WorldWideScience

Sample records for human epileptic brain

  1. On the Centrality of the Focus in Human Epileptic Brain Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Geier, Christian; Elger, Christian E; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for specific cortical and subcortical large-scale human epileptic networks to be involved in the generation, spread, and termination of not only primary generalized but also focal onset seizures. The complex dynamics of such networks has been studied with methods of analysis from graph theory. In addition to investigating network-specific characteristics, recent studies aim to determine the functional role of single nodes---such as the epileptic focus---in epileptic brain networks and their relationship to ictogenesis. Utilizing the concept of betweenness centrality to assess the importance of network nodes, previous studies reported the epileptic focus to be of highest importance prior to seizures, which would support the notion of a network hub that facilitates seizure activity. We performed a time-resolved analysis of various aspects of node importance in epileptic brain networks derived from long-term, multi-channel, intracranial electroencephalographic recordings from an epil...

  2. Significance of MDR1 and multiple drug resistance in refractory human epileptic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Gabriele

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The multiple drug resistance protein (MDR1/P-glycoprotein is overexpressed in glia and blood-brain barrier (BBB endothelium in drug refractory human epileptic tissue. Since various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs can act as substrates for MDR1, the enhanced expression/function of this protein may increase their active extrusion from the brain, resulting in decreased responsiveness to AEDs. Methods Human drug resistant epileptic brain tissues were collected after surgical resection. Astrocyte cell cultures were established from these tissues, and commercially available normal human astrocytes were used as controls. Uptake of fluorescent doxorubicin and radioactive-labeled Phenytoin was measured in the two cell populations, and the effect of MDR1 blockers was evaluated. Frozen human epileptic brain tissue slices were double immunostained to locate MDR1 in neurons and glia. Other slices were exposed to toxic concentrations of Phenytoin to study cell viability in the presence or absence of a specific MDR1 blocker. Results MDR1 was overexpressed in blood vessels, astrocytes and neurons in human epileptic drug-resistant brain. In addition, MDR1-mediated cellular drug extrusion was increased in human 'epileptic' astrocytes compared to 'normal' ones. Concomitantly, cell viability in the presence of cytotoxic compounds was increased. Conclusions Overexpression of MDR1 in different cell types in drug-resistant epileptic human brain leads to functional alterations, not all of which are linked to drug pharmacokinetics. In particular, the modulation of glioneuronal MDR1 function in epileptic brain in the presence of toxic concentrations of xenobiotics may constitute a novel cytoprotective mechanism.

  3. Predicting novel histopathological microlesions in human epileptic brain through transcriptional clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachet, Fabien; Bagla, Shruti; Keren-Aviram, Gal; Morton, Andrew; Balan, Karina; Saadat, Laleh; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Kupsky, William; Song, Fei; Dratz, Edward; Loeb, Jeffrey A

    2015-02-01

    Although epilepsy is associated with a variety of abnormalities, exactly why some brain regions produce seizures and others do not is not known. We developed a method to identify cellular changes in human epileptic neocortex using transcriptional clustering. A paired analysis of high and low spiking tissues recorded in vivo from 15 patients predicted 11 cell-specific changes together with their 'cellular interactome'. These predictions were validated histologically revealing millimetre-sized 'microlesions' together with a global increase in vascularity and microglia. Microlesions were easily identified in deeper cortical layers using the neuronal marker NeuN, showed a marked reduction in neuronal processes, and were associated with nearby activation of MAPK/CREB signalling, a marker of epileptic activity, in superficial layers. Microlesions constitute a common, undiscovered layer-specific abnormality of neuronal connectivity in human neocortex that may be responsible for many 'non-lesional' forms of epilepsy. The transcriptional clustering approach used here could be applied more broadly to predict cellular differences in other brain and complex tissue disorders.

  4. TLR4, ATF-3 and IL8 inflammation mediator expression correlates with seizure frequency in human epileptic brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernhorst, Katharina; Herms, Stefan; Hoffmann, Per; Cichon, Sven; Schulz, Herbert; Sander, Thomas; Schoch, Susanne; Becker, Albert J; Grote, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Data from animal models has nicely shown that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system (CNS) can modulate seizure frequency. However, a potential relationship between the modulation of seizure frequency and gene expression of key inflammatory factors in human epileptic tissue is still unresolved. Brain tissue from pharmacoresistant patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) provides a unique prerequisite for clinico-neuropathological correlations. Here, we have concentrated on gene expression of the human key inflammatory mediators, TLR4, ATF-3 and IL8, in correlation to seizure frequency and additional clinical parameters in human epileptic brain tissue of pharmacoresistant mTLE patients. Furthermore, we characterized the cell types expressing the respective proteins in epileptic hippocampi. Total RNAs were isolated from n=26 hippocampi of pharmacoresistant mTLE patients using AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit. cRNA was used for hybridization on Human HT-12 v3 Expression BeadChips with Illumina Direct Hybridization Assay Kit and resulting gene expression data was normalized based on the Illumina BeadStudio software suite by means of quantile normalization with background subtraction. Corresponding human hippocampal sections for immunohistochemistry were probed with antibodies against TLR4, ATF-3, IL8 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN) and the microglial marker HLA-DR. We observed abundant TLR4 gene expression to relate to seizure frequency per month. For ATF-3, we found an inverse correlation of expression to seizure frequency. Lower expression of IL8 was significantly associated with high seizure frequency. Further, we detected TLR4 expression in neurons and GFAP-positive astrocytes of pharmacoresistant mTLE patients. Only neurons of human epileptic hippocampi express ATF-3. IL8 was expressed in microglia and reactive astrocytes. Our results suggest a differential correlation of key inflammatory factor

  5. Overexpression of pregnane X and glucocorticoid receptors and the regulation of cytochrome P450 in human epileptic brain endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Chaitali; Hossain, Mohammed; Solanki, Jesal; Najm, Imad M; Marchi, Nicola; Janigro, Damir

    2017-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests a metabolic contribution of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) to the drug-resistant phenotype in human epilepsy. However, the upstream molecular regulators of CYP in the epileptic brain remain understudied. We therefore investigated the expression and function of pregnane xenobiotic (PXR) and glucocorticoid (GR) nuclear receptors in endothelial cells established from post-epilepsy surgery brain samples. PXR/GR localization was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in specimens from subjects who underwent temporal lobe resections to relieve drug-resistant seizures. We used primary cultures of endothelial cells obtained from epileptic brain tissues (EPI-ECs; n = 8), commercially available human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs; n = 8), and human hepatocytes (n = 3). PXR/GR messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in brain ECs was initially determined by complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays. The expression of PXR/GR proteins was quantified by Western blot. PXR and GR silencing was performed in EPI-ECs (n = 4), and the impact on downstream CYP expression was determined. PXR/GR expression was detected by immunofluorescence in ECs and neurons in the human temporal lobe samples analyzed. Elevated mRNA and protein levels of PXR and GR were found in EPI-ECs versus control HBMECs. Hepatocytes, used as a positive control, displayed the highest levels of PXR/GR expression. We confirmed expression of PXR/GR in cytoplasmic-nuclear subcellular fractions, with a significant increase of PXR/GR in EPI-ECs versus controls. CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2E1 were overexpressed in EPI-ECs versus control, whereas CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 were downregulated or absent in EPI-ECs. GR silencing in EPI-ECs led to decreased CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and PXR expression. PXR silencing in EPI-ECs resulted in the specific downregulation of CYP3A4 expression. Our results indicate increased PXR and GR in primary ECs derived from human epileptic brains. PXR or GR may be responsible for a local drug brain

  6. In vivo detection of epileptic brain tissue using static fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Nitin; Bhatia, Sanjiv; Ragheb, John; Mehta, Rupal; Jayakar, Prasanna; Yong, William; Lin, Wei-Chiang

    2013-02-01

    Diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy are used to detect histopathological abnormalities of an epileptic brain in a human subject study. Static diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectra are acquired from normal and epileptic brain areas, defined by electrocorticography (ECoG), from pediatric patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. Biopsy specimens are taken from the investigated sites within an abnormal brain. Spectral analysis reveals significant differences in diffuse reflectance spectra and the ratio of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra from normal and epileptic brain areas defined by ECoG and histology. Using these spectral differences, tissue classification models with accuracy above 80% are developed based on linear discriminant analysis. The differences between the diffuse reflectance spectra from the normal and epileptic brain areas observed in this study are attributed to alterations in the static hemodynamic characteristics of an epileptic brain, suggesting a unique association between the histopathological and the hemodynamic abnormalities in an epileptic brain.

  7. Human fetal brain-derived neural stem/progenitor cells grafted into the adult epileptic brain restrain seizures in rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haejin; Yun, Seokhwan; Kim, Il-Sun; Lee, Il-Shin; Shin, Jeong Eun; Park, Soo Chul; Kim, Won-Joo; Park, Kook In

    2014-01-01

    Cell transplantation has been suggested as an alternative therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) because this can suppress spontaneous recurrent seizures in animal models. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of human neural stem/progenitor cells (huNSPCs) for treating TLE, we transplanted huNSPCs, derived from an aborted fetal telencephalon at 13 weeks of gestation and expanded in culture as neurospheres over a long time period, into the epileptic hippocampus of fully kindled and pilocarpine-treated adult rats exhibiting TLE. In vitro, huNSPCs not only produced all three central nervous system neural cell types, but also differentiated into ganglionic eminences-derived γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and released GABA in response to the depolarization induced by a high K+ medium. NSPC grafting reduced behavioral seizure duration, afterdischarge duration on electroencephalograms, and seizure stage in the kindling model, as well as the frequency and the duration of spontaneous recurrent motor seizures in pilocarpine-induced animals. However, NSPC grafting neither improved spatial learning or memory function in pilocarpine-treated animals. Following transplantation, grafted cells showed extensive migration around the injection site, robust engraftment, and long-term survival, along with differentiation into β-tubulin III+ neurons (∼34%), APC-CC1+ oligodendrocytes (∼28%), and GFAP+ astrocytes (∼8%). Furthermore, among donor-derived cells, ∼24% produced GABA. Additionally, to explain the effect of seizure suppression after NSPC grafting, we examined the anticonvulsant glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels in host hippocampal astrocytes and mossy fiber sprouting into the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the epileptic brain. Grafted cells restored the expression of GDNF in host astrocytes but did not reverse the mossy fiber sprouting, eliminating the latter as potential mechanism. These results suggest that human fetal

  8. Analysis of brain changes before epileptic seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Escarre Pons, Bernat

    2014-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] This study analyse EEG signals from different patients who suffer from epilepsy by means of mathematic algorithms in order to see what happens in the brain minutes before epileptic seizures. [CASTELLÀ] Este estudio analiza las señales EEG de diferentes pacientes epilépticos mediante algoritmos matemáticos para poder ver que sucede en el cerebro minutos antes de sufrir un ataque epiléptico. [CATALÀ] Aquest estudi analitza les senyals EEG de diferents pacients epilèptics mitjança...

  9. Epileptic Seizures: Quakes of the brain?

    CERN Document Server

    Osorio, Ivan; Sornette, Didier; Milton, John; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    The concept of universality proposes that dynamical systems with the same power law behaviors are equivalent at large scales. We test this hypothesis on the Earth's crust and the epileptic brain, and discover that power laws also govern the distributions of seizure energies and recurrence times. This robust correspondence is extended over seven statistics, including the direct and inverse Omori laws. We also verify in an animal seizure model the earthquake-driven hypothesis that power law statistics co-exist with characteristic scales, as coupling between constitutive elements increases towards the synchronization regime. These observations point to the universality of the dynamics of coupled threshold oscillators for systems even as diverse as Earth and brain and suggest a general strategy for forecasting seizures, one of neurosciences' grails.

  10. Semi-automatic Epileptic Hot Spot Detection in ECD brain SPECT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Laszlo; Zuhayra, Maaz; Henze, Eberhard

    A method is proposed to process ECD brain SPECT images representing epileptic hot spots inside the brain. For validation 35 ictal —interictal patient image data were processed. The images were registered by a normalized mutual information method, then the separation of the suspicious and normal brain areas were performed by two threshold-based segmentations. Normalization between the images was performed by local normal brain mean values. Based on the validation made by two medical physicians, minimal human intervention in the segmentation parameters was necessary to detect all epileptic spots and minimize the number of false spots inside the brain.

  11. Quantification of human brain benzodiazepine receptors using [{sup 18}F]fluoroethylflumazenil: a first report in volunteers and epileptic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, Philippe [Unite de Tomographie par Positrons, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Unite de Chimie Pharmaceutique et de Radiopharmacie, CMFA/REMA, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 73-40 Avenue Mounier, 1200, Bruxelles (Belgium); Sanabria-Bohorquez, Sandra [Imaging Research, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Philadelphia (United States); Bol, Anne; Volder, Anne de; Labar, Daniel [Unite de Tomographie par Positrons, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Rijckevorsel, K. van [Service de Neurologie, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Bruxelles (Belgium); Gallez, Bernard [Unite de Chimie Pharmaceutique et de Radiopharmacie, CMFA/REMA, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 73-40 Avenue Mounier, 1200, Bruxelles (Belgium); Unite de Resonance Magnetique Biomedicale, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2003-12-01

    Fluorine-18 fluoroethylflumazenil ([{sup 18}F]FEF) is a tracer for central benzodiazepine (BZ) receptors which is proposed as an alternative to carbon-11 flumazenil for in vivo imaging using positron emission tomography (PET) in humans. In this study, [{sup 18}F]FEF kinetic data were acquired using a 60-min two-injection protocol on three normal subjects and two patients suffering from mesiotemporal epilepsy as demonstrated by abnormal magnetic resonance imaging and [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. First, a tracer bolus injection was performed and [{sup 18}F]FEF rapidly distributed in the brain according to the known BZ receptor distribution. Thirty minutes later a displacement injection of 0.01 mg/kg of unlabelled flumazenil was performed. Activity was rapidly displaced from all BZ receptor regions demonstrating the specific binding of [{sup 18}F]FEF. No displacement was observed in the pons. Plasma input function was obtained from arterial blood sampling, and metabolite analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Metabolite quantification revealed a fast decrease in tracer plasma concentration, such that at 5 min post injection about 70% of the total radioactivity in plasma corresponded to [{sup 18}F]FEF, reaching 24% at 30 min post injection. The interactions between [{sup 18}F]FEF and BZ receptors were described using linear compartmental models with plasma input and reference tissue approaches. Binding potential values were in agreement with the known distribution of BZ receptors in human brain. Finally, in two patients with mesiotemporal sclerosis, reduced uptake of [{sup 18}F]FEF was clearly observed in the implicated left hippocampus. (orig.)

  12. Lipofuscin Granules in the Epileptic Human Temporal Neocortex with Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Suélen; Nakayama, Ana Beatriz S; Brusco, Janaina; Rossi, Marcos A; Carlotti, Carlos G; Moreira, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    Lipofuscin granules (LGs), the "age pigments", are autofluorescent cell products from lysosomes that diverge in number and size among brain regions. Human temporal cortex from 20- to 55-year-old epileptic subjects were studied with the fat soluble dye Sudan Black, under confocal and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural analysis showed that with age LGs increase in area, but not in number. Proportionally to the LGs area, the electron lucid portion increases and the electron dense reduces over time. The robust increase in lipid components is possibly due to modifications in the neuronal metabolism with age in physiological and pathological conditions.

  13. Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures

    CERN Document Server

    Bialonski, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients, and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

  14. Brain mechanisms of altered conscious states during epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio; Monaco, Francesco

    2009-05-01

    Impaired consciousness has long been considered the hallmark of epileptic seizures. Both generalized seizures and complex partial seizures are characterized by a multifaceted spectrum of altered conscious states, in terms of the general level of awareness and the subjective contents of consciousness. Complete loss of consciousness occurs when epileptic activity involves both cortical and subcortical structures, as in tonic-clonic seizures and absence seizures. Medial temporal lobe discharges can selectively impair experience in complex partial seizures (with affected responsiveness) and certain simple partial seizures (with unaffected responsiveness). Electrical stimulation of temporal lobe structures has been shown to evoke similar subjective experiences. Findings from neurophysiological and brain-imaging studies in epilepsy have now demonstrated that involvement of the bilateral thalamus and upper brainstem leads to selective impairment of frontoparietal association cortices and midline 'default mode' networks, which results in ictal loss of consciousness. The spread of epileptic discharges from the medial temporal lobe to the same subcortical structures can ultimately cause impairment in the level of consciousness in the late ictal and immediate postictal phase of complex partial seizures. This paper reviews novel insights into the brain mechanisms that underlie alterations of consciousness during epileptic seizures and the implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and management.

  15. A Case of Lung Cancer with Brain Metastases Diagnosed After Epileptic Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Eroglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available    Epileptic seizures can accompany benign diseases, also can be the first sign of malign tumors. In brain metastasis, epileptic seizures can be seen before the symptoms of the primary lesion. Brain metastasis is bad prognostic factor in all malignancies and it is determined that lung cancers are the most metastatic tumors to the brain. Especially in new onset epileptic seizures in elderly patients, metastatic brain tumors are frequent in etiology. We aimed to present a lung cancer patient with brain metastasis who admitted emergency department with first epileptic seizure.

  16. Epileptic Encephalopathy in Children with Risk Factors for Brain Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Ricardo-Garcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study of 887 new born infants with prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage, 11 children with West syndrome that progressed into Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and another 4 children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome that had not been preceded by West syndrome were found. In this study we present the main findings of these 15 subjects. In all infants multifactor antecedents were detected. The most frequent risk factors were prematurity and severe asphyxia; however placenta disorders, sepsis, and hyperbilirubinemia were also frequent. In all infants MRI direct or secondary features of periventricular leukomalacia were observed. Followup of all infants showed moderate to severe neurodevelopmental delay as well as cerebral palsy. It is concluded that prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage are very important antecedents that should be taken into account to follow up those infants from an early age in order to detect and treat as early as possible an epileptic encephalopathy.

  17. Epileptic Encephalopathy in Children with Risk Factors for Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; Harmony, Thalía; Porras-Kattz, Eneida; Colmenero-Batallán, Miguel J.; Barrera-Reséndiz, Jesús E.; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio; Cruz-Rivero, Erika

    2012-01-01

    In the study of 887 new born infants with prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage, 11 children with West syndrome that progressed into Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and another 4 children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome that had not been preceded by West syndrome were found. In this study we present the main findings of these 15 subjects. In all infants multifactor antecedents were detected. The most frequent risk factors were prematurity and severe asphyxia; however placenta disorders, sepsis, and hyperbilirubinemia were also frequent. In all infants MRI direct or secondary features of periventricular leukomalacia were observed. Followup of all infants showed moderate to severe neurodevelopmental delay as well as cerebral palsy. It is concluded that prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage are very important antecedents that should be taken into account to follow up those infants from an early age in order to detect and treat as early as possible an epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:22957240

  18. Detecting and localizing the foci in human epileptic seizures

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Jacob, E; Pomyalov, A; Procaccia, I; Towle, V L; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Boccaletti, Stefano; Pomyalov, Anna; Procaccia, Itamar; Towle, Vernon L.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the electrical signals recorded from a subdural ECoG grid of electrodes placed on the pial surface of the brain for chronic evaluation of epileptic patients before surgical resection. A simple and computationally fast method to analyze the inter-ictal phase synchrony between such electrodes is introduced and developed with the aim of detecting and localizing the foci of the epileptic events. We evaluate the method by comparing the results of surgery to the localization predicted here. We find an indication of good correspondence between the success or failure in the surgery and the agreement between our identification and the regions actually operated on.

  19. Enhancement of asynchronous release from fast-spiking interneuron in human and rat epileptic neocortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Jiang

    Full Text Available Down-regulation of GABAergic inhibition may result in the generation of epileptiform activities. Besides spike-triggered synchronous GABA release, changes in asynchronous release (AR following high-frequency discharges may further regulate epileptiform activities. In brain slices obtained from surgically removed human neocortical tissues of patients with intractable epilepsy and brain tumor, we found that AR occurred at GABAergic output synapses of fast-spiking (FS neurons and its strength depended on the type of connections, with FS autapses showing the strongest AR. In addition, we found that AR depended on residual Ca²⁺ at presynaptic terminals but was independent of postsynaptic firing. Furthermore, AR at FS autapses was markedly elevated in human epileptic tissue as compared to non-epileptic tissue. In a rat model of epilepsy, we found similar elevation of AR at both FS autapses and synapses onto excitatory neurons. Further experiments and analysis showed that AR elevation in epileptic tissue may result from an increase in action potential amplitude in the FS neurons and elevation of residual Ca²⁺ concentration. Together, these results revealed that GABAergic AR occurred at both human and rat neocortex, and its elevation in epileptic tissue may contribute to the regulation of epileptiform activities.

  20. Aspartic acid aminotransferase activity is increased in actively spiking compared with non-spiking human epileptic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, S J; Dixon, L M; Sherwin, A L

    1988-01-01

    Increased concentration of the excitatory neurotransmitter aspartic acid in actively spiking human epileptic cerebral cortex was recently described. In order to further characterise changes in the aspartergic system in epileptic brain, the behaviour of aspartic acid aminotransferase (AAT), a key enzyme involved in aspartic acid metabolism has now been examined. Electrocorticography performed during surgery was employed to identify cortical epileptic spike foci in 16 patients undergoing temporal lobectomy for intractable seizures. Patients with spontaneously spiking lateral temporal cortex (n = 8) were compared with a non-spiking control group (n = 8) of patients in whom the epileptic lesions were confined to the hippocampus sparing the temporal convexity. Mean activity of AAT in spiking cortex was significantly elevated by 16-18%, with aspartic acid concentration increased by 28%. Possible explanations for the enhanced AAT activity include increased proliferation of cortical AAT-containing astrocytes at the spiking focus and/or a generalised increase in neuronal or extraneuronal metabolism consequent to the ongoing epileptic discharge. It is suggested that the data provide additional support for a disturbance of central excitatory aspartic acid mechanisms in human epileptic brain. PMID:2898010

  1. Clinical evolution of epileptic seizures in children with perinatal brain pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Morozova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex mechanism of epileptogenesis has not been adequately explored. Perinatal brain pathology is one of the most important triggers of epilepsy in children. The paper gives data on the course and transformation of epileptic seizures in children who have verified perinatal problems. A study of 66 children with perinatally induced epileptic seizures has provided evidence for the evolution of impairments in cerebral hemodynamics and neuroimaging phenomena in the examined contingent of patients.

  2. A Case of Lung Cancer with Brain Metastases Diagnosed After Epileptic Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Simsek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available  LETTER TO THE EDITOR CONCERNING THE CASE REPORT “A case of lung cancer with brain metastases diagnosed after epileptic seizure” by M. Eroglu et al. J Clin Anal Med 2015; 6(3: 384-6

  3. Brain Inflammation in an Infant With Hemimegalencephaly, Escalating Seizures, and Epileptic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Hee; Millichap, John J; Koh, Sookyong

    2016-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly, a congenital brain malformation typically characterized by enlargement of one hemisphere, is frequently associated with intractable epilepsy. The authors report a case of a 12-month-old girl with hemimegalencephaly who underwent semiurgent hemispherectomy because of rapidly escalating seizures, arrested development, and associated encephalopathy. The brain tissue was examined and evaluated for neuroinflammation. Immunohistochemical analysis of the brain tissue revealed the presence of abundant activated CD68-positive microglia and reactive astrogliosis. Detection of active inflammatory changes in the brain of a patient with hemimegalencephaly complicated by intractable epilepsy suggests a potential role of ongoing brain inflammation in seizure exacerbation and epileptic encephalopathy.

  4. Anti-epileptic effects of neuropeptide Y gene transfection into the rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changzheng Dong; Wenqing Zhao; Wenling Li; Peiyuan Lv; Xiufang Dong

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y gene transfection into normal rat brain tissue can provide gene overexpression, which can attenuate the severity of kainic acid-induced seizures. In this study, a recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying the neuropeptide Y gene was transfected into brain tissue of rats with kainic acid-induced epilepsy through stereotactic methods. Following these transfections, we verified overexpression of the neuropeptide Y gene in the epileptic brain. Electroencephalograms showed that seizure severity was significantly inhibited and seizure latency was significantly prolonged up to 4 weeks after gene transfection. Moreover, quantitative fluorescent PCR and western blot assays revealed that the mRNA and protein expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B was inhibited in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. These findings indicate that neuropeptide Y may inhibit seizures via down-regulation of the functional expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

  5. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  6. Behavioral state classification in epileptic brain using intracranial electrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremen, Vaclav; Duque, Juliano J.; Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; Berry, Brent M.; Kucewicz, Michal T.; Khadjevand, Fatemeh; Van Gompel, Jamie; Stead, Matt; St. Louis, Erik K.; Worrell, Gregory A.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Automated behavioral state classification can benefit next generation implantable epilepsy devices. In this study we explored the feasibility of automated awake (AW) and slow wave sleep (SWS) classification using wide bandwidth intracranial EEG (iEEG) in patients undergoing evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Approach. Data from seven patients (age 34+/- 12 , 4 women) who underwent intracranial depth electrode implantation for iEEG monitoring were included. Spectral power features (0.1-600 Hz) spanning several frequency bands from a single electrode were used to train and test a support vector machine classifier. Main results. Classification accuracy of 97.8  ±  0.3% (normal tissue) and 89.4  ±  0.8% (epileptic tissue) across seven subjects using multiple spectral power features from a single electrode was achieved. Spectral power features from electrodes placed in normal temporal neocortex were found to be more useful (accuracy 90.8  ±  0.8%) for sleep-wake state classification than electrodes located in normal hippocampus (87.1  ±  1.6%). Spectral power in high frequency band features (Ripple (80-250 Hz), Fast Ripple (250-600 Hz)) showed comparable performance for AW and SWS classification as the best performing Berger bands (Alpha, Beta, low Gamma) with accuracy  ⩾90% using a single electrode contact and single spectral feature. Significance. Automated classification of wake and SWS should prove useful for future implantable epilepsy devices with limited computational power, memory, and number of electrodes. Applications include quantifying patient sleep patterns and behavioral state dependent detection, prediction, and electrical stimulation therapies.

  7. Plasticity of Hippocampal Excitatory-Inhibitory Balance: Missing the Synaptic Control in the Epileptic Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bonansco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity is the capacity generated by experience to modify the neural function and, thereby, adapt our behaviour. Long-term plasticity of glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission occurs in a concerted manner, finely adjusting the excitatory-inhibitory (E/I balance. Imbalances of E/I function are related to several neurological diseases including epilepsy. Several evidences have demonstrated that astrocytes are able to control the synaptic plasticity, with astrocytes being active partners in synaptic physiology and E/I balance. Here, we revise molecular evidences showing the epileptic stage as an abnormal form of long-term brain plasticity and propose the possible participation of astrocytes to the abnormal increase of glutamatergic and decrease of GABAergic neurotransmission in epileptic networks.

  8. Weighted and directed interactions in evolving large-scale epileptic brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickten, Henning; Porz, Stephan; Elger, Christian E.; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    Epilepsy can be regarded as a network phenomenon with functionally and/or structurally aberrant connections in the brain. Over the past years, concepts and methods from network theory substantially contributed to improve the characterization of structure and function of these epileptic networks and thus to advance understanding of the dynamical disease epilepsy. We extend this promising line of research and assess—with high spatial and temporal resolution and using complementary analysis approaches that capture different characteristics of the complex dynamics—both strength and direction of interactions in evolving large-scale epileptic brain networks of 35 patients that suffered from drug-resistant focal seizures with different anatomical onset locations. Despite this heterogeneity, we find that even during the seizure-free interval the seizure onset zone is a brain region that, when averaged over time, exerts strongest directed influences over other brain regions being part of a large-scale network. This crucial role, however, manifested by averaging on the population-sample level only – in more than one third of patients, strongest directed interactions can be observed between brain regions far off the seizure onset zone. This may guide new developments for individualized diagnosis, treatment and control.

  9. Can hyper-synchrony in meditation lead to seizures? Similarities in meditative and epileptic brain states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Shane

    2014-10-01

    Meditation is used worldwide by millions of people for relaxation and stress relief. Given sufficient practice, meditators may also experience a variety of altered states of consciousness. These states can lead to a variety of unusual experiences, including physical, emotional and psychic disturbances. This paper highlights the correspondences between brain states associated with these experiences and the symptoms and neurophysiology of epileptic simple partial seizures. Seizures, like meditation practice, can result in both positive and negative experiences. The neurophysiology and chemistry underlying simple partial seizures are characterised by a high degree of excitability and high levels of neuronal synchrony in gamma-band brain activity. Following a survey of the literature that shows that meditation practice is also linked to high power gamma activity, an account of how meditation could cause such activity is provided. This paper discusses the diagnostic challenges for the claim that meditation practices lead to brain states similar to those found in epileptic seizures, and seeks to develop our understanding of the range of pathological and non-pathological states that result from a hyper-excited and hyper-synchronous brain.

  10. Abnormal GABAA receptors from the human epileptic hippocampal subiculum microtransplanted to Xenopus oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Eleonora; Spinelli, Gabriele; Torchia, Gregorio; Martinez-Torres, A.; Ragozzino, Davide; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    We studied the properties of GABAA receptors microtransplanted from the human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)-associated brain regions to Xenopus oocytes. Cell membranes, isolated from surgically resected brain specimens of drug-resistant TLE patients, were injected into frog oocytes, which rapidly incorporated human GABAA receptors, and any associated proteins, into their surface membrane. The receptors originating from different epileptic brain regions had a similar run-down but an affinity for GABA that was ≈60% lower for the subiculum receptors than for receptors issuing from the hippocampus proper or the temporal lobe neocortex. Moreover, GABA currents recorded in oocytes injected with membranes from the subiculum had a more depolarized reversal potential compared with the hippocampus proper or neocortex of the same patients. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed of the GABAA receptor α1- to α5-, β1- to β3-, γ2- to γ3-, and δ-subunit mRNAs. The levels of expression of the α3-, α5-, and β1- to β3- subunit mRNAs are significantly higher, with the exception of γ2-subunit whose expression is lower, in subiculum compared with neocortex specimens. Our results suggest that an abnormal GABA-receptor subunit transcription in the TLE subiculum leads to the expression of GABAA receptors with a relatively low affinity. This abnormal behavior of the subiculum GABAA receptors may contribute to epileptogenesis. PMID:15695331

  11. DREADDs suppress seizure-like activity in a mouse model of pharmacoresistant epileptic brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avaliani, N.; Andersson, M.; Thomsen, Annika Højrup Runegaard

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder with a prevalence of ≈1% of general population. Available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have multiple side effects and are ineffective in 30% of patients. Therefore, development of effective treatment strategies is highly needed, requiring drug-screening models...... in mouse OHSCs. As we also found that STIB in mouse OHSCs is resistant to common AED, valproic acid, collectively our findings suggest that DREADD-based strategy may be effective in suppressing epileptiform activity in a pharamcoresitant epileptic brain tissue....

  12. [Effect of sleep deprivation on visual evoked potentials and brain stem auditory evoked potentials in epileptics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urumova, L T; Kovalenko, G A; Tsunikov, A I; Sumskiĭ, L I

    1984-01-01

    The article reports on the first study of the evoked activity of the brain in epileptic patients (n = 20) following sleep deprivation. An analysis of the data obtained has revealed a tendency to the shortening of the peak latent intervals of visual evoked potentials in the range of 100-200 mu sec and the V component and the interpeak interval III-V of evoked auditory trunk potentials in patients with temporal epilepsy. The phenomenon may indicate the elimination of stabilizing control involving the specific conductive pathways and, possibly, an accelerated conduction of a specific sensor signal.

  13. Effects of Anterior Thalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Chronic Epileptic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Beatriz; Cavarsan, Clarissa; Miranda, Maisa Ferreira; Aarão, Mayra C.; Madureira, Ana Paula; Rodrigues, Antônio M.; Nobrega, José N.; Mello, Luiz E.; Hamani, Clement

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been investigated for the treatment of epilepsy. In rodents, an increase in the latency for the development of seizures and status epilepticus (SE) has been reported in different animal models but the consequences of delivering stimulation to chronic epileptic animals have not been extensively addressed. We study the effects of anterior thalamic nucleus (AN) stimulation at different current intensities in rats rendered epileptic following pilocarpine (Pilo) administration. Four months after Pilo-induced SE, chronic epileptic rats were bilaterally implanted with AN electrodes or had sham-surgery. Stimulation was delivered for 6 h/day, 5 days/week at 130 Hz, 90 µsec. and either 100 µA or 500 µA. The frequency of spontaneous recurrent seizures in animals receiving stimulation was compared to that recorded in the preoperative period and in rats given sham treatment. To investigate the effects of DBS on hippocampal excitability, brain slices from animals receiving AN DBS or sham surgery were studied with electrophysiology. We found that rats treated with AN DBS at 100 µA had a 52% non-significant reduction in the frequency of seizures as compared to sham-treated controls and 61% less seizures than at baseline. Animals given DBS at 500 µA had 5.1 times more seizures than controls and a 2.8 fold increase in seizure rate as compared to preoperative values. In non-stimulated controls, the average frequency of seizures before and after surgery remained unaltered. In vitro recordings have shown that slices from animals previously given DBS at 100 µA had a longer latency for the development of epileptiform activity, shorter and smaller DC shifts, and a smaller spike amplitude compared to non-stimulated controls. In contrast, a higher spike amplitude was recorded in slices from animals given AN DBS at 500 µA. PMID:24892420

  14. Potassium channels and human epileptic phenotypes: an updated overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eVilla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K+ channels are expressed in almost every cells and are ubiquitous in neuronal and glial cell membranes. These channels have been implicated in different disorders, in particular in epilepsy. K+ channel diversity depends on the presence in the human genome of a large number of genes either encoding pore-forming or accessory subunits. More than 80 genes encoding the K+ channels were cloned and they represent the largest group of ion channels regulating the electrical activity of cells in different tissues, including the brain. It is therefore not surprising that mutations in these genes lead to K+ channels dysfunctions linked to inherited epilepsy in humans and non-human model animals.This article reviews genetic and molecular progresses in exploring the pathogenesis of different human epilepsies, with special emphasis on the role of K+ channels in monogenic forms.

  15. Expressions of glutathione S-transferase alpha, mu, and pi in brains of medically intractable epileptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qin-Jian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs play an important role in metabolizing anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs in liver. Expressions of GSTs in brain, which may result in poor efficacy of AEDs, have not been well studied. Using clinical cortex specimen from 32 intractable epileptic subjects and 8 non-epileptic controls, the present study investigated the correlation between GSTs and intractable epilepsy. Results Three different GST isoforms (α, μ, and π were detected with immunohistochemistry. GST-α expression was not seen in any cortex specimens. Sixty three percent (63% of control and 53% of intractible epileptic specimens showed GST-μ immunoreactivity. No significant difference in intensity of GST-μ staining was observed between these two groups. GST-π expression was found in endothelial cells and glial cells/astrocytes. Fifty percent (50% of the control patients and 66% of the epileptic patients were GST-π positive. The grading of epileptic patients was significantly higher than that of control patients (p Conclusion High levels of GST-π in endothelial cells and glial cells/astrocyte correlate to medical intractable epilepsy, suggesting that GST-π contributes to resistance to AED treatment.

  16. Differential Effect of Neuropeptides on Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in Human Epileptic Hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledri, Marco; Sorensen, Andreas T.; Madsen, Marita G.;

    2015-01-01

    antiepileptic actions in human epileptic tissue as well, we applied these neuropeptides directly to human hippocampal slices in vitro. NPY strongly decreased stimulation-induced EPSPs in dentate gyrus and CA1 (up to 30 and 55%, respectively) via Y2 receptors, while galanin had no significant effect. Receptor...

  17. Combined effects of epileptic seizure and phenobarbital induced overexpression of P-glycoprotein in brain of chemically kindled rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xinyue; Liu, Xiang; Wen, Tao; Xie, Shanshan; Yao, Dan; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Guangji; Xie, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: The multidrug resistance of epilepsy may result from the overexpression of P-glycoprotein, but the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated whether the overexpression of P-glycoprotein in the brains of subjects with pharmacoresistant epilepsy resulted from both drug effects and seizure activity. Experimental approach: Kindled rats were developed by injecting a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (33 mg·kg−1·day−1, i.p.) for 28 days. Groups were then treated with an oral dose of phenobarbital (45 mg·kg−1·day−1) for 40 days. In accord with behavioural observations, P-glycoprotein activity in brain was assessed using brain-to-plasma concentration ratios of rhodamine 123. P-glycoprotein levels in the brain regions were further evaluated using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The distribution of phenobarbital in the brain was assessed by measuring phenobarbital concentrations 1 h following its oral administration. Key results: The kindling significantly increased P-glycoprotein activity and expression. Good associations were found among P-glycoprotein activity, expression and phenobarbital concentration in the hippocampus. Short-term treatment with phenobarbital showed good anti-epileptic effect; the maximum effect occurred on day 14 when overexpression of P-glycoprotein was reversed. Continuous treatment with phenobarbital had a gradually reduced anti-epileptic effect and on day 40, phenobarbital exhibited no anti-epileptic effect; this was accompanied by both a re-enhancement of P-glycoprotein expression and decreased phenobarbital concentration in the hippocampus. P-glycoprotein function and expression were also increased in age-matched normal rats treated with phenobarbital. Conclusions and implications: The overexpression of P-glycoprotein in the brain of subjects with pharmacoresistant epilepsy is due to a combination of drug effects and epileptic seizures. PMID:20233212

  18. High-resolution synchrotron radiation-based phase tomography of the healthy and epileptic brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikis, Christos; Janz, Philipp; Schulz, Georg; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Thalmann, Peter; Deyhle, Hans; Chicherova, Natalia; Rack, Alexander; Khimchenko, Anna; Hieber, Simone E.; Mariani, Luigi; Haas, Carola A.; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Phase-contrast micro-tomography using synchrotron radiation has yielded superior soft tissue visualization down to the sub-cellular level. The isotropic spatial resolution down to about one micron is comparable to the one of histology. The methods, however, provide different physical quantities and are thus complementary, also allowing for the extension of histology into the third dimension. To prepare for cross-sectional animal studies on epilepsy, we have standardized the specimen's preparation and scanning procedure for mouse brains, so that subsequent histology remains entirely unaffected and scanning of all samples (n = 28) is possible in a realistic time frame. For that, we have scanned five healthy and epileptic mouse brains at the ID19 beamline, ESRF, Grenoble, France, using grating- and propagation-based phase contrast micro-tomography. The resulting datasets clearly show the cortex, ventricular system, thalamus, hypothalamus, and hippocampus. Our focus is on the latter, having planned kainate-induced epilepsy experiments. The cell density and organization in the dentate gyrus and Ammon's horn region were clearly visualized in control animals. This proof of principle was required to initiate experiment. The resulting three-dimensional data have been correlated to histology. The goal is a brain-wide quantification of cell death or structural reorganization associated with epilepsy as opposed to histology alone that represents small volumes of the total brain only. Thus, the proposed technique bears the potential to correlate the gold standard in analysis with independently obtained data sets. Such an achievement also fuels interest for other groups in neuroscience research to closely collaborate with experts in phase micro-tomography.

  19. Epilepsy: Extreme Events in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnertz, Klaus

    The analysis of Xevents arising in dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom represents a challenge for many scientific fields. This is especially true for the open, dissipative, and adaptive system known as the human brain. Due to its complex structure, its immense functionality, and — as in the case of epilepsy — due to the coexistence of normal and abnormal functions, the brain can be regarded as one of the most complex and fascinating systems in nature. Data gathered so far show that the epileptic process exhibits a high spatial and temporal variability. Small, specific, regions of the brain are responsible for the generation of focal epileptic seizures, and the amount of time a patient spends actually having seizures is only a small fraction of his/her lifetime. In between these Xevents large parts of the brain exhibit normal functioning. Since the occurrence of seizures usually can not be explained by exogenous factors, and since the brain recovers its normal state after a seizure in the majority of cases, this might indicate that endogenous nonlinear (deterministic and/or stochastic) properties are involved in the control of these Xevents. In fact, converging evidence now indicates that (particularly) nonlinear approaches to the analysis of brain activity allow us to define precursors which, provided sufficient sensitivity and specificity can be obtained, might lead to the development of patient-specific seizure anticipation and seizure prevention strategies.

  20. Brain lateralization and neural plasticity for musical and cognitive abilities in an epileptic musician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel eTrujillo-Pozo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of intracarotid propofol procedure (IPP when assessing musical lateralization has not been reported in literature up to now. This procedure (similar to Wada Test has provided the opportunity to investigate not only lateralization of language and memory functions on epileptic patients but also offers a functional mapping approach with superior spatial and temporal resolution to analyze the lateralization of musical abilities. Findings in literature suggest that musical training modifies functional and structural brain organization. We studied hemispheric lateralization in a professional musician, a 33 years old woman with refractory left medial temporal lobe epilepsy. A longitudinal neuropsychological study was performed over a period of 21 months. Before epilepsy surgery, musical abilities, language and memory were tested during IPP by means of a novel and exhaustive neuropsychological battery focusing on the processing of music. We used a selection of stimuli to analyze listening, score reading, and tempo discrimination. Our results suggested that IPP is an excellent method to determine not only language, semantic and episodic memory, but also musical dominance in a professional musician who may be candidate for epilepsy surgery. Neuropsychological testing revealed that right hemisphere’s patient is involved in semantic and episodic musical memory processes, whereas her score reading and tempo processing require contribution from both hemispheres. At 1-year follow-up, outcome was excellent with respect to seizures and professional skills, meanwhile cognitive abilities improved. These findings indicate that IPP helps to predict who might be at risk for postoperative musical, language and memory deficits after epilepsy surgery. Our research suggests that musical expertise and epilepsy critically modifies long-term memory processes and induces brain structural and functional plasticity.

  1. Brain lateralization and neural plasticity for musical and cognitive abilities in an epileptic musician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Pozo, Isabel; Martín-Monzón, Isabel; Rodríguez-Romero, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The use of intracarotid propofol procedure (IPP) when assessing musical lateralization has not been reported in literature up to now. This procedure (similar to Wada Test) has provided the opportunity to investigate not only lateralization of language and memory functions on epileptic patients but also offers a functional mapping approach with superior spatial and temporal resolution to analyze the lateralization of musical abilities. Findings in literature suggest that musical training modifies functional and structural brain organization. We studied hemispheric lateralization in a professional musician, a 33 years old woman with refractory left medial temporal lobe (MTL) epilepsy (TLE). A longitudinal neuropsychological study was performed over a period of 21 months. Before epilepsy surgery, musical abilities, language and memory were tested during IPP by means of a novel and exhaustive neuropsychological battery focusing on the processing of music. We used a selection of stimuli to analyze listening, score reading, and tempo discrimination. Our results suggested that IPP is an excellent method to determine not only language, semantic, and episodic memory, but also musical dominance in a professional musician who may be candidate for epilepsy surgery. Neuropsychological testing revealed that right hemisphere's patient is involved in semantic and episodic musical memory processes, whereas her score reading and tempo processing require contribution from both hemispheres. At one-year follow-up, outcome was excellent with respect to seizures and professional skills, meanwhile cognitive abilities improved. These findings indicate that IPP helps to predict who might be at risk for postoperative musical, language, and memory deficits after epilepsy surgery. Our research suggests that musical expertise and epilepsy critically modifies long-term memory processes and induces brain structural and functional plasticity.

  2. Interictal functional connectivity of human epileptic networks assessed by intracerebral EEG and BOLD signal fluctuations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle Bettus

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to demonstrate whether spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal derived from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI reflect spontaneous neuronal activity in pathological brain regions as well as in regions spared by epileptiform discharges. This is a crucial issue as coherent fluctuations of fMRI signals between remote brain areas are now widely used to define functional connectivity in physiology and in pathophysiology. We quantified functional connectivity using non-linear measures of cross-correlation between signals obtained from intracerebral EEG (iEEG and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI in 5 patients suffering from intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Functional connectivity was quantified with both modalities in areas exhibiting different electrophysiological states (epileptic and non affected regions during the interictal period. Functional connectivity as measured from the iEEG signal was higher in regions affected by electrical epileptiform abnormalities relative to non-affected areas, whereas an opposite pattern was found for functional connectivity measured from the BOLD signal. Significant negative correlations were found between the functional connectivities of iEEG and BOLD signal when considering all pairs of signals (theta, alpha, beta and broadband and when considering pairs of signals in regions spared by epileptiform discharges (in broadband signal. This suggests differential effects of epileptic phenomena on electrophysiological and hemodynamic signals and/or an alteration of the neurovascular coupling secondary to pathological plasticity in TLE even in regions spared by epileptiform discharges. In addition, indices of directionality calculated from both modalities were consistent showing that the epileptogenic regions exert a significant influence onto the non epileptic areas during the interictal period. This study shows that functional

  3. Modulation of epileptic activity by deep brain stimulation: a model-based study of frequency-dependent effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten eMina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies showed that deep brain stimulation (DBS can modulate the activity in the epileptic brain and that a decrease of seizures can be achieved in responding patients. In most of these studies, the choice of stimulation parameters is critical to obtain desired clinical effects. In particular, the stimulation frequency is a key parameter that is difficult to tune. A reason is that our knowledge about the frequency-dependant mechanisms according to which DBS indirectly impacts the dynamics of pathological neuronal systems located in the neocortex is still limited. We address this issue using both computational modeling and intracerebral EEG (iEEG data.We developed a macroscopic (neural mass model of the thalamocortical network. In line with already-existing models, it includes interconnected neocortical pyramidal cells and interneurons, thalamocortical cells and reticular neurons. The novelty was to introduce, in the thalamic compartment, the biophysical effects of direct stimulation. Regarding clinical data, we used a quite unique data set recorded in a patient (drug-resistant epilepsy with a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD. In this patient, DBS strongly reduced the sustained epileptic activity of the FCD for low-frequency (LFS, < 2 Hz and high-frequency stimulation (HFS, > 70 Hz while intermediate-frequency stimulation (IFS, around 50 Hz had no effect.Signal processing, clustering and optimization techniques allowed us to identify the necessary conditions for reproducing, in the model, the observed frequency-dependent stimulation effects. Key elements which explain the suppression of epileptic activity in the FCD include a feed-forward inhibition and synaptic short-term depression of thalamocortical connections at LFS, and b inhibition of the thalamic output at HFS. Conversely, modeling results indicate that IFS favors thalamic oscillations and entrains epileptic dynamics.

  4. Modulation of epileptic activity by deep brain stimulation: a model-based study of frequency-dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Faten; Benquet, Pascal; Pasnicu, Anca; Biraben, Arnaud; Wendling, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies showed that deep brain stimulation (DBS) can modulate the activity in the epileptic brain and that a decrease of seizures can be achieved in "responding" patients. In most of these studies, the choice of stimulation parameters is critical to obtain desired clinical effects. In particular, the stimulation frequency is a key parameter that is difficult to tune. A reason is that our knowledge about the frequency-dependant mechanisms according to which DBS indirectly impacts the dynamics of pathological neuronal systems located in the neocortex is still limited. We address this issue using both computational modeling and intracerebral EEG (iEEG) data. We developed a macroscopic (neural mass) model of the thalamocortical network. In line with already-existing models, it includes interconnected neocortical pyramidal cells and interneurons, thalamocortical cells and reticular neurons. The novelty was to introduce, in the thalamic compartment, the biophysical effects of direct stimulation. Regarding clinical data, we used a quite unique data set recorded in a patient (drug-resistant epilepsy) with a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). In this patient, DBS strongly reduced the sustained epileptic activity of the FCD for low-frequency (LFS, 70 Hz) while intermediate-frequency stimulation (IFS, around 50 Hz) had no effect. Signal processing, clustering, and optimization techniques allowed us to identify the necessary conditions for reproducing, in the model, the observed frequency-dependent stimulation effects. Key elements which explain the suppression of epileptic activity in the FCD include: (a) feed-forward inhibition and synaptic short-term depression of thalamocortical connections at LFS, and (b) inhibition of the thalamic output at HFS. Conversely, modeling results indicate that IFS favors thalamic oscillations and entrains epileptic dynamics.

  5. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying human epileptic disorders and the process of epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A; Mehler, Mark F

    2010-07-01

    The rapidly emerging science of epigenetics and epigenomic medicine promises to reveal novel insights into the susceptibility to and the onset and progression of epileptic disorders. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are now implicated in orchestrating aspects of neural development (e.g., cell fate specification and maturation), homeostasis and stress responses (e.g., immediate early gene transcription), and neural network function (e.g., excitation-inhibition coupling and activity-dependent plasticity). These same neurobiological processes are responsible for determining the heterogeneous features of complex epileptic disease states. Thus, we highlight recent evidence that is beginning to elucidate the specific roles played by epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone code modifications and chromatin remodeling, noncoding RNAs and RNA editing, in human epilepsy syndromes and in the process of epileptogenesis. The highly integrated layers of the epigenome are responsible for the cell type specific and exquisitely environmentally responsive deployment of genes and functional gene networks that underlie the molecular pathophysiology of epilepsy and its associated comorbidities, including but not limited to neurotransmitter receptors (e.g., GluR2, GLRA2, and GLRA3), growth factors (e.g., BDNF), extracellular matrix proteins (e.g., RELN), and diverse transcriptional regulators (e.g., CREB, c-fos, and c-jun). These important observations suggest that future epigenetic studies are necessary to better understand, classify, prevent, and treat epileptic disorders.

  6. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain.

  7. International veterinary epilepsy task force recommendations for systematic sampling and processing of brains from epileptic dogs and cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matiasek, Kaspar; Pumarola I Batlle, Martí; Rosati, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    to add substantial data on patients with complete clinical work-up. This may be due to sparse training in epilepsy pathology and or due to lack of neuropathological guidelines for companion animals.The protocols introduced herein shall facilitate systematic sampling and processing of epileptic brains...... and therefore increase the efficacy, reliability and reproducibility of morphological studies in animals suffering from seizures.Brain dissection protocols of two neuropathological centres with research focus in epilepsy have been optimised with regards to their diagnostic yield and accuracy......, their practicability and their feasibility concerning clinical research requirements.The recommended guidelines allow for easy, standardised and ubiquitous collection of brain regions, relevant for seizure generation. Tissues harvested the prescribed way will increase the diagnostic efficacy and provide reliable...

  8. Two epileptic syndromes, one brain: childhood absence epilepsy and benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerminara, Caterina; Coniglio, Antonella; El-Malhany, Nadia; Casarelli, Livia; Curatolo, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS), or benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), are the most common forms of childhood epilepsy. CAE and BCECTS are well-known and clearly defined syndromes; although they are strongly dissimilar in terms of their pathophysiology, these functional epileptic disturbances share many features such as similar age at onset, overall good prognosis, and inheritance factors. Few reports are available on the concomitance of CAE and BCECTS in the same patients or the later occurrence of generalized epilepsy in patients with a history of partial epilepsy. In most cases described in the literature, absence seizures always started after the onset of benign focal epilepsy but the contrary has never occurred yet. We describe two patients affected by idiopathic generalized epileptic syndrome with typical absences, who experienced BCECTS after remission of seizures and normalization of EEG recordings. While the coexistence of different seizure types within an epileptic syndrome is not uncommon, the occurrence of childhood absence and BCECTS in the same child appears to be extremely rare, and this extraordinary event supports the hypothesis that CAE and BCECTS are two distinct epileptic conditions. However, recent interesting observations in animal models suggest that BCECTS and CAE could be pathophysiologically related and that genetic links could play a large role.

  9. Are Epileptic Seizures Quakes of the Brain? An Approach by Means of Nonextensive Tsallis Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Eftaxias, K; Athanasopoulou, L; Kalimeri, M; Potirakis, S M; Balasis, G

    2011-01-01

    The field of study of complex systems holds that the dynamics of complex systems are founded on universal principles that may used to describe a great variety of scientific and technological approaches of different types of natural, artificial, and social systems. Authors have suggested that earthquake dynamics and neurodynamics can be analyzed within similar mathematical frameworks, a claim further supported by recent evidence. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a shift in emphasis from the large to the small in the search for a dynamical analogy between seizure and earthquake. Our analyses focus on a single epileptic seizure generation and the activation of a single fault (earthquake) and not on the statistics of sequences of different seizures and earthquakes. A central property of the epileptic seizure / earthquake generation is the occurrence of coherent large-scale collective behaviour with very rich structure, resulting from repeated nonlinear interactions among the constituents of the system, res...

  10. Brain lateralization and neural plasticity for musical and cognitive abilities in an epileptic musician

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillo Pozo, Isabel; Martín Monzón, Isabel; Rodríguez Romero, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The use of intracarotid propofol procedure (IPP) when assessing musical lateralization has not been reported in literature up to now. This procedure (similar to Wada Test) has provided the opportunity to investigate not only lateralization of language and memory functions on epileptic patients but also offers a functional mapping approach with superior spatial and temporal resolution to analyze the lateralization of musical abilities. Findings in literature suggest that musical training modif...

  11. Selecting Statistical Characteristics of Brain Signals to Detect Epileptic Seizures using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Perceptron Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Abbasi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram signals (EEG have always been used in medical diagnosis. Evaluation of the statistical characteristics of EEG signals is actually the foundation of all brain signal processing methods. Since the correct prediction of disease status is of utmost importance, the goal is to use those models that have minimum error and maximum reliability. In anautomatic epileptic seizure detection system, we should be able to distinguish between EEG signals before, during and after seizure. Extracting useful characteristics from EEG data can greatly increase the classification accuracy. In this new approach, we first parse EEG signals to sub-bands in different categories with the help of discrete wavelet transform(DWT and then we derive statistical characteristics such as maximum, minimum, average and standard deviation for each sub-band. A multilayer perceptron (MLPneural network was used to assess the different scenarios of healthy and seizure among the collected signal sets. In order to assess the success and effectiveness of the proposed method, the confusion matrix was used and its accuracy was achieved98.33 percent. Due to the limitations and obstacles in analyzing EEG signals, the proposed method can greatly help professionals experimentally and visually in the classification and diagnosis of epileptic seizures.

  12. Results of Non-contrast Brain Computed Tomography Scans of 1-18 Year Old Epileptic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh FALLAH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Fallah R, Nafisi Moghadam R, Fallah Tafti M, Salmani Nodoushan M. Results of Noncontrast Brain Computed Tomography Scans of 1-18 Year Old Epileptic Children. Iran J Child Neurol 2012; 6(3: 33-38.ObjectiveThe advent of computed tomography (CT scan revolutionized the diagnosticevaluation of neurologic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate brain CTresults of epileptic children.Materials & MethodsIn a descriptive cross-sectional study, noncontrast brain CT scan of 150 consecutive1-18 year old epileptic children whom were referred to pediatric neurology clinic ofShahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, from May 2008 to October 2010 inYazd-Iran, evaluated.ResultsSixty two girls and 88 boys with mean age of 6.6 ± 4.3 years were evaluated.In 38 (25.3 % children, seizure onset age was under one year and 38 others hadabnormal mental / developmental status. Fifty three children (35.3 % and 97 (64.7%had partial and generalized seizures, respectively. Partial seizures were more prevalentin children with seizure onset in < 1 year [41.5% (22/53 vs. 16.5% (16/97] Result of CT was normal in 74 % (n=111. Among the patients with abnormalresults, 18(46% had brain atrophy, 10 (25.6% structural CNS dysgenesia, six (15.4%intracranial calcification, three (7.8% hydrocephaly and two had (5.2% brain tumor.Abnormal brain CT was more prevalent in patients with seizure onset in less than oneyear of age [60.5% (23 of 38 vs. 14.3% (16 of 112, p = 0.003], partial epilepsy [51% (27of 53 vs. 12% (12/97], and abnormal developmental status [ 81.5% (31 of 38 vs.7% (8of 112]. Mean age of seizure onset in epileptic children with abnormal brain CT scanwas less (M ± SD:1/17 ± 0.6 years versus 4.02±1.9 years.ConclusionBrain CT scan might be considered in evaluation of epileptic children with partialseizures, seizure onset in less than one year of age or neurodevelopmental delay.ReferencesJagoda A, Gupta K. The emergency department

  13. Brain spect in the pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Buchpiguel

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients consists of neurological examination, intensive electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring and anatomical studies (CT and MRI. Functional methods such as PET and SPECT imaging are now used more frequently. We have studied pre-operatively 15 adult epileptic patients (8 female, 7 male using a rotational scintillation camera interfaced to a dedicated computer. The tomographic images were obtained 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 99mTc_HMPAO. All had MRI scanning and intensive EEG monitoring which generally included seizure recording. Five patients had progressive lesions (3 meningiomas, 2 astrocytomas. In 10 patients, neuroradiological studies did not show the presence of progressive lesions (2 normal scans and 8 cases with inactive lesions. Two patients with meningioma showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site while the third patient had a marked hyperperfusion which might correlate with the clinical diagnosis of epilepsia partialis continua. In the astrocytoma patients SPECT scans showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site. Data obtained from the 10 patients without progressive CNS lesions showed: (a in 4, SPECT findings correlated well with the anatomical findings; (b in 5 instances, SPECT was able to disclose additional functional deficits; (c in one case, there was no SPECT correlate of a discrete anatomical lesion. In 5 of these cases with no progressive lesions (n=10 SPECT findings were useful as a complementary tool in determining the clinical or surgical management of these patients. Despite the small number and hete-rogenicity of the present sample, SPECT seems to be an useful tool as part of the clinical workup of epileptic patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery.

  14. Dynamics of regional brain activity in epilepsy: a cross-disciplinary study on both intracranial and scalp-recorded epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minadakis, George; Ventouras, Errikos; Gatzonis, Stylianos D.; Siatouni, Anna; Tsekou, Hara; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Sakas, Damianos E.; Stonham, John

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Recent cross-disciplinary literature suggests a dynamical analogy between earthquakes and epileptic seizures. This study extends the focus of inquiry for the applicability of models for earthquake dynamics to examine both scalp-recorded and intracranial electroencephalogram recordings related to epileptic seizures. Approach. First, we provide an updated definition of the electric event in terms of magnitude and we focus on the applicability of (i) a model for earthquake dynamics, rooted in a nonextensive Tsallis framework, (ii) the traditional Gutenberg and Richter law and (iii) an alternative method for the magnitude-frequency relation for earthquakes. Second, we apply spatiotemporal analysis in terms of nonextensive statistical physics and we further examine the behavior of the parameters included in the nonextensive formula for both types of electroencephalogram recordings under study. Main results. We confirm the previously observed power-law distribution, showing that the nonextensive formula can adequately describe the sequences of electric events included in both types of electroencephalogram recordings. We also show the intermittent behavior of the epileptic seizure cycle which is analogous to the earthquake cycles and we provide evidence of self-affinity of the regional electroencephalogram epileptic seizure activity. Significance. This study may provide a framework for the analysis and interpretation of epileptic brain activity and other biological phenomena with similar underlying dynamical mechanisms.

  15. Expression of human epileptic temporal lobe neurotransmitter receptors in Xenopus oocytes: An innovative approach to study epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Eleonora; Esposito, Vincenzo; Mileo, Anna Maria; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pierpaolo; Giangaspero, Felice; Scoppetta, Ciriaco; Onorati, Paolo; Trettel, Flavia; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2002-01-01

    Poly(A+) RNA was extracted from the temporal lobe (TL) of medically intractable epileptic patients which underwent surgical TL resection. Injection of this mRNA into Xenopus oocytes led to the expression of ionotropic receptors for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), kainate (KAI) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA). Membrane currents elicited by GABA inverted polarity at −15 mV, close to the oocyte's chloride equilibrium potential, were inhibited by bicuculline, and were potentiated by pentobarbital and flunitrazepam. These basic characteristics were also displayed by GABA currents elicited in oocytes injected with mRNAs isolated from human TL glioma (TLG) or from mouse TL. However, the GABA receptors expressed by the epileptic TL mRNA exhibited some unusual properties, consisting in a rapid current run-down after repetitive GABA applications and a large EC50 (125 μM). AMPA alone evoked very small or nil currents, whereas KAI induced larger currents. Nevertheless, upon cyclothiazide treatment, AMPA elicited substantial currents that, like the KAI currents, were inhibited by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Furthermore, the glutamate receptor 5 (GluR5) agonist, ATPA, failed to evoke an obvious current although both RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed GluR5 expression in the epileptic TL. Oocytes injected with mouse TL or human TLG mRNAs generated KAI and AMPA currents similar to those evoked in oocytes injected with epileptic TL mRNA but, in contrast to these, the mouse TL and human TLG oocytes were also responsive to ATPA. Our findings are in accord with the concept that both a depression of GABA inhibition and a dysfunction of the KAI-receptor system maintain a high neuronal excitability that results in epileptic seizures. PMID:12409614

  16. Time-invariant person-specific frequency templates in human brain activity

    CERN Document Server

    Doron, I; Baruchi, I; Towle, V L; Ben-Jacob, E; Doron, Itai; Hulata, Eyal; Baruchi, Itay; Towle, Vernon L.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2006-01-01

    The various human brain tasks are performed at different locations and time scales. Yet, we discovered the existence of time-invariant (above an essential time scale) partitioning of the brain activity into person-specific frequency bands. For that, we perform temporal and ensemble averaging of best wavelet packet bases from multi-electrode EEG recordings. These personal frequency-bands provide new templates for quantitative analyses of brain function, e.g., normal vs. epileptic activity.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor superinduction parallels anti-epileptic--neuroprotective treatment in the pilocarpine epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, G; Avoli, M; Marcinkiewicz, J; Marcinkiewicz, M

    2001-03-01

    Antiepileptic drugs provide neuroprotection in several animal models of brain damage, including those induced by status epilepticus (SE). The mechanisms involved in this action are unknown, but neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a role. In this study we investigated the changes in BDNF levels in rats in which SE had been induced by pilocarpine injection (400 mg/kg i.p.) and continued for several hours (unprotected group). In other animals (protected groups), SE was suppressed after 30 min by intraperitoneal injection of either diazepam (10 mg/kg) + pentobarbital (30 mg/kg) or paraldehyde (0.3 mg/kg). In diazepam + pentobarbital-treated rats the hippocampal damage caused by SE was significantly lower (p rats treated with diazepam + pentobarbital. In contrast, a decrease of BDNF immunoreactivity occurred in the unprotected group. In conclusion, these results show that neuroprotection induced by anti-epileptic drugs in pilocarpine-treated rats is accompanied by strong potentiation of BDNF synthesis in brain regions involved in SE.

  18. Human brain slices for epilepsy research: Pitfalls, solutions and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roland S G; da Silva, Anderson Brito; Whittaker, Roger G; Woodhall, Gavin L; Cunningham, Mark O

    2016-02-15

    Increasingly, neuroscientists are taking the opportunity to use live human tissue obtained from elective neurosurgical procedures for electrophysiological studies in vitro. Access to this valuable resource permits unique studies into the network dynamics that contribute to the generation of pathological electrical activity in the human epileptic brain. Whilst this approach has provided insights into the mechanistic features of electrophysiological patterns associated with human epilepsy, it is not without technical and methodological challenges. This review outlines the main difficulties associated with working with epileptic human brain slices from the point of collection, through the stages of preparation, storage and recording. Moreover, it outlines the limitations, in terms of the nature of epileptic activity that can be observed in such tissue, in particular, the rarity of spontaneous ictal discharges, we discuss manipulations that can be utilised to induce such activity. In addition to discussing conventional electrophysiological techniques that are routinely employed in epileptic human brain slices, we review how imaging and multielectrode array recordings could provide novel insights into the network dynamics of human epileptogenesis. Acute studies in human brain slices are ultimately limited by the lifetime of the tissue so overcoming this issue provides increased opportunity for information gain. We review the literature with respect to organotypic culture techniques that may hold the key to prolonging the viability of this material. A combination of long-term culture techniques, viral transduction approaches and electrophysiology in human brain slices promotes the possibility of large scale monitoring and manipulation of neuronal activity in epileptic microcircuits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. TNF-overexpression in Borna disease virus-infected mouse brains triggers inflammatory reaction and epileptic seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kramer

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory state of the brain increases the risk for seizure development. Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV-infection of mice with neuronal overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF was used to investigate the complex relationship between enhanced cytokine levels, neurotropic virus infection and reaction pattern of brain cells focusing on its role for seizure induction. Viral antigen and glial markers were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Different levels of TNF in the CNS were provided by the use of heterozygous and homozygous TNF overexpressing mice. Transgenic TNF, total TNF (native and transgenic, TNF-receptor (TNFR1, TNFR2, IL-1 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-receptor subunit 2B (NR2B mRNA values were measured by real time RT-PCR. BDV-infection of TNF-transgenic mice resulted in non-purulent meningoencephalitis accompanied by epileptic seizures with a higher frequency in homozygous animals. This correlated with lower weight gain, stronger degree and progression of encephalitis and early, strong microglia activation in the TNF-transgenic mice, most obviously in homozygous animals. Activation of astroglia could be more intense and associated with an unusual hypertrophy in the transgenic mice. BDV-antigen distribution and infectivity in the CNS was comparable in TNF-transgenic and wild-type animals. Transgenic TNF mRNA-expression was restricted to forebrain regions as the transgene construct comprised the promoter of NMDA-receptor subunit2B and induced up-regulation of native TNF mRNA. Total TNF mRNA levels did not increase significantly after BDV-infection in the brain of transgenic mice but TNFR1, TNFR2 and IL-1 mRNA values, mainly in the TNF overexpressing brain areas. NR2B mRNA levels were not influenced by transgene expression or BDV-infection. Neuronal TNF-overexpression combined with BDV-infection leads to cytokine up-regulation, CNS inflammation and glial cell activation and confirmed the presensitizing effect of elevated

  20. Brain Inflammation in an Infant With Hemimegalencephaly, Escalating Seizures, and Epileptic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Se Hee; Millichap, John J.; Koh, Sookyong

    2016-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly, a congenital brain malformation typically characterized by enlargement of one hemisphere, is frequently associated with intractable epilepsy. The authors report a case of a 12-month-old girl with hemimegalencephaly who underwent semiurgent hemispherectomy because of rapidly escalating seizures, arrested development, and associated encephalopathy. The brain tissue was examined and evaluated for neuroinflammation. Immunohistochemical analysis of the brain tissue revealed the...

  1. EPILEPTIC SPASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epileptic spasms are epileptic seizures with sudden flexion/extension or of the mixed flexion and extension type, mainly involving the proximal and truncal muscles, that are normally longer than myoclonic seizures but shorter than tonic seizures, and last for about 1 second. For diagnostics of epileptic spasms, it is necessary that they are combined with ictal and interictal epileptiform patterns on electroencephalography (EEG. The first detailed clinical description of seizures of the infantile spasms type was provided by English pediatrician W.J. West in 1841. The term of infantile spasms is limited with age and means epileptic spasms that occur to children in early infancy, usually up to 1 y.o. Infantile spasms cannot be synonymous to the West syndrome. Infantile spasms are a type of epileptic seizures and West syndrome is a form of epilepsy that is usually manifested through hypsarrhythmia on the EEG and mental retardation, apart from infantile spasms. Epileptic spasms is the term broader than infantile spasms. Committee of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE recommends exactly the “epileptic spasms” term, as this type of seizures is not a prerogative of the West syndrome and can be observed in children older than 1 y.o. and even in adults. The authors provided a detailed review of modern references devoted to epileptic spasms including the history of the issue, determination of the term, and position of epileptic spasms in modern classification systems, approaches to diagnostics including differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  2. Parallel algorithm to analyze the brain signals: application on epileptic spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshri, Anup Kumar; Das, Barda Nand; Mallick, Dheeresh Kumar; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    In the current work, we have proposed a parallel algorithm for the recognition of Epileptic Spikes (ES) in EEG. The automated systems are used in biomedical field to help the doctors and pathologist by producing the result of an inspection in real time. Generally, the biomedical signal data to be processed are very large in size. A uniprocessor computer is having its own limitation regarding its speed. So the fastest available computer with latest configuration also may not produce results in real time for the immense computation. Parallel computing can be proved as a useful tool for processing the huge data with higher speed. In the proposed algorithm 'Data Parallelism' has been applied where multiple processors perform the same operation on different part of the data to produce fast result. All the processors are interconnected with each other by an interconnection network. The complexity of the algorithm was analyzed as Θ((n + δn) / N) where, 'n' is the length of the input data, 'N' is the number of processor used in the algorithm and 'δn' is the amount of overlapped data between two consecutive intermediate processors (IPs). This algorithm is scalable as the level of parallelism increase linearly with the increase in number of processors. The algorithm has been implemented in Message Passing Interface (MPI). It was tested with 60 min recorded EEG signal data files. The recognition rate of ES on an average was 95.68%.

  3. Epileptic Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Sureshbabu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Pain is a rare manifestation of epilepsy observed in less than 1% of patients. When present, it is usually accompanied by other focal features. This rare occurrence of epileptic seizures masquerading as angina is a novel observation.

  4. Adenosine receptor antagonists alter the stability of human epileptic GABAA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseti, Cristina; Martinello, Katiuscia; Fucile, Sergio; Piccari, Vanessa; Mascia, Addolorata; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pier Paolo; Manfredi, Mario; Esposito, Vincenzo; Cantore, Gianpaolo; Arcella, Antonella; Simonato, Michele; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Limatola, Cristina; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    We examined how the endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine might influence γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor stability and which adenosine receptors (ARs) were involved. Upon repetitive activation (GABA 500 μM), GABAA receptors, microtransplanted into Xenopus oocytes from neurosurgically resected epileptic human nervous tissues, exhibited an obvious GABAA-current (IGABA) run-down, which was consistently and significantly reduced by treatment with the nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist CGS15943 (100 nM) or with adenosine deaminase (ADA) (1 units/ml), that inactivates adenosine. It was also found that selective antagonists of A2B (MRS1706, 10 nM) or A3 (MRS1334, 30 nM) receptors reduced IGABA run-down, whereas treatment with the specific A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (10 nM) was ineffective. The selective A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 (10 nM) reduced or potentiated IGABA run-down in ≈40% and ≈20% of tested oocytes, respectively. The ADA-resistant, AR agonist 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA) (10 μM) potentiated IGABA run-down but only in ≈20% of tested oocytes. CGS15943 administration again decreased IGABA run-down in patch-clamped neurons from either human or rat neocortex slices. IGABA run-down in pyramidal neurons was equivalent in A1 receptor-deficient and wt neurons but much larger in neurons from A2A receptor-deficient mice, indicating that, in mouse cortex, GABAA-receptor stability is tonically influenced by A2A but not by A1 receptors. IGABA run-down from wt mice was not affected by 2-CA, suggesting maximal ARs activity by endogenous adenosine. Our findings strongly suggest that cortical A2–A3 receptors alter the stability of GABAA receptors, which could offer therapeutic opportunities. PMID:18809912

  5. Formulation and evaluation of an anti-epileptic drug-loaded microemulsion for nose to brain delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawtikwar P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to formulate an anti-epileptic drug-loaded microemulsion for nose-to-brain delivery. The oil system evaluated for the preparation of a stable microemulsion was iso-propyl myristate. A non-ionic surfactant like Tween 80 was used with polyethylene glycol 400 as a co-surfactant. A pseudoternary phase diagram for various proportions of S mix :oil was constructed by the water titration method. The effect of changing concentration of alcohol as a co-surfactant was also studied. The t-phase diagram shows that the water consumption capacity of the system was increased as the surfactant concentration was increased. It was also found that as the concentration of the alcohol was increased, the viscosity of the microemulsion decreased. After the identification of the microemulsion region, the composition of the microemulsion was fixed at oil 9-10%, S mix 35-40% and water 45-50%. The formulated microemulsion was evaluated for various parameters like pH, conductivity, zeta potential, viscosity and in vitro drug diffusion studies. All the evaluation parameters showed satisfactory results. Using this microemulsion, the solubility of valproic acid was increased from 1.29 to 36 mg/ml. Diffusion studies have shown a lag period of 45 min. Thirteen percent drug diffusion was achieved in 3 h. The prepared microemulsion was stable at 40°C and 75% relative humidity.

  6. Neuroethological approach to frontolimbic epileptic seizures and parasomnias: The same central pattern generators for the same behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinari, C A; Cantalupo, G; Högl, B; Cortelli, P; Tassi, L; Francione, S; Nobili, L; Meletti, S; Rubboli, G; Gardella, E

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this report is not to make a differential diagnosis between epileptic nocturnal seizures and non-epileptic sleep-related movement disorders, or parasomnias. On the contrary, our goal is to emphasize the commonly shared semiological features of some epileptic seizures and parasomnias. Such similar features might be explained by the activation of the same neuronal networks (so-called 'central pattern generators' or CPG). These produce the stereotypical rhythmic motor sequences - in other words, behaviours - that are adaptive and species-specific (such as eating/alimentary, attractive/aversive, locomotor and nesting habits). CPG are located at the subcortical level (mainly in the brain stem and spinal cord) and, in humans, are under the control of the phylogenetically more recent neomammalian neocortical structures, according to a simplified Jacksonian model. Based on video-polygraphic recordings of sleep-related epileptic seizures and non-epileptic events (parasomnias), we have documented how a transient "neomammalian brain" dysfunction - whether epileptic or not - can 'release' (disinhibition?) the CPG responsible for involuntary motor behaviours. Thus, in both epileptic seizures and parasomnias, we can observe: (a) oroalimentary automatisms, bruxism and biting; (b) ambulatory behaviours, ranging from the classical bimanual-bipedal activity of 'frontal' hypermotor seizures, epileptic and non-epileptic wanderings, and somnambulism to periodic leg movements (PLM), alternating leg muscle activation (ALMA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS); and (c) various sleep-related events such as ictal fear, sleep terrors, nightmares and violent behaviour.

  7. Brain Implants for Prediction and Mitigation of Epileptic Seizures - Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalsami, Nachappa

    2016-09-29

    This is a CRADA final report on C0100901 between Argonne National Laboratory and Flint Hills Scientific, LLC of Lawrence, Kansas. Two brain implantable probes, a surface acoustic wave probe and a miniature cooling probe, were designed, built, and tested with excellent results.

  8. MicroRNA profiles in hippocampal granule cells and plasma of rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy--comparison with human epileptic samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roncon, Paolo; Soukupovà, Marie; Binaschi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of the transformation of normal to epileptic tissue would help to stratify patients at risk of epilepsy following brain injury, and inform new treatment strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an attractive option in this direction. In this study, miRNA microarrays wer...

  9. Chaotic electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus - mossy fiber sprouting, epileptic seizures, and brain electrical activity in pentylenetetrazol-kindled rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenggen Chen; Chunhui Che; Huapin Huang; Changyun Liu; Xiaoyun Zhuang; Fang Jiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that appropriate interventions can alter brain electrical activity of epileptic patients prior to and during a seizure, leading to maintenance of a highly chaotic state, thereby inhibiting abnormal epileptic discharges, and eventually controlling epileptic seizure. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to observe the effects of chaotic electrical stimulation to the subthalamic nucleus on mossy fiber sprouting, epileptic seizures, and electrical discharges, and to summarize the most suitable intervention. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This randomized grouping, neuroelectrophysiological study was performed at the Laboratory of Neurology, Union Hospital Affiliated to Fujian Medical University in September 2007.MATERIALS: Fifty-five healthy, male, Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to an epileptic model by an intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazol. The YC-2 programmed electrical stimulator was provided by Chengdu Instrument Factory, China; the video electroencephalographic system (KT-88-2400) and 24-hour active electroencephalographic system were products of Contec Medical System Co., Ltd., China; pentylenetetrazol was purchased from Sigma, USA.METHODS: The present interventional method consisted of electrical stimulation to the subthalamic nucleus with an intensity of 500 μ A, pulse width 0.05 ms, frequency 30 Hz, and a duration of 20 minutes for 14 successive days. Fifty-five rats were divided into 6 groups: (1) pre-stimulation (n = 10), pentylenetetrazol was administered and 30 minutes later, chaotic electrical stimulation was performed; (2) synchronous stimulation (n = 10), rats received pentylenetetrazol and chaotic electrical stimulation concurrently; (3) post-administration stimulation (n = 10), after pentylenetetrazol administration, chaotic electrical stimulation was performed immediately after cessation of a seizure; (4) sham-stimulation (n = 10), following pentylenetetrazol administration, an electrode was

  10. DLG3/SAP102 protein expression in malformations of cortical development: a study of human epileptic cortex by tissue microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingqi; Aronica, Eleonora; Boer, Karin; Fällmar, David; Kumlien, Eva; Nistér, Monica; Wester, Kenneth; Pontén, Fredrik; Smits, Anja

    2009-03-01

    The human DLG3 gene encodes the synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102), which is concentrated in the postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses and involved in receptor-mediated synaptic transmission via binding to the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. In this study, we investigated the expression and cellular distribution of the DLG3/SAP102 protein in human epileptic cortex. Tissue microarrays of a large number of specimens from patients operated for medically intractable epilepsy were used for immunohistochemical screening with anti-DLG3 antibody. The cellular distribution of the protein was further investigated in samples of malformations of cortical development, and the amount of DLG3 protein in the total homogenate and in the postsynaptic membrane fraction of these samples was quantified by Western blot. We found a strictly neuronal expression of DLG3/SAP102 in epileptogenic cortex as well as in non-epileptic human cortex used for control. In focal cortical dysplasia and tuberous sclerosis complex, the protein was expressed in most neurons including dysplastic neurons, but not in giant cells. Increased expression of DLG3 protein was observed in the postsynaptic membrane fraction of patients with focal cortical dysplasia. Double-labeling experiments confirmed the exclusive neuronal character of the DLG3 expressing cells and the co-localization of the DLG3 protein with the NR2B subunit. Our results suggest a putative role for DLG3/SAP102 in cortical hyperexcitability and epileptogenicity of malformations of cortical development.

  11. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying human epileptic disorders and the process of epileptogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly emerging science of epigenetics and epigenomic medicine promises to reveal novel insights into the susceptibility to and the onset and progression of epileptic disorders. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are now implicated in orchestrating aspects of neural development (e.g., cell fate specification and maturation), homeostasis and stress responses (e.g., immediate early gene transcription), and neural network function (e.g., excitation-inhibition coupling and activity-dependent p...

  12. [Effect of citicoline on the development of chronic epileptization of the brain (pentylenetetrazole kindling) and acute seizures reaction of kindled mice C57Bl/6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetzova, L V; Karpova, M N; Zinkovsky, K A; Klishina, N V

    2014-01-01

    In experiments on mice C57Bl/6 was studied effects of citicoline (500 mg/kg, i.p.) on development of chronically epileptization of the brain--pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling (30 mg/kg PTZ, i.p. during 24 days) and on acute generalized seizures (i.v., 1% solution of PTZ with the speed of 0.01 ml/s). It was shown that daily injection of citicoline an hour before the introduction of PTZ had no effect on development of chronically epileptization of the brain --PTZ-kindling (the latency of seizures appearance and their severity). However, citicoIine posses anticonvulsive effects on acute seizures in kindled mice. In animals with increased seizure susceptibility of the brain caused by kindling and severity of seizures 2-3 points injection citicoline after 14 days of kindling had anticonvulsive effect, increasing the threshold clonic seizures. Injection of citicoline during 24 days of kindled animals and severity of seizures 3-5 points caused the increase of thresholds as clonic and tonic phase of seizures with lethal outcome. Thus, the anticonvulsant effect of citicoline more pronounced in the long-term use.

  13. Complex dynamics of epileptic EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannathal, N; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan K; Choo Min, Lim

    2004-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) - the recorded representation of electrical activity of the brain contain useful information about the state of the brain. Recent studies indicate that nonlinear methods can extract valuable information from neuronal dynamics. We compare the dynamical properties of EEG signals of healthy subjects with epileptic subjects using nonlinear time series analysis techniques. Chaotic invariants like correlation dimension (D2) , largest Lyapunov exponent (lambda1), Hurst exponent (H) and Kolmogorov entropy (K) are used to characterize the signal. Our study showed clear differences in dynamical properties of brain electrical activity of the normal and epileptic subjects with a confidence level of more than 90%. Furthermore to support this claim fractal dimension (FD) analysis is performed. The results indicate reduction in value of FD for epileptic EEG indicating reduction in system complexity.

  14. A novel genetic programming approach for epileptic seizure detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Arpit; Tiwari, Aruna; Krishna, Ramesh; Varma, Vishaal

    2016-02-01

    The human brain is a delicate mix of neurons (brain cells), electrical impulses and chemicals, known as neurotransmitters. Any damage has the potential to disrupt the workings of the brain and cause seizures. These epileptic seizures are the manifestations of epilepsy. The electroencephalograph (EEG) signals register average neuronal activity from the cerebral cortex and label changes in activity over large areas. A detailed analysis of these electroencephalograph (EEG) signals provides valuable insights into the mechanisms instigating epileptic disorders. Moreover, the detection of interictal spikes and epileptic seizures in an EEG signal plays an important role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Automatic seizure detection methods are required, as these epileptic seizures are volatile and unpredictable. This paper deals with an automated detection of epileptic seizures in EEG signals using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for feature extraction and proposes a novel genetic programming (GP) approach for classifying the EEG signals. Improvements in the standard GP approach are made using a Constructive Genetic Programming (CGP) in which constructive crossover and constructive subtree mutation operators are introduced. A hill climbing search is integrated in crossover and mutation operators to remove the destructive nature of these operators. A new concept of selecting the Globally Prime offspring is also presented to select the best fitness offspring generated during crossover. To decrease the time complexity of GP, a new dynamic fitness value computation (DFVC) is employed to increase the computational speed. We conducted five different sets of experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed model in the classification of different mixtures of normal, interictal and ictal signals, and the accuracies achieved are outstandingly high. The experimental results are compared with the existing methods on same datasets, and these results affirm the potential use of

  15. High-frequency brain networks undergo modular breakdown during epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertinger, Stefan; Simonyan, Kristina; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini D; Hamzei-Sichani, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Cortical high-frequency oscillations (HFOs; 100-500 Hz) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy; however, whether they represent a true epileptogenic process remains largely unknown. HFOs have been recorded in the human cortex but their network dynamics during the transitional period from interictal to ictal phase remain largely unknown. We sought to determine the high-frequency network dynamics of these oscillations in patients with epilepsy who were undergoing intracranial electroencephalographic recording for seizure localization. We applied a graph theoretical analysis framework to high-resolution intracranial electroencephalographic recordings of 24 interictal and 24 seizure periods to identify the spatiotemporal evolution of community structure of high-frequency cortical networks at rest and during multiple seizure episodes in patients with intractable epilepsy. Cortical networks at all examined frequencies showed temporally stable community architecture in all 24 interictal periods. During seizure periods, high-frequency networks showed a significant breakdown of their community structure, which was characterized by the emergence of numerous small nodal communities, not limited to seizure foci and encompassing the entire recorded network. Such network disorganization was observed on average 225 s before the electrographic seizure onset and extended on average 190 s after termination of the seizure. Gamma networks were characterized by stable community dynamics during resting and seizure periods. Our findings suggest that the modular breakdown of high-frequency cortical networks represents a distinct functional pathology that underlies epileptogenesis and corresponds to a cortical state of highest propensity to generate seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Systems genetics identifies Sestrin 3 as a regulator of a proconvulsant gene network in human epileptic hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael R.; Rossetti, Tiziana; Speed, Doug; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Hajji, Nabil; Dabrowska, Aleksandra; Rotival, Maxime; Razzaghi, Banafsheh; Kovac, Stjepana; Wanisch, Klaus; Grillo, Federico W.; Slaviero, Anna; Langley, Sarah R.; Shkura, Kirill; Roncon, Paolo; De, Tisham; Mattheisen, Manuel; Niehusmann, Pitt; O’Brien, Terence J.; Petrovski, Slave; von Lehe, Marec; Hoffmann, Per; Eriksson, Johan; Coffey, Alison J.; Cichon, Sven; Walker, Matthew; Simonato, Michele; Danis, Bénédicte; Mazzuferi, Manuela; Foerch, Patrik; Schoch, Susanne; De Paola, Vincenzo; Kaminski, Rafal M.; Cunliffe, Vincent T.; Becker, Albert J.; Petretto, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Gene-regulatory network analysis is a powerful approach to elucidate the molecular processes and pathways underlying complex disease. Here we employ systems genetics approaches to characterize the genetic regulation of pathophysiological pathways in human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Using surgically acquired hippocampi from 129 TLE patients, we identify a gene-regulatory network genetically associated with epilepsy that contains a specialized, highly expressed transcriptional module encoding proconvulsive cytokines and Toll-like receptor signalling genes. RNA sequencing analysis in a mouse model of TLE using 100 epileptic and 100 control hippocampi shows the proconvulsive module is preserved across-species, specific to the epileptic hippocampus and upregulated in chronic epilepsy. In the TLE patients, we map the trans-acting genetic control of this proconvulsive module to Sestrin 3 (SESN3), and demonstrate that SESN3 positively regulates the module in macrophages, microglia and neurons. Morpholino-mediated Sesn3 knockdown in zebrafish confirms the regulation of the transcriptional module, and attenuates chemically induced behavioural seizures in vivo. PMID:25615886

  17. Epileptic Encephalopathies in Adults and Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiye Kural

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epileptic encephalopathies are motor-mental retardations or cognitive disorders secondary to epileptic seizures or epileptiform activities. Encephalopaties due to brain damage, medications, or systemic diseases are generally not in the scope of this definition, but they may rarely accompany the condition. Appropriate differential diagnosis of epileptic seizures as well as subclinical electroencephalographic discharges are crucial for management of seizures and epileptiform discharges and relative regression of cognitive deterioration in long-term followup. Proper antiepileptic drug, hormonal treatment, or i.v. immunoglobulin choice play major role in prognosis. In this paper, we evaluated the current treatment approaches by reviewing clinical electrophysiological characteristics of epileptic encephalopathies.

  18. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  19. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  20. Shannon entropies of the distributions of various electroencephalograms from epileptic humans

    CERN Document Server

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2009-01-01

    1) Harmonic oscillations (HO) in numerous electroencephalograms (EEG) from different humans are introduced. 2) The probability density functions (PDF, p(X)) of the EEG voltages (X) are normal (Gauss) for OO whereas, the plots for the distributions of HO (pure) are convex. Gaussians for OO may turn to be convex as HO become dominant in MO or vice versa. However, distributions of the most of the data are found normal which means that most of the EEG oscillations consist of OO (or MO). 3) Shannon entropies (information measures) of the distributions of the data from different brain regions in the ictal intervals or inter-ictal intervals are calculated for each individual recording and compared. The averages of Shannon entropies over the individual recordings during the ictal intervals come out bigger than those from the inter-ictal intervals. These averages are found to be bigger for the data from epileptogenic brain areas than those recorded from non epileptogenic ones in different intervals.

  1. Human Brain and Its Size

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国如

    2006-01-01

    @@ Two studies suggest that the human brain continues to change through the process of evolution.The findings conflict with a common belief that the brain has evolved about as much as it ever will.Scientists say modern humans developed about two hundred thousand years ago.Bruce Lahn of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the University of Chicago led the studies.The findings appeared in Science magazine.

  2. Pregnane X Receptor Not Nuclear Factor-kappa B Up-regulates P-glycoprotein Expression in the Brain of Chronic Epileptic Rats Induced by Kainic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nian; Zhang, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Kang; Cheng, Yong-Fei; Ma, Hai-Yan; Di, Qing

    2017-03-16

    Drug-resistance epilepsy (DRE) is attributed to the brain P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression. We previously reported that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) played a critical role in regulating P-gp expression at the brain of the acute seizure rats. This study was extended further to investigate the interaction effect of NF-κB and pregnane X receptor (PXR) on P-gp expression at the brain of chronic epileptic rats treated with carbamazepine (CBZ). The chronic epileptic models were induced by the micro-injection of kainic acid (KA) into rats' hippocampus. Subsequently, the successful models were treated with different intervention agents of CBZ; PMA(a non-specific PXR activity inhibitor) or PDTC(a specific NF-κB activity inhibitor) respectively. The expression levels of P-gp and its encoded gene mdr1a/b were significantly up-regulated on the brain of KA-induced chronic epilepsy rats or the epilepsy rats treated with CBZ for 1 week, meanwhile with a high expression of PXR. The treatment of PMA dramatically reduced both PXR and P-gp expressions at the protein and mRNA levels in the chronic epilepsy brain. By compared to the epilepsy model group, the P-gp expression was not markedly attenuated by the inhibition of NF-κB activity with PDTC treatment, nevertheless with a decrease of NF-κB expression in this intervention group. Higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines(IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) were found both in the brain tissue and the serum in the epilepsy rats of each group. There was a declined trend of the pro-inflammatory cytokines expression of the PDTC treatment group but with no statistical significance. This study demonstrates for the first time that P-gp up-regulation is due to increase PXR expression in the chronic phase of epilepsy, differently from that NF-κB signaling may induce the P-gp expression in the acute seizure phase. Our results offer insights into the mechanism underlying the development of DRE using or not using CBZ treatment.

  3. Predicting Tissue Breaking Strengths in the Epileptic Brain with T2 Relaxometry: Application of Pulsed Water Jet Dissection System for Epilepsy Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoko; Iwasaki, Masaki; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Sato, Shiho; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-11-30

    Background The piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) system is a novel surgical instrument that enables dissection of tissue without thermal damage. Using the ADPJ system in epilepsy surgery requires prediction of the tissue breaking strength of the epileptic brain. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxometry could predict the breaking strength. Methods A total of 12 patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy who received surgical treatment were included in the study. All the patients qualified for surgery after a comprehensive preoperative evaluation for the treatment of epilepsy. T2 relaxation time, breaking strength of the hippocampus, and an anterior temporal lobe specimen obtained from surgery with dissection depth determined by the ADPJ system were examined. Results Preoperative T2 relaxation times of the anterior temporal lobe and hippocampus showed mild positive correlation with breaking strength (R(2 )= 0.60). The hippocampus showed higher T2 relaxation time than the temporal lobe. Hippocampal sclerosis seemed to have higher breaking strength than other pathologies, suggesting the correlation depends on the anatomical location and histopathology. The dissection depth of the extirpated lesion was negatively correlated with the breaking strength at input voltages of 10 V (R(2 )= - 0.34) and 20 V (R(2 )= - 0.20). Conclusions T2 relaxometry may be useful to predict tissue breaking strength in the epileptic brain that allows safe application of the ADPJ system in epilepsy surgery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. 癫痫脑电的递归确定性分析%Analysis of recurrence determination for epileptic brain electric signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红利; 王江; 邓斌; 魏熙乐

    2013-01-01

    This paper used the method of order recurrence plot to analyze the determination( DET) of epileptic brain electrical signals. The results show that DET of epileptic scalp brain electric signals ( EEG) is higher than the ones of healthy EEG. And the difference of DET is more obvious in some partial electrodes. DET of these partial electrodes could be used as features to auto-diagnose epilepsy. Then it conducted analysis of DET for electrocorticogram ( ECoG) during a seizure and that during a seizure-free interval. The results show there is no significant difference for determination in the whole band. However, DET during a seizure is obviously higher than that during a seizure-free interval in beta band. Changes of DET in beta band could be used to predict epilepsy seizure. The research results provide a theoretical basis for auto-diagnosis of epilepsy and seizure prediction.%利用排序递归图的分析方法对癫痫脑电进行了确定性(DET)的分析,得出癫痫头皮脑电(EEG)的DET高于健康EEG.DET特征的差异性在局部导联上更明显,局部导联的DET特征可以作为癫痫疾病的自动诊断特征.通过分析发作阶段和发作间隙皮层脑电(ECoG)的DET,得出整个频带的DET差别不大,而在beta频带,发作阶段的确定性明显高于发作间隙的DET.Beta频带的DET特征可以作为癫痫发作的预测特征.研究结果为癫痫疾病的自动诊断和癫痫发作预测提供了理论依据.

  5. Localization of spatially distributed brain sources after a tensor-based preprocessing of interictal epileptic EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albera, L; Becker, H; Karfoul, A; Gribonval, R; Kachenoura, A; Bensaid, S; Senhadji, L; Hernandez, A; Merlet, I

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the localization of spatially distributed sources from interictal epileptic electroencephalographic data after a tensor-based preprocessing. Justifying the Canonical Polyadic (CP) model of the space-time-frequency and space-time-wave-vector tensors is not an easy task when two or more extended sources have to be localized. On the other hand, the occurrence of several amplitude modulated spikes originating from the same epileptic region can be used to build a space-time-spike tensor from the EEG data. While the CP model of this tensor appears more justified, the exact computation of its loading matrices can be limited by the presence of highly correlated sources or/and a strong background noise. An efficient extended source localization scheme after the tensor-based preprocessing has then to be set up. Different strategies are thus investigated and compared on realistic simulated data: the "disk algorithm" using a precomputed dictionary of circular patches, a standardized Tikhonov regularization and a fused LASSO scheme.

  6. Neural Dynamics Underlying Target Detection in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Arjun K.; Madhavan, Radhika; Agam, Yigal; Golby, Alexandra; Madsen, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory signals must be interpreted in the context of goals and tasks. To detect a target in an image, the brain compares input signals and goals to elicit the correct behavior. We examined how target detection modulates visual recognition signals by recording intracranial field potential responses from 776 electrodes in 10 epileptic human subjects. We observed reliable differences in the physiological responses to stimuli when a cued target was present versus absent. Goal-related modulation was particularly strong in the inferior temporal and fusiform gyri, two areas important for object recognition. Target modulation started after 250 ms post stimulus, considerably after the onset of visual recognition signals. While broadband signals exhibited increased or decreased power, gamma frequency power showed predominantly increases during target presence. These observations support models where task goals interact with sensory inputs via top-down signals that influence the highest echelons of visual processing after the onset of selective responses. PMID:24553944

  7. Genetic basis of human brain evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Vallender, Eric J.; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Lahn, Bruce T

    2008-01-01

    Human evolution is characterized by a rapid increase in brain size and complexity. Decades of research have made important strides in identifying anatomical and physiological substrates underlying the unique features of the human brain. By contrast, it has become possible only very recently to examine the genetic basis of human brain evolution. Through comparative genomics, tantalizing insights regarding human brain evolution have emerged. The genetic changes that potentially underlie human b...

  8. Fractal Dimension in Epileptic EEG Signal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayakumar, R.

    Fractal Analysis is the well developed theory in the data analysis of non-linear time series. Especially Fractal Dimension is a powerful mathematical tool for modeling many physical and biological time signals with high complexity and irregularity. Fractal dimension is a suitable tool for analyzing the nonlinear behaviour and state of the many chaotic systems. Particularly in analysis of chaotic time series such as electroencephalograms (EEG), this feature has been used to identify and distinguish specific states of physiological function.Epilepsy is the main fatal neurological disorder in our brain, which is analyzed by the biomedical signal called Electroencephalogram (EEG). The detection of Epileptic seizures in the EEG Signals is an important tool in the diagnosis of epilepsy. So we made an attempt to analyze the EEG in depth for knowing the mystery of human consciousness. EEG has more fluctuations recorded from the human brain due to the spontaneous electrical activity. Hence EEG Signals are represented as Fractal Time Series.The algorithms of fractal dimension methods have weak ability to the estimation of complexity in the irregular graphs. Divider method is widely used to obtain the fractal dimension of curves embedded into a 2-dimensional space. The major problem is choosing initial and final step length of dividers. We propose a new algorithm based on the size measure relationship (SMR) method, quantifying the dimensional behaviour of irregular rectifiable graphs with minimum time complexity. The evidence for the suitability (equality with the nature of dimension) of the algorithm is illustrated graphically.We would like to demonstrate the criterion for the selection of dividers (minimum and maximum value) in the calculation of fractal dimension of the irregular curves with minimum time complexity. For that we design a new method of computing fractal dimension (FD) of biomedical waveforms. Compared to Higuchi's algorithm, advantages of this method include

  9. Voltage synchronizations between multichannel electroencephalograms during epileptic seizures

    CERN Document Server

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    The underlying dynamics for the electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from humans but especially epilepsy patients are usually not completely known. However, the ictal activity is claimed to be characterized by synchronous oscillations in the brain voltages in the literature. These time dependent interdependencies (synchronization, coupling) between the EEG voltages from epileptogenic and non epileptogenic brain sites of nineteen focal epileptic patients are investigated in this work. It is found that strong synchronizationdesynchronization events occur in alternation during most of the investigated seizures. Thus, these seizures are detected with considerable sensitivity (71 of the 79 seizures).

  10. HMGB1 Contributes to the Expression of P-Glycoprotein in Mouse Epileptic Brain through Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 in the seizure-induced P-glycoprotein (P-gp overexpression and the underlying mechanism. Kainic acid (KA-induced mouse seizure model was used for in vivo experiments. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: normal saline control (NS group, KA-induced epileptic seizure (EP group, and EP group pretreated with HMGB1 (EP+HMGB1 group or BoxA (HMGB1 antagonist, EP+BoxA group. Compared to the NS group, increased levels of HMGB1 and P-gp in the brain were observed in the EP group. Injection of HMGB1 before the induction of KA further increased the expression of P-gp while pre-treatment with BoxA abolished this up-regulation. Next, the regulatory role of HMGB1 and its potential involved signal pathways were investigated in mouse microvascular endothelial bEnd.3 cells in vitro. Cells were treated with HMGB1, HMGB1 plus lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (LPS-RS [toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 antagonist], HMGB1 plus FPS-ZM1 [receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE inhibitor], HMGB1 plus SN50 [nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB inhibitor], or vehicle. Treatment with HMGB1 increased the expression levels of P-gp, TLR4, RAGE and the activation of NF-κB in bEnd.3 cells. These effects were inhibited by the pre-treatment with either LPS-RS or FPS-ZM1, and were abolished by the pre-treatment of SN50 or a combination treatment of both LPS-RS and FPS-ZM1. Luciferase reporter assays showed that exogenous expression of NF-κB p65 increased the promoter activity of multidrug resistance 1a (P-gp-encoding gene in endothelial cells. These data indicate that HMGB1 contributes to the overexpression of P-gp in mouse epileptic brain tissues via activation of TLR4/RAGE receptors and the downstream transcription factor NF-κB in brain microvascular endothelial cells.

  11. How Sleep Activates Epileptic Networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Halász

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relationship between sleep and epilepsy has been long ago studied, and several excellent reviews are available. However, recent development in sleep research, the network concept in epilepsy, and the recognition of high frequency oscillations in epilepsy and more new results may put this matter in a new light. Aim. The review address the multifold interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy networks and with networks of cognitive functions. Material and Methods. The work is a conceptual update of the available clinical data and relevant studies. Results and Conclusions. Studies exploring dynamic microstructure of sleep have found important gating mechanisms for epileptic activation. As a general rule interictal epileptic manifestations seem to be linked to the slow oscillations of sleep and especially to the reactive delta bouts characterized by A1 subtype in the CAP system. Important link between epilepsy and sleep is the interference of epileptiform discharges with the plastic functions in NREM sleep. This is the main reason of cognitive impairment in different forms of early epileptic encephalopathies affecting the brain in a special developmental window. The impairment of cognitive functions via sleep is present especially in epileptic networks involving the thalamocortical system and the hippocampocortical memory encoding system.

  12. International veterinary epilepsy task force recommendations for systematic sampling and processing of brains from epileptic dogs and cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matiasek, Kaspar; Pumarola I Batlle, Martí; Rosati, Marco

    2015-01-01

    and therefore increase the efficacy, reliability and reproducibility of morphological studies in animals suffering from seizures.Brain dissection protocols of two neuropathological centres with research focus in epilepsy have been optimised with regards to their diagnostic yield and accuracy......, their practicability and their feasibility concerning clinical research requirements.The recommended guidelines allow for easy, standardised and ubiquitous collection of brain regions, relevant for seizure generation. Tissues harvested the prescribed way will increase the diagnostic efficacy and provide reliable...

  13. Sexual differences of human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades there has been an increasing interest in studying the differences between males and females. These differences extend from behavioral to cognitive to micro- and macro- neuro-anatomical aspects of human biology. There have been many methods to evaluate these differences and explain their determinants. The most studied cause of this dimorphism is the prenatal sex hormones and their organizational effect on brain and behavior. However, there have been new and recent attentions to hormone's activational influences in puberty and also the effects of genomic imprinting. In this paper, we reviewed the sex differences of brain, the evidences for possible determinants of these differences and also the methods that have been used to discover them. We reviewed the most conspicuous findings with specific attention to macro-anatomical differences based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI data. We finally reviewed the findings and the many opportunities for future studies.

  14. [Molecular imaging of histamine receptors in the human brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Manabu; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Brain histamine is involved in a wide range of physiological functions such as regulation of sleep-wake cycle, arousal, appetite control, cognition, learning and memory mainly through the 4 receptor subtypes: H1, H2, H3 and H4. Neurons producing histamine, histaminergic neurons, are exclusively located in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus and are transmitting histamine to almost all regions of the brain. Roles of brain histamine have been studied using animals including knock-out mice and human subjects. For clinical studies, molecular imaging technique such as positron emission tomography (PET), with ligands such as [11C]doxepin and [11C]pyrilamine, has been a useful tool. A series of clinical studies on histamine H1 antagonists, or antihistamines, have demonstrated that antihistamines can be classified into sedative, mildly-sedative and non-sedative drugs according to their blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, showing apparent clinical usefulness regarding QOL, work efficiency and traffic safety of allergic patients. PET has also been used for elucidation of aging effects and pathophysiological roles of histaminergic nervous system in various neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and depression, where H1 receptor binding potentials were lower than age-matched healthy controls. It has been also demonstrated that brain histamine functions as an endogenous anti-epileptic. In addition, H3 receptors are located in the presynaptic sites of not only histaminergic nerves but also in other nervous systems such as serotonergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic systems, and to be regulating secretion of various neurotransmitters. Nowadays, H3 receptors have been thought to be a new target of drug treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders. There are still many research topics to be investigated regarding molecular imaging of histamine and histamine receptors. The authors hope that this line of research contributes

  15. Is phosphorylated tau unique to chronic traumatic encephalopathy? Phosphorylated tau in epileptic brain and chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvenna, Vikram; Engeler, Madeline; Banjara, Manoj; Brennan, Chanda; Schreiber, Peter; Dadas, Aaron; Bahrami, Ashkon; Solanki, Jesal; Bandyopadhyay, Anasua; Morris, Jacqueline K; Bernick, Charles; Ghosh, Chaitali; Rapp, Edward; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Janigro, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive traumatic brain injury (rTBI) is one of the major risk factors for the abnormal deposition of phosphorylated tau (PT) in the brain and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affect the limbic system, but no comparative studies on PT distribution in TLE and CTE are available. It is also unclear whether PT pathology results from repeated head hits (rTBI). These gaps prevent a thorough understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical significance of PT, limiting our ability to develop preventative and therapeutic interventions. We quantified PT in TLE and CTE to unveil whether a history of rTBI is a prerequisite for PT accumulation in the brain. Six postmortem CTE (mean 73.3 years) and age matched control samples were compared to 19 surgically resected TLE brain specimens (4 months-58 years; mean 27.6 years). No history of TBI was present in TLE or control; all CTE patients had a history of rTBI. TLE and CTE brain displayed increased levels of PT as revealed by immunohistochemistry. No age-dependent changes were noted, as PT was present as early as 4 months after birth. In TLE and CTE, cortical neurons, perivascular regions around penetrating pial vessels and meninges were immunopositive for PT; white matter tracts also displayed robust expression of extracellular PT organized in bundles parallel to venules. Microscopically, there were extensive tau-immunoreactive neuronal, astrocytic and degenerating neurites throughout the brain. In CTE perivascular tangles were most prominent. Overall, significant differences in staining intensities were found between CTE and control (Pbrain contained low molecular weight tau. Tau deposition may not be specific to rTBI since TLE recapitulated most of the pathological features of CTE.

  16. TNF-Overexpression in Borna Disease Virus-Infected Mouse Brains Triggers Inflammatory Reaction and Epileptic Seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Katharina; Schaudien, Dirk; Eisel, Ulrich L. M.; Herzog, Sibylle; Richt, Juergen A.; Baumgaertner, Wolfgang; Herden, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Proinflammatory state of the brain increases the risk for seizure development. Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV)-infection of mice with neuronal overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) was used to investigate the complex relationship between enhanced cytokine levels, neurotropic virus i

  17. Firing behavior and network activity of single neurons in human epileptic hypothalamic hamartoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N. Steinmetz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Human hypothalamic hamartomas (HH are intrinsically epileptogenic and are associated with treatment-resistant gelastic seizures. The basic cellular mechanisms responsible for seizure onset within HH are unknown. We used intra-operative microwire recordings of single neuron activity to measure the spontaneous firing rate of neurons and the degree of functional connection between neurons within the tumor.Technique: Fourteen patients underwent transventricular endoscopic resection of HH for treatment-resistant epilepsy. Prior to surgical resection, single neuron recordings from bundled microwires (total of 9 contacts were obtained from HH tissue. Spontaneous activity was recorded for two or three 5-minute epochs under steady-state general anesthesia. Off-line analysis included cluster analysis of single unit activity and probability analysis of firing relationships between pairs of neurons.Results: Altogether, 222 neurons were identified (mean 6 neurons per recording epoch. Cluster analysis of single neuron firing utilizing a mixture of Gaussians model identified two distinct populations on the basis of firing rate (median firing frequency 0.6 versus 15.0 spikes per second; p<10-5. Cluster analysis identified three populations determined by levels of burst-firing (median burst indices of 0.015, 0.18, and 0.39; p<10-15. Unbiased analysis of spontaneous single unit behavior showed that 51% of all possible neuron pairs within each recording epoch had a significant level of firing synchrony (p<10-15. The subgroup of neurons with higher median firing frequencies was more likely to demonstrate synchronous firing (p<10-7. Conclusions: HH tissue in-vivo contains neurons which fire spontaneously. The activity of single neurons is diverse but distributes into at least two electrophysiological phenoytpes. Functional linkage between single neurons suggests that HH neurons exist within local networks that may contribute to ictogenesis.

  18. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Matthijs L; Newman-Norlund, Sarah E; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Levinson, Stephen C; Toni, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the "mirror neurons system"). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender) and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver) relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus). The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  19. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs L Noordzij

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”. However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus. The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  20. Genetic basis of human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallender, Eric J; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Lahn, Bruce T

    2008-12-01

    Human evolution is characterized by a rapid increase in brain size and complexity. Decades of research have made important strides in identifying anatomical and physiological substrates underlying the unique features of the human brain. By contrast, it has become possible only very recently to examine the genetic basis of human brain evolution. Through comparative genomics, tantalizing insights regarding human brain evolution have emerged. The genetic changes that potentially underlie human brain evolution span a wide range from single-nucleotide substitutions to large-scale structural alterations of the genome. Similarly, the functional consequences of these genetic changes vary greatly, including protein-sequence alterations, cis-regulatory changes and even the emergence of new genes and the extinction of existing ones. Here, we provide a general review of recent findings into the genetic basis of human brain evolution, highlight the most notable trends that have emerged and caution against over-interpretation of current data.

  1. Human Brain Reacts to Transcranial Extraocular Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lihua; Peräkylä, Jari; Kovalainen, Anselmi; Ogawa, Keith H; Karhunen, Pekka J; Hartikainen, Kaisa M

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial extraocular light affects the brains of birds and modulates their seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. However, whether the human brain is sensitive to extraocular light is unknown. To test whether extraocular light has any effect on human brain functioning, we measured brain electrophysiology of 18 young healthy subjects using event-related potentials while they performed a visual attention task embedded with emotional distractors. Extraocular light delivered via ear canals abolished normal emotional modulation of attention related brain responses. With no extraocular light delivered, emotional distractors reduced centro-parietal P300 amplitude compared to neutral distractors. This phenomenon disappeared with extraocular light delivery. Extraocular light delivered through the ear canals was shown to penetrate at the base of the scull of a cadaver. Thus, we have shown that extraocular light impacts human brain functioning calling for further research on the mechanisms of action of light on the human brain.

  2. To study the oxidative stress induced by lindane in epileptic rats brains and their modulation by neurosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Tanwar

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The result of the present study provides evidence that oxidative stress produced in the brain after chronic exposure of lindane may be the mechanism of epileptogenesis. Though NS have been shown to be neuroprotective, but they failed to reverse chronic oxidative stress produced by lindane. Further studies are required to demonstrate interaction of NS with lindane in oxidative stress. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 389-394

  3. Standardized Environmental Enrichment Supports Enhanced Brain Plasticity in Healthy Rats and Prevents Cognitive Impairment in Epileptic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchi, Hayet Y.; Bodennec, Jacques; Morales, Anne; Georges, Béatrice; Bonnet, Chantal; Bouvard, Sandrine; Sloviter, Robert S.; Bezin, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage), which offers: (1) minimally stressful social interactions; (2) increased voluntary exercise; (3) multiple entertaining activities; (4) cognitive stimulation (maze exploration), and (5) novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week). The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories. PMID:23342033

  4. Standardized environmental enrichment supports enhanced brain plasticity in healthy rats and prevents cognitive impairment in epileptic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat P Fares

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage, which offers: (1 minimally stressful social interactions; (2 increased voluntary exercise; (3 multiple entertaining activities; (4 cognitive stimulation (maze exploration, and (5 novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week. The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories.

  5. Brain evolution and human neuropsychology: the inferential brain hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Timothy R; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. (JINS, 2012, 18, 394-401).

  6. The epileptic thalamocortical network is a macroscopic self-sustained oscillator: evidence from frequency-locking experiments in rat brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, J L Perez; Erra, R Guevara; Rosenblum, M

    2015-02-12

    The rhythmic activity observed in nervous systems, in particular in epilepsies and Parkinson's disease, has often been hypothesized to originate from a macroscopic self-sustained neural oscillator. However, this assumption has not been tested experimentally. Here we support this viewpoint with in vivo experiments in a rodent model of absence seizures, by demonstrating frequency locking to external periodic stimuli and finding the characteristic Arnold tongue. This result has important consequences for developing methods for the control of brain activity, such as seizure cancellation.

  7. Mouse models of human PIK3CA-related brain overgrowth have acutely treatable epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Achira; Skibo, Jonathan; Kalume, Franck; Ni, Jing; Rankin, Sherri; Lu, Yiling; Dobyns, William B; Mills, Gordon B; Zhao, Jean J; Baker, Suzanne J; Millen, Kathleen J

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3CA) and other PI3K-AKT pathway components have been associated with cancer and a wide spectrum of brain and body overgrowth. In the brain, the phenotypic spectrum of PIK3CA-related segmental overgrowth includes bilateral dysplastic megalencephaly, hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia, the most common cause of intractable pediatric epilepsy. We generated mouse models expressing the most common activating Pik3ca mutations (H1047R and E545K) in developing neural progenitors. These accurately recapitulate all the key human pathological features including brain enlargement, cortical malformation, hydrocephalus and epilepsy, with phenotypic severity dependent on the mutant allele and its time of activation. Underlying mechanisms include increased proliferation, cell size and altered white matter. Notably, we demonstrate that acute 1 hr-suppression of PI3K signaling despite the ongoing presence of dysplasia has dramatic anti-epileptic benefit. Thus PI3K inhibitors offer a promising new avenue for effective anti-epileptic therapy for intractable pediatric epilepsy patients. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12703.001 PMID:26633882

  8. Brain Evolution and Human Neuropsychology: The Inferential Brain Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the the...

  9. Computational Intelligence in a Human Brain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Gaftea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current trends in brain research domain and the current stage of development of research for software and hardware solutions, communication capabilities between: human beings and machines, new technologies, nano-science and Internet of Things (IoT devices. The proposed model for Human Brain assumes main similitude between human intelligence and the chess game thinking process. Tactical & strategic reasoning and the need to follow the rules of the chess game, all are very similar with the activities of the human brain. The main objective for a living being and the chess game player are the same: securing a position, surviving and eliminating the adversaries. The brain resolves these goals, and more, the being movement, actions and speech are sustained by the vital five senses and equilibrium. The chess game strategy helps us understand the human brain better and easier replicate in the proposed ‘Software and Hardware’ SAH Model.

  10. Computational Intelligence in a Human Brain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Gaftea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current trends in brain research domain and the current stage of development of research for software and hardware solutions, communication capabilities between: human beings and machines, new technologies, nano-science and Internet of Things (IoT devices. The proposed model for Human Brain assumes main similitude between human intelligence and the chess game thinking process. Tactical & strategic reasoning and the need to follow the rules of the chess game, all are very similar with the activities of the human brain. The main objective for a living being and the chess game player are the same: securing a position, surviving and eliminating the adversaries. The brain resolves these goals, and more, the being movement, actions and speech are sustained by the vital five senses and equilibrium. The chess game strategy helps us understand the human brain better and easier replicate in the proposed ‘Software and Hardware’ SAH Model.

  11. Wavelet analysis of epileptic spikes

    CERN Document Server

    Latka, M; Kozik, A; West, B J; Latka, Miroslaw; Was, Ziemowit; Kozik, Andrzej; West, Bruce J.

    2003-01-01

    Interictal spikes and sharp waves in human EEG are characteristic signatures of epilepsy. These potentials originate as a result of synchronous, pathological discharge of many neurons. The reliable detection of such potentials has been the long standing problem in EEG analysis, especially after long-term monitoring became common in investigation of epileptic patients. The traditional definition of a spike is based on its amplitude, duration, sharpness, and emergence from its background. However, spike detection systems built solely around this definition are not reliable due to the presence of numerous transients and artifacts. We use wavelet transform to analyze the properties of EEG manifestations of epilepsy. We demonstrate that the behavior of wavelet transform of epileptic spikes across scales can constitute the foundation of a relatively simple yet effective detection algorithm.

  12. Wavelet analysis of epileptic spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latka, Miroslaw; Was, Ziemowit; Kozik, Andrzej; West, Bruce J.

    2003-05-01

    Interictal spikes and sharp waves in human EEG are characteristic signatures of epilepsy. These potentials originate as a result of synchronous pathological discharge of many neurons. The reliable detection of such potentials has been the long standing problem in EEG analysis, especially after long-term monitoring became common in investigation of epileptic patients. The traditional definition of a spike is based on its amplitude, duration, sharpness, and emergence from its background. However, spike detection systems built solely around this definition are not reliable due to the presence of numerous transients and artifacts. We use wavelet transform to analyze the properties of EEG manifestations of epilepsy. We demonstrate that the behavior of wavelet transform of epileptic spikes across scales can constitute the foundation of a relatively simple yet effective detection algorithm.

  13. Epileptic EEG: a comprehensive study of nonlinear behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshyari, Moayed; Kamkar, L Lily; Daneshyari, Matin

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the nonlinear properties of the electroencephalograph (EEG) signals are investigated by comparing two sets of EEG, one set for epileptic and another set for healthy brain activities. Adopting measures of nonlinear theory such as Lyapunov exponent, correlation dimension, Hurst exponent, fractal dimension, and Kolmogorov entropy, the chaotic behavior of these two sets is quantitatively computed. The statistics for the two groups of all measures demonstrate the differences between the normal healthy group and epileptic one. The statistical results along with phase-space diagram verify that brain under epileptic seizures possess limited trajectory in the state space than in healthy normal state, consequently behaves less chaotically compared to normal condition.

  14. Correlation of brain cell glucose metabolism and patient's condition in children with epileptic encephalopathy An assessment using fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiongxiang Zhai; Yuxiong Guo; Yuxin Zhang; Zhihong Chen; Jian Ding; Juan Gui; Ying Hao

    2011-01-01

    We examined a total of 16 children with epileptic encephalopathy using fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission computed tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography.Children with infantile spasms showed significant mental retardation, severely abnormal electroencephalogram recordings, and bilateral diffuse cerebral cortex hypometabolism with 18F-FDG PET imaging.MRI in these cases showed brain atrophy, multi-micropolygyria, macrogyria, and porencephalia.In cases with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, 18F-FDG PET showed bilateral diffuse glucose hypometabolism, while MRI showed cortical atrophy, heterotopic gray matter and tuberous sclerosis.MRI in cases with myoclonic encephalopathy demonstrated bilateral frontal and temporal cortical and white matter atrophy and 18F-FDG PET imaging showed bilateral frontal lobe atrophy with reduced bilateral frontal cortex, occipital cortex, temporal cortex and cerebellar glucose uptake.In children who could not be clearly classified, MRI demonstrated cerebral cortical atrophy and 18F-FDG PET exhibited multifocal glucose hypometabolism.Overall, this study demonstrated that the degree of brain metabolic abnormality was consistent with clinical seizure severity.In addition, 18F-FDG PET imaging after treatment was consistent with clinical outcomes.These findings indicate that 18F-FDG PET can be used to assess the severity of brain injury and prognosis in children with epileptic encephalopathy.

  15. [Semiology and propagation of epileptic seizures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellner, A-K; Fritsch, B

    2013-06-01

    The evaluation of episodic seizure-like symptoms is a common challenge in the neurologist's daily routine. The clinical signs (semiology) are the most important puzzle pieces to distinguish epileptic seizures from other episodic entities. Due to the often far-reaching health and social consequences of the diagnosis of epilepsy, the early and rigorous assessment of episodic symptoms by means of the patient history is important. This assessment is based on knowledge of the association of certain semiologies with epileptic syndromes and brain regions; however, certain limitations and pitfalls have to be considered. Typical propagation pathways of seizure activity determine the serial occurrence of semiological features and provide supplementary information.

  16. Male microchimerism in the human female brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F N Chan

    Full Text Available In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus. Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26, or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33. We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59 tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03 and concentration (p=0.06 of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.

  17. Lymphoreticular cells in human brain tumours and in normal brain.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation, using various rosetting assays of cell suspensions prepared by mechanical disaggregation or collagenase digestion, demonstrated lymphoreticular cells in human normal brain (cerebral cortex and cerebellum) and in malignant brain tumours. The study revealed T and B lymphocytes and their subsets (bearing receptors for Fc(IgG) and C3) in 5/14 glioma suspensions, comprising less than 15% of the cell population. Between 20-60% of cells in tumour suspensions morphologicall...

  18. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    2000-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly developing as a powerful, non-invasive tool for studying the human brain. A pulsed magnetic field creates current flow in the brain and can temporarily excite or inhibit specific areas. TMS of motor cortex can produce a muscle twitch or block movement; TMS of occipital cortex can produce visual phosphenes or scotomas. TMS can also alter the functioning of the brain beyond the time of stimulation, offering potential for therapy.

  19. Cl- conduction of GABA(A)-receptor complex of synaptic membranes of rat brain cortex after development of chronic epileptization of the brain (pharmacological kindling).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebrov, I G; Karpova, M N; Andreev, A A; Klishina, N Y; Kalinina, M V; Kusnetzova, L V

    2008-03-01

    Experiments on Wistar rats showed that basal and muscimol-induced 36Cl- entry into synaptoneurosomes isolated from the brain cortex decreased after kindling (30 mg/kg pentylenetetrazole intraperitoneally for 30 days) in animals with seizure severity score 4-5. Changes in Cl- conduction during kindling are discussed.

  20. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  1. Interoperable atlases of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amunts, K; Hawrylycz, M J; Van Essen, D C; Van Horn, J D; Harel, N; Poline, J-B; De Martino, F; Bjaalie, J G; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Dehaene, S; Valdes-Sosa, P; Thirion, B; Zilles, K; Hill, S L; Abrams, M B; Tass, P A; Vanduffel, W; Evans, A C; Eickhoff, S B

    2014-10-01

    The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of human brain mapping approaches at various spatial and temporal scales. Together, these have provided a large fundus of information on many different aspects of the human brain including micro- and macrostructural segregation, regional specialization of function, connectivity, and temporal dynamics. Atlases are central in order to integrate such diverse information in a topographically meaningful way. It is noteworthy, that the brain mapping field has been developed along several major lines such as structure vs. function, postmortem vs. in vivo, individual features of the brain vs. population-based aspects, or slow vs. fast dynamics. In order to understand human brain organization, however, it seems inevitable that these different lines are integrated and combined into a multimodal human brain model. To this aim, we held a workshop to determine the constraints of a multi-modal human brain model that are needed to enable (i) an integration of different spatial and temporal scales and data modalities into a common reference system, and (ii) efficient data exchange and analysis. As detailed in this report, to arrive at fully interoperable atlases of the human brain will still require much work at the frontiers of data acquisition, analysis, and representation. Among them, the latter may provide the most challenging task, in particular when it comes to representing features of vastly different scales of space, time and abstraction. The potential benefits of such endeavor, however, clearly outweigh the problems, as only such kind of multi-modal human brain atlas may provide a starting point from which the complex relationships between structure, function, and connectivity may be explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of a human brain transcriptome map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide transcriptome maps can provide tools to identify candidate genes that are over-expressed or silenced in certain disease tissue and increase our understanding of the structure and organization of the genome. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from the public dbEST and proprietary Incyte LifeSeq databases were used to derive a transcript map in conjunction with the working draft assembly of the human genome sequence. Results Examination of ESTs derived from brain tissues (excluding brain tumor tissues suggests that these genes are distributed on chromosomes in a non-random fashion. Some regions on the genome are dense with brain-enriched genes while some regions lack brain-enriched genes, suggesting a significant correlation between distribution of genes along the chromosome and tissue type. ESTs from brain tumor tissues have also been mapped to the human genome working draft. We reveal that some regions enriched in brain genes show a significant decrease in gene expression in brain tumors, and, conversely that some regions lacking in brain genes show an increased level of gene expression in brain tumors. Conclusions This report demonstrates a novel approach for tissue specific transcriptome mapping using EST-based quantitative assessment.

  3. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    The human brain releases a small amount of lactate at rest, and even an increase in arterial blood lactate during anesthesia does not provoke a net cerebral lactate uptake. However, during cerebral activation associated with exercise involving a marked increase in plasma lactate, the brain takes up...... suggests that lactate may partially replace glucose as a substrate for oxidation. Thus, the notion of the human brain as an obligatory glucose consumer is not without exceptions....... blockade but not with beta(1)-adrenergic blockade alone. Also, CMR decreases in response to epinephrine, suggesting that a beta(2)-adrenergic receptor mechanism enhances glucose and perhaps lactate transport across the blood-brain barrier. The pattern of CMR decrease under various forms of brain activation...

  4. The human brain: rewired and running hot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Todd M

    2011-05-01

    The past two decades have witnessed tremendous advances in noninvasive and postmortem neuroscientific techniques, advances that have made it possible, for the first time, to compare in detail the organization of the human brain to that of other primates. Studies comparing humans to chimpanzees and other great apes reveal that human brain evolution was not merely a matter of enlargement, but involved changes at all levels of organization that have been examined. These include the cellular and laminar organization of cortical areas; the higher order organization of the cortex, as reflected in the expansion of association cortex (in absolute terms, as well as relative to primary areas); the distribution of long-distance cortical connections; and hemispheric asymmetry. Additionally, genetic differences between humans and other primates have proven to be more extensive than previously thought, raising the possibility that human brain evolution involved significant modifications of neurophysiology and cerebral energy metabolism.

  5. Human brain evolution: insights from microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Todd M; Cáceres, Mario; Oldham, Michael C; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2004-11-01

    Several recent microarray studies have compared gene-expression patterns n humans, chimpanzees and other non-human primates to identify evolutionary changes that contribute to the distinctive cognitive and behavioural characteristics of humans. These studies support the surprising conclusion that the evolution of the human brain involved an upregulation of gene expression relative to non-human primates, a finding that could be relevant to understanding human cerebral physiology and function. These results show how genetic and genomic methods can shed light on the basis of human neural and cognitive specializations, and have important implications for neuroscience, anthropology and medicine.

  6. Epileptic networks studied with EEG-fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotman, Jean

    2008-01-01

    It is not easy to determine the location of the cerebral generators and the other brain regions that may be involved at the time of an epileptic spike seen in the scalp EEG. The possibility to combine EEG recording with functional MRI scanning (fMRI) opens the opportunity to uncover the regions of the brain showing changes in metabolism and blood flow in response to epileptic spikes seen in the EEG. These regions are presumably involved in the abnormal neuronal activity at the origin of epileptic discharges. This paper reviews the methodology involved in performing such studies, including the special techniques required for recording the EEG inside the scanner and the statistical issues in analyzing the fMRI signal. We then discuss the results obtained in patients with different types of focal epileptic disorders and in patients with primary generalized epilepsy. The results in general indicate that interictal epileptic discharges may affect brain areas well beyond the presumed region in which they are generated. The noninvasive nature of this method opens new horizons in the investigation of brain regions involved and affected by epileptic discharges.

  7. The Molecular Basis of Human Brain Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enard, Wolfgang

    2016-10-24

    Humans are a remarkable species, especially because of the remarkable properties of their brain. Since the split from the chimpanzee lineage, the human brain has increased three-fold in size and has acquired abilities for vocal learning, language and intense cooperation. To better understand the molecular basis of these changes is of great biological and biomedical interest. However, all the about 16 million fixed genetic changes that occurred during human evolution are fully correlated with all molecular, cellular, anatomical and behavioral changes that occurred during this time. Hence, as humans and chimpanzees cannot be crossed or genetically manipulated, no direct evidence for linking particular genetic and molecular changes to human brain evolution can be obtained. Here, I sketch a framework how indirect evidence can be obtained and review findings related to the molecular basis of human cognition, vocal learning and brain size. In particular, I discuss how a comprehensive comparative approach, leveraging cellular systems and genomic technologies, could inform the evolution of our brain in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic Causes of Epileptic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Yuezhou Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epileptic encephalopathy can be induced by inborn metabolic defects that may be rare individually but in aggregate represent a substantial clinical portion of child neurology. These may present with various epilepsy phenotypes including refractory neonatal seizures, early myoclonic encephalopathy, early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, infantile spasms, and generalized epilepsies which in particular include myoclonic seizures. There are varying degrees of treatability, but the outcome if untreated can often be catastrophic. The importance of early recognition cannot be overemphasized. This paper provides an overview of inborn metabolic errors associated with persistent brain disturbances due to highly active clinical or electrographic ictal activity. Selected diseases are organized by the defective molecule or mechanism and categorized as small molecule disorders (involving amino and organic acids, fatty acids, neurotransmitters, urea cycle, vitamers and cofactors, and mitochondria and large molecule disorders (including lysosomal storage disorders, peroxisomal disorders, glycosylation disorders, and leukodystrophies. Details including key clinical features, salient electrophysiological and neuroradiological findings, biochemical findings, and treatment options are summarized for prominent disorders in each category.

  9. Neurogenesis in a young dog with epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschensky, C M; Woolley, J S; Kipar, A; Herden, C

    2012-09-01

    Epileptic seizures can lead to various reactions in the brain, ranging from neuronal necrosis and glial cell activation to focal structural disorganization. Furthermore, increased hippocampal neurogenesis has been documented in rodent models of acute convulsions. This is a report of hippocampal neurogenesis in a dog with spontaneous epileptic seizures. A 16-week-old epileptic German Shepherd Dog had marked neuronal cell proliferation (up to 5 mitotic figures per high-power field and increased immunohistochemical expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen) in the dentate gyrus accompanied by microglial and astroglial activation. Some granule cells expressed doublecortin, a marker of immature neurons; mitotically active cells expressed neuronal nuclear antigen. No mitotic figures were found in the brain of age-matched control dogs. Whether increased neurogenesis represents a general reaction pattern of young epileptic dogs should be investigated.

  10. Human brain mapping: Experimental and computational approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.C.; George, J.S.; Schmidt, D.M.; Aine, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Sanders, J. [Albuquerque VA Medical Center, NM (US); Belliveau, J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This program developed project combined Los Alamos' and collaborators' strengths in noninvasive brain imaging and high performance computing to develop potential contributions to the multi-agency Human Brain Project led by the National Institute of Mental Health. The experimental component of the project emphasized the optimization of spatial and temporal resolution of functional brain imaging by combining: (a) structural MRI measurements of brain anatomy; (b) functional MRI measurements of blood flow and oxygenation; and (c) MEG measurements of time-resolved neuronal population currents. The computational component of the project emphasized development of a high-resolution 3-D volumetric model of the brain based on anatomical MRI, in which structural and functional information from multiple imaging modalities can be integrated into a single computational framework for modeling, visualization, and database representation.

  11. Human brain mapping: Experimental and computational approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.C.; George, J.S.; Schmidt, D.M.; Aine, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Sanders, J. [Albuquerque VA Medical Center, NM (US); Belliveau, J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This program developed project combined Los Alamos' and collaborators' strengths in noninvasive brain imaging and high performance computing to develop potential contributions to the multi-agency Human Brain Project led by the National Institute of Mental Health. The experimental component of the project emphasized the optimization of spatial and temporal resolution of functional brain imaging by combining: (a) structural MRI measurements of brain anatomy; (b) functional MRI measurements of blood flow and oxygenation; and (c) MEG measurements of time-resolved neuronal population currents. The computational component of the project emphasized development of a high-resolution 3-D volumetric model of the brain based on anatomical MRI, in which structural and functional information from multiple imaging modalities can be integrated into a single computational framework for modeling, visualization, and database representation.

  12. Transcriptional landscape of the prenatal human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy A; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Ebbert, Amanda; Riley, Zackery L; Royall, Joshua J; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James M; Bennet, Crissa; Bertagnolli, Darren; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cuhaciyan, Christine; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Dolbeare, Tim A; Facer, Benjamin A C; Feng, David; Fliss, Tim P; Gee, Garrett; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Benjamin W; Gu, Guangyu; Howard, Robert E; Jochim, Jayson M; Kuan, Chihchau L; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Lemon, Tracy A; Lesnar, Phil; McMurray, Bergen; Mastan, Naveed; Mosqueda, Nerick; Naluai-Cecchini, Theresa; Ngo, Nhan-Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D; Parry, Sheana E; Stevens, Allison; Pletikos, Mihovil; Reding, Melissa; Roll, Kate; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapouri, Sheila; Shapovalova, Nadiya V; Shen, Elaine H; Sjoquist, Nathan; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R; Smith, Michael; Sodt, Andy J; Williams, Derric; Zöllei, Lilla; Fischl, Bruce; Gerstein, Mark B; Geschwind, Daniel H; Glass, Ian A; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hevner, Robert F; Huang, Hao; Jones, Allan R; Knowles, James A; Levitt, Pat; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Dang, Chinh; Bernard, Amy; Hohmann, John G; Lein, Ed S

    2014-04-10

    The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is mainly determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. We describe an anatomically comprehensive atlas of the mid-gestational human brain, including de novo reference atlases, in situ hybridization, ultra-high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microarray analysis on highly discrete laser-microdissected brain regions. In developing cerebral cortex, transcriptional differences are found between different proliferative and post-mitotic layers, wherein laminar signatures reflect cellular composition and developmental processes. Cytoarchitectural differences between human and mouse have molecular correlates, including species differences in gene expression in subplate, although surprisingly we find minimal differences between the inner and outer subventricular zones even though the outer zone is expanded in humans. Both germinal and post-mitotic cortical layers exhibit fronto-temporal gradients, with particular enrichment in the frontal lobe. Finally, many neurodevelopmental disorder and human-evolution-related genes show patterned expression, potentially underlying unique features of human cortical formation. These data provide a rich, freely-accessible resource for understanding human brain development.

  13. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, M.L.; Newman-Norlund, S.E.; Ruiter, J.P.A. de; Hagoort, P.; Levinson, S.C.; Toni, I.

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the "mirror neurons system"). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we

  14. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Newman-Norlund, Sarah E.; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Levinson, Stephen C.; Toni, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we

  15. Human brain evolution writ large and small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Chet C; Bauernfeind, Amy L; Bianchi, Serena; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Hof, Patrick R

    2012-01-01

    Human evolution was marked by an extraordinary increase in total brain size relative to body size. While it is certain that increased encephalization is an important factor contributing to the origin of our species-specific cognitive abilities, it is difficult to disentangle which aspects of human neural structure and function are correlated by-products of brain size expansion from those that are specifically related to particular psychological specializations, such as language and enhanced "mentalizing" abilities. In this chapter, we review evidence from allometric scaling studies demonstrating that much of human neocortical organization can be understood as a product of brain enlargement. Defining extra-allometric specializations in humans is often hampered by a severe lack of comparative data from the same neuroanatomical variables across a broad range of primates. When possible, we highlight evidence for features of human neocortical architecture and function that cannot be easily explained as correlates of brain size and, hence, might be more directly associated with the evolution of uniquely human cognitive capacities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Consumption of seaweeds and the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornish, M. Lynn; Critchley, Alan T.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2017-01-01

    Much of the content of the human head is brain matter. This functions as the epicenter of human physical existence, including a sense of well-being and the manifestation of human consciousness. The human brain is a precious and complex organ which increases from 350 to 400 g in infants to 1......, and the impacts of anti-oxidant activities in neuroprotection. These elements have the capacity to help in the defense of human cognitive disorders, such as dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, bipolar diseases, and adverse conditions characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. Psychological benefits...... associated with the moderate consumption of a diet fortified with macroalgae are also discussed in terms of reduction of depressive symptoms and furthermore highlighting possible improvements in sexual function....

  17. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  18. Molecular insights into human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert Sean; Walsh, Christopher A

    2005-09-01

    Rapidly advancing knowledge of genome structure and sequence enables new means for the analysis of specific DNA changes associated with the differences between the human brain and that of other mammals. Recent studies implicate evolutionary changes in messenger RNA and protein expression levels, as well as DNA changes that alter amino acid sequences. We can anticipate having a systematic catalogue of DNA changes in the lineage leading to humans, but an ongoing challenge will be relating these changes to the anatomical and functional differences between our brain and that of our ancient and more recent ancestors.

  19. Human intelligence and brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Karama, Sherif; Jung, Rex E; Haier, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Intelligence can be defined as a general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning. Because of its general nature, intelligence integrates cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, or planning. On the basis of this definition, intelligence can be reliably measured by standardized tests with obtained scores predicting several broad social outcomes such as educational achievement, job performance, health, and longevity. A detailed understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying this general mental ability could provide significant individual and societal benefits. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have generally supported a frontoparietal network relevant for intelligence. This same network has also been found to underlie cognitive functions related to perception, short-term memory storage, and language. The distributed nature of this network and its involvement in a wide range of cognitive functions fits well with the integrative nature of intelligence. A new key phase of research is beginning to investigate how functional networks relate to structural networks, with emphasis on how distributed brain areas communicate with each other.

  20. REVISITING GLYCOGEN CONTENT IN THE HUMAN BRAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, Gülin; DiNuzzo, Mauro; Kumar, Anjali; Moheet, Amir; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen provides an important glucose reservoir in the brain since the concentration of glucosyl units stored in glycogen is several fold higher than free glucose available in brain tissue. We have previously reported 3–4 µmol/g brain glycogen content using in vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in conjunction with [1-13C]glucose administration in healthy humans, while higher levels were reported in the rodent brain. Due to the slow turnover of bulk brain glycogen in humans, complete turnover of the glycogen pool, estimated to take 3–5 days, was not observed in these prior studies. In an attempt to reach complete turnover and thereby steady state 13C labeling in glycogen, here we administered [1-13C]glucose to healthy volunteers for 80 hours. To eliminate any net glycogen synthesis during this period and thereby achieve an accurate estimate of glycogen concentration, volunteers were maintained at euglycemic blood glucose levels during [1-13C]glucose administration and 13C-glycogen levels in the occipital lobe were measured by 13C MRS approximately every 12 hours. Finally, we fitted the data with a biophysical model that was recently developed to take into account the tiered structure of the glycogen molecule and additionally incorporated blood glucose levels and isotopic enrichments as input function in the model. We obtained excellent fits of the model to the 13C-glycogen data, and glycogen content in the healthy human brain tissue was found to be 7.8 ± 0.3 µmol/g, a value substantially higher than previous estimates of glycogen content in the human brain. PMID:26202425

  1. Essential fatty acids and human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Ke, Der-Shin; Chen, Jen-Yin

    2009-12-01

    The human brain is nearly 60 percent fat. We've learned in recent years that fatty acids are among the most crucial molecules that determine your brain's integrity and ability to perform. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are required for maintenance of optimal health but they can not synthesized by the body and must be obtained from dietary sources. Clinical observation studies has related imbalance dietary intake of fatty acids to impaired brain performance and diseases. Most of the brain growth is completed by 5-6 years of age. The EFAs, particularly the omega-3 fatty acids, are important for brain development during both the fetal and postnatal period. Dietary decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is needed for the optimum functional maturation of the retina and visual cortex, with visual acuity and mental development seemingly improved by extra DHA. Beyond their important role in building the brain structure, EFAs, as messengers, are involved in the synthesis and functions of brain neurotransmitters, and in the molecules of the immune system. Neuronal membranes contain phospholipid pools that are the reservoirs for the synthesis of specific lipid messengers on neuronal stimulation or injury. These messengers in turn participate in signaling cascades that can either promote neuronal injury or neuroprotection. The goal of this review is to give a new understanding of how EFAs determine our brain's integrity and performance, and to recall the neuropsychiatric disorders that may be influenced by them. As we further unlock the mystery of how fatty acids affect the brain and better understand the brain's critical dependence on specific EFAs, correct intake of the appropriate diet or supplements becomes one of the tasks we undertake in pursuit of optimal wellness.

  2. Simple models of human brain functional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, Petra E; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron F; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay N; Rapoport, Judith L; Bullmore, Edward T

    2012-04-10

    Human brain functional networks are embedded in anatomical space and have topological properties--small-worldness, modularity, fat-tailed degree distributions--that are comparable to many other complex networks. Although a sophisticated set of measures is available to describe the topology of brain networks, the selection pressures that drive their formation remain largely unknown. Here we consider generative models for the probability of a functional connection (an edge) between two cortical regions (nodes) separated by some Euclidean distance in anatomical space. In particular, we propose a model in which the embedded topology of brain networks emerges from two competing factors: a distance penalty based on the cost of maintaining long-range connections; and a topological term that favors links between regions sharing similar input. We show that, together, these two biologically plausible factors are sufficient to capture an impressive range of topological properties of functional brain networks. Model parameters estimated in one set of functional MRI (fMRI) data on normal volunteers provided a good fit to networks estimated in a second independent sample of fMRI data. Furthermore, slightly detuned model parameters also generated a reasonable simulation of the abnormal properties of brain functional networks in people with schizophrenia. We therefore anticipate that many aspects of brain network organization, in health and disease, may be parsimoniously explained by an economical clustering rule for the probability of functional connectivity between different brain areas.

  3. Music and its association with epileptic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The association between music and epileptic seizures is complex and intriguing. Musical processing within the human brain recruits a network which involves many cortical areas that could activate as part of a temporal lobe seizure or become hyperexcitable on musical exposure as in the case of musicogenic epilepsy. The dichotomous effect of music on seizures may be explained by modification of dopaminergic circuitry or counteractive cognitive and sensory input in ictogenesis. Research has explored the utility of music as a therapy in epilepsy and while limited studies show some evidence of an effect on seizure activity; further work is required to ascertain its clinical potential. Sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs, e.g., carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, appear to effect pitch perception particularly in native-born Japanese, a rare but important adverse effect, particularly if a professional musician. Temporal lobe surgery for right lateralizing epilepsy has the capacity to effect all facets of musical processing, although risk and correlation to resection area need further research. There is a need for the development of investigative tools of musical processing that could be utilized along the surgical pathway. Similarly, work is also required in devising a musical paradigm as part of electroencephalography to improve surveillance of musicogenic seizures. These clinical applications could aid the management of epilepsy and preservation of musical ability. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. SIRT1 expression and activity are up-regulated in the brain tissue of epileptic patients and rat models%SIRT1在癫痫患者及大鼠脑组织中的表达与活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永平; 谢运兰; 王衡; 陈阳美

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and activity of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in the temporal lobe of epileptic patients and rat models and explore its role in the occurrence and progression of epilepsy. Methods The temporal lobe tissue of epileptic patients and rat models (induced by lithium-pilocarpine) were examined for SERT1 expression using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting and also for SIRT1 activity using SIRT1 Deacetylase Assay Kit. Results Immunohistochemistry detected positive SIRT1 expression mainly in the cytoplasm of the neurons in both human and rat brains, and the epileptic groups showed stronger SIRT1 immunoreactivity than the control group. Western blotting and activity assay showed that the expression and activity of SIRT1 were significantly increased in the temporal lobe of patients with refractory epilepsy as compared with the tissues samples from non-epileptic patients (P0.05). In the rat models of epilepsy, SIRT1 expression was up-regulated at 6, 24, and 72 h and at 7,14, 30, and 60 days after kindling (P<0.05) and SIRT1 activity was significantly increased at 6, 24, and 72 h and at 7 and 14 days (P0.05), with the peak level of SIRT1 expression and activity occurring at 72 h. Conclusion Up-regulation of SIRT1 expression and activity in the temporal lobe of epileptic patients and rat models may play an important role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy.%目的 研究沉默信号调控因子1 (SIRT1)在难治性癫痫患者及癫痫大鼠颞叶脑组织中的表达与活性,探讨其与癫痫发生发展的关系.方法 在难治性癫痫患者及氯化锂-匹罗卡品癫痫大鼠颞叶脑组织中,应用蛋白免疫组织化学、免疫印迹技术检测其表达情况,应用SIRT1去乙酰化活性检测试剂盒检测其活性.结果 蛋白免疫组化结果显示:SIRT1主要表达于人与大鼠神经元细胞浆中,且癫痫组SIRT1的表达明显强于对照组.蛋白免疫印迹及活性检测结果显示:相对

  5. Brain activation during human male ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Ger; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Paans, Anne M.J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Graaf, Ferdinand H.C.E. van der; Reinders, A.A.T.Simone

    2003-01-01

    Brain mechanisms that control human sexual behavior in general, and ejaculation in particular, are poorly understood. We used positron emission tomography to measure increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during ejaculation compared with sexual stimulation in heterosexual male volunteers.

  6. Classifying Normal and Abnormal Status Based on Video Recordings of Epileptic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on video recordings of the movement of the patients with epilepsy, this paper proposed a human action recognition scheme to detect distinct motion patterns and to distinguish the normal status from the abnormal status of epileptic patients. The scheme first extracts local features and holistic features, which are complementary to each other. Afterwards, a support vector machine is applied to classification. Based on the experimental results, this scheme obtains a satisfactory classification result and provides a fundamental analysis towards the human-robot interaction with socially assistive robots in caring the patients with epilepsy (or other patients with brain disorders in order to protect them from injury.

  7. Evolution and genomics of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Reynoso, M A; Juárez-Vázquez, C I; Barros-Núñez, P

    2015-08-21

    Most living beings are able to perform actions that can be considered intelligent or, at the very least, the result of an appropriate reaction to changing circumstances in their environment. However, the intelligence or intellectual processes of humans are vastly superior to those achieved by all other species. The adult human brain is a highly complex organ weighing approximately 1500g, which accounts for only 2% of the total body weight but consumes an amount of energy equal to that required by all skeletal muscle at rest. Although the human brain displays a typical primate structure, it can be identified by its specific distinguishing features. The process of evolution and humanisation of the Homo sapiens brain resulted in a unique and distinct organ with the largest relative volume of any animal species. It also permitted structural reorganization of tissues and circuits in specific segments and regions. These steps explain the remarkable cognitive abilities of modern humans compared not only with other species in our genus, but also with older members of our own species. Brain evolution required the coexistence of two adaptation mechanisms. The first involves genetic changes that occur at the species level, and the second occurs at the individual level and involves changes in chromatin organisation or epigenetic changes. The genetic mechanisms include: a) genetic changes in coding regions that lead to changes in the sequence and activity of existing proteins; b) duplication and deletion of previously existing genes; c) changes in gene expression through changes in the regulatory sequences of different genes; and d) synthesis of non-coding RNAs. Lastly, this review describes some of the main documented chromosomal differences between humans and great apes. These differences have also contributed to the evolution and humanisation process of the H. sapiens brain. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights

  8. Magnetite pollution nanoparticles in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Barbara A.; Ahmed, Imad A. M.; Karloukovski, Vassil; MacLaren, Donald A.; Foulds, Penelope G.; Allsop, David; Mann, David M. A.; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian

    2016-09-01

    Biologically formed nanoparticles of the strongly magnetic mineral, magnetite, were first detected in the human brain over 20 y ago [Kirschvink JL, Kobayashi-Kirschvink A, Woodford BJ (1992) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89(16):7683-7687]. Magnetite can have potentially large impacts on the brain due to its unique combination of redox activity, surface charge, and strongly magnetic behavior. We used magnetic analyses and electron microscopy to identify the abundant presence in the brain of magnetite nanoparticles that are consistent with high-temperature formation, suggesting, therefore, an external, not internal, source. Comprising a separate nanoparticle population from the euhedral particles ascribed to endogenous sources, these brain magnetites are often found with other transition metal nanoparticles, and they display rounded crystal morphologies and fused surface textures, reflecting crystallization upon cooling from an initially heated, iron-bearing source material. Such high-temperature magnetite nanospheres are ubiquitous and abundant in airborne particulate matter pollution. They arise as combustion-derived, iron-rich particles, often associated with other transition metal particles, which condense and/or oxidize upon airborne release. Those magnetite pollutant particles which are sourced iron-bearing nanoparticles, rather than their soluble compounds, can be transported directly into the brain, where they may pose hazard to human health.

  9. [Evolution of human brain and intelligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, László; Janka, Zoltán

    2008-07-30

    The biological evolution, including human evolution is mainly driven by environmental changes. Accidental genetic modifications and their innovative results make the successful adaptation possible. As we know the human evolution started 7-8 million years ago in the African savannah, where upright position and bipedalism were significantly advantageous. The main drive of improving manual actions and tool making could be to obtain more food. Our ancestor got more meat due to more successful hunting, resulting in more caloric intake, more protein and essential fatty acid in the meal. The nervous system uses disproportionally high level of energy, so better quality of food was a basic condition for the evolution of huge human brain. The size of human brain was tripled during 3.5 million years, it increased from the average of 450 cm3 of Australopithecinae to the average of 1350 cm3 of Homo sapiens. A genetic change in the system controlling gene expression could happen about 200 000 years ago, which influenced the development of nervous system, the sensorimotor function and learning ability for motor processes. The appearance and stabilisation of FOXP2 gene structure as feature of modern man coincided with the first presence and quick spread of Homo sapiens on the whole Earth. This genetic modification made opportunity for human language, as the basis of abrupt evolution of human intelligence. The brain region being responsible for human language is the left planum temporale, which is much larger in left hemisphere. This shows the most typical human brain asymmetry. In this case the anatomical asymmetry means a clearly defined functional asymmetry as well, where the brain hemispheres act differently. The preference in using hands, the lateralised using of tools resulted in the brain asymmetry, which is the precondition of human language and intelligence. However, it cannot be held anymore, that only humans make tools, because our closest relatives, the chimpanzees are

  10. Zika virus impairs growth in human neurospheres and brain organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Patricia P; Loiola, Erick Correia; Madeiro da Costa, Rodrigo; Higa, Luiza M; Trindade, Pablo; Delvecchio, Rodrigo; Nascimento, Juliana Minardi; Brindeiro, Rodrigo; Tanuri, Amilcar; Rehen, Stevens K

    2016-05-13

    Since the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV), reports of microcephaly have increased considerably in Brazil; however, causality between the viral epidemic and malformations in fetal brains needs further confirmation. We examined the effects of ZIKV infection in human neural stem cells growing as neurospheres and brain organoids. Using immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, we showed that ZIKV targets human brain cells, reducing their viability and growth as neurospheres and brain organoids. These results suggest that ZIKV abrogates neurogenesis during human brain development.

  11. Native Mutant Huntingtin in Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Ellen; Valencia, Antonio; Li, Xueyi; Aronin, Neil; Kegel, Kimberly B.; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Young, Anne B.; Wexler, Nancy; DiFiglia, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine expansion in the N terminus of huntingtin (htt). Analysis of human postmortem brain lysates by SDS-PAGE and Western blot reveals htt as full-length and fragmented. Here we used Blue Native PAGE (BNP) and Western blots to study native htt in human postmortem brain. Antisera against htt detected a single band broadly migrating at 575–850 kDa in control brain and at 650–885 kDa in heterozygous and Venezuelan homozygous HD brains. Anti-polyglutamine antisera detected full-length mutant htt in HD brain. There was little htt cleavage even if lysates were pretreated with trypsin, indicating a property of native htt to resist protease cleavage. A soluble mutant htt fragment of about 180 kDa was detected with anti-htt antibody Ab1 (htt-(1–17)) and increased when lysates were treated with denaturants (SDS, 8 m urea, DTT, or trypsin) before BNP. Wild-type htt was more resistant to denaturants. Based on migration of in vitro translated htt fragments, the 180-kDa segment terminated ≈htt 670–880 amino acids. If second dimension SDS-PAGE followed BNP, the 180-kDa mutant htt was absent, and 43–50 kDa htt fragments appeared. Brain lysates from two HD mouse models expressed native full-length htt; a mutant fragment formed if lysates were pretreated with 8 m urea + DTT. Native full-length mutant htt in embryonic HD140Q/140Q mouse primary neurons was intact during cell death and when cell lysates were exposed to denaturants before BNP. Thus, native mutant htt occurs in brain and primary neurons as a soluble full-length monomer. PMID:22375012

  12. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaHu; Wei-PingZhang; LeiZhang; ZhongChen; Er-QingWei

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is one of the aquaporins (AQPs), a water channel family. In the brain, AQP4 is expressed in astroeyte foot processes, and plays an important role in water homeostasis and in the formation of brain edema. In our study, AQP4 expression in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or different brain tumors was detected

  13. Localizing epileptic seizure onsets with Granger causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhim M.; Epstein, Charles M.; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-09-01

    Accurate localization of the epileptic seizure onset zones (SOZs) is crucial for successful surgery, which usually depends on the information obtained from intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) recordings. The visual criteria and univariate methods of analyzing IEEG recordings have not always produced clarity on the SOZs for resection and ultimate seizure freedom for patients. Here, to contribute to improving the localization of the SOZs and to understanding the mechanism of seizure propagation over the brain, we applied spectral interdependency methods to IEEG time series recorded from patients during seizures. We found that the high-frequency (>80 Hz) Granger causality (GC) occurs before the onset of any visible ictal activity and causal relationships involve the recording electrodes where clinically identifiable seizures later develop. These results suggest that high-frequency oscillatory network activities precede and underlie epileptic seizures, and that GC spectral measures derived from IEEG can assist in precise delineation of seizure onset times and SOZs.

  14. [Liposteroid therapy for refractory epileptic spasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Kuriko Kagitani; Imai, Katsumi; Idoguchi, Rie; Kamio, Noriko; Okinaga, Takeshi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2003-11-01

    Liposteroid was administered intravenously to 6 patients with refractory epileptic spasms. In one case, the spasms initially disappeared but then reappeared after three months. Another case had a transient and slight decrease of epileptic spasms. In the only patient in whom spasms disappeared, EEG abnormalities were greatly improved with diffuse spikes and waves changing into focal spikes. Two cases displayed hyperexcitability, insomnia and acting out behavior, and the therapy was discontinued in one of them. One case had appetite loss and another showed an increase in tonic seizures. No patient had serious adverse effects such as infection, edema, subdural hematoma and brain shrinkage. Although liposteroid therapy has been recommended as an easy, useful and safe alternative for ACTH, we found considerable adverse effects and only a small effect on refractory spasms, and conclude that the regimen should be modified.

  15. Infrasounds and biorhythms of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuszka, Ryszard; Damijan, Zbigniew; Kasprzak, Cezary; McGlothlin, James

    2002-05-01

    Low Frequency Noise (LFN) and infrasound has begun a new public health hazard. Evaluations of annoyance of (LFN) on human occupational health were based on standards where reactions of human auditory system and vibrations of parts of human body were small. Significant sensitivity has been observed on the central nervous system from infrasonic waves especially below 10 Hz. Observed follow-up effects in the brain gives incentive to study the relationship between parameters of waves and reactions obtained of biorhythms (EEG) and heart action (EKG). New results show the impact of LFN on the electrical potentials of the brain are dependent on the pressure waves on the human body. Electrical activity of circulatory system was also affected. Signals recorded in industrial workplaces were duplicated by loudspeakers and used to record data from a typical LFN spectra with 5 and 7 Hz in a laboratory chamber. External noise, electromagnetic fields, temperature, dust, and other elements were controlled. Results show not only a follow-up effect in the brain but also a result similar to arrhythmia in the heart. Relaxations effects were observed of people impacted by waves generated from natural sources such as streams and waterfalls.

  16. Broadband criticality of human brain network synchronization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred G Kitzbichler

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-organized criticality is an attractive model for human brain dynamics, but there has been little direct evidence for its existence in large-scale systems measured by neuroimaging. In general, critical systems are associated with fractal or power law scaling, long-range correlations in space and time, and rapid reconfiguration in response to external inputs. Here, we consider two measures of phase synchronization: the phase-lock interval, or duration of coupling between a pair of (neurophysiological processes, and the lability of global synchronization of a (brain functional network. Using computational simulations of two mechanistically distinct systems displaying complex dynamics, the Ising model and the Kuramoto model, we show that both synchronization metrics have power law probability distributions specifically when these systems are in a critical state. We then demonstrate power law scaling of both pairwise and global synchronization metrics in functional MRI and magnetoencephalographic data recorded from normal volunteers under resting conditions. These results strongly suggest that human brain functional systems exist in an endogenous state of dynamical criticality, characterized by a greater than random probability of both prolonged periods of phase-locking and occurrence of large rapid changes in the state of global synchronization, analogous to the neuronal "avalanches" previously described in cellular systems. Moreover, evidence for critical dynamics was identified consistently in neurophysiological systems operating at frequency intervals ranging from 0.05-0.11 to 62.5-125 Hz, confirming that criticality is a property of human brain functional network organization at all frequency intervals in the brain's physiological bandwidth.

  17. Immune response in the eye following epileptic seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Ahl, Matilda; Avdic, Una; Skoug, Cecilia; Ali, Idrish; Chugh, Deepti; Johansson, Ulrica Englund; Christine T Ekdahl

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epileptic seizures are associated with an immune response in the brain. However, it is not known whether it can extend to remote areas of the brain, such as the eyes. Hence, we investigated whether epileptic seizures induce inflammation in the retina.Methods: Adult rats underwent electrically induced temporal status epilepticus, and the eyes were studied 6 h, 1, and 7 weeks later with biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. An additional group of animals received CX3CR1 anti...

  18. Human brain disease recreated in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, J.

    1990-12-14

    In the early 1980s, neurologist Stanley Prusiner suggested that scrapie, an apparently infectious degenerative brain disease of sheep, could be transmitted by prions, infectious particles made just of protein - and containing no nucleic acids. But prion research has come a long way since then. In 1985, the cloning of the gene encoding the prion protein proved that it does in fact exist. And the gene turned out to be widely expressed in the brains of higher organisms, a result suggesting that the prion protein has a normal brain function that can somehow be subverted, leading to brain degeneration. Then studies done during the past 2 years suggested that specific mutations in the prion gene might cause two similar human brain diseases, Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and Creutzfelt-Jakob disease. Now, Prusiner's group at the University of California, San Francisco, has used genetic engineering techniques to recreate GSS by transplanting the mutated prion gene into mice. Not only will the animal model help neurobiologists answer the many remaining questions about prions and how they work, but it may also shed some light on other neurodegenerative diseases as well.

  19. Cell signaling underlying epileptic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri eBozzi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a complex disease, characterized by the repeated occurrence of bursts of electrical activity (seizures in specific brain areas. The behavioral outcome of seizure events strongly depends on the brain regions that are affected by overactivity. Here we review the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the generation of seizures in epileptogenic areas. Pathways activated by modulatory neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin, involving the activation of extracellular-regulated kinases (ERKs and the induction of immediate early genes (IEGs will be first discussed in relation to the occurrence of acute seizure events. Activation of immediate early genes has been proposed to lead to long-term molecular and behavioral responses induced by acute seizures. We also review deleterious consequences of seizure activity, focusing on the contribution of apoptosis-associated signaling pathways to the progression of the disease. A deep understanding of signaling pathways involved in both acute and long-term responses to seizures continues to be crucial to unravel the origins of epileptic behaviors and ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for the cure of epilepsy.

  20. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meunier, D; Fornito, A; Ersche, K D; Bullmore, E T; 10.3389/neuro.11.037.2009

    2010-01-01

    The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or "modules-within-modules") decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at ...

  1. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hua; YAO Hong-tian; ZHANG Wei-ping; ZHANG LEI; DING Wei; ZHANG Shi-hong; CHEN Zhong; WEI Er-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), one of the aquaporins (AQPs), in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or brain tumors. Methods: Nineteen human brain specimens were obtained from the patients with traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, benign meningioma or early stage hemorrhagic stroke. MRI or CT imaging was used to assess brain edema. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to evaluate cell damage. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the AQP4 expression. Results: AQP4 expression was increased from 15h to at least 8 d after injury. AQP4immunoreactivity was strong around astrocytomas, ganglioglioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. However, AQP4 immunoreactivity was only found in the centers of astrocytomas and ganglioglioma, but not in metastatic adenocarcinoma derived from lung.Conclusion: AQP4 expression increases in human brains after traumatic brain injury, within brain-derived tumors, and around brain tumors.

  2. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  3. MRI and MRS of human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bob L; Hu, Jiani

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of human brain tumors, including the primary applications and basic terminology involved. Readers who wish to know more about this broad subject should seek out the referenced books (1. Tofts (2003) Quantitative MRI of the brain. Measuring changes caused by disease. Wiley; Bradley and Stark (1999) 2. Magnetic resonance imaging, 3rd Edition. Mosby Inc; Brown and Semelka (2003) 3. MRI basic principles and applications, 3rd Edition. Wiley-Liss) or reviews (4. Top Magn Reson Imaging 17:127-36, 2006; 5. JMRI 24:709-724, 2006; 6. Am J Neuroradiol 27:1404-1411, 2006).MRI is the most popular means of diagnosing human brain tumors. The inherent difference in the magnetic resonance (MR) properties of water between normal tissues and tumors results in contrast differences on the image that provide the basis for distinguishing tumors from normal tissues. In contrast to MRI, which provides spatial maps or images using water signals of the tissues, proton MRS detects signals of tissue metabolites. MRS can complement MRI because the observed MRS peaks can be linked to inherent differences in biochemical profiles between normal tissues and tumors.The goal of MRI and MRS is to characterize brain tumors, including tumor core, edge, edema, volume, types, and grade. The commonly used brain tumor MRI protocol includes T2-weighted images and T1-weighted images taken both before and after the injection of a contrast agent (typically gadolinium: Gd). The commonly used MRS technique is either point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) or stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM).

  4. Epileptic and nonepileptic features in patients with early onset epileptic encephalopathy and STXBP1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milh, Mathieu; Villeneuve, Nathalie; Chouchane, Mondher; Kaminska, Anna; Laroche, Cécile; Barthez, Marie Anne; Gitiaux, Cyril; Bartoli, Céline; Borges-Correia, Ana; Cacciagli, Pierre; Mignon-Ravix, Cécile; Cuberos, Hélène; Chabrol, Brigitte; Villard, Laurent

    2011-10-01

    STXBP1 (MUNC18-1) mutations have been associated with various types of epilepsies, mostly beginning early in life. To refine the phenotype associated with STXBP1 aberrations in early onset epileptic syndromes, we studied this gene in a cohort of patients with early onset epileptic encephalopathy. STXBP1 was screened in a multicenter cohort of 52 patients with early onset epilepsy (first seizure observed before the age of 3 months), no cortical malformation on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and negative metabolic screening. Three groups of patients could be distinguished in this cohort: (1) Ohtahara syndromes (n = 38); (2) early myoclonic encephalopathies (n = 7); and (3) early onset epileptic encephalopathies that did not match any familiar syndrome (n = 7). None of the patients displayed any cortical malformation on brain MRI and all were screened through multiple video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings for a time period spanning from birth to their sixth postnatal month. Subsequently, patients had standard EEG or video-EEG recordings. We found five novel STXBP1 mutations in patients for whom video-EEG recordings could be sampled from the beginning of the disease. All patients with a mutation displayed Ohtahara syndrome, since most early seizures could be classified as epileptic spasms and since the silent EEG periods were on average shorter than bursts. However, each patient in addition displayed a particular clinical and EEG feature: In two patients, early seizures were clonic, with very early EEG studies exhibiting relatively low amplitude bursts of activity before progressing into a typical suppression-burst pattern, whereas the three other patients displayed epileptic spasms associated with typical suppression-burst patterns starting from the early recordings. Epilepsy dramatically improved after 6 months and finally disappeared before the end of the first year of life for four patients; the remaining one patient had few seizures until 18

  5. Adult human brain cell culture for neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Hannah M; Dragunow, Mike

    2010-06-01

    Studies of the brain have progressed enormously through the use of in vivo and in vitro non-human models. However, it is unlikely such studies alone will unravel the complexities of the human brain and so far no neuroprotective treatment developed in animals has worked in humans. In this review we discuss the use of adult human brain cell culture methods in brain research to unravel the biology of the normal and diseased human brain. The advantages of using adult human brain cells as tools to study human brain function from both historical and future perspectives are discussed. In particular, studies using dissociated cultures of adult human microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons are described and the applications of these types of study are evaluated. Alternative sources of human brain cells such as adult neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and slice cultures of adult human brain tissue are also reviewed. These adult human brain cell culture methods could benefit basic research and more importantly, facilitate the translation of basic neuroscience research to the clinic for the treatment of brain disorders. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Hedonism Hub in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharopoulos, G.; Lancaster, T. M.; Bracht, T.; Ihssen, N.; Maio, G. R.; Linden, D. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Human values are abstract ideals that motivate behavior. The motivational nature of human values raises the possibility that they might be underpinned by brain structures that are particularly involved in motivated behavior and reward processing. We hypothesized that variation in subcortical hubs of the reward system and their main connecting pathway, the superolateral medial forebrain bundle (slMFB) is associated with individual value orientation. We conducted Pearson's correlation between the scores of 10 human values and the volumes of 14 subcortical structures and microstructural properties of the medial forebrain bundle in a sample of 87 participants, correcting for multiple comparisons (i.e.,190). We found a positive association between the value that people attach to hedonism and the volume of the left globus pallidus (GP).We then tested whether microstructural parameters (i.e., fractional anisotropy and myelin volume fraction) of the slMFB, which connects with the GP, are also associated to hedonism and found a significant, albeit in an uncorrected level, positive association between the myelin volume fraction within the left slMFB and hedonism scores. This is the first study to elucidate the relationship between the importance people attach to the human value of hedonism and structural variation in reward-related subcortical brain regions. PMID:27473322

  7. Perfusion harmonic imaging of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Volker H.; Seidel, Guenter; Wiesmann, Martin; Meyer, Karsten; Aach, Til

    2003-05-01

    The fast visualisation of cerebral microcirculation supports diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular diseases. However, the commonly used CT/MRI-based methods are time consuming and, moreover, costly. Therefore we propose an alternative approach to brain perfusion imaging by means of ultrasonography. In spite of the low signal/noise-ratio of transcranial ultrasound and the high impedance of the skull, flow images of cerebral blood flow can be derived by capturing the kinetics of appropriate contrast agents by harmonic ultrasound image sequences. In this paper we propose three different methods for human brain perfusion imaging, each of which yielding flow images indicating the status of the patient's cerebral microcirculation by visualising local flow parameters. Bolus harmonic imaging (BHI) displays the flow kinetics of bolus injections, while replenishment (RHI) and diminution harmonic imaging (DHI) compute flow characteristics from contrast agent continuous infusions. RHI measures the contrast agents kinetics in the influx phase and DHI displays the diminution kinetics of the contrast agent acquired from the decay phase. In clinical studies, BHI- and RHI-parameter images were found to represent comprehensive and reproducible distributions of physiological cerebral blood flow. For DHI it is shown, that bubble destruction and hence perfusion phenomena principally can be displayed. Generally, perfusion harmonic imaging enables reliable and fast bedside imaging of human brain perfusion. Due to its cost efficiency it complements cerebrovascular diagnostics by established CT/MRI-based methods.

  8. Human microglial cells synthesize albumin in brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Ahn

    Full Text Available Albumin, an abundant plasma protein with multifunctional properties, is mainly synthesized in the liver. Albumin has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD since it can bind to and transport amyloid beta (Abeta, the causative agent of AD; albumin is also a potent inhibitor of Abeta polymerization. Despite evidence of non-hepatic transcription of albumin in many tissues including kidney and pancreas, non-hepatic synthesis of albumin at the protein level has been rarely confirmed. In a pilot phase study of Human Brain Proteome Project, we found evidence that microglial cells in brain may synthesize albumin. Here we report, for the first time, the de novo synthesis of albumin in human microglial cells in brain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the synthesis and secretion of albumin from microglial cells is enhanced upon microglial activation by Abeta(1-42- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treatment. These data indicate that microglial cells may play a beneficial role in AD by secreting albumin that not only inhibits Abeta polymerization but also increases its clearance.

  9. Ohtahara syndrome: Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available DEFINITION Ohtahara syndrome (early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with suppression bursts, is the earliest developing form of epileptic encephalopathy. ETHIOLOGY It considered to be a result of static structural developing brain damage. CLINICAL PICTURE Variable seizures develop mostly within the first 10 days of life, but may occur during the first hour after delivery. The most frequently observed seizure type are epileptic spasms, which may be either generalized and symmetrical or lateralized. The tonic spasms may occur in clusters or singly, while awake and during sleep alike. The duration of spasms is up to 10 seconds, and the interval between spasms within cluster ranges from 9 to 15 seconds. In one third of cases, other seizure types include partial motor seizures or hemiconvulsions The disorder takes a progressively deteriorating course with increasing frequency of seizures and severe retardation of psychomotor development. DIAGNOSTIC WORKUP In the initial stage of Ohtahara syndrome, interictal EEG shows a pattern of suppression-burst with high-voltage paroxysmal discharges separated by prolonged periods of nearly flat tracing that last for up to 18 seconds. PROGNOSIS AND THREATMENT Half of the reported children having Ohtahara syndrome die in infancy. Anticonvulsant helps little in controlling the seizures and halting the deterioration of psychomotor development. Severe psychomotor retardation is the rule. With time, the disorder may evolve into West syndrome or partial epilepsy. Psychomotor development may be slightly better if the infants do not develop West and later Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  10. Inferring human intentions from the brain data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Konrad

    The human brain is a massively complex organ composed of approximately a hundred billion densely interconnected, interacting neural cells. The neurons are not wired randomly - instead, they are organized in local functional assemblies. It is believed that the complex patterns of dynamic electric...... discharges across the neural tissue are responsible for emergence of high cognitive function, conscious perception and voluntary action. The brain’s capacity to exercise free will, or internally generated free choice, has long been investigated by philosophers, psychologists and neuroscientists. Rather than...... assuming a causal power of conscious will, the neuroscience of volition is based on the premise that "mental states rest on brain processes”, and hence by measuring spatial and temporal correlates of volition in carefully controlled experiments we can infer about their underlying mind processes, including...

  11. Mathematical logic in the human brain: semantics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland M Friedrich

    Full Text Available As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge.

  12. Mathematical logic in the human brain: semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Roland M; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external) data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge.

  13. Tracking White Matter Fiber in Human Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANGNing; ZHANGJun; EricSCarlson

    2004-01-01

    A new approach for noninvasively tracing brain white matter fiber tracts is presented using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) data. This technique is based on successive anisotropic diffusion simulations over the human brain, which are utilized to construct three dimensional diffusion fronts. The fiber pathways are determined by evaluating the distance and orientation from fronts to their corresponding diffusion seeds. Real DT-MRI data are used to demonstrate the tracking scheme. It is shown that several major white matter fiber pathways can be reproduced noninvasively, with the tract branching being allowed. Since the diffusion simulation,which is a truly physical phenomenon reflecting the underlying architecture of cerebral tissues, makes full use of the entire diffusion tensor data, the proposed approach is expected to enhance robustness and reliability of the DT-MRI based fiber tracking techniques in white matter fiber reconstruction.

  14. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  15. Positive selection on gene expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaitovich, Philipp; Tang, Kun; Franz, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the expression levels of genes transcribed in the brains of humans and chimpanzees have changed less than those of genes transcribed in other tissues [1] . However, when gene expression changes are mapped onto the evolutionary lineage in which they occurred, the brain...... shows more changes than other tissues in the human lineage compared to the chimpanzee lineage [1] , [2] and [3] . There are two possible explanations for this: either positive selection drove more gene expression changes to fixation in the human brain than in the chimpanzee brain, or genes expressed...... in the brain experienced less purifying selection in humans than in chimpanzees, i.e. gene expression in the human brain is functionally less constrained. The first scenario would be supported if genes that changed their expression in the brain in the human lineage showed more selective sweeps than other genes...

  16. Effects of brain evolution on human nutrition and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William R; Snodgrass, J Josh; Robertson, Marcia L

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of large human brain size has had important implications for the nutritional biology of our species. Large brains are energetically expensive, and humans expend a larger proportion of their energy budget on brain metabolism than other primates. The high costs of large human brains are supported, in part, by our energy- and nutrient-rich diets. Among primates, relative brain size is positively correlated with dietary quality, and humans fall at the positive end of this relationship. Consistent with an adaptation to a high-quality diet, humans have relatively small gastrointestinal tracts. In addition, humans are relatively "undermuscled" and "over fat" compared with other primates, features that help to offset the high energy demands of our brains. Paleontological evidence indicates that rapid brain evolution occurred with the emergence of Homo erectus 1.8 million years ago and was associated with important changes in diet, body size, and foraging behavior.

  17. Diffusion Based Modeling of Human Brain Response to External Stimuli

    CERN Document Server

    Namazi, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Human brain response is the overall ability of the brain in analyzing internal and external stimuli in the form of transferred energy to the mind/brain phase-space and thus, making the proper decisions. During the last decade scientists discovered about this phenomenon and proposed some models based on computational, biological, or neuropsychological methods. Despite some advances in studies related to this area of the brain research there was less effort which have been done on the mathematical modeling of the human brain response to external stimuli. This research is devoted to the modeling of human EEG signal, as an alert state of overall human brain activity monitoring, due to receiving external stimuli, based on fractional diffusion equation. The results of this modeling show very good agreement with the real human EEG signal and thus, this model can be used as a strong representative of the human brain activity.

  18. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  19. Physical biology of human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, Silvia; Steinmann, Paul; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view toward surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level toward form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  20. Automated regional behavioral analysis for human brain images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lancaster, Jack L; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B; Martinez, Michael J; Fox, P Mickle; Fox, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral categories of functional imaging experiments along with standardized brain coordinates of associated activations were used to develop a method to automate regional behavioral analysis of human brain images...

  1. PET tracers for imaging of ABC transporters at the blood-brain barrier : Principles and Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luurtsema, Gert; Elsinga, Philip; Dierckx, Rudi; Boellaard, Ronald; van Waarde, Aren

    2016-01-01

    ABC transporters at the human blood-brain barrier protect the brain against the entry of harmful compounds but may also limit (or prevent) the cerebral entry of therapeutic drugs (e.g. anti-epileptics, antidepressants and antipsychotics). The efflux function of these transporters may be impaired in

  2. [Focal epileptic seizures ipsilateral to the tumor: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, Sebastião Silva; Mendes, Mirian Fabíola Studart; Silveira, Roberto Leal

    2002-06-01

    Focal somatosensory epileptic seizures ipsilateral to a brain tumor is reported and the literature reviewed. It is an exceptional occurrence, having been described only six cases, with several mechanisms being proposed. The proximity of the lesions with the low cerebral convexity (perisylvian) suggests the compromising of the secondary somatosensorial area, seeming to prove the experimental observation of somatosensorial crises originating in this area.

  3. Fast optical imaging of human brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gratton

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Great advancements in brain imaging during the last few decades have opened a large number of new possibilities for neuroscientists. The most dominant methodologies (electrophysiological and magnetic resonance-based methods emphasize temporal and spatial information, respectively. However, theorizing about brain function has recently emphasized the importance of rapid (within 100 ms or so interactions between different elements of complex neuronal networks. Fast optical imaging, and in particular the event-related optical signal (EROS, a technology that has emerged over the last 15 years may provide descriptions of localized (to sub-cm level brain activity with a temporal resolution of less than 100 ms. The main limitations of EROS are its limited penetration, which allows us to image cortical structures not deeper than 3 cm from the surface of the head, and its low signal-to-noise ratio. Advantages include the fact that EROS is compatible with most other imaging methods, including electrophysiological, magnetic resonance, and trans-cranial magnetic stimulation techniques, with which can be recorded concurrently. In this paper we present a summary of the research that has been conducted so far on fast optical imaging, including evidence for the possibility of recording neuronal signals with this method, the properties of the signals, and various examples of applications to the study of human cognitive neuroscience. Extant issues, controversies, and possible future developments are also discussed.

  4. Human brain : biochemical lateralization in normal subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasundar R

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical asymmetries in normal human brain were studied using the non-invasive technique of volume localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. The technique of STEAM was used to acquire water-suppressed proton spectra from 8 ml voxels placed in bilaterally symmetrical positions in the two hemispheres of the brain. One hundred and sixty eight right-handed male volunteers were studied for six different regions in the brain (n=28, for each region. Parietal, occipital, temporal, frontal, thalamus and cerebellum regions were studied. The focus was on metabolites such as N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr/PCr and choline (Cho containing compounds. Ratios of the peak areas were calculated for them. Quantitation of the metabolites were carried for data on 18 volunteers. Significant interhemispheric differences in the distribution of metabolites were observed for all the regions studied. There were statistically significant differences on right and left side for the metabolite ratios in all the regions studied. The study has shown the existence of significant lateralization in the distribution of proton MR visible metabolites for all the regions studied.

  5. BrainBank Metadata Specification for the Human Brain Project and Neuroinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Lianglin, Hu; Yufang, Hou; Jianhui, Li; Ling, Yin; Wenwen, Shi

    2007-01-01

    Many databases and platforms for human brain data have been established in China over the years, and metadata plays an important role in understanding and using them. The BrainBank Metadata Specification for the Human Brain Project and Neuroinformatics provides a structure for describing the context and content information of BrainBank databases and services. It includes six parts: identification, method, data schema, distribution of the database, metadata extension, and metadata reference Th...

  6. BrainBank Metadata Specification for the Human Brain Project and Neuroinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Lianglin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Many databases and platforms for human brain data have been established in China over the years, and metadata plays an important role in understanding and using them. The BrainBank Metadata Specification for the Human Brain Project and Neuroinformatics provides a structure for describing the context and content information of BrainBank databases and services. It includes six parts: identification, method, data schema, distribution of the database, metadata extension, and metadata reference The application of the BrainBank Metadata Specification will promote conservation and management of BrainBank databases and platforms. it will also greatly facilitate the retrieval, evaluation, acquisition, and application of the data.

  7. 灵芝多糖对癫痫大鼠脑中谷氨酸转运体的影响%Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide on excitatory amino acid transporter in brain of epileptic rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱孔利; 谢莉莉; 刘辉

    2015-01-01

    objective To observe and investigate the influence of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide on GLAST, GLT-1 and EAAC1 in the cortex and hippocampus of epileptic rat. Study on the pathogenesis of epilepsy and the mechanism of action of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide. Methods The 32 SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group,epilepsy model group,ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides and carbamazepine group,each group of eight. The rats of epilepsy model group,ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides and carbamazepine group made by intraperitoneal injection of pentetrazole(PTZ). After the experiment,get the rats brain tissue quickly. Using im-munohistochemical and colorimetry to detect the index changes of cortex and hippocampus. Results GLAST1,GLT1, EAAC1 in the brain of epileptic rat lower in epilepsy model group than the normal control group:cortex(31. 87 ± 4. 76),( 48. 00 ± 5. 34),(42. 87 ± 4. 01),(52. 12 ± 3. 75),(40. 25 ± 2. 81),(46. 87 ± 3. 04);hippocampus (29. 87 ± 4. 32),(44. 51 ± 4. 81),(36. 50 ± 3. 02),(47. 00 ± 3. 20),(35. 62 ± 3. 42),(42. 12 ± 3. 56);GLAST, GLT-1,EAAC1 in the brain of epileptic rat higher in ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides group and carbamazepine group than the epilepsy model group:cortex(40. 50 ± 4. 47),(31. 87 ± 4. 76),(48. 87 ± 3. 48),(42. 87 ± 4. 01), (43. 87 ± 2. 53),(40. 25 ± 2. 81);hippocampus(37. 75 ± 3. 61),(29. 87 ± 4. 32),( 41. 25 ± 2. 60),(36. 50 ± 3. 02),(39. 50 ± 2. 61),(35. 62 ± 3. 42);GLAST1,GLT1,EAAC1 were no significant differences in ganoderma lu-cidum polysacchairides group and carbamazepine group. Conclusion Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide can in-crease the GLAST,GLT-1 and EAAC1 in the epileptic rats brain tissue,speed up the process of eliminating glutamic acid.%目的:观察和探讨灵芝多糖干预后戊四氮( PTZ)致痫大鼠皮质和海马区兴奋性谷氨酸转运体(EAAT)GLAST(EAAT1)、GLT1(EAAT2)、EAAC1(EAAT3)的变化,进一步研究癫痫的发病机

  8. Model human heart or brain signals

    CERN Document Server

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2008-01-01

    A new model is suggested and used to mimic various spatial or temporal designs in biological or non biological formations where the focus is on the normal or irregular electrical signals coming from human heart (ECG) or brain (EEG). The electrical activities in several muscles (EMG) or neurons or other organs of human or various animals, such as lobster pyloric neuron, guinea pig inferior olivary neuron, sepia giant axon and mouse neocortical pyramidal neuron and some spatial formations are also considered (in Appendix). In the biological applications, several elements (cells or tissues) in an organ are taken as various entries in a representative lattice (mesh) where the entries are connected to each other in terms of some molecular diffusions or electrical potential differences. The biological elements evolve in time (with the given tissue or organ) in terms of the mentioned connections (interactions) besides some individual feedings. The anatomical diversity of the species (or organs) is handled in terms o...

  9. Predicting epileptic seizures in advance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Moghim

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6-0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling, is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance.

  10. Distribution of melatonin receptor in human fetal brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-quan; SHAO Fu-yuan; ZHAO Ying; LIU Zhi-min

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of 2 kinds of melatonin receptor subtypes (mtl and MT2) in human fetal brain. Methods: The fetal brain tissues were sliced and the distribution ofmelatonin receptors in human fetal brain were detected using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Melatonin receptor mtl existed in the cerebellun and hypothalamus, melatonin receptor MT2 exists in hypothalamus, occipital and medulla. Conclusion: Two kinds of melatonin receptors, mtl and MT2 exist in the membrane and cytosol of brain cells, indicating that human fetal brain is a target organ of melatonin.

  11. Evolution of the human brain: changing brain size and the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min S; Nguyen, Andrew D; Aryan, Henry E; U, Hoi Sang; Levy, Michael L; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2007-03-01

    Although the study of the human brain is a rapidly developing and expanding science, we must take pause to examine the historical and evolutionary events that helped shape the brain of Homo sapiens. From an examination of the human lineage to a discussion of evolutionary principles, we describe the basic principles and theories behind the evolution of the human brain. Specifically, we examine several theories concerning changes in overall brain size during hominid evolution and relate them to the fossil record. This overview is intended to provide a broad understanding of some of the controversial issues that are currently being debated in the multidisciplinary field of brain evolution research.

  12. Prediction of Epileptic Seizure by Analysing Time Series EEG Signal Using k-NN Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamrul Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalographic signal is a representative signal that contains information about brain activity, which is used for the detection of epilepsy since epileptic seizures are caused by a disturbance in the electrophysiological activity of the brain. The prediction of epileptic seizure usually requires a detailed and experienced analysis of EEG. In this paper, we have introduced a statistical analysis of EEG signal that is capable of recognizing epileptic seizure with a high degree of accuracy and helps to provide automatic detection of epileptic seizure for different ages of epilepsy. To accomplish the target research, we extract various epileptic features namely approximate entropy (ApEn, standard deviation (SD, standard error (SE, modified mean absolute value (MMAV, roll-off (R, and zero crossing (ZC from the epileptic signal. The k-nearest neighbours (k-NN algorithm is used for the classification of epilepsy then regression analysis is used for the prediction of the epilepsy level at different ages of the patients. Using the statistical parameters and regression analysis, a prototype mathematical model is proposed which helps to find the epileptic randomness with respect to the age of different subjects. The accuracy of this prototype equation depends on proper analysis of the dynamic information from the epileptic EEG.

  13. Pharmacological response of systemically derived focal epileptic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remler, M.P.; Sigvardt, K.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-11-01

    Focal epileptic lesions were made in rats by systemic focal epileptogenesis. In this method, a focal lesion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is produced by focal alpha irradiation followed by repeated systemic injection of a convulsant drug that cannot cross the normal BBB, resulting in a chronic epileptic focus. Changes in the spike frequency of these foci in response to various drugs was recorded. The controls, saline and chlorpromazine, produced no change. Phenytoin, phenobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and valproic acid produced the expected decrease in spike frequency. Pentobarbital and diazepam produced a paradoxical increase in spike frequency.

  14. The neural correlates of altered consciousness during epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Bagshaw, Andrew P; McCorry, Dougall

    2009-06-01

    Epileptic seizures are characterized by a multifaceted spectrum of alterations in the general level of awareness and/or the subjective contents of consciousness. Complete loss of consciousness occurs when epileptic activity involves both cortical and subcortical structures, as in generalized seizures. On the other hand, simple partial seizures can spare both the level and contents of consciousness. Finally, complex partial seizures associated with medial temporal lobe discharges can selectively impair the patient's subjective experiences with variable degrees of responsiveness. The differences in ictal semiology between patients with epilepsy offer unique avenues for understanding the relationship between pathological brain function and altered conscious states.

  15. Comparative primate neuroimaging: insights into human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K

    2014-01-01

    Comparative neuroimaging can identify unique features of the human brain and teach us about human brain evolution. Comparisons with chimpanzees, our closest living primate relative, are critical in this endeavor. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to compare brain size development, brain structure proportions and brain aging. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to compare resting brain glucose metabolism. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been used to compare auditory and visual system pathways, as well as resting-state networks of connectivity. Finally, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been used to compare structural connectivity. Collectively, these methods have revealed human brain specializations with respect to development, cortical organization, connectivity, and aging. These findings inform our knowledge of the evolutionary changes responsible for the special features of the modern human mind.

  16. [Neuroethics: Ethical Endowments of Human Brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Moratalla, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of Neuroethics. Neurosciences demonstrate which cerebral areas are active and inactive whilst people decide how to act when facing a moral dilemma; in this way we know the correlation between determined cerebral areas and our human acts. We can explain how the ″ethical endowments″ of each person, common to all human beings, is ″embedded″ in the dynamic of cerebral flows. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. The outcome of man's natural inclinations is on one hand linked to instinctive systems of animal survival and to basic emotions, and on the other, to the life of each individual human uninhibited by automatism of the biological laws, because he is governed by the laws of freedom. The capacity to formulate an ethical judgement is an innate asset of the human mind.

  17. The clinical value of PET-CT 3D mode brain image on the localizing the epileptic foci%PET-CT脑3D显像在癫痫定位的临床应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of 18F-FDG PET cerebral 3D mode on the localizing the epileptic foci.Methods 13 patients with epilepsy,The brain scans with 3D mode were performed in all the patients.The images were analyzed by eyes and semi-quantitative method by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians.The scalp electroencephalogram(EEG)was performed in all the patients.Among them,Electrocorticogram (EcoG) or depth electroencephalogram were performed in 2 cases to verify the results of PET. MRI and/or CT were obtained in 12 cases.Results In 13 patients,92.3% was abnormal displaying hypometabolic foci on PET imaging(12/13cases).PET was more sensitive than EEG and MRI/CT to detect the lesions (92.3%、69.2% and 33.3%℅ respectively,χ2 were 14.3 and 35.0,all P<0.01).PET detected solitary lesion in 61.5% of patients, more higher than EEG(61.5% vs 38.4%,χ2 was 23.1, P<0.01). Comparing with golden standard of EcoG or depth electroencephalogram,the sensitivity and specificity of PET to localize the epileptic foci were 95% and 89%.Conclusion 18F-FDG PET is a sensitive and accurate image modality on the localizing the epileptic foci. It is useful to direct surgical treatment and orientating radiation therapy.%目的 研究18F-FDG PET-CT脑3D显像对致痫灶定位的应用价值.方法 癫痫患者13例,皆行18F-FDG脑三维PET显像,通过目测和半定量方法分析图像.所有患者均行EEG检查,其中2例行皮层脑电图(EcoG)或深部脑电图(DEEG);12例行脑MRI或CT检查.结果 (1)13例中,PET阳性表现为低代谢灶者检出率为92.3%(12/13例),明显高于EEG和脑MRI/CT(分别为92.3%、69.2%、33.3%,χ2分别为14.3、35.0,P均<0.01).单病灶检出率PET明显高于EEG(分别为61.5%和38.4%,χ2=23.1,P<0.01).与皮层脑电图(EcoG)或深部脑电图(DEEG)相比较,PET对致痫灶的检出灵敏度为95%,定位准确性为89%.结论 18F-FDG PET在致痫灶的检出及定位方面有较高的灵敏度和准确性;在引导癫痫外科手术

  18. Entropy analyses of spatiotemporal synchronizations in brain signals from patients with focal epilepsies

    CERN Document Server

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    The electroencephalographic (EEG) data intracerebrally recorded from 20 epileptic humans with different brain origins of focal epilepsies or types of seizures, ages and sexes are investigated (nearly 700 million data). Multi channel univariate amplitude analyses are performed and it is shown that time dependent Shannon entropies can be used to predict focal epileptic seizure onsets in different epileptogenic brain zones of different patients. Formations or time evolutions of the synchronizations in the brain signals from epileptogenic or non epileptogenic areas of the patients in ictal interval or inter-ictal interval are further investigated employing spatial or temporal differences of the entropies.

  19. Occurrence and clinical features of epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysmal events in five children with Pallister-Killian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filloux, Francis M; Carey, John C; Krantz, Ian D; Ekstrand, Jeffrey J; Candee, Meghan S

    2012-05-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare, sporadic genetic disorder caused by tetrasomy 12p mosaicism associated with a supernumerary isochromosome. Craniofacial dysmorphism, learning impairment and seizures are considered characteristic. However, little is known of the seizure and epilepsy patterns seen in PKS. To better define the occurrence and nature of epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysmal events in PKS, we describe our experience with 5 patients and compare their features with data from a larger cohort of PKS patients ascertained via a web-based parental questionnaire. Three of the 5 patients have had definite epileptic seizures, and one other has had paroxysmal events as yet not clarified. Four of the 5 have also had either non-epileptic paroxysmal events or episodes of uncertain nature. In those with epilepsy, all have had some period of relatively refractory seizures, all have required more than one antiepileptic drug, but none experienced status epilepticus. Only one of the patients with epilepsy (the oldest) has gone into remission. In two of the four with non-epileptic events, video-electroencephalographic monitoring has been valuable in clarifying the nature of the events. EEG characteristics include a slow dominant frequency as well as generalized and focal epileptiform features. Brain MRI findings can be normal but are variable. These specific findings correspond well to information reported by parents in a larger cohort of 51 individuals with PKS. Better understanding of the nature of epileptic and non-epileptic events in PKS will result from a more detailed analysis of objective data obtained from this larger cohort, and from deeper understanding of the molecular impact of 12p tetrasomy in selected cell lines.

  20. Occurrence and clinical features of epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysmal events in five children with Pallister–Killian syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filloux, Francis M.; Carey, John C.; Krantz, Ian D.; Ekstrand, Jeffrey J.; Candee, Meghan S.

    2013-01-01

    Pallister–Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare, sporadic genetic disorder caused by tetrasomy 12p mosaicism associated with a supernumerary isochromosome. Craniofacial dysmorphism, learning impairment and seizures are considered characteristic. However, little is known of the seizure and epilepsy patterns seen in PKS. To better define the occurrence and nature of epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysmal events in PKS, we describe our experience with 5 patients and compare their features with data from a larger cohort of PKS patients ascertained via a web-based parental questionnaire. Three of the 5 patients have had definite epileptic seizures, and one other has had paroxysmal events as yet not clarified. Four of the 5 have also had either non-epileptic paroxysmal events or episodes of uncertain nature. In those with epilepsy, all have had some period of relatively refractory seizures, all have required more than one antiepileptic drug, but none experienced status epilepticus. Only one of the patients with epilepsy (the oldest) has gone into remission. In two of the four with non-epileptic events, video-electroencephalographic monitoring has been valuable in clarifying the nature of the events. EEG characteristics include a slow dominant frequency as well as generalized and focal epileptiform features. Brain MRI findings can be normal but are variable. These specific findings correspond well to information reported by parents in a larger cohort of 51 individuals with PKS. Better understanding of the nature of epileptic and non-epileptic events in PKS will result from a more detailed analysis of objective data obtained from this larger cohort, and from deeper understanding of the molecular impact of 12p tetrasomy in selected cell lines. PMID:22349688

  1. [Neurophysiological markers of generalized and focal epileptic seizures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, E Yu; Shulakova, K V

    To identify neurophysiological markers of focal and generalized epileptic seizures in the inter-epileptic period. Sixty-four patients, including 36 with isolated generalized tonic-clonic seizures and 28 with focal seizures, were examined. The control group consisted of 27 healthy people. EEG-video monitoring and bioelectric activity analysis of the brain during wakefulness and day sleep, spectral EEG analysis, quantitative and quality indicators of sleep were used. In generalized epileptic seizures, alpha rhythm is predominantly recorded in the left hemisphere. In wakefulness, the focal epileptiform activity develops during the first two stages of day sleep. In focal epileptic seizures, delta and beta-2 rhythms were recorded in the left hemisphere, regional epileptiform changes are aggravated during the 1st and 2nd stages of slow sleep initiated in the frontal regions. A focal component of the epileptiform activity in the inter-epileptic period in patients with different types of seizures should be taken into account in examination and treatment planning of patients who had difficulties with the diagnosis of epilepsy type.

  2. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Nijholt, Anton; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to provide us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that can monitor some of the physical processes that occur within the brain that correspo

  3. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to provide us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that can monitor some of the physical processes that occur within the brain that

  4. Dynamic analysis of the human brain with complex cerebral sulci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jung-Ge; Huang, Bo-Wun; Ou, Yi-Wen; Yen, Ke-Tien; Wu, Yi-Te

    2016-07-03

    The brain is one of the most vulnerable organs inside the human body. Head accidents often appear in daily life and are easy to cause different level of brain damage inside the skull. Once the brain suffered intense locomotive impact, external injuries, falls, or other accidents, it will result in different degrees of concussion. This study employs finite element analysis to compare the dynamic characteristics between the geometric models of an assumed simple brain tissue and a brain tissue with complex cerebral sulci. It is aimed to understand the free vibration of the internal brain tissue and then to protect the brain from injury caused by external influences. Reverse engineering method is used for a Classic 5-Part Brain (C18) model produced by 3B Scientific Corporation. 3D optical scanner is employed to scan the human brain structure model with complex cerebral sulci and imported into 3D graphics software to construct a solid brain model to simulate the real complex brain tissue. Obtaining the normal mode analysis by inputting the material properties of the true human brain into finite element analysis software, and then to compare the simplified and the complex of brain models.

  5. Thresholding magnetic resonance images of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-mao HU; Wieslaw L NOWINSKI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, methods are proposed and validated to determine low and high thresholds to segment out gray matter and white matter for MR images of different pulse sequences of human brain. First, a two-dimensional reference image is determined to represent the intensity characteristics of the original three-dimensional data. Then a region of interest of the reference image is determined where brain tissues are present. The non-supervised fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to determine: the threshold for obtaining head mask, the low threshold for T2-weighted and PD-weighted images, and the high threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Supervised range-constrained thresholding is employed to determine the low threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Thresholding based on pairs of boundary pixels is proposed to determine the high threshold for T2- and PD-weighted images. Quantification against public data sets with various noise and inhomogeneity levels shows that the proposed methods can yield segmentation robust to noise and intensity inhomogeneity. Qualitatively the proposed methods work well with real clinical data.

  6. Cristobalite and Hematite Particles in Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopani, Martin; Kopaniova, A; Trnka, M; Caplovicova, M; Rychly, B; Jakubovsky, J

    2016-11-01

    Foreign substances get into the internal environment of living bodies and accumulate in various organs. Cristobalite and hematite particles in the glial cells of pons cerebri of human brain with diagnosis of Behhet disease with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive microanalysis (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with diffraction were identified. SEM with EDX revealed the matter of irregular micrometer-sized particles sometimes forming polyhedrons with fibrilar or stratified structure. It was found in some particles Ti, Fe, and Zn. Some particles contained Cu. TEM and electron diffraction showed particles of cristobalite and hematite. The presence of the particles can be a result of environmental effect, disruption of normal metabolism, and transformation of physiologically iron-ferrihydrite into more stable form-hematite. From the size of particles can be drawn the long-term accumulation of elements in glial cells.

  7. Cerebral Organoids Recapitulate Epigenomic Signatures of the Human Fetal Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongyuan Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells recapitulate the early three-dimensional organization of the human brain, but whether they establish the epigenomic and transcriptional programs essential for brain development is unknown. We compared epigenomic and regulatory features in cerebral organoids and human fetal brain, using genome-wide, base resolution DNA methylome and transcriptome sequencing. Transcriptomic dynamics in organoids faithfully modeled gene expression trajectories in early-to-mid human fetal brains. We found that early non-CG methylation accumulation at super-enhancers in both fetal brain and organoids marks forthcoming transcriptional repression in the fully developed brain. Demethylated regions (74% of 35,627 identified during organoid differentiation overlapped with fetal brain regulatory elements. Interestingly, pericentromeric repeats showed widespread demethylation in multiple types of in vitro human neural differentiation models but not in fetal brain. Our study reveals that organoids recapitulate many epigenomic features of mid-fetal human brain and also identified novel non-CG methylation signatures of brain development.

  8. Stereological estimation of total brain numbers in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig eWalloe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of the relationship between brain structure and cognitive function is still limited. Human brains and individual cortical areas vary considerably in size and shape. Studies of brain cell numbers have historically been based on biased methods, which did not always result in correct estimates and were often very time-consuming. Within the last 20–30 years, it has become possible to rely on more advanced and unbiased methods. These methods have provided us with information about fetal brain development, differences in cell numbers between men and women, the effect of age on selected brain cell populations, and disease-related changes associated with a loss of function. In that this article concerns normal brain rather than brain disorders, it focuses on normal brain development in humans and age related changes in terms of cell numbers. For comparative purposes a few examples of neocortical neuron number in other mammals are also presented.

  9. Changes in cognitive state alter human functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak Nasser Moussa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of the brain as a whole system can be accomplished using network theory principles. Research has shown that human functional brain networks during a resting state exhibit small-world properties and high degree nodes, or hubs, localized to brain areas consistent with the default mode network (DMN. However, the study of brain networks across different tasks and or cognitive states has been inconclusive. Research in this field is important because the underpinnings of behavioral output are inherently dependent on whether or not brain networks are dynamic. This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate multiple network metrics at a voxel-wise resolution in the human brain at both the whole brain and regional level under various conditions: resting state, visual stimulation, and multisensory (auditory and visual stimulation. Our results show that despite global network stability, functional brain networks exhibit considerable task-induced changes in connectivity, efficiency, and community structure at the regional level.

  10. 唑尼沙胺对癫痫大鼠血清及脑组织NO含量及NOS活性的影响%Effects of zonisamide on NO content and NOS activity in serum and brain tissue of epileptic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 刘斌; 张静; 王薇; 孙素真; 王丽辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of zonisamide as a new antiepileptic drug on nitric oxide (NO) content and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in serum and brain tissue of epileptic rats. Methods Eight healthy rats were used as normal control group, and twenty-four epileptic rats induced by pentrazol were randomly divided into epilepsy model group, zonisamide group and phenobarbital group. Levels of NO and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, NOS and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum and brain tissue were detected in four groups. Results Forty-two rats were injected pentrazol, and 35 (83%) rats were established the rat model successfully. Epileptic waves were visible in EEG of epileptic rats. The concentrations of NO, MDA and the activity of NOS in serum and brain were significantly increased, the activity of SOD was significantly decreased, in epileptic rats than those of control rats. The concentrations of NO and MDA were significantly increased; the activity of SOD was significantly decreased, in brain in phenobarbital group compared with those of control group. There were significantly lower levels of NO, MDA and NOS, and significantly higher level of SOD in serum and brain tissue in zonisamide group and phenobarbital group than those of epileptic model group (P<0.05). Conclusion Zonisamide plays an antiepileptic role by reducing the concentration of NO in brain of epileptic rats.%目的 探讨新型抗癫痫药物唑尼沙胺对癫痫大鼠血清及脑组织NO含量及一氧化氮合酶(NOS)活性的影响.方法50只健康雄性SD大鼠中随机抽取8只为正常对照组,剩余42只全部腹腔注射戊四氮制成癫痫模型,从中随机抽取24只,以完全随机分组法分为癫痫模型组、唑尼沙胺组及苯巴比妥组,监测各组大鼠经药物干预后血清及脑组织NO、丙二醛(MDA)含量及NOS、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性变化.结果 35只(83%)大鼠模型制备成功;戊四氮致痫大鼠的脑电图中均可见

  11. [Human brain resource--experience at the Brain Research Institute,University of Niigata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2010-10-01

    Through 40 years of neuropathological practice,the Brain Research Institute, University of Niigata (BRI-Niigata), Japan has accumulated extensive human brain resource,including fresh-frozen brain slices,for scientific research. Over 30,000 slices obtained from consecutive autopsies have been systematically stored in 25 deep freezers. Establishment of effective networks between brain banks and institutional collections in Japan is essential for promoting scientific activities that require human brain resource. We at the BRI-Niigata are eager to contribute to the establishment of such networks.

  12. "Messing with the Mind: Evolutionary Challenges to Human Brain Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR eSANIOTIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understand some of the basic concepts of cognition. Therefore, this article proposes that brain-machine interfacing and nootropics are not going to produce augmented brains because we do not understand enough about how evolutionary pressures have informed the neural networks which support human cognitive faculties.

  13. From reverse transcription to human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrenko V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV was the subject of the study, from which the investi- gations of the Department of biosynthesis of nucleic acids were started. Production of AMV in grams quantities and isolation of AMV reverse transcriptase were established in the laboratory during the seventies of the past cen- tury and this initiated research on the cDNA synthesis, cloning and investigation of the structure and functions of the eukaryotic genes. Structures of salmon insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF family genes and their transcripts were determined during long-term investigations. Results of two modern techniques, microarray-ba- sed hybridization and SAGE, were used for the identification of the genes differentially expressed in astrocytic gliomas and human normal brain. Comparison of SAGE results on the genes overexpressed in glioblastoma with the results of microarray analysis revealed a limited number of common genes. 105 differentially expressed genes, common to both methods, can be included in the list of candidates for the molecular typing of glioblastoma. The first experiments on the classification of glioblastomas based on the data of the 20 genes expression were conducted by using of artificial neural network analysis. The results of these experiments showed that the expression profiles of these genes in 224 glioblastoma samples and 74 normal brain samples could be according to the Koho- nen’s maps. The CHI3L1 and CHI3L2 genes of chitinase-like cartilage protein were revealed among the most overexpressed genes in glioblastoma, which could have prognostic and diagnostic potential. Results of in vitro experiments demonstrated that both proteins, CHI3L1 and CHI3L2, may initiate the phosphorylation of ERK1/ ERK2 and AKT kinases leading to the activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling cascades in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, human glioblastoma U87MG, and U373 cells. The new human cell line

  14. Energetic and nutritional constraints on infant brain development: implications for brain expansion during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Crawford, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    The human brain confronts two major challenges during its development: (i) meeting a very high energy requirement, and (ii) reliably accessing an adequate dietary source of specific brain selective nutrients needed for its structure and function. Implicitly, these energetic and nutritional constraints to normal brain development today would also have been constraints on human brain evolution. The energetic constraint was solved in large measure by the evolution in hominins of a unique and significant layer of body fat on the fetus starting during the third trimester of gestation. By providing fatty acids for ketone production that are needed as brain fuel, this fat layer supports the brain's high energy needs well into childhood. This fat layer also contains an important reserve of the brain selective omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), not available in other primates. Foremost amongst the brain selective minerals are iodine and iron, with zinc, copper and selenium also being important. A shore-based diet, i.e., fish, molluscs, crustaceans, frogs, bird's eggs and aquatic plants, provides the richest known dietary sources of brain selective nutrients. Regular access to these foods by the early hominin lineage that evolved into humans would therefore have helped free the nutritional constraint on primate brain development and function. Inadequate dietary supply of brain selective nutrients still has a deleterious impact on human brain development on a global scale today, demonstrating the brain's ongoing vulnerability. The core of the shore-based paradigm of human brain evolution proposes that sustained access by certain groups of early Homo to freshwater and marine food resources would have helped surmount both the nutritional as well as the energetic constraints on mammalian brain development.

  15. Sex differences in brain organization: implications for human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanske-Petitpierre, V; Chen, A C

    1985-12-01

    This article reviews current knowledge in two major research domains: sex differences in neuropsychophysiology, and in human communication. An attempt was made to integrate knowledge from several areas of brain research with human communication and to clarify how such a cooperative effort may be beneficial to both fields of study. By combining findings from the area of brain research, a communication paradigm was developed which contends that brain-related sex differences may reside largely in the area of communication of emotion.

  16. Lipidomics of human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudí, Alba; Cabré, Rosanna; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victoria; Gonzalo, Hugo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2015-01-01

    Lipids stimulated and favored the evolution of the brain. Adult human brain contains a large amount of lipids, and the largest diversity of lipid classes and lipid molecular species. Lipidomics is defined as "the full characterization of lipid molecular species and of their biological roles with respect to expression of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and function, including gene regulation." Therefore, the study of brain lipidomics can help to unravel the diversity and to disclose the specificity of these lipid traits and its alterations in neural (neurons and glial) cells, groups of neural cells, brain, and fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, thus helping to uncover potential biomarkers of human brain aging and Alzheimer disease. This review will discuss the lipid composition of the adult human brain. We first consider a brief approach to lipid definition, classification, and tools for analysis from the new point of view that has emerged with lipidomics, and then turn to the lipid profiles in human brain and how lipids affect brain function. Finally, we focus on the current status of lipidomics findings in human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Neurolipidomics will increase knowledge about physiological and pathological functions of brain cells and will place the concept of selective neuronal vulnerability in a lipid context. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolutionary origins of human brain and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Maciej; Saniotis, Arthur

    2009-12-01

    Evolving brains produce minds. Minds operate on imaginary entities. Thus they can create what does not exist in the physical world. Spirits can be deified. Perception of spiritual entities is emotional--organic. Spirituality is a part of culture while culture is an adaptive mechanism of human groups as it allows for technology and social organization to support survival and reproduction. Humans are not rational, they are emotional. Most of explanations of the world, offered by various cultures, involve an element of "fiat", a will of a higher spiritual being, or a reference to some ideal. From this the rules of behaviour are deduced. These rules are necessary to maintain social peace and allow a complex unit consisting of individuals of both sexes and all ages to function in a way ensuring their reproductive success and thus survival. There is thus a direct biological benefit of complex ideological superstructure of culture. This complex superstructure most often takes a form of religion in which logic is mixed with appeals to emotions based on images of spiritual beings. God is a consequence of natural evolution. Whether a deity is a cause of this evolution is difficult to discover, but existence of a deity cannot be questioned.

  18. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model.

  19. Hominins and the emergence of the modern human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Alexandra; Cunha, Eugénia

    2012-01-01

    Evidence used to reconstruct the morphology and function of the brain (and the rest of the central nervous system) in fossil hominin species comes from the fossil and archeological records. Although the details provided about human brain evolution are scarce, they benefit from interpretations informed by interspecific comparative studies and, in particular, human pathology studies. In recent years, new information has come to light about fossil DNA and ontogenetic trajectories, for which pathology research has significant implications. We briefly describe and summarize data from the paleoarcheological and paleoneurological records about the evolution of fossil hominin brains, including behavioral data most relevant to brain research. These findings are brought together to characterize fossil hominin taxa in terms of brain structure and function and to summarize brain evolution in the human lineage.

  20. Automated differentiation between epileptic and non-epileptic convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was the clinical validation of an automated algorithm based on surface electromyography (EMG) for differentiation between convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Forty-four consecutive episodes with convulsive events were automatically analyzed...... with the algorithm: 25 generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) from 11 patients, and 19 episodes of convulsive PNES from 13 patients. The gold standard was the interpretation of the video-electroencephalographic recordings by experts blinded to the EMG results. The algorithm correctly classified 24 GTCSs (96......%) and 18 PNESs (95%). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%. This algorithm is useful for distinguishing between epileptic and psychogenic convulsive seizures....

  1. Metabolic costs and evolutionary implications of human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzawa, Christopher W; Chugani, Harry T; Grossman, Lawrence I; Lipovich, Leonard; Muzik, Otto; Hof, Patrick R; Wildman, Derek E; Sherwood, Chet C; Leonard, William R; Lange, Nicholas

    2014-09-09

    The high energetic costs of human brain development have been hypothesized to explain distinctive human traits, including exceptionally slow and protracted preadult growth. Although widely assumed to constrain life-history evolution, the metabolic requirements of the growing human brain are unknown. We combined previously collected PET and MRI data to calculate the human brain's glucose use from birth to adulthood, which we compare with body growth rate. We evaluate the strength of brain-body metabolic trade-offs using the ratios of brain glucose uptake to the body's resting metabolic rate (RMR) and daily energy requirements (DER) expressed in glucose-gram equivalents (glucosermr% and glucoseder%). We find that glucosermr% and glucoseder% do not peak at birth (52.5% and 59.8% of RMR, or 35.4% and 38.7% of DER, for males and females, respectively), when relative brain size is largest, but rather in childhood (66.3% and 65.0% of RMR and 43.3% and 43.8% of DER). Body-weight growth (dw/dt) and both glucosermr% and glucoseder% are strongly, inversely related: soon after birth, increases in brain glucose demand are accompanied by proportionate decreases in dw/dt. Ages of peak brain glucose demand and lowest dw/dt co-occur and subsequent developmental declines in brain metabolism are matched by proportionate increases in dw/dt until puberty. The finding that human brain glucose demands peak during childhood, and evidence that brain metabolism and body growth rate covary inversely across development, support the hypothesis that the high costs of human brain development require compensatory slowing of body growth rate.

  2. Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-21

    A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that functional networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call 'connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic wave patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory-inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation-inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness.

  3. The immune response of the human brain to abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Anton; Cervenka, Simon; Jonsson Fagerlund, Malin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Surgery launches a systemic inflammatory reaction that reaches the brain and associates with immune activation and cognitive decline. Although preclinical studies have in part described this systemic-to-brain signaling pathway, we lack information on how these changes appear in humans....... This study examines the short- and long-term impact of abdominal surgery on the human brain immune system by positron emission tomography (PET) in relation to blood immune reactivity, plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and cognitive function. METHODS: Eight males undergoing prostatectomy under general...... to change in [(11) C]PBR28 binding (p = 0.027). INTERPRETATION: This study translates preclinical data on changes in the brain immune system after surgery to humans, and suggests an interplay between the human brain and the inflammatory response of the peripheral innate immune system. These findings may...

  4. Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Kelsen, Jesper; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2013-01-01

    expressed and up-regulated following stroke in the human brain. The present study aimed at confirming our previous observations in rodents using two post-mortem human brains. The anatomical localization of Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin in the human brain is much like what has been described for the rodent...... and Cytoglobin in the cerebral cortex, while no expression in the cerebellar cortex was detectable. We provide a neuroanatomical indication for a different role of Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin in the human brain.......Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin are new members of the heme-globin family. Both globins are primarily expressed in neurons of the brain and retina. Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin have been suggested as novel therapeutic targets in various neurodegenerative diseases based on their oxygen binding and cell...

  5. Mapping human whole-brain structural networks with diffusion MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Hagmann

    Full Text Available Understanding the large-scale structural network formed by neurons is a major challenge in system neuroscience. A detailed connectivity map covering the entire brain would therefore be of great value. Based on diffusion MRI, we propose an efficient methodology to generate large, comprehensive and individual white matter connectional datasets of the living or dead, human or animal brain. This non-invasive tool enables us to study the basic and potentially complex network properties of the entire brain. For two human subjects we find that their individual brain networks have an exponential node degree distribution and that their global organization is in the form of a small world.

  6. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  7. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangye Li

    Full Text Available An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS, which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP based brain-computer interface (BCI was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  8. Dynamical characteristics of pre-epileptic seizures in rats with recurrence quantification analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Yao, Xin; Guan, Xinping

    2004-11-01

    Understanding the transition of brain activity towards an epileptic seizure, called pre-epileptic seizure, is a challenge in epilepsy. In this Letter, a recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) is proposed to describe dynamical characteristics of EEG (electroencephalograph) recordings on rat experiments, which is helpful to predict seizures. One of the advantages of this method does not require any assumptions to EEG data, such as linear, stationary, noiseless and so on. A series of experimental tests in this study show that the dynamical characteristics of EEG data with RQA can identify the differences among inter-ictal, pre-ictal and ictal phases; and support the hypothesis that complexity of brain electrical activity has a significant decrease prior to an epileptic seizure. This change could be useful in predicting epileptic seizures.

  9. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-12-15

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains ("female brain" or "male brain"). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features in males and females) and internally consistent (i.e., a brain has only "male" or only "female" features). Here, analysis of MRIs of more than 1,400 human brains from four datasets reveals extensive overlap between the distributions of females and males for all gray matter, white matter, and connections assessed. Moreover, analyses of internal consistency reveal that brains with features that are consistently at one end of the "maleness-femaleness" continuum are rare. Rather, most brains are comprised of unique "mosaics" of features, some more common in females compared with males, some more common in males compared with females, and some common in both females and males. Our findings are robust across sample, age, type of MRI, and method of analysis. These findings are corroborated by a similar analysis of personality traits, attitudes, interests, and behaviors of more than 5,500 individuals, which reveals that internal consistency is extremely rare. Our study demonstrates that, although there are sex/gender differences in the brain, human brains do not belong to one of two distinct categories: male brain/female brain.

  10. Gender versus brain size effects on subcortical gray matter volumes in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tianyu; Jiao, Yun; Wang, Xunheng; Lu, Zuhong

    2013-11-27

    Previous studies had reported that volume differences of gray matter (GM) in subcortical regions of the human brain were mainly caused by gender. Meanwhile, other studies had found that the distribution of GM in the human brain varied based on individual brain sizes. Main effects of volume differences of GM in subcortical regions remain unclear. Therefore, the goals of this study are twofold, namely, to determine the main effects of volume differences of GM in subcortical regions of the human brain and to investigate the independent or joint contribution of gender and brain size to subcortical volume differences. In this study, 40 male and 40 female subjects with comparable brain sizes were selected from a population of 198 individuals. The sample was divided into the following four groups: male and female groups with comparably large brain sizes and male and female groups with comparably small brain sizes. The main effects of gender and of brain size and interactions between both factors in subcortical GM volumes were examined by analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) using a 2×2 design matrix. Volumes of GM in subcortical regions were extracted and measured by an automatic segmentation method. Furthermore, we used two datasets to test the reliability of our methods. In both datasets, we found significant brain size effects in the right amygdala and the bilateral caudate nucleus and significant gender effects in the bilateral putamen. No interactions between brain size and gender were found. In conclusion, both gender and brain size independently contributed to volume distribution in different subcortical areas of the human brain.

  11. [Survival of the fattest: the key to human brain evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C

    2006-01-01

    The circumstances of human brain evolution are of central importance to accounting for human origins, yet are still poorly understood. Human evolution is usually portrayed as having occurred in a hot, dry climate in East Africa where the earliest human ancestors became bipedal and evolved tool-making skills and language while struggling to survive in a wooded or savannah environment. At least three points need to be recognised when constructing concepts of human brain evolution : (1) The human brain cannot develop normally without a reliable supply of several nutrients, notably docosahexaenoic acid, iodine and iron. (2) At term, the human fetus has about 13 % of body weight as fat, a key form of energy insurance supporting brain development that is not found in other primates. (3) The genome of humans and chimpanzees is human brain become so much larger, and how was its present-day nutritional vulnerability circumvented during 5-6 million years of hominid evolution ? The abundant presence of fish bones and shellfish remains in many African hominid fossil sites dating to 2 million years ago implies human ancestors commonly inhabited the shores, but this point is usually overlooked in conceptualizing how the human brain evolved. Shellfish, fish and shore-based animals and plants are the richest dietary sources of the key nutrients needed by the brain. Whether on the shores of lakes, marshes, rivers or the sea, the consumption of most shore-based foods requires no specialized skills or tools. The presence of key brain nutrients and a rich energy supply in shore-based foods would have provided the essential metabolic and nutritional support needed to gradually expand the hominid brain. Abundant availability of these foods also provided the time needed to develop and refine proto-human attributes that subsequently formed the basis of language, culture, tool making and hunting. The presence of body fat in human babies appears to be the product of a long period of

  12. Genomic connectivity networks based on the BrainSpan atlas of the developing human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Ahmed; Ziats, Mark N.; Rennert, Owen M.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2014-03-01

    The human brain comprises systems of networks that span the molecular, cellular, anatomic and functional levels. Molecular studies of the developing brain have focused on elucidating networks among gene products that may drive cellular brain development by functioning together in biological pathways. On the other hand, studies of the brain connectome attempt to determine how anatomically distinct brain regions are connected to each other, either anatomically (diffusion tensor imaging) or functionally (functional MRI and EEG), and how they change over development. A global examination of the relationship between gene expression and connectivity in the developing human brain is necessary to understand how the genetic signature of different brain regions instructs connections to other regions. Furthermore, analyzing the development of connectivity networks based on the spatio-temporal dynamics of gene expression provides a new insight into the effect of neurodevelopmental disease genes on brain networks. In this work, we construct connectivity networks between brain regions based on the similarity of their gene expression signature, termed "Genomic Connectivity Networks" (GCNs). Genomic connectivity networks were constructed using data from the BrainSpan Transcriptional Atlas of the Developing Human Brain. Our goal was to understand how the genetic signatures of anatomically distinct brain regions relate to each other across development. We assessed the neurodevelopmental changes in connectivity patterns of brain regions when networks were constructed with genes implicated in the neurodevelopmental disorder autism (autism spectrum disorder; ASD). Using graph theory metrics to characterize the GCNs, we show that ASD-GCNs are relatively less connected later in development with the cerebellum showing a very distinct expression of ASD-associated genes compared to other brain regions.

  13. Brain Prostheses as a Dynamic System (Immortalizing the Human Brain?)

    CERN Document Server

    Astakhov, Vadim

    2007-01-01

    Interest in development of brain prostheses, which might be proposed to recover mental functions lost due to neuron-degenerative disease or trauma, requires new methods in molecular engineering and nanotechnology to build artificial brain tissues. We develop a Dynamic Core model to analyze complexity of damaged biological neural network as well as transition and recovery of the system functionality due to changes in the system environment. We provide a method to model complexity of physical systems which might be proposed as an artificial tissue or prosthesis. Delocalization of Dynamic Core model is developed to analyze migration of mental functions in dynamic bio-systems which undergo architecture transition induced by trauma. Term Dynamic Core is used to define a set of causally related functions and Delocalization is used to describe the process of migration. Information geometry and topological formalisms are proposed to analyze information processes. A holographic model is proposed to construct dynamic e...

  14. Global Interactions Analysis of Epileptic ECoG Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Guillermo J.; Sola, Rafael G.; Pastor, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Localization of the epileptogenic zone is an important issue in epileptology, even though there is not a unique definition of the epileptic focus. The objective of the present study is to test ultrametric analysis to uncover cortical interactions in human epileptic data. Correlation analysis has been carried out over intraoperative Electro-Corticography (ECoG) data in 2 patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Recordings were obtained using a grid of 20 electrodes (5×4) covering the lateral temporal lobe and a strip of either 4 or 8 electrodes at the mesial temporal lobe. Ultrametric analysis was performed in the averaged final correlation matrices. By using the matrix of linear correlation coefficients and the appropriate metric distance between pairs of electrodes time series, we were able to construct Minimum Spanning Trees (MST). The topological connectivity displayed by these trees gives useful and valuable information regarding physiological and pathological information in the temporal lobe of epileptic patients.

  15. New Heuristics for Interfacing Human Motor System using Brain Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed El-Dosuky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many new forms of interfacing human users to machines. We persevere here electric-mechanical form of interaction between human and machine. The emergence of brain-computer interface allows mind-to-movement systems. The story of the Pied Piper inspired us to devise some new heuristics for interfacing human motor system using brain waves, by combining head helmet and LumbarMotionMonitor. For the simulation we use java GridGain. Brain responses of classified subjects during training indicates that Probe can be the best stimulus to rely on in distinguishing between knowledgeable and not knowledgeable

  16. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum spore on expression of insulin-like growth factor-1, nuclear factor-kappa B, and neuronal apoptosis in the epileptic rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Zhao; Shuqiu Wang; Shengchang Zhang; Fafang Li

    2008-01-01

    apoptotic cells were observed in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex,expression of NF-κB/P65 was lower, and immunoreactivity to IGF-1 increased more distinctly, compared with the epilepsy group. In addition, seizure latency was longer on 17, 21, and 25 days post-PTZ treatment in the Ganoderma lucidum spore powder group, compared with the epilepsy group (P < 0.05 0.01).CONCLUSION: Ganoderma lucidum spore powder down-regulated expression of NF-κB in brain tissues of rats with PTZ-induced epilepsy, increased immunoreactivity to IGF-1, and inhibited neuronal apoptosis.These results indicated that Ganoderma lucidum spore powder has a neuroprotective effect.

  17. Selection for smaller brains in Holocene human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hawks, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human populations during the last 10,000 years have undergone rapid decreases in average brain size as measured by endocranial volume or as estimated from linear measurements of the cranium. A null hypothesis to explain the evolution of brain size is that reductions result from genetic correlation of brain size with body mass or stature. Results: The absolute change of endocranial volume in the study samples was significantly greater than would be predicted from observed changes i...

  18. Stereological estimation of total brain numbers in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Solveig eWalloe; Bente ePakkenberg; Katrine eFabricius

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the relationship between brain structure and cognitive function is still limited. Human brains and individual cortical areas vary considerably in size and shape. Studies of brain cell numbers have historically been based on biased methods, which did not always result in correct estimates and were often very time-consuming. Within the last 20–30 years, it has become possible to rely on more advanced and unbiased methods. These methods have provided us with information about fe...

  19. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro,; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume de...

  20. Cell diversity and network dynamics in photosensitive human brain organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrato, Giorgia; Nguyen, Tuan; Macosko, Evan Z; Sherwood, John L; Min Yang, Sung; Berger, Daniel R; Maria, Natalie; Scholvin, Jorg; Goldman, Melissa; Kinney, Justin P; Boyden, Edward S; Lichtman, Jeff W; Williams, Ziv M; McCarroll, Steven A; Arlotta, Paola

    2017-05-04

    In vitro models of the developing brain such as three-dimensional brain organoids offer an unprecedented opportunity to study aspects of human brain development and disease. However, the cells generated within organoids and the extent to which they recapitulate the regional complexity, cellular diversity and circuit functionality of the brain remain undefined. Here we analyse gene expression in over 80,000 individual cells isolated from 31 human brain organoids. We find that organoids can generate a broad diversity of cells, which are related to endogenous classes, including cells from the cerebral cortex and the retina. Organoids could be developed over extended periods (more than 9 months), allowing for the establishment of relatively mature features, including the formation of dendritic spines and spontaneously active neuronal networks. Finally, neuronal activity within organoids could be controlled using light stimulation of photosensitive cells, which may offer a way to probe the functionality of human neuronal circuits using physiological sensory stimuli.

  1. Human-specific transcriptional networks in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Genevieve; Friedrich, Tara; Davis-Turak, Jeremy; Winden, Kellen; Oldham, Michael C; Gao, Fuying; Chen, Leslie; Wang, Guang-Zhong; Luo, Rui; Preuss, Todd M; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2012-08-23

    Understanding human-specific patterns of brain gene expression and regulation can provide key insights into human brain evolution and speciation. Here, we use next-generation sequencing, and Illumina and Affymetrix microarray platforms, to compare the transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and macaque telencephalon. Our analysis reveals a predominance of genes differentially expressed within human frontal lobe and a striking increase in transcriptional complexity specific to the human lineage in the frontal lobe. In contrast, caudate nucleus gene expression is highly conserved. We also identify gene coexpression signatures related to either neuronal processes or neuropsychiatric diseases, including a human-specific module with CLOCK as its hub gene and another module enriched for neuronal morphological processes and genes coexpressed with FOXP2, a gene important for language evolution. These data demonstrate that transcriptional networks have undergone evolutionary remodeling even within a given brain region, providing a window through which to view the foundation of uniquely human cognitive capacities.

  2. Alcohol-related brain damage in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia M Erdozain

    Full Text Available Chronic excessive alcohol intoxications evoke cumulative damage to tissues and organs. We examined prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area (BA 9 from 20 human alcoholics and 20 age, gender, and postmortem delay matched control subjects. H & E staining and light microscopy of prefrontal cortex tissue revealed a reduction in the levels of cytoskeleton surrounding the nuclei of cortical and subcortical neurons, and a disruption of subcortical neuron patterning in alcoholic subjects. BA 9 tissue homogenisation and one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE proteomics of cytosolic proteins identified dramatic reductions in the protein levels of spectrin β II, and α- and β-tubulins in alcoholics, and these were validated and quantitated by Western blotting. We detected a significant increase in α-tubulin acetylation in alcoholics, a non-significant increase in isoaspartate protein damage, but a significant increase in protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase protein levels, the enzyme that triggers isoaspartate damage repair in vivo. There was also a significant reduction in proteasome activity in alcoholics. One dimensional PAGE of membrane-enriched fractions detected a reduction in β-spectrin protein levels, and a significant increase in transmembranous α3 (catalytic subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase in alcoholic subjects. However, control subjects retained stable oligomeric forms of α-subunit that were diminished in alcoholics. In alcoholics, significant loss of cytosolic α- and β-tubulins were also seen in caudate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum, but to different levels, indicative of brain regional susceptibility to alcohol-related damage. Collectively, these protein changes provide a molecular basis for some of the neuronal and behavioural abnormalities attributed to alcoholics.

  3. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Holst, Camilla Bjørnbak; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6-21st weeks post...

  4. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Saemann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Puetz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goering, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzah, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mahnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Noethen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria C.; van't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffman, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, Rene S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Voelzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Joensson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigat

  5. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); J.L. Stein; M.E. Rentería (Miguel); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); N. Jahanshad (Neda); R. Toro (Roberto); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); L. Abramovic (Lucija); M. Andersson (Micael); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); M. Bernard (Manon); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.A. Brown (Andrew); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); A. den Braber (Anouk); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); O. Grimm (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); J. Hass (Johanna); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil H.); L.M. Olde Loohuis (Loes M.); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); K. Nho (Kwangsik); M. Papmeyer (Martina); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); E.J. Rose (Emma); A. Salami (Alireza); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); J. Shin (Jean); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); R.K. Walters (Raymond); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); M. Hakobjan (Marina); C.B. Hartberg (Cecilie B.); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); A.J.G.A.M. Heister (Angelien J. G. A. M.); D. Hoehn (David); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); R.R.R. Makkinje (Remco R. R.); M. Matarin (Mar); M.A.M. Naber (Marlies A. M.); D. Reese McKay; M. Needham (Margaret); A.C. Nugent (Allison); B. Pütz (Benno); N.A. Royle (Natalie); L. Shen (Li); R. Sprooten (Roy); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S.S.L. Van Der Marel (Saskia S. L.); K.J.E. Van Hulzen (Kimm J. E.); E. Walton (Esther); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L. Almasy (Laura); D. Ames (David); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; M.E. Bastin (Mark); H. Brodaty (Henry); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); M.A. Carless (Melanie); S. Cichon (Sven); A. Corvin (Aiden); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); A. Dillman (Allissa); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S. Erk; I. Fedko (Iryna); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); M. Fukunaga (Masaki); J. Raphael Gibbs; H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); F. Holsboer; G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Ikeda (Masashi); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Kanai (Ryota); M. Keil (Maria); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); P. Kochunov (Peter); J.B. Kwok (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.C. Mostert (Jeanette C.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); M.A. Nalls (Michael); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K. Ohi (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R. Perez-Iglesias (Rocio); G. Bruce Pike; S.G. Potkin (Steven); I. Reinvang (Ivar); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (M.); N. Seiferth (Nina); G.D. Rosen (Glenn D.); D. Rujescu (Dan); K. Schnell (Kerry); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Smith (Colin); V.M. Steen (Vidar); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); J. Turner (Jessica); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); E. Westman (Eric); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); D.G. Ashbrook (David G.); R. Hager (Reinmar); L. Lu (Lu); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); D.W. Morris (Derek W); R.W. Williams (Robert W.); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan K.); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); T. Espeseth (Thomas); R.L. Gollub (Randy); B.C. Ho (Beng ); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate

  6. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, D.P.; Stein, J.L.; Renteria, M.E.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Desrivieres, S.; Jahanshad, N.; Toro, R.; Wittfeld, K.; Abramovic, L.; Andersson, M.; Aribisala, B.S.; Armstrong, N.J.; Bernard, M.; Bohlken, M.M.; Boks, M.P.; Bralten, J.; Brown, A.A.; Chakravarty, M.M.; Chen, Q.; Ching, C.R.; Cuellar-Partida, G.; Braber, A.; Giddaluru, S.; Goldman, A.L.; Grimm, O.; Guadalupe, T.; Hass, J.; Woldehawariat, G.; Holmes, A.J.; Hoogman, M.; Janowitz, D.; Jia, T.; Kim, S.; Klein, M.; Kraemer, B.; Lee, P.H.; Olde Loohuis, L.M.; Luciano, M.; Macare, C.; Mather, K.A.; Mattheisen, M.; Milaneschi, Y.; Nho, K.; Papmeyer, M.; Ramasamy, A.; Risacher, S.L.; Roiz-Santianez, R.; Rose, E.J.; Salami, A.; Samann, P.G.; Schmaal, L.; Schork, A.J.; Shin, J.; Strike, L.T.; Teumer, A.; Donkelaar, M.M.J. van; Eijk, K.R. van; Walters, R.K.; Westlye, L.T.; Whelan, C.D.; Winkler, A.M.; Zwiers, M.P.; Alhusaini, S.; Athanasiu, L.; Ehrlich, S.; Hakobjan, M.M.; Hartberg, C.B.; Haukvik, U.K.; Heister, A.J.; Hoehn, D.; Kasperaviciute, D.; Liewald, D.C.; Lopez, L.M.; Makkinje, R.R.; Matarin, M.; Naber, M.; McKay, D.R.; Needham, M.; Nugent, A.C.; Putz, B.; Royle, N.A.; Shen, L.; Sprooten, E.; Trabzuni, D.; Marel, S.S. van der; Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Walton, E.; Wolf, C.; Almasy, L.; Ames, D.; Arepalli, S.; Assareh, A.A.; Bastin, M.E.; Brodaty, H.; Bulayeva, K.B.; Carless, M.A.; Cichon, S.; Corvin, A.; Curran, J.E.; Czisch, M.; Fisher, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common

  7. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Saemann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Puetz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goering, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzah, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mahnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Noethen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria C.; van't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffman, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, Rene S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Voelzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Joensson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To

  8. An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the adult human brain transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawrylycz, M.J.; Beckmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising

  9. Neuronal substrates of sensory gating within the human brain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunwald, T.; Boutros, N.N.; Pezer, N.; Oertzen, J. von; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Schaller, C.; Elger, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the human brain, habituation to irrelevant sensory input is an important function whose failure is associated with behavioral disturbances. Sensory gating can be studied by recording the brain's electrical responses to repeated clicks: the P50 potential is normally reduced to the

  10. Neuronal substrates of sensory gating within the human brain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunwald, T.; Boutros, N.N.; Pezer, N.; Oertzen, J. von; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Schaller, C.; Elger, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the human brain, habituation to irrelevant sensory input is an important function whose failure is associated with behavioral disturbances. Sensory gating can be studied by recording the brain's electrical responses to repeated clicks: the P50 potential is normally reduced to the sec

  11. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); J.L. Stein; M.E. Rentería (Miguel); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); N. Jahanshad (Neda); R. Toro (Roberto); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); L. Abramovic; M. Andersson (Micael); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); M. Bernard (Manon); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.A. Brown (Andrew); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); A. den Braber (Anouk); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); O. Grimm (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); J. Hass (Johanna); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil H.); L.M. Olde Loohuis (Loes M.); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); K. Nho (Kwangsik); M. Papmeyer (Martina); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); E.J. Rose (Emma); A. Salami (Alireza); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); J. Shin (Jean); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); R.K. Walters (Raymond); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); M. Hakobjan (Marina); C.B. Hartberg (Cecilie B.); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); A.J.G.A.M. Heister (Angelien J. G. A. M.); D. Hoehn (David); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); R.R.R. Makkinje (Remco R. R.); M. Matarin (Mar); M.A.M. Naber (Marlies A. M.); D. Reese McKay; M. Needham (Margaret); A.C. Nugent (Allison); B. Pütz (Benno); N.A. Royle (Natalie); L. Shen (Li); R. Sprooten (Roy); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S.S.L. Van Der Marel (Saskia S. L.); K.J.E. Van Hulzen (Kimm J. E.); E. Walton (Esther); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L. Almasy (Laura); D. Ames (David); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; M.E. Bastin (Mark); H. Brodaty (Henry); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); M.A. Carless (Melanie); S. Cichon (Sven); A. Corvin (Aiden); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); A. Dillman (Allissa); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S. Erk; I. Fedko (Iryna); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); M. Fukunaga (Masaki); J. Raphael Gibbs; H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); F. Holsboer; G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Ikeda (Masashi); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Kanai (Ryota); M. Keil (Maria); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); P. Kochunov (Peter); J.B. Kwok (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.C. Mostert (Jeanette C.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); M.A. Nalls (Michael); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K. Ohi (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R. Perez-Iglesias (Rocio); G. Bruce Pike; S.G. Potkin (Steven); I. Reinvang (Ivar); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (M.); N. Seiferth (Nina); G.D. Rosen (Glenn D.); D. Rujescu (Dan); K. Schnell (Kerry); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Smith (Colin); V.M. Steen (Vidar); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); J. Turner (Jessica); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); E. Westman (Eric); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); D.G. Ashbrook (David G.); R. Hager (Reinmar); L. Lu (Lu); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); D.W. Morris (Derek W); R.W. Williams (Robert W.); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan K.); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); T. Espeseth (Thomas); R.L. Gollub (Randy); B.C. Ho (Beng ); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); N. Hosten (Norbert); R. Kahn; S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M. Nauck (Matthias); L. Nyberg (Lars); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); J.W. Smoller; H. van Bokhoven (Hans); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); T.J.H. White (Tonya); I. Agartz (Ingrid); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); D.M. Cannon (Dara); M.R. Cookson (Mark); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); C. Francks (Clyde); D.C. Glahn (David); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Gruber (Oliver); J. Hardy (John); R. Hashimoto (Ryota); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); E.G. Jönsson (Erik); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); S. Lovestone (Simon); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); A. Simmons (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); H. Soininen (H.); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); D.R. Weinberger (Daniel); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S. Seiler (Stephan); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); J.T. Becker (James); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); S. van der Lee (Sven); M. Ebling (Maritza); B. Fischl (Bruce); W.T. Longstreth Jr; D. Greve (Douglas); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); P. Nyquist (Paul); L.N. Vinke (Louis N.); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L. Xue (Luting); B. Mazoyer (Bernard); J.C. Bis (Joshua); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Seshadri (Sudha); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); P.M. Thompson (Paul); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate h

  12. Forthergillian Lecture. Imaging human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackowiak, R S

    The non-invasive brain scanning techniques introduced a quarter of a century ago have become crucial for diagnosis in clinical neurology. They have also been used to investigate brain function and have provided information about normal activity and pathogenesis. They have been used to investigate functional specialization in the brain and how specialized areas communicate to generate complex integrated functions such as speech, memory, the emotions and so on. The phenomenon of brain plasticity is poorly understood and yet clinical neurologists are aware, from everyday observations, that spontaneous recovery from brain lesions is common. An improved understanding of the mechanisms of recovery may generate new therapeutic strategies and indicate ways of modulating mechanisms that promote plastic compensation for loss of function. The main methods used to investigate these issues are positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (M.R.I.). M.R.I. is also used to map brain structure. The techniques of functional brain mapping and computational morphometrics depend on high performance scanners and a validated set of analytic statistical procedures that generate reproducible data and meaningful inferences from brain scanning data. The motor system presents a good paradigm to illustrate advances made by scanning towards an understanding of plasticity at the level of brain areas. The normal motor system is organized in a nested hierarchy. Recovery from paralysis caused by internal capsule strokes involves functional reorganization manifesting itself as changed patterns of activity in the component brain areas of the normal motor system. The pattern of plastic modification depends in part on patterns of residual or disturbed connectivity after brain injury. Therapeutic manipulations in patients with Parkinson's disease using deep brain stimulation, dopaminergic agents or fetal mesencephalic transplantation provide a means to examine mechanisms underpinning

  13. Dental problems in epileptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioło, Anna; Mielnik-Błaszczak, Maria

    2004-01-01

    On the grounds of literature and own clinical experience, pathological changes in epilepitic patients have been described. Dental management procedures in these patients have also been presented. The unquestionable importance of prophylaxis, which may markedly minimize the impact of epilepsy on the incidence of mouth diseases, has been emphasised. It has also been stated that epileptic patients should receive specialised and integrated dental treatment.

  14. Entrainment of perceptually relevant brain oscillations by non-invasive rhythmic stimulation of the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor eThut

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The notion of driving brain oscillations by directly stimulating neuronal elements with rhythmic stimulation protocols has become increasingly popular in research on brain rhythms. Induction of brain oscillations in a controlled and functionally meaningful way would likely prove highly beneficial for the study of brain oscillations, and their therapeutic control. We here review conventional and new non-invasive brain stimulation protocols as to their suitability for controlled intervention into human brain oscillations. We focus on one such type of intervention, the direct entrainment of brain oscillations by a periodic external drive. We review highlights of the literature on entraining brain rhythms linked to perception and attention, and point out controversies. Behaviourally, such entrainment seems to alter specific aspects of perception depending on the frequency of stimulation, informing models on the functional role of oscillatory activity. This indicates that human brain oscillations and function may be promoted in a controlled way by focal entrainment, with great potential for probing into brain oscillations and their causal role.

  15. Entrainment of perceptually relevant brain oscillations by non-invasive rhythmic stimulation of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thut, Gregor; Schyns, Philippe G; Gross, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The notion of driving brain oscillations by directly stimulating neuronal elements with rhythmic stimulation protocols has become increasingly popular in research on brain rhythms. Induction of brain oscillations in a controlled and functionally meaningful way would likely prove highly beneficial for the study of brain oscillations, and their therapeutic control. We here review conventional and new non-invasive brain stimulation protocols as to their suitability for controlled intervention into human brain oscillations. We focus on one such type of intervention, the direct entrainment of brain oscillations by a periodic external drive. We review highlights of the literature on entraining brain rhythms linked to perception and attention, and point out controversies. Behaviourally, such entrainment seems to alter specific aspects of perception depending on the frequency of stimulation, informing models on the functional role of oscillatory activity. This indicates that human brain oscillations and function may be promoted in a controlled way by focal entrainment, with great potential for probing into brain oscillations and their causal role.

  16. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Gohel, Suril; Kelly, Clare; Smith, Steve M; Beckmann, Christian F; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Buckner, Randy L; Colcombe, Stan; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Ernst, Monique; Fair, Damien; Hampson, Michelle; Hoptman, Matthew J; Hyde, James S; Kiviniemi, Vesa J; Kötter, Rolf; Li, Shi-Jiang; Lin, Ching-Po; Lowe, Mark J; Mackay, Clare; Madden, David J; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Margulies, Daniel S; Mayberg, Helen S; McMahon, Katie; Monk, Christopher S; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pekar, James J; Peltier, Scott J; Petersen, Steven E; Riedl, Valentin; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Rypma, Bart; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Schmidt, Sein; Seidler, Rachael D; Siegle, Greg J; Sorg, Christian; Teng, Gao-Jun; Veijola, Juha; Villringer, Arno; Walter, Martin; Wang, Lihong; Weng, Xu-Chu; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Williamson, Peter; Windischberger, Christian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

    2010-03-09

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain during rest reveals large-amplitude spontaneous low-frequency (science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/.

  17. Artificial Brain Based on Credible Neural Circuits in a Human Brain

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, John Robert

    2010-01-01

    Neurons are individually translated into simple gates to plan a brain with human psychology and intelligence. State machines, assumed previously learned in subconscious associative memory are shown to enable equation solving and rudimentary thinking using nanoprocessing within short term memory.

  18. Astrocytes and the evolution of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, James M

    2014-02-01

    Cells within the astroglial lineage are proposed as the origin of human brain evolution. It is now widely accepted that they direct mammalian fetal neurogenesis, gliogenesis, laminar cytoarchitectonics, synaptic connectivity and neuronal network formation. Furthermore, genetic, anatomical and functional studies have recently identified multiple astrocyte exaptations that strongly suggest a direct relation to the increased size and complexity of the human brain. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S; Bock, E; Warecka, K

    1980-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) content of 58 human brain tumours was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using monospecific antibody against GFA. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, spongioblastomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas contained relatively high...... amounts of GFA, up to 85 times the concentration in parietal grey substance of normal human brain. GFA was not found in neurinomas, meningiomas, adenomas of the hypophysis, or in a single case of metastasis of adenocarcinoma. Non-glial tumours of craniopharyngioma and haemangioblastoma were infiltrated...

  20. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies....

  1. Understanding complexity in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2011-05-01

    Although the ultimate aim of neuroscientific enquiry is to gain an understanding of the brain and how its workings relate to the mind, the majority of current efforts are largely focused on small questions using increasingly detailed data. However, it might be possible to successfully address the larger question of mind-brain mechanisms if the cumulative findings from these neuroscientific studies are coupled with complementary approaches from physics and philosophy. The brain, we argue, can be understood as a complex system or network, in which mental states emerge from the interaction between multiple physical and functional levels. Achieving further conceptual progress will crucially depend on broad-scale discussions regarding the properties of cognition and the tools that are currently available or must be developed in order to study mind-brain mechanisms.

  2. Increased morphological asymmetry, evolvability and plasticity in human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Hopkins, William D; Sherwood, Chet C

    2013-06-22

    The study of hominin brain evolution relies mostly on evaluation of the endocranial morphology of fossil skulls. However, only some general features of external brain morphology are evident from endocasts, and many anatomical details can be difficult or impossible to examine. In this study, we use geometric morphometric techniques to evaluate inter- and intraspecific differences in cerebral morphology in a sample of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging scans of chimpanzees and humans, with special emphasis on the study of asymmetric variation. Our study reveals that chimpanzee-human differences in cerebral morphology are mainly symmetric; by contrast, there is continuity in asymmetric variation between species, with humans showing an increased range of variation. Moreover, asymmetric variation does not appear to be the result of allometric scaling at intraspecific levels, whereas symmetric changes exhibit very slight allometric effects within each species. Our results emphasize two key properties of brain evolution in the hominine clade: first, evolution of chimpanzee and human brains (and probably their last common ancestor and related species) is not strongly morphologically constrained, thus making their brains highly evolvable and responsive to selective pressures; second, chimpanzee and, especially, human brains show high levels of fluctuating asymmetry indicative of pronounced developmental plasticity. We infer that these two characteristics can have a role in human cognitive evolution.

  3. DUF1220 domains, cognitive disease, and human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, L; Sikela, J M

    2009-01-01

    We have established that human genome sequences encoding a novel protein domain, DUF1220, show a dramatically elevated copy number in the human lineage (>200 copies in humans vs. 1 in mouse/rat) and may be important to human evolutionary adaptation. Copy-number variations (CNVs) in the 1q21.1 region, where most DUF1220 sequences map, have now been implicated in numerous diseases associated with cognitive dysfunction, including autism, autism spectrum disorder, mental retardation, schizophrenia, microcephaly, and macrocephaly. We report here that these disease-related 1q21.1 CNVs either encompass or are directly flanked by DUF1220 sequences and exhibit a dosage-related correlation with human brain size. Microcephaly-producing 1q21.1 CNVs are deletions, whereas macrocephaly-producing 1q21.1 CNVs are duplications. Similarly, 1q21.1 deletions and smaller brain size are linked with schizophrenia, whereas 1q21.1 duplications and larger brain size are associated with autism. Interestingly, these two diseases are thought to be phenotypic opposites. These data suggest a model which proposes that (1) DUF1220 domain copy number may be involved in influencing human brain size and (2) the evolutionary advantage of rapidly increasing DUF1220 copy number in the human lineage has resulted in favoring retention of the high genomic instability of the 1q21.1 region, which, in turn, has precipitated a spectrum of recurrent human brain and developmental disorders.

  4. Molecular and genetic insights into an infantile epileptic encephalopathy-CDKL5 disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ailing Zhou; Song Han; Zhaolan Joe Zhou

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The discovery that mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene are associated with infantile epileptic encephalopathy has stimulated world-wide research effort to understand the molecular and genetic basis of CDKL5 disorder.Given the large number of literature published thus far,this review aims to summarize current genetic studies,draw a consensus on proposed molecular functions,and point to gaps of knowledge in CDKL5 research.METHODS:A systematic review process was conducted using the PubMed search engine focusing on CDKL5 studies in the recent ten years.We analyzed these publications and summarized the findings into four sections:genetic studies,CDKL5 expression pattems,molecular functions,and animal models.We also discussed challenges and future directions in each section.RESULTS:On the clinical side,CDKL5 disorder is characterized by early onset epileptic seizures,intellectual disability,and stereotypical behaviors.On the research side,a series of molecular and genetic studies in human patients,cell cultures and animal models have established the causality of CDKL5 to the infantile epileptic encephalopathy,and pointed to a key role for CDKL5 in regulating neuronal function in the brain.Mouse models of CDKL5 disorder have also been developed,and notably,manifest behavioral phenotypes,mimicking numerous clinical symptoms of CDKL5 disorder and advancing CDKL5 research to the preclinical stage.CONCLUSIONS:Given what we have leamed thus far,future identification of robust,quantitative,and sensitive outcome measures would be the key in animal model studies,particularly in heterozygous females.In the meantime,molecular and cellular studies of CDKL5 should focus on mechanism-based investigation and aim to uncover druggable targets that offer the potential to rescue or ameliorate CDKL5 disorder-related phenotypes.

  5. Do glutathione levels decline in aging human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul S; Moszczynska, Anna; Mattina, Katie; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Sailasuta, Napapon; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    For the past 60 years a major theory of "aging" is that age-related damage is largely caused by excessive uncompensated oxidative stress. The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant defense mechanism against reactive free radicals and has also served as a marker of changes in oxidative stress. Some (albeit conflicting) animal data suggest a loss of glutathione in brain senescence, which might compromise the ability of the aging brain to meet the demands of oxidative stress. Our objective was to establish whether advancing age is associated with glutathione deficiency in human brain. We measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in multiple regions of autopsied brain of normal subjects (n=74) aged one day to 99 years. Brain GSH levels during the infancy/teenage years were generally similar to those in the oldest examined adult group (76-99 years). During adulthood (23-99 years) GSH levels remained either stable (occipital cortex) or increased (caudate nucleus, frontal and cerebellar cortices). To the extent that GSH levels represent glutathione antioxidant capacity, our postmortem data suggest that human brain aging is not associated with declining glutathione status. We suggest that aged healthy human brains can maintain antioxidant capacity related to glutathione and that an age-related increase in GSH levels in some brain regions might possibly be a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress. Since our findings, although suggestive, suffer from the generic limitations of all postmortem brain studies, we also suggest the need for "replication" investigations employing the new (1)H MRS imaging procedures in living human brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Grau

    Full Text Available Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI. These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B communication between subjects (hyperinteraction. Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  7. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Carles; Ginhoux, Romuald; Riera, Alejandro; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Chauvat, Hubert; Berg, Michel; Amengual, Julià L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ruffini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI). These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction). Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory) cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  8. Transcriptomic insights into human brain evolution: acceleration, neutrality, heterochrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somel, Mehmet; Rohlfs, Rori; Liu, Xiling

    2014-12-01

    Primate brain transcriptome comparisons within the last 12 years have yielded interesting but contradictory observations on how the transcriptome evolves, and its adaptive role in human cognitive evolution. Since the human-chimpanzee common ancestor, the human prefrontal cortex transcriptome seems to have evolved more than that of the chimpanzee. But at the same time, most expression differences among species, especially those observed in adults, appear as consequences of neutral evolution at cis-regulatory sites. Adaptive expression changes in the human brain may be rare events involving timing shifts, or heterochrony, in specific neurodevelopmental processes. Disentangling adaptive and neutral expression changes, and associating these with human-specific features of the brain require improved methods, comparisons across more species, and further work on comparative development.

  9. Nonlinear analysis of EEG for epileptic seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Eisenstadt, M.L. [Knoxville Neurology Clinic, St. Mary`s Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    We apply chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) to human electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Three epoches were examined: epileptic seizure, non-seizure, and transition from non-seizure to seizure. The CTSA tools were applied to four forms of these data: raw EEG data (e-data), artifact data (f-data) via application of a quadratic zero-phase filter of the raw data, artifact-filtered data (g- data) and that was the residual after subtracting f-data from e-data, and a low-pass-filtered version (h-data) of g-data. Two different seizures were analyzed for the same patient. Several nonlinear measures uniquely indicate an epileptic seizure in both cases, including an abrupt decrease in the time per wave cycle in f-data, an abrupt increase in the Kolmogorov entropy and in the correlation dimension for e-h data, and an abrupt increase in the correlation dimension for e-h data. The transition from normal to seizure state also is characterized by distinctly different trends in the nonlinear measures for each seizure and may be potential seizure predictors for this patient. Surrogate analysis of e-data shows that statistically significant nonlinear structure is present during the non-seizure, transition , and seizure epoches.

  10. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  11. Leveraging Human Brain Activity to Improve Object Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Ruth Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Today, most object detection algorithms differ drastically from how humans tackle visual problems. In this thesis, I present a new paradigm for improving machine vision algorithms by designing them to better mimic how humans approach these tasks. Specifically, I demonstrate how human brain activity from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be leveraged to improve object classification. Inspired by the graduated manner in which humans learn, I present a novel algorithm that sim...

  12. Functional network organization of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jonathan D; Cohen, Alexander L; Nelson, Steven M; Wig, Gagan S; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Church, Jessica A; Vogel, Alecia C; Laumann, Timothy O; Miezin, Fran M; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2011-11-17

    Real-world complex systems may be mathematically modeled as graphs, revealing properties of the system. Here we study graphs of functional brain organization in healthy adults using resting state functional connectivity MRI. We propose two novel brain-wide graphs, one of 264 putative functional areas, the other a modification of voxelwise networks that eliminates potentially artificial short-distance relationships. These graphs contain many subgraphs in good agreement with known functional brain systems. Other subgraphs lack established functional identities; we suggest possible functional characteristics for these subgraphs. Further, graph measures of the areal network indicate that the default mode subgraph shares network properties with sensory and motor subgraphs: it is internally integrated but isolated from other subgraphs, much like a "processing" system. The modified voxelwise graph also reveals spatial motifs in the patterning of systems across the cortex.

  13. Ictal epileptic headache revealing non convulsive status epilepticus in a case of eyelid myoclonia with absences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanella, Martina; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Albini, Mariarita; Casciato, Sara; Manfredi, Mario; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Epileptic seizures and headache attacks are two common neurologic phenomena characterized by paroxysmal alteration of brain functions followed by complete restauration of the baseline condition. Headache and epilepsy are related in numerous ways, and they often co-occur. Although the link between these two diseases is not completely clear, several clinical, physiopathological and therapeutic features overlap. Headache is reported in association with epileptic seizures as a pre-ictal, ictal or post-ictal phenomenon. We present the case of a 40 year-old woman affected by eyelid myoclonia with absences (EMA) with a history of prolonged headache attacks. A video-EEG recording performed during one of these episodes showed subcontinuous epileptic activity consisting of generalized spike-and-wave discharges (GSWDs), clinically associated with tensive headache. Our work represents one of the few well EEG-documented cases of ictal epileptic headache in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE).

  14. Effect of Spinach (Spinacea oleracea on DNA fragmentation in pentylenetetrazole induced experimental epileptic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monami Mondal (Mukherjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is a restrained neurological disorder, with a constant neuronal damage, ranging from severe, life-threatening and disabling situations. It leads to oxidative brain damages through DNA fragmentation. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ is a convulsant used to produce experimental epileptic animals. Investigation proved; antioxidant enriched Spinacea oleracea (SO or spinach, a commonly available herb, has a modulatory role on the damaging effects of free radicals. Methods The study was conducted with twenty-four adult male Holtzman strain albino rats (200-250gm. These rats were divided into groups of Control, SO treated control, PTZ induced experimental epileptic group and SO pretreated PTZ induced experimental epileptic group. The epileptic model was prepared by intraperitoneal administration of PTZ at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. Aqueous leaf extract of SO was orally given at a dose of 400 mg /kg body weight, for fourteen consecutive days. After the behavioral study serum and brain tissue samples were collected for the estimation of nitric oxide (NO, DNA fragmentation and antioxidants level. Results Pretreatment with SO leaf extract showed significant decrease in the seizure score, ictal phase, serum NO level, LPO levels and rate of DNA fragmentation. The interictal phase, SOD, CAT, GSH activity of different parts of the brain were significantly increased in SO pretreated PTZ induced group. Conclusion SO is found to play a vital role to provide protection against the oxidative damage of epileptic brain by amending the levels of antioxidants and serum NO level.

  15. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-08-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions.

  16. BrainScope: interactive visual exploration of the spatial and temporal human brain transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Sjoerd M H; van Lew, Baldur; Mahfouz, Ahmed; Pezzotti, Nicola; Höllt, Thomas; Michielsen, Lieke; Vilanova, Anna; Reinders, Marcel J T; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

    2017-06-02

    Spatial and temporal brain transcriptomics has recently emerged as an invaluable data source for molecular neuroscience. The complexity of such data poses considerable challenges for analysis and visualization. We present BrainScope: a web portal for fast, interactive visual exploration of the Allen Atlases of the adult and developing human brain transcriptome. Through a novel methodology to explore high-dimensional data (dual t-SNE), BrainScope enables the linked, all-in-one visualization of genes and samples across the whole brain and genome, and across developmental stages. We show that densities in t-SNE scatter plots of the spatial samples coincide with anatomical regions, and that densities in t-SNE scatter plots of the genes represent gene co-expression modules that are significantly enriched for biological functions. We also show that the topography of the gene t-SNE maps reflect brain region-specific gene functions, enabling hypothesis and data driven research. We demonstrate the discovery potential of BrainScope through three examples: (i) analysis of cell type specific gene sets, (ii) analysis of a set of stable gene co-expression modules across the adult human donors and (iii) analysis of the evolution of co-expression of oligodendrocyte specific genes over developmental stages. BrainScope is publicly accessible at www.brainscope.nl. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. [THE PROPAGATION AND SEMIOLOGY OF FOCAL EPILEPTIC SEIZURES. CASES CONNECTED TO THE INSULA. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Attila; Balogh, Attila

    2016-01-30

    The developing of diagnostical examinations in epileptology provides new challenges in seizure semiology. On the analysis of seizures it is important to examine the mechanisms of their propagation. The brain connectivity (based on the neuroimaging), the shadowing of the movement of excessive neuronal activity (based on computerized EEG and MEG methods), the cognition of the physiological and pathological brain networks are the footstone of the epileptic seizure propagation. The investigators prove, by means of case demonstrations of the role of the network nodes and the role of the epileptic hubs in the seizure symptomatology. The preoperative, intra and postoperative data are analised of three insular and one parietal epileptic patients in point of view of their seizure symptomes. Complex neuroimaging, noninvasive and invasive electrophysiology, intensive long-term video-EEG monitoring, computerized EEG analysis, fuctional mapping, intraoperative corticography were used. The etiology were confirmed with hystology. It is observed that on seizure semiology our patients plays the insula a double role. In some cases, it is the focus of insular seizures with their symptoms difficult to identify. However, in the majority of cases and as a consequence of its rich neural connections, the insula has a peculiar property in the evolution of the symptomatogenic features of seizures. This observations are developing new relationships between the mechanism of seizure propagation and its semiological consequences. On epileptological point of view there are brain structures which has peculiar role in the "designe" of propagation of the epileptic excitement. The numerous new methods in neuroimaging and neurophysiology allowed the connectomical examination of the epileptic networks. The role of the epileptic diathesis is approachable with the metholdology of the brain connectivity. Theoretically the node of the epileptic network consist of the potential pathes where the localised

  18. Progress on the paternal brain: theory, animal models, human brain research, and mental health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, J E; Dayton, C J; Kim, P; Tolman, R M; Volling, B L

    2014-01-01

    With a secure foundation in basic research across mammalian species in which fathers participate in the raising of young, novel brain-imaging approaches are outlining a set of consistent brain circuits that regulate paternal thoughts and behaviors in humans. The newest experimental paradigms include increasingly realistic baby-stimuli to provoke paternal cognitions and behaviors with coordinated hormone measures to outline brain networks that regulate motivation, reflexive caring, emotion regulation, and social brain networks with differences and similarities to those found in mothers. In this article, on the father brain, we review all brain-imaging studies on PubMed to date on the human father brain and introduce the topic with a selection of theoretical models and foundational neurohormonal research on animal models in support of the human work. We discuss potentially translatable models for the identification and treatment of paternal mood and father-child relational problems, which could improve infant mental health and developmental trajectories with potentially broad public health importance. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biswal, B.B.; Mennes, M.J.J.; Zuo, X.N.; Gohel, S.; Kelly, C.; Smith, S.M.; Beckmann, C.F.; Adelstein, J.S.; Buckner, R.L.; Colcombe, S.; Dogonowski, A.M.; Ernst, M.; Fair, D.; Hampson, M.; Hoptman, M.J.; Hyde, J.S.; Kiviniemi, V.J.; Kotter, R.; Li, S.J.; Lin, C.P.; Lowe, M.J.; Mackay, C.; Madden, D.J.; Madsen, K.H.; Margulies, D.S.; Mayberg, H.S.; McMahon, K.; Monk, C.S.; Mostofsky, S.H.; Nagel, B.J.; Pekar, J.J.; Peltier, S.J.; Petersen, S.E.; Riedl, V.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Rypma, B.; Schlaggar, B.L.; Schmidt, S.; Seidler, R.D.; Siegle, G.J.; Sorg, C.; Teng, G.J.; Veijola, J.; Villringer, A.; Walter, M.; Wang, L.; Weng, X.C.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S.; Williamson, P.; Windischberger, C.; Zang, Y.F.; Zhang, H.Y.; Castellanos, F.X.; Milham, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a

  20. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biswal, B.B.; Mennes, M.; Zuo, X.N.; Gohel, S.; Kelly, C.; Smith, S.M.; Beckmann, C.F.; Adelstein, J.S.; Buckner, R.L.; Colcombe, S.; Dogonowski, A.M.; Ernst, M.; Fair, D.; Hampson, M.; Hoptman, M.J.; Hyde, J.S.; Kiviniemi, V.J.; Kotter, R.; Li, S.J.; Lin, C.P.; Lowe, M.J.; Mackay, C.; Madden, D.J.; Madsen, K.H.; Margulies, D.S.; Mayberg, H.S.; McMahon, K.; Monk, C.S.; Mostofsky, S.H.; Nagel, B.J.; Pekar, J.J.; Peltier, S.J.; Petersen, S.E.; Riedl, V.; Rombouts, S.A.; Rypma, B.; Schlaggar, B.L.; Schmidt, S.; Seidler, R.D.; Siegle, G.J.; Sorg, C.; Teng, G.J.; Veijola, J.; Villringer, A.; Walter, M.; Wang, L.; Weng, X.C.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S.; Williamson, P.; Windischberger, C.; Zang, Y.F.; Zhang, H.Y.; Castellanos, F.X.; Milham, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a pr

  1. Toward discovery science of human brain function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a...

  2. Weight lifting in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, F.P. de

    2006-01-01

    The world, just like us, is constantly changing. Making predictions about what will happen to you when you do something (and correcting these predictions based on what is actually happening) is therefore of vital importance. An influential theory states that the brain solves this challenge by using

  3. Shortcomings of the Human Brain and Remedial Action by Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, K. Helmut

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus as to whether, and if so, in which regard and to what extent science and religion is needed for human survival. Here a circumscribed domain is taken up: the sovereignty and sufficiency of the human brain in this context. Several of its shortcomings are pointed out. Religion and other aspects of culture are needed for remedial…

  4. Sibling rivalry among paralogs promotes evolution of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali

    2012-05-11

    Geneticists have long sought to identify the genetic changes that made us human, but pinpointing the functionally relevant changes has been challenging. Two papers in this issue suggest that partial duplication of SRGAP2, producing an incomplete protein that antagonizes the original, contributed to human brain evolution.

  5. Shortcomings of the Human Brain and Remedial Action by Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, K. Helmut

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus as to whether, and if so, in which regard and to what extent science and religion is needed for human survival. Here a circumscribed domain is taken up: the sovereignty and sufficiency of the human brain in this context. Several of its shortcomings are pointed out. Religion and other aspects of culture are needed for remedial…

  6. [Psychogenic non epileptic seizures: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Y; Hubsch, C; Fidelle, G

    2011-04-01

    This paper summarizes the recent literature on the phenomena of psychogenic non epileptic seizures (PNES). DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: PNES are, as altered movement, sensation or experience, similar to epilepsy, but caused by a psychological process. Although in the ICD-10, PNES belong to the group of dissociative disorders, they are classified as somatoform disorders in the DSM-IV. That represents a challenging diagnosis: the mean latency between manifestations and diagnosis remains as long as 7 years. It has been estimated that between 10 and 30% of patients referred to epilepsy centers have paroxysmal events that despite looking like epileptic episodes are in fact non-epileptic. Many pseudo epileptic seizures have received the wrong diagnosis of epilepsy being treated with anticonvulsants. The prevalence of epilepsy in PNES patients is higher than in the general population and epilepsy may be a risk factor for PNES. It has been considered that 65 to 80% of PNES patients are young females but a new old men subgroup has been recently described. POSITIVE DIAGNOSIS AND PSYCHIATRIC COMORBIDITIES: Even if clinical characteristics of seizures were defined as important in the diagnosis algorithm, this point of view could be inadequate because of its lack of sensitivity. Because neuron-specific enolase, prolactin and creatine kinase are not reliable and able to validate the diagnosis, video electroencephalography monitoring (with or without provocative techniques) is currently the gold standard for the differential diagnosis of ES, and PNES patients with pseudoseizures have high rates of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, somatoform symptoms, dissociative disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. We found evidence for correlations between childhood trauma, history of childhood abuse, PTSD, and PNES diagnoses. PNES could also be hypothesized of a dissociative phenomena generated by childhood trauma. Some authors report that PNES can be associated with

  7. Ketogenic Diet in Epileptic Encephalopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Suvasini Sharma; Manjari Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a medically supervised high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has been found useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. It has been shown to be effective in treating multiple seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. In this paper, we review the use of the ketogenic diet in epileptic encephalopathies such as Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  8. Ketogenic Diet in Epileptic Encephalopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvasini Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a medically supervised high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has been found useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. It has been shown to be effective in treating multiple seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. In this paper, we review the use of the ketogenic diet in epileptic encephalopathies such as Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  9. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Gene expression in the aging human brain: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Adith; Mather, Karen A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Baune, Bernhard T; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-03-01

    The review aims to provide a summary of recent developments in the study of gene expression in the aging human brain. Profiling differentially expressed genes or 'transcripts' in the human brain over the course of normal aging has provided valuable insights into the biological pathways that appear activated or suppressed in late life. Genes mediating neuroinflammation and immune system activation in particular, show significant age-related upregulation creating a state of vulnerability to neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disease in the aging brain. Cellular ionic dyshomeostasis and age-related decline in a host of molecular influences on synaptic efficacy may underlie neurocognitive decline in later life. Critically, these investigations have also shed light on the mobilization of protective genetic responses within the aging human brain that help determine health and disease trajectories in older age. There is growing interest in the study of pre and posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, and the role of noncoding RNAs in particular, as mediators of the phenotypic diversity that characterizes human brain aging. Gene expression studies in healthy brain aging offer an opportunity to unravel the intricately regulated cellular underpinnings of neurocognitive aging as well as disease risk and resiliency in late life. In doing so, new avenues for early intervention in age-related neurodegenerative disease could be investigated with potentially significant implications for the development of disease-modifying therapies.

  11. Evolution of the human brain: when bigger is better.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel A. Hofman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies of the brain in mammals suggest that there are general architectural principles governing its growth and evolutionary development. We are beginning to understand the geometric, biophysical and energy constraints that have governed the evolution and functional organization of the brain and its underlying neuronal network. The object of this review is to present current perspectives on primate brain evolution, especially in humans, and to examine some hypothetical organizing principles that underlie the brain’s complex organization. Some of the design principles and operational modes that underlie the information processing capacity of the cerebral cortex in primates will be explored. It is shown that the development of the cortex coordinates folding with connectivity in a way that produces smaller and faster brains, then otherwise would have been possible. In view of the central importance placed on brain evolution in explaining the success of our own species, one may wonder whether there are physical limits that constrain its processing power and evolutionary potential. It will be argued that at a brain size of about 3500 cm3, corresponding to a brain volume two to three times that of modern man, the brain seems to reach its maximum processing capacity. The larger the brain grows beyond this critical size, the less efficient it will become, thus limiting any improvement in cognitive power.

  12. Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton Robert S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective iron homeostasis may be involved in the development of some diseases within the central nervous system. Although the expression of genes involved in normal iron balance has been intensively studied in other tissues, little is known about their expression in the brain. We investigated the mRNA levels of hepcidin (HAMP, HFE, neogenin (NEO1, transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, and hemojuvelin (HFE2 in normal human brain, brain tumors, and astrocytoma cell lines. The specimens included 5 normal brain tissue samples, 4 meningiomas, one medulloblastoma, 3 oligodendrocytic gliomas, 2 oligoastrocytic gliomas, 8 astrocytic gliomas, and 3 astrocytoma cell lines. Results Except for hemojuvelin, all genes studied had detectable levels of mRNA. In most tumor types, the pattern of gene expression was diverse. Notable findings include high expression of transferrin receptor 1 in the hippocampus and medulla oblongata compared to other brain regions, low expression of HFE in normal brain with elevated HFE expression in meningiomas, and absence of hepcidin mRNA in astrocytoma cell lines despite expression in normal brain and tumor specimens. Conclusion These results indicate that several iron-related genes are expressed in normal brain, and that their expression may be dysregulated in brain tumors.

  13. The Evolution of Human Intelligence and the Coefficient of Additive Genetic Variance in Human Brain Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey F.; Penke, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Most theories of human mental evolution assume that selection favored higher intelligence and larger brains, which should have reduced genetic variance in both. However, adult human intelligence remains highly heritable, and is genetically correlated with brain size. This conflict might be resolved by estimating the coefficient of additive genetic…

  14. The Evolution of Human Intelligence and the Coefficient of Additive Genetic Variance in Human Brain Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey F.; Penke, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Most theories of human mental evolution assume that selection favored higher intelligence and larger brains, which should have reduced genetic variance in both. However, adult human intelligence remains highly heritable, and is genetically correlated with brain size. This conflict might be resolved by estimating the coefficient of additive genetic…

  15. The bilingual brain: Flexibility and control in the human cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Prat, Chantel

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present review is to discuss recent cognitive neuroscientific findings concerning bilingualism. Three interrelated questions about the bilingual brain are addressed: How are multiple languages represented in the brain? how are languages controlled in the brain? and what are the real-world implications of experience with multiple languages? The review is based on neuroimaging research findings about the nature of bilingual processing, namely, how the brain adapts to accommodate multiple languages in the bilingual brain and to control which language should be used, and when. We also address how this adaptation results in differences observed in the general cognition of bilingual individuals. General implications for models of human learning, plasticity, and cognitive control are discussed.

  16. Three-dimensional morphology of the human embryonic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shiraishi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphogenesis of the cerebral vesicles and ventricles was visualized in 3D movies using images derived from human embryo specimens between Carnegie stage 13 and 23 from the Kyoto Collection. These images were acquired with a magnetic resonance microscope equipped with a 2.35-T superconducting magnet. Three-dimensional images using the same scale demonstrated brain development and growth effectively. The non-uniform thickness of the brain tissue, which may indicate brain differentiation, was visualized with thickness-based surface color mapping. A closer view was obtained of the unique and complicated differentiation of the rhombencephalon, especially with regard to the internal view and thickening of the brain tissue. The present data contribute to a better understanding of brain and cerebral ventricle development.

  17. Electrical Guidance of Human Stem Cells in the Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited migration of neural stem cells in adult brain is a roadblock for the use of stem cell therapies to treat brain diseases and injuries. Here, we report a strategy that mobilizes and guides migration of stem cells in the brain in vivo. We developed a safe stimulation paradigm to deliver directional currents in the brain. Tracking cells expressing GFP demonstrated electrical mobilization and guidance of migration of human neural stem cells, even against co-existing intrinsic cues in the rostral migration stream. Transplanted cells were observed at 3 weeks and 4 months after stimulation in areas guided by the stimulation currents, and with indications of differentiation. Electrical stimulation thus may provide a potential approach to facilitate brain stem cell therapies.

  18. Design principles of the human brain: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Michel A

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the brain in mammals has been accompanied by a reorganization of the brain as a result of differential growth of certain brain regions. Consequently, the geometry of the brain, and especially the size and shape of the cerebral cortex, has changed notably during evolution. Comparative studies of the cerebral cortex suggest that there are general architectural principles governing its growth and evolutionary development and that the primate neocortex is uniformly organized and composed of neural processing units. We are beginning to understand the geometric, biophysical, and energy constraints that have governed the evolution of these neuronal networks. In this review, some of the design principles and operational modes will be explored that underlie the information processing capacity of the cerebral cortex in primates, and it will be argued that with the evolution of the human brain we have nearly reached the limits of biological intelligence.

  19. Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Posthuma, D

    2006-01-01

    Variation in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume of the adult human brain is primarily genetically determined. Moreover, total brain volume is positively correlated with general intelligence, and both share a common genetic origin. However, although genetic effects on morphology...... of specific GM areas in the brain have been studied, the heritability of focal WM is unknown. Similarly, it is unresolved whether there is a common genetic origin of focal GM and WM structures with intelligence. We explored the genetic influence on focal GM and WM densities in magnetic resonance brain images.......55). Intelligence shared a common genetic origin with superior occipitofrontal, callosal, and left optical radiation WM and frontal, occipital, and parahippocampal GM (phenotypic correlations up to 0.35). These findings point to a neural network that shares a common genetic origin with human intelligence...

  20. Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.

  1. Brain and Social Networks: Fundamental Building Blocks of Human Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Bassett, Danielle S

    2017-09-01

    How do brains shape social networks, and how do social ties shape the brain? Social networks are complex webs by which ideas spread among people. Brains comprise webs by which information is processed and transmitted among neural units. While brain activity and structure offer biological mechanisms for human behaviors, social networks offer external inducers or modulators of those behaviors. Together, these two axes represent fundamental contributors to human experience. Integrating foundational knowledge from social and developmental psychology and sociology on how individuals function within dyads, groups, and societies with recent advances in network neuroscience can offer new insights into both domains. Here, we use the example of how ideas and behaviors spread to illustrate the potential of multilayer network models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A family of hyperelastic models for human brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, L. Angela; Budday, Silvia; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; Kuhl, Ellen; Goriely, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Experiments on brain samples under multiaxial loading have shown that human brain tissue is both extremely soft when compared to other biological tissues and characterized by a peculiar elastic response under combined shear and compression/tension: there is a significant increase in shear stress with increasing axial compression compared to a moderate increase with increasing axial tension. Recent studies have revealed that many widely used constitutive models for soft biological tissues fail to capture this characteristic response. Here, guided by experiments of human brain tissue, we develop a family of modeling approaches that capture the elasticity of brain tissue under varying simple shear superposed on varying axial stretch by exploiting key observations about the behavior of the nonlinear shear modulus, which can be obtained directly from the experimental data.

  3. The role of local field potential coupling in epileptic synchronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiongxing Wu; Heng Yang; Yufeng Peng; Liangjuan Fang; Wen Zheng; Zhi Song

    2013-01-01

    This review hopes to clearly explain the following viewpoints: (1) Neuronal synchronization underlies brain functioning, and it seems possible that blocking excessive synchronization in an epileptic neural network could reduce or even control seizures. (2) Local field potential coupling is a very common phenomenon during synchr in networks. Removal of neurons or neuronal networks that are coupled can significantly alter the extracellular field potential. Interventions of coupling mediated by local field potentials could result in desynchronization of epileptic seizures. (3) The synchronized electrical activity generated by neurons is sensitive to changes in the size of the extracellular space, which affects the efficiency of field potential transmission and the threshold of cell excitability. (4) Manipulations of the field potential fluctuations could help block synchronization at seizure onset.

  4. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing.

  5. Three-dimensional microtomographic imaging of human brain cortex

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutania, Ryuta; Uesugi, Kentaro; Ohyama, Masami; Takekoshi, Susumu; Osamura, R Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an x-ray microtomographic technique for imaging the three-dimensional structure of the human cerebral cortex. Neurons in the brain constitute a neural circuit as a three-dimensional network. The brain tissue is composed of light elements that give little contrast in a hard x-ray transmission image. The contrast was enhanced by staining neural cells with metal compounds. The obtained structure revealed the microarchitecture of the gray and white matter regions of the frontal cortex, which is responsible for the higher brain functions.

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of oxytocin receptors in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, M L; Petrusz, P; Suzuki, K; Marson, L; Pedersen, C A

    2013-12-03

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) regulates rodent, primate and human social behaviors and stress responses. OT binding studies employing (125)I-d(CH2)5-[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4,Tyr-NH2(9)] ornithine vasotocin ((125)I-OTA), has been used to locate and quantify OT receptors (OTRs) in numerous areas of the rat brain. This ligand has also been applied to locating OTRs in the human brain. The results of the latter studies, however, have been brought into question because of subsequent evidence that (125)I-OTA is much less selective for OTR vs. vasopressin receptors in the primate brain. Previously we used a monoclonal antibody directed toward a region of the human OTR to demonstrate selective immunostaining of cell bodies and fibers in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area and ventral septum of a cynomolgus monkey (Boccia et al., 2001). The present study employed the same monoclonal antibody to study the location of OTRs in tissue blocks containing cortical, limbic and brainstem areas dissected from fixed adult, human female brains. OTRs were visualized in discrete cell bodies and/or fibers in the central and basolateral regions of the amygdala, medial preoptic area (MPOA), anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, olfactory nucleus, vertical limb of the diagonal band, ventrolateral septum, anterior cingulate and hypoglossal and solitary nuclei. OTR staining was not observed in the hippocampus (including CA2 and CA3), parietal cortex, raphe nucleus, nucleus ambiguus or pons. These results suggest that there are some similarities, but also important differences, in the locations of OTRs in human and rodent brains. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) utilizing a monoclonal antibody provides specific localization of OTRs in the human brain and thereby provides opportunity to further study OTR in human development and psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Stephen J. [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)]. E-mail: Stephen_Kish@CAMH.net; Furukawa, Yoshiaki [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Chang Lijan [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Tong Junchao [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Ginovart, Nathalie [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Meyer, Jeffrey H. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met.

  8. Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew CN CHEN

    2008-01-01

    In the past two decades, pain perception in the human brain has been studied with EEG/MEG brain topography and PET/ fMRI neuroimaging techniques. A host of cortical and subeortical loci can be activated by various nociceptive conditions. The activation in pain perception can be induced by physical (electrical, thermal, mechanical), chemical (capsacin, ascoric acid), psychological (anxiety, stress, nocebo) means, and pathological (e.g. migraine, neuropathic) diseases. This article deals mainly on the activation, but not modulation, of human pain in the brain. The brain areas identified are named pain representation, matrix, neuraxis, or signature. The sites are not uniformly isolated across various studies, but largely include a set of cores sites: thalamus and primary somatic area (SI), second somatic area (SII), insular cortex (IC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), cingnlate, and parietal cortices. Other areas less reported and considered important in pain perception include brainstem, hippocampus, amygdala and supplementary motor area (SMA). The issues of pain perception basically encompass both the site and the mode of brain function. Although the site issue is delineared to a large degree, the mode issue has been much less explored. From the temporal dynamics, IC can be considered as the initial stage in genesis of pain perception as conscious suffering, the unique aversion in the human brain.

  9. Distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eVigneault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain. Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3 are responsible for uploading glutamate into synaptic vesicles. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are considered as specific markers of canonical glutamatergic neurons, while VGLUT3 is found in neurons previously shown to use other neurotransmitters than glutamate. Although there exists a rich literature on the localization of these glutamatergic markers in the rodent brain, little is currently known about the distribution of VGLUT1-3 in the human brain. In the present study, using subtype specific probes and antisera, we examined the localization of the three vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain by in situ hybridization, immunoautoradiography and immunohistochemistry. We found that the VGLUT1 transcript was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, whereas VGLUT2 mRNA was mainly found in the thalamus and brainstem. VGLUT3 mRNA was localized in scarce neurons within the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and raphe nuclei. Following immunoautoradiographic labeling, intense VGLUT1- and VGLUT2-immunoreactivities were observed in all regions investigated (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, cerebellum, thalamus, amygdala, substantia nigra, raphe while VGLUT3 was absent from the thalamus and cerebellum. This extensive mapping of VGLUT1-3 in human brain reveals distributions that correspond for the most part to those previously described in rodent brains.

  10. Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C N Chen, Andrew

    2008-10-25

    In the past two decades, pain perception in the human brain has been studied with EEG/MEG brain topography and PET/fMRI neuroimaging techniques. A host of cortical and subcortical loci can be activated by various nociceptive conditions. The activation in pain perception can be induced by physical (electrical, thermal, mechanical), chemical (capsacin, ascoric acid), psychological (anxiety, stress, nocebo) means, and pathological (e.g. migraine, neuropathic) diseases. This article deals mainly on the activation, but not modulation, of human pain in the brain. The brain areas identified are named pain representation, matrix, neuraxis, or signature. The sites are not uniformly isolated across various studies, but largely include a set of cores sites: thalamus and primary somatic area (SI), second somatic area (SII), insular cortex (IC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), cingulate, and parietal cortices. Other areas less reported and considered important in pain perception include brainstem, hippocampus, amygdala and supplementary motor area (SMA). The issues of pain perception basically encompass both the site and the mode of brain function. Although the site issue is delineared to a large degree, the mode issue has been much less explored. From the temporal dynamics, IC can be considered as the initial stage in genesis of pain perception as conscious suffering, the unique aversion in the human brain.

  11. Cell lineage analysis in human brain using endogenous retroelements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrony, Gilad D; Lee, Eunjung; Mehta, Bhaven K; Benjamini, Yuval; Johnson, Robert M; Cai, Xuyu; Yang, Lixing; Haseley, Psalm; Lehmann, Hillel S; Park, Peter J; Walsh, Christopher A

    2015-01-07

    Somatic mutations occur during brain development and are increasingly implicated as a cause of neurogenetic disease. However, the patterns in which somatic mutations distribute in the human brain are unknown. We used high-coverage whole-genome sequencing of single neurons from a normal individual to identify spontaneous somatic mutations as clonal marks to track cell lineages in human brain. Somatic mutation analyses in >30 locations throughout the nervous system identified multiple lineages and sublineages of cells marked by different LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition events and subsequent mutation of poly-A microsatellites within L1. One clone contained thousands of cells limited to the left middle frontal gyrus, whereas a second distinct clone contained millions of cells distributed over the entire left hemisphere. These patterns mirror known somatic mutation disorders of brain development and suggest that focally distributed mutations are also prevalent in normal brains. Single-cell analysis of somatic mutation enables tracing of cell lineage clones in human brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A quantitative transcriptome reference map of the normal human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracausi, Maria; Vitale, Lorenza; Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Piovesan, Allison; Bruno, Samantha; Strippoli, Pierluigi

    2014-10-01

    We performed an innovative systematic meta-analysis of 60 gene expression profiles of whole normal human brain, to provide a quantitative transcriptome reference map of it, i.e. a reference typical value of expression for each of the 39,250 known, mapped and 26,026 uncharacterized (unmapped) transcripts. To this aim, we used the software named Transcriptome Mapper (TRAM), which is able to generate transcriptome maps based on gene expression data from multiple sources. We also analyzed differential expression by comparing the brain transcriptome with those derived from human foetal brain gene expression, from a pool of human tissues (except the brain) and from the two normal human brain regions cerebellum and cerebral cortex, which are two of the main regions severely affected when cognitive impairment occurs, as happens in the case of trisomy 21. Data were downloaded from microarray databases, processed and analyzed using TRAM software and validated in vitro by assaying gene expression through several magnitude orders by 'real-time' reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The excellent agreement between in silico and experimental data suggested that our transcriptome maps may be a useful quantitative reference benchmark for gene expression studies related to the human brain. Furthermore, our analysis yielded biological insights about those genes which have an intrinsic over-/under-expression in the brain, in addition offering a basis for the regional analysis of gene expression. This could be useful for the study of chromosomal alterations associated to cognitive impairment, such as trisomy 21, the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability.

  13. Epileptic nystagmus: A case report and systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Uk Lee

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Even though the localizing value of epileptic nystagmus seems limited in previous reports, the fast phase of epileptic nystagmus was almost always directed away from the epileptic focus that mostly arose from the posterior part of the cerebral hemisphere.

  14. Infantile epileptic syndromes and metabolic etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigevano, Federico; Bartuli, Andrea

    2002-12-01

    Inherited metabolic disorders can cause onset of epilepsy in the first year of life. Epilepsy rarely dominates the clinical presentation, which is more frequently associated with other neurologic symptoms, such as mental retardation, hypotonia and/or dystonia, or vigilance disturbances. The pathogenesis of seizures is multifaceted; inherited metabolic disorder can affect the balance between excitatory and inhibitory chemical mediators, eliminate an energetic substrate at the cerebral level, cause in utero brain malformation, or provoke acute brain lesions. Some clinical disorders that strongly suggest particular metabolic etiologies can be identified. For example, specific clinical signs and findings on electroencephalogram (EEG) are characteristic of pyridoxine-dependent seizures, and inherited metabolic disorders associated with early myoclonic encephalopathy are well defined. In most cases, however, epilepsy secondary to inherited metabolic disorders presents with polymorphic clinical and EEG features that are difficult to classify into precise epileptic syndromes. Common characteristics of these seizures include onset in the first months of life; usually partial, multifocal; simple partial motor semiology; successive appearance of tonic seizures, spasms, and massive myoclonus; and resistance to antiepilepsy drugs. Inherited metabolic disorders must be considered in patients presenting with epilepsy and progressive neurologic worsening.

  15. The heritability of chimpanzee and human brain asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Hopkins, William D; Schapiro, Steven J; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-12-28

    Human brains are markedly asymmetric in structure and lateralized in function, which suggests a relationship between these two properties. The brains of other closely related primates, such as chimpanzees, show similar patterns of asymmetry, but to a lesser degree, indicating an increase in anatomical and functional asymmetry during hominin evolution. We analysed the heritability of cerebral asymmetry in chimpanzees and humans using classic morphometrics, geometric morphometrics, and quantitative genetic techniques. In our analyses, we separated directional asymmetry and fluctuating asymmetry (FA), which is indicative of environmental influences during development. We show that directional patterns of asymmetry, those that are consistently present in most individuals in a population, do not have significant heritability when measured through simple linear metrics, but they have marginally significant heritability in humans when assessed through three-dimensional configurations of landmarks that reflect variation in the size, position, and orientation of different cortical regions with respect to each other. Furthermore, genetic correlations between left and right hemispheres are substantially lower in humans than in chimpanzees, which points to a relatively stronger environmental influence on left-right differences in humans. We also show that the level of FA has significant heritability in both species in some regions of the cerebral cortex. This suggests that brain responsiveness to environmental influences, which may reflect neural plasticity, has genetic bases in both species. These results have implications for the evolvability of brain asymmetry and plasticity among humans and our close relatives.

  16. Notch receptor expression in human brain arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Felberg, Sandra; Wu, Hope Hueizhi; Toms, Steven A; Dehdashti, Amir R

    2015-08-01

    The roles of the Notch pathway proteins in normal adult vascular physiology and the pathogenesis of brain arteriovenous malformations are not well-understood. Notch 1 and 4 have been detected in human and mutant mice vascular malformations respectively. Although mutations in the human Notch 3 gene caused a genetic form of vascular stroke and dementia, its role in arteriovenous malformations development has been unknown. In this study, we performed immunohistochemistry screening on tissue microarrays containing eight surgically resected human brain arteriovenous malformations and 10 control surgical epilepsy samples. The tissue microarrays were evaluated for Notch 1-4 expression. We have found that compared to normal brain vascular tissue Notch-3 was dramatically increased in brain arteriovenous malformations. Similarly, Notch 4 labelling was also increased in vascular malformations and was confirmed by western blot analysis. Notch 2 was not detectable in any of the human vessels analysed. Using both immunohistochemistry on microarrays and western blot analysis, we have found that Notch-1 expression was detectable in control vessels, and discovered a significant decrease of Notch 1 expression in vascular malformations. We have demonstrated that Notch 3 and 4, and not Notch 1, were highly increased in human arteriovenous malformations. Our findings suggested that Notch 4, and more importantly, Notch 3, may play a role in the development and pathobiology of human arteriovenous malformations.

  17. Optimizing full-brain coverage in human brain MRI through population distributions of brain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennes, M.; Jenkinson, M.; Valabregue, R.; Buitelaar, J.; Beckmann, C.; Smith, S.

    2014-01-01

    When defining an MRI protocol, brain researchers need to set multiple interdependent parameters that define repetition time (TR), voxel size, field-of-view (FOV), etc. Typically, researchers aim to image the full brain, making the expected FOV an important parameter to consider. Especially in 2D-EPI

  18. Optimizing full-brain coverage in human brain MRI through population distributions of brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennes, Maarten; Jenkinson, Mark; Valabregue, Romain; Buitelaar, Jan K; Beckmann, Christian; Smith, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    When defining an MRI protocol, brain researchers need to set multiple interdependent parameters that define repetition time (TR), voxel size, field-of-view (FOV), etc. Typically, researchers aim to image the full brain, making the expected FOV an important parameter to consider. Especially in 2D-EPI sequences, non-wasteful FOV settings are important to achieve the best temporal and spatial resolution. In practice, however, imperfect FOV size estimation often results in partial brain coverage for a significant number of participants per study, or, alternatively, an unnecessarily large voxel-size or number of slices to guarantee full brain coverage. To provide normative FOV guidelines we estimated population distributions of brain size in the x-, y-, and z-direction using data from 14,781 individuals. Our results indicated that 11mm in the z-direction differentiate between obtaining full brain coverage for 90% vs. 99.9% of participants. Importantly, we observed that rotating the FOV to optimally cover the brain, and thus minimize the number of slices needed, effectively reduces the required inferior-superior FOV size by ~5%. For a typical adult imaging study, 99.9% of the population can be imaged with full brain coverage when using an inferior-superior FOV of 142mm, assuming optimal slice orientation and minimal within-scan head motion. By providing population distributions for brain size in the x-, y-, and z-direction we improve the potential for obtaining full brain coverage, especially in 2D-EPI sequences used in most functional and diffusion MRI studies. We further enable optimization of related imaging parameters including the number of slices, TR and total acquisition time.

  19. Measuring dopamine release in the human brain with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The dopamine system is involved in the regulation of brain regions that subserve motor, cognitive and motivational behaviors. Disruptions of dopamine (DA) function have ben implicated in neurological and psychiatric illnesses including substance abuse as well as on some of the deficits associated with aging of the human brain. This has made the DA system an important topic in research in the neurosciences and neuroimaging as well as an important molecular target for drug development. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), was the first technology that enabled direct measurement of components of the DA system in the living human brain. Imaging studies of DA in the living brain have been indirect, relying on the development of radiotracers to label DA receptors, DA transporters, compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade synaptic DA. Additionally, through the use of tracers that provide information on regional brain activity (ie brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow) and of appropriate pharmacological interventions, it has been possible to assess the functional consequences of changes in brain DA activity. DA specific ligands have been useful in the evaluation of patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses as well as to investigate receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs. A limitation of strategies that rely on the use of DA specific ligands is that the measures do not necessarily reflect the functional state of the dopaminergic system and that there use to study the effects of drugs is limited to the investigation of receptor or transporter occupancy. Newer strategies have been developed in an attempt to provide with information on dopamine release and on the functional responsivity of the DA system in the human brain. This in turn allows to investigate the effects of pharmacological agent in an analogous way to what is done with microdialysis techniques.

  20. The immune response of the human brain to abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Anton; Cervenka, Simon; Jonsson Fagerlund, Malin; Rasmussen, Lars S; Zetterberg, Henrik; Erlandsson Harris, Helena; Stridh, Pernilla; Christensson, Eva; Granström, Anna; Schening, Anna; Dymmel, Karin; Knave, Nina; Terrando, Niccolò; Maze, Mervyn; Borg, Jacqueline; Varrone, Andrea; Halldin, Christer; Blennow, Kaj; Farde, Lars; Eriksson, Lars I

    2017-04-01

    Surgery launches a systemic inflammatory reaction that reaches the brain and associates with immune activation and cognitive decline. Although preclinical studies have in part described this systemic-to-brain signaling pathway, we lack information on how these changes appear in humans. This study examines the short- and long-term impact of abdominal surgery on the human brain immune system by positron emission tomography (PET) in relation to blood immune reactivity, plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and cognitive function. Eight males undergoing prostatectomy under general anesthesia were included. Prior to surgery (baseline), at postoperative days 3 to 4, and after 3 months, patients were examined using [(11) C]PBR28 brain PET imaging to assess brain immune cell activation. Concurrently, systemic inflammatory biomarkers, ex vivo blood tests on immunoreactivity to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, and cognitive function were assessed. Patients showed a global downregulation of gray matter [(11) C]PBR28 binding of 26 ± 26% (mean ± standard deviation) at 3 to 4 days postoperatively compared to baseline (p = 0.023), recovering or even increasing after 3 months. LPS-induced release of the proinflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor-α in blood displayed a reduction (41 ± 39%) on the 3rd to 4th postoperative day, corresponding to changes in [(11) C]PBR28 distribution volume. Change in Stroop Color-Word Test performance between postoperative days 3 to 4 and 3 months correlated to change in [(11) C]PBR28 binding (p = 0.027). This study translates preclinical data on changes in the brain immune system after surgery to humans, and suggests an interplay between the human brain and the inflammatory response of the peripheral innate immune system. These findings may be related to postsurgical impairments of cognitive function. Ann Neurol 2017;81:572-582. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  1. Voice processing in monkey and human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sophie K

    2008-09-01

    Studies in humans have indicated that the anterior superior temporal sulcus has an important role in the processing of information about human voices, especially the identification of talkers from their voice. A new study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with macaques provides strong evidence that anterior auditory fields, part of the auditory 'what' pathway, preferentially respond to changes in the identity of conspecifics, rather than specific vocalizations from the same individual.

  2. Evaluation of selected recurrence measures in discriminating pre-ictal and inter-ictal periods from epileptic EEG data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamga, Eulalie Joelle [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegraphenberg A 31, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Bialonski, Stephan [Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Nöthnitzer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Marwan, Norbert, E-mail: marwan@pik-potsdam.de [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegraphenberg A 31, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Jürgen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegraphenberg A 31, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Geier, Christian [Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Physics, University of Bonn, Nussallee 14–16, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Lehnertz, Klaus [Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Physics, University of Bonn, Nussallee 14–16, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Interdisciplinary Center for Complex Systems, University of Bonn, Brühler Straße 7, 53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the suitability of selected measures of complexity based on recurrence quantification analysis and recurrence networks for an identification of pre-seizure states in multi-day, multi-channel, invasive electroencephalographic recordings from five epilepsy patients. We employ several statistical techniques to avoid spurious findings due to various influencing factors and due to multiple comparisons and observe precursory structures in three patients. Our findings indicate a high congruence among measures in identifying seizure precursors and emphasize the current notion of seizure generation in large-scale epileptic networks. A final judgment of the suitability for field studies, however, requires evaluation on a larger database. - Highlights: • Recurrence-based analysis of brain dynamics in human epilepsy. • Comparison of recurrence quantification and recurrence network measures. • Statistically significant precursory structures in three out of five patients. • High congruence among measures in characterizing brain dynamics.

  3. Neurospin Seminar: From the Proton to the Human Brain

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From the Proton to the Human Brain Speaker: Prof Denis Le Bihan Abstract: The understanding of the human brain is one of the main scientific challenges of the 21st century. In the early 2000s the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) launched a program to conceive and build a “human brain explorer”, the first human MRI scanner operating at 11.7T. This scanner was envisioned to be part of the ambitious Iseult project, bridging together industrial and academic partners to push the limits of molecular neuroimaging, from mouse to man, using Ultra-High Field (UHF) MRI. In this seminar a summary of the main features of this magnet, and the neuroscience and medical targets of NeuroSpin where this outstanding instrument will be installed in 2017 will be surveyed. The unprecedented resolution and the new contrasts allowed by such UHF magnets, in combination with innovative concepts in physics and neurobiology, will allow to explore the human brain at a mesoscale at which everything remains to d...

  4. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Renteria, Miguel E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Olde Loohuis, Loes M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; van Eijk, Kristel R; Walters, Raymond K; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Winkler, Anderson M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M H; Hartberg, Cecilie B; Haukvik, Unn K; Heister, Angelien J G A M; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Makkinje, Remco R R; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A M; McKay, D Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S L; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Bastin, Mark E; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Carless, Melanie A; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K; Hartman, Catharina A; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; McMahon, Katie L; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostert, Jeanette C; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Nalls, Michael A; Nichols, Thomas E; Nilsson, Lars G; Nöthen, Markus M; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J; Wassink, Thomas H; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Ashbrook, David G; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J; Morris, Derek W; Williams, Robert W; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Roffman, Joshua L; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smoller, Jordan W; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brouwer, Rachel M; Cannon, Dara M; Cookson, Mark R; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Jönsson, Erik G; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; Ophoff, Roel A; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Simmons, Andy

    2015-04-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.

  5. Comprehensive cellular-resolution atlas of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Song-Lin; Royall, Joshua J; Sunkin, Susan M; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A C; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H Ronald; Hohmann, John G; Jones, Allan R; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hof, Patrick R; Fischl, Bruce; Lein, Ed S

    2016-11-01

    Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole-brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high-resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large-format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto- and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127-3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Energetics and the evolution of human brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ana; van Schaik, Carel P; Isler, Karin

    2011-11-09

    The human brain stands out among mammals by being unusually large. The expensive-tissue hypothesis explains its evolution by proposing a trade-off between the size of the brain and that of the digestive tract, which is smaller than expected for a primate of our body size. Although this hypothesis is widely accepted, empirical support so far has been equivocal. Here we test it in a sample of 100 mammalian species, including 23 primates, by analysing brain size and organ mass data. We found that, controlling for fat-free body mass, brain size is not negatively correlated with the mass of the digestive tract or any other expensive organ, thus refuting the expensive-tissue hypothesis. Nonetheless, consistent with the existence of energy trade-offs with brain size, we find that the size of brains and adipose depots are negatively correlated in mammals, indicating that encephalization and fat storage are compensatory strategies to buffer against starvation. However, these two strategies can be combined if fat storage does not unduly hamper locomotor efficiency. We propose that human encephalization was made possible by a combination of stabilization of energy inputs and a redirection of energy from locomotion, growth and reproduction.

  7. Comprehensive cellular‐resolution atlas of the adult human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, Joshua J.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A.C.; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet‐Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A.; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L.; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A.; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W.; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H. Ronald; Hohmann, John G.; Jones, Allan R.; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Fischl, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole‐brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high‐resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large‐format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto‐ and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127–3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27418273

  8. Seizure-related 6,a brain-specific expression gene,is highly expressed in the human cerebellum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianming Jiang; Long Yu; Yangtai Guan; Zhiliang Yu; Xinghua Huang; Xiaosong Chen; Lisha Tang; Xianning Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is a complex,Mendelian disease,and most cases are sporadic.Genomic comparisons of tissue from identified monogenic epilepsies with multigenic and acquired syndromes could ultimately reveal crucial molecular neuropathology for an epileptic phenotype.In the present study,a novel gene,human seizure-related(hSEZ)-6,was isolated from a human brain cDNA library.hSEZ-6 comprises 17 exons and spans a region of at least 55.6 kb,which was localized to 17q12 by radiation hybridization,hSEZ-6 exhibits two isoform types,hSEZ-6A and hSEZ-6B,which encode996 and 995 amino acids,respectively.The two putative hSEZ-6 proteins contain similar motifs and share 82% and 84% identity with mouse SEZ-6A protein,whose expression level increased in mouse cerebral cortex-derived cells treated with a convulsant drug,pentylentetrazole.Northern blot analysis demonstrated that hSEZ-6 is expressed highly in the cerebellum and in nucleus of the extrapyramidal system,such as the caudate nucleus and putamen.Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that hSEZ-6 is expressed in neurons rather than gliocytes,which suggests that hSEZ-6 is a seizure-related gene.

  9. Addiction circuitry in the human brain (*).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.

    2011-09-27

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person's risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability. A better understanding of the main circuits affected by chronic drug use and the influence of social stressors, developmental trajectories, and genetic background on these circuits is bound to lead to a better understanding of addiction and to more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorders.

  10. Mathematical logic in the human brain: syntax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Friedrich

    Full Text Available Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal.

  11. Mathematical logic in the human brain: syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Roland; Friederici, Angela D

    2009-05-28

    Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically) structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal.

  12. A hierarchical model of the evolution of human brain specializations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, H Clark

    2012-06-26

    The study of information-processing adaptations in the brain is controversial, in part because of disputes about the form such adaptations might take. Many psychologists assume that adaptations come in two kinds, specialized and general-purpose. Specialized mechanisms are typically thought of as innate, domain-specific, and isolated from other brain systems, whereas generalized mechanisms are developmentally plastic, domain-general, and interactive. However, if brain mechanisms evolve through processes of descent with modification, they are likely to be heterogeneous, rather than coming in just two kinds. They are likely to be hierarchically organized, with some design features widely shared across brain systems and others specific to particular processes. Also, they are likely to be largely developmentally plastic and interactive with other brain systems, rather than canalized and isolated. This article presents a hierarchical model of brain specialization, reviewing evidence for the model from evolutionary developmental biology, genetics, brain mapping, and comparative studies. Implications for the search for uniquely human traits are discussed, along with ways in which conventional views of modularity in psychology may need to be revised.

  13. The modular and integrative functional architecture of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolero, Maxwell A; Yeo, B T Thomas; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Network-based analyses of brain imaging data consistently reveal distinct modules and connector nodes with diverse global connectivity across the modules. How discrete the functions of modules are, how dependent the computational load of each module is to the other modules' processing, and what the precise role of connector nodes is for between-module communication remains underspecified. Here, we use a network model of the brain derived from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data and investigate the modular functional architecture of the human brain by analyzing activity at different types of nodes in the network across 9,208 experiments of 77 cognitive tasks in the BrainMap database. Using an author-topic model of cognitive functions, we find a strong spatial correspondence between the cognitive functions and the network's modules, suggesting that each module performs a discrete cognitive function. Crucially, activity at local nodes within the modules does not increase in tasks that require more cognitive functions, demonstrating the autonomy of modules' functions. However, connector nodes do exhibit increased activity when more cognitive functions are engaged in a task. Moreover, connector nodes are located where brain activity is associated with many different cognitive functions. Connector nodes potentially play a role in between-module communication that maintains the modular function of the brain. Together, these findings provide a network account of the brain's modular yet integrated implementation of cognitive functions.

  14. Kisspeptin modulates sexual and emotional brain processing in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comninos, Alexander N.; Wall, Matthew B.; Demetriou, Lysia; Shah, Amar J.; Clarke, Sophie A.; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Nesbitt, Alexander; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Prague, Julia K.; Abbara, Ali; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Salem, Victoria; Nijher, Gurjinder M.; Jayasena, Channa N.; Tanner, Mark; Bassett, Paul; Mehta, Amrish; Rabiner, Eugenii A.; Hönigsperger, Christoph; Silva, Meire Ribeiro; Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Wilson, Steven Ray; Brown, Rachel C.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Dhillo, Waljit S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Sex, emotion, and reproduction are fundamental and tightly entwined aspects of human behavior. At a population level in humans, both the desire for sexual stimulation and the desire to bond with a partner are important precursors to reproduction. However, the relationships between these processes are incompletely understood. The limbic brain system has key roles in sexual and emotional behaviors, and is a likely candidate system for the integration of behavior with the hormonal reproductive axis. We investigated the effects of kisspeptin, a recently identified key reproductive hormone, on limbic brain activity and behavior. METHODS. Using a combination of functional neuroimaging and hormonal and psychometric analyses, we compared the effects of kisspeptin versus vehicle administration in 29 healthy heterosexual young men. RESULTS. We demonstrated that kisspeptin administration enhanced limbic brain activity specifically in response to sexual and couple-bonding stimuli. Furthermore, kisspeptin’s enhancement of limbic brain structures correlated with psychometric measures of reward, drive, mood, and sexual aversion, providing functional significance. In addition, kisspeptin administration attenuated negative mood. CONCLUSIONS. Collectively, our data provide evidence of an undescribed role for kisspeptin in integrating sexual and emotional brain processing with reproduction in humans. These results have important implications for our understanding of reproductive biology and are highly relevant to the current pharmacological development of kisspeptin as a potential therapeutic agent for patients with common disorders of reproductive function. FUNDING. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Wellcome Trust (Ref 080268), and the Medical Research Council (MRC). PMID:28112678

  15. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-08-15

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. Why was it overlooked in brain information processing research remains a conundrum. In this paper, I am trying to find a remedy for this bizarre situation. I propose an uncommon definition of "information", which can be derived from Kolmogorov's Complexity Theory and Chaitin's notion of Algorithmic Information. Embracing this new definition leads to an inevitable revision of traditional dogmas that shape the state of the art of brain information processing research. I hope this revision would better serve the challenging goal of human visual information processing modeling.

  16. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libermann, T A; Razon, N; Bartal, A D; Yarden, Y; Schlessinger, J; Soreq, H

    1984-02-01

    The expression of receptors for epidermal growth factor (EGF-R) was determined in 29 samples of brain tumors from 22 patients. Primary gliogenous tumors, of various degrees of cancer, five meningiomas, and two neuroblastomas were examined. Tissue samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after the operation and stored at -70 degrees until use. Cerebral tissue samples from 11 patients who died from diseases not related to the central nervous system served as controls. Immunoprecipitation of functional EGF-R-kinase complexes revealed high levels of EGF-R in all of the brain tumors of nonneuronal origin that were examined. The level of EGF-R varied between tumors from different patients and also between specimens prelevated from different areas of the same tumor. In contrast, the levels of EGF-R from control specimens were invariably low. The biochemical properties of EGF-R in brain tumor specimens were found to be indistinguishable from those of the well-characterized EGF-R from the A-431 cell line, derived from human epidermoid carcinomas. Human brain EGF-R displays a molecular weight of 170,000 by polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. It is phosphorylated mainly in tyrosine residues and shows a 2-dimensional phosphopeptide map similar to that obtained with the phosphorylated EGF-R from membranes of A-431 cells. Our observations suggest that induction of EGF-R expression may accompany the malignant transformation of human brain cells of nonneuronal origin.

  17. New perspectives on corpora amylacea in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augé, Elisabet; Cabezón, Itsaso; Pelegrí, Carme; Vilaplana, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Corpora amylacea are structures of unknown origin and function that appear with age in human brains and are profuse in selected brain areas in several neurodegenerative conditions. They are constituted of glucose polymers and may contain waste elements derived from different cell types. As we previously found on particular polyglucosan bodies in mouse brain, we report here that corpora amylacea present some neo-epitopes that can be recognized by natural antibodies, a certain kind of antibodies that are involved in tissue homeostasis. We hypothesize that corpora amylacea, and probably some other polyglucosan bodies, are waste containers in which deleterious or residual products are isolated to be later eliminated through the action of the innate immune system. In any case, the presence of neo-epitopes on these structures and the existence of natural antibodies directed against them could become a new focal point for the study of both age-related and degenerative brain processes. PMID:28155917

  18. A chain of suprasegmental neuroscillatory circuits: a human brain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, V D

    1988-01-01

    A novel electrophysiological model of human brain electrical activity and functions is proposed. It views the human central nervous system as a chain of three suprasegmental neuroscillatory circuits, namely prosencephalic, mesencephalic, and rhombencephalic. Each circuit consists of a network of periventricular paracrine core neurons, efferent motor plate neurons, and sensory-associative alar plate neurons mediating suprasegmental electroclinical phenomena. The model is based on the exponential analyses of well established human data from the fields of electroencephalography, evoked potentials, wake-sleep spectrum, stages of anesthesia, and a variety of human tremors. This neuroscillatory chain is functionally analogous to the chain of cardiac pacemaker neurons.

  19. De novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Andrew S.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Cossette, Patrick; Delanty, Norman; Dlugos, Dennis; Eichler, Evan E.; Epstein, Michael P.; Glauser, Tracy; Goldstein, David B.; Han, Yujun; Heinzen, Erin L.; Hitomi, Yuki; Howell, Katherine B.; Johnson, Michael R.; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Lowenstein, Daniel H.; Lu, Yi-Fan; Madou, Maura R. Z.; Marson, Anthony G.; Mefford, Heather C.; Nieh, Sahar Esmaeeli; O'Brien, Terence J.; Ottman, Ruth; Petrovski, Slave; Poduri, Annapurna; Ruzzo, Elizabeth K.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Yuskaitis, Christopher J.; Abou-Khalil, Bassel; Alldredge, Brian K.; Bautista, Jocelyn F.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Boro, Alex; Cascino, Gregory D.; Consalvo, Damian; Crumrine, Patricia; Devinsky, Orrin; Dlugos, Dennis; Epstein, Michael P.; Fiol, Miguel; Fountain, Nathan B.; French, Jacqueline; Friedman, Daniel; Geller, Eric B.; Glauser, Tracy; Glynn, Simon; Haut, Sheryl R.; Hayward, Jean; Helmers, Sandra L.; Joshi, Sucheta; Kanner, Andres; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Kossoff, Erich; Kuperman, Rachel; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Lowenstein, Daniel H.; McGuire, Shannon M.; Motika, Paul V.; Novotny, Edward J.; Ottman, Ruth; Paolicchi, Juliann M.; Parent, Jack M.; Park, Kristen; Poduri, Annapurna; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Shellhaas, Renee A.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Shih, Jerry J.; Singh, Rani; Sirven, Joseph; Smith, Michael C.; Sullivan, Joseph; Thio, Liu Lin; Venkat, Anu; Vining, Eileen P. G.; Von Allmen, Gretchen K.; Weisenberg, Judith L.; Widdess-Walsh, Peter; Winawer, Melodie R.

    2013-01-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies are a devastating group of severe childhood epilepsy disorders for which the cause is often unknown(1). Here we report a screen for de novo mutations in patients with two classical epileptic encephalopathies: infantile spasms (n = 149) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (n = 115)

  20. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandan eRamakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2 and V3. However BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  1. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Kandan; Scholte, H Steven; Groen, Iris I A; Smeulders, Arnold W M; Ghebreab, Sennay

    2014-01-01

    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW) model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2, and V3. However, BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  2. Brain size at birth throughout human evolution: a new method for estimating neonatal brain size in hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, Jeremy M; Lesnik, Julie J

    2008-12-01

    An increase in brain size is a hallmark of human evolution. Questions regarding the evolution of brain development and obstetric constraints in the human lineage can be addressed with accurate estimates of the size of the brain at birth in hominins. Previous estimates of brain size at birth in fossil hominins have been calculated from regressions of neonatal body or brain mass to adult body mass, but this approach is problematic for two reasons: modern humans are outliers for these regressions, and hominin adult body masses are difficult to estimate. To accurately estimate the brain size at birth in extinct human ancestors, an equation is needed for which modern humans fit the anthropoid regression and one in which the hominin variable entered into the regression equation has limited error. Using phylogenetically sensitive statistics, a resampling approach, and brain-mass data from the literature and from National Primate Research Centers on 362 neonates and 2802 adults from eight different anthropoid species, we found that the size of the adult brain can strongly predict the size of the neonatal brain (r2=0.97). This regression predicts human brain size, indicating that humans have precisely the brain size expected as an adult given the size of the brain at birth. We estimated the size of the neonatal brain in fossil hominins from a reduced major axis regression equation using published cranial capacities of 89 adult fossil crania. We suggest that australopiths gave birth to infants with cranial capacities that were on average 180cc (95% CI: 158-205cc), slightly larger than the average neonatal brain size of chimpanzees. Neonatal brain size increased in early Homo to 225cc (95% CI: 198-257cc) and in Homo erectus to approximately 270cc (95% CI: 237-310cc). These results have implications for interpreting the evolution of the birth process and brain development in all hominins from the australopiths and early Homo, through H. erectus, to Homo sapiens.

  3. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain

    CERN Document Server

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. ...

  4. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    the human brain as detected from arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples. In a randomized controlled study, 12 healthy sedentary males carried out 3 mo of endurance training (n = 7) or served as controls (n = 5). Before and after the intervention, blood samples were obtained at rest and during...... in the hippocampus (4.5 + or - 1.6 vs. 1.4 + or - 1.1 mRNA/ssDNA; P human brain following training suggest......The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from...

  5. Chemical Probes for Visualizing Intact Animal and Human Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hei Ming; Ng, Wai-Lung; Gentleman, Steve M; Wu, Wutian

    2017-06-22

    Newly developed tissue clearing techniques can be used to render intact tissues transparent. When combined with fluorescent labeling technologies and optical sectioning microscopy, this allows visualization of fine structure in three dimensions. Gene-transfection techniques have proved very useful in visualizing cellular structures in animal models, but they are not applicable to human brain tissue. Here, we discuss the characteristics of an ideal chemical fluorescent probe for use in brain and other cleared tissues, and offer a comprehensive overview of currently available chemical probes. We describe their working principles and compare their performance with the goal of simplifying probe selection for neuropathologists and stimulating probe development by chemists. We propose several approaches for the development of innovative chemical labeling methods which, when combined with tissue clearing, have the potential to revolutionize how we study the structure and function of the human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic control of human brain transcript expression in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jennifer A; Gibbs, J Raphael; Clarke, Jennifer; Ray, Monika; Zhang, Weixiong; Holmans, Peter; Rohrer, Kristen; Zhao, Alice; Marlowe, Lauren; Kaleem, Mona; McCorquodale, Donald S; Cuello, Cindy; Leung, Doris; Bryden, Leslie; Nath, Priti; Zismann, Victoria L; Joshipura, Keta; Huentelman, Matthew J; Hu-Lince, Diane; Coon, Keith D; Craig, David W; Pearson, John V; Heward, Christopher B; Reiman, Eric M; Stephan, Dietrich; Hardy, John; Myers, Amanda J

    2009-04-01

    We recently surveyed the relationship between the human brain transcriptome and genome in a series of neuropathologically normal postmortem samples. We have now analyzed additional samples with a confirmed pathologic diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD; final n = 188 controls, 176 cases). Nine percent of the cortical transcripts that we analyzed had expression profiles correlated with their genotypes in the combined cohort, and approximately 5% of transcripts had SNP-transcript relationships that could distinguish LOAD samples. Two of these transcripts have been previously implicated in LOAD candidate-gene SNP-expression screens. This study shows how the relationship between common inherited genetic variants and brain transcript expression can be used in the study of human brain disorders. We suggest that studying the transcriptome as a quantitative endo-phenotype has greater power for discovering risk SNPs influencing expression than the use of discrete diagnostic categories such as presence or absence of disease.

  7. Ubiquity and specificity of reinforcement signals throughout the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Timothy J; Chun, Marvin M; Lee, Daeyeol

    2011-10-06

    Reinforcements and punishments facilitate adaptive behavior in diverse domains ranging from perception to social interactions. A conventional approach to understanding the corresponding neural substrates focuses on the basal ganglia and its dopaminergic projections. Here, we show that reinforcement and punishment signals are surprisingly ubiquitous in the gray matter of nearly every subdivision of the human brain. Humans played either matching-pennies or rock-paper-scissors games against computerized opponents while being scanned using fMRI. Multivoxel pattern analysis was used to decode previous choices and their outcomes, and to predict upcoming choices. Whereas choices were decodable from a confined set of brain structures, their outcomes were decodable from nearly all cortical and subcortical structures. In addition, signals related to both reinforcements and punishments were recovered reliably in many areas and displayed patterns not consistent with salience-based explanations. Thus, reinforcement and punishment might play global modulatory roles in the entire brain.

  8. Nutritional Aspects of Treatment in Epileptic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Danesh; Ghaffar Pour, Majid; Tafakhori, Abbas; Sarraf, Payam; Bitarafan, Sama

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by interruption of normal neuronal functions that is manifested by behavioral disorders, changing of awareness level, and presence of some sensory, autonomic and motor symptoms or signs. It is resulted from many different causes. Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are considered to manage epileptic attacks. Some of them change metabolism and absorption of many nutrients. Therefore, epileptic patients may be in higher risk of nutrient deficiency and its unwelcome effects. In the present paper, we intend to review the relationship between nutrition and epilepsy in two aspects. In one aspect we discuss the nutritional status in epileptic patients, the causes of nutritional deficiencies and the way of compensation of the nutrient deficiencies. It will guide these patients to have a healthy life. In another aspect we explain the role of some nutrients and specific diets in management of epileptic attacks. It can help to better control of epileptic attacks in these patients.

  9. Epileptic syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus and neuronal autoantibody associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampylafka, E I; Alexopoulos, H; Fouka, P; Moutsopoulos, H M; Dalakas, M C; Tzioufas, A G

    2016-10-01

    We investigated systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with epilepsy, a major and organic neurological symptom. Our aim was to test patients for the autoimmune epilepsy-associated antibodies anti-GAD, anti-NMDAR, anti-AMPAR1/2, anti-GABABR and anti-VGKC. We tested sera from ten SLE patients with current or previous episodes of epileptic seizures. In addition, sera were tested for staining on primary hippocampal neurons. The patients' clinical and neuroimaging profile, disease activity and accumulated damage scores and therapeutic regimens administered were recorded, and correlations were evaluated. Patients were negative for all anti-neuronal autoantibodies tested, and showed no staining on primary hippocampal cells, which suggests the absence of autoantibodies against neuronal cell surface antigens. Epileptic seizures were all tonic-clonic, and all patients had high disease activity (mean SLE Damage Acticity Index score 19.3 ± 7.3). Six patients had minor or no brain magnetic resonance imaging findings, and three had major findings. 9/10 patients received immunosuppression for 5 ± 4 months, while anti-convulsive treatment was administered to all patients (4.2 ± 3 years). Our results suggest that the majority of SLE-related epileptic seizures cannot be attributed to the action of a single antibody against neuronal antigens. Studies with larger neuropsychiatric SLE populations and stricter inclusion criteria are necessary to verify these findings. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, K.; Scholte, H.S.; Groen, I.I.A.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Ghebreab, S.

    2015-01-01

    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible

  11. Stem Cells Expand Insights into Human Brain Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Michael A

    2016-04-07

    Substantial expansion in the number of cerebral cortex neurons is thought to underlie cognitive differences between humans and other primates, although the mechanisms underlying this expansion are unclear. Otani et al. (2016) utilize PSC-derived brain organoids to study how species-specific differences in cortical progenitor proliferation may underlie cortical evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mapping Human Brain Function with MRI at 7 Tesla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ In the past decade, the most significant development in MRI is the introduction of fMRI, which permits the mapping of human brain function with exquisite details noninvasively. Functional mapping can be achieved by measuring changes in the blood oxygenation level (I.e. The BOLD contrast) or cerebral blood flow.

  13. Mapping the calcitonin receptor in human brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, Rebekah L; Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2016-01-01

    understanding of these hormone systems by mapping CTR expression in the human brain stem, specifically the medulla oblongata. Widespread CTR-like immunoreactivity was observed throughout the medulla. Dense CTR staining was noted in several discrete nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract...

  14. Exploring human brain lateralization with molecular genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francks, Clyde

    2015-11-01

    Lateralizations of brain structure and motor behavior have been observed in humans as early as the first trimester of gestation, and are likely to arise from asymmetrical genetic-developmental programs, as in other animals. Studies of gene expression levels in postmortem tissue samples, comparing the left and right sides of the human cerebral cortex, have generally not revealed striking transcriptional differences between the hemispheres. This is likely due to lateralization of gene expression being subtle and quantitative. However, a recent re-analysis and meta-analysis of gene expression data from the adult superior temporal and auditory cortex found lateralization of transcription of genes involved in synaptic transmission and neuronal electrophysiology. Meanwhile, human subcortical mid- and hindbrain structures have not been well studied in relation to lateralization of gene activity, despite being potentially important developmental origins of asymmetry. Genetic polymorphisms with small effects on adult brain and behavioral asymmetries are beginning to be identified through studies of large datasets, but the core genetic mechanisms of lateralized human brain development remain unknown. Identifying subtly lateralized genetic networks in the brain will lead to a new understanding of how neuronal circuits on the left and right are differently fine-tuned to preferentially support particular cognitive and behavioral functions. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Endogenous control of waking brain rhythms induces neuroplasticity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, T.; Munneke, M.; Ruge, D.; Gruzelier, J.H.; Rothwell, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of noninvasively inducing long-term changes in human corticomotor excitability by means of a brain-computer interface, which enables users to exert internal control over the cortical rhythms recorded from the scalp. We demonstrate that self-regulation of electroen

  16. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ramakrishnan; H.S. Scholte; I.I.A. Groen; A.W.M. Smeulders; S. Ghebreab

    2015-01-01

    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HM

  17. Microscopic computation in human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R

    1995-04-01

    When human psychological performance is viewed in terms of cognitive modules, our species displays remarkable differences in computational power. Algorithmically simple computations are generally difficult to perform, whereas optimal routing or "Traveling Salesman" Problems (TSP) of far greater complexity are solved on an everyday basis. It is argued that even "simple" instances of TSP are not purely Euclidian problems in human computations, but involve emotional, autonomic, and cognitive constraints. They therefore require a level of parallel processing not possible in a macroscopic system to complete the algorithm within a brief period of time. A microscopic neurobiological model emphasizing the computational power of excited atoms within the neuronal membrane is presented as an alternative to classical connectionist approaches. The evolution of the system is viewed in terms of specific natural selection pressures driving satisfying computations toward global optimization. The relationship of microscopic computation to the nature of consciousness is examined, and possible mathematical models as a basis for simulation studies are briefly discussed.

  18. The functional brain architecture of human morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chadd M; Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Human morality provides the foundation for many of the pillars of society, informing political legislation and guiding legal decisions while also governing everyday social interactions. In the past decade, researchers in the field of cognitive neuroscience have made tremendous progress in the effort to understand the neural basis of human morality. The emerging insights from this research point toward a model in which automatic processing in parallel neural circuits, many of which are associated with social emotions, evaluate the actions and intentions of others. Through various mechanisms of competition, only a subset of these circuits ultimately causes a decision or an action. This activity is experienced consciously as a subjective moral sense of right or wrong, and an interpretive process offers post hoc explanations designed to link the social stimulus with the subjective moral response using whatever explicit information is available.

  19. Low-frequency hippocampal stimulation increases the extracellular γ-aminobutyrate level in the brain, inhibits the epileptic seizures and after discharges of the amygdala in pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epileptic rats%低频海马电刺激增加耐药性颞叶癫痫大鼠脑细胞外液γ-氨基丁酸含量和抑制癫痫发作及杏仁核后放电

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍国锋; 刘晓英; 洪震; 唐太峰

    2014-01-01

    phenobabital and phenytoin.We then divided the pharmacoresistant epileptic rats into the hippocampal stimulation group and control group,with 8 rats in each group.Low-frequency stimulus was conducted for two weeks in the hippocampal stimulation group.The hippocampus extracellular fluid collected by microdialysis was then used to determine the levels of GABA by a high performance liquid chromatography method after hippocampal stimulation.Results The stimulus-induced seizures were inhibited significantly,and the frequency of the AD was decreased,as well as the amplitude,compared with the control group.The extracellular level of GABA in the 8:00-9:00 am and the 8:00-9:00 pm was (32.69 ± 7.80) and (35.76 ± 6.27) μg/ml,respectively,both significantly increased as compared with the control ((26.58 ± 6.87) μg/ml,t =-21.45,P =0.000 ; (31.50 ± 4.87) μg/ml,t =-15.74,P =0.000).Conclusions The low-frequency hippocampal stimulation inhibits the seizures of the kindled model of epilepsy and decreases the frequency,the amplitude,as well as the duration of the amygdale AD in the pharmacoresistant epileptic rats,which may be contributed to the increased GABA content in extracellular fluid of the brain after stimulation.

  20. Direct Electrical Stimulation in the Human Brain Disrupts Melody Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcea, Frank E; Chernoff, Benjamin L; Diamond, Bram; Lewis, Wesley; Sims, Maxwell H; Tomlinson, Samuel B; Teghipco, Alexander; Belkhir, Raouf; Gannon, Sarah B; Erickson, Steve; Smith, Susan O; Stone, Jonathan; Liu, Lynn; Tollefson, Trenton; Langfitt, John; Marvin, Elizabeth; Pilcher, Webster H; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2017-09-11

    Prior research using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [1-4] and behavioral studies of patients with acquired or congenital amusia [5-8] suggest that the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the human brain is specialized for aspects of music processing (for review, see [9-12]). Intracranial electrical brain stimulation in awake neurosurgery patients is a powerful means to determine the computations supported by specific brain regions and networks [13-21] because it provides reversible causal evidence with high spatial resolution (for review, see [22, 23]). Prior intracranial stimulation or cortical cooling studies have investigated musical abilities related to reading music scores [13, 14] and singing familiar songs [24, 25]. However, individuals with amusia (congenitally, or from a brain injury) have difficulty humming melodies but can be spared for singing familiar songs with familiar lyrics [26]. Here we report a detailed study of a musician with a low-grade tumor in the right temporal lobe. Functional MRI was used pre-operatively to localize music processing to the right STG, and the patient subsequently underwent awake intraoperative mapping using direct electrical stimulation during a melody repetition task. Stimulation of the right STG induced "music arrest" and errors in pitch but did not affect language processing. These findings provide causal evidence for the functional segregation of music and language processing in the human brain and confirm a specific role of the right STG in melody processing. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Abnormal expression and spatiotemporal change of Slit2 in neurons and astrocytes in temporal lobe epileptic foci: A study of epileptic patients and experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Min; Liu, Guang-Wei; Pan, Yu-Min; Shen, Lan; Li, Cheng-Shan; Xi, Zhi-Qin; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Liang; Chen, Dan; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2010-04-01

    Repellent guidance molecules provide targeting information to outgrowing axons along predetermined pathways during development. These molecules may also play a role in synaptic reorganization in the adult brain and thereby promote epileptogenesis. Our aim was to investigate the expression of Slit2, one of repellent guidance molecules, in temporal lobe epileptic foci from epileptic patients and experimental animals. Thirty-five temporal neocortex tissue samples from patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and fifteen histological normal temporal lobes from controls were selected. Fifty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into six groups, including five groups with epilepsy induced by lithium-pilocarpine administration and one control group. Temporal lobe tissue samples were taken from rats at 1, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days post-seizure and from controls. Expression of Slit2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis. Slit2 was mainly expressed in neurons in human controls and in both neurons and astrocytes in TLE patients. Slit2 expression was significantly higher in TLE patients as compared with the controls. Slit2-positive cells were mainly neurons in the rat temporal lobe tissues of the control group, the acute period group, and the latent period group, while the Slit2-positive cells were mainly astrocytes in chronic phase. Compared with controls, Slit2 expression in animals in the TLE group gradually decreased from days 1 to 14 post-seizure, but then increased over the levels seen in controls, to peak levels at days 30 and 60. These results suggest that Slit2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of TLE.

  2. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van ’t Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability inhuman brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  3. Is Spreading Depolarization Characterized by an Abrupt, Massive Release of Gibbs Free Energy from the Human Brain Cortex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Jens P.; Isele, Thomas; Reiffurth, Clemens; Offenhauser, Nikolas; Kirov, Sergei A.; Dahlem, Markus A.; Herreras, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    In the evolution of the cerebral cortex, the sophisticated organization in a steady state far away from thermodynamic equilibrium has produced the side effect of two fundamental pathological network events: ictal epileptic activity and spreading depolarization. Ictal epileptic activity describes the partial disruption, and spreading depolarization describes the near-complete disruption of the physiological double Gibbs–Donnan steady state. The occurrence of ictal epileptic activity in patients has been known for decades. Recently, unequivocal electrophysiological evidence has been found in patients that spreading depolarizations occur abundantly in stroke and brain trauma. The authors propose that the ion changes can be taken to estimate relative changes in Gibbs free energy from state to state. The calculations suggest that in transitions from the physiological state to ictal epileptic activity to spreading depolarization to death, the cortex releases Gibbs free energy in a stepwise fashion. Spreading depolarization thus appears as a twilight state close to death. Consistently, electrocorticographic recordings in the core of focal ischemia or after cardiac arrest display a smooth transition from the initial spreading depolarization component to the later ultraslow negative potential, which is assumed to reflect processes in cellular death. PMID:22829393

  4. Topological isomorphisms of human brain and financial market networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra E Vértes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although metaphorical and conceptual connections between the human brain and the financial markets have often been drawn, rigorous physical or mathematical underpinnings of this analogy remain largely unexplored. Here, we apply a statistical and graph theoretic approach to the study of two datasets - the timeseries of 90 stocks from the New York Stock Exchange over a three-year period, and the fMRI-derived timeseries acquired from 90 brain regions over the course of a 10 min-long functional MRI scan of resting brain function in healthy volunteers. Despite the many obvious substantive differences between these two datasets, graphical analysis demonstrated striking commonalities in terms of global network topological properties. Both the human brain and the market networks were non-random, small-world, modular, hierarchical systems with fat-tailed degree distributions indicating the presence of highly connected hubs. These properties could not be trivially explained by the univariate time series statistics of stock price returns. This degree of topological isomorphism suggests that brains and markets can be regarded broadly as members of the same family of networks. The two systems, however, were not topologically identical. The financial market was more efficient and more modular - more highly optimised for information processing - than the brain networks; but also less robust to systemic disintegration as a result of hub deletion. We conclude that the conceptual connections between brains and markets are not merely metaphorical; rather these two information processing systems can be rigorously compared in the same mathematical language and turn out often to share important topological properties in common to some degree. There will be interesting scientific arbitrage opportunities in further work at the graph theoretically-mediated interface between systems neuroscience and the statistical physics of financial markets.

  5. Topological isomorphisms of human brain and financial market networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, Petra E; Nicol, Ruth M; Chapman, Sandra C; Watkins, Nicholas W; Robertson, Duncan A; Bullmore, Edward T

    2011-01-01

    Although metaphorical and conceptual connections between the human brain and the financial markets have often been drawn, rigorous physical or mathematical underpinnings of this analogy remain largely unexplored. Here, we apply a statistical and graph theoretic approach to the study of two datasets - the time series of 90 stocks from the New York stock exchange over a 3-year period, and the fMRI-derived time series acquired from 90 brain regions over the course of a 10-min-long functional MRI scan of resting brain function in healthy volunteers. Despite the many obvious substantive differences between these two datasets, graphical analysis demonstrated striking commonalities in terms of global network topological properties. Both the human brain and the market networks were non-random, small-world, modular, hierarchical systems with fat-tailed degree distributions indicating the presence of highly connected hubs. These properties could not be trivially explained by the univariate time series statistics of stock price returns. This degree of topological isomorphism suggests that brains and markets can be regarded broadly as members of the same family of networks. The two systems, however, were not topologically identical. The financial market was more efficient and more modular - more highly optimized for information processing - than the brain networks; but also less robust to systemic disintegration as a result of hub deletion. We conclude that the conceptual connections between brains and markets are not merely metaphorical; rather these two information processing systems can be rigorously compared in the same mathematical language and turn out often to share important topological properties in common to some degree. There will be interesting scientific arbitrage opportunities in further work at the graph-theoretically mediated interface between systems neuroscience and the statistical physics of financial markets.

  6. Multiphoton fluorescence imaging of NADH to quantify metabolic changes in epileptic tissue in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Thomas H.; Zinter, Joseph; Spencer, Dennis D.; Williamson, Anne; Levene, Michael J.

    2007-02-01

    A powerful advantage of multiphoton microscopy is its ability to image endogenous fluorophores such as the ubiquitous coenzyme NADH in discrete cellular populations. NADH is integral in both oxidative and non-oxidative cellular metabolism. NADH loses fluorescence upon oxidation to NAD +; thus changes in NADH fluorescence can be used to monitor metabolism. Recent studies have suggested that hypo metabolic astrocytes play an important role in cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Current theories suggest this may be due to defective and/or a reduced number of mitochondria or dysfunction of the neuronal-astrocytic metabolic coupling. Measuring NADH fluorescence changes following chemical stimulation enables the quantification of the cellular distribution of metabolic anomalies in epileptic brain tissue compared to healthy tissue. We present what we believe to be the first multiphoton microscopy images of NADH from the human brain. We also present images of NADH fluorescence from the hippocampus of the kainate-treated rat TLE model. In some experiments, human and rat astrocytes were selectively labeled with the fluorescent dye sulforhodamine 101 (SR101). Our results demonstrate that multiphoton microscopy is a powerful tool for assaying the metabolic pathologies associated with temporal lobe epilepsy in humans and in rodent models.

  7. Regional mechanical properties of human brain tissue for computational models of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, John D; Sundaresh, Sowmya N; Elkin, Benjamin S; McKhann, Guy M; Morrison, Barclay

    2017-06-01

    To determine viscoelastic shear moduli, stress relaxation indentation tests were performed on samples of human brain tissue resected in the course of epilepsy surgery. Through the use of a 500µm diameter indenter, regional mechanical properties were measured in cortical grey and white matter and subregions of the hippocampus. All regions were highly viscoelastic. Cortical grey matter was significantly more compliant than the white matter or hippocampus which were similar in modulus. Although shear modulus was not correlated with the age of the donor, cortex from male donors was significantly stiffer than from female donors. The presented material properties will help to populate finite element models of the brain as they become more anatomically detailed. We present the first mechanical characterization of fresh, post-operative human brain tissue using an indentation loading mode. Indentation generates highly localized data, allowing structure-specific mechanical properties to be determined from small tissue samples resected during surgery. It also avoids pitfalls of cadaveric tissue and allows data to be collected before degenerative processes alter mechanical properties. To correctly predict traumatic brain injury, finite element models must calculate intracranial deformation during head impact. The functional consequences of injury depend on the anatomical structures injured. Therefore, morbidity depends on the distribution of deformation across structures. Accurate prediction of structure-specific deformation requires structure-specific mechanical properties. This data will facilitate deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms that lead to traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua HU; Er-qing WEI; Gao CHEN; Jian-min ZHANG; Wei-ping ZHANG; Lei ZHANG; Qiu-fu GE; Hong-tian YAO; Wei DING; Zhong CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine the distribution of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 (CysLT2),one of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptors, in human brains with traumatic injury and tumors. Methods: Brain specimens were obtained from patients who underwent brain surgery. CysLT2 in brain tissues was examined using immunohistochemical analysis. Results: CysLT2 was expressed in the smooth muscle cells (not in the endothelial cells) of arteries and veins. CysLT2 was also expressed in the granulocytes in both vessels and in the brain parenchyma. In addition, CysLT2 was detected in neuron- and glial-appearing cells in either the late stages of traumatic injury or in the area surrounding the tumors. Microvessels regenerated 8 d after trauma and CysLT2 expression was recorded in their endothelial cells.Conclusion: CysLT2 is distributed in vascular smooth muscle cells and granulocytes, and brain trauma and tumor can induce its expression in vascular endothelial cells and in a number of other cells.

  9. Translational neurochemical research in acute human brain injury: the current status and potential future for cerebral microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillered, Lars; Vespa, Paul M; Hovda, David A

    2005-01-01

    Microdialysis (MD) was introduced as an intracerebral sampling method for clinical neurosurgery by Hillered et al. and Meyerson et al. in 1990. Since then MD has been embraced as a research tool to measure the neurochemistry of acute human brain injury and epilepsy. In general investigators have focused their attention to relative chemical changes during neurointensive care, operative procedures, and epileptic seizure activity. This initial excitement surrounding this technology has subsided over the years due to concerns about the amount of tissue sampled and the complicated issues related to quantification. The interpretation of mild to moderate MD fluctuations in general remains an issue relating to dynamic changes of the architecture and size of the interstitial space, blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, and analytical imprecision, calling for additional validation studies and new methods to control for in vivo recovery variations. Consequently, the use of this methodology to influence clinical decisions regarding the care of patients has been restricted to a few institutions. Clinical studies have provided ample evidence that intracerebral MD monitoring is useful for the detection of overt adverse neurochemical conditions involving hypoxia/ischemia and seizure activity in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), traumatic brain injury (TBI), thromboembolic stroke, and epilepsy. There is some data strongly suggesting that MD changes precede the onset of secondary neurological deterioration following SAH, hemispheric stroke, and surges of increased ICP in fulminant hepatic failure. These promising investigations have relied on MD-markers for disturbed glucose metabolism (glucose, lactate, and pyruvate) and amino acids. Others have focused on trying to capture other important neurochemical events, such as excitotoxicity, cell membrane degradation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) formation, cellular edema, and BBB dysfunction. However, these other

  10. Automated regional behavioral analysis for human brain images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jack L; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B; Martinez, Michael J; Fox, P Mickle; Fox, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral categories of functional imaging experiments along with standardized brain coordinates of associated activations were used to develop a method to automate regional behavioral analysis of human brain images. Behavioral and coordinate data were taken from the BrainMap database (http://www.brainmap.org/), which documents over 20 years of published functional brain imaging studies. A brain region of interest (ROI) for behavioral analysis can be defined in functional images, anatomical images or brain atlases, if images are spatially normalized to MNI or Talairach standards. Results of behavioral analysis are presented for each of BrainMap's 51 behavioral sub-domains spanning five behavioral domains (Action, Cognition, Emotion, Interoception, and Perception). For each behavioral sub-domain the fraction of coordinates falling within the ROI was computed and compared with the fraction expected if coordinates for the behavior were not clustered, i.e., uniformly distributed. When the difference between these fractions is large behavioral association is indicated. A z-score ≥ 3.0 was used to designate statistically significant behavioral association. The left-right symmetry of ~100K activation foci was evaluated by hemisphere, lobe, and by behavioral sub-domain. Results highlighted the classic left-side dominance for language while asymmetry for most sub-domains (~75%) was not statistically significant. Use scenarios were presented for anatomical ROIs from the Harvard-Oxford cortical (HOC) brain atlas, functional ROIs from statistical parametric maps in a TMS-PET study, a task-based fMRI study, and ROIs from the ten "major representative" functional networks in a previously published resting state fMRI study. Statistically significant behavioral findings for these use scenarios were consistent with published behaviors for associated anatomical and functional regions.

  11. Injury Response of Resected Human Brain Tissue In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwer, Ronald W H; Sluiter, Arja A; Balesar, Rawien A; Baaijen, Johannes C; de Witt Hamer, Philip C; Speijer, Dave; Li, Yichen; Swaab, Dick F

    2015-07-01

    Brain injury affects a significant number of people each year. Organotypic cultures from resected normal neocortical tissue provide unique opportunities to study the cellular and neuropathological consequences of severe injury of adult human brain tissue in vitro. The in vitro injuries caused by resection (interruption of the circulation) and aggravated by the preparation of slices (severed neuronal and glial processes and blood vessels) reflect the reaction of human brain tissue to severe injury. We investigated this process using immunocytochemical markers, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Essential features were rapid shrinkage of neurons, loss of neuronal marker expression and proliferation of reactive cells that expressed Nestin and Vimentin. Also, microglia generally responded strongly, whereas the response of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes appeared to be more variable. Importantly, some reactive cells also expressed both microglia and astrocytic markers, thus confounding their origin. Comparison with post-mortem human brain tissue obtained at rapid autopsies suggested that the reactive process is not a consequence of epilepsy. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  12. Extensive nuclear sphere generation in the human Alzheimer's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Katharina; Bukhari, Hassan; Loosse, Christina; Leonhardt, Gregor; Glotzbach, Annika; Pawlas, Magdalena; Hess, Katharina; Theiss, Carsten; Müller, Thorsten

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear spheres are protein aggregates consisting of FE65, TIP60, BLM, and other yet unknown proteins. Generation of these structures in the cellular nucleus is putatively modulated by the amyloid precursor protein (APP), either by its cleavage or its phosphorylation. Nuclear spheres were preferentially studied in cell culture models and their existence in the human brain had not been known. Existence of nuclear spheres in the human brain was studied using immunohistochemistry. Cell culture experiments were used to study regulative mechanisms of nuclear sphere generation. The comparison of human frontal cortex brain samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients to age-matched controls revealed a dramatically and highly significant enrichment of nuclear spheres in the AD brain. Costaining demonstrated that neurons are distinctly affected by nuclear spheres, but astrocytes never are. Nuclear spheres were predominantly found in neurons that were negative for threonine 668 residue in APP phosphorylation. Cell culture experiments revealed that JNK3-mediated APP phosphorylation reduces the amount of sphere-positive cells. The study suggests that nuclear spheres are a new APP-derived central hallmark of AD, which might be of crucial relevance for the molecular mechanisms in neurodegeneration.

  13. Xanthine oxidase activity regulates human embryonic brain cells growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevorkian G. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Involvement of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC1.1.3.22 in cellular proliferation and differentiation has been suggested by the numerous investigations. We have proposed that XO might have undoubtedly important role during the development, maturation as well as the death of human embryos brain cells. Methods. Human abortion material was utilized for the cultivation of brain cells (E90. XO activity was measured by the formation of uric acid in tissue. Cell death was detected by the utility of Trypan Blue dye. Results. Allopurinol suppressed the XO activity in the brain tissue (0.12 ± 0.02; 0.20 ± 0.03 resp., p < 0.05. On day 12th the number of cells in the culture treated with the Allopurinol at the early stage of development was higher in comparison with the Control (2350.1 ± 199.0 vs 2123 ± 96 and higher in comparison with the late period of treatment (1479.6 ± 103.8, p < < 0.05. In all groups, the number of the dead cells was less than in Control, indicating the protective nature of Allopurinol as an inhibitor of XO. Conclusions. Allopurinol initiates cells proliferation in case of the early treatment of the human brain derived cell culture whereas at the late stages it has an opposite effect.

  14. Luria: a unitary view of human brain and mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecacci, Luciano

    2005-12-01

    Special questions the eminent Russian psychologist and neuropsychologist Aleksandr R. Luria (1902-1977) dealt with in his research regarded the relationship between animal and human brain, child and adult mind, normal and pathological, theory and rehabilitation, clinical and experimental investigation. These issues were integrated in a unitary theory of cerebral and psychological processes, under the influence of both different perspectives active in the first half of the Nineteenth century (psychoanalysis and historical-cultural school, first of all) and the growing contribution of neuropsychological research on brain-injured patients.

  15. Do oral contraceptives increase epileptic seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2017-02-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are used by over 100 million people worldwide. Recently, there has been an emerging interest in studying the potential impact of oral contraceptives (OCs) on certain neurological conditions. It has been suspected for some time that hormonal birth control increases seizure activity in women with epilepsy, but there is little supportive data. Areas covered: Literature from PubMed and online sources was analyzed with respect to hormonal contraception and epilepsy or seizures. New evidence indicates that OCs can cause an increase in seizures in women with epilepsy. The epilepsy birth control registry, which surveyed women with epilepsy, found that those using hormonal contraceptives self-reported 4.5 times more seizures than those that did not use such contraceptives. A preclinical study confirmed these outcomes wherein epileptic animals given ethinyl estradiol, the primary component of OCs, had more frequent seizures that are more likely to be resistant. Expert commentary: OC pills may increase seizures in women with epilepsy and such refractory seizures are more likely to cause neuronal damage in the brain. Thus, women of child bearing age with epilepsy should consider using non-hormonal forms of birth control to avoid risks from OC pills. Additional research into the mechanisms and prospective clinical investigation are needed.

  16. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelvig, D.P.; Pakkenberg, H.; Stark, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons...... while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males......, a difference of 24% with a high biological variance. These numbers can serve as reference values in quantitative studies of the human neocortex. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11...

  17. Analysis of Seizure EEG in Kindled Epileptic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Using wavelet analysis we have detected the presence of chirps in seizure EEG signals recorded from kindled epileptic rats. Seizures were induced by electrical stimulation of the amygdala and the EEG signals recorded from the amygdala were analyzed using a continuous wavelet transform. A time–frequency representation of the wavelet power spectrum revealed that during seizure the EEG signal is characterized by a chirp-like waveform whose frequency changes with time from the onset of seizure to its completion. Similar chirp-like time–frequency profiles have been observed in newborn and adult patients undergoing epileptic seizures. The global wavelet spectrum depicting the variation of power with frequency showed two dominant frequencies with the largest amounts of power during seizure. Our results indicate that a kindling paradigm in rats can be used as an animal model of human temporal lobe epilepsy to detect seizures by identifying chirp-like time–frequency variations in the EEG signal.

  18. A human-specific de novo protein-coding gene associated with human brain functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand whether any human-specific new genes may be associated with human brain functions, we computationally screened the genetic vulnerable factors identified through Genome-Wide Association Studies and linkage analyses of nicotine addiction and found one human-specific de novo protein-coding gene, FLJ33706 (alternative gene symbol C20orf203. Cross-species analysis revealed interesting evolutionary paths of how this gene had originated from noncoding DNA sequences: insertion of repeat elements especially Alu contributed to the formation of the first coding exon and six standard splice junctions on the branch leading to humans and chimpanzees, and two subsequent substitutions in the human lineage escaped two stop codons and created an open reading frame of 194 amino acids. We experimentally verified FLJ33706's mRNA and protein expression in the brain. Real-Time PCR in multiple tissues demonstrated that FLJ33706 was most abundantly expressed in brain. Human polymorphism data suggested that FLJ33706 encodes a protein under purifying selection. A specifically designed antibody detected its protein expression across human cortex, cerebellum and midbrain. Immunohistochemistry study in normal human brain cortex revealed the localization of FLJ33706 protein in neurons. Elevated expressions of FLJ33706 were detected in Alzheimer's brain samples, suggesting the role of this novel gene in human-specific pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. FLJ33706 provided the strongest evidence so far that human-specific de novo genes can have protein-coding potential and differential protein expression, and be involved in human brain functions.

  19. A human-specific de novo protein-coding gene associated with human brain functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand whether any human-specific new genes may be associated with human brain functions, we computationally screened the genetic vulnerable factors identified through Genome-Wide Association Studies and linkage analyses of nicotine addiction and found one human-specific de novo protein-coding gene, FLJ33706 (alternative gene symbol C20orf203. Cross-species analysis revealed interesting evolutionary paths of how this gene had originated from noncoding DNA sequences: insertion of repeat elements especially Alu contributed to the formation of the first coding exon and six standard splice junctions on the branch leading to humans and chimpanzees, and two subsequent substitutions in the human lineage escaped two stop codons and created an open reading frame of 194 amino acids. We experimentally verified FLJ33706's mRNA and protein expression in the brain. Real-Time PCR in multiple tissues demonstrated that FLJ33706 was most abundantly expressed in brain. Human polymorphism data suggested that FLJ33706 encodes a protein under purifying selection. A specifically designed antibody detected its protein expression across human cortex, cerebellum and midbrain. Immunohistochemistry study in normal human brain cortex revealed the localization of FLJ33706 protein in neurons. Elevated expressions of FLJ33706 were detected in Alzheimer's brain samples, suggesting the role of this novel gene in human-specific pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. FLJ33706 provided the strongest evidence so far that human-specific de novo genes can have protein-coding potential and differential protein expression, and be involved in human brain functions.

  20. Chromosome conformation elucidates regulatory relationships in developing human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Hyejung; de la Torre-Ubieta, Luis; Stein, Jason L; Parikshak, Neelroop N; Huang, Jerry; Opland, Carli K; Gandal, Michael J; Sutton, Gavin J; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Lu, Daning; Lee, Changhoon; Eskin, Eleazar; Voineagu, Irina; Ernst, Jason; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2016-10-27

    Three-dimensional physical interactions within chromosomes dynamically regulate gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. However, the 3D organization of chromosomes during human brain development and its role in regulating gene networks dysregulated in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism or schizophrenia, are unknown. Here we generate high-resolution 3D maps of chromatin contacts during human corticogenesis, permitting large-scale annotation of previously uncharacterized regulatory relationships relevant to the evolution of human cognition and disease. Our analyses identify hundreds of genes that physically interact with enhancers gained on the human lineage, many of which are under purifying selection and associated with human cognitive function. We integrate chromatin contacts with non-coding variants identified in schizophrenia genome-wide association studies (GWAS), highlighting multiple candidate schizophrenia risk genes and pathways, including transcription factors involved in neurogenesis, and cholinergic signalling molecules, several of which are supported by independent expression quantitative trait loci and gene expression analyses. Genome editing in human neural progenitors suggests that one of these distal schizophrenia GWAS loci regulates FOXG1 expression, supporting its potential role as a schizophrenia risk gene. This work provides a framework for understanding the effect of non-coding regulatory elements on human brain development and the evolution of cognition, and highlights novel mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders.

  1. Fuzzy topological digital space and digital fuzzy spline of electroencephalography during epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mazlina Muzafar; Wahab, Abdul Fatah

    2017-08-01

    Epilepsy disease occurs because of there is a temporary electrical disturbance in a group of brain cells (nurons). The recording of electrical signals come from the human brain which can be collected from the scalp of the head is called Electroencephalography (EEG). EEG then considered in digital format and in fuzzy form makes it a fuzzy digital space data form. The purpose of research is to identify the area (curve and surface) in fuzzy digital space affected by inside epilepsy seizure in epileptic patient's brain. The main focus for this research is to generalize fuzzy topological digital space, definition and basic operation also the properties by using digital fuzzy set and the operations. By using fuzzy digital space, the theory of digital fuzzy spline can be introduced to replace grid data that has been use previously to get better result. As a result, the flat of EEG can be fuzzy topological digital space and this type of data can be use to interpolate the digital fuzzy spline.

  2. ABC optimized RBF network for classification of EEG signal for epileptic seizure identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Satapathy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The brain signals usually generate certain electrical signals that can be recorded and analyzed for detection in several brain disorder diseases. These small signals are expressly called as Electroencephalogram (EEG signals. This research work analyzes the epileptic disorder in human brain through EEG signal analysis by integrating the best attributes of Artificial Bee Colony (ABC and radial basis function networks (RBFNNs. We have used Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT technique for extraction of potential features from the signal. In our study, for classification of these signals, in this paper, the RBFNNs have been trained by a modified version of ABC algorithm. In the modified ABC, the onlooker bees are selected based on binary tournament unlike roulette wheel selection of ABC. Additionally, kernels such as Gaussian, Multi-quadric, and Inverse-multi-quadric are used for measuring the effectiveness of the method in numerous mixtures of healthy segments, seizure-free segments, and seizure segments. Our experimental outcomes confirm that RBFNN with inverse-multi-quadric kernel trained with modified ABC is significantly better than RBFNNs with other kernels trained by ABC and modified ABC.

  3. ALFY-Controlled DVL3 Autophagy Regulates Wnt Signaling, Determining Human Brain Size

    OpenAIRE

    Rotem Kadir; Tamar Harel; Barak Markus; Yonatan Perez; Anna Bakhrat; Idan Cohen; Michael Volodarsky; Miora Feintsein-Linial; Elana Chervinski; Joel Zlotogora; Sara Sivan; Birnbaum, Ramon Y; Uri Abdu; Stavit Shalev; Birk, Ohad S.

    2016-01-01

    Author Summary One of the major events in human evolution is the significant increase in brain volume in the transition from primates to humans. The molecular pathways determining the larger size of the human brain are not fully understood. Hereditary primary microcephaly, a neurodevelopmental disorder in which infants are born with small head circumference and reduced brain volume with intellectual disability, offers insights to the embryonic molecular pathways determining human brain size. ...

  4. Listening to humans walking together activates the social brain circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Miiamaaria V; Hari, Riitta

    2008-01-01

    Human footsteps carry a vast amount of social information, which is often unconsciously noted. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed brain networks activated by footstep sounds of one or two persons walking. Listening to two persons walking together activated brain areas previously associated with affective states and social interaction, such as the subcallosal gyrus bilaterally, the right temporal pole, and the right amygdala. These areas seem to be involved in the analysis of persons' identity and complex social stimuli on the basis of auditory cues. Single footsteps activated only the biological motion area in the posterior STS region. Thus, hearing two persons walking together involved a more widespread brain network than did hearing footsteps from a single person.

  5. Brain-Computer Interfaces Revolutionizing Human-Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Graimann, Bernhard; Allison, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes a direct output channel between the human brain and external devices. BCIs infer user intent via direct measures of brain activity and thus enable communication and control without movement. This book, authored by experts in the field, provides an accessible introduction to the neurophysiological and signal-processing background required for BCI, presents state-of-the-art non-invasive and invasive approaches, gives an overview of current hardware and software solutions, and reviews the most interesting as well as new, emerging BCI applications. The book is intended not only for students and young researchers, but also for newcomers and other readers from diverse backgrounds keen to learn about this vital scientific endeavour.

  6. Focused ultrasound-mediated suppression of chemically-induced acute epileptic EEG activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yong-An

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder, which is attributed to uncontrollable abnormal hyper-excitability of neurons. We investigated the feasibility of using low-intensity, pulsed radiation of focused ultrasound (FUS to non-invasively suppress epileptic activity in an animal model (rat, which was induced by the intraperitonial injection of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ. Results After the onset of induced seizures, FUS was transcranially administered to the brain twice for three minutes each while undergoing electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring. An air-backed, spherical segment ultrasound transducer (diameter: 6 cm; radius-of-curvature: 7 cm operating at a fundamental frequency of 690 KHz was used to deliver a train of 0.5 msec-long pulses of sonication at a repetitive rate of 100 Hz to the thalamic areas of the brain. The acoustic intensity (130 mW/cm2 used in the experiment was sufficiently within the range of safety guidelines for the clinical ultrasound imaging. The occurrence of epileptic EEG bursts from epilepsy-induced rats significantly decreased after sonication when it was compared to the pre-sonication epileptic state. The PTZ-induced control group that did not receive any sonication showed a sustained number of epileptic EEG signal bursts. The animals that underwent sonication also showed less severe epileptic behavior, as assessed by the Racine score. Histological analysis confirmed that the sonication did not cause any damage to the brain tissue. Conclusions These results revealed that low-intensity, pulsed FUS sonication suppressed the number of epileptic signal bursts using acute epilepsy model in animal. Due to its non-invasiveness and spatial selectivity, FUS may offer new perspectives for a possible non-invasive treatment of epilepsy.

  7. Distribution of cellular HSV-1 receptor expression in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathe, Richard; Haas, Juergen G

    2016-12-15

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus linked to a range of acute and chronic neurological disorders affecting distinct regions of the brain. Unusually, HSV-1 entry into cells requires the interaction of viral proteins glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) with distinct cellular receptor proteins. Several different gD and gB receptors have been identified, including TNFRSF14/HVEM and PVRL1/nectin 1 as gD receptors and PILRA, MAG, and MYH9 as gB receptors. We investigated the expression of these receptor molecules in different areas of the adult and developing human brain using online transcriptome databases. Whereas all HSV-1 receptors showed distinct expression patterns in different brain areas, the Allan Brain Atlas (ABA) reported increased expression of both gD and gB receptors in the hippocampus. Specifically, for PVRL1, TNFRFS14, and MYH9, the differential z scores for hippocampal expression, a measure of relative levels of increased expression, rose to 2.9, 2.9, and 2.5, respectively, comparable to the z score for the archetypical hippocampus-enriched mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2, z = 3.1). These data were confirmed at the Human Brain Transcriptome (HBT) database, but HBT data indicate that MAG expression is also enriched in hippocampus. The HBT database allowed the developmental pattern of expression to be investigated; we report that all HSV1 receptors markedly increase in expression levels between gestation and the postnatal/adult periods. These results suggest that differential receptor expression levels of several HSV-1 gD and gB receptors in the adult hippocampus are likely to underlie the susceptibility of this brain region to HSV-1 infection.

  8. Aspirin attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures in the chronically epileptic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kun; Hu, Ming; Yuan, Bo; Liu, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Neuroinflammatory processes are pathologic hallmarks of both experimental and human epilepsy, and could be implicated in the neuronal hyperexcitability. Aspirin represents one of the non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer side effects in long-term application. This study was carried out to assess the anti-epileptic effects of aspirin when administered during the chronic stage of temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE] in mice. The alteration of hippocampal neurogenesis was also examined for raising a possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of anti-inflammatory treatment in the TLE. Two months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, the chronically epileptic mice were treated with aspirin (20 mg, 60 mg or 80 mg/kg) once a day for 10 weeks. Spontaneous recurrent seizures were monitored by video camera for 2 weeks. To evaluate the profile of hippocampal neurogenesis, the newly generated cells in the dentate gyrus were labeled by the proliferation marker BrdU. The newborn neurons that extended axons to CA3 area were visualized by cholera toxin B subunit retrograde tracing. Administration of aspirin with a dosage of 60 mg or 80 mg/kg initiated at 2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus significantly reduced the frequency and duration of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Aspirin treatment also increased the number of newborn neurons with anatomic integration through improving the survival of the newly generated cells. Aspirin treatment during the chronic stage of TLE could attenuate the spontaneous recurrent seizures in mice. Promotion of hippocampal neurogenesis and inhibition of COX-PGE2 pathway might partly contribute to this anti-epileptic effect. Highlights • Aspirin attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures of chronically epileptic mice • Aspirin increases neurogenesis of chronically epileptic hippocampus by improving the survival of newly generated cells • Promotion of hippocampal neurogenesis and inhibition

  9. Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient.

  10. Transient global amnesia mimics: Transient epileptic amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Nicastro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 79-year-old patient referred for suspected transient global amnesia, after an episode of anterograde amnesia which lasted 90 min. An EEG, performed after the episode, showed bilateral temporal electrographic seizures, orienting the diagnosis toward a transient epileptic amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is defined by temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by recurrent transient amnestic episodes of 30–90 min in duration, sometimes associated with olfactory hallucinations or oral automatisms. Response to antiepileptic drugs is excellent. We would like to raise awareness toward this epileptic amnesia when facing atypical or recurrent transient amnestic episodes.

  11. Human Brain Stem Structures Respond Differentially to Noxious Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eRitter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the physiological correlates of pain, the brain stem is considered to be one core region that is activated by noxious input. In animal studies, different slopes of skin heating (SSH with noxious heat led to activation in different columns of the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG. The present study aimed at finding a method for differentiating structures in PAG and other brain stem structures, which are associated with different qualities of pain in humans according to the structures that were associated with different behavioral significances to noxious thermal stimulation in animals. Brain activity was studied by fMRI in healthy subjects in response to steep and shallow SSH with noxious heat. We found differential activation to different SSH in the PAG and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM. In a second experiment we demonstrate that the different SSH were associated with different pain qualities. Our experiments provide evidence that brainstem structures, i.e. the PAG and the RVM, become differentially activated by different SSH. Therefore, different SSH can be utilized when brain stem structures are investigated and when it is aimed to activate these structures differentially. Moreover, percepts of first pain were elicited by shallow SSH whereas percepts of second pain were elicited by steep SSH. The stronger activation of these brain stem structures to SSH, eliciting percepts of second vs. first pain, might be of relevance for activating different coping strategies in response to the noxious input with the two types of SSH.

  12. Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown in the Aging Human Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Axel; Barnes, Samuel R.; Sweeney, Melanie D.; Halliday, Matthew R.; Sagare, Abhay P.; Zhao, Zhen; Toga, Arthur W.; Jacobs, Russell E.; Liu, Collin Y.; Amezcua, Lilyana; Harrington, Michael G.; Chui, Helena C.; Law, Meng; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits entry of blood-derived products, pathogens and cells into the brain that is essential for normal neuronal functioning and information processing. Post-mortem tissue analysis indicates BBB damage in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The timing of BBB breakdown remains, however, elusive. Using an advanced dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging protocol with high spatial and temporal resolutions to quantify regional BBB permeability in the living human brain, we show an age-dependent BBB breakdown in the hippocampus, a region critical for learning and memory that is affected early in AD. The BBB breakdown in the hippocampus and its CA1 and dentate gyrus subdivisions worsened with mild cognitive impairment that correlated with injury to BBB-associated pericytes, as shown by the cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Our data suggest that BBB breakdown is an early event in the aging human brain that begins in the hippocampus and may contribute to cognitive impairment. PMID:25611508

  13. Human plasma DNP level after severe brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yi-lu; XIN Hui-ning; FENG Yi; FAN Ji-wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between DNP level after human severe brain injury and hyponatremia as well as isorrhea.Methods: The peripheral venous plasma as control was collected from 8 volunteers. The peripheral venous plasma from 14 severe brain injury patients were collected in the 1, 3, 7 days after injury. Radioimmunoassay was used to detect the DNP concentration. Meanwhile, daily plasma and urine electrolytes, osmotic pressure as well as 24 h liquid intake and output volume were detected.Results: The normal adult human plasma DNP level was 62. 46 pg/ml ± 27. 56 pg/ml. In the experimental group, the plasma DNP levels were higher from day 1 today 3 in 8 of the 14 patients than those in the control group (P1 =0.05, P3 =0.03). Negative fluid balance occurred in 8 patients and hyponatremia in 7 patients. The increase of plasma DNP level was significantly correlated with the development of a negative fluid balance (r=-0.69,P<0.01) and hyponatremia (x2 =4.38, P<0.05).Conclusions: The increase of plasma DNP level is accompanied by the enhancement of natriuretic and diuretic responses in severe brain-injured patients, which is associated with the development of a negative fluid balance and hyponatremia after brain injury.

  14. Drug delivery to the human brain via the cerebrospinal fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, L.; Aroussi, A. [Univ. of Nottingham, School of Mechanical, Material, Manufacturing Engineering and Managements, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: eaxljh@nottingham.ac.uk; Vloeberghs, M. [Queens Medical Centre, Dept. of Child Health, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This Study investigates the flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) inside the human ventricular system with particular emphasis on drug path flow for the purpose of medical drug injections. The investigation is conducted using the computational fluid dynamics package FLUENT. The role of the ventricular system is very important in protecting the brain from injury by cushioning it against the cranium during sudden movements. If for any reason the passage of CSF through the ventricular system is blocked (usually by stenosis) then a condition known as Hydrocephalus occurs, where by the blocked CSF causes the Intra Cranial Pressure (ICP) inside the brain to rise. If this is not treated then severe brain damage and death can occur. Previous work conducted by the authors on this subject has focused on the technique of ventriculostomy to treat hydrocephalus. The present study carries on from the previous work but focuses on delivering medical drugs to treat brain tumors that are conventionally not accessible and which require complicated surgical procedures to remove them. The study focuses on the possible paths for delivering drugs to tumors in the human nervous system through conventionally accessible locations without major surgery. The results of the investigation have shown that it is possible to reach over 95% of the ventricular system by injection of drugs however the results also show that there are many factors that can affect the drug flow paths through the ventricular system and thus the areas reachable, by these drugs. (author)

  15. Neuron enriched nuclear proteome isolated from human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammer, Eric B; Duong, Duc M; Diner, Ian; Gearing, Marla; Feng, Yue; Lah, James J; Levey, Allan I; Seyfried, Nicholas T

    2013-07-05

    The brain consists of diverse cell types including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. The isolation of nuclei from these distinct cell populations provides an opportunity to identify cell-type-specific nuclear proteins, histone modifications, and regulation networks that are altered with normal brain aging or neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we used a method by which intact neuronal and non-neuronal nuclei were purified from human post-mortem brain employing a modification of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) termed fluorescence activated nuclei sorting (FANS). An antibody against NeuN, a neuron specific splicing factor, was used to isolate neuronal nuclei. Utilizing mass spectrometry (MS) based label-free quantitative proteomics, we identified 1755 proteins from sorted NeuN-positive and negative nuclear extracts. Approximately 20% of these proteins were significantly enriched or depleted in neuronal versus non-neuronal populations. Immunoblots of primary cultured rat neuron, astrocyte, and oligodendrocyte extracts confirmed that distinct members of the major nucleocytoplasmic structural linkage complex (LINC), nesprin-1 and nesprin-3, were differentially enriched in neurons and astrocytes, respectively. These comparative proteomic data sets also reveal a number of transcription and splicing factors that are selectively enriched in a cell-type-specific manner in human brain.

  16. The Speculative Neuroscience of the Future Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Dielenberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The hallmark of our species is our ability to hybridize symbolic thinking with behavioral output. We began with the symmetrical hand axe around 1.7 mya and have progressed, slowly at first, then with greater rapidity, to producing increasingly more complex hybridized products. We now live in the age where our drive to hybridize has pushed us to the brink of a neuroscientific revolution, where for the first time we are in a position to willfully alter the brain and hence, our behavior and evolution. Nootropics, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, deep brain stimulation (DBS and invasive brain mind interface (BMI technology are allowing humans to treat previously inaccessible diseases as well as open up potential vistas for cognitive enhancement. In the future, the possibility exists for humans to hybridize with BMIs and mobile architectures. The notion of self is becoming increasingly extended. All of this to say: are we in control of our brains, or are they in control of us?

  17. Synaptic Reorganization of the Perisomatic Inhibitory Network in Hippocampi of Temporal Lobe Epileptic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittner, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    GABAergic inhibition and particularly perisomatic inhibition play a crucial role in controlling the firing properties of large principal cell populations. Furthermore, GABAergic network is a key element in the therapy attempting to reduce epileptic activity. Here, we present a review showing the synaptic changes of perisomatic inhibitory neuronal subtypes in the hippocampus of temporal lobe epileptic patients, including parvalbumin- (PV-) containing and cannabinoid Type 1 (CB1) receptor-expressing (and mainly cholecystokinin-positive) perisomatic inhibitory cells, known to control hippocampal synchronies. We have examined the synaptic input of principal cells in the dentate gyrus and Cornu Ammonis region in human control and epileptic hippocampi. Perisomatic inhibitory terminals establishing symmetric synapses were found to be sprouted in the dentate gyrus. Preservation of perisomatic input was found in the Cornu Ammonis 1 and Cornu Ammonis 2 regions, as long as pyramidal cells are present. Higher density of CB1-immunostained terminals was found in the epileptic hippocampus of sclerotic patients, especially in the dentate gyrus. We concluded that both types of (PV- and GABAergic CB1-containing) perisomatic inhibitory cells are mainly preserved or showed sprouting in epileptic samples. The enhanced perisomatic inhibitory signaling may increase principal cell synchronization and contribute to generation of epileptic seizures and interictal spikes. PMID:28116310

  18. Human functional neuroimaging of brain changes associated with practice

    OpenAIRE

    GARAVAN, HUGH PATRICK

    2005-01-01

    PUBLISHED The discovery that experience-driven changes in the human brain can occur from a neural to a cortical level throughout the lifespan has stimulated a proliferation of research into how neural function changes in response to experience, enabled by neuroimaging methods such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Studies attempt to characterize these changes by examining how practice on a task affects the functional anatomy underlying performance. ...

  19. Transfer function between EEG and BOLD signals of epileptic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings have seen growing application in the evaluation of epilepsy, namely in the characterization of brain networks related to epileptic activity. In EEG-correlated fMRI studies, epileptic events are usually described as boxcar signals based on the timing information retrieved from the EEG, and subsequently convolved with a heamodynamic response function to model the associated BOLD changes. Although more flexible approaches may allow a higher degree of complexity for the haemodynamics, the issue of how to model these dynamics based on the EEG remains an open question. In this work, a new methodology for the integration of simultaneous EEG-fMRI data in epilepsy is proposed, which incorporates a transfer function from the EEG to the BOLD signal. Independent component analysis (ICA of the EEG is performed, and a number of metrics expressing different models of the EEG-BOLD transfer function are extracted from the resulting time courses. These metrics are then used to predict the fMRI data and to identify brain areas associated with the EEG epileptic activity. The methodology was tested on both ictal and interictal EEG-fMRI recordings from one patient with a hypothalamic hamartoma. When compared to the conventional analysis approach, plausible, consistent and more significant activations were obtained. Importantly, frequency-weighted EEG metrics yielded superior results than those weighted solely on the EEG power, which comes in agreement with previous literature. Reproducibility, specificity and sensitivity should be addressed in an extended group of patients in order to further validate the proposed methodology and generalize the presented proof of concept.

  20. Investigation of G72 (DAOA expression in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirsch Steven

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms at the G72/G30 locus on chromosome 13q have been associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in more than ten independent studies. Even though the genetic findings are very robust, the physiological role of the predicted G72 protein has thus far not been resolved. Initial reports suggested G72 as an activator of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO, supporting the glutamate dysfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, these findings have subsequently not been reproduced and reports of endogenous human G72 mRNA and protein expression are extremely limited. In order to better understand the function of this putative schizophrenia susceptibility gene, we attempted to demonstrate G72 mRNA and protein expression in relevant human brain regions. Methods The expression of G72 mRNA was studied by northern blotting and semi-quantitative SYBR-Green and Taqman RT-PCR. Protein expression in human tissue lysates was investigated by western blotting using two custom-made specific anti-G72 peptide antibodies. An in-depth in silico analysis of the G72/G30 locus was performed in order to try and identify motifs or regulatory elements that provide insight to G72 mRNA expression and transcript stability. Results Despite using highly sensitive techniques, we failed to identify significant levels of G72 mRNA in a variety of human tissues (e.g. adult brain, amygdala, caudate nucleus, fetal brain, spinal cord and testis human cell lines or schizophrenia/control post mortem BA10 samples. Furthermore, using western blotting in combination with sensitive detection methods, we were also unable to detect G72 protein in a number of human brain regions (including cerebellum and amygdala, spinal cord or testis. A detailed in silico analysis provides several lines of evidence that support the apparent low or absent expression of G72. Conclusion Our results suggest that native G72 protein is not normally present in the tissues that we analysed

  1. Brain tumors induced in rats by human adenovirus type 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murao,Tsuyoshi

    1974-02-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenesis of human adenovirus type 12 in the brain of rats was examined. Newborn rats of Sprague-Dawley and Donryu strains were injected intracranially with human adenovirus type 12. The incidence of intracranial tumors was 91% (30/33 in SpragueDawley and 56% (14/25 in Donryu rats. Except for one tumor nodule located in the parietal cortex of a Sprague.Dawley rat, all tumors developed in the paraventricular areas or in the meninges. Tumors were quite similar histologically to those induced in hamsters and mice resembling the undifferentiated human brain tumors such as medulloblastoma, ependymoblastoma and embryonic gliomas. From the histological features and primary sites of tumor development, it is suggested that the tumors in the brain of rats induced by adenovirus type 12 originate from the embryonic cells in the paraventricular area and also from the undifferentiated supporting cells of the peripheral nerves in the leptomeninges.

  2. Ictal Epileptic Headache with Idiopathic Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2012-01-01

    Neurologists at the University of Rome, Italy report a 37-year-old woman with drug-resistant generalized epilepsy and headache who had a sudden headache during a 24-h EEG that displayed epileptic activity.

  3. Effect of therapeutic ionizing radiation on the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, R G; Spence, D; Wu, S; Xiong, X; Kun, L E; Merchant, T E

    2001-12-01

    We test a hypothesis that fractionated radiation therapy within a therapeutic dose range is associated with a dose-related change in normal brain, detectable by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 33 patients were examined by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain tissue spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) before treatment, and at various times during and after radiation therapy. A T1 map was generated at each time point, and radiation therapy isodose contours were superimposed on the corresponding segmented T1 map. Changes in white matter and gray matter T1 were analyzed as a function of radiation therapy dose and time since treatment, controlling for patient age and tumor site. In white matter, a dose level of more than 20 Gy was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in T1 over time, which became significant 6 months after treatment. There was no significant change in T1 of gray matter over time, at radiation therapy doses of less than 60 Gy. However, GM in close proximity to the tumor had a lower T1 before therapy. Our results represent the first radiation dose-response data derived from pediatric brain in vivo. These findings confirm that white matter is more vulnerable to radiation-induced change than is gray matter, and suggest that T1 mapping is sensitive to radiation-related changes over a broad dose range (20 to 60 Gy). Human white matter T1 is not sensitive to radiation therapy of less than 20 Gy, and gray matter T1 is unchanged over the dose range used to treat human brain tumor. The reduction of gray matter T1 near the tumor could result from compression of cortical parenchyma near the growing tumor mass, or from tumor cell invasion directly into the parenchyma. If brain T1 is a surrogate for radiation effect, reducing the volume of normal white matter receiving more than 20 Gy could be an important treatment planning goal.

  4. Clinical and electrographic findings in epileptic vertigo and dizziness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Han; Robinson, Karen A.; Kaplan, Peter W.; Newman-Toker, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Seizures can cause vestibular symptoms, even without obvious epileptic features. We sought to characterize epileptic vertigo or dizziness (EVD) to improve differentiation from nonepileptic causes, particularly when vestibular symptoms are the sole manifestation. Methods: We conducted a systematic review with electronic (Medline) and manual search for English-language studies (1955–2014). Two independent reviewers selected studies. Study/patient characteristics were abstracted. We defined 3 study population types: (1) seizures, some experiencing vertigo/dizziness (disease cohort); (2) vertigo/dizziness, some due to seizures (symptom cohort); (3) vertigo/dizziness due to seizures in all patients (EVD-only cohort). Results: We identified 84 studies describing 11,354 patients (disease cohort = 8,129; symptom cohort = 2,965; EVD-only cohort = 260). Among 1,055 EVD patients in whom a distinction could be made, non-isolated EVD was present in 8.5%, isolated EVD in 0.8%. Thorough diagnostic workups (ictal EEG, vestibular testing, and brain MRI to exclude other causes) were rare (vertigo presentations than with other brain regions remains unknown. Consistent with clinical wisdom, isolated EVD spells often last just seconds, although many patients experience longer spells. PMID:25795644

  5. Regional selection of the brain size regulating gene CASC5 provides new insight into human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Hu, Enzhi; Wang, Zhenbo; Liu, Jiewei; Li, Jin; Li, Ming; Chen, Hua; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi; Su, Bing

    2017-02-01

    Human evolution is marked by a continued enlargement of the brain. Previous studies on human brain evolution focused on identifying sequence divergences of brain size regulating genes between humans and nonhuman primates. However, the evolutionary pattern of the brain size regulating genes during recent human evolution is largely unknown. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the brain size regulating gene CASC5 and found that in recent human evolution, CASC5 has accumulated many modern human specific amino acid changes, including two fixed changes and six polymorphic changes. Among human populations, 4 of the 6 amino acid polymorphic sites have high frequencies of derived alleles in East Asians, but are rare in Europeans and Africans. We proved that this between-population allelic divergence was caused by regional Darwinian positive selection in East Asians. Further analysis of brain image data of Han Chinese showed significant associations of the amino acid polymorphic sites with gray matter volume. Hence, CASC5 may contribute to the morphological and structural changes of the human brain during recent evolution. The observed between-population divergence of CASC5 variants was driven by natural selection that tends to favor a larger gray matter volume in East Asians.

  6. Two sexually dimorphic cell groups in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L S; Hines, M; Shryne, J E; Gorski, R A

    1989-02-01

    A quantitative analysis of the volume of 4 cell groups in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area (PO-AHA) and of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the human brain was performed in 22 age-matched male and female individuals. We suggest the term Interstitial Nuclei of the Anterior Hypothalamus (INAH 1-4) to identify these 4 previously undescribed cell groups in the PO-AHA. While 2 INAH and the SON were not sexually dimorphic, gender-related differences were found in the other 2 cell groups. One nucleus (INAH-3) was 2.8 times larger in the male brain than in the female brain irrespective of age. The other cell group (INAH-2) was twice as large in the male brain, but also appeared to be related in women to circulating steroid hormone levels. Since the PO-AHA influences gonadotropin secretion, maternal behavior, and sexual behavior in several mammalian species, these results suggest that functional sex differences in the hypothalamus may be related to sex differences in neural structure.

  7. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B

    1999-01-01

    Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate...... brain water content during the course of cerebral infarction. Measurements were performed serially in the acute, subacute, and chronic phase of infarction. Fourteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were examined as well as 9 healthy controls. To correlate with regional cerebral blood flow (r......CBF from Day 0-3 to Day 4-7 (p = 0.050) and from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). No correlation between rCBF and water content was found. Water content in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly between Day 4-7 after stroke. This should be considered when performing quantitative 1H-MRS using water...

  8. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B;

    1999-01-01

    Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate...... brain water content during the course of cerebral infarction. Measurements were performed serially in the acute, subacute, and chronic phase of infarction. Fourteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were examined as well as 9 healthy controls. To correlate with regional cerebral blood flow (r......CBF from Day 0-3 to Day 4-7 (p = 0.050) and from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). No correlation between rCBF and water content was found. Water content in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly between Day 4-7 after stroke. This should be considered when performing quantitative 1H-MRS using water...

  9. A new microcontroller-based human brain hypothermia system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapidere, Metin; Ahiska, Raşit; Güler, Inan

    2005-10-01

    Many studies show that artificial hypothermia of brain in conditions of anesthesia with the rectal temperature lowered down to 33 degrees C produces pronounced prophylactic effect protecting the brain from anoxia. Out of the methods employed now in clinical practice for reducing the oxygen consumption by the cerebral tissue, the most efficacious is craniocerebral hypothermia (CCH). It is finding even more extensive application in cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, neurorenimatology and many other fields of medical practice. In this study, a microcontroller-based designed human brain hypothermia system (HBHS) is designed and constructed. The system is intended for cooling and heating the brain. HBHS consists of a thermoelectric hypothermic helmet, a control and a power unit. Helmet temperature is controlled by 8-bit PIC16F877 microcontroller which is programmed using MPLAB editor. Temperature is converted to 10-bit digital and is controlled automatically by the preset values which have been already entered in the microcontroller. Calibration is controlled and the working range is tested. Temperature of helmet is controlled between -5 and +46 degrees C by microcontroller, with the accuracy of +/-0.5 degrees C.

  10. Adenosine receptors in post-mortem human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S; Xuereb, J H; Askalan, R; Richardson, P J

    1992-01-01

    1. Adenosine A2-like binding sites were characterized in post-mortem human brain membranes by examining several compounds for their ability to displace [3H]-CGS 21680 (2[p-(2 carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine) binding. 2. Two A2-like binding sites were identified in the striatum. 3. The more abundant striatal site was similar to the A2a receptor previously described in rat striatum, both in its pharmacological profile and striatal localization. 4. The less abundant striatal site had a pharmacological profile similar to that of the binding site characterized in the other brain regions examined. This was intermediate in character between A1 and A2 and may represent another adenosine receptor subtype. 5. The co-purification of [3H]-CGS 21680 binding during immunoisolation of human striatal cholinergic membranes was used to assess the possible cholinergic localization of A2-like binding sites in the human striatum. Only the more abundant striatal site co-purified with cholinergic membranes. This suggests that this A2a-like site is present on cholinergic neurones in the human striatum.

  11. Canonical Genetic Signatures of the Adult Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A.; Menon, Vilas; Feng, David; Dolbeare, Tim; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L.; Jegga, Anil G.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bernard, Amy; Glasser, Matthew F.; Dierker, Donna L.; Menche, Jörge; Szafer, Aaron; Collman, Forrest; Grange, Pascal; Berman, Kenneth A.; Mihalas, Stefan; Yao, Zizhen; Stewart, Lance; Barabási, Albert-László; Schulkin, Jay; Phillips, John; Ng, Lydia; Dang, Chinh; Haynor, David R.; Jones, Allan; Van Essen, David C.; Koch, Christof; Lein, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure, and function. We applied a correlation-based metric of “differential stability” (DS) to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing meso-scale genetic organization. The highest DS genes are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related biological annotations, disease associations, drug targets, and literature citations. Using high DS genes we identified 32 anatomically diverse and reproducible gene expression signatures, which represent distinct cell types, intracellular components, and/or associations with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Genes in neuron-associated compared to non-neuronal networks showed higher preservation between human and mouse; however, many diversely-patterned genes displayed dramatic shifts in regulation between species. Finally, highly consistent transcriptional architecture in neocortex is correlated with resting state functional connectivity, suggesting a link between conserved gene expression and functionally relevant circuitry. PMID:26571460

  12. Brain burdens of aluminum, iron, and copper and their relationships with amyloid-β pathology in 60 human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Esiri, Margaret M

    2012-01-01

    The deposition in the brain of amyloid-β as beta sheet conformers associated with senile plaques and vasculature is frequently observed in Alzheimer’s disease. While metals, primarily aluminum, iron, zinc, and copper, have been implicated in amyloid-β deposition in vivo, there are few data specifically relating brain metal burden with extent of amyloid pathologies in human brains. Herein brain tissue content of aluminum, iron, and copper are compared with burdens of amyloid-β, as senile plaques and as congophilic amyloid angiopathy, in 60 aged human brains. Significant observations were strong negative correlations between brain copper burden and the degree of severity of both senile plaque and congophilic amyloid angiopathy pathologies with the relationship with the former reaching statistical significance. While we did not have access to the dementia status of the majority of the 60 brain donors, this knowledge for just 4 donors allowed us to speculate that diagnosis of dementia might be predicted by a combination of amyloid pathology and a ratio of the brain burden of copper to the brain burden of aluminum. Taking into account only those donor brains with either senile plaque scores ≥4 and/or congophilic amyloid angiopathy scores ≥12, a Cu:Al ratio of <20 would predict that at least 39 of the 60 donors would have been diagnosed as suffering from dementia. Future research should test the hypothesis that, in individuals with moderate to severe amyloid pathology, low brain copper is a predisposition to developing dementia.

  13. Memory-related brain lateralisation in birds and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sanne; Nicol, Alister U

    2015-03-01

    Visual imprinting in chicks and song learning in songbirds are prominent model systems for the study of the neural mechanisms of memory. In both systems, neural lateralisation has been found to be involved in memory formation. Although many processes in the human brain are lateralised--spatial memory and musical processing involves mostly right hemisphere dominance, whilst language is mostly left hemisphere dominant--it is unclear what the function of lateralisation is. It might enhance brain capacity, make processing more efficient, or prevent occurrence of conflicting signals. In both avian paradigms we find memory-related lateralisation. We will discuss avian lateralisation findings and propose that birds provide a strong model for studying neural mechanisms of memory-related lateralisation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Predicting human brain activity associated with the meanings of nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom M; Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Carlson, Andrew; Chang, Kai-Min; Malave, Vicente L; Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2008-05-30

    The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many scientific fields. Brain imaging studies have shown that different spatial patterns of neural activation are associated with thinking about different semantic categories of pictures and words (for example, tools, buildings, and animals). We present a computational model that predicts the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neural activation associated with words for which fMRI data are not yet available. This model is trained with a combination of data from a trillion-word text corpus and observed fMRI data associated with viewing several dozen concrete nouns. Once trained, the model predicts fMRI activation for thousands of other concrete nouns in the text corpus, with highly significant accuracies over the 60 nouns for which we currently have fMRI data.

  15. A theoretical model of phase transitions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, V K; Friedrich, R; Haken, H; Kelso, J A

    1994-01-01

    An experiment using a multisensor SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) array was performed by Kelso and colleagues (1992) which combined information from three different sources: perception, motor response, and brain signals. When an acoustic stimulus frequency is changed systematically, a spontaneous transition in coordination occurs at a critical frequency in both motor behavior and brain signals. Qualitatively analogous transitions are known for physical and biological systems such as changes in the coordination of human hand movements (Kelso 1981, 1984). In this paper we develop a theoretical model based on methods from the interdisciplinary field of synergetics (Haken 1983, 1987) and nonlinear oscillator theory that reproduces the main experimental features very well and suggests a formulation of a fundamental biophysical coupling.

  16. Therapeutic approach to epileptic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigevano, Federico; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Plouin, Perrine; Specchio, Nicola

    2013-11-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies (EEs) are electroclinical entities with a peculiar course of disease; seizures and electroencephalographic (EEG) epileptiform abnormalities, ictal and interictal, contribute to progressive disturbance of cerebral functions. Frequently EEs are drug resistant, and consequences may be catastrophic. The main goal of treatment is to stop the peculiar course of epilepsy, operating on three parameters: seizure control, reduction of EEG abnormalities, and developmental outcome. For a correct therapeutic approach it is mandatory to have an as accurate as possible syndromic and etiologic diagnosis. Given the poor efficacy of conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the use of specific drugs for EEs, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosteroids or stiripentol is suggested. In some cases the choice of treatment is strictly related to the etiology: vigabatrin in tuberous sclerosis, ketogenic diet in glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) deficiency, and pyridoxine in pyridoxine deficiency. Some AEDs combinations, such as sodium valproate with lamotrigine, have also provided interesting results, for example, in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, although controlled studies are lacking. Finally, early surgery can be an option in children with focal structural abnormalities responsible for EEs preferably before irreversible damage on developmental outcome. Multispecialist support is recommended in EE. Management should be global from the onset, integrating not only seizure control but also all issues related to comorbidities, particularly neuropsychological and psychiatric.

  17. [Multifocal epileptic crises following mumps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parain, D; Boulloche, J

    1988-04-01

    A 15 years-old girl with no previous history of epilepsy or neurological disease presented three types of epileptic symptoms the same day: 1) clusters of rhythmic myoclonus of the left hemiface; 2) episodes of painful paresthesias of the left arm followed by secondary generalised seizures; 3) episodes of elementary visual hallucinations of the right hemifield. She had several seizures each hour and some were recorded. There were no EEG abnormalities during the facial myoclonus but rapid rhythms were seen during the sensory and visual partial seizures on the right parietal and left occipital lobes. There was no fever and no drowsiness. The CSF tap showed pleocytosis. Serological studies indicated recent mumps. The drugs were initially inefficient. The seizures disappeared after a month. The drugs were stopped after three months and the seizures had not relapsed after a one year's follow-up. Though there were no other sign of encephalitis, we believe that episode of multifocal seizures was due to mumps encephalitis.

  18. The evolution of distributed association networks in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Randy L; Krienen, Fenna M

    2013-12-01

    The human cerebral cortex is vastly expanded relative to other primates and disproportionately occupied by distributed association regions. Here we offer a hypothesis about how association networks evolved their prominence and came to possess circuit properties vital to human cognition. The rapid expansion of the cortical mantle may have untethered large portions of the cortex from strong constraints of molecular gradients and early activity cascades that lead to sensory hierarchies. What fill the gaps between these hierarchies are densely interconnected networks that widely span the cortex and mature late into development. Limitations of the tethering hypothesis are discussed as well as its broad implications for understanding critical features of the human brain as a byproduct of size scaling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microtesla MRI of the human brain with simultaneous MEG

    CERN Document Server

    Zotev, V S; Matlashov, A N; Savukov, I M; Espy, M A; Mosher, J C; Gómez, J J; Kraus, R H

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-low fields (ULF MRI) uses SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices) to measure spin precession at a microtesla-range field after sample magnetization is enhanced by a stronger pre-polarizing field. Here, the first ULF images of the human head acquired at 46 microtesla measurement field with pre-polarization at 30 mT are reported. The imaging was performed with 3 mm x 3 mm x 6 mm resolution using the seven-channel SQUID system designed for both ULF MRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Auditory MEG signals were measured immediately after the imaging while the human subject remained inside the system. These results demonstrate that ULF MRI of the human brain is feasible and can be naturally combined with MEG.

  20. Expression of muscarinic binding sites in primary human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwitz, D; Razon, N; Sokolovsky, M; Soreq, H

    1984-05-01

    The expression of muscarinic binding sites was examined in a collection of primary brain tumors of different cellular origins and various degrees of dedifferentiation, as compared to control specimens. Eleven gliogenous tumors were examined, all of which contained substantial amounts of muscarinic binding sites. Most of the other tumor types examined did not display detectable binding of [3H]N-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilate ([3H]4NMPB). Scatchard analysis indicated the existence of homogeneous antagonist sites in both normal forebrain and glioblastoma multiforme, with Kd values of 1.2 nM and 0.9 nM, respectively. The density of muscarinic binding sites varied between tumors from different patients, and also between specimens prelevated from different areas of the same tumor. This variability, as well as the average density of binding sites, appeared to be larger in highly malignant tumors than in less malignant ones. In contrast, the density of muscarinic receptors from control specimens was invariably high, but within the same order of magnitude. To test whether the muscarinic binding activity in the brain tumors is correlated to other cholinoceptive properties, cholinesterase activity was also examined. Individual data for density of [3H]4NMPB binding sites were then plotted against corresponding values of cholinesterase activity. The pattern of distribution of these values was clearly different in tumor specimens, when compared to that observed in samples derived from non-malignant brain. Our observations indicate that human brain cells of gliogenous origin are capable of expressing muscarinic binding sites, and that, if a correlation exists between muscarinic receptors and cholinesterase levels in gliogenous tumors, it differs from that of non-malignant brain tissue.

  1. Changes in functional integration with the non-epileptic temporal lobe of patients with unilateral mesiotemporal epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Trotta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate epilepsy-induced changes in effective connectivity between the non-epileptic amygdalo-hippocampal complex (AHC and the rest of the brain in patients with unilateral mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with unilateral MTLE associated with HS (20 females, mean age: 36 years, 19 left HS and 33 adult controls matched for age and gender underwent (18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET. Right-HS patients' FDG-PET data were flipped to obtain a left-epileptic-focus-lateralized group of patients. Voxels of interest (VOI were selected within the cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of the non-epileptic AHC (probability level  = 100%, SPM8 Anatomy toolbox v1.7. Patients and controls were compared using VOI metabolic activity as covariate of interest to search for epilepsy-induced changes in the contribution of the non-epileptic AHC to the level of metabolic activity in other brain areas. Age, gender, duration of epilepsy, seizure type and frequency were used as covariates of no-interest for connectivity analyses. KEY FINDINGS: Significant decrease in effective connectivity was found between the non-epileptic AHC and ventral prefrontal cortical areas bilaterally, as well as with the temporal pole and the posterior cingulate cortex contralateral to HS. Significant increase in connectivity was found between the non-epileptic AHC and midline structures, such as the anterior cingulate and dorsal medial prefrontal cortices, as well as the temporo-parietal junction bilaterally. Connectivity analyses also revealed a preserved positive connectivity between the non-epileptic and the epileptic AHC in the patients' group. SIGNIFICANCE: This study evidences epilepsy-induced changes in connectivity between the non-epileptic AHC and some limbic and default mode network areas. These changes in connectivity probably account for emotional, cognitive and

  2. Infection and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in human brain vascular pericytes by human cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcendor Donald J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections can result in CNS abnormalities in newborn babies including vision loss, mental retardation, motor deficits, seizures, and hearing loss. Brain pericytes play an essential role in the development and function of the blood–brain barrier yet their unique role in HCMV dissemination and neuropathlogy has not been reported. Methods Primary human brain vascular pericytes were exposed to a primary clinical isolate of HCMV designated ‘SBCMV’. Infectivity was analyzed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR. Microarrays were performed to identify proinflammatory cytokines upregulated after SBCMV exposure, and the results validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR methodology. In situ cytokine expression of pericytes after exposure to HCMV was examined by ELISA and in vivo evidence of HCMV infection of brain pericytes was shown by dual-labeled immunohistochemistry. Results HCMV-infected human brain vascular pericytes as evidenced by several markers. Using a clinical isolate of HCMV (SBCMV, microscopy of infected pericytes showed virion production and typical cytomegalic cytopathology. This finding was confirmed by the expression of major immediate early and late virion proteins and by the presence of HCMV mRNA. Brain pericytes were fully permissive for CMV lytic replication after 72 to 96 hours in culture compared to human astrocytes or human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC. However, temporal transcriptional expression of pp65 virion protein after SBCMV infection was lower than that seen with the HCMV Towne laboratory strain. Using RT-PCR and dual-labeled immunofluorescence, proinflammatory cytokines CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL11/ITAC, and CCL5/Rantes were upregulated in SBCMV-infected cells, as were tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta, and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Pericytes exposed to SBCMV elicited

  3. Aberrant gamma band cortical sources and functional connectivity in adolescents with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Shreekantiah; Tikka, Sai Krishna; Goyal, Nishant; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Nizamie, Shamshul Haque

    2017-01-01

    Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) resemble epileptic seizures, but lack clinically evident abnormal electrical activity in the brain. We aimed to assess resting gamma spectral power, current source distribution and functional connectivity in adolescents with PNES. Interictal, 32 channels electroencephalographic recording of 15 adolescents with PNES was compared with 10 matched healthy controls. Spectral power, current source distribution and lagged linear coherence were assessed. Statistically significant gamma spectral power, cortical sources and connectivity pattern was found in some brain areas. Region specific aberrant gamma activity and its relationship to psychopathology are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Multi-dimensional dynamics of human electromagnetic brain activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo eKida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency, which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain.

  5. Multi-Dimensional Dynamics of Human Electromagnetic Brain Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Emi; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency), which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory) analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain.

  6. Why our brains cherish humanity: Mirror neurons and colamus humanitatem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Skoyles

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Commonsense says we are isolated. After all, our bodies are physically separate. But Seneca’s colamus humanitatem, and John Donne’s observation that “no man is an island” suggests we are neither entirely isolated nor separate. A recent discovery in neuroscience—that of mirror neurons—argues that the brain and the mind is neither built nor functions remote from what happens in other individuals. What are mirror neurons? They are brain cells that process both what happens to or is done by an individual, and, as it were, its perceived “refl ection,” when that same thing happens or is done by another individual. Thus, mirror neurons are both activated when an individual does a particular action, and when that individual perceives that same action done by another. The discovery of mirror neurons suggests we need to radically revise our notions of human nature since they offer a means by which we may not be so separated as we think. Humans unlike other apes are adapted to mirror interact nonverbally when together. Notably, our faces have been evolved to display agile and nimble movements. While this is usually explained as enabling nonverbal communication, a better description would be nonverbal commune based upon mirror neurons. I argue we cherish humanity, colamus humanitatem, because mirror neurons and our adapted mirror interpersonal interface blur the physical boundaries that separate us.

  7. Dynamic imaging of coherent sources reveals different network connectivity underlying the generation and perpetuation of epileptic seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Elshoff

    Full Text Available The concept of focal epilepsies includes a seizure origin in brain regions with hyper synchronous activity (epileptogenic zone and seizure onset zone and a complex epileptic network of different brain areas involved in the generation, propagation, and modulation of seizures. The purpose of this work was to study functional and effective connectivity between regions involved in networks of epileptic seizures. The beginning and middle part of focal seizures from ictal surface EEG data were analyzed using dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS, an inverse solution in the frequency domain which describes neuronal networks and coherences of oscillatory brain activities. The information flow (effective connectivity between coherent sources was investigated using the renormalized partial directed coherence (RPDC method. In 8/11 patients, the first and second source of epileptic activity as found by DICS were concordant with the operative resection site; these patients became seizure free after epilepsy surgery. In the remaining 3 patients, the results of DICS / RPDC calculations and the resection site were discordant; these patients had a poorer post-operative outcome. The first sources as found by DICS were located predominantly in cortical structures; subsequent sources included some subcortical structures: thalamus, Nucl. Subthalamicus and cerebellum. DICS seems to be a powerful tool to define the seizure onset zone and the epileptic networks involved. Seizure generation seems to be related to the propagation of epileptic activity from the primary source in the seizure onset zone, and maintenance of seizures is attributed to the perpetuation of epileptic activity between nodes in the epileptic network. Despite of these promising results, this proof of principle study needs further confirmation prior to the use of the described methods in the clinical praxis.

  8. Accelerated evolution of the ASPM gene controlling brain size begins prior to human brain expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalay Kouprina

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary microcephaly (MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates. Mutations in ASPM, which encodes the human homologue of a fly protein essential for spindle function, are the most common known cause of MCPH. Here we have isolated large genomic clones containing the complete ASPM gene, including promoter regions and introns, from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and rhesus macaque by transformation-associated recombination cloning in yeast. We have sequenced these clones and show that whereas much of the sequence of ASPM is substantially conserved among primates, specific segments are subject to high Ka/Ks ratios (nonsynonymous/synonymous DNA changes consistent with strong positive selection for evolutionary change. The ASPM gene sequence shows accelerated evolution in the African hominoid clade, and this precedes hominid brain expansion by several million years. Gorilla and human lineages show particularly accelerated evolution in the IQ domain of ASPM. Moreover, ASPM regions under positive selection in primates are also the most highly diverged regions between primates and nonprimate mammals. We report the first direct application of TAR cloning technology to the study of human evolution. Our data suggest that evolutionary selection of specific segments of the ASPM sequence strongly relates to differences in cerebral cortical size.

  9. Interleukin-6 release from the human brain during prolonged exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which has a variety of physiological roles including functions within the central nervous system. Circulating IL-6 increases markedly during exercise, partly due to the release of IL-6 from the contracting skeletal muscles, and exercise-induced IL-6 may...... influence of hyperthermia. In conclusion, IL-6 is released from the brain during prolonged exercise in humans and it appears that the duration of the exercise rather than the increase in body temperature dictates the cerebral IL-6 response....

  10. A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Michael J; Pérez, Mariana Angoa; Briggs, Denise I.; Viano, David C.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight drop method and allows repeated head impacts to lightly anesthetized mice. A key facet of this method is the delivery of an imp...

  11. Modelling Human Cortical Network in Real Brain Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-Bai; FENG Hong-Bo; TANG Yi-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Highly specific structural organization is of great significance in the topology of cortical networks.We introduce a human cortical network model.taking the specific cortical structure into account,in which nodes are brain sites placed in the actual positions of cerebral cortex and the establishment of edges depends on the spatial path length rather than the linear distance.The resulting network exhibits the essential features of cortical connectivity,properties of small-world networks and multiple clusters structure.Additionally.assortative mixing is also found in this roodel.All of these findings may be attributed to the spedtic cortical architecture.

  12. brain-coX: investigating and visualising gene co-expression in seven human brain transcriptomic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytag, Saskia; Burgess, Rosemary; Oliver, Karen L; Bahlo, Melanie

    2017-06-08

    The pathogenesis of neurological and mental health disorders often involves multiple genes, complex interactions, as well as brain- and development-specific biological mechanisms. These characteristics make identification of disease genes for such disorders challenging, as conventional prioritisation tools are not specifically tailored to deal with the complexity of the human brain. Thus, we developed a novel web-application-brain-coX-that offers gene prioritisation with accompanying visualisations based on seven gene expression datasets in the post-mortem human brain, the largest such resource ever assembled. We tested whether our tool can correctly prioritise known genes from 37 brain-specific KEGG pathways and 17 psychiatric conditions. We achieved average sensitivity of nearly 50%, at the same time reaching a specificity of approximately 75%. We also compared brain-coX's performance to that of its main competitors, Endeavour and ToppGene, focusing on the ability to discover novel associations. Using a subset of the curated SFARI autism gene collection we show that brain-coX's prioritisations are most similar to SFARI's own curated gene classifications. brain-coX is the first prioritisation and visualisation web-tool targeted to the human brain and can be freely accessed via http://shiny.bioinf.wehi.edu.au/freytag.s/ .

  13. The GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, contributes to three distinct varieties of amnesia in the human brain - A detailed case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Adam; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Milton, Fraser; Dewar, Michaela; Carr, Melanie; Streatfield, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We describe a patient in whom long-term, therapeutic infusion of the selective gamma-amino-butyric acid type B (GABAB) receptor agonist, baclofen, into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gave rise to three distinct varieties of memory impairment: i) repeated, short periods of severe global amnesia, ii) accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF), evident over intervals of days and iii) a loss of established autobiographical memories. This pattern of impairment has been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), in particular the subtype of Transient Epileptic Amnesia (TEA). The amnesic episodes and accelerated forgetting remitted on withdrawal of baclofen, while the autobiographical amnesia (AbA) persisted. This exceptional case highlights the occurrence of 'non-standard' forms of human amnesia, reflecting the biological complexity of memory processes. It suggests a role for GABAB signalling in the modulation of human memory over multiple time-scales and hints at its involvement in 'epileptic amnesia'.

  14. Prevalence of Migraine Headache in Epileptic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayena Jabbehdari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders which a physician might come across in his career life. On the other hand, migraine is common disorders in society chronic headache such as migraine in epileptic patients give ride to difficulties in seizure treatment due to altering the sleeping pattern and calmness disarrangement. Therefore, early diagnosis and suitable treatment in epileptic patients is definitely inevitable, and it will help in a more desirable patients' treatment. So we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of migraine in epileptic patients and relation between these two disorders. Number of 150 epileptic patients attended to neurology clinic of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital and Iranian Epilepsy Association between June 2010 to May 2011 were fulfilled the questionnaire, and the data has been assessed by SPSS software. In this study, we used MS-Q (migraine screening -questionnaire designed for early diagnosis of migraine in the general population. From all patients filling the questionnaire, the prevalence of migraine (with or without aura was as follows: 23 persons had criteria compatible with migraine with aura; 26 patients had migraine without aura. Migraine was more common in these patients: persons with academic degrees, women, patients who were used 2 antiepileptic drugs, and patients with high BMI. In this study, we showed that migraine in epileptic patients is more prevalent than the general population. Thus, early diagnosis and efficient treatment of migraine headache in these patients is mandatory. More studies are needed for evaluation of this issue.

  15. Morphological patterns of the postcentral sulcus in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatkina, Veronika; Petrides, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The morphological structure of the postcentral sulcus and its variability were investigated in 40 structural magnetic resonance images of the human brain registered to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) proportional stereotaxic space. This analysis showed that the postcentral sulcus is not a single sulcus, but rather a complex of sulcal segments separated by gyri, which merge their banks at distinct locations. Most of these gyri are submerged deep within the sulcus and can be observed only by examining the depth of the sulcus, although a small proportion may be observed from the surface of the brain. In the majority of the examined cerebral hemispheres (73.75%), the postcentral sulcus is separated into two or three segments or, less frequently, into four or five segments (12.5%), or it remains continuous (13.75%). Examination of the in-depth relationship between the postcentral sulcus and the intraparietal sulcus revealed that these two sulci may appear to join on the surface of the brain but they are in fact always separated by a gyrus in the cortical depth. In 32.5% of the examined hemispheres, a dorsoventrally oriented sulcus, the transverse postcentral sulcus, is located anterior to the postcentral sulcus on the lower part of the postcentral gyrus. Systematic examination of the morphology of the postcentral sulcus in the proportional stereotaxic space that is used in functional neuroimaging studies is the first step toward the establishment of anatomical-functional correlations in the anterior parietal lobe.

  16. Mobile phone types and SAR characteristics of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Hong, Seon-Eui; Kwon, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Hyung-Do; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Mobile phones differ in terms of their operating frequency, outer shape, and form and location of the antennae, all of which affect the spatial distributions of their electromagnetic field and the level of electromagnetic absorption in the human head or brain. For this paper, the specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated for four anatomical head models at different ages using 11 numerical phone models of different shapes and antenna configurations. The 11 models represent phone types accounting for around 86% of the approximately 1400 commercial phone models released into the Korean market since 2002. Seven of the phone models selected have an internal dual-band antenna, and the remaining four possess an external antenna. Each model was intended to generate an average absorption level equivalent to that of the same type of commercial phone model operating at the maximum available output power. The 1 g peak spatial SAR and ipsilateral and contralateral brain-averaged SARs were reported for all 11 phone models. The effects of the phone type, phone position, operating frequency, and age of head models on the brain SAR were comprehensively determined.

  17. Mobile phone types and SAR characteristics of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Hong, Seon-Eui; Kwon, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Hyung-Do; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2017-03-07

    Mobile phones differ in terms of their operating frequency, outer shape, and form and location of the antennae, all of which affect the spatial distributions of their electromagnetic field and the level of electromagnetic absorption in the human head or brain. For this paper, the specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated for four anatomical head models at different ages using 11 numerical phone models of different shapes and antenna configurations. The 11 models represent phone types accounting for around 86% of the approximately 1400 commercial phone models released into the Korean market since 2002. Seven of the phone models selected have an internal dual-band antenna, and the remaining four possess an external antenna. Each model was intended to generate an average absorption level equivalent to that of the same type of commercial phone model operating at the maximum available output power. The 1 g peak spatial SAR and ipsilateral and contralateral brain-averaged SARs were reported for all 11 phone models. The effects of the phone type, phone position, operating frequency, and age of head models on the brain SAR were comprehensively determined.

  18. Evolution of the base of the brain in highly encephalized human species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastir, Markus; Rosas, Antonio; Gunz, Philipp; Peña-Melian, Angel; Manzi, Giorgio; Harvati, Katerina; Kruszynski, Robert; Stringer, Chris; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2011-12-13

    The increase of brain size relative to body size-encephalization-is intimately linked with human evolution. However, two genetically different evolutionary lineages, Neanderthals and modern humans, have produced similarly large-brained human species. Thus, understanding human brain evolution should include research into specific cerebral reorganization, possibly reflected by brain shape changes. Here we exploit developmental integration between the brain and its underlying skeletal base to test hypotheses about brain evolution in Homo. Three-dimensional geometric morphometric analyses of endobasicranial shape reveal previously undocumented details of evolutionary changes in Homo sapiens. Larger olfactory bulbs, relatively wider orbitofrontal cortex, relatively increased and forward projecting temporal lobe poles appear unique to modern humans. Such brain reorganization, beside physical consequences for overall skull shape, might have contributed to the evolution of H. sapiens' learning and social capacities, in which higher olfactory functions and its cognitive, neurological behavioral implications could have been hitherto underestimated factors.

  19. Stable functional networks exhibit consistent timing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapeton, Julio I; Inati, Sara K; Zaghloul, Kareem A

    2017-03-01

    Despite many advances in the study of large-scale human functional networks, the question of timing, stability, and direction of communication between cortical regions has not been fully addressed. At the cellular level, neuronal communication occurs through axons and dendrites, and the time required for such communication is well defined and preserved. At larger spatial scales, however, the relationship between timing, direction, and communication between brain regions is less clear. Here, we use a measure of effective connectivity to identify connections between brain regions that exhibit communication with consistent timing. We hypothesized that if two brain regions are communicating, then knowledge of the activity in one region should allow an external observer to better predict activity in the other region, and that such communication involves a consistent time delay. We examine this question using intracranial electroencephalography captured from nine human participants with medically refractory epilepsy. We use a coupling measure based on time-lagged mutual information to identify effective connections between brain regions that exhibit a statistically significant increase in average mutual information at a consistent time delay. These identified connections result in sparse, directed functional networks that are stable over minutes, hours, and days. Notably, the time delays associated with these connections are also highly preserved over multiple time scales. We characterize the anatomic locations of these connections, and find that the propagation of activity exhibits a preferred posterior to anterior temporal lobe direction, consistent across participants. Moreover, networks constructed from connections that reliably exhibit consistent timing between anatomic regions demonstrate features of a small-world architecture, with many reliable connections between anatomically neighbouring regions and few long range connections. Together, our results demonstrate

  20. The brain's silent messenger: using selective attention to decode human thought for brain-based communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naci, Lorina; Cusack, Rhodri; Jia, Vivian Z; Owen, Adrian M

    2013-05-29

    The interpretation of human thought from brain activity, without recourse to speech or action, is one of the most provoking and challenging frontiers of modern neuroscience. In particular, patients who are fully conscious and awake, yet, due to brain damage, are unable to show any behavioral responsivity, expose the limits of the neuromuscular system and the necessity for alternate forms of communication. Although it is well established that selective attention can significantly enhance the neural representation of attended sounds, it remains, thus far, untested as a response modality for brain-based communication. We asked whether its effect could be reliably used to decode answers to binary (yes/no) questions. Fifteen healthy volunteers answered questions (e.g., "Do you have brothers or sisters?") in the fMRI scanner, by selectively attending to the appropriate word ("yes" or "no"). Ninety percent of the answers were decoded correctly based on activity changes within the attention network. The majority of volunteers conveyed their answers with less than 3 min of scanning, suggesting that this technique is suited for communication in a reasonable amount of time. Formal comparison with the current best-established fMRI technique for binary communication revealed improved individual success rates and scanning times required to detect responses. This novel fMRI technique is intuitive, easy to use in untrained participants, and reliably robust within brief scanning times. Possible applications include communication with behaviorally nonresponsive patients.

  1. The association between seizures and deposition of collagen in the brain in porcine Taenia solium neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Nina M; Trevisan, Chiara; Leifsson, Páll S; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-09-15

    Neurocysticercosis caused by infection with Taenia solium is a significant cause of epilepsy and seizures in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the association between seizures and the deposition of collagen in brain tissue in pigs with T. solium neurocysticercosis. In total 78 brain tissue sections from seven pigs were examined histopathologically i.e. two pigs with epileptic seizures and T. solium cysts, four pigs without seizures but with cysts, and one non-infected control pig. Pigs with epileptic seizures had a larger amount of collagen in their brain tissue, showing as large fibrotic scars and moderate amount of collagen deposited around cysts, compared to pigs without seizures and the negative control pig. Our results indicate that collagen is likely to play a considerable part in the pathogenesis of seizures in T. solium neurocysticercosis.

  2. Modeling of electromagnetic stimulation of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazutkin, Dmitry; Husar, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates depression as a serious threat to the health of millions of people worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the ongoing research devoted to the investigation of a possibility to use low-field electromagnetic stimulation of the human brain in the treatment of depressive disorder. In the course of the work the 3D models of transcranial magnetic stimulation and low-field magnetic stimulation based upon the use of a layered sphere head model have been developed. An initial approach towards the realistic human head reconstruction has been made. The revealed order of the stimulating electromagnetic field suitable for operation makes it possible to draft a technical specification for the stimulation device.

  3. Neuroethics of deep brain stimulation for mental disorders: brain stimulation reward in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Hideki; Katayama, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical basis of some deep brain stimulation (DBS) trials undertaken in the early years was the phenomenon of "brain stimulation reward (BSR)," which was first identified in rats. The animals appeared to be rewarded by pleasure caused by the stimulation of certain brain regions (reward system), such as the septal area. "Self-stimulation" experiments, in which rats were allowed to stimulate their own brain by pressing a freely accessible lever, they quickly learned lever pressing and sometimes continued to stimulate until they exhausted themselves. BSR was also observed with DBS of the septal area in humans. DBS trials in later years were undertaken on other theoretical bases, but unexpected BSR was sometimes induced by stimulation of some areas, such as the locus coeruleus complex. When BSR was induced, the subjects experienced feelings that were described as "cheerful," "alert," "good," "well-being," "comfort," "relaxation," "joy," or "satisfaction." Since the DBS procedure is equivalent to a "self-stimulation" experiment, they could become "addicted to the stimulation itself" or "compulsive about the stimulation," and stimulate themselves "for the entire day," "at maximum amplitude" and, in some instances, "into convulsions." DBS of the reward system has recently been applied to alleviate anhedonia in patients with refractory major depression. Although this approach appears promising, there remains a difficult problem: who can adjust their feelings and reward-oriented behavior within the normal range? With a self-stimulation procedure, the BSR may become uncontrollable. To develop DBS to the level of a standard therapy for mental disorders, we need to discuss "Who has the right to control the mental condition?" and "Who makes decisions" on "How much control is appropriate?" in daily life.

  4. Childhood masturbation simulating epileptic seizures: A report of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood masturbation simulating epileptic seizures: A report of two cases ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Background: Childhood masturbation (self-gratification) may mimic epileptic seizures, and is ...

  5. Neuronal avalanches, epileptic quakes and other transient forms of neurodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, John G

    2012-07-01

    Power-law behaviors in brain activity in healthy animals, in the form of neuronal avalanches, potentially benefit the computational activities of the brain, including information storage, transmission and processing. In contrast, power-law behaviors associated with seizures, in the form of epileptic quakes, potentially interfere with the brain's computational activities. This review draws attention to the potential roles played by homeostatic mechanisms and multistable time-delayed recurrent inhibitory loops in the generation of power-law phenomena. Moreover, it is suggested that distinctions between health and disease are scale-dependent. In other words, what is abnormal and defines disease it is not the propagation of neural activity but the propagation of activity in a neural population that is large enough to interfere with the normal activities of the brain. From this point of view, epilepsy is a disease that results from a failure of mechanisms, possibly located in part in the cortex itself or in the deep brain nuclei and brainstem, which truncate or otherwise confine the spatiotemporal scales of these power-law phenomena.

  6. Somatic retrotransposition alters the genetic landscape of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, J Kenneth; Barnett, Mark W; Upton, Kyle R; Gerhardt, Daniel J; Richmond, Todd A; De Sapio, Fioravante; Brennan, Paul M; Rizzu, Patrizia; Smith, Sarah; Fell, Mark; Talbot, Richard T; Gustincich, Stefano; Freeman, Thomas C; Mattick, John S; Hume, David A; Heutink, Peter; Carninci, Piero; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Faulkner, Geoffrey J

    2011-10-30

    Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that use a germline 'copy-and-paste' mechanism to spread throughout metazoan genomes. At least 50 per cent of the human genome is derived from retrotransposons, with three active families (L1, Alu and SVA) associated with insertional mutagenesis and disease. Epigenetic and post-transcriptional suppression block retrotransposition in somatic cells, excluding early embryo development and some malignancies. Recent reports of L1 expression and copy number variation in the human brain suggest that L1 mobilization may also occur during later development. However, the corresponding integration sites have not been mapped. Here we apply a high-throughput method to identify numerous L1, Alu and SVA germline mutations, as well as 7,743 putative somatic L1 insertions, in the hippocampus and caudate nucleus of three individuals. Surprisingly, we also found 13,692 somatic Alu insertions and 1,350 SVA insertions. Our results demonstrate that retrotransposons mobilize to protein-coding genes differentially expressed and active in the brain. Thus, somatic genome mosaicism driven by retrotransposition may reshape the genetic circuitry that underpins normal and abnormal neurobiological processes.

  7. Endogenous neurogenesis in the human brain following cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minger, Stephen L; Ekonomou, Antigoni; Carta, Eloisa M; Chinoy, Amish; Perry, Robert H; Ballard, Clive G

    2007-01-01

    Increased endogenous neurogenesis has a significant regenerative role in many experimental models of cerebrovascular diseases, but there have been very few studies in humans. We therefore examined whether there was evidence of altered endogenous neurogenesis in an 84-year-old patient who suffered a cerebrovascular accident 1 week prior to death. Using antibodies that specifically label neural stem/neural progenitor cells, we examined the presence of immunopositive cells around and distant from the infarcted area, and compared this with a control, age-matched individual. Interestingly, a large number of neural stem cells, vascular endothelial growth factor-immunopositive cells and new blood vessels were observed only around the region of infarction, and none in the corresponding brain areas of the healthy control. In addition, an increased number of neural stem cells was observed in the neurogenic region of the lateral ventricle wall. Our results suggest increased endogenous neurogenesis associated with neovascularization and migration of newly-formed cells towards a region of cerebrovascular damage in the adult human brain and highlight possible mechanisms underlying this process.

  8. Image reconstruction techniques for high resolution human brain PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comtat, C.; Bataille, F.; Sureau, F. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    High resolution PET imaging is now a well established technique not only for small animal, but also for human brain studies. The ECAT HRRT brain PET scanner(Siemens Molecular Imaging) is characterized by an effective isotropic spatial resolution of 2.5 mm, about a factor of 2 better than for state-of-the-art whole-body clinical PET scanners. Although the absolute sensitivity of the HRRT (6.5 %) for point source in the center of the field-of-view is increased relative to whole-body scanner (typically 4.5 %) thanks to a larger co-polar aperture, the sensitivity in terms of volumetric resolution (75 (m{sup 3} at best for whole-body scanners and 16 (m{sup 3} for t he HRRT) is much lower. This constraint has an impact on the performance of image reconstruction techniques, in particular for dynamic studies. Standard reconstruction methods used with clinical whole-body PET scanners are not optimal for this application. Specific methods had to be developed, based on fully 3D iterative techniques. Different refinements can be added in the reconstruction process to improve image quality: more accurate modeling of the acquisition system, more accurate modeling of the statistical properties of the acquired data, anatomical side information to guide the reconstruction . We will present the performances these added developments for neuronal imaging in humans. (author)

  9. Natural Defense Mechanisms of the Human Brain against Chronic Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the structural bases of natural defense mechanisms of the human brain against chronic ischemia. Materials and methods. To accomplish this, histological, immunohistochemical (NSE, calbindin, NPY, p38 and morphometric examinations of intraoperative biopsy specimens were performed to determine the reorganization of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the ischemic penumbra of the temporal cerebral cortex (CC. Morphometric analysis was made using the specially developed algorithms to verify neurons and their elements in the ImageJ 1.46 program. Results. The reduction in the total numerical density of neurons and synapses in chronic ischemia was ascertained to be accompanied by the compensatorily enhanced expression of NSE, calbindin, p38, and NPY in the remaining CC neurons. There were signs of hypertrophy of inhibitory CC interneurons and growth of their processes. In consequence, the impact of inhibitory CC interneurons on excitatory neurons was likely to enhance. Conclusion. In chronic ischemia, the human brain is anticipated to respond to damage to some cells via compensatory excitatory and inhibitory neuronal reorganization directed towards its natural defense against excitatory damage and towards better conditions for compensatory recovery of the structure and function of CC. 

  10. Hypnosis and imaging of the living human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Mathieu; Raz, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Over more than two decades, studies using imaging techniques of the living human brain have begun to explore the neural correlates of hypnosis. The collective findings provide a gripping, albeit preliminary, account of the underlying neurobiological mechanisms involved in hypnotic phenomena. While substantial advances lend support to different hypotheses pertaining to hypnotic modulation of attention, control, and monitoring processes, the complex interactions among the many mediating variables largely hinder our ability to isolate robust commonalities across studies. The present account presents a critical integrative synthesis of neuroimaging studies targeting hypnosis as a function of suggestion. Specifically, hypnotic induction without task-specific suggestion is examined, as well as suggestions concerning sensation and perception, memory, and ideomotor response. The importance of carefully designed experiments is highlighted to better tease apart the neural correlates that subserve hypnotic phenomena. Moreover, converging findings intimate that hypnotic suggestions seem to induce specific neural patterns. These observations propose that suggestions may have the ability to target focal brain networks. Drawing on evidence spanning several technological modalities, neuroimaging studies of hypnosis pave the road to a more scientific understanding of a dramatic, yet largely evasive, domain of human behavior.

  11. Flow distributions and spatial correlations in human brain capillary networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorthois, Sylvie; Peyrounette, Myriam; Larue, Anne; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2015-11-01

    The vascular system of the human brain cortex is composed of a space filling mesh-like capillary network connected upstream and downstream to branched quasi-fractal arterioles and venules. The distribution of blood flow rates in these networks may affect the efficiency of oxygen transfer processes. Here, we investigate the distribution and correlation properties of blood flow velocities from numerical simulations in large 3D human intra-cortical vascular network (10000 segments) obtained from an anatomical database. In each segment, flow is solved from a 1D non-linear model taking account of the complex rheological properties of blood flow in microcirculation to deduce blood pressure, blood flow and red blood cell volume fraction distributions throughout the network. The network structural complexity is found to impart broad and spatially correlated Lagrangian velocity distributions, leading to power law transit time distributions. The origins of this behavior (existence of velocity correlations in capillary networks, influence of the coupling with the feeding arterioles and draining veins, topological disorder, complex blood rheology) are studied by comparison with results obtained in various model capillary networks of controlled disorder. ERC BrainMicroFlow GA615102, ERC ReactiveFronts GA648377.

  12. The quantitative measurement of consciousness during epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Andrea; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of consciousness is a fundamental element in the classification of epileptic seizures. It is, therefore, of great importance for clinical practice to develop instruments that enable an accurate and reliable measurement of the alteration of consciousness during seizures. Over the last few years, three psychometric scales have been specifically proposed to measure ictal consciousness: the Ictal Consciousness Inventory (ICI), the Consciousness Seizure Scale (CSS), and the Responsiveness in Epilepsy Scale--versions I and II (RES-I and RES-II). The ICI is a self-report psychometric instrument which retrospectively assesses ictal consciousness along the dimensions of the level/arousal and contents/awareness. The CSS has been used by clinicians to quantify the impairment of consciousness in order to establish correlations with the brain mechanisms underlying alterations of consciousness during temporal lobe seizures. The most recently developed observer-rated instrument is the RES-I, which has been used to assess responsiveness during epileptic seizures in patients undergoing video-EEG. The implementation of standardized psychometric tools for the assessment of ictal consciousness can complement clinical observations and contribute to improve accuracy in seizure classification.

  13. Hyperspherical Manifold for EEG Signals of Epileptic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical modelling of EEG signals of epileptic seizures presents a challenge as seizure data is erratic, often with no visible trend. Limitations in existing models indicate a need for a generalized model that can be used to analyze seizures without the need for apriori information, whilst minimizing the loss of signal data due to smoothing. This paper utilizes measure theory to design a discrete probability measure that reformats EEG data without altering its geometric structure. An analysis of EEG data from three patients experiencing epileptic seizures is made using the developed measure, resulting in successful identification of increased potential difference in portions of the brain that correspond to physical symptoms demonstrated by the patients. A mapping then is devised to transport the measure data onto the surface of a high-dimensional manifold, enabling the analysis of seizures using directional statistics and manifold theory. The subset of seizure signals on the manifold is shown to be a topological space, verifying Ahmad's approach to use topological modelling.

  14. Cultured human embryonic neocortical cells survive and grow in infarcted cavities of adult rat brains and interconnect with host brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Jin-sheng; YU Jian; CUI Chun-mei; ZHAO Zhan; HONG Hua; SHENG Wen-li; TAO Yu-qian; LI Ling; HUANG Ru-xun

    2005-01-01

    Background There are no reports on exnografting cultured human fetal neocortical cells in this infracted cavities of adult rat brains. This study was undertaken to observe whether cultured human cortical neurons and astrocytes can survive and grow in the infarcted cavities of adult rat brains and whether they interconnect with host brains.Methods The right middle cerebral artery was ligated distal to the striatal branches in 16 adult stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats. One week later, cultured cells from human embryonic cerebral cortexes were stereotaxically transferred to the infarcted cavity of 11 rats. The other 5 rats receiving sham transplants served as controls. For immunosuppression, all transplanted rats received intraperitoneal injection of cyclosporine A daily starting on the day of grafting. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synaptophysin, neurofilament, and microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2) was performed on brain sections perfused in situ 8 weeks after transplantation.Results Grafts in the infarcted cavities of 6 of 10 surviving rats consisted of bands of neurons with an immature appearance, bundles of fibers, and GFAP-immunopositive astrocytes, which were unevenly distributed. The grafts were rich in synaptophysin, neurofilament, and MAP2-positive neurons with long processes. The graft/host border was diffuse with dendrites apparently bridging over to the host brain, into which neurofilament immunopositive fibers protruded. Conclusion Cultured human fetal brain cells can survive and grow in the infarcted cavities of immunodepressed rats and integrate with the host brain.

  15. A digital interactive human brain atlas based on Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyu; Ran, Xu; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Tan, Liwen; Qiu, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    As we know, the human brain is one of the most complicated organs in the human body, which is the key and difficult point in neuroanatomy and sectional anatomy teaching. With the rapid development and extensive application of imaging technology in clinical diagnosis, doctors are facing higher and higher requirement on their anatomy knowledge. Thus, to cultivate medical students to meet the needs of medical development today and to improve their ability to read and understand radiographic images have become urgent challenges for the medical teachers. In this context, we developed a digital interactive human brain atlas based on the Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching (available for free download from http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com/down/DHBA.rar). The atlas simultaneously provides views in all 3 primary planes of section. The main structures of the human brain have been anatomically labeled in all 3 views. It is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, and automatic student assessment. In a word, it is interactive, 3D, user friendly, and free of charge, which can provide a new, intuitive means for anatomy teaching.

  16. Evolution of human brain functions: the functional structure of human consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C Robert

    2009-11-01

    The functional structure of self-aware consciousness in human beings is described based on the evolution of human brain functions. Prior work on heritable temperament and character traits is extended to account for the quantum-like and holographic properties (i.e. parts elicit wholes) of self-aware consciousness. Cladistic analysis is used to identify the succession of ancestors leading to human beings. The functional capacities that emerge along this lineage of ancestors are described. The ecological context in which each cladogenesis occurred is described to illustrate the shifting balance of evolution as a complex adaptive system. Comparative neuroanatomy is reviewed to identify the brain structures and networks that emerged coincident with the emergent brain functions. Individual differences in human temperament traits were well developed in the common ancestor shared by reptiles and humans. Neocortical development in mammals proceeded in five major transitions: from early reptiles to early mammals, early primates, simians, early Homo, and modern Homo sapiens. These transitions provide the foundation for human self-awareness related to sexuality, materiality, emotionality, intellectuality, and spirituality, respectively. The functional structure of human self-aware consciousness is concerned with the regulation of five planes of being: sexuality, materiality, emotionality, intellectuality, and spirituality. Each plane elaborates neocortical functions organized around one of the five special senses. The interactions among these five planes gives rise to a 5 x 5 matrix of subplanes, which are functions that coarsely describe the focus of neocortical regulation. Each of these 25 neocortical functions regulates each of five basic motives or drives that can be measured as temperaments or basic emotions related to fear, anger, disgust, surprise, and happiness/sadness. The resulting 5 x 5 x 5 matrix of human characteristics provides a general and testable model of the

  17. Human Development XII: A Theory for the Structure and Function of the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is probably the most complicated single structure in the biological universe. The cerebral cortex that is traditionally connected with consciousness is extremely complex. The brain contains approximately 1,000,000 km of nerve fibers, indicating its enormous complexity and which makes it difficult for scientists to reveal the function of the brain. In this paper, we propose a new model for brain functions, i.e., information-guided self-organization of neural patterns, where information is provided from the abstract wholeness of the biophysical system of an organism (often called the true self, or the “soul””. We present a number of arguments in favor of this model that provide self-conscious control over the thought process or cognition. Our arguments arise from analyzing experimental data from different research fields: histology, anatomy, electroencephalography (EEG, cerebral blood flow, neuropsychology, evolutionary studies, and mathematics. We criticize the popular network theories as the consequence of a simplistic, mechanical interpretation of reality (philosophical materialism applied to the brain. We demonstrate how viewing brain functions as information-guided self-organization of neural patterns can explain the structure of conscious mentation; we seem to have a dual hierarchical representation in the cerebral cortex: one for sensation-perception and one for will-action. The model explains many of our unique mental abilities to think, memorize, associate, discriminate, and make abstractions. The presented model of the conscious brain also seems to be able to explain the function of the simpler brains, such as those of insects and hydra.

  18. Aerobic Glycolysis as a Marker of Tumor Aggressiveness: Preliminary Data in High Grade Human Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei G. Vlassenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Glucose metabolism outside of oxidative phosphorylation, or aerobic glycolysis (AG, is a hallmark of active cancer cells that is not directly measured with standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, we characterized tumor regions with elevated AG defined based on PET measurements of glucose and oxygen metabolism. Methods. Fourteen individuals with high-grade brain tumors underwent structural MR scans and PET measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF, oxygen (CMRO2 and glucose (CMRGlu metabolism, and AG, using 15O-labeled CO, O2 and H2O, and FDG, and were compared to a normative cohort of 20 age-matched individuals. Results. Elevated AG was observed in most high-grade brain tumors and it was associated with decreased CMRO2 and CBF, but not with significant changes in CMRGlu. Elevated AG was a dramatic and early sign of tumor growth associated with decreased survival. AG changes associated with tumor growth were differentiated from the effects of nonneoplastic processes such as epileptic seizures. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that high-grade brain tumors exhibit elevated AG as a marker of tumor growth and aggressiveness. AG may detect areas of active tumor growth that are not evident on conventional FDG PET.

  19. Facilitation of epileptic activity during sleep is mediated by high amplitude slow waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauscher, Birgit; von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Avoli, Massimo; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2015-06-01

    continuous, during this state of sleep. Both epileptic spikes and high frequency oscillations do not predominate, like physiological activity, during the 'up' state but during the transition from the 'up' to the 'down' state of the slow wave, a period of high synchronization. Epileptic discharges appear therefore more associated with synchronization than with excitability. Furthermore, high frequency oscillations in channels devoid of epileptic activity peak differently during the slow wave cycle from those in channels with epileptic activity. This property may allow differentiating physiological from pathological high frequency oscillations, a problem that is unresolved until now. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  20. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, M.P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Flor, H.; Fouche, J.P.; Frouin, V.; Wolfers, T.; Fisher, S.E.; Francks, C.

    2016-01-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymm

  1. Variable ATP yields and uncoupling of oxygen consumption in human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Aanerud, Joel; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of brain oxidative metabolism values among healthy humans is astoundingly wide for a measure that reflects normal brain function and is known to change very little with most changes of brain function. It is possible that the part of the oxygen consumption rate that is coupled to ...

  2. Frequency-based similarity detection of structures in human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Dave I.; Siadat, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-03-01

    Advancements in 3D scanning and volumetric imaging methods have motivated researchers to tackle new challenges related to storing, retrieving and comparing 3D models, especially in medical domain. Comparing natural rigid shapes and detecting subtle changes in 3D models of brain structures is of great importance. Precision in capturing surface details and insensitivity to shape orientation are highly desirable properties of good shape descriptors. In this paper, we propose a new method, Spherical Harmonics Distance (SHD), which leverages the power of spherical harmonics to provide more accurate representation of surface details. At the same time, the proposed method incorporates the features of a shape distribution method (D2) and inherits its insensitivity to shape orientation. Comparing SHD to a spherical harmonics based method (SPHARM) shows that the performance of the proposed method is less sensitive to rotation. Also, comparing SHD to D2 shows that the proposed method is more accurate in detecting subtle changes. The performance of the proposed method is verified by calculating the Fisher measure (FM) of extracted feature vectors. The FM of the vectors generated by SHD on average shows 27 times higher values than that of D2. Our preliminary results show that SHD successfully combines desired features from two different methods and paves the way towards better detection of subtle dissimilarities among natural rigid shapes (e.g. structures of interest in human brain). Detecting these subtle changes can be instrumental in more accurate diagnosis, prognosis and treatment planning.

  3. Motor Skill Acquisition Promotes Human Brain Myelin Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal Lakhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent structural changes are widely evident in gray matter. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, the neuroplastic effect of motor training on white matter in the brain has been demonstrated. However, in humans it is not known whether specific features of white matter relate to motor skill acquisition or if these structural changes are associated to functional network connectivity. Myelin can be objectively quantified in vivo and used to index specific experience-dependent change. In the current study, seventeen healthy young adults completed ten sessions of visuomotor skill training (10,000 total movements using the right arm. Multicomponent relaxation imaging was performed before and after training. Significant increases in myelin water fraction, a quantitative measure of myelin, were observed in task dependent brain regions (left intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and left parieto-occipital sulcus. In addition, the rate of motor skill acquisition and overall change in myelin water fraction in the left IPS were negatively related, suggesting that a slower rate of learning resulted in greater neuroplastic change. This study provides the first evidence for experience-dependent changes in myelin that are associated with changes in skilled movements in healthy young adults.

  4. Human brain activity with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming; Chance, Britton

    1999-09-01

    Human brain activity was studied with a real time functional Near-InfraRed Imager (fNIRI). The imager has 16 measurement channels and covers 4 cm by 9 cm detection area. Brain activities in occipital, motor and prefrontal area were studied with the fNIRI. In prefrontal stimulation, language cognition, analogies, forming memory for new associations, emotional thinking, and mental arithmetic were carried out. Experimental results measured with fNIRI are demonstrated in this paper. It was shown that fNIRI technique is able to reveal the occipital activity during visual stimulation, and co-register well with results of fMRI in the motor cortex activity during finger tapping. In the studies of the effects of left prefrontal lobe on forming memory for new associations, it is shown that left prefrontal lobe activated more under deep conditions than that under shallow encoding, especially the dorsal part. In the studies of emotional thinking, it was shown that the responses were different between positive- negative emotional thinking and negative-positive emotional thinking. In mental arithmetic studies, higher activation was found in the first task than in the second, regardless of the difficulty, and higher activation was measured in subtraction of 17 than in subtraction of 3.

  5. Asymmetry of White Matter Pathways in Developing Human Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae W; Mitchell, Paul D; Kolasinski, James; Ellen Grant, P; Galaburda, Albert M; Takahashi, Emi

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the emergence of structural asymmetry of white matter tracts during early brain development. We examined whether and when asymmetry in diffusion parameters of limbic and association white matter pathways emerged in humans in 23 brains ranging from 15 gestational weeks (GW) up to 3 years of age (11 ex vivo and 12 in vivo cases) using high-angular resolution diffusion imaging tractography. Age-related development of laterality was not observed in a limbic connectional pathway (cingulum bundle or fornix). Among the studied cortico-cortical association pathways (inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and arcuate fasciculus), only the ILF showed development of age-related laterality emerging as early as the second trimester. Comparisons of ages older and younger than 40 GW revealed a leftward asymmetry in the cingulum bundle volume and a rightward asymmetry in apparent diffusion coefficient and leftward asymmetry in fractional anisotropy in the ILF in ages older than 40 GW. These results suggest that morphometric asymmetry in cortical areas precedes the emergence of white matter pathway asymmetry. Future correlative studies will investigate whether such asymmetry is anatomically/genetically driven or associated with functional stimulation.

  6. Malnutritive obesity ('malnubesity'): is it driven by human brain evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Anne-Thea

    2008-12-01

    Abstract Health messages on low-energy diets for healthy weight loss are muddled and not working, and obesity rates are rising. Are there missing links? Accumulating evidence shows that humans have well developed 'self-addictive' appetite pathways to enhance the uptake of highly energy-dense food. Humans synthesize fewer co-factors and vitamins than other mammals and must ingest them. Both processes probably arose to maximize available energy for the developing, large association cortex of the human brain. The default phenotype resulting from consuming an 'addictive', westernized, highly refined, energy-dense, hypomicronutrient diet is 'malnutritive obesity' or 'malnubesity'. A relative lack of antioxidant (and other) co-factors contributes to inefficiently oxidized energy. This 'stress' leads to central fat deposition, disordered energy use by cell mitochondria, especially in muscle and liver, and malfunctioning immune, coagulation, endothelial, and other systems. The resultant problems appear to range from epigenetic reprogramming in utero to end organ damage of the metabolic syndrome and the immune failure of cancer. Treatment of 'malnubesity' may require: (1) understanding the drivers and mechanisms of addictions, (2) reprioritizing satiating, micronutrient-dense whole foods, (3) nonjudgmental general, psychological, and medical support for those at risk or affected by obesity; and (4) practical incentives/regulation for healthy food production and distribution.

  7. Pallister-Killian syndrome: an unusual cause of epileptic spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carpintero, Rocio; McLellan, Ailsa; Parmeggiani, Lucio; Cockwell, Annette E; Ellis, Richard J; Cross, J Helen; Eckhardt, Susan; Guerrini, Renzo

    2005-11-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare, sporadic, genetic disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, learning disability, and epilepsy. It is caused by a mosaic supernumerary isochromosome 12p (i[12p]). The i(12p) is rarely found in peripheral blood but it is present in skin fibroblasts. Recognition is essential for cytogenetic diagnosis. We describe a male aged 2 years 6 months and a female aged 11 years with PKS and epileptic spasms (ES). This type of seizure is not unusual in patients with brain malformations and with severe developmental delay, but it is sometimes difficult to recognize without video-electroencephalogram studies and could be mistaken for other types of seizure or behavioural manifestations. In these two patients with PKS, spasms had late onset, persisted beyond infancy, and were drug resistant. Clinicians should be aware of this possibility in PKS, which appears to be a rare cause of ES.

  8. Hepatic encephalopathy with status epileptics: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroto Tanaka; Hiroki Ueda; Yohei Kida; Hiroko Hamagami; Tomikimi Tsuji; Masakazu Ichinose

    2006-01-01

    A 62-year-old male with decompensated liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus developed severe hepatic encephalopathy with status epileptic us. The blood ammonia level on admission was more than twice the normal level. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were normal. In addition, electroencephalogram showed diffuse sharp waves, consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. The status epilepticus was resolved after antiepileptic therapy (phenytoin sodium) and treatment for hepatic encephalopathy (Branched chain amino acids). The blood ammonia level normalized with the clinical improvement and the patient did not have a recurrence of status epilepticus after the end of the antiepileptic treatment. Additionally, the electroencephalogram showed normal findings. Thus, we diagnosed the patient as hepatic encephalopathy with status epilepticus. We consider the status epilepticus of this patient to a rare and interesting finding in hepatic encephalopathy.

  9. Migraine with aura and photosensitive epileptic seizures: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carolis, P; Tinuper, P; Sacquegna, T

    1991-07-01

    An 18-year-old female presented with two seizures induced by photic stimulation. She had a positive family history for migraine and a history of febrile convulsions. Since the age of 13 she had suffered from migraine attacks with aura. A brain computerized tomography with contrast enhancement was negative and several electroencephalograms showed a photoparoxysmal response. At the age of 18 she had a partial secondary generalized seizure after photic stimulation during routine electroencephalogram. The onset of seizure was in the occipital region. Two days later, the patient presented with a typical migrainous attack with aura. Interictal apomorphine test (1.5 mg s.c.) blocked the photoparoxysmal response. According to Quesnay, dopaminergic failure of the occipital cortex may account for both epileptic and migraine features.

  10. Pharmacokinetic aspects of the anti-epileptic drug substance vigabatrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Martha Kampp; Frølund, Sidsel; Holm, René;

    2014-01-01

    Drug transporters in various tissues, such as intestine, kidney, liver and brain, are recognized as important mediators of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drug substances. This review gives a current status on the transporter(s) mediating the absorption, distribution......, metabolism and excretion properties of the anti-epileptic drug substance vigabatrin. For orally administered drugs, like vigabatrin, the absorption from the intestine is a prerequisite for the bioavailability. Therefore, transporter(s) involved in the intestinal absorption of vigabatrin in vitro and in vivo...... are discussed in detail. Special focus is on the contribution of the proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) for intestinal vigabatrin absorption. Furthermore, the review gives an overview of the pharmacokinetic parameters of vigabatrin across different species and drug-food and drug-drug interactions...

  11. Direct measurement of fluence rate in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Ivan S.; Rusina, Tatyana V.; Denisov, Nikolay A.; Dets, Sergiy M.; Steiner, Rudolf W.; Rozumenko, Vladimir D.

    1996-01-01

    Fluence rate was measured in normal and cancerous (glioma) human brain samples using a multichannel detector. Detector consisted of 8 isotrope fiber probes positioned around the central irradiating probe. Detecting probes were displaced one from other at a step 0.5 mm along the central irradiating fiber. Bare ends of detecting fibers were coupled with photodiode array. He-Ne (633 nm) or Nd:YAG (1064 nm) lasers were coupled with irradiating probe. Fluence rate was measured in each of 8 points in the depth range 5 mm. Measured mean penetration depths of 633 nm light were 0.70 mm, 0.50 mm and 0.40 mm for white matter, grey matter and glioma, respectively. For Nd:YAG laser, penetration depth was about 2.3 mm for normal tissue and glioma. Multichannel computerized detector allows to provide a small invasive real-time measurements of fluence rate in different tissues.

  12. [Civil and criminal responsibility of epileptics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, F

    1997-03-01

    Since the new Penal Code has come into force, certain sections have been altered, such as those dealing with exculpatory circumstances, and as specialists treating patients with possible mental changes, we should be aware that section 20 now takes the place of the former section 8. The situation of the epileptic with regard to civil and criminal responsibility, has hardly changed. This is not surprising in view of current clinico-therapeutic knowledge. Epileptic patients are legally able to testify, inherit etc. and also have the obligation to compensate for damage they have caused. An attempt is made to define the immunity from prosecution of epileptics in accordance with non-static criteria, and to use a mixed biological-mental formula, which would make it possible to discover whether there was an alteration or anomaly of mental state at the time of the criminal offence, which would mean that the patient was unable to understand the unlawfulness of his action, or to act in accordance with such understanding. The deed itself is considered, without labelling illnesses or persons, seeking a simple definition of immunity from prosecution. The epileptic is immune from prosecution during a full attack, whilst during the rest of the time each case has to be decided individually. We emphasize the necessity of 'declassifying' epilepsy as a typical endogenous psychosis, which puts these patients into the group of the insane, although this term is no longer included in the new legal code.

  13. Epileptic fits under intravenous midazolam sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, N D

    1996-09-07

    A case is presented of a patient who suffered from recurrent epileptic fits while being treated under intravenous sedation with midazolam. Those using sedation are advised to beware of the patient who gives a history of fits being provoked in the dental environment.

  14. Gorilla and orangutan brains conform to the primate cellular scaling rules: implications for human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Kaas, Jon H

    2011-01-01

    Gorillas and orangutans are primates at least as large as humans, but their brains amount to about one third of the size of the human brain. This discrepancy has been used as evidence that the human brain is about 3 times larger than it should be for a primate species of its body size. In contrast to the view that the human brain is special in its size, we have suggested that it is the great apes that might have evolved bodies that are unusually large, on the basis of our recent finding that the cellular composition of the human brain matches that expected for a primate brain of its size, making the human brain a linearly scaled-up primate brain in its number of cells. To investigate whether the brain of great apes also conforms to the primate cellular scaling rules identified previously, we determine the numbers of neuronal and other cells that compose the orangutan and gorilla cerebella, use these numbers to calculate the size of the brain and of the cerebral cortex expected for these species, and show that these match the sizes described in the literature. Our results suggest that the brains of great apes also scale linearly in their numbers of neurons like other primate brains, including humans. The conformity of great apes and humans to the linear cellular scaling rules that apply to other primates that diverged earlier in primate evolution indicates that prehistoric Homo species as well as other hominins must have had brains that conformed to the same scaling rules, irrespective of their body size. We then used those scaling rules and published estimated brain volumes for various hominin species to predict the numbers of neurons that composed their brains. We predict that Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis had brains with approximately 80 billion neurons, within the range of variation found in modern Homo sapiens. We propose that while the cellular scaling rules that apply to the primate brain have remained stable in hominin evolution (since they

  15. Entrainment of Perceptually Relevant Brain Oscillations by Non-Invasive Rhythmic Stimulation of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Thut, Gregor; Schyns, Philippe G.; Gross, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The notion of driving brain oscillations by directly stimulating neuronal elements with rhythmic stimulation protocols has become increasingly popular in research on brain rhythms. Induction of brain oscillations in a controlled and functionally meaningful way would likely prove highly beneficial for the study of brain oscillations, and their therapeutic control. We here review conventional and new non-invasive brain stimulation protocols as to their suitability for controlled intervention in...

  16. Human Brain Activity Related to the Tactile Perception of Stickiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jiwon; Kim, Junsuk; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2017-01-01

    While the perception of stickiness serves as one of the fundamental dimensions for tactile sensation, little has been elucidated about the stickiness sensation and its neural correlates. The present study investigated how the human brain responds to perceived tactile sticky stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To evoke tactile perception of stickiness with multiple intensities, we generated silicone stimuli with varying catalyst ratios. Also, an acrylic sham stimulus was prepared to present a condition with no sticky sensation. From the two psychophysics experiments-the methods of constant stimuli and the magnitude estimation-we could classify the silicone stimuli into two groups according to whether a sticky perception was evoked: the Supra-threshold group that evoked sticky perception and the Infra-threshold group that did not. In the Supra-threshold vs. Sham contrast analysis of the fMRI data using the general linear model (GLM), the contralateral primary somatosensory area (S1) and ipsilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed significant activations in subjects, whereas no significant result was found in the Infra-threshold vs. Sham contrast. This result indicates that the perception of stickiness not only activates the somatosensory cortex, but also possibly induces higher cognitive processes. Also, the Supra- vs. Infra-threshold contrast analysis revealed significant activations in several subcortical regions, including the pallidum, putamen, caudate and thalamus, as well as in another region spanning the insula and temporal cortices. These brain regions, previously known to be related to tactile discrimination, may subserve the discrimination of different intensities of tactile stickiness. The present study unveils the human neural correlates of the tactile perception of stickiness and may contribute to broadening the understanding of neural mechanisms associated with tactile perception.

  17. Human Brain Activity Related to the Tactile Perception of Stickiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jiwon; Kim, Junsuk; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2017-01-01

    While the perception of stickiness serves as one of the fundamental dimensions for tactile sensation, little has been elucidated about the stickiness sensation and its neural correlates. The present study investigated how the human brain responds to perceived tactile sticky stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To evoke tactile perception of stickiness with multiple intensities, we generated silicone stimuli with varying catalyst ratios. Also, an acrylic sham stimulus was prepared to present a condition with no sticky sensation. From the two psychophysics experiments–the methods of constant stimuli and the magnitude estimation—we could classify the silicone stimuli into two groups according to whether a sticky perception was evoked: the Supra-threshold group that evoked sticky perception and the Infra-threshold group that did not. In the Supra-threshold vs. Sham contrast analysis of the fMRI data using the general linear model (GLM), the contralateral primary somatosensory area (S1) and ipsilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed significant activations in subjects, whereas no significant result was found in the Infra-threshold vs. Sham contrast. This result indicates that the perception of stickiness not only activates the somatosensory cortex, but also possibly induces higher cognitive processes. Also, the Supra- vs. Infra-threshold contrast analysis revealed significant activations in several subcortical regions, including the pallidum, putamen, caudate and thalamus, as well as in another region spanning the insula and temporal cortices. These brain regions, previously known to be related to tactile discrimination, may subserve the discrimination of different intensities of tactile stickiness. The present study unveils the human neural correlates of the tactile perception of stickiness and may contribute to broadening the understanding of neural mechanisms associated with tactile perception. PMID:28163677

  18. Expression of mRNA coding voltage - gated sodium channel α-subunit in spontaneously epileptic rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUWa; CAIJi-Qun

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Subtypes Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ of sodium channel α- subunit mRNA were analyzed in adult rat brain of spontaneously epileptic rats, and investigated the relationship between sodium channel expression and epilepsy. METHODS Tissue samples were microdissected from occipital neocortex, CA1 and CA3 hippocampus areas and dentate gyms, observe

  19. Evolution of the Human ASPM Gene, a Major Determinant of Brain Size

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    2003-01-01

    ...% reduction in brain size. Here I provide evidence suggesting that human ASPM went through an episode of accelerated sequence evolution by positive Darwinian selection after the split of hum