IF showed that the neuron specific enolase (NSE and neurogenic differentiation 1-positive cells reached 87.3%±14.7% and 72.6%±11.8%, respectively. Cells showed neuronal cell differentiation after induced, including neuron-like protrusions, plump cell body, obviously and stronger refraction. RT-PCR and IF analysis showed that microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2 and nuclear factor-M-positive cells reached 43.1%±10.3% and 69.4%±19.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Human umbilical cord derived MSCs can be cultured and proliferated in vitro and differentiate into neural stem cells, which may be a valuable source for cell therapy of neurodegenerative eye diseases.

  13. The epithelial sodium channel γ-subunit is processed proteolytically in human kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Rikke Zachar; Skjødt, Karsten; Marcussen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) of the kidney is necessary for extracellular volume homeostasis and normal arterial BP. Activity of ENaC is enhanced by proteolytic cleavage of the gamma-subunit and putative release of a 43-amino acid inhibitory tract from the gamma-subunit ectodomain. We......ENaC was detected consistently only in tissue from patients with proteinuria and observed in collecting ducts. In conclusion, human kidney gammaENaC is subject to proteolytic cleavage, yielding fragments compatible with furin cleavage, and proteinuria is associated with cleavage at the putative prostasin...

  14. Staphylococcus aureus lipoproteins trigger human corneal epithelial innate response through toll-like receptor-2

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qiong; Kumar, Ashok; Gui, Jian-Fang; Yu, Fu-Shin X.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins (LP) are a family of cell wall components found in a wide variety of bacteria. In this study, we characterized the response of HUCL, a telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cell (HCEC) line, to LP isolated from Staphylococcus (S) aureus. S. aureus LP (saLP) prepared by Triton X-114 extraction stimulated the activation of NF-κB, JNK, and P38 signaling pathways in HUCL cells. The extracts failed to stimulate NF-κB activation in HUCL cells after lipoprotein lipa...

  15. Susceptibility of Primary Human Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells and Meningeal Cells to Infection by JC Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Bethany A; Gee, Gretchen V; Atwood, Walter J; Haley, Sheila A

    2018-04-15

    JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) establishes a lifelong persistence in roughly half the human population worldwide. The cells and tissues that harbor persistent virus in vivo are not known, but renal tubules and other urogenital epithelial cells are likely candidates as virus is shed in the urine of healthy individuals. In an immunosuppressed host, JCPyV can become reactivated and cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Recent observations indicate that JCPyV may productively interact with cells in the choroid plexus and leptomeninges. To further study JCPyV infection in these cells, primary human choroid plexus epithelial cells and meningeal cells were challenged with virus, and their susceptibility to infection was compared to the human glial cell line, SVG-A. We found that JCPyV productively infects both choroid plexus epithelial cells and meningeal cells in vitro Competition with the soluble receptor fragment LSTc reduced virus infection in these cells. Treatment of cells with neuraminidase also inhibited both viral infection and binding. Treatment with the serotonin receptor antagonist, ritanserin, reduced infection in SVG-A and meningeal cells. We also compared the ability of wild-type and sialic acid-binding mutant pseudoviruses to transduce these cells. Wild-type pseudovirus readily transduced all three cell types, but pseudoviruses harboring mutations in the sialic acid-binding pocket of the virus failed to transduce the cells. These data establish a novel role for choroid plexus and meninges in harboring virus that likely contributes not only to meningoencephalopathies but also to PML. IMPORTANCE JCPyV infects greater than half the human population worldwide and causes central nervous system disease in patients with weakened immune systems. Several recent reports have found JCPyV in the choroid plexus and leptomeninges of patients with encephalitis. Due to their role in forming the blood

  16. Dragons, Ladybugs, and Softballs: Girls' STEM Engagement with Human-Centered Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoll, Andrea; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Šabanovic, Selma; Francisco, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Early experiences in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) are important for getting youth interested in STEM fields, particularly for girls. Here, we explore how an after-school robotics club can provide informal STEM experiences that inspire students to engage with STEM in the future. Human-centered robotics, with its emphasis on the…

  17. The V protein of canine distemper virus is required for virus replication in human epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Otsuki

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV becomes able to use human receptors through a single amino acid substitution in the H protein. In addition, CDV strains possessing an intact C protein replicate well in human epithelial H358 cells. The present study showed that CDV strain 007Lm, which was isolated from lymph node tissue of a dog with distemper, failed to replicate in H358 cells, although it possessed an intact C protein. Sequence analyses suggested that a cysteine-to-tyrosine substitution at position 267 of the V protein caused this growth defect. Analyses using H358 cells constitutively expressing the CDV V protein showed that the V protein with a cysteine, but not that with a tyrosine, at this position effectively blocked the interferon-stimulated signal transduction pathway, and supported virus replication of 007Lm in H358 cells. Thus, the V protein as well as the C protein appears to be functional and essential for CDV replication in human epithelial cells.

  18. Response of cultured human airway epithelial cells to X-rays and energetic α-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.; Holley, W.R.; Curtis, S.B.; Gruenert, D.C.; California Univ., San Francisco, CA

    1990-01-01

    Radon and its progeny, which emit α-particles during decay, may play an important role in inducing human lung cancer. To gain a better understanding of the biological effects of α-particles in human lung we studied the response of cultured human airway epithelial cells to X-rays and monoenergetic helium ions. Experimental results indicated that the radiation response of primary cultures was similar to that for airway epithelial cells that were transformed with a plasmid containing an origin-defective SV40 virus. The RBE for cell inactivation determined by the ratio of D 0 for X-rays to that for 8 MeV helium ions was 1.8-2.2. The cross-section for helium ions, calculated from the D 0 value, was about 24 μm 2 for cells of the primary culture. This cross-section is significantly smaller than the average geometric nuclear area (∼ 180 μm 2 ), suggesting that an average of 7.5 α-particles (8 MeV helium ions) per cell nucleus are needed to induce a lethal lesion. (author)

  19. Human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing through paracrine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arno, Anna I; Amini-Nik, Saeid; Blit, Patrick H; Al-Shehab, Mohammed; Belo, Cassandra; Herer, Elaine; Tien, Col Homer; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-02-24

    The prevalence of nonhealing wounds is predicted to increase due to the growing aging population. Despite the use of novel skin substitutes and wound dressings, poorly vascularized wound niches impair wound repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to provide paracrine signals to promote wound healing, but the effect of human Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) has not yet been described in human normal skin. Human WJ-MSCs and normal skin fibroblasts were isolated from donated umbilical cords and normal adult human skin. Fibroblasts were treated with WJ-MSC-conditioned medium (WJ-MSC-CM) or nonconditioned medium. Expression of genes involved in re-epithelialization (transforming growth factor-β2), neovascularization (hypoxia-inducible factor-1α) and fibroproliferation (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) was upregulated in WJ-MSC-CM-treated fibroblasts (P≤0.05). WJ-MSC-CM enhanced normal skin fibroblast proliferation (P≤0.001) and migration (P≤0.05), and promoted wound healing in an excisional full-thickness skin murine model. Under our experimental conditions, WJ-MSCs enhanced skin wound healing in an in vivo mouse model.

  20. Interleukin-33 induces mucin gene expression and goblet cell hyperplasia in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishinaga, Hajime; Kitano, Masako; Toda, Masaaki; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Gabazza, Esteban C; Shah, Said Ahmad; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    We investigated whether IL-33 is involved in mucus overproduction and goblet cell hyperplasia in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS). IL-33 mRNA was significantly higher in the eosinophilic CRS group than in the non-eosinophilic CRS group from human nasal polyps. IL-33 induced MUC5AC mRNA and MUC5AC protein, and also goblet cell hyperplasia at air liquid interface culture in human nasal epithelial cells. In addition to that, IL-33 induced MUC5B and FOXA3, and reduces FOXJmRNA. In conclusion, our present study demonstrated that the direct evidence of IL-33 which lead to increase mucin gene and protein expression, as well as goblet cell hyperplasia. This study provides novel insights into the role of IL-33 on mucus overproduction in eosinophilic inflammation of human airways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human Skin Is the Largest Epithelial Surface for Interaction with Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Richard L

    2017-06-01

    Human skin contains an abundant and diverse population of microbial organisms. Many of these microbes inhabit follicular structures of the skin. Furthermore, numerous studies have shown that the interaction of some members of the skin microbiome with host cells will result in changes in cell function. However, estimates of the potential for the microbiome to influence human health through skin have ignored the inner follicular surface, and therefore vastly underestimated the potential of the skin microbiome to have a systemic effect on the human body. By calculating the surface area of follicular and the interfollicular epithelial surface it is shown that skin provides a vast interface for interactions with the microbiome. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of genomic instability in normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to 238Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.H.; Fukushima, N.H.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Alpha particle-emitting radon daughters constitute a risk for development of lung cancer in humans. The development of this disease involves multiple genetic alterations. These changes and the time course they follow are not yet defined despite numerous in vitro endeavors to transform human lung cells with various physical or chemical agents. However, genomic instability, characterized both by structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations and by elevated rates of point mutations, is a common feature of tumor cells. Further, both types of genomic instability have been reported in the noncancerous progeny of normal murine hemopoietic cells exposed in vitro to α-particles. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if genomic instability is also a prominent feature of normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to α-particle irradiation from the decay of inhaled radon daughters

  3. Clinically relevant morphological structures in breast cancer represent transcriptionally distinct tumor cell populations with varied degrees of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and CD44+CD24- stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Evgeny V; Skryabin, Nikolay A; Gerashchenko, Tatiana S; Tashireva, Lubov A; Wilhelm, Jochen; Buldakov, Mikhail A; Sleptcov, Aleksei A; Lebedev, Igor N; Vtorushin, Sergey V; Zavyalova, Marina V; Cherdyntseva, Nadezhda V; Perelmuter, Vladimir M

    2017-09-22

    Intratumor morphological heterogeneity in breast cancer is represented by different morphological structures (tubular, alveolar, solid, trabecular, and discrete) and contributes to poor prognosis; however, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we performed 3D imaging, laser microdissection-assisted array comparative genomic hybridization and gene expression microarray analysis of different morphological structures and examined their association with the standard immunohistochemistry scorings and CD44 + CD24 - cancer stem cells. We found that the intratumor morphological heterogeneity is not associated with chromosomal aberrations. By contrast, morphological structures were characterized by specific gene expression profiles and signaling pathways and significantly differed in progesterone receptor and Ki-67 expression. Most importantly, we observed significant differences between structures in the number of expressed genes of the epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes and the association with cancer invasion pathways. Tubular (tube-shaped) and alveolar (spheroid-shaped) structures were transcriptionally similar and demonstrated co-expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Solid (large shapeless) structures retained epithelial features but demonstrated an increase in mesenchymal traits and collective cell migration hallmarks. Mesenchymal genes and cancer invasion pathways, as well as Ki-67 expression, were enriched in trabecular (one/two rows of tumor cells) and discrete groups (single cells and/or arrangements of 2-5 cells). Surprisingly, the number of CD44 + CD24 - cells was found to be the lowest in discrete groups and the highest in alveolar and solid structures. Overall, our findings indicate the association of intratumor morphological heterogeneity in breast cancer with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and CD44 + CD24 - stemness and the appeal of this heterogeneity as a model for the study of cancer invasion.

  4. Developmental neurotoxicity screening using human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnjak, Zeljko J

    2012-09-01

    Research in the area of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine, along with neuroscience, will further our understanding of drug-induced death of neurons during their development. With the development of an in vitro model of stem cell-derived human neural cell lines investigators can, under control conditions and during intense neuronal growth, examine molecular mechanisms of various drugs and conditions on early developmental neuroapoptosis in humans. If the use of this model will lead to fewer risks, or identification of drugs and anesthetics that are less likely to cause the death of neurons, this approach will be a major stride toward assuring the safety of drugs during the brain development. The ultimate goal would be not only to find the trigger for the catastrophic chain of events, but also to prevent neuronal cell death itself. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Biology and relevance of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel; Majeti, Ravindra

    2017-03-23

    Evidence of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells (AML LSCs) was first reported nearly 2 decades ago through the identification of rare subpopulations of engrafting cells in xenotransplantation assays. These AML LSCs were shown to reside at the apex of a cellular hierarchy that initiates and maintains the disease, exhibiting properties of self-renewal, cell cycle quiescence, and chemoresistance. This cancer stem cell model offers an explanation for chemotherapy resistance and disease relapse and implies that approaches to treatment must eradicate LSCs for cure. More recently, a number of studies have both refined and expanded our understanding of LSCs and intrapatient heterogeneity in AML using improved xenotransplant models, genome-scale analyses, and experimental manipulation of primary patient cells. Here, we review these studies with a focus on the immunophenotype, biological properties, epigenetics, genetics, and clinical associations of human AML LSCs and discuss critical questions that need to be addressed in future research. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. Impact of the Stem Extract of on the Feeding Potential and Histological Architecture of the Midgut Epithelial Tissue of Early Fourth Instars of HÜbner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera HÜbner is one of the most important agricultural crop pests in the world causing heavy crop yield losses. The continued and indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides in agriculture for their control has received wide public apprehension because of multifarious problems, including insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, and toxic hazards to humans and nontarget organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly and biodegradable plant products. In view of this, the efficacy of Thevetia neriifolia methanol stem extract was evaluated against the early fourth instars of H. armigera as an antifeedant and stomach poison agent. Feeding of larvae with the diet containing 0.005%–5.0% extract resulted in 2.06%–37.35% antifeedant index; the diet with 5.0% extract caused 54.3% reduced consumption. The negative impact of extract on larval feeding resulted in 37.5%–77.7% starvation, causing adverse effects on the larval weight. Choice between control and experimental diet resulted in feeding preference of larvae for the control diet, leading to 7.3%–42.9% reduced consumption of extract-containing diet. The only exception was the diet with 0.005% extract, which could not cause any deterrence. The midgut histological architecture of H. armigera larvae fed with 0.005%–0.05% extract-containing diet with negligible antifeedant potential showed significant damage, shrinkage, and distortion and vacuolization of gut tissues and peritrophic membrane, causing the disintegration of epithelial, goblet, and regenerative cells; the damage increased with the increase in concentration. These changes in the gut caused negative impact on the digestion and absorption of food and thus nutritional deficiency in the larvae, which could probably affect their growth and development. This study reveal the appreciable stomach poison potential of T

  7. Androgen-Sensitized Apoptosis of HPr-1AR Human Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Chen

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor (AR signaling is crucial to the development and homeostasis of the prostate gland, and its dysregulation mediates common prostate pathologies. The mechanisms whereby AR regulates growth suppression and differentiation of luminal epithelial cells in the prostate gland and proliferation of malignant versions of these cells have been investigated in human and rodent adult prostate. However, the cellular stress response of human prostate epithelial cells is not well understood, though it is central to prostate health and pathology. Here, we report that androgen sensitizes HPr-1AR and RWPE-AR human prostate epithelial cells to cell stress agents and apoptotic cell death. Although 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT treatment alone did not induce cell death, co-treatment of HPr-1AR cells with DHT and an apoptosis inducer, such as staurosporine (STS, TNFt, or hydrogen peroxide, synergistically increased cell death in comparison to treatment with each apoptosis inducer by itself. We found that the synergy between DHT and apoptosis inducer led to activation of the intrinsic/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is supported by robust cleavage activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Further, the dramatic depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential that we observed upon co-treatment with DHT and STS is consistent with increased mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP in the pro-apoptotic mechanism. Interestingly, the synergy between DHT and apoptosis inducer was abolished by AR antagonists and inhibitors of transcription and protein synthesis, suggesting that AR mediates pro-apoptotic synergy through transcriptional regulation of MOMP genes. Expression analysis revealed that pro-apoptotic genes (BCL2L11/BIM and AIFM2 were DHT-induced, whereas pro-survival genes (BCL2L1/BCL-XL and MCL1 were DHT-repressed. Hence, we propose that the net effect of these AR-mediated expression changes shifts the balance of BCL2-family proteins

  8. Human adipose tissue from normal and tumoral breast regulates the behavior of mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone Creydt, Virginia; Fletcher, Sabrina Johanna; Giudice, Jimena; Bruzzone, Ariana; Chasseing, Norma Alejandra; Gonzalez, Eduardo Gustavo; Sacca, Paula Alejandra; Calvo, Juan Carlos

    2013-02-01

    Stromal-epithelial interactions mediate both breast development and breast cancer progression. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of conditioned media (CMs) of human adipose tissue explants from normal (hATN) and tumor (hATT) breast on proliferation, adhesion, migration and metalloproteases activity on tumor (MCF-7 and IBH-7) and non-tumor (MCF-10A) human breast epithelial cell lines. Human adipose tissues were obtained from patients and the conditioned medium from hATN and hATT collected after 24 h of incubation. MCF-10A, MCF-7 and IBH-7 cells were grown and incubated with CMs and proliferation and adhesion, as well as migration ability and metalloprotease activity, of epithelial cells after exposing cell cultures to hATN- or hATT-CMs were quantified. The statistical significance between different experimental conditions was evaluated by one-way ANOVA. Tukey's post hoc tests were performed. Tumor and non-tumor breast epithelial cells significantly increased their proliferation activity after 24 h of treatment with hATT-CMs compared to control-CMs. Furthermore, cellular adhesion of these two tumor cell lines was significantly lower with hATT-CMs than with hATN-CMs. Therefore, hATT-CMs seem to induce significantly lower expression or less activity of the components involved in cellular adhesion than hATN-CMs. In addition, hATT-CMs induced pro-MMP-9 and MMP-9 activity and increased the migration of MCF-7 and IBH-7 cells compared to hATN-CMs. We conclude that the microenvironment of the tumor interacts in a dynamic way with the mutated epithelium. This evidence leads to the possibility to modify the tumor behavior/phenotype through the regulation or modification of its microenvironment. We developed a model in which we obtained CMs from adipose tissue explants completely, either from normal or tumor breast. In this way, we studied the contribution of soluble factors independently of the possible effects of direct cell contact.

  9. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in a human immuno-deficiency virus patient treated with laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanakis, Alexandros; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Vecchio, Alessandro Del; Romeo, Umberto

    2014-07-16

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a rare disease of the oral mucosa; it is mostly found in children or young adults who are immunosuppressed and who live in regions with low socioeconomic status. It is characterized by asymptomatic papules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. Healing can be spontaneous, and treatment is indicated if there are aesthetic or functional complications. Human papillomavirus, especially genotypes 13 and 32, has been associated with FEH and is detected in the majority of lesions. Histopathologically, FEH is characterized by parakeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, focal acanthosis, and fusion and horizontal outgrowth of epithelial ridges. A 37-year-old male patient was referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences at the Sapienza University of Rome, complaining of numerous exophytic lesions in his mouth. He stated that the lesions were not painful but he had experienced occasional bleeding after incidental masticatory trauma. He had received no previous treatment for the oral lesions. His medical history revealed that he was human immuno-deficiency virus positive and was a smoker with numerous, asymptomatic oral papules clinically and histologically corresponding to FEH. The labial and buccal mucosa were especially affected by lesions. Surgical treatment was performed using a 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate laser (SmartLite, Deka, Florence, Italy) in continuous mode with a 300 μm fiber and power of 1.4 W (power density 1980.22 W/cm(2)). After anesthesia without vasoconstrictors, the lesions were tractioned with sutures or an Allis clamp and then completely excised. The lesions were preserved in 10% formalin for histological examination, which confirmed the clinical diagnosis of FEH. In this case, the laser allowed excellent control of bleeding, without postoperative sutures, and optimal wound healing.

  10. Sildenafil Effect on Nitric Oxide Secretion by Normal Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells Cultured In vitro

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    Farzaneh Chobsaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monphosphat-specificphosphodiesterase type 5. It increases intracellular nitric oxide (NO production in some cells.There are reports on its positive effect on uterine circulation, endometrial thickness, and infertilityimprovement. Endometrial epithelial cells (EEC play an important role in embryo attachment andimplantation. The present work investigates the effect of sildenafil on human EEC and their NOsecretion in vitro.Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, endometrial biopsies (n=10 werewashed in a phosphate buffered solution (PBS and digested with collagenase I (2 mg/ml in DMEM/F12 medium at 37°C for 90 minutes. Epithelial glands were collected by sequential filtrationthrough nylon meshes (70 and 40 μm pores, respectively. Epithelial glands were then treated withtrypsin to obtain individual cells. The cells were counted and divided into four groups: control and1, 10, and 20 μM sildenafil concentrations. Cells were cultured for 15 days at 37ºC and 5% CO2; themedia were changed every 3 days, and their supernatants were collected for the NO assay. NO wasmeasured by standard Greiss methods. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA.Results: There was no significant difference between groups in cell count and NO secretion, but thelevel of NO increased slightly in the experimental groups. The 10 μM dose showed the highest cellcount. EEC morphology changed into long spindle cells in the case groups.Conclusion: Sildenafil (1, 10, and 20 μM showed a mild proliferative effect on human EECnumbers, but no significant change was seen in NO production.

  11. Mechanism of cigarette smoke condensate-induced acute inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Shyam S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To demonstrate the involvement of tobacco smoking in the pathophysiology of lung disease, the responses of pulmonary epithelial cells to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC — the particulate fraction of tobacco smoke — were examined. Methods The human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs were exposed to 0.4 μg/ml CSC, a concentration that resulted in >90% cell survival and Results NHBEs exposed to CSC showed increased expression of the inflammatory mediators sICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-8 and GM-CSF, as determined by RT-PCR. CSC-induced IL-1β expression was reduced by PD98059, a blocker of mitogen-actived protein kinase (MAPK kinase (MEK, and by PDTC, a NFκB inhibitor. Analysis of intracellular signaling pathways, using antibodies specific for phosphorylated MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]-1/2, demonstrated an increased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2 with increasing CSC concentration. Nuclear localization of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was seen within 30 min of CSC exposure and was inhibited by PD98059. Increased phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IκB was also seen after CSC exposure. A549 cells transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing a NFκB-inducible promoter sequence and exposed to CSC (0.4 μg/ml or TNF-α (50 ng/ml had an increased reporter activity of approximately 2-fold for CSC and 3.5-fold for TNF-α relative to untreated controls. Conclusion The acute phase response of NHBEs to cigarette smoke involves activation of both MAPK and NFκB.

  12. Epigenetic stability, adaptability, and reversibility in human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tompkins, Joshua D.; Hall, Christine; Chen, Vincent Chang-yi; Li, Arthur Xuejun; Wu, Xiwei; Hsu, David; Couture, Larry A.; Riggs, Arthur D.

    2012-01-01

    The stability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is of critical importance for both experimental and clinical applications. We find that as an initial response to altered culture conditions, hESCs change their transcription profile for hundreds of genes and their DNA methylation profiles for several genes outside the core pluripotency network. After adaption to conditions of feeder-free defined and/or xeno-free culture systems, expression and DNA methylation profiles are quite stable for a...

  13. Microspectroscopy of spectral biomarkers associated with human corneal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Takahiro; Kelly, Jemma G.; Trevisan, J?lio; Cooper, Leanne J.; Bentley, Adam J.; Carmichael, Paul L.; Scott, Andrew D.; Cotte, Marine; Susini, Jean; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Fullwood, Nigel J.; Martin, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Synchrotron-based radiation (SRS) Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy potentially provides novel biomarkers of the cell differentiation process. Because such imaging gives a ?biochemical-cell fingerprint? through a cell-sized aperture, we set out to determine whether distinguishing chemical entities associated with putative stem cells (SCs), transit-amplifying (TA) cells, or terminally-differentiated (TD) cells could be identified in human corneal epithelium. Methods D...

  14. Engineering bone tissue from human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marolt, Darja; Campos, Iván Marcos; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Koren, Ana; Petridis, Petros; Zhang, Geping; Spitalnik, Patrice F.; Grayson, Warren L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    In extensive bone defects, tissue damage and hypoxia lead to cell death, resulting in slow and incomplete healing. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can give rise to all specialized lineages found in healthy bone and are therefore uniquely suited to aid regeneration of damaged bone. We show that the cultivation of hESC-derived mesenchymal progenitors on 3D osteoconductive scaffolds in bioreactors with medium perfusion leads to the formation of large and compact bone constructs. Notably, the i...

  15. Oxygen Tension Regulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Paracrine Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Paquet, Joseph; Deschepper, Mickael; Moya, Adrien; Logeart-Avramoglou, Delphine; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine; Petite, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the shift of the human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) cytokine signature induced by oxygen tension. Conditioned media obtained from hMSCs cultured under near anoxia exhibited significantly enhanced chemotactic and proangiogenic properties and a significant decrease in the inflammatory mediator content. These results elucidate important aspects of using MSCs in regenerative medicine, contribute to improving the efficacy of such therapies, and highlight the interest in using c...

  16. Generation of Functional Lentoid Bodies From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived From Urinary Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuli; Qin, Zhenwei; Jin, Xiuming; Zhang, Lifang; Chen, Zhijian; He, Jiliang; Ji, Junfeng; Yao, Ke

    2017-01-01

    The pathological mechanisms underlying cataract formation remain largely unknown on account of the lack of appropriate in vitro cellular models. The aim of this study is to develop a stable in vitro system for human lens regeneration using pluripotent stem cells. Isolated human urinary cells were infected with four Yamanaka factors to generate urinary human induced pluripotent stem cells (UiPSCs), which were induced to differentiate into lens progenitor cells and lentoid bodies (LBs). The expression of lens-specific markers was examined by real-time PCR, immunostaining, and Western blotting. The structure and magnifying ability of LBs were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and observing the magnification of the letter "X," respectively. We developed a "fried egg" differentiation method to generate functional LBs from UiPSCs. The UiPSC-derived LBs exhibited crystalline lens-like morphology and a transparent structure and expressed lens-specific markers αA-, αB-, β-, and γ-crystallin and MIP. During LB differentiation, the placodal markers SIX1, EYA1, DLX3, PAX6, and the specific early lens markers SOX1, PROX1, FOXE3, αA-, and αB-crystallin were observed at certain time points. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of lens epithelial cells adjacent to the lens capsule as well as both immature and mature fiber-like cells. Optical analysis further demonstrated the magnifying ability (1.7×) of the LBs generated from UiPSCs. Our study provides the first evidence toward generating functional LBs from UiPSCs, thereby establishing an in vitro system that can be used to study human lens development and cataractogenesis and perhaps even be useful for drug screening.

  17. Efficient and Fast Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based therapies have been used for repairing damaged brain tissue and helping functional recovery after brain injury. Aberrance neurogenesis is related with brain injury, and multipotential neural stem cells from human embryonic stem (hES cells provide a great promise for cell replacement therapies. Optimized protocols for neural differentiation are necessary to produce functional human neural stem cells (hNSCs for cell therapy. However, the qualified procedure is scarce and detailed features of hNSCs originated from hES cells are still unclear. In this study, we developed a method to obtain hNSCs from hES cells, by which we could harvest abundant hNSCs in a relatively short time. Then, we examined the expression of pluripotent and multipotent marker genes through immunostaining and confirmed differentiation potential of the differentiated hNSCs. Furthermore, we analyzed the mitotic activity of these hNSCs. In this report, we provided comprehensive features of hNSCs and delivered the knowledge about how to obtain more high-quality hNSCs from hES cells which may help to accelerate the NSC-based therapies in brain injury treatment.

  18. Directed Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Douvaras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are crucial to proper development and maintenance of the CNS, and their involvement in numerous neurological disorders is increasingly being recognized. To improve our understanding of human microglial biology, we devised a chemically defined protocol to generate human microglia from pluripotent stem cells. Myeloid progenitors expressing CD14/CX3CR1 were generated within 30 days of differentiation from both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. Further differentiation of the progenitors resulted in ramified microglia with highly motile processes, expressing typical microglial markers. Analyses of gene expression and cytokine release showed close similarities between iPSC-derived (iPSC-MG and human primary microglia as well as clear distinctions from macrophages. iPSC-MG were able to phagocytose and responded to ADP by producing intracellular Ca2+ transients, whereas macrophages lacked such response. The differentiation protocol was highly reproducible across several pluripotent stem cell lines.

  19. Is Human-induced Pluripotent Stem Cell the Best Optimal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Kong, Jie; Cui, Yi-Yao; Liu, Peng; Wen, Jian-Yan

    2018-04-05

    Since the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology a decade ago, enormous progress has been made in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Human iPSCs have been widely used for disease modeling, drug discovery, and cell therapy development. In this review, we discuss the progress in applications of iPSC technology that are particularly relevant to drug discovery and regenerative medicine, and consider the remaining challenges and the emerging opportunities in the field. Articles in this review were searched from PubMed database from January 2014 to December 2017. Original articles about iPSCs and cardiovascular diseases were included and analyzed. iPSC holds great promises for human disease modeling, drug discovery, and stem cell-based therapy, and this potential is only beginning to be realized. However, several important issues remain to be addressed. The recent availability of human cardiomyocytes derived from iPSCs opens new opportunities to build in vitro models of cardiac disease, screening for new drugs and patient-specific cardiac therapy.

  20. 7-(O)-Carboxymethyl daidzein conjugated to N-t-Boc-hexylenediamine: A Novel Compound Capable of Inducing Cell Death in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Jamie M.; Alvero, Ayesha B.; Kohen, Fortune; Mor, Gil

    2009-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the high rate of recurrent disease. This is thought to be due to the survival of a population of chemo-resistant cells within the tumor, the ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs), that are able to regenerate the tumor following chemotherapy. Therefore, the identification of a compund that can target the OCSCs is one of the main steps in improving overall survival of ovarian cancer patients. The objective of this ...

  1. Chlorobenzene induces oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltens, Ralph; Moegel, Iljana; Roeder-Stolinski, Carmen; Simon, Jan-Christoph; Herberth, Gunda; Lehmann, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Chlorobenzene is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is widely used as a solvent, degreasing agent and chemical intermediate in many industrial settings. Occupational studies have shown that acute and chronic exposure to chlorobenzene can cause irritation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and eyes. Using in vitro assays, we have shown in a previous study that human bronchial epithelial cells release inflammatory mediators such as the cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in response to chlorobenzene. This response is mediated through the NF-κB signaling pathway. Here, we investigated the effects of monochlorobenzene on human lung cells, with emphasis on potential alterations of the redox equilibrium to clarify whether the chlorobenzene-induced inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells is caused via an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. We found that expression of cellular markers for oxidative stress, such as heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), glutathione S-transferase π1 (GSTP1), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), were elevated in the presence of monochlorobenzene. Likewise, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased in response to exposure. However, in the presence of the antioxidants N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (MPG) or bucillamine, chlorobenzene-induced upregulation of marker proteins and release of the inflammatory mediator MCP-1 are suppressed. These results complement our previous findings and point to an oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory response following chlorobenzene exposure.

  2. Toxic response of nickel nanoparticles in human lung epithelial A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Maqusood

    2011-06-01

    Nickel nanoparticle (Ni NP) is increasingly used in modern industries such as catalysts, sensors and electronic applications. Due to wide-spread industrial applications the inhalation is the primary source of exposure to Ni NPs. However, data demonstrating the effect of Ni NPs on the pulmonary system remain scarce. The present study was designed to examine the toxic effect of human lung epithelial A549 cells treated with well characterized Ni NPs at the concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 25 μg/ml for 24 and 48 h. Mitochondrial function (MTT assay), membrane leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay), reduced glutathione (GSH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO) and caspase-3 activity were assessed as toxicity end points. Results showed that Ni NPs reduced mitochondrial function and induced the leakage of LDH in dose and time-dependent manner. Ni NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress in dose and time-dependent manner indicated by depletion of GSH and induction of ROS and LPO. Further, activity of caspase-3 enzyme, marker of apoptosis was significantly higher in treated cells with time and Ni NPs dosage. The results exhibited significant toxicity of Ni NPs in human lung epithelial A549 cells which is likely to be mediated through oxidative stress. This study warrants more careful assessment of Ni NPs before their industrial applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative changes in human epithelial cancers and osteogenesis imperfecta disease detected using nonlinear multicontrast microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B.; de Thomaz, Andre A.; D'Souza-Li, Lilia; Assunção, Maria do Carmo; Bottcher-Luiz, Fátima; Andrade, Liliana A. L. A.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2012-08-01

    We show that combined multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopies, including two-photon excitation fluorescence, second-harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can be used to detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with stroma and epithelial transformation during the progression of cancer and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) disease. NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns for different types of human breast cancer, mucinous ovarian tumors, and skin dermis of patients with OI. Using a set of scoring methods (anisotropy, correlation, uniformity, entropy, and lifetime components), we found significant differences in the content, distribution and organization of collagen fibrils in the stroma of breast and ovary as well as in the dermis of skin. We suggest that our results provide a framework for using NLO techniques as a clinical diagnostic tool for human cancer and OI. We further suggest that the SHG and FLIM metrics described could be applied to other connective or epithelial tissue disorders that are characterized by abnormal cells proliferation and collagen assembly.

  4. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Shen, Steven [Center for Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A. [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. - Highlights: • We performed SATB2 overexpression in the BEAS-2B cell line. • We performed SATB2 knockdown in a Ni transformed BEAS-2B cell line. • SATB2 induced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration. • SATB2 knockdown significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth. • We identified alterations in gene involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion.

  5. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas; Shen, Steven; Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A.; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. - Highlights: • We performed SATB2 overexpression in the BEAS-2B cell line. • We performed SATB2 knockdown in a Ni transformed BEAS-2B cell line. • SATB2 induced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration. • SATB2 knockdown significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth. • We identified alterations in gene involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion.

  6. Effects of diesel exhaust particles on human lung epithelial cells: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, G; Ferraraccio, F; Prati, M V; Annunziata, S; Bianco, A; Mezzogiorno, A; Liguori, G; Angelillo, I F; Cazzola, M

    2007-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM), an ingredient of urban pollution matter, is a mixture of solid and liquid particles differing in origin, dimension and composition. There is big concern about inhaled PM in urban areas, especially due to its adverse effects on the respiratory system. Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), which constitutes the major part of PM, is characterized by a carbonic mixture composed of approximately 18,000 different high-molecular-weight organic compounds. Diesel engines release 10 times the amount of NO(2) aldehydes and breathable PM compared to unleaded gasoline engines and more than 100 times that produced by catalysed gasoline engines; these data gain great significance when taken into account the fact that diesel-powered vehicles are becoming more and more popular. DEP polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), once deposited on airways mucous surfaces easily pass through epithelial cells (ECs) membranes, bind themselves to cytosolic receptors and then affect cell growth and differentiation. Human lung epithelial cells and macrophages engulf DEP, this resulting in increased proinflammatory cytokines release (IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF). We investigated the biological effects of DEP-PM on the human lung EC line A549. Light microscopy analysis suggested the presence of cell wall alterations, and provided evidence of PM internalization and cytoplasmic vacuolization. Following PM stimulation, nuclei also were seen undergo clear gross morphological modifications. Immunocytochemistry was used to detect intracytoplasmic IL-6 and IL-8 expression.

  7. Activated human nasal epithelial cells modulate specific antibody response against bacterial or viral antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou-Yueh Yeh

    Full Text Available Nasal mucosa is an immune responsive organ evidenced by eliciting both specific local secretory IgA and systemic IgG antibody responses with intra-nasal administration of antigens. Nevertheless, the role of nasal epithelial cells in modulating such responses is unclear. Human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs obtained from sinus mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were cultured in vitro and firstly were stimulated by Lactococcus lactis bacterium-like particles (BLPs in order to examine their role on antibody production. Secondly, both antigens of immunodominant protein IDG60 from oral Streptococcus mutans and hemagglutinin (HA from influenza virus were tested to evaluate the specific antibody response. Stimulated hNECs by BLPs exhibited a significant increase in the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP. Conditioned medium of stimulated hNECs has effects on enhancing the proliferation of CD4+ T cells together with interferon-γ and IL-5 production, increasing the costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells and augmenting the production of IDG60 specific IgA, HA specific IgG, IgA by human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Such production of antigen specific IgG and IgA is significantly counteracted in the presence of IL-6 and TSLP neutralizing antibodies. In conclusion, properly stimulated hNECs may impart immuno-modulatory effects on the antigen-specific antibody response at least through the production of IL-6 and TSLP.

  8. Inflammatory Cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor α Confers Precancerous Phenotype in an Organoid Model of Normal Human Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kwong

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we established an in vitro organoid model of normal human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE cells. The spheroids of these normal HOSE cells resembled epithelial inclusion cysts in human ovarian cortex, which are the cells of origin of ovarian epithelial tumor. Because there are strong correlations between chronic inflammation and the incidence of ovarian cancer, we used the organoid model to test whether protumor inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α would induce malignant phenotype in normal HOSE cells. Prolonged treatment of tumor necrosis factor α induced phenotypic changes of the HOSE spheroids, which exhibited the characteristics of precancerous lesions of ovarian epithelial tumors, including reinitiation of cell proliferation, structural disorganization, epithelial stratification, loss of epithelial polarity, degradation of basement membrane, cell invasion, and overexpression of ovarian cancer markers. The result of this study provides not only an evidence supporting the link between chronic inflammation and ovarian cancer formation but also a relevant and novel in vitro model for studying of early events of ovarian cancer.

  9. MSH3-deficiency initiates EMAST without oncogenic transformation of human colon epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Campregher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Elevated microsatellite instability at selected tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST is a genetic signature in certain cases of sporadic colorectal cancer and has been linked to MSH3-deficiency. It is currently controversial whether EMAST is associated with oncogenic properties in humans, specifically as cancer development in Msh3-deficient mice is not enhanced. However, a mutator phenotype is different between species as the genetic positions of repetitive sequences are not conserved. Here we studied the molecular effects of human MSH3-deficiency. METHODS: HCT116 and HCT116+chr3 (both MSH3-deficient and primary human colon epithelial cells (HCEC, MSH3-wildtype were stably transfected with an EGFP-based reporter plasmid for the detection of frameshift mutations within an [AAAG]17 repeat. MSH3 was silenced by shRNA and changes in protein expression were analyzed by shotgun proteomics. Colony forming assay was used to determine oncogenic transformation and double strand breaks (DSBs were assessed by Comet assay. RESULTS: Despite differential MLH1 expression, both HCT116 and HCT116+chr3 cells displayed comparable high mutation rates (about 4×10(-4 at [AAAG]17 repeats. Silencing of MSH3 in HCECs leads to a remarkable increased frameshift mutations in [AAAG]17 repeats whereas [CA]13 repeats were less affected. Upon MSH3-silencing, significant changes in the expression of 202 proteins were detected. Pathway analysis revealed overexpression of proteins involved in double strand break repair (MRE11 and RAD50, apoptosis, L1 recycling, and repression of proteins involved in metabolism, tRNA aminoacylation, and gene expression. MSH3-silencing did not induce oncogenic transformation and DSBs increased 2-fold. CONCLUSIONS: MSH3-deficiency in human colon epithelial cells results in EMAST, formation of DSBs and significant changes of the proteome but lacks oncogenic transformation. Thus, MSH3-deficiency alone is unlikely to drive human colon

  10. Human induced pluripotent stem cells on autologous feeders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Takahashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For therapeutic usage of induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells, to accomplish xeno-free culture is critical. Previous reports have shown that human embryonic stem (ES cells can be maintained in feeder-free condition. However, absence of feeder cells can be a hostile environment for pluripotent cells and often results in karyotype abnormalities. Instead of animal feeders, human fibroblasts can be used as feeder cells of human ES cells. However, one still has to be concerned about the existence of unidentified pathogens, such as viruses and prions in these non-autologous feeders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This report demonstrates that human induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells can be established and maintained on isogenic parental feeder cells. We tested four independent human skin fibroblasts for the potential to maintain self-renewal of iPS cells. All the fibroblasts tested, as well as their conditioned medium, were capable of maintaining the undifferentiated state and normal karyotypes of iPS cells. Furthermore, human iPS cells can be generated on isogenic parental fibroblasts as feeders. These iPS cells carried on proliferation over 19 passages with undifferentiated morphologies. They expressed undifferentiated pluripotent cell markers, and could differentiate into all three germ layers via embryoid body and teratoma formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that autologous fibroblasts can be not only a source for iPS cells but also be feeder layers. Our results provide a possibility to solve the dilemma by using isogenic fibroblasts as feeder layers of iPS cells. This is an important step toward the establishment of clinical grade iPS cells.

  11. Establishment of Cancer Stem Cell Cultures from Human Conventional Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmini, Gaia; Zonefrati, Roberto; Mavilia, Carmelo; Aldinucci, Alessandra; Luzi, Ettore; Marini, Francesca; Franchi, Alessandro; Capanna, Rodolfo; Tanini, Annalisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-14

    The current improvements in therapy against osteosarcoma (OS) have prolonged the lives of cancer patients, but the survival rate of five years remains poor when metastasis has occurred. The Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) theory holds that there is a subset of tumor cells within the tumor that have stem-like characteristics, including the capacity to maintain the tumor and to resist multidrug chemotherapy. Therefore, a better understanding of OS biology and pathogenesis is needed in order to advance the development of targeted therapies to eradicate this particular subset and to reduce morbidity and mortality among patients. Isolating CSCs, establishing cell cultures of CSCs, and studying their biology are important steps to improving our understanding of OS biology and pathogenesis. The establishment of human-derived OS-CSCs from biopsies of OS has been made possible using several methods, including the capacity to create 3-dimensional stem cell cultures under nonadherent conditions. Under these conditions, CSCs are able to create spherical floating colonies formed by daughter stem cells; these colonies are termed "cellular spheres". Here, we describe a method to establish CSC cultures from primary cell cultures of conventional OS obtained from OS biopsies. We clearly describe the several passages required to isolate and characterize CSCs.

  12. Mapping the stem cell state: eight novel human embryonic stem and embryonal carcinoma cell antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, A; Andrews, N; Bardsley, K

    2011-01-01

    The antigenic profile of human embryonic stem (ES) and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells has served as a key element of their characterization, with a common panel of surface and intracellular markers now widely used. Such markers have been used to identify cells within the 'undifferentiated state...... of reactivity for all antibodies against both ES and EC cells, suggesting that these markers will afford recognition of unique sub-states within the undifferentiated stem cell compartment....... and EC cells, and herein describe their characterization. The reactivity of these antibodies against a range of cell lines is reported, as well as their developmental regulation, basic biochemistry and reactivity in immunohistochemistry of testicular germ cell tumours. Our data reveal a range...

  13. A murine ESC-like state facilitates transgenesis and homologous recombination in human pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Buecker (Christa); H.H. Chen; J.M. Polo (Jose); L. Daheron (Laurence); L. Bu (Lei); T.S. Barakat (Tahsin Stefan); P. Okwieka (Patricia); A. Porter (Andrew); J.H. Gribnau (Joost); K. Hochedlinger (Konrad); N. Geijsen (Niels)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMurine pluripotent stem cells can exist in two functionally distinct states, LIF-dependent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and bFGF-dependent epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). However, human pluripotent cells so far seemed to assume only an epiblast-like state. Here we demonstrate that human

  14. Derivation of novel human ground state naive pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafni, Ohad; Weinberger, Leehee; Mansour, Abed AlFatah; Manor, Yair S; Chomsky, Elad; Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Kalma, Yael; Viukov, Sergey; Maza, Itay; Zviran, Asaf; Rais, Yoach; Shipony, Zohar; Mukamel, Zohar; Krupalnik, Vladislav; Zerbib, Mirie; Geula, Shay; Caspi, Inbal; Schneir, Dan; Shwartz, Tamar; Gilad, Shlomit; Amann-Zalcenstein, Daniela; Benjamin, Sima; Amit, Ido; Tanay, Amos; Massarwa, Rada; Novershtern, Noa; Hanna, Jacob H

    2013-12-12

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and can be preserved in vitro in a naive inner-cell-mass-like configuration by providing exogenous stimulation with leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and small molecule inhibition of ERK1/ERK2 and GSK3β signalling (termed 2i/LIF conditions). Hallmarks of naive pluripotency include driving Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) transcription by its distal enhancer, retaining a pre-inactivation X chromosome state, and global reduction in DNA methylation and in H3K27me3 repressive chromatin mark deposition on developmental regulatory gene promoters. Upon withdrawal of 2i/LIF, naive mouse ES cells can drift towards a primed pluripotent state resembling that of the post-implantation epiblast. Although human ES cells share several molecular features with naive mouse ES cells, they also share a variety of epigenetic properties with primed murine epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). These include predominant use of the proximal enhancer element to maintain OCT4 expression, pronounced tendency for X chromosome inactivation in most female human ES cells, increase in DNA methylation and prominent deposition of H3K27me3 and bivalent domain acquisition on lineage regulatory genes. The feasibility of establishing human ground state naive pluripotency in vitro with equivalent molecular and functional features to those characterized in mouse ES cells remains to be defined. Here we establish defined conditions that facilitate the derivation of genetically unmodified human naive pluripotent stem cells from already established primed human ES cells, from somatic cells through induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell reprogramming or directly from blastocysts. The novel naive pluripotent cells validated herein retain molecular characteristics and functional properties that are highly similar to mouse naive ES cells, and distinct from conventional primed human pluripotent cells. This includes competence in the generation

  15. Human amniotic fluid promotes retinal pigmented epithelial cells' trans-differentiation into rod photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Shima; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Davari, Maliheh; Jahromi, Fatemeh Sanie; Samie, Shahram; Rezaie-Kanavi, Mozhgan; Pakravesh, Jalil; Deezagi, Abdolkhalegh

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on retinal pigmented epitheli