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Sample records for human eosinophils estimated

  1. Pattern-recognition receptors in human eosinophils.

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    Kvarnhammar, Anne Månsson; Cardell, Lars Olaf

    2012-05-01

    The pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family includes Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) -like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). They recognize various microbial signatures or host-derived danger signals and trigger an immune response. Eosinophils are multifunctional leucocytes involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory processes, including parasitic helminth infection, allergic diseases, tissue injury and tumour immunity. Human eosinophils express several PRRs, including TLR1-5, TLR7, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, Dectin-1 and RAGE. Receptor stimulation induces survival, oxidative burst, activation of the adhesion system and release of cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), chemokines (interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-α) and cytotoxic granule proteins (eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein). It is also evident that eosinophils play an immunomodulatory role by interacting with surrounding cells. The presence of a broad range of PRRs in eosinophils indicates that they are not only involved in defence against parasitic helminths, but also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. From a clinical perspective, eosinophilic PRRs seem to be involved in both allergic and malignant diseases by causing exacerbations and affecting tumour growth, respectively.

  2. Mitochondria in the Center of Human Eosinophil Apoptosis and Survival

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    Pinja Ilmarinen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are abundantly present in most phenotypes of asthma and they contribute to the maintenance and exacerbations of the disease. Regulators of eosinophil longevity play critical roles in determining whether eosinophils accumulate into the airways of asthmatics. Several cytokines enhance eosinophil survival promoting eosinophilic airway inflammation while for example glucocorticoids, the most important anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat asthma, promote the intrinsic pathway of eosinophil apoptosis and by this mechanism contribute to the resolution of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Mitochondria seem to play central roles in both intrinsic mitochondrion-centered and extrinsic receptor-mediated pathways of apoptosis in eosinophils. Mitochondria may also be important for survival signalling. In addition to glucocorticoids, another important agent that regulates human eosinophil longevity via mitochondrial route is nitric oxide, which is present in increased amounts in the airways of asthmatics. Nitric oxide seems to be able to trigger both survival and apoptosis in eosinophils. This review discusses the current evidence of the mechanisms of induced eosinophil apoptosis and survival focusing on the role of mitochondria and clinically relevant stimulants, such as glucocorticoids and nitric oxide.

  3. The lymphokine eosinophil stimulation promoter and human schistosomiasis mansoni.

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    Kazura, J W; Mahmoud, A A; Karb, K S; Warren, K S

    1975-12-01

    An in vitro assay for the new lymphokine eosinophil stimulation promoter has been adapted for use with human material. Peripheral eosinophils from patients with schistosomiasis mansoni were specifically induced to migrate on incubation with egg antigen. Furthermore, the peripheral lymphocytes of these patients on incubation with the egg antigen secreted the lymphokine eosinophil stimulation promoter, which enhanced the migration of purified eosinophils from patients with or without schistosomiasis. The test can be easily performed with human target cells and may be helpful for diagnostic or investigative purposes.

  4. Nonpathogenic, environmental fungi induce activation and degranulation of human eosinophils.

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    Inoue, Yoshinari; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Shin, Seung-Heon; Ponikau, Jens U; Kita, Hirohito

    2005-10-15

    Eosinophils and their products are probably important in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, such as bronchial asthma, and in host immunity to certain organisms. An association between environmental fungal exposure and asthma has been long recognized clinically. Although products of microorganisms (e.g., lipopolysaccharides) directly activate certain inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages), the mechanism(s) that triggers eosinophil degranulation is unknown. In this study we investigated whether human eosinophils have an innate immune response to certain fungal organisms. We incubated human eosinophils with extracts from seven environmental airborne fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Candida albicans, Cladosporium herbarum, Curvularia spicifera, and Penicillium notatum). Alternaria and Penicillium induced calcium-dependent exocytosis (e.g., eosinophil-derived neurotoxin release) in eosinophils from normal individuals. Alternaria also strongly induced other activation events in eosinophils, including increases in intracellular calcium concentration, cell surface expression of CD63 and CD11b, and production of IL-8. Other fungi did not induce eosinophil degranulation, and Alternaria did not induce neutrophil activation, suggesting specificity for fungal species and cell type. The Alternaria-induced eosinophil degranulation was pertussis toxin sensitive and desensitized by preincubating cells with G protein-coupled receptor agonists, platelet-activating factor, or FMLP. The eosinophil-stimulating activity in Alternaria extract was highly heat labile and had an M(r) of approximately 60 kDa. Thus, eosinophils, but not neutrophils, possess G protein-dependent cellular activation machinery that directly responds to an Alternaria protein product(s). This innate response by eosinophils to certain environmental fungi may be important in host defense and in the exacerbation of inflammation in asthma and allergic diseases.

  5. Arginine-rich cationic proteins of human eosinophil granules

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    Olsson, I.; Venge, P.; Spitznagel, J.K.; Lehrer, R.I.

    1977-01-01

    Several arginine-rich cationic proteins previously isolated from granules of leukemic myeloid cells have been found to reside primarily in human eosinophil leukocytes. The major component has a molecular weight of 21,000 and it contains approximately 2.6 moles of zinc per mole of protein. Velocity centrifugation of cytoplasm from leukocytes of patients with marked eosinophilia showed that this group of proteins is packaged in the crystalloid-containing large eosinophil granules. Approximately 30% of the protein content of eosinophil granules belonged to this group of cationic proteins. Bactericidal or esterolytic activities of the cationic proteins were not detected, nor did they inhibit guinea pig anaphylatoxin or histamine-induced contraction. The basic protein previously demonstrated in guinea pig eosinophils may be analogous to the group of basic proteins of human eosinophils but great differences are found for molecular weight and amino acid composition.

  6. The human eosinophil proteome. Changes induced by birch pollen allergy.

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    Woschnagg, Charlotte; Forsberg, Jens; Engström, Ake; Odreman, Federico; Venge, Per; Garcia, Rodolfo C

    2009-06-01

    Proteins from human eosinophils were separated bidimensionally and identified by mass spectrometry (336 spots/bands, 98 different proteins). Of these, 24.7% belonged to the cytoskeleton/migration group. Highly basic proteins (11.3%) were concentrated in the granule-containing cell fraction. We detected novel hyperacidic forms of cofilin-1, profilin-1 and adenylyl cyclase-associated protein, and hyperbasic forms of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin/eosinophil protein X and major basic protein homologue. We also found evidence of the triglycosylation of the heavy chain of eosinophil peroxidase. In addition, through comparative 2D image analysis, spot quantification and MS, it was found that hsc70, actin-capping protein and hyperacidic forms of eosinophil peroxidase heavy chain are overexpressed in cells from birch pollen allergic subjects, at the peak of a season. The link between these findings and an increased cellular antigen-presenting capacity and motility are discussed.

  7. Unraveling the complexity of lipid body organelles in human eosinophils.

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    Melo, Rossana C N; Weller, Peter F

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-rich organelles are common in many cell types. In cells, such as adipocytes, these organelles are termed LDs, whereas in other cells, such as leukocytes, they are called LBs. The study of leukocyte LBs has attracted attention as a result of their association with human diseases. In leukocytes, such as eosinophils, LB accumulation has been documented extensively during inflammatory conditions. In these cells, LBs are linked to the regulation of immune responses by compartmentalization of several proteins and lipids involved in the control and biosynthesis of inflammatory mediators (eicosanoids). However, it has been unclear how diverse proteins, including membrane-associated enzymes involved in eicosanoid formation, incorporate into LBs, especially if the internal content of LBs is assumed to consist solely of stores of neutral lipids, as present within adipocyte LDs. Studies of the formation, function, and ultrastructure of LBs in eosinophils have been providing insights pertinent to LBs in other leukocytes. Here, we review current knowledge of the composition and function of leukocyte LBs as provided by studies of human eosinophil LBs, including recognitions of the internal architecture of eosinophil LBs based on 3D electron tomographic analyses.

  8. Protein Translation and Signaling in Human Eosinophils

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    Stephane Esnault

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We have recently reported that, unlike IL-5 and GM-CSF, IL-3 induces increased translation of a subset of mRNAs. In addition, we have demonstrated that Pin1 controls the activity of mRNA binding proteins, leading to enhanced mRNA stability, GM-CSF protein production and prolonged eosinophil (EOS survival. In this review, discussion will include an overview of cap-dependent protein translation and its regulation by intracellular signaling pathways. We will address the more general process of mRNA post-transcriptional regulation, especially regarding mRNA binding proteins, which are critical effectors of protein translation. Furthermore, we will focus on (1 the roles of IL-3-driven sustained signaling on enhanced protein translation in EOS, (2 the mechanisms regulating mRNA binding proteins activity in EOS, and (3 the potential targeting of IL-3 signaling and the signaling leading to mRNA binding activity changes to identify therapeutic targets to treat EOS-associated diseases.

  9. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Gastritis, Gastroenteritis, and Colitis: Estimates From a National Administrative Database.

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    Jensen, Elizabeth T; Martin, Christopher F; Kappelman, Michael D; Dellon, Evan S

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is becoming increasingly more common, but the prevalence of other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) is unknown. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis in the United States. We used the IMS Health LifeLink PharMetrics Plus Claims Database, data representative of a US national commercially insured population containing medical and pharmaceutical claims for > 75 million individuals. We restricted our sample to patients ages 0 to 64 with continuous enrollment between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. We identified patients with eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis as defined by ≥ 1 instance of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 535.70, 558.41, and 558.42, respectively. We calculated the prevalence of the codes in the database and then standardized the estimates to the US population by age and sex. The standardized estimated prevalences of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis were 6.3/100,000, 8.4/100,000, and 3.3/100,000, respectively. The prevalence of eosinophilic gastroenteritis was the highest among children age gastritis was more prevalent among older age groups. We observed no age differences for eosinophilic colitis. Among affected patients, there was a high proportion of coexisting allergic conditions, 38.5% for eosinophilic gastritis, 45.6% for gastroenteritis, and 41.8% for colitis. Concomitant allergic disease was most commonly identified in pediatric patients. The prevalence of non-EoE EGIDs remains rare in the United States, with < 50,000 total patients affected. There appears to be a female predominance and a high co-occurrence of atopic comorbidities.

  10. Extracellular microvesicle production by human eosinophils activated by “inflammatory” stimuli

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    Praveen Akuthota

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A key function of human eosinophils is to secrete cytokines, chemokines and cationic proteins, trafficking and releasing these mediators for roles in inflammation and other immune responses. Eosinophil activation leads to secretion of pre-synthesized granule-stored mediators through different mechanisms, but the ability of eosinophils to secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs, very small vesicles with preserved membrane topology, is still poorly understood. In the present work, we sought to identify and characterize EVs released from human eosinophils during different conditions: after a culturing period or after isolation and stimulation with inflammatory stimuli, which are known to induce eosinophil activation and secretion: CCL11 (eotaxin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. EV production was investigated by nanoscale flow cytometry, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM and pre-embedding immunonanogold EM. The tetraspanins CD63 and CD9 were used as EV biomarkers for both flow cytometry and ultrastructural immunolabeling. Nanoscale flow cytometry showed that human eosinophils produce EVs in culture and that a population of EVs expressed detectable CD9, while CD63 was not consistently detected. When eosinophils were stimulated immediately after isolation and analyzed by TEM, EVs were clearly identified as microvesicles (MVsoutwardly budding off the plasma membrane. Both CCL11 and TNF-α induced significant increases of MVs compared to unstimulated cells.TNF-α induced amplified release of MVs more than CCL11. Eosinophil MV diameters varied from 20-1000 nm. Immunonanogold EM revealed clear immunolabeling for CD63 and CD9 on eosinophil MVs, although not all MVs were labeled. Altogether, we identified, for the first time, that human eosinophils secrete MVs and that this production increases in response to inflammatory stimuli. This is important to understand the complex secretory activities of eosinophils underlying immune

  11. Circulating Human Eosinophils Share a Similar Transcriptional Profile in Asthma and Other Hypereosinophilic Disorders

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    Barnig, Cindy; Dembélé, Doulaye; Paul, Nicodème; Poirot, Anh; Uring-Lambert, Béatrice; Georgel, Philippe; de Blay, Fréderic; Bahram, Seiamak

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are released into the peripheral blood in a phenotypically mature state and are capable of being recruited into tissues in response to appropriate stimuli. Eosinophils, traditionally considered cytotoxic effector cells, are leukocytes recruited into the airways of asthma patients where they are believed to contribute to the development of many features of the disease. This perception, however, has been challenged by recent findings suggesting that eosinophils have also immunomodulatory functions and may be involved in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Here we describe a transcriptome-based approach–in a limited number of patients and controls—to investigate the activation state of circulating human eosinophils isolated by flow cytometry. We provide an overview of the global expression pattern in eosinophils in various relevant conditions, e.g., eosinophilic asthma, hypereosinophilic dermatological diseases, parasitosis and pulmonary aspergillosis. Compared to healthy subjects, circulating eosinophils isolated from asthma patients differed in their gene expression profile which is marked by downregulation of transcripts involved in antigen presentation, pathogen recognition and mucosal innate immunity, whereas up-regulated genes were involved in response to non-specific stimulation, wounding and maintenance of homeostasis. Eosinophils from other hypereosinophilic disorders displayed a very similar transcriptional profile. Taken together, these observations seem to indicate that eosinophils exhibit non-specific immunomodulatory functions important for tissue repair and homeostasis and suggest new roles for these cells in asthma immunobiology. PMID:26524763

  12. Expression and function of beta1 integrins on human eosinophils

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    Maria-Cristina Seminario

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils preferentially accumulate at sites of chronic allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma. The mechanisms by which selective eosinophil migration occurs are not fully understood. However, interactions of cell-surface adhesion molecules on the eosinophil with molecular counterligands on endothelial and epithelial cells, and on extracellular matrix proteins, are likely to be critical during the recruitment process. One possible mechanism for selective eosinophil recruitment involves the alpha4beta 1 (VLA-4 integrin which is not expressed on neutrophils. Correlations have been found between infiltration of eosinophils and endothelial expression of VCAM-1, the ligand for VLA-4, in the lungs of asthmatic individuals as well as in late phase reactions in the lungs, nose and skin. Epithelial and endothelial cells respond to the Th2-type cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 with selective de novo expression of VCAM-1, consistent with the possible role of VCAM-1/VLA-4 interactions in eosinophil influx during allergic inflammation. Both beta 1 and beta 2 integrins on eosinophils exist in a state of partial activation. For example, eosinophils can be maximally activated for adhesion to VCAM-1 or fibronectin after exposure to beta 1 integrin-activating antibodies or divalent cations, conditions that do not necessarily affect the total cell surface expression of beta 1 integrins. In contrast, cytokines like IL-5 prevent beta 1 integrin activation while promoting beta 2 integrin function. Furthermore, ligation of integrins can regulate the effector functions of the cell. For example, eosinophil adhesion via beta 1 and/or beta 2 integrins has been shown to alter a variety of functional responses including degranulation and apoptosis. Thus, integrins appear to be important in mediating eosinophil migration and activation in allergic inflammation. Strategies that interfere with these processes may prove to be useful for treatment of allergic diseases.

  13. A sensitive high throughput ELISA for human eosinophil peroxidase: a specific assay to quantify eosinophil degranulation from patient-derived sources.

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    Ochkur, Sergei I; Kim, John Dongil; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Colbert, Dana; Condjella, Rachel M; Bersoux, Sophie; Helmers, Richard A; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige; Kelly, Elizabeth A; Jarjour, Nizar N; Kern, Robert; Peters, Anju; Schleimer, Robert P; Furuta, Glenn T; Nair, Parameswaran; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A

    2012-10-31

    Quantitative high throughput assays of eosinophil-mediated activities in fluid samples from patients in a clinical setting have been limited to ELISA assessments for the presence of the prominent granule ribonucleases, ECP and EDN. However, the demonstration that these ribonucleases are expressed by leukocytes other than eosinophils, as well as cells of non-hematopoietic origin, limits the usefulness of these assays. Two novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) were used to develop an eosinophil-specific and sensitive sandwich ELISA. The sensitivity of this EPX-based ELISA was shown to be similar to that of the commercially available ELISA kits for ECP and EDN. More importantly, evidence is also presented confirming that among these granule protein detection options, EPX-based ELISA is the only eosinophil-specific assay. The utility of this high throughput assay to detect released EPX was shown in ex vivo degranulation studies with isolated human eosinophils. In addition, EPX-based ELISA was used to detect and quantify eosinophil degranulation in several in vivo patient settings, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained following segmental allergen challenge of subjects with allergic asthma, induced sputum derived from respiratory subjects following hypotonic saline inhalation, and nasal lavage of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. This unique EPX-based ELISA thus provides an eosinophil-specific assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative. In addition, this assay is adaptable to high throughput formats (e.g., automated assays utilizing microtiter plates) using the diverse patient fluid samples typically available in research and clinical settings.

  14. Eosinophils induce airway smooth muscle cell proliferation.

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    Halwani, Rabih; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Sumi, Yuki; Pureza, Mary Angeline; Bahammam, Ahmed; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Soussi-Gounni, Abdelillah; Mahboub, Bassam; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Hamid, Qutayba

    2013-04-01

    Asthma is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation and remodeling of the airway wall. Features of airway remodeling include increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. However, little is known about the interaction between inflammatory eosinophils and ASM cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of eosinophils on ASM cell proliferation. Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of mild asthmatics and non-asthmatic subjects and co-cultured with human primary ASM cells. ASM proliferation was estimated using Ki-67 expression assay. The expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) mRNA in ASM cells was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The role of eosinophil derived Cysteinyl Leukotrienes (CysLTs) in enhancing ASM proliferation was estimated by measuring the release of leukotrienes from eosinophils upon their direct contact with ASM cells using ELISA. This role was confirmed either by blocking eosinophil-ASM contact or co-culturing them in the presence of leukotrienes antagonist. ASM cells co-cultured with eosinophils, isolated from asthmatics, but not non-asthmatics, had a significantly higher rate of proliferation compared to controls. This increase in ASM proliferation was independent of their release of ECM proteins but dependent upon eosinophils release of CysLTs. Eosinophil-ASM cell to cell contact was required for CysLTs release. Preventing eosinophil contact with ASM cells using anti-adhesion molecules antibodies, or blocking the activity of eosinophil derived CysLTs using montelukast inhibited ASM proliferation. Our results indicated that eosinophils contribute to airway remodeling during asthma by enhancing ASM cell proliferation and hence increasing ASM mass. Direct contact of eosinophils with ASM cells triggers their release of CysLTs which enhance ASM proliferation. Eosinophils, and their binding to ASM cells, constitute a potential therapeutic target to interfere with the series of biological events leading to airway remodeling

  15. Salbutamol delays human eosinophil apoptosis via a cAMP-dependent mechanism.

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    Kankaanranta, Hannu; Parkkonen, Jouni; Ilmarinen-Salo, Pinja; Giembycz, Mark A; Moilanen, Eeva

    2011-08-01

    Eosinophils play a major role in asthma. One described mechanism leading to the impaired clearance of these cells from the lung is the delay in their programmed cell death (apoptosis). β(2)-Adrenoceptor agonists have been shown to prolong survival and delay apoptosis of eosinophils. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms, especially the role of cAMP pathway, in the prolongation of human eosinophil survival by a selective β(2)-agonist salbutamol. Isolated human peripheral blood eosinophils were cultured in the absence or presence of a β(2)-agonist salbutamol and the indicated antagonists/inhibitors under sterile conditions. Apoptosis was measured by using the relative DNA fragmentation assay and Annexin-V binding. Salbutamol prolonged survival of human eosinophils and it was inhibited by a β-receptor antagonist propranolol and mimicked by cell-permeant cAMP analogues dibutyryl- and 8-bromo-cAMP. Pharmacological inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase (SQ-22,536) and protein kinase A (Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS) antagonized the effects of salbutamol. The survival-prolonging action of salbutamol was potentiated by a phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram (EC(50) for the salbutamol effect was 13.6 ± 4.0 and 8.1 ± 3.1 nM in the absence and presence of rolipram, respectively; p=0.0142, n=10). In contrast, inhibition of Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channels by apamin, charybdotoxin, iberiotoxin or paxilline did not affect the ability of salbutamol to prolong eosinophil survival. Taken together, the present results suggest that salbutamol at clinically relevant concentrations decreases apoptosis in human eosinophils by activating the cannonical β(2)-receptor-adenylyl cyclase-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway.

  16. Growth and differentiation of eosinophils from human peripheral blood CD 34+ cells.

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    Shalit, M

    1997-01-01

    Small numbers of CD34+ primitive hematopoietic progenitors are found in normal human peripheral blood. These cells differentiate to myeloid or lymphoid lineage under the influence of growth factors. We investigated the effects of IL5 and other growth factors on the production of eosinophils from peripheral blood CD34+ cells. CD34+ cells were plated in agarose with different combinations of cytokines. At 14 days of growth a triple stain technique was used to identify eosinophil, monocyte and neutrophil colonies. IL5 alone did not support colony growth. In contrast GM-CSF and IL3 alone or together supported the generation of more than 50% eosinophil colonies. Addition of IL5 increased the fraction of eosinophil colonies to over 70%. Under the best conditions (IL3 + GM-CSF + IL5), the addition of interferon-a or LPS inhibited colony growth by 51% and 58%, respectively. Since IL5 alone did not support colony growth from CD34+ cells, we determined when IL5 responsive cells appeared in culture. Cells were grown initially with IL3 + GM-CSF, washed, and plated with IL5 alone. Only when progenitors were grown at least 3 days, could IL5 serve as the single growth factor supporting pure eosinophil colony growth (47 colonies/104 cells plated at day 3 and 134 colonies/104 cells at day 7). Growth of CD34+ in liquid culture for 28 days in the presence of IL3, GM-CSF and IL5 resulted in almost 250 fold increase in cell number, yielding a population of 83% maturing eosinophils. We used our culture system and the sensitive technique of RT-PCR to analyze the kinetics of production of mRNA transcripts encoding several eosinophil proteins. Freshly isolated CD34+ cells contained no eosinophil granule protein transcripts and barely detectable amounts of some oxidase protein transcripts. At day 3 of culture no cells recognizable by histochemical staining as eosinophils could be detected, but transcripts for all five eosinophil granule proteins were present. These transcripts increased

  17. Expression and subcellular localization of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 in human eosinophils

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    Carmo, Lívia A.S.; Dias, Felipe F.; Malta, Kássia K.; Amaral, Kátia B. [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F. [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Melo, Rossana C.N., E-mail: rossana.melo@ufjf.edu.br [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Background: SNARE members mediate membrane fusion during intracellular trafficking underlying innate and adaptive immune responses by different cells. However, little is known about the expression and function of these proteins in human eosinophils, cells involved in allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses. Here, we investigate the expression and distribution of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 (STX17) within human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood. Methods: Flow cytometry and a pre-embedding immunonanogold electron microscopy (EM) technique that combines optimal epitope preservation and secondary Fab-fragments of antibodies linked to 1.4 nm gold particles for optimal access to microdomains, were used to investigate STX17. Results: STX17 was detected within unstimulated eosinophils. Immunogold EM revealed STX17 on secretory granules and on granule-derived vesiculotubular transport carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles-EoSVs). Quantitative EM analyses showed that 77.7% of the granules were positive for STX17 with a mean±SEM of 3.9±0.2 gold particles/granule. Labeling was present on both granule outer membranes and matrices while EoSVs showed clear membrane-associated labeling. STX17 was also present in secretory granules in eosinophils stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. The number of secretory granules labeled for STX17 was significantly higher in CCL11 compared with the unstimulated group. The level of cell labeling did not change when unstimulated cells were compared with TNF-α-stimulated eosinophils. Conclusions: The present study clearly shows by immunanonogold EM that STX17 is localized in eosinophil secretory granules and transport vesicles and might be involved in the transport of granule-derived cargos. - Highlights: • First demonstration of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) in human eosinophils. • High

  18. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the gene encoding human eosinophil differentiation factor (interleukin 5)

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    Campbell, H.D.; Tucker, W.Q.J.; Hort, Y.; Martinson, M.E.; Mayo, G.; Clutterbuck, E.J.; Sanderson, C.J.; Young, I.G.

    1987-10-01

    The human eosinophil differentiation factor (EDF) gene was cloned from a genomic library in lambda phage EMBL3A by using a murine EDF cDNA clone as a probe. The DNA sequence of a 3.2-kilobase BamHI fragment spanning the gene was determined. The gene contains three introns. The predicted amino acid sequence of 134 amino acids is identical with that recently reported for human interleukin 5 but shows no significant homology with other known hemopoietic growth regulators. The amino acid sequence shows strong homology (approx. 70% identity) with that of murine EDF. Recombinant human EDF, expressed from the human EDF gene after transfection into monkey COS cells, stimulated the production of eosinophils and eosinophil colonies from normal human bone marrow but had no effect on the production of neutrophils or mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphoid cells). The apparent specificity of human EDF for the eosinophil lineage in myeloid hemopoiesis contrasts with the properties of human interleukin 3 and granulocyte/macrophage and granulocyte colony-stimulating factors but is directly analogous to the biological properties of murine EDF. Human EDF therefore represents a distinct hemopoietic growth factor that could play a central role in the regulation of eosinophilia.

  19. Eosinophil protein X/eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EPX/EDN). Detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and purification from normal human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Minuva, U; Kharazmi, A

    1991-01-01

    subsequently raised in rabbits. The anti-EPX-antibodies raised in rabbits showed no reactivity with other proteins in the granule extract. The sandwich ELISA utilized the biotin/avidin amplification system and measured EPX over the range of 60-2000 pg/ml. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation......Eosinophil protein X/eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EPX/EDN) is one of the cationic proteins found in the granules of the human eosinophilic granulocytes. EPX was purified from extracts of granules isolated from blood buffy coat cells of healthy donors. Polyclonal anti-EPX antibodies were...... procedure involving affinity chromatography on heparin Sepharose and size exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-50 superfine. Extracted EPX and U-EPX had ribonuclease activity and comigrated on agarose electrophoresis. They also showed immunological identity when evaluated with rabbit anti-EPX antibodies...

  20. In vitro study of histamine and histamine receptor ligands influence on the adhesion of purified human eosinophils to endothelium.

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    Grosicki, Marek; Wójcik, Tomasz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-04-15

    It is a well-known fact that histamine is involved in eosinophil-dependent inflammatory responses including cellular chemotaxis and migration. Nevertheless, the relative role of histamine receptors in the mechanisms of eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells is not known. Therefore the aim of presented study was to examine the effect of selective histamine receptors ligands on eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. For that purpose the highly purified human eosinophils have been isolated from the peripheral blood. The viability and functional integrity of isolated eosinophils have been validated in several tests. Histamine as well as 4-methylhistamine (selective H4 agonist) in concentration-dependent manner significantly increased number of eosinophils that adhere to endothelium. Among the selective histamine receptors antagonist or H1 inverse agonist only JNJ7777120 (histamine H4 antagonist) and thioperamide (dual histamine H3/H4 antagonist) had direct effect on eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells. Antagonists of H1 (diphenhydramine, mepyramine) H2 (ranitidine and famotidine) and H3 (pitolisant) histamine receptors were ineffective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that histamine receptor H4 plays a dominant role in histamine-induced eosinophils adhesion to endothelium.

  1. Eosinophilic oesophagitis

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    Nielsen, Rasmus Gaardskjær; Husby, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis is characterised by age-dependent symptoms mimicking gastrooesophageal reflux disease, a distinct endoscopic appearance and a histological picture with extensive infiltration of eosinophils in the oesophageal mucosa. Eosinophilic oesophagitis is more frequently seen in m...

  2. Cholesterol selectively regulates IL-5 induced mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in human eosinophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy E Burnham

    Full Text Available Eosinophils function contributes to human allergic and autoimmune diseases, many of which currently lack curative treatment. Development of more effective treatments for eosinophil-related diseases requires expanded understanding of eosinophil signaling and biology. Cell signaling requires integration of extracellular signals with intracellular responses, and is organized in part by cholesterol rich membrane microdomains (CRMMs, commonly referred to as lipid rafts. Formation of these organizational membrane domains is in turn dependent upon the amount of available cholesterol, which can fluctuate widely with a variety of disease states. We tested the hypothesis that manipulating membrane cholesterol content in primary human peripheral blood eosinophils (PBEos would selectively alter signaling pathways that depend upon membrane-anchored signaling proteins localized within CRMMs (e.g., mitogen activated protein kinase [MAPK] pathway, while not affecting pathways that signal through soluble proteins, like the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription [JAK/STAT] pathway. Cholesterol levels were increased or decreased utilizing cholesterol-chelating methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, which can either extract membrane cholesterol or add exogenous membrane cholesterol depending on whether MβCD is preloaded with cholesterol. Human PBEos were pretreated with MβCD (cholesterol removal or MβCD+Cholesterol (MβCD+Chol; cholesterol delivery; subsequent IL-5-stimulated signaling and physiological endpoints were assessed. MβCD reduced membrane cholesterol in PBEos, and attenuated an IL-5-stimulated p38 and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation (p-p38, p-ERK1/2, and an IL-5-dependent increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β mRNA levels. In contrast, MβCD+Chol treatment elevated PBEos membrane cholesterol levels and basal p-p38, but did not alter IL-5-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, STAT5, or STAT3. Furthermore, M

  3. Identification and characterization of human eosinophil cationic protein by an epitope-specific antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, E; Carreras, E; Nikolovski, Z; Cuchillo, C M; Nogués, M V

    2001-06-01

    The eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a basic secretion protein involved in the immune response system. ECP levels in biological fluids are an indicator of eosinophil-specific activation and degranulation and are currently used for the clinical monitoring and diagnosis of inflammatory disorders. A polyclonal epitope-specific antibody has been obtained by immunizing rabbits with a conjugated synthetic peptide. A sequence corresponding to a large exposed loop in the human ECP three-dimensional structure (D115-Y122) was selected as a putative antigenic epitope. The antibody was purified on an affinity column using recombinant ECP (rECP) as antigen. The antibody (D112-P123 Ab) specifically recognizes rECP and its native glycosylated and nonglycosylated forms in plasma, granulocytes, and sputum. The antibody detects as little as 1 ng of rECP, can be used both in reducing and nonreducing conditions, and does not cross-react with the highly homologous eosinophil-derived neurotoxin or other proteins of the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily.

  4. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell-Derived Factors from Severe Asthmatic Subjects Stimulate Eosinophil Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brittany M A; Smith, Steven G; Mukherjee, Manali; Plante, Sophie; Krisna, Sakktee; Nusca, Graeme; Oliveria, John Paul; Irshad, Anam; Gauvreau, Gail M; Chakir, Jamila; Nair, Parameswaran; Sehmi, Roma

    2017-08-30

    Activated bronchial epithelial cells release alarmins, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) that drive type 2 inflammatory responses. We hypothesize that bronchial epithelial-derived factors enhance in situ eosinophil differentiation and maturation from myeloid precursors, a process that is driven by an IL-5 rich micro-environment within asthma airways. To assess the eosinophilopoietic potential of epithelial-derived factors, eosinophil/basophil colony forming units (Eo/B-CFU) were enumerated in 14-day methylcellulose cultures of blood-derived mononuclear cells (NAMNCs) incubated with bronchial epithelial cell supernatants (BECSN) from healthy non-atopic controls (NC; n = 8), mild atopic asthmatics (MA; n = 9) and severe asthmatics (SA; n = 5). Receptor blocking antibodies were used to evaluate the contribution of alarmins. Modulation of mRNA expression of transcription factors crucial for eosinophil differentiation was evaluated. BECSN stimulated the clonogenic expansion of eosinophil progenitors, in vitro. In the presence of IL-5, Eo/B-CFU growth was significantly greater in co-cultures of BESCN from SA, compared to MA and NC. This effect was attenuated by a TSLP receptor blocking antibody but not by an ST2 antibody. Recombinant human TSLP (optimal at 100 pg/ml) stimulated significant Eo/B-CFU growth, which was significantly enhanced in presence of IL-5 (1 ng/ml). Overnight culture of CD34+ cells with IL-5 and TSLP synergistically increased GATA-2 and CEBP-alpha mRNA expression. The eosinophilopoietic potential of factors derived from bronchial epithelial cells is increased in severe asthma. Our data suggest that TSLP is a key alarmin produced by bronchial epithelial cells, which promotes in situ eosinophilopoiesis in a type 2 rich microenvironment.

  5. Human cord blood derived immature basophils show dual characteristics, expressing both basophil and eosinophil associated proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Grundström

    eosinophils and basophils are closely linked during human hematopoietic development. The dual phenotype also indicates that other cytokines than IL-3 or cell surface interactions are needed to obtain the full basophil specific phenotype in vivo.

  6. Human cord blood derived immature basophils show dual characteristics, expressing both basophil and eosinophil associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundström, Jeanette; Reimer, Jenny M; Magnusson, Sofia E; Nilsson, Gunnar; Wernersson, Sara; Hellman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Basophils are blood cells of low abundance associated with allergy, inflammation and parasite infections. To study the transcriptome of mature circulating basophils cells were purified from buffy coats by density gradient centrifugations and two-step magnetic cell sorting. However, after extensive analysis the cells were found to be transcriptionally inactive and almost completely lack functional mRNA. In order to obtain transcriptionally active immature basophils for analysis of their transcriptome, umbilical cord blood cells were therefore cultured in the presence of interleukin (IL)-3 for 9 days and basophils were enriched by removing non-basophils using magnetic cell sorting. The majority of purified cells demonstrated typical metachromatic staining with Alcian blue dye (95%) and expression of surface markers FcεRI and CD203c, indicating a pure population of cells with basophil-like phenotype. mRNA was extracted from these cells and used to construct a cDNA library with approximately 600 000 independent clones. This library served as tool to determine the mRNA frequencies for a number of hematopoietic marker proteins. It was shown that these cells express basophil/mast cell-specific transcripts, i.e. β-tryptase, serglycin and FcεRI α-chain, to a relatively low degree. In contrast, the library contained a high number of several eosinophil-associated transcripts such as: major basic protein (MBP), charcot leyden crystal (CLC), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). Out of these transcripts, MBP and EPO were the most frequently observed, representing 8% and 3.2% of the total mRNA pool, respectively. Moreover, in a proteome analysis of cultured basophils we identified MBP and EPO as the two most prominent protein bands, suggesting a good correlation between protein and mRNA analyses of these cells. The mixed phenotype observed for these cells strengthens the conclusion that eosinophils and

  7. Proteomics of Eosinophil Activation

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    Deane F. Mosher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified and quantified >7,000 proteins in non-activated human peripheral blood eosinophils using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS and described phosphoproteomic changes that accompany acute activation of eosinophils by interleukin-5 (IL5 (1. These data comprise a treasure trove of information about eosinophils. We illustrate the power of label-free LC–MS/MS quantification by considering four examples: complexity of eosinophil STATs, contribution of immunoproteasome subunits to eosinophil proteasomes, complement of integrin subunits, and contribution of platelet proteins originating from platelet–eosinophil complexes to the overall proteome. We describe how isobaric labeling enables robust sample-to-sample comparisons and relate the 220 phosphosites that changed significantly upon treatment with IL5 to previous studies of eosinophil activation. Finally, we review previous attempts to leverage the power of mass spectrometry to discern differences between eosinophils of healthy subjects and those with eosinophil-associated conditions and point out features of label-free quantification and isobaric labeling that are important in planning future mass spectrometric studies.

  8. Characterization of a receptor for interleukin-5 on human eosinophils and the myeloid leukemia line HL-60

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    Ingley, E.; Young, I.G. (Medical Molecular Biology Group, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia))

    1991-07-15

    Interleukin-5 (IL-5) promotes the growth and differentiation of human eosinophils and may regulate the selective eosinophilia and eosinophil activation seen in certain diseases. Radiolabeled recombinant human IL-5 (hIL-5) was used to characterize the IL-5 receptor present on normal human eosinophils and on the myeloid leukemia line HL-60, which can be induced to differentiate into eosinophilic cells. Binding studies with eosinophils and HL-60 cells grown under alkaline conditions demonstrated similar high-affinity binding sites for hIL-5 on both cell types with kd values of approximately 400 pmol/L. The binding observed was specific in that it was not inhibited by hIL-3, human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, or hIL-2. Binding studies with a number of other human cell lines, including a B-lymphoma line, and with lymphocyte and neutrophil preparations were also performed, but IL-5 receptors were not detectable on these cells. The number of hIL-5 receptors on HL-60 cells could be correlated with its propensity to differentiate towards an eosinophilic cell type. Expression of hIL-5 receptors on HL-60 cells was upregulated by butyric acid under alkaline conditions, downregulated by hIL-3, virtually eliminated by dimethyl sulfoxide and hIL-5, while hIL-2 had no detectable effect. One major 125I-hIL-5-crosslinked complex of 75 to 85 Kd in Mr was detected on HL-60 cells using crosslinking agents giving a molecular mass of 55 to 60 Kd for the hIL-5 receptor itself. Studies using cellular autoradiography showed that IL-5 receptors were evenly distributed on eosinophils but that receptor distribution on HL-60 cells was noticeably heterogeneous. Eosinophils were the only cells in slides prepared from peripheral blood that had detectable levels of IL-5 receptors in agreement with the specific action of IL-5 on the human eosinophil lineage.

  9. Signal peptide of eosinophil cationic protein upregulates transforming growth factor-alpha expression in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hao-Teng; Kao, Yu-Lin; Wu, Chia-Mao; Fan, Tan-Chi; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Huang, Kai-Ling; Chang, Yuo-Sheng; Tsai, Jaw-Ji; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2007-04-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a major component of eosinophil granule protein that is used as a clinical bio-marker for asthma and allergic inflammatory diseases. Previously, it has been reported that the signal peptide of human ECP (ECPsp) inhibits the cell growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris), but not mammalian A431 cells. The inhibitory effect is due to the lack of human signal peptide peptidase (hSPP), a protease located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, in the lower organisms. In this study, we show that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is upregulated by the exogenous ECPsp-eGFP as a result of the increased expression of the transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) at both transcriptional and translational levels in A431 and HL-60 clone 15 cell lines. Furthermore, the N-terminus of ECPsp fragment generated by the cleavage of hSPP (ECPspM1-G17) gives rise to over threefold increase of TGF-alpha protein expression, whereas another ECPsp fragment (ECPspL18-A27) and the hSPP-resistant ECPsp (ECPspG17L) do not show similar effect. Our results indicate that the ECPspM1-G17 plays a crucial role in the upregulation of TGF-alpha, suggesting that the ECPsp not only directs the secretion of mature ECP, but also involves in the autocrine system.

  10. Human eosinophil major basic protein is an endogenous allosteric antagonist at the inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacoby, D B; Gleich, G J; Fryer, A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of human eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) as well as other eosinophil proteins, on binding of [3H]N-methyl-scopolamine ([3H]NMS: 1 x 10(-10) M) to muscarinic M2 receptors in heart membranes and M3 receptors in submandibular gland membranes was studied. MBP inhibited specific binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors but not to M3 receptors. MBP also inhibited atropine-induced dissociation of [3H]NMS-receptor complexes in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrating that the interaction of ...

  11. Eosinophil degranulation. An immunologic determinant in the pathogenesis of the Mazzotti reaction in human onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, S J; Kephart, G M; Francis, H; Awadzi, K; Gleich, G J; Ottesen, E A

    1990-05-15

    Onchocerciasis patients treated with diethylcarbamazine often undergo a severe inflammatory response, the Mazzotti reaction. To assess the eosinophil's role in the pathogenesis of the Mazzotti reaction, we obtained serial blood, plasma, and skin biopsy specimens from 21 heavily infected patients and 3 endemic controls, both before and during therapy with diethylcarbamazine. Samples were analyzed for blood eosinophils, plasma levels of eosinophil granule major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil infiltration and eosinophil and mast cell degranulation in the skin. After the first dose of diethylcarbamazine, blood eosinophils fell from a pre-treatment level of 888 +/- 111 to 203 +/- 42 cells/mm3 at 8 h. This decrease was followed by a marked eosinophilia developing over the remaining 7 days of treatment and 14 days of follow-up. Plasma eosinophil-derived neurotoxin levels increased from 56 +/- 4 ng/ml pretreatment to a peak of 82 +/- 9 ng/ml at 8 h and returned to pretreatment levels by 48 h. Beginning at 12 h, plasma MBP levels increased from 730 +/- 74 ng/ml pretreatment to a peak of 1140 +/- 74 ng/ml after 5 days. Pretreatment skin biopsies stained for MBP by immunofluorescence showed a bright fibrillar pattern in the dermis consistent with chronic eosinophil degranulation; the MBP was localized on elastic tissue fibers. After treatment, skin biopsy specimens showed both the pretreatment fibrillar MBP staining pattern as well as focal eosinophil degranulation. Deposition of MBP around microfilariae in the papillary dermis was visible as early as 1.5 h. The lowest blood eosinophil levels and peak plasma eosinophil-derived neurotoxin levels coincided with the infiltration and degranulation of eosinophils in the skin. Mast cell degranulation in the skin was maximal by the first posttreatment biopsy (1.5 h) coincident with the beginning of eosinophil degranulation. Although the pathogenesis of the Mazzotti reaction is clearly complex, our

  12. Dexamethasone reduces cell surface levels of CD11b on human eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Das

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Overnight incubation of human eosinophils (Eøs with the glucocorticoid hormone dexamethasone (DEX; 0.1 μM resulted in lower expression of the CD11b, but not CD49d, antigen on their plasma membrane, as assessed by flow cytometry. DEX produced a consistent inhibitory effect (ranging from 16% to 20% when tested at a concentration of 0.1 μM. Eø stimulation with 100 ng/ml eotaxin produced an increase in CD11b (+26%, but not CD11c, levels and concomitantly a reduction (–25% on CD62L expression. The inhibition exerted by DEX upon CD11b levels was also evident following eotaxin upregulation, with a degree of inhibition similar to that seen on basal levels. These data highlight a novel mechanism of action by which glucocorticoid hormones may be effective in reducing Eø accumulation during allergic inflammation in man.

  13. Eosinophilic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Chotmongkol, Verajit

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined by the presence of at least 10% eosinophils in the total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte count. Although there are several possible causes of eosinophils in the CSF, parasitic infection is the main cause. The three common parasites causing eosinophilic meningitis include Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, and Taenia solium. Even though these parasites are endemic in tropical countries, they are now spreading globally due to extensive traveling, and physicians worldwide should pay more attention to this condition. This chapter will review risk factors, clinical manifestations, and treatment of these three parasites.

  14. Th17 cytokines induce pro-fibrotic cytokines release from human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Letuve, Severine; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Pureza, Mary Angeline; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Bahammam, Ahmed S; Hamid, Qutayba; Halwani, Rabih

    2013-03-13

    Subepithelial fibrosis is one of the most critical structural changes affecting bronchial airway function during asthma. Eosinophils have been shown to contribute to the production of pro-fibrotic cytokines, TGF-β and IL-11, however, the mechanism regulating this process is not fully understood. In this report, we investigated whether cytokines associated with inflammation during asthma may induce eosinophils to produce pro-fibrotic cytokines. Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of 10 asthmatics and 10 normal control subjects. Eosinophils were stimulated with Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines and the production of TGF-β and IL-11 was determined using real time PCR and ELISA assays. The basal expression levels of eosinophil derived TGF-β and IL-11 cytokines were comparable between asthmatic and healthy individuals. Stimulating eosinophils with Th1 and Th2 cytokines did not induce expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines. However, stimulating eosinophils with Th17 cytokines resulted in the enhancement of TGF-β and IL-11 expression in asthmatic but not healthy individuals. This effect of IL-17 on eosinophils was dependent on p38 MAPK activation as inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not other kinases, inhibited IL-17 induced pro-fibrotic cytokine release. Th17 cytokines might contribute to airway fibrosis during asthma by enhancing production of eosinophil derived pro-fibrotic cytokines. Preventing the release of pro-fibrotic cytokines by blocking the effect of Th17 cytokines on eosinophils may prove to be beneficial in controlling fibrosis for disorders with IL-17 driven inflammation such as allergic and autoimmune diseases.

  15. Ultrastructural localization of Charcot-Leyden crystal protein in human eosinophils and basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, J; Janssen, H; Knol, E F; Weller, P F; Egesten, A

    1997-01-01

    The Charcot-Leyden crystal (CLC) protein with lysophospholipase activity and carbohydrate-binding properties is a characteristic constituent of eosinophils and basophils. We investigated its subcellular distribution using immunoelectron microscopy. Eosinophil progenitors, mature eosinophils and basophils all contained CLC protein in their cytosol and in the euchromatin of the nucleus. A minor population of granules in eosinophils, increasing in number with maturation, and a more abundant granule-population in basophils, were found to contain CLC protein. Double-labeling experiments showed, in eosinophils, that CLC protein-containing granules contain also eosinophil peroxidase, a characteristic specific granule protein. This suggests a relationship between the CLC protein-containing organelle and the specific granule. In basophils both the CLC protein positive and the negative granules showed the same characteristic particulate-like structure of the granular matrix and both share the same membrane marker CD63. In nasal polyps, macrophages were observed phagocytosing necrotic eosinophils. In these macrophages CLC protein-containing vesicles were observed, probably representing late endosomes. The dual (cytosolic/nuclear and granular) localization of CLC protein suggests that this protein enters both a secretory and a nonsecretory pathway during its biosynthesis, indicating functional roles for this protein both within the cell and extracellularly.

  16. Eosinophilic cystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G. Nikkels; T.P.V.M. de Jong (Tom); P.C.M.S. Verhagen (Paul)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe describe four cases of eosinophilic cystitis in whom no specific cause could be found, and review the literature. Complaints at presentation included urgency, frequency, abdominal pain, and haematuria. In three patients the symptoms and ultrasound picture

  17. Eosinophilic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnenna Okpara; Bassam Aswad; Gyorgy Baffy

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease with a bimodal peak of prevalence in neonates and young adults. EC remains a little understood condition in contrast to the increasingly recognized eosinophilic esophagitis. Clinical presentation of EC is highly variable according to mucosal, transmural, or serosal predominance of inflammation. EC has a broad differential diagnosis because colon tissue eosinophilia often occurs in parasitic infection, drug-induced allergic reactions,inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders, which require thorough searching for secondary causes that may be specifically treated with antibiotics or dietary and drug elimination.Like eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease involving other segments of the gastrointestinal tract, EC responds very well to steroids that may be spared by using antihistamines, leukotriene inhibitors and biologics.

  18. Eotaxin increases the expression of CD11b/CD18 and adhesion properties in IL5, but not fMLP-prestimulated human peripheral blood eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, J; Moshfegh, A; Grönneberg, R; Halldén, G

    1998-04-01

    A selective recruitment of eosinophils to sites of inflammation is claimed to be controlled by regulation of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. In animal models, eotaxin has been suggested to be a potent chemokine since it in cooperation with interleukin-5 induce selective chemotaxis and infiltration of eosinophils to lung tissue after an allergen provocation. We have investigated the in vitro effect of eotaxin on human peripheral blood eosinophils with respect to CD11b/CD18 expression and adhesion properties to the matrix protein fibronectin. We did not find any effect of eotaxin per se on CD11b/CD18 expression, neither on eosinophils from healthy subjects nor from patients with asymptomatic pollen related asthma. However, eotaxin significantly upregulated the quantitative level of CD11b/CD18 and increased the adhesion to fibronectin in eosinophils from healthy subjects preincubated in vitro with interleukin-5, but not in eosinophils preincubated with fMLP. Moreover, eosinophils harvested 24 hours after an in vivo allergen inhalation provocation in asthmatics, upregulated CD11b/CD18 after in vitro incubation with eotaxin alone.

  19. Eosinophilic fasciitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamback, Elisa Baranski; Resende, Fernanda Simões Seabra; Lenzi, Thiara Cristina Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare sclerodermiform syndrome of unknown etiology. It is characterized by the thickening of the muscular fascia and subcutaneous tissue, with a variable infiltration of eosinophils. Peripheral eosinophilia, poly or monoclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate can be seen. Clinical features begin acutely, with local edema and a painful and symmetrical stiffening of the limbs, progressing rapidly to fibrosis, which can limit joint movements. Some cases have a history of strenuous physical exercise or trauma. The diagnosis is confirmed by a deep skin biopsy. Glucocorticoids in high doses is the treatment of choice. We report a typical eosinophilic fasciitis case with peripheral eosinophilia and dramatic response to pulse therapy with methylprednisolone.

  20. Eosinophilic esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anand R Gupte; Peter V Draganov

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized in adults. The diagnosis is based on the presence of both typical symptoms and pathologic findings on esophageal biopsy. Patients usually present with dysphagia, food impaction and/or reflux-like symptoms, and biopsy of the esophagus shows more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field. In addition,it is essential to exclude the presence of known causes of tissue eosinophilia such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, infections, malignancy, collagen vascular diseases, hypersensitivity, and inflammatory bowel disease. There are no standardized protocols for the therapy of eosinophilic esophagitis. A variety of therapeutic approaches including acid suppression, dietary modi f icat ions, topical cor t icosteroids and endoscopic dilation can be used alone or in combination.

  1. Best On-Farm Food Safety Practices: Risks Associated with Rat Lungworm and Human Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent cases of eosinophilic meningitis in Hawai’i have drawn attention to a food-borne parasitic infection that occurs in Hawai‘i, the Pacific Islands, southern and eastern Asia, and elsewhere. In late 2008, the Hawai‘i Department of Health reported that four people on the island of Hawai‘i had bee...

  2. Modulation of growth and differentiation of eosinophils from human peripheral blood CD34+ cells by IL5 and other growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalit, M; Sekhsaria, S; Malech, H L

    1995-01-01

    Small numbers of CD34+ primitive hematopoietic progenitors are found in normal human peripheral blood. These cells differentiate to myeloid or lymphoid lineage under the influence of different growth factors. We investigated the effects of IL5 and other growth factors on the production of eosinophils from peripheral blood CD34+ cells. CD34+ cells were enriched from normal donors by apheresis and positive selection using an affinity column and plated in agarose with different combinations of cytokines. At 14 days of growth a triple stain technique was used to identify eosinophil, monocyte, and neutrophil colonies. IL5 alone did not support colony growth from CD34+ cells. In contrast, GM-CSF and IL3 alone or together without added IL5 supported the generation of more than 50% pure eosinophil colonies. Addition of IL5 did not change the total number of colonies, but increased the fraction of pure eosinophil colonies to over 70%. Addition of G-CSF reduced the percentage of eosinophil colonies and increased the percentage of neutrophil colonies. Under the best conditions for eosinophil colony growth (IL3+GM-CSF+IL5), the addition of interferon-alpha or bacterial lipopolysaccharide inhibited colony growth by 51 and 58%, respectively. Addition of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or dexamethasone had no effect on eosinophil colonies. Since IL5 alone did not support colony growth from CD34+ cells, we determined when IL5-responsive cells appeared in culture. Cells were grown initially with IL3 + GM-CSF in suspension, washed, and plated in agarose with IL5 alone. Only when progenitors were grown at least 3 days could IL5 serve as the single growth factor supporting pure eosinophil colony growth (47 colonies/10(4) cells plated at Day 3 and 134 colonies/10(4) cells at Day 7). We used neutralizing anti-IL5 antibodies to demonstrate that this late acting IL5 growth effect was specific, and that differentiation of eosinophils in the presence of IL3 + GM-CSF was IL5

  3. IgE basement membrane zone antibodies induce eosinophil infiltration and histological blisters in engrafted human skin on SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zone, John J; Taylor, Ted; Hull, Christopher; Schmidt, Linda; Meyer, Laurence

    2007-05-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is characterized by the deposition of IgG in the basement membrane zone, infiltration of eosinophils, and blister formation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a potential role of IgE basement membrane antibodies in the histological findings of BP. LABD97 is a component of the shed ectodomain of bullous pemphigoid antigen 2. We have developed an IgE hybridoma to LABD97 antigen. This hybridoma was injected subcutaneously in SCID mice with engrafted human skin. A subcutaneous hybridoma secreting IgE antibodies developed. An IgE mouse hybridoma to trinitrophenyl was used as a control. Human grafts and mouse skin were examined grossly over 21 days, histologically, and immunopathologically at day 21 after injection of the hybridoma. A visible subcutaneous tumor developed in 10-14 days. Erythema and intense scratching developed 2-3 days before the tumor in test mice, but not in controls. At day 21, 16/16 test mice developed intense eosinophil infiltration and degranulation of the human mast cells within the grafts and 13/16 developed histological, but not clinically visible, basement membrane blisters. Human skin grafts of control mice and normal mouse skin on the test mice and control mice did not develop any histological abnormalities. IgE antibodies to LABD97 recapitulate the histological inflammatory process seen in BP.

  4. Eosinophils, probiotics, and the microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Helene F; Masterson, Joanne C; Furuta, Glenn T

    2016-11-01

    There is currently substantial interest in the therapeutic properties of probiotic microorganisms as recent research suggests that oral administration of specific bacterial strains may reduce inflammation and alter the nature of endogenous microflora in the gastrointestinal tract. Eosinophils are multifunctional tissue leukocytes, prominent among the resident cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa that promote local immunity. Recent studies with genetically altered mice indicate that eosinophils not only participate in maintaining gut homeostasis, but that the absence of eosinophils may have significant impact on the nature of the endogenous gut microflora and responses to gut pathogens, notably Clostridium difficile Furthermore, in human subjects, there is an intriguing relationship between eosinophils, allergic inflammation, and the nature of the lung microflora, notably a distinct association between eosinophil infiltration and detection of bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria. Among topics for future research, it will be important to determine whether homeostatic mechanisms involve direct interactions between eosinophils and bacteria or whether they involve primarily eosinophil-mediated responses to cytokine signaling in the local microenvironment. Likewise, although is it clear that eosinophils can and do interact with bacteria in vivo, their ability to discern between pathogenic and probiotic species in various settings remains to be explored.

  5. Eosinophil localization to the basement membrane zone is autoantibody- and complement-dependent in a human cryosection model of bullous pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messingham, Kelly N; Wang, Jeffrey W; Holahan, Heather M; Srikantha, Rupasree; Aust, Samantha C; Fairley, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by antibodies (IgG and IgE) targeting cell-substrate adhesion proteins. A variety of BP models suggest that autoantibody-dependent neutrophil degranulation is essential for blister formation. However, lesional biopsies reveal a predominance of eosinophils and few neutrophils. Our goal was to evaluate the role of antibodies and complement in eosinophil localization, degranulation and split formation at the dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ) utilizing a human skin cryosection model of BP paired with a human eosinophilic cell line, 15HL-60. Expression of receptors for IgG (FcγRII), IgE (FcεRI) and complement (CR1 and CR3) was confirmed on 15HL-60 cells using flow cytometry. 15HL-60 expression of granule protein [eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO)] mRNA and their degranulation in vitro was confirmed using RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. For cryosection experiments, BP or control sera or IgG and IgE antibodies purified from BP sera were utilized in combination with 15HL-60 cells ± fresh complement. Both BP serum and fresh complement were required for localization of 15-HL60 cells to the DEJ. Interestingly, eosinophil localization to the DEJ was dependent on IgG, but not IgE, and complement. However, no subepidermal split was observed. Additionally, the 15HL-60 cells did not degranulate under any experimental conditions and direct application of cell lysate to cryosections did not result in a split. Our observation that eosinophil localization to the DEJ is dependent on IgG mediated complement fixation provides additional insight into the sequence of events during the development of BP lesions.

  6. Rapidly boosted Plasma IL-5 induced by treatment of human Schistosomiasis haematobium is dependent on antigen dose, IgE and eosinophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Jones, Frances M.; Fofana, Hassan K. M.

    2013-01-01

    IgE specific to worm antigen (SWA) and pre-treatment eosinophil number, are associated with human immunity to re-infection with schistosomes after chemotherapeutic treatment. Treatment significantly elevates circulating IL-5 24-hr post-treatment of Schistosoma mansoni. Here we investigate if praz...

  7. Rapidly boosted Plasma IL-5 induced by treatment of human Schistosomiasis haematobium is dependent on antigen dose, IgE and eosinophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgE specific to worm antigen (SWA and pre-treatment eosinophil number, are associated with human immunity to re-infection with schistosomes after chemotherapeutic treatment. Treatment significantly elevates circulating IL-5 24-hr post-treatment of Schistosoma mansoni. Here we investigate if praziquantel treatment of human schistosomiasis haematobium also boosts circulating IL-5, the immunological and parasitological factors that predispose to this, and the relationship between these and subsequent immunity to post-treatment re-infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: The relationship between pre-treatment SWA-IgE, eosinophil number and infection intensity and the 24-hr post-treatment IL-5 boost was investigated in a Malian cohort (aged 5-40 yrs, exposed to S. haematobium. Eotaxin levels were measured at 24-hr post-treatment as a proxy of eosinophil migration. The relationship between the 24-hr post-treatment IL-5 boost and later eosinophil numbers and SWA-IgE levels (9-wk post-treatment was examined, then investigated in the context of subsequent levels of re-infection (2-yr post-treatment. Circulating IL-5 levels increased 24-hr post-treatment and were associated with pre-treatment infection intensity, SWA-IgE levels, eosinophil number, as well as 24-hr post-treatment eotaxin levels. 24-hr IL-5 levels were, in turn, significantly associated with eosinophil number and elevated SWA-IgE 9-wk later. These SWA-IgE levels were significantly associated with immunity to re-infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Early IL-5 production after treatment-induced exposure to S. haematobium worm antigen is positively associated with antigen dose (infection intensity, IgE availability for arming of effector cells at time of treatment and subsequent eosinophil migration response (as indicated by eotaxin levels. The IL-5 produced is positively associated with increased downstream eosinophil number and increases in specific IgE levels, implicating this

  8. ETV6-PDGFRB and FIP1L1-PDGFRA stimulate human hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation into eosinophils: the role of nuclear factor-κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano-Almendras, Carmen P.; Essaghir, Ahmed; Schoemans, Hélène; Varis, Inci; Noël, Laura A.; Velghe, Amélie I.; Latinne, Dominique; Knoops, Laurent; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-01-01

    Background ETV6-PDGFRB (also called TEL-PDGFRB) and FIP1L1-PDGFRA are receptor-tyrosine kinase fusion genes that cause chronic myeloid malignancies associated with hypereosinophilia. The aim of this work was to gain insight into the mechanisms whereby fusion genes affect human hematopoietic cells and in particular the eosinophil lineage. Design and Methods We introduced ETV6-PDGFRB and FIP1L1-PDGFRA into human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells isolated from umbilical cord blood. Results Cells transduced with these oncogenes formed hematopoietic colonies even in the absence of cytokines. Both oncogenes also stimulated the proliferation of cells in liquid culture and their differentiation into eosinophils. This model thus recapitulated key features of the myeloid neoplasms induced by ETV6-PDGFRB and FIP1L1-PDGFRA. We next showed that both fusion genes activated the transcription factors STAT1, STAT3, STAT5 and nuclear factor-κB. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibition blocked nuclear factor-κB activation in transduced progenitor cells and patients’ cells. Nuclear factor-κB was also activated in the human FIP1L1-PDGFRA-positive leukemia cell line EOL1, the proliferation of which was blocked by borte-zomib and the IκB kinase inhibitor BMS-345541. A mutant IκB that prevents nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB inhibited cell growth and the expression of eosinophil markers, such as the interleukin-5 receptor and eosinophil peroxidase, in progenitors transduced with ETV6-PDGFRB. In addition, several potential regulators of this process, including HES6, MYC and FOXO3 were identified using expression microarrays. Conclusions We show that human CD34+ cells expressing PDGFR fusion oncogenes proliferate autonomously and differentiate towards the eosinophil lineage in a process that requires nuclear factor-κB. These results suggest new treatment possibilities for imatinib-resistant myeloid neoplasms associated with PDGFR mutations. PMID:22271894

  9. Genomic organization, complete sequence, and chromosomal location of the gene for human eotaxin (SCYA11), an eosinophil-specific CC chemokine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Zepeda, E.A.; Sarafi, M.N.; Luster, A.D. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA (United States)]|[Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    Eotaxin is a CC chemokine that is a specific chemoattractant for eosinophils and is implicated in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma. We describe the genomic organization, complete sequence, including 1354 bp 5{prime} of the RNA initiation site, and chromosomal localization of the human eotaxin gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis localized eotaxin to human chromosome 17, in the region q21.1-q21.2, and the human gene name SCYA11 was assigned. We also present the 5{prime} flanking sequence of the mouse eotaxin gene and have identified several regulatory elements that are conserved between the murine and the human promoters. In particular, the presence of elements such as NF-{Kappa}B, interferon-{gamma} response element, and glucocorticoid response element may explain the observed regulation of the eotaxin gene by cytokines and glucocorticoids. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Chronic Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis by Prototheca Wickerhamii in an Immunocompetent Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ari; Choe, Yong-Joon; Chang, Jeonghyun; Kim, Duckhee; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Hong, Seok Ho; Lee, Jina; Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2017-07-01

    Human protothecosis is mainly a cutaneous infection caused by the Prototheca species. Prototheca wickerhamii is an established pathogen of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in dogs, but no eosinophilic pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid has been reported in human cases of meningitis. Herein, we report a case of chronic protothecosis manifesting eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent boy.

  11. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A newly established cause of dysphagia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian M Yan; Eldon A Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis has rapidly become a recognized entity causing dysphagia in young adults. This review summarizes the current knowledge of eosinophilic esophagitis including the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, treatment,and prognosis. An extensive search of PubMed/Medline (1966-December 2005) for available English literature in humans for eosinophilic esophagitis was completed. Appropriate articles listed in the bibliographies were also attained. The estimated incidence is 43/105 in children and 2.5/105 in adults. Clinically, patients have a long history of intermittent solid food dysphagia or food impaction. Some have a history of atopy. Subtle endoscopic features may be easily overlooked, including a "feline"or corrugated esophagus with fine rings, a diffusely narrowed esophagus that may have proximal strictures, the presence of linear furrows, adherent white plaques, or a friable (crepe paper) mucosa, prone to tearing with minimai contact. Although no pathologic consensus has been established, a histologic diagnosis is critical. The accepted criteria are a dense eosinophilic infiltrate (>20/high power field) within the superficial esophageal mucosa. In contrast, the esophagitis associated with acid reflux disease can also possess eosinophils but they are fewer in number. Once the diagnosis is established, treatment options may include specific food avoidance, topical corticosteroids, systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors,or biologic treatment. The long-term prognosis of EE is uncertain; however available data suggests a benign,albeit inconvenient, course. With increasing recognition,this entity is taking its place as an established cause of solid food dysphagia.

  12. Eosinophilic esophagitis: a newly established cause of dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Brian-M; Shaffer, Eldon-A

    2006-04-21

    Eosinophilic esophagitis has rapidly become a recognized entity causing dysphagia in young adults. This review summarizes the current knowledge of eosinophilic esophagitis including the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis. An extensive search of PubMed/Medline (1966-December 2005) for available English literature in humans for eosinophilic esophagitis was completed. Appropriate articles listed in the bibliographies were also attained. The estimated incidence is 43/10(5) in children and 2.5/10(5) in adults. Clinically, patients have a long history of intermittent solid food dysphagia or food impaction. Some have a history of atopy. Subtle endoscopic features may be easily overlooked, including a "feline" or corrugated esophagus with fine rings, a diffusely narrowed esophagus that may have proximal strictures, the presence of linear furrows, adherent white plaques, or a friable (crepe paper) mucosa, prone to tearing with minimal contact. Although no pathologic consensus has been established, a histologic diagnosis is critical. The accepted criteria are a dense eosinophilic infiltrate (>20/high power field) within the superficial esophageal mucosa. In contrast, the esophagitis associated with acid reflux disease can also possess eosinophils but they are fewer in number. Once the diagnosis is established, treatment options may include specific food avoidance, topical corticosteroids, systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors, or biologic treatment. The long-term prognosis of EE is uncertain; however available data suggests a benign, albeit inconvenient, course. With increasing recognition, this entity is taking its place as an established cause of solid food dysphagia.

  13. Nilotinib and imatinib are comparably effective in reducing growth of human eosinophil leukemia cells in a newly established xenograft model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wicklein

    Full Text Available We developed a xenograft model of human Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL to study disease progression and remission-induction under therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors using imatinib and nilotinib as examples. The FIP1L1/PDGFRA+ human CEL cell lineEOL-1 was injected intravenously into scid mice, and MR imaging and FACS analysis of mouse blood samples were performed to monitor disease development and the effects of imatinib and nilotinib. Organ infiltration was analyzed in detail by immunohistochemistry after sacrifice. All animals developed CEL and within one week of therapy, complete remissions were seen with both imatinib and nilotinib, resulting in reduced total tumor volumes by MR-imaging and almost complete disappearance of EOL-1 cells in the peripheral blood and in tissues. The new model system is feasible for the evaluation of new tyrosine kinase inhibitors and our data suggest that nilotinib may be a valuable additional targeted drug active in patients with FIP1L1/PDGFRA+ CEL.

  14. Human cathelicidin LL-37 is a chemoattractant for eosinophils and neutrophils that acts via formyl-peptide receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjabringa, G.S.; Ninaber, D.K.; Drijfhout, J.W.; Rabe, K.F.; Hiemstra, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized by the presence of eosinophils and neutrophils. However, the mechanisms that mediate the influx of these cells are incompletely understood. Neutrophil products, including

  15. Blocking of α1β1 and α2β1 adhesion molecules inhibits eosinophil migration through human lung microvascular endothelial cell monolayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Bazan-Socha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In cell trafficking to the airways in asthma, among integrins the most important are those containing α4 and β2 subunits. We have previously shown that also blocking of collagen receptors, α1β1 and α2β1 integrins, inhibits transmigration of eosinophils of asthmatic subjects through a monolayer of skin microvascular endothelial cells seeded on collagen IV coated inserts. However, it was not clear whether this observation was limited to asthma or depended on the type of microvascular cell and collagen IV used as a base. In the current study we performed a transmigration assay using human lung microvascular endothelial cells seeded directly on a plastic surface as a base and blood cells isolated from 12 representatives of each of two groups, asthmatics and healthy donors, by gradient centrifugation, followed by immunomagnetic negative separation of eosinophils. Isolated eosinophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were inhibited by snake venom-derived integrin antagonists including viperistatin and VP12, as inhibitors of α1β1 and α2β1 integrin, respectively, and VLO5 and VLO4, as inhibitors of α4β1 and α5β1 integrin, respectively. All snake venom-derived anti-adhesive proteins were effective in inhibiting eosinophil transmigration, whilst only VLO5 and VLO4 reduced PBMC mobility in this assay. This observation was similar in both groups of subjects studied. α1β1 and α2β1 integrins could be involved in transmigration of eosinophil to the inflammatory site. Migratory inhibition was observed in asthma subjects as well as in healthy donors, and did not depend on origin of endothelial cells or the extracellular matrix component used as a base.

  16. Ratios of Four STAT3 Splice Variants in Human Eosinophils and Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Keren B; Annis, Douglas S; Rui, Lixin; Esnault, Stephane; Mosher, Deane F

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a key mediator of leukocyte differentiation and proliferation. The 3' end of STAT3 transcripts is subject to two alternative splicing events. One results in either full-length STAT3α or in STAT3β, which lacks part of the C-terminal transactivation domain. The other is at a tandem donor (5') splice site and results in the codon for Ser-701 being included (S) or excluded (ΔS). Despite the proximity of Ser-701 to the site of activating phosphorylation at Tyr-705, ΔS/S splicing has barely been studied. Sequencing of cDNA from purified eosinophils revealed the presence of four transcripts (S-α, ΔS-α, S-β, and ΔS-β) rather than the three reported in publically available databases from which ΔS-β is missing. To gain insight into regulation of the two alternative splicing events, we developed a quantitative(q) PCR protocol to compare transcript ratios in eosinophils in which STAT3 is upregulated by cytokines, activated B cell diffuse large B cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) cells in which STAT3 is dysregulated, and in germinal center B cell-like DLBCL cells in which it is not. With the exception of one line of activated B cell DLCBL cells, the four variants were found in roughly the same ratios despite differences in total levels of STAT3 transcripts. S-α was the most abundant, followed by S-β. ΔS-α and ΔS-β together comprised 15.6 ± 4.0 % (mean ± SD, n = 21) of the total. The percentage of STAT3β variants that were ΔS was 1.5-fold greater than of STAT3α variants that were ΔS. Inspection of Illumina's "BodyMap" RNA-Seq database revealed that the ΔS variant accounts for 10-26 % of STAT3 transcripts across 16 human tissues, with less variation than three other genes with the identical tandem donor splice site sequence. Thus, it seems likely that all cells contain the S-α, ΔS-α, S-β, and ΔS-β variants of STAT3.

  17. Ratios of Four STAT3 Splice Variants in Human Eosinophils and Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren B Turton

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is a key mediator of leukocyte differentiation and proliferation. The 3' end of STAT3 transcripts is subject to two alternative splicing events. One results in either full-length STAT3α or in STAT3β, which lacks part of the C-terminal transactivation domain. The other is at a tandem donor (5' splice site and results in the codon for Ser-701 being included (S or excluded (ΔS. Despite the proximity of Ser-701 to the site of activating phosphorylation at Tyr-705, ΔS/S splicing has barely been studied. Sequencing of cDNA from purified eosinophils revealed the presence of four transcripts (S-α, ΔS-α, S-β, and ΔS-β rather than the three reported in publically available databases from which ΔS-β is missing. To gain insight into regulation of the two alternative splicing events, we developed a quantitative(q PCR protocol to compare transcript ratios in eosinophils in which STAT3 is upregulated by cytokines, activated B cell diffuse large B cell Lymphoma (DLBCL cells in which STAT3 is dysregulated, and in germinal center B cell-like DLBCL cells in which it is not. With the exception of one line of activated B cell DLCBL cells, the four variants were found in roughly the same ratios despite differences in total levels of STAT3 transcripts. S-α was the most abundant, followed by S-β. ΔS-α and ΔS-β together comprised 15.6 ± 4.0 % (mean ± SD, n = 21 of the total. The percentage of STAT3β variants that were ΔS was 1.5-fold greater than of STAT3α variants that were ΔS. Inspection of Illumina's "BodyMap" RNA-Seq database revealed that the ΔS variant accounts for 10-26 % of STAT3 transcripts across 16 human tissues, with less variation than three other genes with the identical tandem donor splice site sequence. Thus, it seems likely that all cells contain the S-α, ΔS-α, S-β, and ΔS-β variants of STAT3.

  18. Cell-penetrating peptide derived from human eosinophil cationic protein inhibits mite allergen Der p 2 induced inflammasome activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Jie Yu

    Full Text Available Newly discovered cell penetration peptides derived from human eosinophil cationic proteins (CPPecp have the characteristic of cell internalization, but the effect of CPPecp on immunomodulation has not been clarified. House dust mite (HDM major allergen, Der p 2, can induce proinflammatory cytokine production which contributes to airway inflammation and allergic asthma. However, the mechanism of Der p 2 on NLRP3 inflammasome activation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of CPPecp on inhibition of Der p 2 induced inflammasome activation. We showed that proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly upregulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs derived from HDM allergic patients after Der p 2 stimulation. Expression of NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1β and Caspase-1 activity was upregulated in THP-1 cells after Der p 2 stimulation. Proinflammatory cytokine production, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and caspase-1 activity were downregulated in THP-1 cells and CD14+ cells co-cultured with Der p 2 and CPPecp. The immunomodulatory effect of CPPecp was through upregulation of IFN-α production but not induction of autophagy. These results suggested Der p 2 plays an important role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and CPPecp has the potential to be a novel anti-inflammatory agent for allergic inflammation treatment in the future.

  19. Eosinophils in asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施焕中

    2004-01-01

    @@ The contribution of eosinophils to host-defense and inflammatory responses has undergone periodic reevalu-ations. Thirty years ago, eosinophil was considered as a principal effector cell in host-defense against parasites.

  20. Eosinophil count - absolute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abnormal Results Mean A high number of eosinophils (eosinophilia) are often linked to a variety of disorders. ... Accessed March 29, 2017. Klion AD, Weller PF. Eosinophilia and eosinophil-related disorders. In: Adkinson NF, Bochner ...

  1. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A newly established cause of dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Brian M; Shaffer, Eldon A.

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis has rapidly become a recognized entity causing dysphagia in young adults. This review summarizes the current knowledge of eosinophilic esophagitis including the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis. An extensive search of PubMed/Medline (1966-December 2005) for available English literature in humans for eosinophilic esophagitis was completed. Appropriate articles listed in the bibliographies were also atta...

  2. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the

  3. IL-5 Up-regulates the Expression of TGF-β1 in Human Blood Eosinophils in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yabing; LIU Bin; WANG Lu; LI Rong; ZHU Min; CHEN Dong; CHEN Shi

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effects of IL-5 on the expression of TGF-β1 in eosinophils in vitro, eosinophils were incubated in the presence of the same concentrations of IL-4, IL-5 and IFNγ, different concentrations of IL-5 in vitro and changes of eosinophil viability were assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Non-cytokine was employed as a negative control. 16 h after the cultivation, supernatants and cells were assayed by using TGF-β1 specific ELISA and RT-PCR. The mRNA expression and protein expresssion of TGF-β1 in eosinophils stimulated with different cytokines was observed.The expression of TGF-β1 protein in eosinophils was increased significantly by IL-4 (433.67±9.86vs 228.9±2.87) and IL-5 (403. 72±7.60 vs 228.9±2.87, P<0.05), while decreased by IFNγ (178.47±2.60 vs 228.9±2.87). At the same time, the results demonstrated that the basal level of TGF expression was enhanced by IL5 in all samples (P<0.05). The expression of TGF β1 mRNA was 1.42, 1. 70, 1. 76-folds higher than that of the non-stimulated controls. It is concluded that IL-5 can up-regulate the expression of TGF-β1 in eosinophils in vitro, which might have effect in eosinophil-associated chronic rejection.

  4. Human Eosinophils Express the High Affinity IgE Receptor, FcεRI, in Bullous Pemphigoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messingham, Kelly N.; Holahan, Heather M.; Frydman, Alexandra S.; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE≥400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils. PMID:25255430

  5. Human eosinophils express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, in bullous pemphigoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly N Messingham

    Full Text Available Bullous pemphigoid (BP is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen. Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1 To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2 To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16 with total IgE ≥ 400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils.

  6. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice.

  7. Eosinophilic follicular reaction induced by Demodex folliculorum mite: a different disease from eosinophilic folliculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Marco, V; Escutia-Muñoz, B; Botella-Estrada, R

    2015-06-01

    Eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) is an idiopathic dermatitis included in the spectrum of eosinophilic pustular follicular reactions. Demodex folliculorum has been implicated as contributing to the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus-associated EF, but it has not been described outside this context. We present an immunocompetent 65-year-old white man with a 5-year history of recurrent pruritic erythematous and oedematous lesions on his face, neck and scalp. Histopathologically, an eosinophilic microabcess with Demodex folliculorum mite within a pilosebaceous follicle was seen, and considered the causal agent. There were also accumulations of eosinophil granules on collagen bundles, and flame figure formations in the dermis. We believe that 'eosinophilic follicular reaction' is an appropriate term to describe this case of EF induced by D. folliculorum and thus distinguish it from the idiopathic form of EF. Moreover, this case suggests that D. folliculorum can sometimes induce an eosinophilic immune reaction.

  8. Histopathological study of feline eosinophilic dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondati, A; Fondevila, D; Ferrer, L

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective study was conducted on skin specimens from 24 cats with eosinophilic granuloma complex. The specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Gallego's trichrome stain. In all specimens, flame figures and/or large foci of so-called "collagen degeneration" were detected and histopathological features were not predictive of the clinical picture. Use of the term eosinophilic dermatosis was advocated in diagnostic dermatopathology. On trichrome-stained sections, normally stained collagen fibres were identified in the middle of both flame figures and large foci of "collagen degeneration" and the debris surrounding collagen bundles showed the same tinctorial properties as eosinophil granules. Eosinophil degranulation around collagen bundles seemed to represent the major pathogenetic event in these lesions, analogous with human flame figures. The term flame figures might therefore be more accurately used to designate those foci of eosinophilic to partly basophilic debris commonly referred to as "collagen degeneration".

  9. Idiopathic Eosinophilic Cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Huseyin Tas

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is one of the rare causes of cholecystitis. Diagnosis is made by exclusion of other causes for eosinophilic cholecystitis and by pathological examination of the gallbladder wall infiltration with more than 90% of the eosinophilic leukocytes. We have aimed to present a case of 24 year old man who had Eosinophilia in blood tests, progressive complaints after medical treatment, was diagnosed with acute acalculous cholecystitis and was treated with cholecystectomy. Idio...

  10. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Čiháková

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs.

  11. [Pemphigus with eosinophilic spongiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, S; Ortíz Medina, A

    1977-01-01

    A bibliographic review of a new subject-pemphigus with eosinophilic spongiosis accomplished: Three clinical courses are recognized: a) pemphigus in its initial phase, b) pemphigus markedly seborrheic, which presents during its evolution, some morphologic anomalies, c) pemphigus that appear like an authentic Duhring in its initial phase and during part of its evolution. On studying the histopathology three aspects are observed; 1) pure eosinophilic spongiosis with two modalites: diffuse or vesiculate; 2) mixed eosinophilic spongiosis and, 3) alternate eosinophilic spongiosis. The review report the study of this new observation and discusses the nosological situation as well as its pausible causation.

  12. Ultrastructural study of cutaneous lesions in feline eosinophilic granuloma complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardagí, Mar; Fondati, Alessandra; Fondevila, Dolors; Ferrer, Lluís

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural appearance of flame figures, reported to comprise a mixture of degenerate collagen and degranulated eosinophils, in feline eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC). Skin specimens from eight cats with EGC and from two clinically healthy cats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Flame figures appeared to comprise ultrastructurally normal collagen fibrils separated by oedema and surrounded by large numbers of degranulating eosinophils. Longitudinal sections of collagen fibrils displayed the characteristic cross-striation of normal dermal collagen. Feline eosinophils, analogous to human eosinophils, degranulated both by cytolysis and piecemeal degranulation. The results of this study suggest that flame figures form in feline EGC due to eosinophil recruitment and degranulation, and that collagen fibres are partially disrupted but collagen fibrils are not damaged. These findings suggest that eosinophil accumulation and the release of granule contents represent the primary events in feline EGC.

  13. Eosinophil Granulocytes Account for Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase-Mediated Immune Escape in Human Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Astigiano

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO, a catabolizing enzyme of tryptophan, is supposed to play a role in tumor immune escape. Its expression in solid tumors has not yet been well elucidated: IDO can be expressed by the tumor cells themselves, or by ill-defined infiltrating cells, possibly depending on tumor type. We have investigated IDO expression in 25 cases of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, we found that IDO was expressed not by tumor cells, but by normal cells infiltrating the peritumoral stroma. These cells were neither macrophages nor dendritic cells, and were identified as eosinophil granulocytes. The amount of IDO-positive eosinophils varied in different cases, ranging from a few cells to more than 50 per field at x200 magnification. IDO protein in NSCLC was enzymatically active. Therefore, at least in NSCLC cases displaying a large amount of these cells in the inflammatory infiltrate, IDO-positive eosinophils could exert an effective immunosuppressive action. On analyzing the 17 patients with adequate follow-up, a significant relationship was found between the amount of IDO-positive infiltrate and overall survival. This finding suggests that the degree of IDO-positive infiltrate could be a prognostic marker in NSCLC.

  14. Imaging Inflammation in Asthma: Real Time, Differential Tracking of Human Neutrophil and Eosinophil Migration in Allergen Challenged, Atopic Asthmatics in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna J. Lukawska

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Isolation and radiolabelling significantly increased activation of eosinophils (CD69 and completely activated neutrophils (CD11bHigh in all asthma groups. Net lung neutrophil efflux was significantly slower than that of eosinophils in all asthma study groups. There was a trend for pre-treatment with systemic corticosteroids to reduce lung retention of eosinophils following allergen challenge.

  15. Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Vesicle Proteins Induce Human Eosinophil Degranulation via a β2 Integrin CD11/CD18- and ICAM-1-Dependent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hyuk Ko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP, a cytotoxic protein contained in eosinophils granules, can contribute to various inflammatory responses. Although Helicobacter pylori infection increases infiltration of eosinophils, the mechanisms of eosinophil degranulation by H. pylori infection are largely unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of H. pylori outer membrane vesicles (OMVs in modulating eosinophil degranulation. We found that eosinophils treated with H. pylori OMVs released significantly more ECP compared with untreated controls. In addition, eosinophils cocultured with OMV-preexposed primary gastric epithelial cells exhibited significantly increased ECP release. Similarly, eosinophils cocultured with culture supernatant (CM from primary gastric epithelial cells exposed to OMVs (OMV-CM released significantly higher amounts of ECP compared with eosinophils cocultured with CM from unexposed control cells. Furthermore, OMVs and OMV-CM both induced the upregulation of ICAM-1 on gastric epithelial cells and β2 integrin CD11b on eosinophils. In addition, both transduction of ICAM-1 shRNA into gastric epithelial cells and treatment with neutralizing mAbs to CD18 significantly decreased OMV-mediated or OMV-CM-mediated release of ECP. These results suggest that the eosinophil degranulation response to H. pylori OMVs occurs via a mechanism that is dependent on both β2 integrin CD11/CD18 and ICAM-1.

  16. Helicobacter pylori outer membrane vesicle proteins induce human eosinophil degranulation via a β2 Integrin CD11/CD18- and ICAM-1-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Su Hyuk; Jeon, Jong Ik; Kim, Young-Jeon; Yoon, Ho Joo; Kim, Hyeyoung; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Joo Sung; Kim, Jung Mogg

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), a cytotoxic protein contained in eosinophils granules, can contribute to various inflammatory responses. Although Helicobacter pylori infection increases infiltration of eosinophils, the mechanisms of eosinophil degranulation by H. pylori infection are largely unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of H. pylori outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) in modulating eosinophil degranulation. We found that eosinophils treated with H. pylori OMVs released significantly more ECP compared with untreated controls. In addition, eosinophils cocultured with OMV-preexposed primary gastric epithelial cells exhibited significantly increased ECP release. Similarly, eosinophils cocultured with culture supernatant (CM) from primary gastric epithelial cells exposed to OMVs (OMV-CM) released significantly higher amounts of ECP compared with eosinophils cocultured with CM from unexposed control cells. Furthermore, OMVs and OMV-CM both induced the upregulation of ICAM-1 on gastric epithelial cells and β2 integrin CD11b on eosinophils. In addition, both transduction of ICAM-1 shRNA into gastric epithelial cells and treatment with neutralizing mAbs to CD18 significantly decreased OMV-mediated or OMV-CM-mediated release of ECP. These results suggest that the eosinophil degranulation response to H. pylori OMVs occurs via a mechanism that is dependent on both β2 integrin CD11/CD18 and ICAM-1.

  17. [Eosinophils and eosinophilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlata, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophils were previously considered granulocytes involved in host protection against helminth infections and in inflammation related to atopic diseases. Instead, as supported by recent studies, eosinophils are today considered multifunctional cells involved also in homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and other organs, conferring innate and adaptive immunity to certain bacteria and viruses, and perhaps in the control of oncogenicity. Unexplained eosinophilia could be an expression of paraneoplastic syndrome or constitutional factors. Irrespective of the underlying conditions and aetiology of eosinophilia, eosinophil-derived substances may induce potentially irreversible organ damage. A diagnostic algorithm is discussed.

  18. Eosinophilic annular erythema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempau, Leticia; Larralde, Margarita; Luna, Paula Carolina; Casas, Jose; Staiger, Hernan

    2012-03-15

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare benign recurrent disease, originally described in children, characterized by the recurrent appearance of persistent non-pruritic, urticarial annular lesions. Histologically a perivascular infiltrate composed of lymphocytes and abundant eosinophils in the dermis is exhibited. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 4-year history of recurrent flares of erythematous annular plaques on the trunk and extremities. The lesions resolved spontaneously after 3-5 weeks with no accompanying signs. A biopsy showed a mainly perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous eosinophils in the dermis.

  19. Eosinophilic cellulitis and dermographism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nathalie Q; Ma, Linglei

    2005-12-30

    A 26-year-old man presented with a history of intermittent erythematous plaques on his hands and legs. A peripheral blood eosinophilia was noted. Histopathologic examination showed numerous eosinophils and characteristic flame figures. The clinical presentation and histopathologic alterations are consistent with the diagnosis of Wells' syndrome, which is also known as eosinophilic cellulitis. Wells' syndrome is a rare condition of unclear etiology. We discuss its diagnosis and possible association with other conditions that manifest peripheral eosinophilia.

  20. The Eosinophil in Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, Karen A; Loy, Michael

    2016-04-01

    First described by Paul Ehrlich in 1879, who noted its characteristic staining by acidophilic dyes, for many years, the eosinophil was considered to be an end-effector cell associated with helminth infections and a cause of tissue damage. Over the past 30 years, research has helped to elucidate the complexity of the eosinophil's function and establish its role in host defense and immunity. Eosinophils express an array of ligand receptors which play a role in cell growth, adhesion, chemotaxis, degranulation, and cell-to-cell interactions. They play a role in activation of complement via both classical and alternative pathways. Eosinophils synthesize, store and secrete cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They can process antigen, stimulate T cells, and promote humoral responses by interacting with B cells. Eosinophils can function as antigen presenting cells and can regulate processes associated with both T1 and T2 immunity. Although long known to play a role in defense against helminth organisms, the interactions of eosinophils with these parasites are now recognized to be much more complex. In addition, their interaction with other pathogens continues to be investigated. In this paper, we review the eosinophil's unique biology and structure, including its characteristic granules and the effects of its proteins, our developing understanding of its role in innate and adaptive immunity and importance in immunomodulation, and the part it plays in defense against parasitic, viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Rather than our worst enemy, the eosinophil may, in fact, be one of the most essential components in host defense and immunity.

  1. Wogonin Induces Eosinophil Apoptosis and Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, David A.; Sharma, Sidharth; Rennie, Jillian; Felton, Jennifer M.; Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Schwarze, Jurgen; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Eosinophils are key effector cells in allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, eczema, and asthma. Their tissue presence is regulated by both recruitment and increased longevity at inflamed sites. Objectives: To investigate the ability of the flavone wogonin to induce eosinophil apoptosis in vitro and attenuate eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation in vivo in mice. Methods: Human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in response to wogonin was investigated by cellular morphology, flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and pharmacological caspase inhibition. Allergic lung inflammation was modeled in mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were examined for inflammation, mucus production, and inflammatory mediator production. Airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine was measured. Measurements and Main Results: Wogonin induced time- and concentration-dependent human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. Wogonin-induced eosinophil apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-3 and was inhibited by pharmacological caspase inhibition. Wogonin administration attenuated allergic airway inflammation in vivo with reductions in BAL and interstitial eosinophil numbers, increased eosinophil apoptosis, reduced airway mucus production, and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. This wogonin-induced reduction in allergic airway inflammation was prevented by concurrent caspase inhibition in vivo. Conclusions: Wogonin induces eosinophil apoptosis and attenuates allergic airway inflammation, suggesting that it has therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic inflammation in humans. PMID:25629436

  2. Eosinophil Activation Status in Separate Compartments and Association with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats W. Johansson

    2017-06-01

    in more severe disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL eosinophils have highly activated integrins and other changes in surface proteins compared to blood eosinophils. The activation state of eosinophils in lung tissue, although likely very important in asthma, is largely unknown. However, some recent articles, mainly on mice but partly on human cells, indicate that tissue eosinophils may have a surface phenotype(s different from that of sputum or BAL eosinophils.

  3. House dust mite allergen Der p 1 elevates the release of inflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules in co-culture of human eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun K; Li, Mandy L Y; Wang, Cheng B; Ip, Wai K; Tian, Ya P; Lam, Christopher W K

    2006-08-01

    House dust mite (HDM) is a common allergen of allergic asthma. Eosinophils are principal effector cells of allergic inflammation and their adhesion onto human bronchial epithelial cells is mediated by a CD18-intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-dependent interaction. We studied the effects of HDM Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1 on the activation of eosinophils and bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Cytokines and adhesion molecules were measured using flow cytometry. Transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) and signaling molecule p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were analyzed using electromobility shift assay and western blot, respectively. Der p 1 protein was found to potently induce the release of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor from eosinophils. Such induction was further up-regulated for IL-6 and IL-10, and down-regulated for TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in eosinophil-BEAS-2B cells co-culture. Surface expression of CD18 and ICAM-1 on eosinophils was greatly increased by Der p 1; such inductive effect on ICAM-1 was also found to be more prominent on BEAS-2B cells from the co-culture than BEAS-2B cells alone. Der p 1 was found to activate NF-kappaB and AP-1 activity in eosinophils alone and in co-culture and BEAS-2B cells in co-culture. Moreover, Der p 1 could activate p38 MAPK in BEAS-2B cells and eosinophils alone and in co-culture. Selective inhibition of NF-kappaB, AP-1 and p38 MAPK resulted in differential suppression of the Der p 1-induced cytokine release and adhesion molecule expression. As an allergen, HDM could therefore induce the release of inflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules from the interaction of human eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cells.

  4. Human walking estimation with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radar can be used to observe humans that are obscured by objects such as walls. These humans cannot be visually observed. The radar measurements are used to animate an obscured human in virtual reality. This requires detailed information about the motion. The radar measurements give detailed informa

  5. Human walking estimation with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radar can be used to observe humans that are obscured by objects such as walls. These humans cannot be visually observed. The radar measurements are used to animate an obscured human in virtual reality. This requires detailed information about the motion. The radar measurements give detailed

  6. The role of the prostaglandin D2 receptor, DP, in eosinophil trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schratl, Petra; Royer, Julia F; Kostenis, Evi

    2007-01-01

    of DP has remained unclear. We report in this study that, in addition to CRTH2, the DP receptor plays an important role in eosinophil trafficking. First, we investigated the release of eosinophils from bone marrow using the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. PGD2 induced the rapid...... that eosinophils in human bone marrow specimens expressed DP and CRTH2 receptors at similar levels. Eosinophils isolated from human peripheral blood likewise expressed DP receptor protein but at lower levels than CRTH2. In agreement with this, the chemotaxis of human peripheral blood eosinophils was inhibited both...

  7. Olanzapine-induced eosinophilic pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Evison

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic pleural fluid is not a marker of non-malignant aetiology and eosinophilic pleural effusions require a careful and systematic diagnostic work-up. This is the second case report to identify olanzapine as a causative agent in eosinophilic pleural effusion.

  8. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  9. Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... estimation system uses a single camera to estimate the motion of a human. The results show that inverse kinematics can significantly speed up the estimation process, while retaining a quality comparable to a full pose motion estimation system. Our novelty lies primarily in use of inverse kinematics...... to significantly speed up the particle filtering. It should be stressed that the observation part of the system has not been our focus, and as such is described only from a sense of completeness. With our approach it is possible to construct a robust and computationally efficient system for human motion estimation....

  10. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  11. Activities of enzymes that metabolize platelet-activating factor (1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) in neutrophils and eosinophils from humans and the effect of a calcium ionophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. (Oak Ridge Associated Univ., TN); Malone, B.; Wasserman, S.I.; Fitzgerald, V.; Snyder, F.

    1982-04-29

    Enzymatic systems in human blood cells are described for the activation and inactivation of a biologically active phospholipid (l-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) with hypotensive, platelet-aggregating, and inflammatory properties. The results document the presence of alkyldihydroxyacetone-phosphate synthase (forms the O-alkyl linkage in lipids), l-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine:acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (produces the biologically active molecule), and 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: acetylhydrolase (destroys the biological activity) in human neutrophils and eosinophils. Both the acetyltransferase and acetylhydrolase activities are increased severalfold after treatment of normal neutrophils with ionophore A23187; however, alkyldihydroxyacetone-phosphate synthase activity is not influenced by the ionophore. Eosinophils isolated from patients with eosinophilia have significantly greater activities of all the enzymes studied than the eosinophils isolated from normal individuals. Our results indicate the acetyltransferase responsible for 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-choline synthesis may serve an important role in human blood cells that release this biologically active phospholipid. Moreover, the acetyltransferase activity was found to be dramatically influenced by calcium flux.

  12. Selected feline eosinophilic skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, H T; Ihrke, P J

    1995-07-01

    Eosinophilic plaque and mosquito-bite dermatitis are recognized hypersensitivity reactions. The pathogenesis of eosinophilic granuloma and indolent ulcer are not as clearly understood. Each of these syndromes is distinctive from a clinical and histopathologic view point. Accurate diagnosis depends on history, physical findings, and histopathologic evaluation. Understanding of feline dermatology will be furthered by including these syndromes in a broader grouping that encompasses all the feline eosinophilic dermatoses.

  13. Human Posture Estimation using Visual Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiayu XU

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot cooperation is one of the central research issues in robotics.Al kinds of sensors wil be used since the robot should understand human’s intention.This article wil focus on the human posture estimation by using Microsoft Kinect.The visual Information from Kinect can be acquired and used to extract the human skeletal information and further,calcu-late the human posture.The experiment results have been compared with a Qualisys system,which has been proved quite precisely.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: eosinophil peroxidase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invaders. EPX gene mutations reduce or prevent eosinophil peroxidase production or result in a protein that is unstable and nonfunctional. As a result, eosinophils have severely reduced amounts of eosinophil peroxidase or none at all. Other proteins within affected ...

  15. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) in eosinophilic leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Jonathan M; Byström, Jonas; Dyer, Kimberly D; Nitto, Takeaki; Wynn, Thomas A; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2004-10-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) as a potential eosinophil protein was inferred from our gene microarray study of mouse eosinophilopoiesis. Here, we detect 47 kDa intracellular and approximately 60 kDa secretory forms of PAI-2 in purified human eosinophil extracts. PAI-2 is present at variable concentrations in eosinophil lysates, ranging from 30 to 444 ng/10(6) cells, with a mean of 182 ng/10(6) cells from 10 normal donors, which is the highest per-cell concentration among all leukocyte subtypes evaluated. Enzymatic assay confirmed that eosinophil-derived PAI-2 is biologically active and inhibits activation of its preferred substrate, urokinase. Immunohistochemical and immunogold staining demonstrated PAI-2 localization in eosinophil-specific granules. Immunoreactive PAI-2 was detected in extracellular deposits in and around the eosinophil-enriched granuloma tissue encapsulating the parasitic egg in livers of wild-type mice infected with the helminthic parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Among the possibilities, we consider a role for eosinophil-derived PAI-2 in inflammation and remodeling associated with parasitic infection as well as allergic airways disease, respiratory virus infection, and host responses to tumors and metastasis in vivo.

  16. Eosinophil peroxidase signals via epidermal growth factor-2 to induce cell proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Marie-Therese

    2011-11-01

    Eosinophils exert many of their inflammatory effects in allergic disorders through the degranulation and release of intracellular mediators, including a set of cationic granule proteins that include eosinophil peroxidase. Studies suggest that eosinophils are involved in remodeling. In previous studies, we showed that eosinophil granule proteins activate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. In this study, we investigated the receptor mediating eosinophil peroxidase-induced signaling and downstream effects. Human cholinergic neuroblastoma IMR32 and murine melanoma B16.F10 cultures, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoprecipitations, and Western blotting were used in the study. We showed that eosinophil peroxidase caused a sustained increase in both the expression of epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) and its phosphorylation at tyrosine 1248, with the consequent activation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1\\/2. This, in turn, promoted a focal adhesion kinase-dependent egress of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Eosinophil peroxidase induced a HER2-dependent up-regulation of cell proliferation, indicated by an up-regulation of the nuclear proliferation marker Ki67. This study identifies HER2 as a novel mediator of eosinophil peroxidase signaling. The results show that eosinophil peroxidase, at noncytotoxic levels, can drive cell-cycle progression and proliferation, and contribute to tissue remodeling and cell turnover in airway disease. Because eosinophils are a feature of many cancers, these findings also suggest a role for eosinophils in tumorigenesis.

  17. The effects of TYB-2285 and its metabolites on eosinophil adhesion to tumor necrosis factor α-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanari Tominaga

    1996-01-01

    The results of the present study demonstrate that TYB-2285 and its metabolites selectively inhibit the adhesion of eosinophils to HUVECs stimulated with TNF-α and also suggest that TYB-2285, TC-286 and TC-326 might block the VLA-4/VCAM-1 pathway selectively.

  18. Estimating 3D Human Shapes from Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Wuhrer, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    We describe a solution to the problem of estimating 3D human shapes (either faces or full body shapes) based on a set of anthropometric measurements. We use statistical learning to model the relationship between the shape and a set of measurements. We learn the relationship using a database of human shapes. When predicting a shape, our approach finds an initial solution using a variant of feature analysis and refines the solution to fit the measurements using non-linear optimization. This way, we can predict likely human shapes with local variations that are outside the shape space spanned by the database used for learning.

  19. Pharm GKB: Leukemia, Eosinophilic, Acute [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Overview Alternate Names: Synonym Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Acute Eosinophilic Leukemias; Acute... eosinophilic leukemia; Eosinophilic Leukemia, Acute; Eosinophilic Leukemias, Acute; Leukemia, Acute... Eosinophilic; Leukemias, Acute Eosinophilic PharmGKB Accession Id: PA446179 External Vocabularies Me...SH: Leukemia, Eosinophilic, Acute (D015472) SnoMedCT: Acute eosinophilic leukemia... (277604002) UMLS: C0023439 (C0023439) NDFRT: Leukemia, Eosinophilic, Acute [Disease/Finding] (N0000003269)

  20. CXCR3 expression and activation of eosinophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Jing, C; Jacobi, H H

    2000-01-01

    that gamma IP-10 and Mig induce an increase in intracellular calcium in eosinophils confirms that CXCR3 exists on eosinophils. Besides induction to chemotaxis, gamma IP-10 and Mig also activate eosinophils to eosinophil cationic protein release. These results indicate that CXCR3-gamma IP-10 and -Mig receptor...

  1. Cisplatin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Ideguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man suffering from esophageal cancer was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He had been treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, and fluorouracil combined with radiotherapy. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased eosinophils. Two episodes of transient eosinophilia in peripheral blood were observed after serial administration of anticancer drugs before the admission, and drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test to cisplatin was positive. Thus cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected, and corticosteroid was effectively administered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  2. Eosinophilic Granuloma in Jaw Bone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    KEYWORDS: Eosinophilic granuloma, langerhans cell histiocytosis, oral manifestations, ... 1Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology, College of Dentistry, Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia ... the risk of pathological fracture and to facilitate.

  3. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Associated with Myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Adachi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is clinically characterized by symmetrical scleroderma-like indurations of the skin with pain. The histological features are fascial inflammation with lymphocytes and eosinophils as well as thickened and fibrotic fascia. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of the underlying muscle are rarely observed. We report a 69-year-old Japanese woman who presented with multiple areas of glossy induration and painful peau d'orange-like lesions on the chest and four extremities. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed significant hyperintense thickening of the fascia of the lower extremities. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen from the induration showed marked fibrinoid degeneration of the fascia and the neighboring muscle with mixed cellular infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils. The predominant CD8+ lymphocytic infiltrates were observed by immunohistological study. A diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis with myositis was made. Oral administration of prednisolone and discontinuation of exercise significantly improved the lesions and pain.

  4. Human motion estimation from a single view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; An, Hongjie; Cui, Chengyi

    2000-10-01

    Human motion analysis is receiving increasing attention from biomedical image processing researchers. In order to reflect the human motion in reality, the body's structure is recovered using its 2D model. This paper proposes a practical system which tracks human motion automatically. The major processing units are as follows: 1) coarse matching between real image and 2D model, 2) fine matching between real image and 2D model, 3) the formation of body structure from 2D model sequence. We first segment a human body from stationary background. Then prior posture database is established, and the primary posture in image sequence can be estimated coarsely by comparing posture in database and real image series. After this, in the precise adjustment stage, precise matching can be obtained by the criterion of region overlay between image sequence and 2D model. Finally, structure of human body is recovered by adjusting parameters of 2D model series, in the above process, the sizes of the body parts are measured manually from one of the picture of real images. Finally, 2D model can be established, and skeleton or frame representation of human body movement is given. In the end of this paper, future directions are suggested for further improvement.

  5. Does the eosinophil have a protective role in amebiasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Osuna Martha

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available While normal human eosinophils are destroyed in vitro by virulent Entamoeba histolytica, notwhistanding the presence of antibodies and complement, activated eosinophils promptly destroy the parasite although dying also at the end of the process. To study the possible in vivo participation of eosinophils in invasive amebiasis, we compared the induction of experimental amebic abscess of the liver (AAL in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus previously made eosinophilic through Toxocara canis antigen injection and in normal control gerbils. After intraportal inoculation of 10(5 ameba trophozoites (6 and 24 hr, the ratio of gerbils with AAL, as well as the number and size of the microabscesses was comparable in eosinophilic and control gerbils. However, at 96 hr the number and size of the microabscesses were significanly smaller (p<0.05 in eosinophilic gerbils. On the other hand the actuarial AAL survival curve up to 45 days post-amebic inoculation was signficantly (p<0.05 shifted to the right in controls. These results suggest that antigen-induced eosinophilia may exert a protective effect against AAL in gerbils.

  6. Specific regulator of eosinophil apoptosis: Siglec-8-new hope for bronchial asthma treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yin-he; MAO Hui

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is known that Siglec-8 is selectively expressed on human eosinophils at a high level and mediates eosinophil apoptosis when crosslinked with its antibody.The aim of our review is to elucidate the molecular and biological characteristic of Siglec-8 and then discuss the function and possible mechanisms of Siglec-8 in eosinophils.Thereby,we will expand our understanding to the regulation of eosinophil apoptosis,and provide important clues to the treatment of asthma and other hyper-eosinophilic diseases.Data sources Most articles were identified by searching of PubMed online resources using the key term Siglecs.Study selection Mainly original milestone articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators in the field were selected.Results Siglec-8 is selectively expressed on human eosinophil and can specifically induce eosinophil apoptosis.Conclusion The restricted expression of Siglec-8 on human eosinophil and the rapid progress in understanding its role as cell signaling and activation of death receptors have made it an attractive target for treatment of asthma and other hyper-eosinophilic diseases.

  7. Canine Oral Eosinophilic Granuloma Treated with Electrochemotherapy

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    Matías Nicolás Tellado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a canine oral eosinophilic granuloma in a 14-year-old female crossbred is described. The dog was presented with a history of ptyalism, halitosis, local pain, decreased appetite, and blood staining noted on food and water bowls. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography, and 3-view chest radiographs were performed, and no metastases were found. Histopathologic examination of two 6 mm punch biopsies from the oral lesion revealed the presence of eosinophilic granulomatous lesions in the submucosa. After treatment with corticosteroids and wide spectrum antibiotics no significant changes in clinical signs and lesion size were observed. Electrochemotherapy (ECT, a novel tumor treatment routinely used for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors in human patients in the European Union since 2006, was used to treat the eosinophilic granuloma. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia, followed by intravenous administration of bleomycin. Six weeks after treatment a complete response with disappearance of the mass and improvement of clinical signs were observed.

  8. Simultaneous antagonism of interleukin-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-3 stimulation of human eosinophils by targetting the common cytokine binding site of their receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Q; Jones, K; McClure, B; Cambareri, B; Zacharakis, B; Iversen, P O; Stomski, F; Woodcock, J M; Bagley, C J; D'Andrea, R; Lopez, A F

    1999-09-15

    Human interleukin-5 (IL-5), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-3 are eosinophilopoietic cytokines implicated in allergy in general and in the inflammation of the airways specifically as seen in asthma. All 3 cytokines function through cell surface receptors that comprise a ligand-specific alpha chain and a shared subunit (beta(c)). Although binding of IL-5, GM-CSF, and IL-3 to their respective receptor alpha chains is the first step in receptor activation, it is the recruitment of beta(c) that allows high-affinity binding and signal transduction to proceed. Thus, beta(c) is a valid yet untested target for antiasthma drugs with the added advantage of potentially allowing antagonism of all 3 eosinophil-acting cytokines with a single compound. We show here the first development of such an agent in the form of a monoclonal antibody (MoAb), BION-1, raised against the isolated membrane proximal domain of beta(c). BION-1 blocked eosinophil production, survival, and activation stimulated by IL-5 as well as by GM-CSF and IL-3. Studies of the mechanism of this antagonism showed that BION-1 prevented the high-affinity binding of (125)I-IL-5, (125)I-GM-CSF, and (125)I-IL-3 to purified human eosinophils and that it bound to the major cytokine binding site of beta(c). Interestingly, epitope analysis using several beta(c) mutants showed that BION-1 interacted with residues different from those used by IL-5, GM-CSF, and IL-3. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that BION-1 prevented ligand-induced receptor dimerization and phosphorylation of beta(c), suggesting that ligand contact with beta(c) is a prerequisite for recruitment of beta(c), receptor dimerization, and consequent activation. These results demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneously inhibiting IL-5, GM-CSF, and IL-3 function with a single agent and that BION-1 represents a new tool and lead compound with which to identify and generate further agents for the treatment

  9. Variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins in atopic dermatitis patients from Germany

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    Epplen Jörg T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopic dermatitis (AD is believed to result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. A main feature of AD as well as other allergic disorders is serum and tissue eosinophilia. Human eosinophils contain high amounts of cationic granule proteins, including eosinophil cationic protein (ECP, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO and major basic protein (MBP. Recently, variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders. We therefore genotyped selected single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ECP, EDN, EPO and MBP genes in a cohort of 361 German AD patients and 325 healthy controls. Results Genotype and allele frequencies did not differ between patients and controls for all polymorphisms investigated in this study. Haplotype analysis did not reveal any additional information. Conclusion We did not find evidence to support an influence of variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins for AD pathogenesis in this German cohort.

  10. Сomputer cytomorphometry of eosinophiles at eosinophilia of different genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Bondar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to estimate geometrical and optical characteristics of normodense and hypodense eosinophiles at eosinophilias of parasitic and nonparasitic genesis in children and adults. the investigation has been conducted by means of methods of ELISA and computer cytomorphometry. Statistical processing of the received data has allowed to reveal morphofunctional changes in eosinophiles in case of toxocariasis

  11. Correlation dimension estimates of human postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, Senih; Celik, Huseyin

    2013-02-01

    Human postural sway during quiet standing demonstrates a complex structured dynamics, which has been studied by applying numerous methods, such as linear system identification methods, stochastic analysis, and nonlinear system dynamics tools. Although each of the methods applied revealed some particular features of the sway data none of them have succeeded to present a global picture of the quiet stance dynamics, which probably has both stochastic and deterministic properties. In this study we have started applying ergodic theory of dynamical systems to explore statistical characteristic of the sway dynamics observed in successive trials of a subject, different subjects in an age group, and finally different age groups constituted by children, adults, and elderly subjects. Five successive 180-s long trials were performed by each of 28 subjects in four age groups at quiet stance with eyes open. Stationary and ergodic signal characteristics of five successive center of pressure time series collected from a subject in antero-posterior direction (CoPx) were examined. 97% of the trials were found to be stationary by applying Run Test while children and elderly groups demonstrated significant nonstationary behavior. On the other hand 13 out of 24 subjects were found to be nonergodic. We expected to observe differences in complexity of CoPx dynamics due to aging (Farmer, Ott, & Yorke, 1983). However linear metrics such as standard deviation and Fourier spectra of CoPx signals did not show differences due to the age groups. Correlation dimension (Dk) estimates of stationary CoPx signals being an invariant measure of nonlinear system dynamics were computed by using the average displacement method (Eckmann & Ruelle, 1985). Postural dynamics was expanded in m-dimensional space through CoPx signal by introducing optimum time delays, τcritical. 112 out of 136 stationary CoPx signals for 24 stationary subjects converged to Dk estimates. Average of Dk estimates for children and

  12. Blocking of α1β1 and α2β1 adhesion molecules inhibits eosinophil migration through human lung microvascular endothelial cell monolayer

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisława Bazan-Socha; Joanna Żuk; Hanna Plutecka; Bogdan Jakieła; Ewa Mlicka-Kowalczyk; Bartosz Krzyżanowski; Cezary Marcinkiewicz; Lech Zaręba; Bazan, Jan G.; Jacek Musiał

    2014-01-01

    In cell trafficking to the airways in asthma, among integrins the most important are those containing α4 and β2 subunits. We have previously shown that also blocking of collagen receptors, α1β1 and α2β1 integrins, inhibits transmigration of eosinophils of asthmatic subjects through a monolayer of skin microvascular endothelial cells seeded on collagen IV coated inserts. However, it was not clear whether this observation was limited to asthma or depended on the type of microvascular cell and c...

  13. Suppression of Eosinophil Integrins Prevents Remodeling of Airway Smooth Muscle in Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januskevicius, Andrius; Gosens, Reinoud; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Vaitkiene, Simona; Janulaityte, Ieva; Halayko, Andrew J.; Hoppenot, Deimante; Malakauskas, Kestutis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling is an important component of the structural changes to airways seen in asthma. Eosinophils are the prominent inflammatory cells in asthma, and there is some evidence that they contribute to ASM remodeling via released mediators and direct contact through integrin–ligand interactions. Eosinophils express several types of outer membrane integrin, which are responsible for cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions. In our previous study we demonstrated that asthmatic eosinophils show increased adhesion to ASM cells and it may be important factor contributing to ASM remodeling in asthma. According to these findings, in the present study we investigated the effects of suppression of eosinophil integrin on eosinophil-induced ASM remodeling in asthma. Materials and Methods: Individual combined cell cultures of immortalized human ASM cells and eosinophils from peripheral blood of 22 asthmatic patients and 17 healthy controls were prepared. Eosinophil adhesion was evaluated using eosinophil peroxidase activity assay. Genes expression levels in ASM cells and eosinophils were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. ASM cell proliferation was measured using alamarBlue® solution. Eosinophil integrins were blocked by incubating with Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide. Results: Eosinophils from the asthma group showed increased outer membrane α4β1 and αMβ2 integrin expression, increased adhesion to ASM cells, and overexpression of TGF-β1 compared with eosinophils from the healthy control group. Blockade of eosinophil RGD-binding integrins by Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide significantly reduced adhesion of eosinophils to ASM cells in both groups. Integrin-blocking decreased the effects of eosinophils on TGF-β1, WNT-5a, and extracellular matrix protein gene expression in ASM cells and ASM cell proliferation in both groups. These effects were more pronounced in the asthma group compared with the control group. Conclusion

  14. Expression of RANTES mRNA in skin lesions of feline eosinophilic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomoe; Kano, Rui; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nagata, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2003-10-01

    One of the mechanisms of eosinophil infiltration is its induction by chemoattractants such as regulated upon activation, normal T-expressed and secreted (RANTES) which is a cysteine-cysteine chemokine that mediates chemotaxis and activation of eosinophils in humans and mice. Skin lesions of feline eosinophilic plaque are characterized by a predominant infiltration of eosinophils. The mechanism(s) of eosinophilic infiltration in the skin and/or mucosa of cats is unknown. It is possible that RANTES is involved. To investigate the presence of RANTES in the skin of cats with eosinophilic plaques and nonaffected skin, we cloned and sequenced the full-length feline RANTES cDNA gene, in order to determine whether it is present in the skin of cats with eosinophilic plaques and/or if it is present in normal adjacent skin. We were able to document the the expression of RANTES mRNAs in skin with feline eosinophilic plaque as well as in normal cat skin. The full-length cDNA sequence of the RANTES gene (742 bp) contained a single open reading frame of 276 bp encoding a protein of 92 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of feline RANTES shared 67 and 74% sequence identity with that of bovine and mouse RANTES genes, respectively. RT-PCR analysis on RANTES mRNA in the skin of cats with eosinophilic plaque revealed that its expression was higher in the eosinophilic plaque skin lesions than in the normal skin. The result suggested that RANTES might play a role to induce eosinophil infiltration in feline eosinophilic plaque lesions.

  15. Human Body Orientation Estimation using a Committee based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ichim, M; Tan, R.T.; van der Aa, N.P.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Human body orientation estimation is useful for analyzing the activities of a single person or a group of people. Estimating body orientation can be subdivided in two tasks: human tracking and orientation estimation. In this paper, the second task of orientation estimation is accomplished by using H

  16. Effects of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor R-roscovitine on eosinophil survival and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahi, N; Uller, L; Juss, J K; Langton, A J; Cowburn, A S; Gibson, A; Foster, M R; Farrow, S N; Marco-Casanova, P; Sobolewski, A; Condliffe, A M; Chilvers, E R

    2011-05-01

    Eosinophils are pro-inflammatory cells implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and atopy. Apoptosis has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and studies have indicated the ability of interventions that induce human eosinophil apoptosis to promote the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation. Recently, the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor R-roscovitine was shown to enhance neutrophil apoptosis and promote the resolution of neutrophilic inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of CDKs in human blood eosinophils, the effects of R-roscovitine on eosinophil survival in vitro and whether R-roscovitine could influence eosinophilic lung inflammation in vivo. Eosinophils were isolated from human peripheral blood and the effects of R-roscovitine on apoptosis, degranulation and phagocytic uptake examined in vitro. The effects of R-roscovitine on eosinophilic lung inflammation in vivo were also assessed using an ovalbumin mouse model. Our data demonstrate that human eosinophils express five known targets for R-roscovitine: CDK1, -2, -5, -7 and -9. R-roscovitine induced eosinophil apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner but also accelerated transition to secondary necrosis as assessed by microscopy, flow cytometry and caspase activation. In addition, we show that R-roscovitine can override the anti-apoptotic signals of GM-CSF and IL-5. We report that the pro-apoptotic effect of R-roscovitine is associated with suppression of Mcl-1L expression and that this compound enhanced phagocytic clearance of eosinophils by macrophages. Finally, we show that R-roscovitine induces apoptosis in murine peripheral blood and spleen-derived eosinophils; despite this, R-roscovitine did not modulate the tissue and lumen eosinophilia characteristic of the ovalbumin mouse model of airway eosinophilia. These data demonstrate that R-roscovitine is capable of inducing rapid apoptosis and

  17. Hematopoietic Processes in Eosinophilic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brittany M; Sehmi, Roma

    2017-01-24

    Airway eosinophilia is a hallmark of allergic asthma and understanding mechanisms that promote increases in lung eosinophil numbers is important for effective pharmaco-therapeutic development. It has become evident that expansion of hemopoietic compartments in the bone marrow promotes differentiation and trafficking of mature eosinophils to the airways. Hematopoietic progenitor cells egress the bone marrow and home to the lungs, where in-situ differentiative processes within the tissue provide an ongoing source of pro-inflammatory cells. In addition, hematopoietic progenitor cells in the airways can respond to locally-derived alarmins, to produce a panoply of cytokines thereby themselves acting as effector pro-inflammatory cells that potentiate type 2 responses in eosinophilic asthma. In this review, we will provide evidence for these findings and discuss novel targets for modulating eosinophilopoietic processes, migration and effector function of precursor cells.

  18. Eosinophilic meningitis secondary to intravenous vancomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Ruchika; Kazi, Haseeb A; Ruggeri, Cara; Ender, Peter T

    2013-06-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis may be due to infectious or noninfectious etiologies. Parasitic infections cause this entity most frequently and of the noninfectious causes, medications play an important role. We describe a 32-year-old male who developed eosinophilic meningitis while receiving intravenous vancomycin. No other apparent cause of the eosinophilic meningitis was appreciated. This case represents the first description of eosinophilic meningitis due to systemic vancomycin.

  19. GM-CSF Differentially Regulates Eosinophil and Neutrophil Adhesive Interactions with Vascular Endothelium in Vivo

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    Nooshin Sheikh Bahaie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic airway inflammation is characterized by elaboration of cytokines and chemokines leading to recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes, predominantly eosinophils, to the airways. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF is generated in the lungs of human subjects with asthma in response to allergen challenge and is necessary for the development of allergen-induced bronchial eosinophilia in mice. The effect of GM-CSF on human eosinophil and neutrophil interactions with the vascular endothelium under conditions of blood flow was investigated in post-capillary venules of the rabbit mesentery by intravital microscopy.While GM-CSF significantly reduced the rolling fraction of neutrophils in vivo and induced consistent shedding of neutrophil L-selectin in vitro, its effect on eosinophil rolling was variable. Eosinophils from 57% of the donors demonstrated inhibition of rolling, while eosinophils from the remaining 43% of donors demonstrated no inhibition or increased rolling. The variable effect of GM-CSF on inhibition of eosinophil rolling was associated with variable shedding of L-selectin in vitro. In contrast to the differential effect of GM-CSF on neutrophils versus eosinophils, stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate demonstrated a similar degree of inhibition of rolling and L-selectin shedding by neutrophils and eosinophils suggesting that there was no defect in L-selectin shedding in the eosinophil donors who did not respond to GM-CSF. Overall, these studies demonstrate that GM-CSF consistently inhibits interaction of neutrophils with endothelium in vivo, whereas its effect on eosinophil-endothelial interactions is variable. GM-CSF may thus be one factor accounting for the varying percentage of eosinophils and neutrophils recruited to sites of allergic inflammation in different individuals.

  20. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors on eosinophils. Binding and functional studies

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    Yukawa, T.; Ukena, D.; Kroegel, C.; Chanez, P.; Dent, G.; Chung, K.F.; Barnes, P.J. (National Heart and Lung Institute, Brompton Hospital, London (England))

    1990-06-01

    We have studied the binding characteristics and functional effects of beta-adrenoceptors on human and guinea pig eosinophils. We determined the binding of the beta-antagonist radioligand (125I)pindolol (IPIN) to intact eosinophils obtained from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs and from blood of patients with eosinophilia. Specific binding was saturable, and Scatchard analysis showed a single binding site with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 24.6 pM and maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 7,166 per cell. ICI 118,551, a beta 2-selective antagonist, inhibited IPIN binding with a Ki value of 0.28 nM and was approximately 5,000-fold more effective than the beta 1-selective antagonist, atenolol. Isoproterenol increased cAMP levels about 5.5-fold above basal levels (EC50 = 25 microM); albuterol, a beta 2-agonist, behaved as a partial agonist with a maximal stimulation of 80%. Binding to human eosinophils gave similar results with a Kd of 25.3 pM and a Bmax corresponding to 4,333 sites per cell. Incubation of both human and guinea pig eosinophils with opsonized zymosan (2 mg/ml) or with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) (10(-8) and 10(-6) M) resulted in superoxide anion generation and the release of eosinophil peroxidase; albuterol (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) had no inhibitory effect on the release of these products. Thus, eosinophils from patients with eosinophilia and from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs possess beta-receptors of the beta 2-subtype that are coupled to adenylate cyclase; however, these receptors do not modulate oxidative metabolism or degranulation. The possible therapeutic consequences of these observations to asthma are discussed.

  1. Eosinophilic cholecystitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is caused by the accumulation of eosinophils in the gallbladder wall and diagnosis is usually made based on histopathologic studies. The purpose of this paper is to comment on a case report published in World J Gastroenterol 2007 July; 13 (27): 3760-3762, about eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis without histopathological studies, which are considered necessary for its diagnosis.

  2. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  3. Eosinophilic cholecystitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Montiel-Jarquín Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is caused by the accumulation of eosinophils in the gallbladder wall and diagnosis is usually made based on histopahologic studies.The purpose of this paper is to comment on a case report published in Wodd J Gastroenterol 2007 luly;13 (27):3760-3762,about eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis without histopathological studies,which are considered necessary for its diagnosis.

  4. Disruption of Fas Receptor Signaling by Nitric Oxide in Eosinophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebestreit, Holger; Dibbert, Birgit; Balatti, Ivo; Braun, Doris; Schapowal, Andreas; Blaser, Kurt; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that Fas ligand–Fas receptor interactions are involved in the regulation of eosinophil apoptosis and that dysfunctions in this system could contribute to the accumulation of these cells in allergic and asthmatic diseases. Here, we demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) specifically prevents Fas receptor–mediated apoptosis in freshly isolated human eosinophils. In contrast, rapid acceleration of eosinophil apoptosis by activation of the Fas receptor occurs in the presence of eosinophil hematopoietins. Analysis of the intracellular mechanisms revealed that NO disrupts Fas receptor–mediated signaling events at the level of, or proximal to, Jun kinase (JNK), but distal to sphingomyelinase (SMase) activation and ceramide generation. In addition, activation of SMase occurs downstream of an interleukin 1 converting enzyme–like (ICE-like) protease(s) that is not blocked by NO. However, NO prevents activation of a protease that targets lamin B1. These findings suggest a role for an additional NO-sensitive apoptotic signaling pathway that amplifies the proteolytic cascade initialized by activation of the Fas receptor. Therefore, NO concentrations within allergic inflammatory sites may be important in determining whether an eosinophil survives or undergoes apoptosis upon Fas ligand stimulation. PMID:9449721

  5. Morphology and staining behavior of neutrophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyer, Martina; Curths, Christoph; Dahlmann, Franziska; Wichmann, Judy; Bauer, Natali; Moritz, Andreas; Braun, Armin; Knauf, Sascha; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Gruber-Dujardin, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are frequently used as translational animal models for human diseases. However, a comparative study of cytological and histochemical detection methods as well as morphometric and ultrastructural characterization of neutrophils and eosinophils in this species is lacking. Blood samples of house dust mite sensitized and allergen challenged as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged marmosets were analyzed with different cytological and histological staining methods. Furthermore, cell size and number of nuclear segments were compared between neutrophils and eosinophils. Electron microscopy was performed to characterize the ultrastructure of granulocytes. Of all applied cytological stains, three allowed differentiation of eosinophils and neutrophils and, thus, reliable quantification in blood smears: May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain, Congo Red and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate-Esterase. For histology, Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) could not demonstrate clear differences, whereas Sirius Red, Congo Red, and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate Esterase showed capable results for identification of eosinophils or neutrophils in lung tissue. Morphometry revealed that marmoset neutrophils have more nuclear segments and are slightly larger than eosinophils. Ultrastructurally, eosinophils presented with large homogeneous electron-dense granules without crystalloid cores, while neutrophils were characterized by heterogeneous granules of different size and density. Additionally, sombrero-like vesicles were detected in tissue eosinophils of atopic marmosets, indicative for hypersensitivity-related piecemeal degranulation. In conclusion, we provide a detailed overview of marmoset eosinophils and neutrophils, important for phenotypic characterization of marmoset models for human airway diseases.

  6. Eosinophilic Granuloma of a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Demir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granuloma is part of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. It is a rare, benign bone tumor, often involving the head bones. Most patients present between 5 and 15 years of age. Lesions of eosinophilic granuloma may disappear spontaneously. Painful lesions can be treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgical curettage of the tumor or local infusion of cortisone. A six year old girl presented to our clinic with severe painful swelling on the right parietal region with a gradual increase in size and frequent episodes of headache for 2 months. Radiological findings demonstrated right parietal cranial lytic lesion with intra and extracranial extension. The patient was treated with gross total excision of tumor and cranioplasty without any adjuvant therapy. Histopathology of the tumor showed cellular components of Langerhan' cells admixed with chronic cellular infiltrate and eosinophils. Findings were consistent with eosinophillic granuloma. The patient recovered well with no known recurrence till date. There is no definitive treatment option for this disorder. Treatment option may be changed depending on the extent of the disease and the symptoms. We recommend surgical excision in the presence of intracranial extension of painful lesion. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 343-347

  7. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF EOSINOPHILIC LYMPHOGRANULOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jizeng; Chen Jumei; Zhang Chenguang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To research the formative mechanism of eosinophilic lymphogranuloma (ELG), investigate its essence, provide morphologic base for treatment.Methods: The biopsies and surgical specimens of 41 cases were studied with the light microscope, fluorescein microscope, electron microscope and immunohistochemical methods. In these cases, 10 cases levels of serum IgE were measured, it was high level, and 11 cases cured with radiotherapy. Results: The lesions mainly included proliferation of both lymph tissues and post-capillary venues and formed many new scattered lymph follicles.Marked hyperplasia of plasmocytes and mast cells and diffusible infiltration of eosinophilic granulocytes were observed in tissues. The eosinophilic granulocytes were obviously degranulated. When stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled antiserum IgE, the cells showed yellow-green fluorescence, which showed reticular shape in the germinal center of lymph follicles. The swollen tumor-like masses could disappear with radiotherapy, and the eosinophilic granulocytes count in circulation and level of serum IgE reduced to normal.Conclusion: The serum IgE is high lever and it is positive reaction in the tissues strongly. It is accord with allergic granuloma. The lymphocytes are allergenic ambocepotor cells, the x-ray can kill them and stop allergenic agent, the illness was recovered.

  8. Characterization and antagonism of cytokine-induced eosinophil priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosas Rosas, Ana Marcela

    2006-01-01

    Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disease characterized by bronchial hyper-responsiveness, airway inflammation, and reversible obstruction of the airways. In humans, cytokine activated eosinophils are thought to be important players in this process since they can release inflammatory mediators afte

  9. Association between absolute blood eosinophil count and CKD stages among cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Rui; Fujita, Shu-Ichi; Kizawa, Shun; Sakane, Kazushi; Morita, Hideaki; Ozeki, Michishige; Sohmiya, Koichi; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Ishizaka, Nobukazu

    2016-02-01

    Elevated eosinophil count was shown to be associated with the development of cholesterol embolization syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, after catheter-based procedures. We investigated the association between stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the absolute eosinophil count (AEC) among cardiac patients. CKD stages were determined solely on the estimated glomerular filtration rate or requirement for hemodialysis. Eosinophilia is defined as an eosinophil count exceeding 500/μL. A total of 1022 patients were enrolled in the current study, and eosinophil counts (/μL) in the first through fourth eosinophil count quartiles were blood pressure, and total white blood cell count. Similarly, after adjustment for the same variables, eosinophilia was associated with severe renal dysfunction with an odds ratio of 2.60 (95 % confidence interval, 1.08-6.26, P count was positively associated with higher CKD stages among cardiology patients, some fraction of which might be related to subclinical cholesterol embolization.

  10. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, elastase, and cytokine profile in effusion from eosinophilic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimizu, Hirotaka; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Kato, Masahiko; Otori, Nobuyosi; Kojima, Hiromi

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is an intractable disease characterized by a remarkably viscous effusion and accumulation of numerous eosinophils in both the middle ear effusion and the mucosa. The key factors in EOM pathogenesis remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify the important factors involved in EOM pathogenesis. Middle ear effusion samples were collected from 12 patients with EOM and 9 patients with secretory otitis media (SOM), as controls. Multiple cytokines in the effusion were measured using a Bio-Plex™ Human Cytokine 27-Plex panel. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and elastase were measured by ELISA. The concentrations of EDN, elastase, and each cytokine were compared between the EOM and SOM groups. Furthermore, in the EOM group, each cytokine was examined for correlation with EDN and elastase. EDN and elastase concentrations were significantly higher in the EOM group than in the SOM group (p < 0.05). IL-5, IL-1β, MIP-1α, G-CSF, IL-1ra, IL-4, IFN-γ, MIP-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, VEGF, and IL-2 concentration was significantly higher in the EOM group than in the SOM group (p < 0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between EDN and IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, eotaxin, MIP-1α, PDGF-BB, and RANTES in the EOM group (p < 0.05). Our study showed that IL-5, IL-2, MIP-1α, and IL-1ra are the important factors involved in EOM pathogenesis. Furthermore, not only eosinophil, but also neutrophil are involved in middle ear inflammation of EOM. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Eosinophilic myocarditis: case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Byung-Keun; Kang, Min-Koo; Lee, Suh-Young; Suh, Jung-Won; Yoon, Yeonyee E; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Youn, Tae-Jin; Cho, Sang-Heon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-04-01

    Eosinophilic myocarditis is a condition resulting from various eosinophilic diseases, including helminth infection, drug hypersensitivity, systemic vasculitis or idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes. Clinical manifestations of eosinophilic myocarditis may vary from early necrosis to endomyocardial fibrosis. Eosinophilic myocarditis is one of the most fatal complications of hypereosinophilia. However, eosinophilic myocarditis has been rarely reported in the literature, particularly in Asia Pacific regions, reflecting the under-recognition of the disease among clinicians. Early recognition is crucial for improving clinical outcomes of eosinophilic myocarditis. Early administration of systemic corticosteroid is necessary in eosinophilic myocarditis regardless of underlying causes, as delayed treatment may result in fatal outcomes. In addition, differential diagnoses of underlying causes for eosinophilia are necessary to improve long-term outcomes.

  12. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Gyoo; Sik; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Jang, Tae Won; Jung, Man Hong [Kosin Medical College, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is one of a recently described idiopathic eosinophilic lung disease, which differs from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia develop acute onset of dyspnea, hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest radiograph, and show an increase in number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung biopsy specimen. Prompt and complete response to corticosteroid therapy without any recurrence is characteristically seen in patient with this disease. Although the etiology of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is not known, it has been suggested to be related to a hypersensitivity phenomenon to an unidentified inhaled antigen. We report four cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia presented with acute onset of dyspnea, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in previously healthy adults.

  13. Bone marrow contribution to eosinophilic inflammation

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    Denburg Judah A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-induced bone marrow responses are observable in human allergic asthmatics, involving specific increases in eosinophil-basophil progenitors (Eo/B-CFU, measured either by hemopoietic assays or by flow cytometric analyses of CD34-positive, IL-3Ralpha-positive, and/or IL-5-responsive cell populations. The results are consistent with the upregulation of an IL-5-sensitive population of progenitors in allergen-induced late phase asthmatic responses. Studies in vitro on the phenotype of developing eosinophils and basophils suggest that the early acquisition of IL-5Ralpha, as well as the capacity to produce cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-5, are features of the differentiation process. These observations are consistent with findings in animal models, indicating that allergen-induced increases in bone marrow progenitor formation depend on hemopoietic factor(s released post-allergen. The possibility that there is constitutive marrow upregulation of eosinophilopoiesis in allergic airways disease is also an area for future investigation.

  14. Asthma, tuberculosis or eosinophilic pneumonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Subhra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45 year-old male presented with cough and expectoration for 8 months, short-ness of breath and wheeze for 3 months, and fever for 1 month. He remained symptomatic despite repeated courses of antibiotics with partial relief on oral and inhaled bronchodilators. Despite several sputum examinations being negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB, he was put on anti-tubercular drugs (ATD because of bi-lateral infiltrates on his chest radiographs. A mildly raised blood eosinophil count, eosinophilia in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL fluid and eosinophilic infiltration on CT guided FNAC from his lung lesion raised the suspicion and the dramatic clinico-radiological improvement with oral corticosteroids clinched the diagnosis of CEP.

  15. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats.

  16. Estimating Human Predictability From Mobile Sensor Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Jensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of human behavior is of prime interest in many applications ranging from behavioral science to practical applications like GSM resource planning and context-aware services. As proxies for humans, we apply multiple mobile phone sensors all conveying information about human behavior...

  17. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  18. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  19. Eosinophil secretion of granule-derived cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Spencer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include: classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines.

  20. Eosinophilic Fasciitis: A Rare Skin Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Servy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis (Schulman's syndrome is a rare disease with specific clinical symptoms such as the groove sign which facilitate diagnosis. We report a typical case of eosinophilic fasciitis in an otherwise healthy 49-year-old man who presented with “prayer and groove signs”. Histological analysis showed sclerosis and eosinophilic infiltration of the fascia. The patient was successfully treated with systemic corticotherapy and Cyclosporine. A short review of the clinicopathological features of the lesions is presented.

  1. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with ascites and hepatic dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bo Zhou; Jin-Ming Chen; Qin Du

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal disorder with eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal wall and various gastrointestinal dysfunctions. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and exclusion of various disorders that are associated with peripheral eosinophilia.We report a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, which had features of the predominant subserosal type presenting with ascites and hepatic dysfunction, and which responded to a course of low-dose steroid.

  2. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Jeong Hee; Lim, Jong Nam; Shin, Hyun Jun; Jeon, Hae Jeong [College of Medicine, Kon-Kuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-15

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare disease characterized by chronic infiltration of the lung with eosinophils, usually associated with peripheral eosinophilia. In 65% of cases, the chest radiograph shows typical nonsegmental air-space consolidation confined to the outer third of the lung, and in 25% of cases, the 'photographic negative of pulmonary edema' Typical lung manifestations with peripheral eosinophilia are characteristic of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. In the remaining cases, radiographic findings are nonspecific and require lung biopsy for confirmation. We report a case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia in which chest radiograph and CT scans revealed bilateral patchy or diffuse opacity with nodules scattered throughout the lungs.

  3. Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia with Eosinophilic Leukemoid Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 7 year-old male presented with recurrent fever, cough and respiratory distress for over last 2 years. Based on extremely high eosinophil count, high Immunoglobulin E, increase in eosinophilic precursors in bone marrow, and positive antigen test for Wuchereria bancrofti, a diagnosis of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia with Eosinophilic Leukemoid Reaction was made. Complete recovery was achieved with Diethylcarbamazine for 3 weeks. We are reporting this case as the first case of Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia with eosinophilic leukemoid reaction in a child.

  4. Eosinophilic granuloma of the capital femoral epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takahiro; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Ogura, Koichi; Imanishi, Jungo; Hozumi, Takahiro; Funata, Nobuaki

    2011-05-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma occurs almost exclusively in the diaphysis or metaphysis, when tubular bones are affected. The investigators present an extremely rare case of eosinophilic granuloma arising at the epiphysis of the femoral head in an 8-year-old boy. Plain radiographs and computed tomography showed a well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion, suggesting chondroblastoma or Brodie's abscess. However, the findings on magnetic resonance images were different from typical features of chondroblastoma or Brodie's abscess. The lesion was curetted. Histological diagnosis was eosinophilic granuloma. Differential diagnoses of a radiolucent lesion at the epiphysis in a child should include, though quite rare, eosinophilic granuloma.

  5. You Are What You Eat: A Case of Nematode-Induced Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nikhil

    2017-01-01

    Human anisakiasis is acquired through eating raw or undercooked saltwater fish or squid. Infestation with living larvae caused by eating parasitized fish often times results in gastroenteritis. It mainly involves the stomach and small intestine with no reported cases of eosinophilic esophagitis caused by Anisakidea. A 41-year-old man presented for the evaluation of 1 year of dysphagia to solid foods and was found to have endoscopic findings consistent with eosinophilic esophagitis with pathology showing 100 eosinophils per high-power field. During endoscopy, a roundworm, later identified as Anisakidae species, was found. Patient was treated with a 6-week course of albendazole with symptomatic, endoscopic, and histologic improvement. PMID:28144618

  6. Lung Pathologies in a Chronic Inflammation Mouse Model Are Independent of Eosinophil Degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Elizabeth A; Ochkur, Sergei I; Doyle, Alfred D; LeSuer, William E; Li, Wen; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Colbert, Dana; Zellner, Katie R; Shen, HuaHao H; Irvin, Charles G; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A

    2017-05-15

    The release of eosinophil granule proteins in the lungs of patients with asthma has been dogmatically linked with lung remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness. However, the demonstrated inability of established mouse models to display the eosinophil degranulation occurring in human subjects has prevented a definitive in vivo test of this hypothesis. To demonstrate in vivo causative links between induced pulmonary histopathologies/lung dysfunction and eosinophil degranulation. A transgenic mouse model of chronic T-helper cell type 2-driven inflammation overexpressing IL-5 from T cells and human eotaxin 2 in the lung (I5/hE2) was used to test the hypothesis that chronic histopathologies and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness occur as a consequence of extensive eosinophil degranulation in the lung parenchyma. Studies targeting specific inflammatory pathways in I5/hE2 mice surprisingly showed that eosinophil-dependent immunoregulative events and not the release of individual secondary granule proteins are the central contributors to T-helper cell type 2-induced pulmonary remodeling and lung dysfunction. Specifically, our studies highlighted a significant role for eosinophil-dependent IL-13 expression. In contrast, extensive degranulation leading to the release of major basic protein-1 or eosinophil peroxidase was not causatively linked to many of the induced pulmonary histopathologies. However, these studies did define a previously unappreciated link between the release of eosinophil peroxidase (but not major basic protein-1) and observed levels of induced airway mucin. These data suggest that improvements observed in patients with asthma responding to therapeutic strategies ablating eosinophils may occur as a consequence of targeting immunoregulatory mechanisms and not by simply eliminating the destructive activities of these purportedly end-stage effector cells.

  7. Chronomics, human time estimation, and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Halberg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Franz Halberg, Robert B Sothern, Germaine Cornélissen, Jerzy Czaplicki1Halberg Chronobiology Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 1Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, FranceBackground: Circadian rhythm stage affects many outcomes, including those of mental aging.Methods: Estimations of 1 minute ∼5 times/day for a year, 25 years apart, by a healthy male biomedical scientist (RBS, are analyzed by the extended cosinor.Results: Cycles of a half-week, a week, ∼30 days, a half-year and a year, in self-assessed 1-minute estimation by RBS between 25 and 60 years of age in health, are mapped for the first time, compared and opposite effects are found. For RBS at 60 vs at 25 years of age, it takes less time in the morning around 10:30 (P < 0.001, but not in the evening around 19:30 (P = 0.956, to estimate 1 minute.Discussion: During the intervening decades, the time of estimating 1 minute differed greatly, dependent on circadian stage, being a linear decrease in the morning and increase in the evening, the latter modulated by a ∼33.6-year cycle.Conclusion: Circadian and infradian rhythm mapping is essential for a scrutiny of effects of aging. A ∼30-day and a circannual component apparent at 25 years of age are not found later; cycles longer than a year are detected. Rhythm stages await tests as markers for timing therapy in disease.Keywords: circadian rhythm, mental function, time estimation

  8. Estimation of human dose to radon progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimo, Michikuni [Gifu Coll. of Medical Technology, Sekiichi, Gifu (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the paper is the estimation of the effective dose due to radon progeny for Japanese population. The estimation was performed by a modified UNSCEAR equation. The equation was needed the radon concentration annual occupancy time and the tidal volume on Japanese people and the dose conversion coefficient are needed. Furthermore, not only these figures but also unattached fraction and aerosol distribution data obtained in Japan and the factor related to the Japanese living style were used in the calculation. We used following figures as representative value in Japan; radon concentration: 13(6 - 25) Bq/m{sup 3} indoors and 6.7(3.5 - 13) Bq/m{sup 3} outdoors; the equilibrium factor: 0.45(0.35 - 0.57) indoors and 0.70(0.50 - 0.90) outdoors; the occupancy factor: 0.87 indoors, 0.09 outdoors and 0.04 in vehicle for male and 0.91 indoors, 0.06 outdoors and 0.03 in vehicle for female; the tidal volume: 7,000 (4,000 - 8,000) m{sup 3} for male, 6,200 (3,500 - 7,500) m{sup 3} for female. The effective doses due to radon progeny were estimated to be 0.45 mSv/y for male and 0.40 mSv/y for female, and the variance was -80 - +130%. These values were 1/2 - 1/3 as small as values shown by UNSCEAR 1993 Report and estimated by ICRP Publication 65. (author)

  9. Distribution patterns of stromal eosinophil cells in chick thymus during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Bo; Liu, Yin-Xue; Hou, Yong; Wen, Le; Ge, Xiao-Hong; Peng, Ke-Mei; Liu, Hua-Zhen

    2013-05-15

    Eosinophils are a type of thymic stromal cell that are present in the thymus of both humans and mice. They participate in regulating T-cell development under non-pathological conditions. However, studies are scarce regarding the role of eosinophils in the development of the thymus in chickens. Therefore, this study investigated the distribution of eosinophils in normal chicken thymi at different stages of development. Seven thymi were obtained from chickens at days 1, 21 and 35 of development. The distribution of eosinophils in the thymi was analyzed by histological and immunohistochemical techniques using Lendrum's chromotrope 2R method and an antibody against eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), respectively. Eosinophils were constitutively located in the chick thymus. They were mainly distributed in the thymic corticomedullary junction and medulla, especially around vessels and Hassall's corpuscles, and only a few were in the trabeculae among thymic lobules and around vessels. There were none in the cortex. The number of thymic eosinophils decreased with increasing age (Pdevelopment, especially during the early stages of development.

  10. Pose estimation based on human detection and segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qiang; ZHENG EnLiang; LIU YunCai

    2009-01-01

    We address the problem of 3D human pose estimation in a single real scene image. Normally, 3D pose estimation from real Image needs background subtraction to extract the appropriate features. We do not make such assumption. In this paper, a two-step approach is proposed, first, Instead of applying background subtraction to get the segmentation of human, we combine the segmentation with human detection using an ISM-based detector. Then, silhouette feature can be extracted and 3D pose estimation Is solved as a regression problem. RVMs and ridge regression method are applied to solve this problem. The results show the robustness and accuracy of our method.

  11. EOSINOPHILIC OTITIS MEDIA A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic otitis media is actually a recent introduction. These patients may manifest with sudden hearing loss. There may be associated bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Diagnostic criteria of this condition are rather vague. A review of literature shows that demonstration of eosinophils in the middle ear secretion of these patients could be considered to be pathognomonic of this condition

  12. Eosinophilic Mucin Otomastoiditis and Otopolyposis: A Progressive Form of Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadarmaki, Roya; Westra, William; Prasad, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce and define a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media: eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis and otopolyposis. A case of a 66-year-old woman with complicated chronic otitis media is reported. A literature review of the National Library of Medicine's online database, with a focus on eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis, was performed. The authors report the case of a 66-year-old woman with a history of asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, and chronic otitis media who presented with allergic middle ear mucin and otic polyps. Treatment involved a tympanomastoidectomy with removal of otic polyps and steroid therapy. Eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis with otopolyposis is a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media. This disease process shares similarities with eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis. Otic polypectomy and steroids are suggested therapeutic measures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Human Pose Estimation from Monocular Images: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Gong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human pose estimation refers to the estimation of the location of body parts and how they are connected in an image. Human pose estimation from monocular images has wide applications (e.g., image indexing. Several surveys on human pose estimation can be found in the literature, but they focus on a certain category; for example, model-based approaches or human motion analysis, etc. As far as we know, an overall review of this problem domain has yet to be provided. Furthermore, recent advancements based on deep learning have brought novel algorithms for this problem. In this paper, a comprehensive survey of human pose estimation from monocular images is carried out including milestone works and recent advancements. Based on one standard pipeline for the solution of computer vision problems, this survey splits the problem into several modules: feature extraction and description, human body models, and modeling methods. Problem modeling methods are approached based on two means of categorization in this survey. One way to categorize includes top-down and bottom-up methods, and another way includes generative and discriminative methods. Considering the fact that one direct application of human pose estimation is to provide initialization for automatic video surveillance, there are additional sections for motion-related methods in all modules: motion features, motion models, and motion-based methods. Finally, the paper also collects 26 publicly available data sets for validation and provides error measurement methods that are frequently used.

  14. Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, L E; Hardam, E E; Hertzke, D M; Flatland, B; Rohrbach, B W; Moore, R R

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study of cases of a unique intramural inflammatory mass within the feline gastrointestinal tract was performed in order to describe and characterize the lesion. Twenty-five cases were identified from archival surgical and postmortem tissues. The lesion most often occurred as an ulcerated intramural mass at the pyloric sphincter (n = 12) or the ileocecocolic junction or colon (n = 9); the remaining cases were in the small intestine. Seven cases also had lymph node involvement. The lesions were characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, large reactive fibroblasts, and trabeculae of dense collagen. Intralesional bacteria were identified in 56% of the cases overall and all of the ileocecocolic junction and colon lesions. Fifty-eight percent of cats tested had peripheral eosinophilia. Cats treated with prednisone had a significantly longer survival time than those receiving other treatments. We propose that this is a unique fibroblastic response of the feline gastrointestinal tract to eosinophilic inflammation that in some cases is associated with bacteria. The lesion is often grossly and sometimes histologically mistaken for neoplasia.

  15. Coccidioidomycosis Masquerading as Eosinophilic Ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Alavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic to the southwestern parts of the United States, coccidioidomycosis, also known as “Valley Fever,” is a common fungal infection that primarily affects the lungs in both acute and chronic forms. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is the most severe but very uncommon and usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. It can affect the central nervous system, bones, joints, skin, and, very rarely, the abdomen. This is the first case report of a patient with coccidioidal dissemination to the peritoneum presenting as eosinophilic ascites (EA. A 27-year-old male presented with acute abdominal pain and distention from ascites. He had eosinophilia of 11.1% with negative testing for stool studies, HIV, and tuberculosis infection. Ascitic fluid exam was remarkable for low serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG, PMN count >250/mm3, and eosinophils of 62%. Abdominal imaging showed thickened small bowel and endoscopic testing negative for gastric and small bowel biopsies. He was treated empirically for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but no definitive diagnosis could be made until coccidioidal serology returned positive. We noted complete resolution of symptoms with oral fluconazole during outpatient follow-up. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis can present in an atypical fashion and may manifest as peritonitis with low SAAG EA. The finding of EA in an endemic area should raise the suspicion of coccidioidal dissemination.

  16. Novel basophil- or eosinophil-depleted mouse models for functional analyses of allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Kunie; Shitara, Hiroshi; Taya, Choji; Kohno, Kenji; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Yonekawa, Hiromichi

    2013-01-01

    Basophils and eosinophils play important roles in various host defense mechanisms but also act as harmful effectors in allergic disorders. We generated novel basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models by introducing the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor gene under the control of the mouse CD203c and the eosinophil peroxidase promoter, respectively, to study the critical roles of these cells in the immunological response. These mice exhibited selective depletion of the target cells upon DT administration. In the basophil-depletion model, DT administration attenuated a drop in body temperature in IgG-mediated systemic anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner and almost completely abolished the development of ear swelling in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation (IgE-CAI), a typical skin swelling reaction with massive eosinophil infiltration. In contrast, in the eosinophil-depletion model, DT administration ameliorated the ear swelling in IgE-CAI whether DT was administered before, simultaneously, or after, antigen challenge, with significantly lower numbers of eosinophils infiltrating into the swelling site. These results confirm that basophils and eosinophils act as the initiator and the effector, respectively, in IgE-CAI. In addition, antibody array analysis suggested that eotaxin-2 is a principal chemokine that attracts proinflammatory cells, leading to chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, the two mouse models established in this study are potentially useful and powerful tools for studying the in vivo roles of basophils and eosinophils. The combination of basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models provides a new approach to understanding the complicated mechanism of allergic inflammation in conditions such as atopic dermatitis and asthma.

  17. Novel basophil- or eosinophil-depleted mouse models for functional analyses of allergic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunie Matsuoka

    Full Text Available Basophils and eosinophils play important roles in various host defense mechanisms but also act as harmful effectors in allergic disorders. We generated novel basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models by introducing the human diphtheria toxin (DT receptor gene under the control of the mouse CD203c and the eosinophil peroxidase promoter, respectively, to study the critical roles of these cells in the immunological response. These mice exhibited selective depletion of the target cells upon DT administration. In the basophil-depletion model, DT administration attenuated a drop in body temperature in IgG-mediated systemic anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner and almost completely abolished the development of ear swelling in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation (IgE-CAI, a typical skin swelling reaction with massive eosinophil infiltration. In contrast, in the eosinophil-depletion model, DT administration ameliorated the ear swelling in IgE-CAI whether DT was administered before, simultaneously, or after, antigen challenge, with significantly lower numbers of eosinophils infiltrating into the swelling site. These results confirm that basophils and eosinophils act as the initiator and the effector, respectively, in IgE-CAI. In addition, antibody array analysis suggested that eotaxin-2 is a principal chemokine that attracts proinflammatory cells, leading to chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, the two mouse models established in this study are potentially useful and powerful tools for studying the in vivo roles of basophils and eosinophils. The combination of basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models provides a new approach to understanding the complicated mechanism of allergic inflammation in conditions such as atopic dermatitis and asthma.

  18. Role of Adhesion Molecules in Eosinophil Activation: A Comparative Study on the Effect of Adhesion Molecules on Eosinophil Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Yamaguchi

    2004-01-01

    Conclusions: The regulation of adhesion molecules, by not only preventing eosinophil adhesion but also eosinophil activation, may be a potential target in the treatment of allergic inflammatory disorders.

  19. Markov chain for estimating human mitochondrial DNA mutation pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantika, Sandy; Pasaribu, Udjianna S.

    2015-12-01

    The Markov chain was proposed to estimate the human mitochondrial DNA mutation pattern. One DNA sequence was taken randomly from 100 sequences in Genbank. The nucleotide transition matrix and mutation transition matrix were estimated from this sequence. We determined whether the states (mutation/normal) are recurrent or transient. The results showed that both of them are recurrent.

  20. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in an adolescent with mental retardation and pica disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Chang-Wei; Chen, Huan-Sheng; Li, Chen-Hua; Chen, Yu-Wei

    2013-02-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis or encephalitis is a rare disorder and is most commonly caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are accidentally infected when they ingest raw snails or vegetables contaminated with the parasite larvae. Because of the improvement in sanitary food handling practices, the occurrence of A. cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis has been decreasing in Taiwan in recent decades. The common symptoms and signs of eosinophilic meningitis are severe headache, neck stiffness, paresthesia, vomiting, nausea, and fever. Acute urinary retention is a rare presentation. We report a case of A. cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis in an intellectually disabled patient who presented with acute urinary retention without any other meningeal signs. The patient received supportive treatment with corticosteroid therapy and was discharged and received urinary rehabilitation at home.

  1. Human motion estimation with multiple frequency modulated continuous wave radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Human motion estimation is an important issue in automotive, security or home automation applications. Radar systems are well suited for this because they are robust, are independent of day or night conditions and have accurate range and speed domain. The human response in a radar range-speed-time m

  2. Human motion estimation with multiple frequency modulated continuous wave radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Human motion estimation is an important issue in automotive, security or home automation applications. Radar systems are well suited for this because they are robust, are independent of day or night conditions and have accurate range and speed domain. The human response in a radar range-speed-time

  3. Activity assessment of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepfer, Alain; Safroneeva, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The activity of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) can be assessed with patient-reported outcomes and biologic measures. Patient-reported outcomes include symptoms and quality of life, whereas biologic measures refer to endoscopic, histologic, and biochemical activity (e.g. blood biomarkers). So far, a validated tool to assess EoE activity in the above-mentioned dimensions is lacking. Given the lack of a standardized way to assess EoE activity in the various dimensions, the results of different clinical trials may be difficult to compare. For symptom assessment in adult patients, the symptom 'dysphagia' should be evaluated according to different standardized food consistencies. Furthermore, symptom assessment should take into account the following items: avoidance of specific food categories, food modification, and time to eat a regular meal. A distinct symptom recall period (e.g. 2 weeks) has to be defined for symptom assessment. Performing an 'esophageal stress test' with ingestion of a standardized meal to measure symptom severity bears the potential risk of acute food bolus impaction and should therefore be avoided. The description of endoscopic findings in EoE has meanwhile been standardized. Histologic evaluation of EoE activity should report either the size of the high-power field used or count the eosinophils per mm(2). There is a current lack of blood biomarkers demonstrating a good correlation with histologic activity in esophageal biopsies. The development and validation of an adult and pediatric EoE activity index is urgently needed not only for clinical trials and observational studies, but also for daily practice.

  4. Modulation of eosinophil activation in vitro by a nicotinic receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Marie-Renée; Langlois, Anick; Israël-Assayag, Evelyne; Beaulieu, Marie-Josée; Ferland, Claudine; Laviolette, Michel; Cormier, Yvon

    2007-05-01

    Nicotinic receptor agonists decreased the infiltration of eosinophils into the lung and airways in a mouse model of asthma. To better understand the mechanisms implicated in this anti-inflammatory phenomenon, the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and the effect of dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP), a nonselective nAChR agonist, on human blood eosinophils were studied. The expression of alpha-3, -4, and -7 nAChR subunits on human blood eosinophils was measured by cell ELISA and immunocytochemistry. mRNA expression for all three subunits was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. The effect of DMPP on leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) production, eosinophil migration, and intracellular calcium mobilization was measured. The results show that the alpha-3, -4, and -7 nAChR subunits and mRNAs are expressed by blood eosinophils. In vitro treatment of these cells with various concentrations of DMPP reduced platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced LTC4 production significantly. DMPP (160 microM) decreased eotaxin, and 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetranoic acid induced eosinophil migration through Matrigel by 40.9% and 55.5%, respectively. This effect was reversed by the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine. In addition, DMPP reduced MMP-9 release and the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-dependent intracellular calcium increase provoked by PAF. Taken together, these results indicate that functional nAChRs are expressed on eosinophils and that nAChR agonists down-regulate eosinophil function in vitro. These anti-inflammatory effects could be of interest in the treatment of allergic asthma.

  5. Eosinophilic pleuritis due to sparganum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youngmin; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Chang, You-Jin; Eom, Keeseon; Park, Jung-Gi; Lee, Ki-Man; Choe, Kang-Hyeon; An, Jin-Young

    2014-10-01

    Sparganosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by migrating plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Infection in humans is mainly caused by the ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked flesh of infected frogs, snakes, and chickens. Here, we report a rare case of a 45-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with left lower chest pain. The chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed localized pleural effusion in the left lower lobe; further, peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic pleural effusion were present. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed, which revealed long worm-shaped material that was identified as a sparganum by DNA sequencing. The patient showed clinical improvement after drainage of the sparganum. This study demonstrates the importance of considering parasitic diseases in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusion.

  6. Novel targeted therapies for eosinophilic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Michael E.; Fulkerson, Patricia C.; Bochner, Bruce S.; Gauvreau, Gail M.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Henkel, Tim; Kolbeck, Roland; Mathur, Sameer K.; Ortega, Hector; Patel, Jatin; Prussin, Calman; Renzi, Paolo; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Roufosse, Florence; Simon, Dagmar; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Wardlaw, Andrew; Weller, Peter F.; Klion, Amy D.

    2013-01-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs) are a diverse group of conditions characterized by clinical manifestations attributable to eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration of tissues. HESs are chronic disorders with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the availability of targeted chemotherapeutic agents, including imatinib, has improved quality of life and survival in some patients with HESs, additional agents with increased efficacy and decreased toxicity are sorely needed. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of eosinophil biology with an emphasis on potential targets of pharmacotherapy and to provide a summary of potential eosinophil-targeting agents, including those in development, in clinical trials, or approved for other disorders. PMID:22935585

  7. A late IL-33 response after exposure to Schistosoma haematobium antigen is associated with an up-regulation of IL-13 in human eosinophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, S.; Jones, F. M.; Fofana, H. K. M.;

    2013-01-01

    IL-33, a proposed alarmin, stimulates innate immune cells and Th2 cells to produce IL-13 and is rapidly upregulated upon antigen exposure in murine helminth infection. The human IL-33 response to helminth antigen was analysed in Malians infected with Schistosoma haematobium by disrupting parasite...

  8. Eosinophilic diseases in two Cavalier King Charles spaniels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, A J; Holden, D J; Hall, E J; Day, M J

    2002-12-01

    This report describes the clinical presentation of two Cavalier King Charles spaniels with different eosinophilic diseases. The first case presented with dyspnoea and a non-productive cough, and investigations demonstrated eosinophilic bronchopneumonopathy. The second dog was referred for the investigation of haemorrhagic vomiting and diarrhoea and was eventually diagnosed with eosinophilic enteritis. Both dogs had concurrent eosinophilic stomatitis, and both responded completely to immunosuppressive glucocorticoid therapy. This report is the first to describe the concurrence of eosinophilic stomatitis and systemic eosinophilic disease in Cavalier King Charles spaniels, and suggest that this breed may be predisposed to eosinophilic syndromes.

  9. Temporal evolution of risk estimates for presumed human teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebert, M K; Haun, J M; Pauli, R M

    1993-01-01

    We present preliminary data assessing a previously untried method of deriving estimates of risk from case reports on presumed human teratogens. We postulated that we could take advantage of biases inherent to case reports in order to generate one or more families of temporal curves that could be used to estimate the "true" risk of teratogenic exposure. Using this method (which we refer to as the "case-cumulative method") we found that two agents (parvovirus B19 and isotretinoin) demonstrated a logarithmic decrease in the estimated risk over time, as intuitively expected, while trimethadione and the coumarin derivatives showed a more complex pattern over time. Analysis of estimated risks quoted by reviews and large studies for these four agents showed large variability from estimate to estimate and no discernible temporal pattern. With further analysis of other agents, the case-cumulative method might eventually prove to be useful in teratogen counseling.

  10. Eotaxin-2, a Novel CC Chemokine that Is Selective for the Chemokine Receptor CCR3, and Acts Like Eotaxin on Human Eosinophil and Basophil Leukocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Forssmann, Ulf; Uguccioni, Mariagrazia; Loetscher, Pius; Dahinden, Clemens A; Langen, Hanno; Thelen, Marcus; Baggiolini, Marco

    1997-01-01

    A novel human CC chemokine consisting of 78 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 8,778.3 daltons (VVIPSPCCMF FVSKRIPENR VVSYQLSSRS TCLKAGVIFT TKKGQQ SCGD PKQEWVQRYM KNLDAKQKKA SPRARAVA) was isolated together with three minor COOH-terminally truncated variants with 73, 75, and 76 residues. The new chemokine was termed eotaxin-2 because it is functionally very similar to eotaxin. In terms of structure, however, eotaxin and eotaxin-2 are rather distant, they share only 39% identical amino ...

  11. [Eosinophilic pneumonia revealing B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikal, Siham; Sajiai, Hafsa; Serhane, Hind; Aitbatahar, Salma; Amro, Lamyae

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia is rare and malignant etiology remains exceptional. Eosinophilic pneumonia etiology varies and is mainly dominated by allergic and drug causes. We report the case of a 61-year-old patient with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma revealed by eosinophilic pneumonia. The diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia was confirmed by eosinophil count of 56% in bronchoalveolar lavage. Immunohistochemical examination of bone marrow biopsy revealed malignant Small B cells non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  12. Migratory eosinophilic alveolitis caused by radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun Hyeok; Nam, Hae-Seong; Kim, Hun Jung; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Park, In-Suh; Cho, Jae Hwa; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Kwak, Seung Min; Lee, Hong Lyeol

    2015-05-01

    Although radiation pneumonitis is usually confined to irradiated areas, some studies have reported that radiation-induced lymphocytic alveolitis can also spread to the non-irradiated lung. However, there have been few reports of radiation-induced eosinophilic alveolitis. We report the case of a 27-year-old female with radiation pneumonitis, occurring 4 months after radiation therapy for cancer of the left breast. Clinical and radiological relapse followed withdrawal of corticosteroids. Examination of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patchy airspace consolidations revealed increased eosinophil counts. Finally, clinical and radiological signs resolved rapidly after reintroduction of corticosteroids. Eosinophilic alveolitis may be promoted by radiation therapy. In the present case report, possible mechanisms for radiation-induced eosinophilic alveolitis are also reviewed.

  13. Eosinophilic mastitis masquerading as breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Kumar, S; Neogi, S

    2012-06-01

    We report the sixth case of Eosinophilic Mastitis, presenting similarly enough to be confused with breast carcinoma. A 50 year old lady presented with a six month history of progressively enlarging asymptomatic breast lump, cough and breathlessness. Clinical examination, mammography and axillary lymphadenopathy suggested malignant disease. Ronchi were heard on chest auscultation. Needle cytology was twice inconclusive and Tru-cut biopsy showed acute on chronic inflammation. Blood investigations revealed significant peripheral eosinophilia. Open biopsy reported eosinophilic mastits, correlating with peripheral eosinophilia and pulmonary symptoms. The patient responded to conservative management. Eosinophilic infiltration of the breast is a rare manifestation of tissue involvement in peripheral eosinophilia. Asthma, Churgh-Strauss Syndrome and hyper-eosinophilic syndromes are associated. Importantly, if a clinically and radiologically malignant breast lump in asthmatic ladies with peripheral eosinophilia is not confirmed on cytology, this entity could be a diagnosis, potentially saving the patient from surgery.

  14. Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Oh, Sung Won; Lee, Sam Sun [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mun Kyung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Medicine, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

  15. Estimation of Human Body Shape and Posture Under Clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Wuhrer, Stefanie; Pishchulin, Leonid; Brunton, Alan; Shu, Chang; Lang, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the body shape and posture of a dressed human subject in motion represented as a sequence of (possibly incomplete) 3D meshes is important for virtual change rooms and security. To solve this problem, statistical shape spaces encoding human body shape and posture variations are commonly used to constrain the search space for the shape estimate. In this work, we propose a novel method that uses a posture-invariant shape space to model body shape variation combined with a skeleton-bas...

  16. Adult eosinophilic gastroenteritis and hypereosinophilic syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritJs (EGE) in the adult is a distinctive pathologically-based disorder characterized by an eosinophil-predominant mucosal inflammatory process. Most often, the disorder is detected during endoscopic investigation for abdominal pain or diarrhea. Other causes of gastric and intestinal mucosal eosinophilia require exclusion, including parasitic infections and drug-induced causes. Occasionally, the muscle wall or serosal surface may be involved. EGE appears to be more readily recognized, in large part, due to an evolution in the imaging methods used to evaluate abdominal pain and diarrhea, in particular, endoscopic imaging and mucosal biopsies. Definition of EGE, however, may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not well standardized. Also, the eosinophilic inflammatory process may be either patchy or diffuse and the detection of the eosinophilic infiltrates may vary depending on the method of biopsy fixation. Treatment has traditionally focused on resolution of symptoms, and, in some instances, eosinophil quantification in pre-treatment and post-treatment biopsies. Future evaluation and treatment of EGE may depend on precise serological biomarkers to aid in definition of the long-term natural history of the disorder and its response to pharmacological or biological forms of therapy.

  17. Evidence for eosinophil degranulation in acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding of increased numbers of eosinophils in the muscle in cases of acute appendicitis has led to the hypothesis that it may have an allergic origin. This study aimed to measure the eosinophil degranulation resulting in a rise in the serum of eosinophil granule proteins that would be expected in such cases. The levels of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP measured by chemiluminescence assay in acute appendicitis were compared, with those of appropriate controls. Mean (95% CI serum ECP (µg/L levels were: acute appendicitis 45.3 (27.7-63.0; normal appendix 22.7 (16.0-29.3; asthma 24.2 (4.6-43.8; and healthy volunteers 13.2 (8.3-18.1. In cases of acute appendicitis, there is an inverse relationship between duration of symptoms and serum ECP. However, this was not statistically significant. Significant local eosinophil activation and degranulation occurs in acute appendicitis, enough to cause a rise in serum levels of eosinophil chemotactic protein

  18. Human age estimation framework using different facial parts

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Y. El Dib; Hoda M. Onsi

    2011-01-01

    Human age estimation from facial images has a wide range of real-world applications in human computer interaction (HCI). In this paper, we use the bio-inspired features (BIF) to analyze different facial parts: (a) eye wrinkles, (b) whole internal face (without forehead area) and (c) whole face (with forehead area) using different feature shape points. The analysis shows that eye wrinkles which cover 30% of the facial area contain the most important aging features compared to internal face and...

  19. Evidence for a role of eosinophils in blister formation in bullous pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graauw, E; Sitaru, C; Horn, M; Borradori, L; Yousefi, S; Simon, H-U; Simon, D

    2017-07-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune bullous disease of the skin characterized by subepidermal blister formation due to tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies to the hemidesmosomal antigens BP180 and BP230. Although eosinophils and their toxic mediators are found abundantly in BP lesions, their role in blister formation has remained unclear. To investigate the role of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of BP with a specific focus on blister formation and to define conditions inducing dermal-epidermal separation (DES). In an ex vivo human model of BP, normal human skin cryosections were incubated with purified human peripheral blood eosinophils with or without activation in the presence or absence of BP autoantibodies, brefeldin A, diphenyleneiodonium, DNase or blocking F(ab')2 fragments to CD16, CD18, CD32 and CD64. Dermal-epidermal separation was assessed by light microscopy studies and quantified using Fiji software. Following activation with IL-5 and in the presence of BP autoantibodies, eosinophils induced separation along the dermal-epidermal junction of ex vivo skin. Dermal-epidermal separation was significantly reduced by blocking any of the following: Fcγ receptor binding (P = 0.048), eosinophil adhesion (P = 0.046), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (P = 0.002), degranulation (P blister formation in the presence of BP autoantibodies. Dermal-epidermal separation by IL-5-activated eosinophils depends on adhesion and Fcγ receptor activation, requires elevated ROS production and degranulation and involves EET formation. Thus, targeting eosinophils may be a promising therapeutic approach for BP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Blood pressure estimation in the human fetal descending aorta.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, P.C.; Mathews, V.J.; Loupas, T.; Stewart, P.A.; Clark, E.B.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wladimiroff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to estimate fetal blood pressure non-invasively from two-dimensional color Doppler-derived aortic blood flow and diameter waveforms, and to compare the results with invasively derived human fetal blood pressures available from the literature. METHODS:

  1. Blood pressure estimation in the human fetal descending aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Struijk (Pieter); V.J. Mathews; T. Loupas; P.A. Stewart (Patricia); E.B. Clark; R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The objectives of this study were to estimate fetal blood pressure non-invasively from two-dimensional color Doppler-derived aortic blood flow and diameter waveforms, and to compare the results with invasively derived human fetal blood pressures available from the literature.

  2. Demographic Estimation from Face Images: Human vs. Machine Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hu; Otto, Charles; Liu, Xiaoming; Jain, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Demographic estimation entails automatic estimation of age, gender and race of a person from his face image, which has many potential applications ranging from forensics to social media. Automatic demographic estimation, particularly age estimation, remains a challenging problem because persons belonging to the same demographic group can be vastly different in their facial appearances due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper, we present a generic framework for automatic demographic (age, gender and race) estimation. Given a face image, we first extract demographic informative features via a boosting algorithm, and then employ a hierarchical approach consisting of between-group classification, and within-group regression. Quality assessment is also developed to identify low-quality face images that are difficult to obtain reliable demographic estimates. Experimental results on a diverse set of face image databases, FG-NET (1K images), FERET (3K images), MORPH II (75K images), PCSO (100K images), and a subset of LFW (4K images), show that the proposed approach has superior performance compared to the state of the art. Finally, we use crowdsourcing to study the human perception ability of estimating demographics from face images. A side-by-side comparison of the demographic estimates from crowdsourced data and the proposed algorithm provides a number of insights into this challenging problem.

  3. Analysing the eosinophil cationic protein - a clue to the function of the eosinophil granulocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop-Bailey David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eosinophil granulocytes reside in respiratory mucosa including lungs, in the gastro-intestinal tract, and in lymphocyte associated organs, the thymus, lymph nodes and the spleen. In parasitic infections, atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma, the numbers of the circulating eosinophils are frequently elevated. In conditions such as Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (HES circulating eosinophil levels are even further raised. Although, eosinophils were identified more than hundred years ago, their roles in homeostasis and in disease still remain unclear. The most prominent feature of the eosinophils are their large secondary granules, each containing four basic proteins, the best known being the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP. This protein has been developed as a marker for eosinophilic disease and quantified in biological fluids including serum, bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal secretions. Elevated ECP levels are found in T helper lymphocyte type 2 (atopic diseases such as allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis but also occasionally in other diseases such as bacterial sinusitis. ECP is a ribonuclease which has been attributed with cytotoxic, neurotoxic, fibrosis promoting and immune-regulatory functions. ECP regulates mucosal and immune cells and may directly act against helminth, bacterial and viral infections. The levels of ECP measured in disease in combination with the catalogue of known functions of the protein and its polymorphisms presented here will build a foundation for further speculations of the role of ECP, and ultimately the role of the eosinophil.

  4. Age estimation based on aspartic acid racemization in human sclera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumb, Karolin; Matzenauer, Christian; Reckert, Alexandra; Lehmann, Klaus; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Age estimation based on racemization of aspartic acid residues (AAR) in permanent proteins has been established in forensic medicine for years. While dentine is the tissue of choice for this molecular method of age estimation, teeth are not always available which leads to the need to identify other suitable tissues. We examined the suitability of total tissue samples of human sclera for the estimation of age at death. Sixty-five samples of scleral tissue were analyzed. The samples were hydrolyzed and after derivatization, the extent of aspartic acid racemization was determined by gas chromatography. The degree of AAR increased with age. In samples from younger individuals, the correlation of age and D-aspartic acid content was closer than in samples from older individuals. The age-dependent racemization in total tissue samples proves that permanent or at least long-living proteins are present in scleral tissue. The correlation of AAR in human sclera and age at death is close enough to serve as basis for age estimation. However, the precision of age estimation by this method is lower than that of age estimation based on the analysis of dentine which is due to molecular inhomogeneities of total tissue samples of sclera. Nevertheless, the approach may serve as a valuable alternative or addition in exceptional cases.

  5. Ubiquitous human upper-limb motion estimation using wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Wong, Wai-Choong; Wu, Jian-Kang

    2011-07-01

    Human motion capture technologies have been widely used in a wide spectrum of applications, including interactive game and learning, animation, film special effects, health care, navigation, and so on. The existing human motion capture techniques, which use structured multiple high-resolution cameras in a dedicated studio, are complicated and expensive. With the rapid development of microsensors-on-chip, human motion capture using wearable microsensors has become an active research topic. Because of the agility in movement, upper-limb motion estimation has been regarded as the most difficult problem in human motion capture. In this paper, we take the upper limb as our research subject and propose a novel ubiquitous upper-limb motion estimation algorithm, which concentrates on modeling the relationship between upper-arm movement and forearm movement. A link structure with 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) is proposed to model the human upper-limb skeleton structure. Parameters are defined according to Denavit-Hartenberg convention, forward kinematics equations are derived, and an unscented Kalman filter is deployed to estimate the defined parameters. The experimental results have shown that the proposed upper-limb motion capture and analysis algorithm outperforms other fusion methods and provides accurate results in comparison to the BTS optical motion tracker.

  6. Estimation of the Human Absorption Cross Section Via Reverberation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinböck, Gerhard; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri;

    2016-01-01

    Since the presence of persons affects the reverberation time observed for in-room channels, the absorption cross section of a person can be estimated from measurements via Sabine's and Eyring's models for the reverberation time. We propose an estimator relying on the more accurate model by Eyring...... and compare the obtained results to those of Sabine's model. We find that the absorption by persons is large enough to be measured with a wideband channel sounder and that estimates of the human absorption cross section differ for the two models. The obtained values are comparable to values reported...... in the literature. We also suggest the use of controlled environments with low average absorption coefficients to obtain more reliable estimates. The obtained values can be used to predict the change of reverberation time with persons in the propagation environment. This allows prediction of channel characteristics...

  7. Does bee pollen cause to eosinophilic gastroenteropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güç, Belgin Usta; Asilsoy, Suna; Canan, Oğuz; Kayaselçuk, Fazilet

    2015-09-01

    Bee pollen is given to children by mothers in order to strengthen their immune systems. There are no studies related with the side effects of bee polen in the literature. In this article, the literature was reviewed by presenting a case of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy related with bee polen. A 5-year old child was admitted due to abdominal pain. Edema was detected on the eyelids and pretibial region. In laboratory investigations, pathology was not detected in terms of hepatic and renal causes that would explain the protein loss of the patient diagnosed with hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Urticaria was detected during the follow-up visit. When the history of the patient was deepened, it was learned that bee pollen was given to the patient every day. The total eosinophil count was found to be 1 800/mm(3). Allergic gastroenteropathy was considered because of hypereosinophilia and severe abdominal pain and endoscopy was performed. Biopsy revealed abundant eosinophils in the whole gastric mucosa. A diagnosis of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy was made. Bee polen was discontinued. Abdominal pain and edema disappeared in five days. Four weeks later, the levels of serum albumin and total eosinophil returned to normal.

  8. New Insights into Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a type of intractable otitis media that occurs mainly in patients with bronchial asthma (BA). In 2011, the diagnostic criteria for EOM were established. EOM is characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellowish effusion containing eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophil chemoattractants, such as eosinophil cationic protein, interleukin-5, and eotaxin. Local sensitization against foreign agents such as fungi or bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus) may result in local IgE production in the middle ear and may be responsible for the severity of EOM. The clinical features of EOM closely resemble localized eosinophilic granulomatosis polyangiitis, therefore it is necessary to be vigilant to the symptoms of mononeuritis, polyneuritis, and skin purpura during diagnosis. Standard treatment for EOM is the instillation of triamcinolone acetonide into the mesotympanum. However, severe cases exhibiting strong inflammation and otorrhea are not easily controlled with antibiotics and/or corticosteroids. We proposed the introduction of a severity score to evaluate the severity of EOM. This score correlated with local IgE levels in middle ear effusion. Clinically, the risk factors associated with this severity score were body mass index, and the duration of bronchial asthma (from the onset of BA to the age of the first consultation of otitis media to our hospital). We emphasize that early diagnosis and adequate treatment are vital in preventing progressive and sudden hearing loss resulting from EOM.

  9. [Eosinophilic gastroenteritis caused by bee pollen sensitization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, S; Iñíguez, A; Subirats, M; Alonso, M J; Polo, F; Moneo, I

    1997-05-10

    A 34-year-old Spanish woman with a lifelong history of seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and honey intolerance (pyrosis and abdominal pain) developed, 3 weeks after starting ingestion of bee pollen, astenia, anorexia, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, peripheral blood hypereosinophilia and elevated serum total IgE levels. A duodenal biopsy showed eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosal layer. Other causes of hypereosinophilia were not found. Repeated parasitological stool studies, as well as a duodenal aspirate showed negative results. Symptoms, hypereosinophilia and elevated IgE levels resolved after bee pollen ingestion was stopped. This is a typical case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis by ingestion of bee pollen in a woman with intolerance to honey bee, because the patient fulfilled the usual diagnostic criteria: gastrointestinal symptoms were present, eosinophilic infiltration of the digestive tract was demonstrated by biopsy, no eosinophilic infiltration of other organs was found and the presence of parasites was excluded. Honey intolerance and/or bee pollen administration should be considered as a cause of eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

  10. Impaired P2X1 Receptor-Mediated Adhesion in Eosinophils from Asthmatic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn; Symon, Fiona; Sylvius, Nicolas; Ran, Shaun; Bafadhel, Mona; Muessel, Michelle; Bradding, Peter; Wardlaw, Andrew; Vial, Catherine

    2016-06-15

    Eosinophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma and can be activated by extracellular nucleotides released following cell damage or inflammation. For example, increased ATP concentrations were reported in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of asthmatic patients. Although eosinophils are known to express several subtypes of P2 receptors for extracellular nucleotides, their function and contribution to asthma remain unclear. In this article, we show that transcripts for P2X1, P2X4, and P2X5 receptors were expressed in healthy and asthmatic eosinophils. The P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-meATP; 10 μM) evoked rapidly activating and desensitizing inward currents (peak 18 ± 3 pA/pF at -60 mV) in healthy eosinophils, typical of P2X1 homomeric receptors, which were abolished by the selective P2X1 antagonist NF449 (1 μM) (3 ± 2 pA/pF). α,β-meATP-evoked currents were smaller in eosinophils from asthmatic patients (8 ± 2 versus 27 ± 5 pA/pF for healthy) but were enhanced following treatment with a high concentration of the nucleotidase apyrase (17 ± 5 pA/pF for 10 IU/ml and 11 ± 3 pA/pF for 0.32 IU/ml), indicating that the channels are partially desensitized by extracellular nucleotides. α,β-meATP (10 μM) increased the expression of CD11b activated form in eosinophils from healthy, but not asthmatic, donors (143 ± 21% and 108 ± 11% of control response, respectively). Furthermore, α,β-meATP increased healthy (18 ± 2% compared with control 10 ± 1%) but not asthmatic (13 ± 1% versus 10 ± 0% for control) eosinophil adhesion. Healthy human eosinophils express functional P2X1 receptors whose activation leads to eosinophil αMβ2 integrin-dependent adhesion. P2X1 responses are constitutively reduced in asthmatic compared with healthy eosinophils, probably as the result of an increase in extracellular nucleotide concentration.

  11. EOSINOPHILIC CATIONIC PROTEIN AS A MARKER OF ALLERGIC INFLAMMATION OF NASAL MUCOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mokronosova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Eosinophils are regarded as major cell population directly involved into late phase of allergic inflammation of nasal mucosa. We performed a comparative study, measuring the amounts of eosinophils and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP in nasal secretions and serum samples of thirty-three patients with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR, and twenty-five persons with chronic infectious rhinitis (CIR, to determine diagnostic significance of these parameters. Eosinophil counts in nasal secret were carried out by exfoliative cytology analysis. Sampling of nasal secretions was performed by absorption method. The samples were standardized by concentration of urea in nasal secretions and sera. ЕСР levels in nasal secretions and serum were determined by chemiluminescence assays (UniCAP 100, Phadia, Sweden. Mean scores of eosinophils in nasal secret of PAR patients were 4.6 times higher, than in the patients with CIR. Median ECP values in serum and nasal secretions of PAR patients were, resp., 30.5±28.0 μg/l and 402.7±326.9 μg/l. In patients with CIR, ECP values were 12.4±11.5 μg/l in serum and 86.9±137.4 μg/l in nasal secretions. The appropriate differences have been significant (р < 0.05. No correlations were found between ECP levels in serum and nasal secretions, as well as between ECP levels and eosinophil counts in nasal secretions. The technique of ECP determination in nasal secretions was the most sensitive approach, whereas counting of eosinophils proved to be the most specific method. ECP levels in nasal secretions well characterize an active phase of allergic inflammation and may be used as quantitative parameter for estimation of PAR severity.

  12. Meta-basic estimates the size of druggable human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewczynski, Dariusz; Rychlewski, Leszek

    2009-06-01

    We present here the estimation of the upper limit of the number of molecular targets in the human genome that represent an opportunity for further therapeutic treatment. We select around approximately 6300 human proteins that are similar to sequences of known protein targets collected from DrugBank database. Our bioinformatics study estimates the size of 'druggable' human genome to be around 20% of human proteome, i.e. the number of the possible protein targets for small-molecule drug design in medicinal chemistry. We do not take into account any toxicity prediction, the three-dimensional characteristics of the active site in the predicted 'druggable' protein families, or detailed chemical analysis of known inhibitors/drugs. Instead we rely on remote homology detection method Meta-BASIC, which is based on sequence and structural similarity. The prepared dataset of all predicted protein targets from human genome presents the unique opportunity for developing and benchmarking various in silico chemo/bio-informatics methods in the context of the virtual high throughput screening.

  13. Eosinophilic leukemoid reaction associated with carbamazepine hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laad Gaurish

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine is widely used in the treatment of epilepsy, neuralgic pain, and bipolar affective disorders. Several adverse drug reactions have been described during the course of carbamazepine administration, including exanthemata and hematological reactions. Carbamazepine is one of the common drugs that have been implicated in the etiology of drug hypersensitivity syndrome. A 50-year-old male presented with generalized erythroderma following 10 weeks of ingestion of carbamazepine 200 mg daily for idiopathic epilepsy. His systemic examination was within normal limits. Blood counts revealed marked eosinophilia of 52% (absolute eosinophil count of 10,400 per mm3. Bone marrow aspiration revealed a moderate increase in the eosinophilic series with cells showing normal morphology. The eosinophil counts returned to normal after 2 weeks of oral prednisolone therapy. This case is reported because of its rarity in the Indian medical literature.

  14. Stereological estimation of total brain numbers in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Solveig eWalloe; Bente ePakkenberg; Katrine eFabricius

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the relationship between brain structure and cognitive function is still limited. Human brains and individual cortical areas vary considerably in size and shape. Studies of brain cell numbers have historically been based on biased methods, which did not always result in correct estimates and were often very time-consuming. Within the last 20–30 years, it has become possible to rely on more advanced and unbiased methods. These methods have provided us with information about fe...

  15. Human ECG signal parameters estimation during controlled physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Marcin; Surtel, Wojciech; Dzida, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    ECG signal parameters are commonly used indicators of human health condition. In most cases the patient should remain stationary during the examination to decrease the influence of muscle artifacts. During physical activity, the noise level increases significantly. The ECG signals were acquired during controlled physical activity on a stationary bicycle and during rest. Afterwards, the signals were processed using a method based on Pan-Tompkins algorithms to estimate their parameters and to test the method.

  16. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with multiple gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otowa, Yasunori; Mitsutsuji, Masaaki; Urade, Takeshi; Chono, Teruhiro; Morimoto, Haruki; Yokoyama, Kunio; Hirata, Kenro; Kawamura, Shiro; Shimada, Etsuji; Fujita, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an inflammation of the digestive tract that is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. There are no specific symptoms, and are related to the layer in which eosinophilic infiltration is observed. A 69-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a history of general malaise, diarrhea, and dysgeusia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed reddish elevated lesions that were edematous all over the gastric mucosa. In addition, three tumors were also observed. The biopsies of the reddish elevated mucosa revealed eosinophilic infiltration and tubular adenocarcinoma from the tumors. Colonoscopy showed abnormal reddish elevated mucosa. The biopsies from the reddish elevated mucosa showed eosinophilic infiltration. From the abdominal contrast computed tomography scan, tumor stain was seen in the anterior wall of the gastric body. No ascites, intestinal wall thickening, or lymph node swelling were found. A slight elevation in the serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), 480 IU/ml, was found from the laboratory test results; other laboratory results were within normal limits including the number of peripheral eosinophils. No specific allergen was found from the multiple antigen simultaneous test and from the skin patch test. The parasitic immunodiagnosis was negative. He was diagnosed with EG associated with gastric cancer and underwent total gastrectomy, regional lymph node dissection with reconstruction by a Roux-en-Y method. He was prescribed prednisolone after the operation and showed a good clinical response. There are many case reports on EG, but none of them were associated with cancer. We encountered a case of EG associated with multiple gastric cancer; the patient underwent total gastrectomy.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eosinophilic leukemia is a form of blood cell cancer characterized by an elevated number of cells called eosinophils in the blood. These cells help fight infections by certain parasites and are involved in the inflammation associated with ...

  18. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, formerly Churg-Strauss Syndrome (EGPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lotte Strauss as a syndrome consisting of “asthma, eosinophilia [an excessive number of eosinophils in the blood], ... phase of the disease is often marked by eosinophilia, the finding of an excessive number of eosinophils ...

  19. In vivo Estimation of Human Forearm and Wrist Dynamic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyungbin; Chang, Pyung-Hun; Kang, Sang

    2016-05-27

    It is important to estimate the 3 degree-of-freedom (DOF) impedance of human forearm and wrist (i.e., forearm prono-supination, and wrist flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation) in motor control and in the diagnosis of altered mechanical resistance following stroke. There is, however, a lack of methods to characterize 3 DOF impedance. Thus, we developed a reliable and accurate impedance estimation method, the distal internal model based impedance control (dIMBIC)-based method, to characterize the 3 DOF impedance, including cross-coupled terms between DOFs, for the first time. Its accuracy and reliability were experimentally validated using a robot with substantial nonlinear joint friction. The 3 DOF human forearm and wrist impedance of 8 healthy subjects was reliably characterized, and its linear behavior was verified. Thus, the dIMBIC-based method can provide us with 3 DOF forearm and wrist impedance regardless of nonlinear robot joint friction. It is expected that, with the proposed method, the 3 DOF impedance estimation can promote motor control studies and complement the diagnosis of altered wrist and forearm resistance post stroke by providing objective impedance estimates, including cross-coupled terms.

  20. Human-machine teaming for effective estimation and path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Michael J.; Mehta, Siddhartha S.; Doucette, Emily A.; Curtis, J. Willard

    2016-05-01

    While traditional sensors provide accurate measurements of quantifiable information, humans provide better qualitative information and holistic assessments. Sensor fusion approaches that team humans and machines can take advantage of the benefits provided by each while mitigating the shortcomings. These two sensor sources can be fused together using Bayesian fusion, which assumes that there is a method of generating a probabilistic representation of the sensor measurement. This general framework of fusing estimates can also be applied to joint human-machine decision making. In the simple case, binary decisions can be fused by using a probability of taking an action versus inaction from each decision-making source. These are fused together to arrive at a final probability of taking an action, which would be taken if above a specified threshold. In the case of path planning, rather than binary decisions being fused, complex decisions can be fused by allowing the human and machine to interact with each other. For example, the human can draw a suggested path while the machine planning algorithm can refine it to avoid obstacles and remain dynamically feasible. Similarly, the human can revise a suggested path to achieve secondary goals not encoded in the algorithm such as avoiding dangerous areas in the environment.

  1. Antiepithelial autoantibodies associated with the feline eosinophilic granuloma complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B; Lewis, R M; Felsburg, P J; Smith, C A

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective study of banked sera from 19 cats with the eosinophilic granuloma complex revealed that 68% of affected cats had circulating antibodies to components of normal cat epithelium. Seemingly, the eosinophilic granuloma complex of cats may be an autoimmune disease; however, epidermal damage caused by the eosinophilic granuloma complex may release altered self-antigens to which the cat's immune system responds.

  2. Saiboku-to, a Kampo herbal medicine, inhibits LTC4 release from eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Hirai

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Saiboku-to (TJ-96, a traditional Kampo herbal formation, has been used in the treatment of bronchial asthma in Japan as an anti-allergy herbal medicine. We investigated the effect of TJ-96 on leukotriene (LTC4 release from eosinophils and basophils isolated from healthy volunteers. Pre-incubation of eosinophils with TJ-96 inhibited ionophore- or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP-induced LTC4 generation by eosinophils in a dose-dependent fashion. The TJ-96 was more potent in the release by ionophore (IC50 = 60 mg/mL than the release induced by FMLP (IC50 = 300 mg/mL. Maximal inhibition was observed when eosinophils were pretreated with TJ-96 for 5 min. Although TJ-96 at high concentrations inhibited IgE-mediated histamine release from human basophils, inhibition of IgE-mediated LTC4 release was not statistically significant. The potent inhibitory activity was found in the extract of Glycyrrhiza root, one of the herbal components of TJ-96, but the inhibitory effects were not due to either glycyrrhizin or liquiritin, the main elements of the Glycyrrhiza root. These results raise the possibility that the clinical efficacy of TJ-96 is derived, at least in part, from its potent inhibitory effect on LTC4 release from eosinophils.

  3. Role of Eosinophils and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Interleukin-25-Mediated Protection from Amebic Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Zannatun; Watanabe, Koji; Abhyankar, Mayuresh M.; Burgess, Stacey L.; Buonomo, Erica L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The parasite Entamoeba histolytica is a cause of diarrhea in infants in low-income countries. Previously, it was shown that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production was associated with increased risk of E. histolytica diarrhea in children. Interleukin-25 (IL-25) is a cytokine that is produced by intestinal epithelial cells that has a role in maintenance of gut barrier function and inhibition of TNF-α production. IL-25 expression was decreased in humans and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Repletion of IL-25 blocked E. histolytica infection and barrier disruption in mice, increased gut eosinophils, and suppressed colonic TNF-α. Depletion of eosinophils with anti-Siglec-F antibody prevented IL-25-mediated protection. In contrast, depletion of TNF-α resulted in resistance to amebic infection. We concluded that IL-25 provides protection from amebiasis, which is dependent upon intestinal eosinophils and suppression of TNF-α. PMID:28246365

  4. Role of Eosinophils and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Interleukin-25-Mediated Protection from Amebic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zannatun Noor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The parasite Entamoeba histolytica is a cause of diarrhea in infants in low-income countries. Previously, it was shown that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α production was associated with increased risk of E. histolytica diarrhea in children. Interleukin-25 (IL-25 is a cytokine that is produced by intestinal epithelial cells that has a role in maintenance of gut barrier function and inhibition of TNF-α production. IL-25 expression was decreased in humans and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Repletion of IL-25 blocked E. histolytica infection and barrier disruption in mice, increased gut eosinophils, and suppressed colonic TNF-α. Depletion of eosinophils with anti-Siglec-F antibody prevented IL-25-mediated protection. In contrast, depletion of TNF-α resulted in resistance to amebic infection. We concluded that IL-25 provides protection from amebiasis, which is dependent upon intestinal eosinophils and suppression of TNF-α.

  5. Eosinophil: central mediator of allergic asthma?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hua-hao

    2005-01-01

    @@ Allergic asthma is a chronic disorder characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, reversible airway obstruction, airway remodelling and mucus hypersecretion. It has been widely recognized that the infiltration of the lung with increased number of eosinophils is a hallmark of this disease.1

  6. Mechanism of nitrite oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase: implications for oxidant production and nitration by eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalen, Christine J; Winterbourn, Christine C; Kettle, Anthony J

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophil peroxidase is a haem enzyme of eosinophils that is implicated in oxidative tissue injury in asthma. It uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize thiocyanate and bromide to their respective hypohalous acids. Nitrite is also a substrate for eosinophil peroxidase. We have investigated the mechanisms by which the enzyme oxidizes nitrite. Nitrite was very effective at inhibiting hypothiocyanous acid ('cyanosulphenic acid') and hypobromous acid production. Spectral studies showed that nitrite reduced the enzyme to its compound II form, which is a redox intermediate containing Fe(IV) in the haem active site. Compound II does not oxidize thiocyanate or bromide. These results demonstrate that nitrite is readily oxidized by compound I, which contains Fe(V) at the active site. However, it reacts more slowly with compound II. The observed rate constant for reduction of compound II by nitrite was determined to be 5.6x10(3) M(-1) x s(-1). Eosinophils were at least 4-fold more effective at promoting nitration of a heptapeptide than neutrophils. This result is explained by our finding that nitrite reacts 10-fold faster with compound II of eosinophil peroxidase than with the analogous redox intermediate of myeloperoxidase. Nitration by eosinophils was increased 3-fold by superoxide dismutase, which indicates that superoxide interferes with nitration. We propose that at sites of eosinophilic inflammation, low concentrations of nitrite will retard oxidant production by eosinophil peroxidase, whereas at higher concentrations nitrogen dioxide will be a major oxidant formed by these cells. The efficiency of protein nitration will be decreased by the diffusion-controlled reaction of superoxide with nitrogen dioxide.

  7. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  8. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGioffredi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA is a multisystemic disorder, belonging to the small vessel ANCA-associated vasculitis, defined as a eosinophil-rich and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation often involving the respiratory tract, and necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small to medium-sized vessels, associated with asthma and eosinophilia. EGPA pathogenesis is not well known: HLA-DRB1*04 and *07, HLA-DRB4 and IL10.2 haplotype of the IL-10 promoter gene are the most studied genetic determinants. Among the acquired pathogenetic factors, the exposure to different allergens, infections, vaccinations, drugs and silica exposure have been involved.Eosinophils are the most characteristic cells in EGPA and different studies have demonstrated their role as effector and immunoregulatory cells.EGPA is considered a disease with a prevalent activation of the Th2 cellular-mediated inflammatory response but also humoral immunity plays an important role. A link between B and T inflammatory responses may explain different disease features. EGPA typically develops into three sequential phases: the allergic phase, distinguished by the occurrence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis, the eosinophilic phase, in which the main pathological finding is the eosinophilic organ infiltrations (e.g. lungs, heart and gastrointestinal system and the vasculitic phase, characterized by purpura, peripheral neuropathy and constitutional symptoms.ANCA (especially pANCA anti-MPO are present in 40-60% of the patients. An elevation of IgG4 is frequently found. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide are classically used for remission induction, while azathioprine and methotrexate are the therapeutic options for remission maintenance. B-cell depletion with rituximab has shown promising results for remission induction.

  9. Human age estimation framework using different facial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y. El Dib

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human age estimation from facial images has a wide range of real-world applications in human computer interaction (HCI. In this paper, we use the bio-inspired features (BIF to analyze different facial parts: (a eye wrinkles, (b whole internal face (without forehead area and (c whole face (with forehead area using different feature shape points. The analysis shows that eye wrinkles which cover 30% of the facial area contain the most important aging features compared to internal face and whole face. Furthermore, more extensive experiments are made on FG-NET database by increasing the number of missing pictures in older age groups using MORPH database to enhance the results.

  10. Stereological estimation of total brain numbers in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig eWalloe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of the relationship between brain structure and cognitive function is still limited. Human brains and individual cortical areas vary considerably in size and shape. Studies of brain cell numbers have historically been based on biased methods, which did not always result in correct estimates and were often very time-consuming. Within the last 20–30 years, it has become possible to rely on more advanced and unbiased methods. These methods have provided us with information about fetal brain development, differences in cell numbers between men and women, the effect of age on selected brain cell populations, and disease-related changes associated with a loss of function. In that this article concerns normal brain rather than brain disorders, it focuses on normal brain development in humans and age related changes in terms of cell numbers. For comparative purposes a few examples of neocortical neuron number in other mammals are also presented.

  11. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen P; McMillan, Sarah J; Colbert, Jeff D; Lawrence, Rachel A; Watts, Colin

    2016-04-19

    Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a "cytoprotectant" that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Matching for Human Pose Estimation in Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Torre, Fernando De la

    2016-08-01

    Detection and tracking humans in videos have been long-standing problems in computer vision. Most successful approaches (e.g., deformable parts models) heavily rely on discriminative models to build appearance detectors for body joints and generative models to constrain possible body configurations (e.g., trees). While these 2D models have been successfully applied to images (and with less success to videos), a major challenge is to generalize these models to cope with camera views. In order to achieve view-invariance, these 2D models typically require a large amount of training data across views that is difficult to gather and time-consuming to label. Unlike existing 2D models, this paper formulates the problem of human detection in videos as spatio-temporal matching (STM) between a 3D motion capture model and trajectories in videos. Our algorithm estimates the camera view and selects a subset of tracked trajectories that matches the motion of the 3D model. The STM is efficiently solved with linear programming, and it is robust to tracking mismatches, occlusions and outliers. To the best of our knowledge this is the first paper that solves the correspondence between video and 3D motion capture data for human pose detection. Experiments on the CMU motion capture, Human3.6M, Berkeley MHAD and CMU MAD databases illustrate the benefits of our method over state-of-the-art approaches.

  13. Genetic polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyigit, Abdulvahap; Keles, Erol; Etem, Ebru Onalan; Ozercan, Ibrahim; Akyol, Hatice; Sakallioglu, Oner; Karlidag, Turgut; Polat, Cahit; Kaygusuz, Irfan; Yalcin, Sinasi

    2017-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses, and its pathophysiology is not yet precisely known. It is suggested that oxygen free radicals play an important role in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis. This study aimed to identify genetic polymorphisms of superoxide dismutase (SOD 2), catalase (CAT), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzymes in eosinophilic CRSwNP and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP patients; the study also aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes on CRSwNP etiopathogenesis. One hundred thirty patients, who received endoscopic sinus surgery due to CRSwNP, and 188 control individuals were included in this study. Nasal polyp tissues were divided into two groups histopathologically as eosinophilic CRSwNP and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP. Venous blood samples were taken from the patient and control groups. Polymorphisms in the Ala16Va1 gene, which is the most common variation of SOD-2 gene, and 21 A/T polymorphisms in catalase gene were evaluated with the restriction fragment length polymorphism method and -277 C/T polymorphism in the iNOS gene was evaluated with the DNA sequencing method. The GG genotype distribution for the (-277) A/G polymorphism in the iNOS gene was a statistically significant difference between eosinophilic CRSwNP and control groups (p  0.05). The TT genotype distribution for the A/T polymorphism in catalase gene at position -21 was statistically significant differences in eosinophilic CRSwNP and control groups (p levels, which are considered effective factors in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP, can occur due to genetic polymorphism of enzymes in the antioxidant system and genetic polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes in eosinophilic CRSwNP patients might contribute to the pathophysiology.

  14. Inhibition of neutrophil and eosinophil induced chemotaxis by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnzeel, P. L.; Warringa, R. A.; Kok, P. T.; Kreukniet, J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Neutrophils and eosinophils infiltrate the airways in association with the allergen-induced late phase asthmatic reaction. Mobilization of these cells takes place via lipid-like and protein-like chemotactic factors. In this study platelet-activating factor (PAF), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) were used as illustrative examples of both groups. Chemotaxis was studied in human neutrophils and eosinophils. The inhibitory effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate were evaluated. 2. All chemotactic factors tested attracted neutrophils with the following rank order of activity: ZAS greater than PAF identical to FMLP identical to LTB4. Eosinophils were only mobilized by PAF, LTB4 and ZAS with the following rank order of activity: ZAS greater than PAF greater than LTB4. 3. Nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate were equally active as the PAF antagonist BN 52021 in inhibiting the PAF-induced chemotaxis of neutrophils (IC50 approximately 10(-8) M). Both drugs were also equally active in inhibiting the chemotaxis of neutrophils induced by ZAS (IC50 approximately 10(-7)-10(-6) M), FMLP (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M) and LTB4 (IC50 approximately 10(-6) M). 4. Nedocromil sodium significantly inhibited the chemotaxis of eosinophils induced by PAF (IC50 approximately 10(-6) M) and LTB4 (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M). The inhibitory potency of BN 52021 was similar to that of nedocromil sodium on the PAF-induced chemotaxis of eosinophils. Sodium cromoglycate was incapable of eliciting significant inhibition of these chemotactic responses. However, sodium cromoglycate significantly inhibited the chemotaxis of eosinophils induced by ZAS (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M), whereas nedocromil sodium was ineffective. PMID:2163279

  15. Clinical Applications of the Eosinophilic Esophagitis Diagnostic Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is a recently recognized upper gastrointestinal allergic disorder characterized by esophageal dysfunction (e.g., dysphagia and esophageal eosinophilia of ≥15 eosinophils/high-power field in patients who have persistent esophagitis even on proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy. The histologic method is the gold standard of EoE diagnosis. However, EoE clinical symptoms do not always correlate with histology, and the histologic method has sensitivity and specificity issues due to the patchiness of EoE and the subjective nature of the method. The “EoE transcriptome” was initially discovered in 2006, which led to the invention of the EoE diagnostic panel (EDP. In addition to providing a definitive EoE diagnosis with high accuracy, the EDP has been useful in elucidating several key elements about the disease including the efficacy of specific drugs such as swallowed glucocorticoids and anti-IL-13 humanized antibody therapy, the relationship between EoE and PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia, and predicting the disease course and responsiveness to therapy. The EDP’s long-term potential arises from its plasticity to incorporate new genes and uncover novel disease pathogenesis. We expect that the EDP will be increasingly helpful for personalized medicine approaches and improved diagnostics and disease monitoring.

  16. Eosinophilic esophagitis-endoscopic distinguishing findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Célia Caetano; Raquel Gon(c)alves; Carla Rolanda

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is the most frequent condition found in a group of gastrointestinal disorders called eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases.The hypothetical pathophysiological mechanism is related to a hypersensitivity reaction.Gastroesophageal reflux disease-like complaints not ameliorated by acid blockade or occasional symptoms of dysphagia or food impaction are likely presentations of EE.Due to its unclear pathogenesis and unspecific symptoms,it is difficult to diagnose EE without a strong suspicion.Although histological criteria are necessary to diagnosis EE,there are some characteristic endoscopic features.We present the case of a healthy 55-year-old woman with dysphagia and several episodes of esophageal food impaction over the last six months.This case report stresses the most distinguishing endoscopic findings-mucosa rings,white exudative plaques and linear furrows-that can help in the prompt recognition of this condition.

  17. Eosinophilic myocarditis during treatment with olanzapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Torkel; Rosenzweig, Mary; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug-induced eosinophilic myocarditis is a life-threatening and frequently overlooked condition. The prevalence of myocarditis in clozapine-treated patients may be as high as 3 %. An association between olanzapine and myocarditis has not previously been described, but given the chemical...... fatal cases of eosinophilic myocarditis associated with the use of olanzapine. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 39-year-old Caucasian man with known substance abuse and schizophrenia. He was found dead in his home. Olanzapine was prescribed at day -54, and dose at time of death was 40 mg/day. Post......-mortem toxicological examination demonstrated presence of olanzapine, morphine, venlafaxine and oxazepam. Syringes indicating substance abuse were found in his home. Case 2 was a 36-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with schizophrenia was found dead unexpectedly. There was no history of substance abuse. Current...

  18. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Brazilian Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Mayra Isabel Correia; de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Honório, Rodrigo Schuler; de Alencar Moreno, Luís Hélder; Fortes, Mayara Carvalho; da Silva, Carlos Antônio Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We examined 11 pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis with a tardy diagnosis. The symptoms were initially thought to be related to other diseases, leading to the use of inadequate therapeutic approaches. The patients were between 3 and 17 years old (mean 7.8 ± 3.8 years), and 8 of the patients were male. Common symptoms included abdominal pain, regurgitation, difficulty in gaining weight, vomiting, dysphagia, and coughing. The mean age for the onset of symptoms was 4.3 ± 2.9 years. Endoscopic findings included normal mucosa in five (45%) patients, thickening of the mucosa with longitudinal grooves in three (27%), erosive esophagitis in two (18%), and a whitish stippling in one (9%) patient. Treatment included the use of a topical corticosteroid for 10 patients. In eight (73%) cases, the treatment made the symptoms disappear. Ten patients underwent histopathological management after treatment, with a decrease in the number of eosinophils. PMID:24106430

  19. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection causing eosinophilic ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shailaja; Chauhan, Richa; Wadhwa, Shveta; Sehgal, Shivali; Singh, Smita

    2015-09-01

    Strongyloidiasis is associated with Strongyloides stercoralis, an intestinal nematode with greater prevalence in tropical and subtropical regions. Hyperinfection syndrome with dissemination may occur in immunosuppressed individuals. However, invasion of peritoneal cavity with peritoneal effusion is rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of S. stercoralis hyperinfection in a young alcoholic patient with Diabetes mellitus, liver disease and ascites. Diagnostic paracentesis showed numerous filariform larvae of S. stercoralis against a background of eosinophils.

  20. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: Clinical experience with 15 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jen Chen; Cheng-Hsin Chu; Shee-Chan Lin; Shou-Chuan Shih; Tsang-En Wang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinic features of eosinophilicgastroenteritis and to examine the diagnosis, treatment,long-term outcome of this disease.METHODS: Charts with a diagnosis of eosinophilicgastroenteritis from 1984 to 2002 at Mackay Memorial Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. There were 15 patients diagnosed with eosinophilic gastroenteritis. The diagnosis was established in 13 by histologic evaluation of endoscopic biopsy or operative specimen and in 2 by radiologic imaging and the presence of eosinophilic ascites.RESULTS: All the patients had gastrointestinal symptoms and 12 (80 %) had hypereosinophilia (absolute eosinophil count 1 008 to 31 360/cm3). The most common symptoms were abdominal pain and diarrhea. Five of the 15 patients had a history of allergy. Seven patients had involvement of the mucosa, 2 of muscularis, and 6 of subserosa. One with a history of seafood allergy was successfully treated with an elimination diet. Another patient improved spontaneously after fasted for several days. The remaining 13 patients were treated with oral prednisolone, 10 to 40 mg/day initially,which was then tapered. The symptoms in all the patients subsided within two weeks. Eleven of the 15 patients were followed up for more than 12 months (12 to 104 months,mean 48.7), of whom 5 had relapses after discontinuing steroids (13 episodes). Two of these patients required longterm maintenance oral prednisolone (5 to 10 mg/day).CONCLUSION: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition of unclear etiology characterized by relapses and remissions. Short courses of corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment, although some patients with relapsing disease require long-term low-dose steroids.

  1. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with ascites and colon involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, J D; Ramanathan, V R; Nozick, J H

    1977-12-01

    The case of a 39-year old white man with eosinophilic gastroenteritis is presented. The major clinical features were gastric outlet obstruction, diarrhea and massive ascites. At surgery, significant involvement of the entire gastrointestinal tract from the gastric antrum to the sigmoid colon was found. Histologic documentation of colon involvement was obtained. The response to corticosteroids was prompt and sustained. At present, he is maintained on an alternating day schedule of steroid administration.

  2. Role of Eosinophils and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Interleukin-25-Mediated Protection from Amebic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Zannatun; Watanabe, Koji; Abhyankar, Mayuresh M; Burgess, Stacey L; Buonomo, Erica L; Cowardin, Carrie A; Petri, William A

    2017-02-28

    The parasite Entamoeba histolytica is a cause of diarrhea in infants in low-income countries. Previously, it was shown that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production was associated with increased risk of E. histolytica diarrhea in children. Interleukin-25 (IL-25) is a cytokine that is produced by intestinal epithelial cells that has a role in maintenance of gut barrier function and inhibition of TNF-α production. IL-25 expression was decreased in humans and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Repletion of IL-25 blocked E. histolytica infection and barrier disruption in mice, increased gut eosinophils, and suppressed colonic TNF-α. Depletion of eosinophils with anti-Siglec-F antibody prevented IL-25-mediated protection. In contrast, depletion of TNF-α resulted in resistance to amebic infection. We concluded that IL-25 provides protection from amebiasis, which is dependent upon intestinal eosinophils and suppression of TNF-α.IMPORTANCE The intestinal epithelial barrier is important for protection from intestinal amebiasis. We discovered that the intestinal epithelial cytokine IL-25 was suppressed during amebic colitis in humans and that protection could be restored in the mouse model by IL-25 administration. IL-25 acted via eosinophils and suppressed TNF-α. This work illustrates a previously unrecognized pathway of innate mucosal immune response. Copyright © 2017 Noor et al.

  3. Estimating the use of antibiotics for humans across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Qingwei; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Liu, Kai; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to propose a method to estimate the spatially resolved dataset for human-use antibiotics, which are highly needed in exposure models dealing with regions of various environmental characteristics. In this study, a regression model describing the relationship between the use of antibiotics and a set of socio-economic determinants was developed. It has been demonstrated that economic status (expressed using per capita gross domestic production) dominates the antibiotic use at least in China. Linear regression analysis was used to build the model, resulting in high goodness-of-fit, R(2) (>0.75). Internal and external validations along with residue plot indicated that the model was robust and predictive. The model was successfully applied to allocate the use of antibiotics in China in 2011 at national-, provincial-, prefectural-, and county-level, which are comparable to that back-calculated from the available data of wastewater analysis in some cities. Antibiotic uses were higher in East China than other regions and it was found that uses of total antibiotics vary among Chinese counties on four orders of magnitude (0.186-1645 t antibiotics per year per county). Also management practice could be worked out according to our exploration of the impact transition of social-economic factors on antibiotic uses. To our knowledge, this is the first endeavor to explore this economic dominated relationship for estimating spatially resolved use map of antibiotics in China.

  4. Pulmonary Cavity due to Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia Associated with Arsenicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sengupta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In developing country like India arsenic poisoning is a major public health problem. Association of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and chronic diarrhea with arsenicosis is rare. Also pulmonary cavity formation in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is very uncommon. A 44-year-old male patient, resident of an arsenic affected area was admitted for evaluation of chronic diarrhoea, persistent peripheral eosinophilia along with radiologically visible cavity in right upper zone. There were dermatological manifestations of arsenicosis along with presence of noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and peripheral eosinophilia. On bronchoalveolar lavage study, eosinophil comprised 40% of total cellularity making the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. After ruling out all possible causes of diarrhoea and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, we came to conclusion that arsenic could be implicated as causative agent. Keywords: Arsenicosis, chronic diarrhoea, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, noncirrhotic portal fibrosis.

  5. Cortico-Cortical Receptive Field Estimates in Human Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen V Haak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Human visual cortex comprises many visual areas that contain a map of the visual field (Wandell et al 2007, Neuron 56, 366–383. These visual field maps can be identified readily in individual subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during experimental sessions that last less than an hour (Wandell and Winawer 2011, Vis Res 718–737. Hence, visual field mapping with fMRI has been, and still is, a heavily used technique to examine the organisation of both normal and abnormal human visual cortex (Haak et al 2011, ACNR, 11(3, 20–21. However, visual field mapping cannot reveal every aspect of human visual cortex organisation. For example, the information processed within a visual field map arrives from somewhere and is sent to somewhere, and visual field mapping does not derive these input/output relationships. Here, we describe a new, model-based analysis for estimating the dependence between signals in distinct cortical regions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. Just as a stimulus-referred receptive field predicts the neural response as a function of the stimulus contrast, the neural-referred receptive field predicts the neural response as a function of responses elsewhere in the nervous system. When applied to two cortical regions, this function can be called the cortico-cortical receptive field (CCRF. We model the CCRF as a Gaussian-weighted region on the cortical surface and apply the model to data from both stimulus-driven and resting-state experimental conditions in visual cortex.

  6. Object Detection and Tracking-Based Camera Calibration for Normalized Human Height Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a normalized human height estimation algorithm using an uncalibrated camera. To estimate the normalized human height, the proposed algorithm detects a moving object and performs tracking-based automatic camera calibration. The proposed method consists of three steps: (i moving human detection and tracking, (ii automatic camera calibration, and (iii human height estimation and error correction. The proposed method automatically calibrates camera by detecting moving humans and estimates the human height using error correction. The proposed method can be applied to object-based video surveillance systems and digital forensic.

  7. Eosinophilic granuloma of bone and biochemical demonstration of 49-kDa CD1a molecule expression by Langerhans-cell histiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambazard, F; Dezutter-Dambuyant, C; Staquet, M J; Schmitt, D; Thivolet, J

    1991-09-01

    Histiocytic cells infiltrating the lesions in eosinophilic granuloma of bone as well as in cutaneous histiocytosis X were studied using a murine monoclonal antibody (MA) produced with proliferating cells from an eosinophilic granuloma of bone. This MA reacts with Langerhans cells (LC) of normal human skin or mucous membranes and with proliferating cells of eosinophilic granuloma of bone and skin lesions of Letter-Siwe disease, as shown by immunohistochemistry and immunogold labelling. As other murine MA's obtained after immunization with human cortical thymocytes, this MA immunoprecipitates the 49-kDa CD1a antigen found on human LC and thymic-cell surfaces but not its breakdown product after treatment with trypsin, as demonstrated by analysis of immunoelectron labelling, cytofluorometry and gel electrophoresis. This first production of a CD1a MA from an eosinophilic granuloma supports the concept of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis.

  8. Feline familial pedal eosinophilic dermatosis in two littermates

    OpenAIRE

    Charline Pressanti; Marie-Christine Cadiergues

    2015-01-01

    In cats, the most common eosinophilic dermatoses are feline miliary dermatitis and eosinophilic granuloma complex. The most commonly identified underlying cause is a hypersensitivity reaction. Few cases of familial forms of eosinophilic dermatoses are reported in the literature. Two young adult cats from the same litter presented 2 years apart with a severe and chronic fluid or tissue infiltration of the distal part of several limbs. Lesions started on the forelegs and developed on the other ...

  9. Pathogenic role of mast cells in experimental eosinophilic esophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Niranjan, Rituraj; Mavi, Parm; Rayapudi, Madhavi; Dynda, Scott; Mishra, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic allergic disease characterized by esophageal intraepithelial eosinophils, extracellular eosinophil granule deposition, induced mast cell accumulation, and epithelial cell hyperplasia. However, the processes involved in the development of a number of these characteristics are largely unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis whether induced mast cell accumulation in the esophagus has a role in promoting EoE pathogenesis. Accordingly, we induced exper...

  10. Remarks on human body posture estimation from silhouette image based on heuristic rules and Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Naemura, Masahide

    2005-12-01

    This paper proposes a human body posture estimation method based on analysis of human silhouette and Kalman filter. The proposed method is based on both the heuristically extraction method of estimating the significant points of human body and the contour analysis of the human silhouette. The 2D coordinates of the human body's significant points, such as top of the head, and tips of feet, are located by applying the heuristically extraction method to the human silhouette, those of tips of hands are obtained by using the result of the contour analysis, and the joints of elbows and knees are estimated by introducing some heuristic rules to the contour image of the human silhouette. The estimated results are optimized and tracked by using Kalman filter. The proposed estimation method is implemented on a personal computer and runs in real-time. Experimental results show both the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed method for estimating human body postures.

  11. Histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Jennifer M; Genta, Robert M; Melton, Shelby D

    2011-09-01

    Eosinophils, a constitutive component of the columnar-lined gastrointestinal tract, play an essential role in allergic responses and parasitic infections. The tissue density of these cells also increases in a variety of conditions of uncertain etiology. With the exception of the esophageal squamous epithelium, in which no eosinophils are normally present, the population of normal eosinophils in the remainder of the luminal gut is poorly defined. Therefore, histopathologists must rely on their subjective judgment to determine when a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis, enteritis, or colitis should be rendered. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently the best defined and most studied eosinophilic condition of the digestive tract; therefore, the confidence in accurate diagnosis is increasing. In contrast, the characteristic clinicopathologic features of eosinophilic conditions affecting other parts of the digestive tract remain somewhat elusive. This review was designed to present pathologists with simple and practical information for the biopsy-based histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. It was prepared by critically reviewing more than 200 articles on the topic, along with incorporating evidence accumulated through our own collective experience. We anticipate that by increasing pathologists' confidence in reporting these abnormal but often nameless eosinophilic infiltrates, we can help better define and characterize their significance.

  12. Conservative management of eosinophilic enteritis presenting with acute abdominal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bassi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic enteritis, an increasing recognized condition, is rare and often presents with non-specific symptoms. We report a case of a 46-year old female who presented with acute onset abdominal pain and nausea associated with ascites, small bowel thickening and peripheral eosinophilia. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsies taken at esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrating diffuse infiltration by inflammatory cells, mainly eosinophils. Appropriate therapy was instituted. The patient recovered well and was symptom-free at 1-month follow up. In this report, we discuss the clinical presentation and the diagnostic criteria of the eosinophilic enteritis, and examine the pathophysiological theories and therapeutic strategies. The relevant literature on eosinophilic enteritis is summarized.

  13. Resected case of eosinophilic cholangiopathy presenting with secondary sclerosing cholangitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fumihiko Miura; Takehide Asano; Hodaka Amano; Masahiro Yoshida; Naoyuki Toyota; Keita Wada; Kenichiro Kato; Tadahiro Takada; Junichi Fukushima; Fukuo Kondo; Hajime Takikawa

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholangiopathy is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tract and causes sclerosing cholangitis. We report a patient with secondary sclerosing cholangitis with eosinophilic cholecystitis. A 46-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice.Computed tomography revealed dilatation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, diffuse thickening of the wall of the extrahepatic bile duct, and thickening of the gallbladder wall. Under the diagnosis of lower bile duct carcinoma, he underwent pyloruspreserving pancreatoduodenectomy and liver biopsy.On histopathological examination, conspicuous fibrosis was seen in the lower bile duct wall. In the gallbladder wall, marked eosinophilic infiltration was seen. Liver biopsy revealed mild portal fibrosis. He was diagnosed as definite eosinophilic cholecystitis with sclerosing cholangitis with unknown etiology. The possible etiology of sclerosing cholangitis was consequent fibrosis from previous eosinophilic infiltration in the bile duct. The clinicopathological findings of our case and a literature review indicated that eosinophilic cholangiopathy could cause a condition mimicking primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Bile duct wall thickening in patients (PSC). Bile duct wall thickening in patients with eosinophilic cholangitis might be due to fibrosis of the bile duct wall. Eosinophilic cholangiopathy might be confused as PSC with eosinophilia.

  14. Protein Radical Formation Resulting from Eosinophil Peroxidase-catalyzed Oxidation of Sulfite*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranguelova, Kalina; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Ramirez, Dario C.; Summers, Fiona A.; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Mason, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is an abundant heme protein in eosinophils that catalyzes the formation of cytotoxic oxidants implicated in asthma, allergic inflammatory disorders, and cancer. It is known that some proteins with peroxidase activity (horseradish peroxidase and prostaglandin hydroperoxidase) can catalyze oxidation of bisulfite (hydrated sulfur dioxide), leading to the formation of sulfur trioxide anion radical (·SO3−). This free radical further reacts with oxygen to form peroxymonosulfate anion radical (−O3SOO·) and the very reactive sulfate anion radical (SO4˙̄), which is nearly as strong an oxidant as the hydroxyl radical. However, the ability of EPO to generate reactive sulfur radicals has not yet been reported. Here we demonstrate that eosinophil peroxidase/H2O2 is able to oxidize bisulfite, ultimately forming the sulfate anion radical (SO4˙̄), and that these reactive intermediates can oxidize target proteins to protein radicals, thereby initiating protein oxidation. We used immuno-spin trapping and confocal microscopy to study protein oxidation by EPO/H2O2 in the presence of bisulfite in a pure enzymatic system and in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 clone 15 cells, maturated to eosinophils. Polyclonal antiserum raised against the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) detected the presence of DMPO covalently attached to the proteins resulting from the DMPO trapping of protein free radicals. We found that sulfite oxidation mediated by EPO/H2O2 induced the formation of radical-derived DMPO spin-trapped human serum albumin and, to a lesser extent, of DMPO-EPO. These studies suggest that EPO-dependent oxidative damage may play a role in tissue injury in bisulfite-exacerbated eosinophilic inflammatory disorders. PMID:20501663

  15. Dog bites in humans and estimating human rabies mortality in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dog bites in humans are a public health problem worldwide. The issues of increasing stray dog populations, rabies outbreaks, and the risk of dogs biting humans have been frequently reported by the media in Bhutan. This study aimed to estimate the bite incidence and identify the risk factors for dog bites in humans, and to estimate human deaths from rabies in rabies endemic south Bhutan. METHODS: A hospital-based questionnaire survey was conducted during 2009-2010 among dog bites victims who visited three hospitals in Bhutan for anti-rabies vaccine injection. Decision tree modeling was used to estimate human deaths from rabies following dog bite injuries in two rabies endemic areas of south Bhutan. RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty four dog bite victims were interviewed. The annual incidence of dog bites differed between the hospital catchment areas: 869.8 (95% CI: 722.8-1022.5, 293.8 (240-358.2 and 284.8 (251.2-323 per 100,000 people in Gelephu, Phuentsholing and Thimphu, respectively. Males (62% were more at risk than females (P<0.001. Children aged 5-9 years were bitten more than other age groups. The majority of victims (71% were bitten by stray dogs. No direct fatal injury was reported. In two hospital areas (Gelephu and Phuentsholing in south Bhutan the annual incidence of death from rabies was 3.14 (95% CI: 1.57-6.29 per 100,000 population. The decision tree model predicted an equivalent annual incidence of 4.67 (95% CI: 2.53-7.53 deaths/100,000 population at risk. In the absence of post exposure prophylaxis, the model predicted 19.24 (95% CI: 13.69-25.14 deaths/year in these two areas. CONCLUSIONS: Increased educational awareness of people about the risk of dog bites and rabies is necessary, particularly for children in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

  16. Estimating Sampling Selection Bias in Human Genetics: A Phenomenological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, Davide; Taglioli, Luca; De Iasio, Sergio; Gueresi, Paola; Alfani, Guido; Nelli, Sergio; Rossi, Paolo; Paoli, Giorgio; Tofanelli, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This research is the first empirical attempt to calculate the various components of the hidden bias associated with the sampling strategies routinely-used in human genetics, with special reference to surname-based strategies. We reconstructed surname distributions of 26 Italian communities with different demographic features across the last six centuries (years 1447–2001). The degree of overlapping between "reference founding core" distributions and the distributions obtained from sampling the present day communities by probabilistic and selective methods was quantified under different conditions and models. When taking into account only one individual per surname (low kinship model), the average discrepancy was 59.5%, with a peak of 84% by random sampling. When multiple individuals per surname were considered (high kinship model), the discrepancy decreased by 8–30% at the cost of a larger variance. Criteria aimed at maximizing locally-spread patrilineages and long-term residency appeared to be affected by recent gene flows much more than expected. Selection of the more frequent family names following low kinship criteria proved to be a suitable approach only for historically stable communities. In any other case true random sampling, despite its high variance, did not return more biased estimates than other selective methods. Our results indicate that the sampling of individuals bearing historically documented surnames (founders' method) should be applied, especially when studying the male-specific genome, to prevent an over-stratification of ancient and recent genetic components that heavily biases inferences and statistics. PMID:26452043

  17. CT findings of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kigami, Yusuke; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Kuroda, Yasumasa (Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan)) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    CT scans in 11 cases of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) were reviewed. Peripheral dense opacities suggesting air-space consolidation were the most peculiar findings seen in 9 patients on CT, but 7 on chest radiographs. Five patients showed broad plate-like opacities parallel to the pleura, which were the results of resolution from the periphery of the consolidation. Diffuse interstitial opacities suggesting alveolitis were the predominant finding in 3 patients, one of which also had peripheral air-space consolidation. Follow-up CT showed no residual abnormality except one who had DIP concomitant with CEP. CT scans are useful tool for both diagnosis and follow-up of CEP. (author).

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: An update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monjur Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a worldwide chronic allergic disease of the esophagus.In the last decade,there is an epidemic of this entity in the western world.Mostly seen in children and young adults,patients present with dysphagia or food impaction in the emergency room.Characteristic endoscopic findings,esophageal eosinophilia and non-responsiveness to proton pump inhibitors help make the diagnosis.Avoidance of foodallergens,administration of steroidal anti-inflammatory medications and dilation of the esophagus are the mainstays of treatment.Investigations are ongoing for mucosal healing and optimum maintenance treatment.

  19. Eosinophilic granuloma of bone: diagnosis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauert, C.; Zornoza, J.; Harle, T.S.; Ayala, A.

    1983-11-01

    Fifty patients with eosinophilic granuloma of bone were reviewed. Thirty-one lesions were in the head and neck, 24 in the extremities, seven in the pelvis, and five in the ribs. The lesions were lytic with ill-defined margins, endosteal erosion, and solid periosteal reaction. The diagnoses were obtained by surgical biopsy in 36 patients and by percutaneous biopsy in 14. Twenty-six lesions were treated with radiotherapy, 14 by surgery, and nine by surgery and radiotherapy. The last 14 cases have been treated by percutaneous injection of methylprednisolone sodium succinate into the lesion. Healing was obtained in every lesion. There were no complications.

  20. Eosinophilic myocarditis during treatment with olanzapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Torkel; Rosenzweig, Mary; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    -mortem toxicological examination demonstrated presence of olanzapine, morphine, venlafaxine and oxazepam. Syringes indicating substance abuse were found in his home. Case 2 was a 36-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with schizophrenia was found dead unexpectedly. There was no history of substance abuse. Current...... fatal cases of eosinophilic myocarditis associated with the use of olanzapine. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 39-year-old Caucasian man with known substance abuse and schizophrenia. He was found dead in his home. Olanzapine was prescribed at day -54, and dose at time of death was 40 mg/day. Post...

  1. Steroid responsive eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Kellermayer; Nina Tatevian; William Klish; Robert J Shulman

    2008-01-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction is a rare complication of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, most commonly treated surgically. We report a case of eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child that responded to conservative medical management. A brief review of this clinical entity is also provided.

  2. Diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with antral obstruction: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Lee, Koung Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by tissue eosinophilia that can involve different layers of the gut wall and cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the UGI and CT findings of a case of diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with tumor-like antral obstruction due to thickening of the submucosa and muscle layer in a 21-year-old male. (author)

  3. Eosinophil chemotactic factors from cysticercoids of Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, A; Asano, K; Ito, A

    1998-09-01

    A comparative study of eosinophil chemotactic factors was carried out using cysticercoids and oncospheres of Hymenolepis nana. Cysticercoids showed twice the chemotactic activity for eosinophils than the oncospheres. Eosinophilia induced by oncospheres and cysticercoids observed in secondary and primary infections, respectively, were discussed from the view point of the immunobiology of this parasite.

  4. Eosinophilic Oesophagitis in Infants and Children in the Region of Southern Denmark: A Prospective Study of Prevalence and Clinical Presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Kasper; Nielsen, Rasmus G; Kruse-Andersen, Soren

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EE) is a clinical entity characterised by a set of symptoms and eosinophilic infiltration of the oesophageal epithelium. Recent reports indicate that EE is increasingly diagnosed in paediatric patients. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of paediatric EE...... and 16 years of age, a yearly incidence of EE of 0.16/10,000 was estimated. CONCLUSION:: We report a European prospective study of EE. It was documented in 6 of 78 patients with symptoms of GERD corresponding to an annual incidence of 0.16/10,000 infants and children....

  5. Eosinophilic esophagitis: From pathophysiology to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Alessandra; Esposito, Dario; Pesce, Marcella; Cuomo, Rosario; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Sarnelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-15

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune disease, characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltrate in the esophagus, leading to bolus impaction and reflux-like symptoms. Traditionally considered a pediatric disease, the number of adult patients with EoE is continuously increasing, with a relatively higher incidence in western countries. Dysphagia and food impaction represent the main symptoms complained by patients, but gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms may also be present. Esophageal biopsies are mandatory for the diagnosis of EoE, though clinical manifestations and proton pump inhibitors responsiveness must be taken into consideration. The higher prevalence of EoE in patients suffering from atopic diseases suggests a common background with allergy, however both the etiology and pathophysiology are not completely understood. Elimination diets are considered the first-line therapy in children, but this approach appears less effective in adults patients, who often require steroids; despite medical treatments, EoE is complicated in some cases by esophageal stricture and stenosis, that require additional endoscopic treatments. This review summarizes the evidence on EoE pathophysiology and illustrates the safety and efficacy of the most recent medical and endoscopic treatments.

  6. 2013 Update on Celiac Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Astegiano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder, characterized by small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy after the ingestion of gluten by genetically susceptible individuals. Several extraintestinal manifestations have been associated to celiac disease. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a primary disorder of the esophagus characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms, absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field in biopsy specimens. Both celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are caused by aberrant, but distinct, immune responses to ingested antigens and can be responsive to restricted food intake. The aim of this review is to assess whether there is an association between these two pathologies. In the majority of the studies examined, including the studies in pediatric population, the prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in subjects with celiac disease was about 10-times that of the general population. We suggest searching for eosinophilic esophagitis in all children undergoing endoscopy for suspicious celiac disease.

  7. Eosinophilic Pleural Effusion: A Rare Manifestation of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndubuisi C. Okafor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several causes of eosinophilic pleural effusions have been described with malignancy being the commonest cause. Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES is a rare disease and very few cases have been reported of HES presenting as eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE. We report a case of a 26-year-old male who presented with shortness of breath. He had bilateral pleural effusions, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and leukocytosis with marked peripheral blood eosinophilia. The pleural fluid was exudative, with 25%–30% eosinophilis, and absence of neoplastic cells. Hypereosinophilic syndrome was diagnosed after other causes of eosinophilia were excluded. He continued to be dyspneic with persistent accumulation of eosinophilic pleural fluid, even after his peripheral eosinophil count had normalized in response to treatment. This patient represents a very unusual presentation of HES with dyspnea and pleural effusions and demonstrates that treatment based on response of peripheral eosinophil counts, as is currently recommended, may not always be clinically adequate.

  8. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a patient with Bruton's tyrosine kinase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Susumu; Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu; Yokokura, Tomoaki; Yokota, Rena; Honjo, Asuka; Inage, Eisuke; Baba, Yosuke; Mori, Mari; Suzuki, Ryuyo; Iwata, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-05-01

    Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGID) are relatively rare diseases characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract resulting in various gastrointestinal symptoms. EGID are often caused by allergic reactions or systemic eosinophilic disorders, but their comorbidity with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) deficiency has not been previously documented. Here, we report a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) in a patient with BTK deficiency. Despite adequate replacement immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy, trough serum IgG was not maintained. To identify the underlying cause of the low trough level and chronic diarrhea, the intestine was investigated on endoscopy. We also screened for the variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism in FCGRT. Genetic analysis could not explain the low trough IgG, but endoscopy indicated eosinophilic enterocolitis. EG may be an important differential diagnosis when primary immunodeficiency patients have chronic diarrhea or continued low serum IgG. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis: diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uri, N; Ronen, O; Marshak, T; Parpara, O; Nashashibi, M; Gruber, M

    2013-09-01

    Chronic sinusitis is one of the most common otolaryngological diagnoses. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed and treated as chronic sinusitis, causing continuing harm. To better identify and characterise these two subgroups of patients, who may suffer from a systemic disease requiring multidisciplinary treatment and prolonged follow up. A retrospective, longitudinal study of all patients diagnosed with allergic fungal sinusitis or eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis within one otolaryngology department over a 15-year period. Thirty-four patients were identified, 26 with eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis and 8 with allergic fungal sinusitis. Orbital involvement at diagnosis was commoner in allergic fungal sinusitis patients (50 per cent) than eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis patients (7.7 per cent; p sinusitis patients. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis have the same clinical presentation but different clinical courses. The role of fungus and the ability to confirm its presence are still problematic issues, and additional studies are required.

  10. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  11. Montelukast inhibition of resting and GM-CSF-stimulated eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1 under flow conditions appears independent of cysLT(1)R antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alexander J; Kashanin, Dmitry; O'Dowd, Frank; Williams, Vivienne; Walsh, Garry M

    2008-06-01

    Montelukast (MLK) is a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 (cysLT(1)R) antagonist with inhibitory effects on eosinophils, key proinflammatory cells in asthma. We assessed the effect of MLK on resting and GM-CSF-stimulated eosinophil adhesion to recombinant human (rh)VCAM-1 at different flow rates using our novel microflow system. At 1 or 2 dyn cm(-2), shear-stress unstimulated eosinophils tethered immediately to rhVCAM-1, "rolled" along part of the channel until they tethered, or rolled without tethering. At flow rates greater than 2 dyn cm(-2), adherent eosinophils began to be displaced from rhVCAM-1. MLK (10 nM and 100 nM) gave partial ( approximately 40%) but significant (PMLK observed. This effect appeared specific for MLK, as the analog (E)-3-[[[3-[2-(7-chloro-2-quinolinyl)ethenyl]phenyl]-[[3-dimethylamino)-3-oxopropyl]thio]methyl]thio]-propanoic acid, sodium salt, had no significant effect on eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1. The possibility that LTC(4), released from unstimulated or GM-CSF-treated eosinophils, contributed to their adhesion to VCAM-1 was excluded as the LT biosynthesis inhibitor 3-[1-(p-Chlorobenzyl)-5-(isopropyl)-3-t-butylthioindol-2-yl]-2,2-dimethylpropanoic acid had no inhibitory effect, and exogenously added LTC(4) did not enhance eosinophil adhesion. In contrast, LTD(4) enhanced eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1, an effect blocked by MLK (10 and 100 nM). These findings demonstrate that MLK-mediated inhibition of unstimulated and GM-CSF-stimulated eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1 under shear-stress conditions appears independent of cysLT(1)R antagonism.

  12. Tethered SECM endoscopic capsule for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Dukho; Kang, DongKyun; Tabatabaei, Nima; Grant, Catriona N.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Hesterberg, Paul E.; Yuan, Qian; Garber, John J.; Katz, Aubrey J.; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2017-02-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disease caused by inhaled or ingested food allergies, and characterized by the infiltration of eosinophils in the esophagus. The gold standard for diagnosing EoE is to conduct endoscopy and obtain multiple biopsy specimens from different portions of the esophagus; an exam is considered positive if more than 15 eosinophils per high power field (HPF) in any of the biopsies. This method of diagnosis is problematic because endoscopic biopsy is expensive and poorly tolerated and the esophageal eosinophil burden needs to be monitored frequently during the course of the disease. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed confocal microscopy technology that can visualize individual eosinophils in large microscopic images of the human esophagus, equivalent to more than 30,000 HPF. Previously, we have demonstrated that tethered capsule SECM can be conducted in unsedated subjects with diagnosed EoE. However, speckle noise and the relatively low resolution in images obtained with the first capsule prototypes made it challenging to distinguish eosinophils from other cells. In this work, we present a next-generation tethered SECM capsule, which has been modified to significantly improve image quality. First, we substituted the single mode fiber with a dual-clad fiber to reduce speckle noise. A gradient-index multimode fiber was fusion spliced at the tip of the dual-clad fiber to increase the effective numerical aperture of the fiber from 0.09 to 0.15, expanding the beam more rapidly to increase the illumination aperture at the objective. These modifications enabled the new SECM capsule to achieve a lateral resolution of 1.8 µm and an axial resolution of 16.1 µm, which substantially improves the capacity of this probe to visualize cellular features in human tissue. The total size of the SECM capsule remained 6.75 mm in diameter and 31 mm in length. We are now in the process of testing this new SECM capsule in

  13. Dose estimation for repeated phosphorus-32 ingestion in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, J.H.; Tseng, C.L.; Hsieh, W.A.; Hung, D.Z.; Chang, W.P. E-mail: wpc94@mailsrv.ym.edu.tw

    2001-01-15

    Dose estimation was conducted for internal phosphorus-32 exposure in one young male subject from repeated oral mis-ingestion for >1 year. Since disclosure for previous continuous contamination, a series of urine samples were collected from this individual weekly for a period of >2 months. P-32 radioactivity in urine samples were measured by the acid precipitation method. Estimation for retrospective total effective dose equivalent received by this subject was conducted for cumulative internal dose estimation. A minimum of 9.4 mSv was estimated for an assumed single ingestion. As this was a rare case in radiation protection and internal radiation dosimetry, its implications were of considerable significance.

  14. Estimating Target Orientation with a Single Camera for Use in a Human-Following Robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a monocular vision-based technique for extracting orientation information from a human torso for use in a robotic human-follower. Typical approaches to human-following use an estimate of only human position for navigation...

  15. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Eosinophilic Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Xayavong, Maniphet; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Park, Sarah Y; Whelen, A Christian; Calimlim, Precilia S; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Honda, Stacey A A; Higa, Karen; Kitsutani, Paul; Chea, Nora; Heng, Seng; Johnson, Stuart; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Fox, LeAnne M; da Silva, Alexandre J

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningitis. Timely diagnosis of these infections is difficult, partly because reliable laboratory diagnostic methods are unavailable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of A. cantonensis DNA in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. A total of 49 CSF specimens from 33 patients with eosinophilic meningitis were included: A. cantonensis DNA was detected in 32 CSF specimens, from 22 patients. Four patients had intermittently positive and negative real-time PCR results on subsequent samples, indicating that the level of A. cantonensis DNA present in CSF may fluctuate during the course of the illness. Immunodiagnosis and/or supplemental PCR testing supported the real-time PCR findings for 30 patients. On the basis of these observations, this real-time PCR assay can be useful to detect A. cantonensis in the CSF from patients with eosinophilic meningitis.

  16. Integrin activation states and eosinophil recruitment in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats W Johansson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil arrest and recruitment to the airway in asthma are mediated, at least in part, by integrins. Eosinophils express α4β1, α6β1, αLβ2, αMβ2, αXβ2, αDβ2, and α4β7 integrins, which interact with counter-receptors on other cells or ligands in the extracellular matrix. Whether a given integrin-ligand pair mediates cell adhesion and migration depends on the activation state of the integrin. Integrins exist in an inactive bent, an intermediate-activity extended closed, and a high-activity extended open conformation. Integrin activation states can be monitored by conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. Studies in mice indicate that both β1 and β2 integrins mediate eosinophil recruitment to the lung. In vitro studies indicate that α4β1 and αMβ2 are the principal integrins mediating eosinophil adhesion, including to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and the novel αMβ2 ligand periostin. In vivo, blood eosinophils have intermediate-activity β1 integrins, as judged by mAb N29, apparently resulting from eosinophil binding of P-selectin on the surface of activated platelets, and have a proportion of their β2 integrins in the intermediate conformation, as judged by mAb KIM-127, apparently due to exposure to low concentrations of interleukin-5 (IL-5. Airway eosinophils recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL after segmental antigen challenge have high-activity β1 integrins and high-activity αMβ2 that does not require IL-5. Here we review information on how the activation states of eosinophil β1 and β2 integrins correlate with measurements of eosinophil recruitment and pulmonary function in asthma. Blood eosinophil N29 reactivity is associated with decreased lung function under various circumstances in non-severe asthma and KIM-127 with BAL eosinophil numbers, indicating that intermediate-activity α4β1 and αMβ2 of blood eosinophils are important for eosinophil arrest and consequently for recruitment and

  17. Estimation of the horizon in photographed outdoor scenes by human and machine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Herdtweck

    Full Text Available We present three experiments on horizon estimation. In Experiment 1 we verify the human ability to estimate the horizon in static images from only visual input. Estimates are given without time constraints with emphasis on precision. The resulting estimates are used as baseline to evaluate horizon estimates from early visual processes. Stimuli are presented for only 153 ms and then masked to purge visual short-term memory and enforcing estimates to rely on early processes, only. The high agreement between estimates and the lack of a training effect shows that enough information about viewpoint is extracted in the first few hundred milliseconds to make accurate horizon estimation possible. In Experiment 3 we investigate several strategies to estimate the horizon in the computer and compare human with machine "behavior" for different image manipulations and image scene types.

  18. Eosinophilic pneumonias. A clinical case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with sertraline and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Serini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP is one of the heterogeneous group of disorders termed eosinophilic lung diseases showing an abnormal accumulation of eosinophils in distal airways, air spaces, and the interstitial compartment of the lung. AEP is characterized by acute febrile respiratory failure, a typical radiographic pattern similar to that of acute pulmonary edema, eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, a dramatic response to corticosteroid therapy with no relapse when tapering or withdrawing treatment in the absence of infection. It can be idiopathic o secondary to known causes such as drugs, or fungal and parasitic infections. Clinical case: We report a case of a 76-year-old woman who developed symptoms, respiratory signs, and radiological and histological findings compatible with secondary AEP, we assessed as being associated with sertraline assumption (second case in literature. Discussion: The AEP we detected could be related to a secondary hypersensitivity syndrome to drug exposure (DRESS syndrome: Drug Rush with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms characterized by 1 skin rush, 2 increased eosinophilia, and 3 systemic involvement. The presence of all three criteria confirmed our diagnosis.

  19. Eosinophilic heart disease in a paediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedieu, Natalie; Giardini, Alessandro; Khambadkone, Sachin; Marek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    A 12-year-old child with no previous medical history was referred with a 4-day history of cough, shortness of breath, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a soft tissue infiltrating the left ventricular free wall, the lateral mitral annulus, and the mitral valve leaflets. A soft tissue strand connecting the lateral left atrial wall and mitral leaflets across the mitral valve orifice was also identified, causing reduced opening and functional mitral stenosis. The diagnosis of Löeffler endocarditis was made, and after 10 weeks of treatment with oral prednisolone, there was complete resolution of symptoms and of the infiltrative tissue with normalization of mitral valve function. The present case highlights some atypical features of eosinophilic heart disease-like occurrence in paediatric age, the complete preservation of the right ventricle and left ventricular apex, and the presentation with mitral stenosis compared with mitral regurgitation typically observed in the late phase of the disease.

  20. Clinical characteristics of eosinophilic asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Backer, Vibeke;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Airway eosinophilia is associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations; however, the impact on the severity of exacerbations is largely unknown. We describe the sputum inflammatory phenotype during asthma exacerbation and correlate it with severity and treatment...... response. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with an asthma exacerbation were recruited during a 12-month period and followed up after 4 weeks. Induced sputum was collected at both visits. Patients underwent spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis, fractional exhaled nitric oxide analysis, white...... with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 70%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that eosinophilic asthma exacerbations may be clinically more severe than NEEs, supporting the identification of these higher risk patients for specific interventions....

  1. Therapeutic targeting of eosinophil adhesion and accumulation in allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eBaiula

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence indicates that eosinophils are important effectors of ocular allergy. Increased worldwide prevalence of allergic eye pathologies has stimulated the identification of novel drug targets, including eosinophils and adhesion molecules.Accumulation of eosinophils in the eye is a key event in the onset and maintenance of allergic inflammation and is mediated by different adhesion molecules. Antihistamines with multiple mechanisms of action can be effective during the early and late phases of allergic conjunctivitis by blocking the interaction between β1 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1. Small molecule antagonists that target key elements in the process of eosinophil recruitment have been identified and reinforce the validity of α4β1 integrin as a therapeutic target.Glucocorticoids are among the most effective drugs for ocular allergy, but their use is limited by adverse effects. Novel dissociated glucocorticoids can prevent eosinophil accumulation and induce apoptosis of eosinophils, making them promising candidates for ophthalmic drugs.This article reviews recent understanding of the role of adhesion molecules in eosinophil recruitment in the inflamed conjunctiva along with effective treatments for allergic conjunctivitis.

  2. Impact of microbial count distributions on human health risk estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; Nauta, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    -lognormal distribution. We show that the impact of the choice of different probability distributions to describe concentrations at retail on risk estimates is dependent both on concentration and prevalence levels. We also show that the use of an LOQ should be done consciously, especially when zero-inflation is not used...... on risk estimates, at two different concentration scenarios and at a range of prevalence levels. By using five different parametric distributions, we investigate whether different characteristics of a good fit are crucial for an accurate risk estimate. Among the factors studied are the importance......-inflated Poisson-lognormal distributed data and an existing QMRA model from retail to consumer level, it was possible to assess the difference between expected risk and the risk estimated with using a lognormal, a zero-inflated lognormal, a Poisson-gamma, a zero-inflated Poisson-gamma and a zero-inflated Poisson...

  3. Clinical aspects of eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gerald S; Johnson, Stuart

    2013-06-01

    Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis is caused by human infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The clinical presentation includes a spectrum of disease, from meningitis through radiculitis, cranial nerve abnormalities, ataxia, encephalitis, coma, and rarely death. The condition is diagnosed by recognizing the triad of: the clinical syndrome, eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood, and exposure history. A history of eating raw or poorly cooked snails is classic, but ingestion of other intermediate hosts or unwashed produce (such as lettuce) harboring hosts is not uncommon. Several serologic tests exist but none has yet been fully validated. There is good evidence that a 2 week course of high dose corticosteroids shortens the duration and severity of symptoms. There is somewhat weaker evidence that albendazole reduces symptoms. The combination of prednisolone and albendazole is being used more commonly for treatment. Some suggestions for future research are given.

  4. Increased eosinophil activity in acute Plasmodium falciparum infection - association with cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Reimert, C M; Tette, E

    1998-01-01

    followed by eosinophilia 30 days after cure. Plasma levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX) were measured as indicators of eosinophil activation. In spite of the low eosinophil counts, ECP levels were increased on day 0 and significantly higher in patients with CM...

  5. Eosinophilic cholecystitis as a rare manifestation of visceral larva migrans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is an infrequent form of cholecystitis. The etiology of eosinophilic cholecystitis is still obscure, and it is sometimes accompanied with several complications, but a simultaneous onset with pericarditis is very rare. We would like to make an alternative interpretation of our recent report "Kaji K, Yoshiji H, Yoshikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ikenaka Y,Noguchi R, Sawai M, Ishikawa M, Mashitani T, Kitade M, Kawaratani H, Uemura M, Yamao J, Fujimoto M,Mitoro A,Toyohara M, Yoshida M, Fukui H. Eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: A case report.World J Gastroenterol 2007;13: 3760-3762."

  6. Eosinophilic cholecystitis: an infrequent cause of acute cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Moral-Martínez, María; Barrientos-Delgado, Andrés; Crespo-Lora, Vicente; Cervilla-Sáez-de-Tejada, María Eloísa; Salmerón-Escobar, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis (EC) is a rare disease that is characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gallbladder. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although many hypotheses have been made. Clinical and laboratory manifestations do not differ from those of other causes of cholecystitis. Diagnosis is histological and usually performed after analysis of the surgical specimen. We report the case of a woman aged 24 years, with symptoms of fever, vomiting and pain in the right upper quadrant. When imaging tests revealed acalculous cholecystitis, an urgent cholecystectomy was performed. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed eosinophilic cholecystitis. No cause of the symptoms was found.

  7. Eosinophilic cholecystitis: an infrequent cause of acute cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Moral-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic cholecystitis (EC is a rare disease that is characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gallbladder. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although many hypotheses have been made. Clinical and laboratory manifestations do not differ from those of other causes of cholecystitis. Diagnosis is histological and usually performed after analysis of the surgical specimen. We report the case of a woman aged 24 years, with symptoms of fever, vomiting and pain in the right upper quadrant. When imaging tests revealed acalculous cholecystitis, an urgent cholecystectomy was performed. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed eosinophilic cholecystitis. No cause of the symptoms was found.

  8. A case of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Manabu; Onchi, Miyako; Ozaki, Masakazu

    2013-03-01

    Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia was diagnosed in an 8-month-old Scottish fold that had a primary gastrointestinal mass involving the stomach, duodenum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Histopathologically, the most characteristic feature of this mass was granulation tissue with eosinophil infiltration and hyperplasia of sclerosing collagen fiber. Immunohistochemically, large spindle-shaped cells were positive for smooth muscle actin and vimentin. This case emphasizes the importance of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia as a differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal neoplastic lesions such as osteosarcoma and mast cell tumor in cats.

  9. Development of Eosinophilic Fasciitis during Infliximab Therapy for Psoriatic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hariman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF is a rare disorder involving chronic inflammation of the fascia and connective tissue surrounding muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. While its pathogenesis is not entirely understood, this disorder is thought to be autoimmune or allergic in nature. We present here a case of a 59-year-old male who developed peripheral eosinophilia and subsequent eosinophilic fasciitis during treatment with infliximab. To our knowledge, eosinophilic fasciitis has not been previously described in patients during treatment with an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor α.

  10. Eosinophilic bronchitis-like lesion as the cause of death in a Macaca mulatta: a first case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christal, J.L.; Hubbard, G.B.; Dick, E.J.; Brasky, K.M.; Jagirdar, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic bronchitis is a recently described, relatively benign condition in humans that is characterized by a corticosteroid-responsive chronic cough and sputum eosinophilia without the abnormalities of airway function seen in asthma. The exact cause of this condition is currently unknown, however has been associated with various occupational exposures in humans. It has also been reported to progress to irreversible airway obstruction. This disease has been reported in dogs and horses, but not in non-human primates. Methods Gross examination of an otherwise healthy 13-year-old, colony-born Macaca mulatta, which died of severe non-responsive respiratory distress revealed that the lungs were markedly inflated and moist. Results Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from the lungs contained widespread accumulation of eosinophils, sloughed epithelial cells, and mucus centered around bronchioles and adjacent airways. There was no evidence of mast cell infiltration of peribronchiolar smooth muscle, goblet cell hyperplasia, or basement membrane thickening. Conclusions This ruled out recurrent episodes as would be expected in asthma, favoring the diagnosis of an eosinophilic bronchitis-like lesion. We report a first case of eosinophilic bronchitis-like features in a M. mulatta. PMID:18333916

  11. Using Supervised Deep Learning for Human Age Estimation Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnyh, K. A.; Polovinkin, A. N.

    2017-05-01

    Automatic facial age estimation is a challenging task upcoming in recent years. In this paper, we propose using the supervised deep learning features to improve an accuracy of the existing age estimation algorithms. There are many approaches solving the problem, an active appearance model and the bio-inspired features are two of them which showed the best accuracy. For experiments we chose popular publicly available FG-NET database, which contains 1002 images with a broad variety of light, pose, and expression. LOPO (leave-one-person-out) method was used to estimate the accuracy. Experiments demonstrated that adding supervised deep learning features has improved accuracy for some basic models. For example, adding the features to an active appearance model gave the 4% gain (the error decreased from 4.59 to 4.41).

  12. Antibody to eosinophil cationic protein suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuko Shichijo; Kazuya Makiyama; Chun-Yang Wen; Mutsumi Matsuu; Toshiyuki Nakayama; Masahiro Nakashima; Makoto Ihara; Ichiro Sekine

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To produce an antibody against rat eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and to examine the effects of the antibody in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis.METHODS: An antibody was raised against rat ECP. Rats were treated with 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 d and received the antibody or normal serum. The colons were exarmined histologically and correlated with clinical symptoms.Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were estimated as a grade of inflammation.RESULTS: The ECP antibody stained the activated eosinophils around the injured crypts in the colonic mucosa.Antibody treatment reduced the severity of colonic ulceration and acute clinical symptoms (diarrhea and/or blood-stained stool). Body weight gain was significantly greater and the colon length was significantly longer in anti-ECP-treated rats than in normal serum-treated rats. Expression of ECP in activated eosinophils was associated with the presence of erosions and inflammation. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in the regenerated surface epithelium increased in anti-ECP-treated rats compared with normal serum-treated rats. Western blot analysis revealed reduced expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in anti-ECP-treated rats.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that treatment with ECP antibody, improved DSS-induced colitis in rats, possibly by increasing the regenerative activity of the colonic epithelium and downregulation of the immune response,and suggest that anti-ECP may promote intestinal wound healing in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC).

  13. Eosinophilic meningitis: a case series and review of literature of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, I; Barot, S; Madvariya, M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of >10 eosinophils/μL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or at least 10% eosinophils in the total CSF leukocyte count. Eosinophilic meningitis has been reported in two case series and two case reports in India till date and has not been reported in children below 15 years of age. We present two children with eosinophilic meningitis with peripheral eosinophilia and the proposed etiologic agents based on the clinical setting and their response to antihelminthic agents.

  14. Sputum Neutrophilia Can Mask Eosinophilic Bronchitis During Exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel D’silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of airway disease are eosinophilic, neutrophilic, both or neither. The primary objective of the present study was to identify whether the treatment of a neutrophilic bronchitis can unmask an associated eosinophilia.

  15. Eosinophilic venulitis of colon presenting as ileocecal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhar, Faripour; Rustagi, Tarun; Lamea, Leela

    2011-01-01

    Reports of eosinophilic infiltration of the colon causing obstruction are few. It is even less common to find associated extensive intestinal venulitis, which is similar to and lumped together with so called Mesenteric Inflammatory Veno-Occlusive Disease (MIVOD) or Self-Limited Intestinal Venulitis. Eosinophilic necrotizing lymphadenitis, such as what we report here, has never been reported in association with this disease. A 41-year-old female presented with cramping lower abdominal pain, hematochezia, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed the presence of the mass and thickening of the illeocecal wall. Endoscopy confirmed a cecal mass with surface ulceration suggestive of cecal adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent right hemicolectomy with the clinical and radiologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Microscopic examination of the resected bowel showed an ulcerated mass in the cecum composed of markedly edematous tissue showing transmural eosinophilic infiltration and extensive eosinophilic and lymphocytic venulitis with and without thrombosis. This was associated with a necrotizing lymphadenitis.

  16. The potential implication of eosinophil activation in the pathogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the role of eosinophil protein X. (EPX) as a marker for ... the resolution and improvement of pulmonary function. Meanwhile, total ... family history of allergy and parental smoking. Exclusion criteria for ...

  17. Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized.

  18. Blood Eosinophils and Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Whether high blood eosinophils are associated with COPD exacerbations among individuals with COPD in the general population is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that high blood eosinophils predict COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Among 81,668 individuals from the Copenhagen...... General Population Study, we examined 7,225 with COPD based on spirometry. We recorded blood eosinophils at baseline and future COPD exacerbations longitudinally, defined as moderate (short-course treatment of systemic corticosteroids) or severe (hospitalization). We also assessed exacerbation risk...... and 2,864 moderate COPD exacerbations were recorded. Among all participants with COPD, blood eosinophils above versus below 0.34∙10(9) cells/L had a multivariable adjusted incidence rate ratio of 1.76 (95%CI: 1.56-1.99) for severe exacerbations and of 1.15 (1.05-1.27) for moderate exacerbations...

  19. Sudden death due to eosinophilic endomyocardial diseases: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Arzu Akcay; Karayel, Ferah; Akyildiz, Elif U; Ozdes, Taskin; Yilmaz, Eyyup; Pakis, Isil

    2008-12-01

    Eosinophils are associated with various disorders, such as allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, parasitic diseases, connective tissue diseases, certain neoplastic diseases (Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas, and carcinomas), and various immune deficiency states. Eosinophils can infiltrate any tissue and can cause tissue damage. Heart, has been demonstrated to be the most extensively involved and toxicity of eosinophils is well-established on cardiac tissue. We describe 3 cases with extensive eosinophilic infiltration without endomyocardial fibrosis. All patients died after a short clinical course with rapidly progressive heart failure. Bronchial asthma, hydatid disease and drug reaction were considered as possible etiologies of eosinophilia in case 1 and case 2. Case 3 was considered to fall into the "idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome" in which no underlying causes for eosinophilia could be identified.

  20. Establishment of a GM-CSF-dependent megakaryoblastic cell line with the potential to differentiate into an eosinophilic lineage in response to retinoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, F; Koike, K; Higuchi, T; Kinoshita, T; Takeuchi, K; Mwamtemi, H H; Sawai, N; Kamijo, T; Shiohara, M; Horie, S; Kawa, S; Sasaki, Y; Hidaka, E; Yamagami, O; Yamashita, T; Koike, T; Ishii, E; Komiyama, A

    1998-02-01

    We recently established a human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent cell line (HML) from colony-constituent cells grown by peripheral blood cells of a patient with acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia. The HML cells possessed megakaryocytic features, as determined by cytochemical, electron microscopic and flow cytometric analysis. In the present study we examined the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on the development of HML cells. All-trans-RA, 13-cis-RA and 9-cis-RA at 10(-8) mol/l to 10(-5) mol/l inhibited the GM-CSF-dependent cell growth. Some of the RA-treated cells contained prominent azurophilic granules and were positive for peroxidase. They also reacted with Biebrich scarlet, Luxol fast blue and a monoclonal antibody against eosinophil peroxidase. In addition, exposure to RA increased the frequency and the intensity of major basic protein-positive cells. However, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil cationic protein were not detected or were only detected at a low level in the lysates of the HML cells treated with RA. Although IL-5 alone could not stimulate cell growth, the addition of IL-5 to the cultures containing stem cell factor + all-trans-RA was required for the expression of the eosinophilic phenotype. These results suggest that the HML cell line is a megakaryoblastic cell line with the potential to differentiate into the eosinophilic lineage. HML cells may be a useful model for elucidating the eosinophilic differentiation programme.

  1. Dexamethasone downregulated the expression of CSF 14-3-3β protein in mice with eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Lee, Bi-Yao; Yen, Chuan-Min; Wann, Shue-Ren; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Chen, Yao-Shen; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the main causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. A previous study demonstrated that the 14-3-3β protein is a neuropathological marker in monitoring neuronal damage in meningitis. Steroids are commonly used in patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection. However, the mechanism by which steroids act in eosinophilic meningitis is unknown. We hypothesized that the beneficial effect of steroids on eosinophilic meningitis is partially mediated by the down-regulation of 14-3-3β protein expression in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this animal study, we determined the dynamic changes of 14-3-3β protein in mice with eosinophilic meningitis. The 14-3-3β protein in serum and CSF was increased in week 2 and 3 after infections. Dexamethasone administration significantly decreased the amounts of CSF 14-3-3β protein. By developing an in-house ELISA to measure 14-3-3β protein, it was found that the amounts of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF and serum increased over a three-week period after infection. There was a remarkable reduction of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF after 2 weeks of dexamethasone treatment. In conclusion, the administration of corticosteroids in mice with eosinophilic meningitis decreased the expression of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF.

  2. Multiple-reflection model of human skin and estimation of pigment concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Rie; Tominaga, Shoji; Tanno, Osamu

    2012-07-01

    We describe a new method for estimating the concentrations of pigments in the human skin using surface spectral reflectance. We derive an equation that expresses the surface spectral reflectance of the human skin. First, we propose an optical model of the human skin that accounts for the stratum corneum. We also consider the difference between the scattering coefficient of the epidermis and that of the dermis. We then derive an equation by applying the Kubelka-Munk theory to an optical model of the human skin. Unlike a model developed in a recent study, the present equation considers pigments as well as multiple reflections and the thicknesses of the skin layers as factors that affect the color of the human skin. In two experiments, we estimate the pigment concentrations using the measured surface spectral reflectances. Finally, we confirm the feasibility of the concentrations estimated by the proposed method by evaluating the estimated pigment concentrations in the skin.

  3. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis as a Rare Cause of Recurrent Epigastric Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Safari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE is a rare inflammatory disorder of gastrointestinal tract characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall. It can mimic many gastrointestinal disorders due to its wide spectrum of presentations. Diagnose is mostly based on excluding other disorders and a high suspicion. Here we report a case of 26 year old man with a history of sever epigastric pain followed by nausea, vomiting since a few days before admission with final diagnosis of EGE.

  4. Eosinophilic cholecystitis: an infrequent cause of acute cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    María del Moral-Martínez; Andrés Barrientos-Delgado; Vicente Crespo-Lora; María Eloísa Cervilla-Sáez-de-Tejada; Javier Salmerón-Escobar

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis (EC) is a rare disease that is characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gallbladder. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although many hypotheses have been made. Clinical and laboratory manifestations do not differ from those of other causes of cholecystitis. Diagnosis is histological and usually performed after analysis of the surgical specimen. We report the case of a woman aged 24 years, with symptoms of fever, vomiting and pain in the right upper quadrant. Whe...

  5. A Case of Feline Gastrointestinal Eosinophilic Sclerosing Fibroplasia

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, manabu; Onchi, Miyako; Ozaki, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia was diagnosed in an 8-month-old Scottish fold that had a primary gastrointestinal mass involving the stomach, duodenum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Histopathologically, the most characteristic feature of this mass was granulation tissue with eosinophil infiltration and hyperplasia of sclerosing collagen fiber. Immunohistochemically, large spindle-shaped cells were positive for smooth muscle actin and vimentin. This case emphasizes the...

  6. Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis Combined With Pericardial and Pleural Effusion

    OpenAIRE

    You, Sung-Hye; Hong, Soon Jun; Ahn, Chul Min; Lim, Do-Sun

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic endomyocarditis is a manifestation of hypereosinophilic syndrome, characterized by prolonged (>6 months), unexplained peripheral blood eosinophilia (>1,500 cells/mm3) with end-organ damage in unknown causes. We report a case of a 42-year-old patient who developed eosinophilic endomyocarditis following upper respiratory tract symptoms for 2 months. Additionally, endomyocarditis was combined with massive pleural effusion and pericardial effusion, which have not been reported in Korea.

  7. Multi-task GLOH feature selection for human age estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Yixiong; Xu, Ying; Xiang, Yao; Zou, Beiji

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel age estimation method based on GLOH feature descriptor and multi-task learning (MTL). The GLOH feature descriptor, one of the state-of-the-art feature descriptor, is used to capture the age-related local and spatial information of face image. As the exacted GLOH features are often redundant, MTL is designed to select the most informative feature bins for age estimation problem, while the corresponding weights are determined by ridge regression. This approach largely reduces the dimensions of feature, which can not only improve performance but also decrease the computational burden. Experiments on the public available FG-NET database show that the proposed method can achieve comparable performance over previous approaches while using much fewer features.

  8. Eosinophils increase in animals that received biotherapic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto Silva Morais

    2012-12-01

    morphological changes in juveniles and adults ticks parasitizing animals which consumed the biotherapic. This observation suggests a negative interference of the biotherapic in the biological cycle of the tick, decreasing its population and consequently his control’s necessity. Comparing the blood cells counts of the first and the twelfth month, a raise of 23% (P> 0.05 in the eosinophils and 8% (P< 0.05 in the platelets was observed in the T1 animals. No changes in liver enzymes were observed. The increase in eosinophils and platelets found in this experiment suggests that biotherapic ingested by the animals strengthens the defense system and the clotting cascade.Key words: bovinos

  9. Real-time human walking estimation with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radars can be used to observe persons. Animation of an observed human on the basis of Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar measurements in virtual reality considerably facilitates the interpretation of the radar measurements. These radar measurements give detailed information of the moti

  10. A Non-Frequently Considered Diagnosis of Dysphagia; Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ağın

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Esophagitis is infiltration of esophagus mucosa by eosinophil leucocyte. It is rarely observed in children and the symptoms are similar to gastroesophageal reflux. This case, which was applied esophagus balloon dilatation in the pediatric surgery due to dysphagia and diagnosed eosinophilic esophagitis, was presented in order to attract attention to the approach to the child with dysphagia. Total IgE=834 IU/mL and specific IgE (-, Fx5 (- was found negative. In the upper GIS endoscopy, it was observed that esophagus mucosa was pale, its structure was hard and its motility was disordered and a couple milimetric white lesions were observed as well. In the esophagus biopsy materials, it was observed that the eosinophil infiltration in the mucosa was 60%. With the diagnosis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis, the case was started on oral prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day. In the polyclinic control of the case after a week, it was observed that there was a significant decrease in the complaints about dysphagia and in the one-month control the complaints were all gone. In the symptoms similar to dysphagia and reflux, especially if the case is not responding to gastroesophageal reflux treatment, the diagnosis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis should absolutely be considered

  11. Eosinophilic ascites: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed M Alsulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal (GI disorder characterized by nonspecific GI symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. The disorder is classified into mucosal, muscular, and sub-serosal types, depending on the clinical picture and the depth of eosinophilic infiltration within the GI wall. Sub-serosal disease, which is complicated by ascites, usually results in the most severe clinical form of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and requires early corticosteroid therapy. In such cases, a favorable outcome can be achieved after a short course of corticosteroids. We present the case of a 28-year-old female with diffuse abdominal pain and distention for 2 weeks. Her physical examination was significant for moderate ascites. Initial work-up demonstrated severe peripheral blood eosinophilia, normal liver function tests, and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE. Upper endoscopy, colonoscopy showed a thickening of the stomach and colon, and biopsies showed marked eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa. Ascitic fluid analysis showed significant eosinophilia. Subsequent treatment with oral prednisone resulted in the normalization of laboratory and radiologic abnormalities 45 days after the start of the treatment. Despite its rarity, eosinophilic gastroenteritis needs to be recognized by the clinician because the disease is treatable, and timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment could be of major importance.

  12. Estimating exercise stroke volume from asymptotic oxygen pulse in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipp, B J; Higgenbotham, M B; Cobb, F C

    1996-12-01

    Noninvasive techniques have been devised to estimate cardiac output (Q) during exercise to obviate vascular cannulation. However, although these techniques are noninvasive, they are commonly not nonintrusive to subjects' spontaneous ventilation and gas-exchange responses. We hypothesized that the exercise stroke volume (SV) and, hence, Q might be accurately estimated simply from the response pattern of two standardly determined variables: O2 uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR). Central to the theory is the demonstration that the product of Q and mixed venous O2 content is virtually constant (k) during steady-state exercise. Thus from the Fick equation, VO2 = Q.CaCO2-k, where CaCO2 is the arterial CO2 content, the O2 pulse (O2-P) equals SV.CaCO2-(k/HR). Because the arterial O2 content (CaO2) is usually relatively constant in normal subjects during exercise, O2-P should change hyperbolically with HR, asymptoting at SV.CaO2. In addition, because the asymptotic O2-P equals the slope (S) of the linear O2-HR relationship, exercise SV may be predicted as S/CaO2. We tested this prediction in 23 normal subjects who underwent a 3-min incremental cycle-ergometer test with direct determination of CaO2 and mixed venous O2 content from indwelling catheters. The predicted SV closely reflected the measured value (r = 0.80). We therefore conclude that, in normal subjects, exercise SV may be estimated simply as five times S of the linear VO2-HR relationship (where 5 is approximately 1/CaO2).

  13. Estimation of cerebral blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S F; Stadeager, Carsten Preben; Siemkowicz, E

    1990-01-01

    /kg/min). The cortical CBF was found between 14 and 211 ml 100 g-1.min-1 with mean 42 ml 100 g-1.min-1 and mean white matter CBF equal to 27 ml 100 g-1.min-1. It is suggested that the external cardiac massage in humans may be of poor efficacy in terms of brain revival. Cortical CBF after long-lasting cardiopulmonary...

  14. Estimation of human heat loss in five Mediterranean regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, M; Simsek, E; Sahin, B; Yasar, A; Ozbek, A

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of seasonal weather differences on the human body's heat losses in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The provinces of Adana, Antakya, Osmaniye, Mersin and Antalya were chosen for the research, and monthly atmospheric temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure data from 2007 were used. In all these provinces, radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body based on skin surface and respiration were analyzed from meteorological data by using the heat balance equation. According to the results, the rate of radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body varies considerably from season to season. In all the provinces, 90% of heat loss was caused by heat transfer from the skin, with the remaining 10% taking place through respiration. Furthermore, radiative and convective heat loss through the skin reached the highest values in the winter months at approximately between 110 and 140W/m(2), with the lowest values coming in the summer months at roughly 30-50W/m(2).

  15. Indirect assessment of eosinophiluria in urinary schistosomiasis using eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Ouma, J H; Mwanje, M T

    1993-01-01

    -treatment follow-up, eosinophiluria persisted in a significant proportion of the treated children indicating continued eosinophil activity in the bladder wall. Detection and quantification of early acute inflammatory reactions using ECP/eosinophils in combination with detection of later stages of bladder pathology...... using ultrasound may allow for a dynamic evaluation of the pathological process, the morbidity development and post treatment pathological changes in S. haematobium infections....

  16. Redox thermodynamics of lactoperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; Vlasits, Jutta; Banerjee, Srijib; Furtmüller, Paul G; Sola, Marco; Obinger, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are important constituents of the innate immune system of mammals. These heme enzymes belong to the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily and catalyze the oxidation of thiocyanate, bromide and nitrite to hypothiocyanate, hypobromous acid and nitrogen dioxide that are toxic for invading pathogens. In order to gain a better understanding of the observed differences in substrate specificity and oxidation capacity in relation to heme and protein structure, a comprehensive spectro-electrochemical investigation was performed. The reduction potential (E degrees ') of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple of EPO and LPO was determined to be -126mV and -176mV, respectively (25 degrees C, pH 7.0). Variable temperature experiments show that EPO and LPO feature different reduction thermodynamics. In particular, reduction of ferric EPO is enthalpically and entropically disfavored, whereas in LPO the entropic term, which selectively stabilizes the oxidized form, prevails on the enthalpic term that favors reduction of Fe(III). The data are discussed with respect to the architecture of the heme cavity and the substrate channel. Comparison with published data for myeloperoxidase demonstrates the effect of heme to protein linkages and heme distortion on the redox chemistry of mammalian peroxidases and in consequence on the enzymatic properties of these physiologically important oxidoreductases.

  17. Sampling strategy for estimating human exposure pathways to consumer chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Papadopoulou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to consumer chemicals has become a worldwide concern. In this work, a comprehensive sampling strategy is presented, to our knowledge being the first to study all relevant exposure pathways in a single cohort using multiple methods for assessment of exposure from each exposure pathway. The selected groups of chemicals to be studied are consumer chemicals whose production and use are currently in a state of transition and are; per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs, traditional and “emerging” brominated flame retardants (BFRs and EBFRs, organophosphate esters (OPEs and phthalate esters (PEs. Information about human exposure to these contaminants is needed due to existing data gaps on human exposure intakes from multiple exposure pathways and relationships between internal and external exposure. Indoor environment, food and biological samples were collected from 61 participants and their households in the Oslo area (Norway on two consecutive days, during winter 2013-14. Air, dust, hand wipes, and duplicate diet (food and drink samples were collected as indicators of external exposure, and blood, urine, blood spots, hair, nails and saliva as indicators of internal exposure. A food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and indoor environment questionnaire were also implemented. Approximately 2000 samples were collected in total and participant views on their experiences of this campaign were collected via questionnaire. While 91% of our participants were positive about future participation in a similar project, some tasks were viewed as problematic. Completing the food diary and collection of duplicate food/drink portions were the tasks most frequent reported as “hard”/”very hard”. Nevertheless, a strong positive correlation between the reported total mass of food/drinks in the food record and the total weight of the food/drinks in the collection bottles was observed, being an indication of accurate performance

  18. Human Age Estimation Method Robust to Camera Sensor and/or Face Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Dat Tien Nguyen; So Ra Cho; Tuyen Danh Pham; Kang Ryoung Park

    2015-01-01

    Human age can be employed in many useful real-life applications, such as customer service systems, automatic vending machines, entertainment, etc. In order to obtain age information, image-based age estimation systems have been developed using information from the human face. However, limitations exist for current age estimation systems because of the various factors of camera motion and optical blurring, facial expressions, gender, etc. Motion blurring can usually be presented on face images...

  19. Primary Colonic Eosinophilia and Eosinophilic Colitis in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kevin O; Sinkre, Richa A; Neumann, William L; Genta, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    The normal content of eosinophils in the adult colon and the criteria for the histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic colitis remain undefined. This study aimed at: (1) establishing the numbers of eosinophils in the normal adult colon; and (2) proposing a clinicopathologic framework for the diagnosis of primary colonic eosinophilia and eosinophilic colitis. To accomplish these goals, we counted the eosinophils in the right, transverse, and left colon of 159 adults with normal colonic histology. Using a database of 1.2 million patients with colonic biopsies, we extracted all adults with a diagnosis of colonic eosinophilia. We reviewed the slides from all cases and captured demographic, clinical, and pathologic data, including information about eosinophilia in other organs. We then compared the clinical manifestations of the study patients (those with no identifiable cause of eosinophilia) to those of patients with other types of colitis. The normal eosinophil counts (per mm) were 55.7±23.4 in the right, 41.0±18.6 in the transverse, and 28.6±17.2 in the left colon. Of the 194 study patients (eosinophil counts 166-5050/mm), 63 were asymptomatic and had a normal colonoscopy. Diarrhea and abdominal pain were the commonest indications for colonoscopy (38% and 27%, respectively) among the 131 patients who had symptoms, endoscopic abnormalities, or both. Neither clinical manifestations nor endoscopic appearance were sufficiently characteristic to elicit the suspicion of colonic eosinophilia. In conclusion, primary colonic eosinophilia was extremely rare in this series (eosinophilia may result in increased opportunities for clinicopathologic studies that might lead to a better definition of this still elusive entity.

  20. Behavioral estimates of human frequency selectivity at low frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado

    A fundamental property of our hearing organ is its ability to break down sound into different spectral components, allowing us to make use of the richness in natural sound phenomena. Auditory filters, which conceptualize this property of the ear, however, have not been appropriately described...... at low sound frequencies. As a consequence of our lack of knowledge, we cannot accurately model our perception of complex low-frequency sound (such as that emitted by wind turbines or industrial processes, which can easily produce annoyance) nor make meaningful predictions of our perception based...... on physical sound measurements. In this PhD thesis a detailed description of frequency selectivity at low frequencies is given. Different experiments have been performed to determine the properties of human auditory filters. Besides, loudness perception of low-frequency sinusoidal signals has been evaluated...

  1. Human age estimation combining third molar and skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Kaur, J; Willems, G

    2012-03-01

    The wide prediction intervals obtained with age estimation methods based on third molar development could be reduced by combining these dental observations with age-related skeletal information. Therefore, on cephalometric radiographs, the most accurate age-estimating skeletal variable and related registration method were searched and added to a regression model, with age as response and third molar stages as explanatory variable. In a pilot set up on a dataset of 496 (283 M; 213 F) cephalometric radiographs, the techniques of Baccetti et al. (2005) (BA), Seedat et al. (2005) (SE), Caldas et al. (2007) and Rai et al. (2008) (RA) were verified. In the main study, data from 460 (208 F, 224 M) individuals in an age range between 3 and 26 years, for which at the same day an orthopantogram and a cephalogram were taken, were collected. On the orthopantomograms, the left third molar development was registered using the scoring system described by Gleiser and Hunt (1955) and modified by Köhler (1994) (GH). On the cephalograms, cervical vertebrae development was registered according to the BA and SE techniques. A regression model, with age as response and the GH scores as explanatory variable, was fitted to the data. Next, information of BA, SE and BA + SE was, respectively, added to this model. From all obtained models, the determination coefficients and the root mean squared errors were calculated. Inclusion of information from cephalograms based on the BA, as well as the SE, technique improved the amount of explained variance in age acquired from panoramic radiographs using the GH technique with 48%. Inclusion of cephalometric BA + SE information marginally improved the previous result (+1%). The RMSE decreased with 1.93, 1.85 and 2.03 years by adding, respectively, BA, SE and BA + SE information to the GH model. The SE technique allows clinically the fastest and easiest registration of the degree of development of the cervical vertebrae. Therefore, the choice of

  2. Human Age Estimation Based on Locality and Ordinal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Liu, Qingshan; Dong, Weishan; Zhu, Xiaobin; Liu, Jing; Lu, Hanqing

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel feature selection-based method for facial age estimation. The face aging is a typical temporal process, and facial images should have certain ordinal patterns in the aging feature space. From the geometrical perspective, a facial image can be usually seen as sampled from a low-dimensional manifold embedded in the original high-dimensional feature space. Thus, we first measure the energy of each feature in preserving the underlying local structure information and the ordinal information of the facial images, respectively, and then we intend to learn a low-dimensional aging representation that can maximally preserve both kinds of information. To further improve the performance, we try to eliminate the redundant local information and ordinal information as much as possible by minimizing nonlinear correlation and rank correlation among features. Finally, we formulate all these issues into a unified optimization problem, which is similar to linear discriminant analysis in format. Since it is expensive to collect the labeled facial aging images in practice, we extend the proposed supervised method to a semi-supervised learning mode including the semi-supervised feature selection method and the semi-supervised age prediction algorithm. Extensive experiments are conducted on the FACES dataset, the Images of Groups dataset, and the FG-NET aging dataset to show the power of the proposed algorithms, compared to the state-of-the-arts.

  3. Estimation of the Functional Reserve of Human Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Frank G.; Rikkers, Layton F.; Aldrete, Joaquin S.

    1974-01-01

    Functional hepatic reserve was determined in 32 patients with known liver or biliary tract disease employing kinetic analysis of hepatic removal of indocyanine green (ICG). The initial removal rates of incremental doses of ICG (0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg body weight) were plotted as a reciprocal against the inverse of dose (Lineweaver-Burk plot) to provide a means of determining maximal removal rate from submaximal doses (Rmax). This function equalled 3.40 mg/kg/min in ten patients with normal livers, but was only .24 mg/kg/min in eight patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Portasystemic shunting did not further influence Rmax. Infiltrative liver disease had only a mild depressive effect on this function. The results show that hepatic function can be precisely quantitated by classical enzyme kinetics (Michaelis-Menten). If Rmax is an estimate of protein receptor mass for organic anions, then the technique may allow an indirect means for quantitating hepatocytes even in the presence of changes in blood flow or hepatic function. The profound depression in Rmax observed in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis is consistent with the progressive loss in hepatic mass associated with this disease. PMID:4413286

  4. The use of albendazole and diammonium glycyrrhizinate in the treatment of eosinophilic meningitis in mice infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Tang, J-P; Chen, D-R; Fu, C-Y; Wang, P; Li, Z; Wei, W; Li, H; Dong, W-Q

    2013-03-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) infection causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Eosinophilia and a Th2-type immune response are the crucial immune mechanisms for eosinophilic meningitis. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are involved in the pathogenesis of A. cantonensis. Diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) is a compound related to glycyrrhizin (GL), a triterpene glycoside extracted from liquorice root. We investigated the curative effects and probable mechanisms of therapy involving a combination of albendazole and DG in BALB/c mice infected with A. cantonensis, and compared these with therapy involving albendazole and dexamethasone. We analysed survival time, body weight, signs, eosinophil numbers, immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin-5 (IL-5), and eotaxin concentrations, numbers and Foxp3 expression of CD4+CD25+ Treg, worm recovery and histopathology. The present results demonstrated that the combination of albendazole and DG could increase survival time more efficiently and relieve neurological dysfunction; decrease weight loss, eosinophil numbers, concentrations of IgE, IL-5 and eotaxin, the number and expression of Foxp3 of CD4+CD25+ Treg; and improve worm recovery and histopathology changes in treated animals, compared with the combination of albendazole and dexamethasone. The observations presented here suggest that the albendazole and dexamethasone combination could be replaced by the combination of albendazole and DG.

  5. STAT3 activation and infiltration of eosinophil granulocytes in mycosis fungoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredholm, Simon; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette R; Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas; Petersen, David L; Nielsen, Inger Ø; Kauczok, Claudia-S; Wobser, Marion; Ralfkiaer, Ulrik; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Wasik, Mariusz A; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Geisler, Carsten; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Gniadecki, Robert; Woetmann, Anders; Odum, Niels

    2014-10-01

    Eosinophil granulocytes have been implicated in anticancer immunity but recent data indicate that eosinophils can also promote cancer. Herein, we studied eosinophils in skin lesions from 43 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF). The presence of eosinophils correlated with disease stage: 78% of patients with advanced disease displayed eosinophil infiltration, whereas this was only seen in 11% of patients with patches (pIL5). STAT3 siRNA profoundly inhibited IL5 but not HMGB1 expression. In conclusion, these data suggest that malignant T-cells orchestrate accumulation and activation of eosinophils supporting the notion of STAT3 being a putative target for therapy.

  6. A Chain Modeling Approach To Estimate the Impact of Soil Cadmium Pollution on Human Dietary Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium in soil poses a risk for human health, due to its accumulation in food and feed crops. The extent of accumulation depends strongly on soil type and the degree of pollution. The objective of the present study was to develop a predictive model to estimate human dietary cadmium exposure from so

  7. Eosinophilic Colitis: University of Minnesota Experience and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang B. Gaertner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic colitis is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease that is poorly understood. Neonates and young adults are more frequently affected. Clinical presentation is highly variable depending on the depth of inflammatory response (mucosal, transmural, or serosal. The pathophysiology of eosinophilic colitis is unclear but is suspected to be related to a hypersensitivity reaction given its correlation with other atopic disorders and clinical response to corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis is that of exclusion and differential diagnoses are many because colonic tissue eosinophilia may occur with other colitides (parasitic, drug-induced, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders. Similar to other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, steroid-based therapy and diet modification achieve very good and durable responses. In this paper, we present our experience with this rare pathology. Five patients (3 pediatric and 2 adults presented with diarrhea and hematochezia. Mean age at presentation was 26 years. Mean duration of symptoms before pathologic diagnosis was 8 months. Mean eosinophil count per patient was 31 per high-power field. The pediatric patients responded very well to dietary modifications, with no recurrences. The adult patients were treated with steroids and did not respond. Overall mean followup was 22 (range, 2–48 months.

  8. A Case of Eosinophilic Esophagitis Accompanying Familial Mediterranean Fever

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    Pejman Rohani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition where there is a dense infiltration of eosinophils typically exceeding fifteen cells per high power field. Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brief, acute, and self-limited episodes of fever and polyserositis that recur at irregular intervals. Case Presentation. A three-year-and-nine-month-old Iranian girl was admitted to our center. The patient’s parents complained of a history of abdominal pain, poor appetite, and poor weight gain from 1.5 years ago and episodes of food impaction after starting solid foods. Eosinophilic esophagitis was diagnosed based on histology. Because of continuing abdominal pain after treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis, the episodic nature of disease, and the presence of fever with pain, screening for familial Mediterranean fever mutation was performed and the patient was found to be heterozygote for Mediterranean fever. Conclusion. We have reported a case of eosinophilic esophagitis coexisting with familial Mediterranean fever which has not been described previously.

  9. A Case of Eosinophilic Esophagitis Accompanying Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Pejman; Najafi Sani, Mehri; Ahmadi, Mitra; Ziaee, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Background. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition where there is a dense infiltration of eosinophils typically exceeding fifteen cells per high power field. Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brief, acute, and self-limited episodes of fever and polyserositis that recur at irregular intervals. Case Presentation. A three-year-and-nine-month-old Iranian girl was admitted to our center. The patient's parents complained of a history of abdominal pain, poor appetite, and poor weight gain from 1.5 years ago and episodes of food impaction after starting solid foods. Eosinophilic esophagitis was diagnosed based on histology. Because of continuing abdominal pain after treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis, the episodic nature of disease, and the presence of fever with pain, screening for familial Mediterranean fever mutation was performed and the patient was found to be heterozygote for Mediterranean fever. Conclusion. We have reported a case of eosinophilic esophagitis coexisting with familial Mediterranean fever which has not been described previously.

  10. A Case of Eosinophilic Esophagitis Accompanying Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Pejman; Najafi Sani, Mehri; Ahmadi, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    Background. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition where there is a dense infiltration of eosinophils typically exceeding fifteen cells per high power field. Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brief, acute, and self-limited episodes of fever and polyserositis that recur at irregular intervals. Case Presentation. A three-year-and-nine-month-old Iranian girl was admitted to our center. The patient's parents complained of a history of abdominal pain, poor appetite, and poor weight gain from 1.5 years ago and episodes of food impaction after starting solid foods. Eosinophilic esophagitis was diagnosed based on histology. Because of continuing abdominal pain after treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis, the episodic nature of disease, and the presence of fever with pain, screening for familial Mediterranean fever mutation was performed and the patient was found to be heterozygote for Mediterranean fever. Conclusion. We have reported a case of eosinophilic esophagitis coexisting with familial Mediterranean fever which has not been described previously. PMID:28255474

  11. Eosinophilic esophagitis: New insights in pathogenesis and therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michele Pier Luca Guarino; Michele Cicala; Jose Behar

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis(Eo E) is a clinico-pathological entity with esophageal symptoms and dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration throughout the esophagus that may persist despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. This eosinophilic infiltration is usually absent in the stomach, small intestine and colon, although there are a number of reports of patients with a multiorgan involvement. EoE is associated with abnormalities involving TH2-dependent immunity, with multiple environmental factors strongly contributing to disease expression. The layer of the esophagus affected by the eosinophilic infiltration causes the specific symptoms. Esophageal involvement results mostly in dysphagia for solids that can be severe enough to cause recurrent esophageal obstruction with typical endoscopic features suggesting esophageal remodeling and pathological changes of eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa, sub-epithelial fibrosis and muscle hypertrophy. This disease is frequently associated with other allergic conditions such as allergic asthma, allergic dermatitis and eosinophilia. The treatment of patients with Eo E depends on the severity of the symptoms and of the inflammatory process as well as to their response to a gradual step-up treatment. The first line of treatment consists of steroid containing local inhalers. If unresponsive they are then treated with oral steroids. Intravenous interleukin blockers seem to have a consistent positive therapeutic effect.

  12. Feline familial pedal eosinophilic dermatosis in two littermates

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    Charline Pressanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In cats, the most common eosinophilic dermatoses are feline miliary dermatitis and eosinophilic granuloma complex. The most commonly identified underlying cause is a hypersensitivity reaction. Few cases of familial forms of eosinophilic dermatoses are reported in the literature. Two young adult cats from the same litter presented 2 years apart with a severe and chronic fluid or tissue infiltration of the distal part of several limbs. Lesions started on the forelegs and developed on the other limbs. Cytological and histopathological examinations showed lesions consistent with an atypical form of feline eosinophilic dermatosis associated with secondary bacterial infection. In both cats, antibiotics combined with immunosuppressive treatment partially improved the lesions, which continued to progress on a waxing and waning course, even in the absence of treatment. Allergy work-up did not permit the identification of an underlying allergic triggering factor. The severity of the lesions, the unusual presentation and the unsatisfactory response to immunosuppressive therapy in two feline littermates suggested a genetic form of eosinophilic dermatosis.

  13. Computed tomographic characteristics of eosinophilic pulmonary granulomatosis in five dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Caroline; Vignoli, Massimo; Terragni, Rossella; Rossi, Federica; Wisner, Erik; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2014-01-01

    Canine pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis is a rare inflammatory pulmonary disease characterized by formation of eosinophilic granulomas that tend to obliterate the normal pulmonary architecture. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the CT characteristics of confirmed idiopathic pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis in a group of dogs. Five dogs met inclusion criteria. All patients were young adult dogs of variable breeds. No dog had concurrent occult heartworm disease. Computed tomographic characteristics most commonly included pulmonary masses and nodules of variable size, and lesions were most commonly located in the caudal lung lobes. Four dogs had large pulmonary masses with or without additional nodules and one dog had nodular lesions disseminated throughout the entire lung parenchyma. All large eosinophilic granulomas were smoothly margined, heterogeneous pulmonary masses displaying heterogeneous contrast enhancement. A honeycomb-like enhancement pattern was observed in all but one mass and consisted of multiple hyperattenuating rims delineating central hypoattenuating areas, suggestive of bronchiectatic lung with peripheral enhancing airway walls and fluid-filled, necrotic bronchial lumen. One dog had evidence of tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy. Findings indicated that canine eosinophilic pulmonary granulomatosis should be included as a differential diagnosis for dogs with CT characteristics of multiple pulmonary masses and/or nodules in caudal lung lobes, and a honeycomb-like enhancement pattern in masses after intravenous administration of iodinated contrast medium.

  14. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia complicated by eosinophilic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Naoko; Nakamura, Kensuke; Inokuchi, Ryota; Sato, Hajime; Tokunaga, Kurato; Fukuda, Tatsuma; Nakajima, Susumu; Yahagi, Naoki

    2013-07-01

    EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (EDTA-PTCP) is a phenomenon that occurs in vitro when EDTA reacts with harvested blood. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia usually does not indicate thrombocytopenia in vivo. Here, we report the first case of EDTA-PTCP complicated by eosinophilic pneumonia. A 70-year-old man with rectal cancer was admitted to the hospital for a liver abscess and rectal cancer. At the time of admission, his platelet count was 20,000/μL, but a peripheral blood smear showed platelet aggregation and the platelet count for a kanamycin-added EDTA blood sample was 180,000/μL. The patient's respiratory status worsened after treatment for the liver abscess and rectal cancer. The patient's bronchoalveolar lavage contained 45% eosinophils, and a diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia was made. In recent studies, the occurrence of eosinophilic disease has been shown in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia is an in vitro phenomenon, although platelet activation that results in eosinophil invasion may occur in severe cases.

  15. Eosinophilic esophagitis: manometric and pHmetric findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Maria Cardoso Monnerat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Eosinophilic esophagitis is an entity characterized by an esophageal inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils, manifested by dysphagia, intermittent food impactions and symptoms similar to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, that predominantly affects young adults. There may be association of eosinophilic esophagitis with GERD, and motor abnormalities have been described. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study are to describe the findings at esophageal manometry and pH monitoring in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 20 patients with a diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, submitted to esophageal manometry and 24h pH monitoring. Were analysed the manometric changes and the presence of abnormal reflux on pH monitoring. RESULTS: Twenty patients (15 men, 5 women had a mean age of 29 years. Motility disorders were found in 25% (5/20 patients with ineffective esophageal motility being the most common finding. pH monitoring revealed abnormal reflux on 25%, without any relationship with manometric findings. CONCLUSIONS: Manometric abnormalities were observed in 25% of patients and abnormal reflux on pH monitoring also in 25%. This study showed no relationship between abnormal reflux and the presence of manometric changes.

  16. Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33 secreted from impaired vessels in the skin compared to fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Jung, E-mail: forejs2@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Won, E-mail: JUNWON@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hyun, E-mail: gochunghee@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Woori, E-mail: asleo02@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioinformatics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Hoon, E-mail: wonhoon@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seoae, E-mail: seoae@cnkgenomics.com [C& K Genomics, Seoul National University Mt.4-2, Main Bldg. #514, SNU Research Park, NakSeoungDae, Gwanakgu, Seoul 151-919 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yu Jeong, E-mail: yunk9275@daum.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin, E-mail: yjlee8@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Effects, Research Center for Radiotherapy, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-760 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaeho, E-mail: jjhmd@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-14

    We have revealed in a porcine skin injury model that eosinophil recruitment was dose-dependently enhanced by a single high-dose irradiation. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of eosinophil-associated skin fibrosis and the effect of high-dose-per-fraction radiation. The dorsal skin of a mini-pig was divided into two sections containing 4-cm{sup 2} fields that were irradiated with 30 Gy in a single fraction or 5 fractions and biopsied regularly over 14 weeks. Eosinophil-related Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and C–C motif chemokine-11 (CCL11/eotaxin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. RNA-sequencing using 30 Gy-irradiated mouse skin and functional assays in a co-culture system of THP-1 and irradiated-human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed to investigate the mechanism of eosinophil-mediated radiation fibrosis. Single high-dose-per-fraction irradiation caused pronounced eosinophil accumulation, increased profibrotic factors collagen and transforming growth factor-β, enhanced production of eosinophil-related cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, CCL11, IL-13, and IL-33, and reduced vessels compared with 5-fraction irradiation. IL-33 notably increased in pig and mouse skin vessels after single high-dose irradiation of 30 Gy, as well as in irradiated HUVECs following 12 Gy. Blocking IL-33 suppressed the migration ability of THP-1 cells and cytokine secretion in a co-culture system of THP-1 cells and irradiated HUVECs. Hence, high-dose-per-fraction irradiation appears to enhance eosinophil-mediated fibrotic responses, and IL-33 may be a key molecule operating in eosinophil-mediated fibrosis in high-dose-per fraction irradiated skin. - Highlights: • Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33. • Vascular endothelial cells damaged by high-dose radiation secrete IL-33. • Blocking IL-33 suppressed migration of inflammatory cells and cytokine secretion. • IL

  17. An Efficient Acoustic Density Estimation Method with Human Detectors Applied to Gibbons in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Kidney

    Full Text Available Some animal species are hard to see but easy to hear. Standard visual methods for estimating population density for such species are often ineffective or inefficient, but methods based on passive acoustics show more promise. We develop spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR methods for territorial vocalising species, in which humans act as an acoustic detector array. We use SECR and estimated bearing data from a single-occasion acoustic survey of a gibbon population in northeastern Cambodia to estimate the density of calling groups. The properties of the estimator are assessed using a simulation study, in which a variety of survey designs are also investigated. We then present a new form of the SECR likelihood for multi-occasion data which accounts for the stochastic availability of animals. In the context of gibbon surveys this allows model-based estimation of the proportion of groups that produce territorial vocalisations on a given day, thereby enabling the density of groups, instead of the density of calling groups, to be estimated. We illustrate the performance of this new estimator by simulation. We show that it is possible to estimate density reliably from human acoustic detections of visually cryptic species using SECR methods. For gibbon surveys we also show that incorporating observers' estimates of bearings to detected groups substantially improves estimator performance. Using the new form of the SECR likelihood we demonstrate that estimates of availability, in addition to population density and detection function parameters, can be obtained from multi-occasion data, and that the detection function parameters are not confounded with the availability parameter. This acoustic SECR method provides a means of obtaining reliable density estimates for territorial vocalising species. It is also efficient in terms of data requirements since since it only requires routine survey data. We anticipate that the low-tech field requirements will

  18. Pose Estimation and Adaptive Robot Behaviour for Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    ’s pose. The resulting pose estimates are used to identify humans who wish to be approached and interacted with. The interaction motion of the robot is based on adaptive potential functions centered around the person that respect the persons social spaces. The method is tested in experiments......Abstract—This paper introduces a new method to determine a person’s pose based on laser range measurements. Such estimates are typically a prerequisite for any human-aware robot navigation, which is the basis for effective and timeextended interaction between a mobile robot and a human. The robot...... uses observed information from a laser range finder to detect persons and their position relative to the robot. This information together with the motion of the robot itself is fed through a Kalman filter, which utilizes a model of the human kinematic movement to produce an estimate of the person...

  19. An Estimation of Human Error Probability of Filtered Containment Venting System Using Dynamic HRA Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seunghyun; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The human failure events (HFEs) are considered in the development of system fault trees as well as accident sequence event trees in part of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). As a method for analyzing the human error, several methods, such as Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP), Human Cognitive Reliability (HCR), and Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) are used and new methods for human reliability analysis (HRA) are under developing at this time. This paper presents a dynamic HRA method for assessing the human failure events and estimation of human error probability for filtered containment venting system (FCVS) is performed. The action associated with implementation of the containment venting during a station blackout sequence is used as an example. In this report, dynamic HRA method was used to analyze FCVS-related operator action. The distributions of the required time and the available time were developed by MAAP code and LHS sampling. Though the numerical calculations given here are only for illustrative purpose, the dynamic HRA method can be useful tools to estimate the human error estimation and it can be applied to any kind of the operator actions, including the severe accident management strategy.

  20. Parallel Wire Driven System for Joint Torque Estimation of Human Leg in Passive Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Hitoshi; Saisho, Kenichi; Miyazoe, Tsutomu; Kawamura, Sadao

    This paper presents a leg torque estimation system for a passive motion that uses an incompletely restrained parallel wire driven mechanism. After comparing completely and incompletely restrained parallel wire driven systems, we organize the characteristics of both systems for human torque estimation. Defining the work spaces of four kinds for the incompletely restrained mechanism, we analyze the realization of passive tracking for a leg. Then we demonstrate that the walking motion can be achieved using low-power actuators. A case example of design is introduced to manufacture a prototype for the leg torque estimation. Finally, the result of the leg torque estimation is presented through experiments conducted using a prototype system.

  1. Biochemical characterization of reactive nitrogen species by eosinophil peroxidase in tyrosine nitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi,Yoshiaki

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that eosinophils are involved in tyrosine nitration. In this study, we evaluated tyrosine nitration by rat eosinophils isolated from peritoneal fl uid and constituent eosinophils in the stomach. Rat peritoneal eosinophils activated with 1 μM phorbol myristate acetate (PMA and 50 μM NO2 ン showed immunostaining for nitrotyrosine only in smaller cells, despite the fact that eosinophils are capable of producing superoxide (O2·ン. Free tyrosine nitrating capacity after incubation with PMA and NO2 ン was 4-fold higher in eosinophils than in neutrophils. Catalase and ク- and コ -tocopherol inhibited free tyrosine nitration by reactive nitrogen species from eosinophils but not that by peroxynitrite. Superoxide dismutase augmented free tyrosine nitration by activated eosinophils and peroxynitrite. The concentration of nitric oxide released from eosinophils was relatively low (0.32 μM/106 cells/h and did not contribute to the formation of nitrotyrosine. On the other hand, most constituent eosinophils constituent in the rat stomach stimulated by PMA and NO2 ン showed tyrosine nitration capacity. These results suggest that intact cells other than apoptotic-like eosinophils eluted in the intraperitoneal cavity could not generate reactive species responsible for nitration by a peroxidase-dependent mechanism. In contrast, normal eosinophils in the stomach were capable of nitration, suggesting that the characteristics of eosinophils in gastric mucosa are diff erent from those eluted in the peritoneal cavity.

  2. Activation of eosinophils via Toll-like receptor (TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9: link between viral infection and asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Månsson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is disease characterized by a massive accumulation of eosinophils that release an array of tissue-damaging mediators. Respiratory viral infections are thought to be a leading cause of exacerbations of asthma. One possible explanation might be a direct activation of viral components through Toll-like receptors (TLRs, a receptor family comprising 10 different pathogen-recognizing members (TLR1-TLR10. The virus-recognizing TLRs are TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, which respond to viral dsRNA, ssRNA and CpG-DNA. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of these TLRs and their functions in human eosinophils. Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood using magnetic beads (purity >97%. Cells were incubated with or without poly(I:C, R-837 or CpG alone, the synthetic ligands of TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9, respectively, or combined with IL-4 or histamine. Flow cytometry, and ELISA were used to analyze expression of TLRs and various surface markers, viability and secretion of inflammatory mediators. Eosinophils expressed proteins for TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9. Poly(I:C, R-837 and CpG prolonged survival, up-regulated expression of the adhesion molecule CD11b and increased secretion of IL-8 compared to unstimulated controls. These effects were affected by the presence of IL-4 and histamine. This study shows that several viral products directly activate eosinophils through their TLRs. Since eosinophils are central in asthma, the TLR system may be an important mechanism of eosinophil activation linking viral infections with exacerbations. Consequently, this system represents a future clinical target for the resolution of asthmatic disease.

  3. Eosinophilic granuloma of bone in children; Le granulome eosinophile des os chez l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblan, I.; Gaucher, H.; Hoeffel, J.C.; Arnould, V.; Galloy, M.A.; Mainard, L. [Hopital d`Enfants, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1995-12-31

    Eosinophilic granuloma of bone or Langerhans cell histiocytosis is mostly unifocal. It appears on plain X Ray as a solitary destructive lesion of long bones or flat bones. Computerized tomography (CT) is useful to define the extension to the cortical bone and also to precisely localize the lesion when the anatomy is complex (hip, spine, base of the skull). Magnetic resonance (MR) is very useful in case of more aggressive lesions when there is extension to soft tissues. Differential diagnosis includes circumscribed osteitis and tumors in the case of extensive destruction. The natural course of solitary lesions is favorable, spontaneously or with therapy. The prognosis is more serious in the case of multiple lesions. (authors).

  4. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Intestinal Obstruction - A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Krishnappa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by an increased number of eosinophils as compared to the normal. The anatomic location and intensity of the infiltrate decides the varied clinical symptomatology with which these patients present. The present report deals with four cases, all presenting with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction A laparotomy performed revealed a stricture in the first case, superficial ulcers and adhesions in the second case, an ileocaecal mass in the third case and volvulus formation in the fourth case. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed on histopathology in all the four cases. All the four patients experienced relief of symptoms after resection. It is essential to diagnose the disease to differentiate it from other conditions presenting as intestinal obstruction. The cases are presented because of the rarity of occurrence and presentation. Relevant literature has been reviewed.

  5. Clinicopathological and ultrasonographic features of cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Samuel; Penninck, Dominique G; Keating, John H; Webster, Cynthia R L

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis (EE) in cats is poorly characterized. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cats with histologic evidence of eosinophilic inflammation on gastrointestinal biopsy. Twenty-five cats with tissue eosinophilia on surgical (10) or endoscopic (15) biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract, having an abdominal ultrasound performed within 48 h of biopsy acquisition, were enrolled. History, clinical presentation, clinical pathology and abdominal ultrasound findings were reviewed. Intestinal biopsies were evaluated by a single pathologist and separated into two groups based on the degree of eosinophilic infiltrate: mild (eosinophils/high-power field [HPF], 11/25 cats), or moderate/marked (>10 eosinophils/HPF, 14/25 cats). The former were considered primary lymphoplasmacytic or lymphocytic inflammatory bowel disease (LPE) with subtle eosinophilic infiltrates, and the latter to have EE. Signalment, history and clinical signs were similar in all cats. Only cats with EE (6/14) had palpably thickened intestines. The only distinguishing clinicopathological feature of cats with EE was the presence of peripheral eosinophilia (6/14). On ultrasound, when compared with cats with LPE, cats with EE had a greater mean jejunal wall thickness (3.34 mm ± 0.72 mm vs 4.07 mm ± 0.58 mm, respectively) and an increased incidence of thickening of the muscularis layer (1/11 and 11/14, respectively). In conclusion, ultrasonographic evidence of a prominent intestinal muscularis layer, palpably thickened intestines and peripheral eosinophilia can serve as biomarkers for the presence of EE in cats with chronic intestinal signs.

  6. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat: cytochemical and immunophenotypical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelain, Maria Elena; Antoniazzi, Elisa; Bertazzolo, Walter; Zaccolo, Maurizia; Comazzi, Stefano

    2006-12-01

    A 3-year-old, male, domestic shorthaired cat was presented with a 3-day history of anorexia and depression. The cat was moderately dehydrated, had pale, slightly icteric, mucous membranes, oral ulcerations, and mild hepatosplenomegaly. A feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen test was positive. CBC results obtained at initial presentation included severe normocytic, normochromic, nonregenerative anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and marked leukocytosis (>100,000/microL) with 77% eosinophils. After 15 days of treatment with prednisone and doxycycline, the cat had persistent severe nonregenerative anemia (HCT 3.4%), thrombocytopenia (28,000/microL), and extreme eosinophilia (total eosinophils, 123.1 x 10(3)/microL; segmented 103.0 x 10(3)/microL; immature 20.1 X 10(3)/microL). Cytologic examination of aspirates from bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes, and spleen revealed a predominance of mature and immature eosinophils, many with dysplastic changes. The M:E ratio was 96.4. On histopathologic examination, multiple organs were infiltrated by eosinophilic granulocytes. Neoplastic cells in blood and bone marrow stained positive for alkaline phosphatase and were negative for myeloperoxidase, chloroacetate esterase, and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase. On flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood, the neoplastic cells were positive for CD11b and CD14. These findings were consistent with chronic eosinophilic leukemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat associated with naturally acquired FeLV infection, in which flow cytometry was used to characterize the neoplastic cells.

  7. Sequence variants affecting eosinophil numbers associate with asthma and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Bjornsdottir, Unnur S; Halapi, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses and thus have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Here we describe a genome-wide association scan for sequence variants affecting eosinophil counts in ...

  8. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia with mucous plugs: case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP), a rare eosinophilic lung disease of unknown etiology, is characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia, chest radiograph infiltrates, and prompt response to corticosteroid therapy.1 The first detailed description of CEP was described by Carrington et al 2 in 1969. The usual symptoms are cough, dyspnea, fever, and weight loss. It is most often seen in middle aged woman and has a subacute onset.1 We report a case of CEP presenting with right lower lung infiltrates and mucus plugging that causing bronchus obstruction.

  9. Optic Neuritis Associated with Myelodysplastic Syndrome Accompanied by Eosinophilic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Joji; Nishimoto, Mitsutaka; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Nakane, Takahiko; Koh, Hideo; Yoshimoto, Kumiko; Shiraki, Kunihiko; Hino, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) was diagnosed in a 64-year-old man. Three months later, he presented with right-sided visual loss. A diagnosis of optic neuritis caused by both ischemic and non-ischemic changes was established. Concurrently, prominent eosinophilia was seen in both the peripheral blood and bone marrow. A partial improvement of visual loss was obtained concomitant with a rapid decrease of the eosinophils after treatment with corticosteroids. Optic neuritis related to MDS is a rare condition and its etiology has not yet been identified. We herein report a case of optic neuritis associated with MDS and accompanied by an eosinophilic crisis.

  10. A Case Report of Eosinophilic Esophagitis Accompanying Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahreema Jawairia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of eosinophils in the bone marrow with persistent peripheral eosinophilia, associated with organ damage by the release of eosinophilic mediators. Although HES can involve multiple organ systems, GI tract involvement is very rare. Few cases of HES presenting with gastritis or enteritis have been reported worldwide. To date, HES presenting with esophagus involvement has only been reported once. Here, we present a 39-year-old Hispanic female patient with history of HES presenting with complaints of dysphagia and generalized pruritus.

  11. Enterobiliary Fistula as a Complication of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Myun; Woo, Ji Young [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with variable clinical features characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. Clinical manifestations range from non-specific gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, crampy abdominal pain, and diarrhea to specific findings such as malabsorption, protein loosing enteropathy, luminal obstruction, eosinophilic ascites and effusion. We report here on a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis causing enterobiliary fistula which is an extremely unusual complication

  12. MR imaging findings of eosinophilic cystitis in an 8-year-old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Ken; Togashi, Kaori [Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Koyama, Takashi [Kyoto University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Saida, Satoshi [Wakayama Red Cross Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Wakayama (Japan); Nishikomori, Ryuta [Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Department of Paediatrics, Kyoto (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory condition of the urinary bladder of unknown aetiology and characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bladder wall. We report the unique MR findings of eosinophilic cystitis in an 8-year-old girl who presented with peripheral eosinophilia. MR imaging revealed smooth and nearly circumferential thickening of the bladder wall showing distinct low signal intensity on T2-weighted images, which may histologically represent high cellularity due to massive eosinophilic infiltration. (orig.)

  13. SAMPLING INTENSITY WITH FIXED PRECISION WHEN ESTIMATING VOLUME OF HUMAN BRAIN COMPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon Maudsley

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cavalieri sampling and point counting are frequently applied in combination with magnetic resonance (MR imaging to estimate the volume of human brain compartments. Current practice involves arbitrarily choosing the number of sections and sampling intensity within each section, and subsequently applying error prediction formulae to estimate the precision. The aim of this study is to derive a reference table for researchers who are interested in estimating the volume of brain regions, namely grey matter, white matter, and their union, to a given precision. In particular, this table, which is based on subsampling of a large brain data set obtained from coronal MR images, offers a recommendation for the minimum number of sections and mean number of points per section that are required to achieve a pre-defined coefficient of error of the volume estimator. Further analysis onMR brain data from a second human brain shows that the sampling intensity recommended is appropriate.

  14. PLAG (1-Palmitoyl-2-Linoleoyl-3-Acetyl-rac-Glycerol Modulates Eosinophil Chemotaxis by Regulating CCL26 Expression from Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinseon Jeong

    Full Text Available Increased number of eosinophils in the circulation and sputum is associated with the severity of asthma. The respiratory epithelium produces chemokine (C-C motif ligands (CCL which recruits and activates eosinophils. A chemically synthesized monoacetyl-diglyceride, PLAG (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol is a major constituent in the antlers of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck which has been used in oriental medicine. This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of PLAG effect on the alleviation of asthma phenotypes. A549, a human alveolar basal epithelial cell, and HaCaT, a human keratinocyte, were activated by the treatment of interleukin-4 (IL-4, and the expression of chemokines, known to be effective on the induction of eosinophil migration was analyzed by RT-PCR. The expression of IL-4 induced genes was modulated by the co-treatment of PLAG. Especially, CCL26 expression from the stimulated epithelial cells was significantly blocked by PLAG, which was confirmed by ELISA. The transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6, activated by IL-4 mediated phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, was down-regulated by PLAG in a concentration-dependent manner. In ovalbumin-induced mouse model, the infiltration of immune cells into the respiratory tract was decreased by PLAG administration. Cytological analysis of the isolated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cells proved the infiltration of eosinophils was significantly reduced by PLAG. In addition, PLAG inhibited the migration of murine bone marrow-derived eosinophils, and human eosinophil cell line, EoL-1, which was induced by the addition of A549 culture medium.

  15. Does eosinophilic COPD exacerbation have a better patient outcome than non-eosinophilic in the intensive care unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltürk, Cüneyt; Karakurt, Zuhal; Adiguzel, Nalan; Kargin, Feyza; Sari, Rabia; Celik, M Emin; Takir, Huriye Berk; Tuncay, Eylem; Sogukpinar, Ozlem; Ciftaslan, Nezihe; Mocin, Ozlem; Gungor, Gokay; Oztas, Selahattin

    2015-01-01

    Background COPD exacerbations requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission have a major impact on morbidity and mortality. Only 10%–25% of COPD exacerbations are eosinophilic. Aim To assess whether eosinophilic COPD exacerbations have better outcomes than non-eosinophilic COPD exacerbations in the ICU. Methods This retrospective observational cohort study was conducted in a thoracic, surgery-level III respiratory ICU of a tertiary teaching hospital for chest diseases from 2013 to 2014. Subjects previously diagnosed with COPD and who were admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure were included. Data were collected electronically from the hospital database. Subjects’ characteristics, complete blood count parameters, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), delta NLR (admission minus discharge), C-reactive protein (CRP) on admission to and discharge from ICU, length of ICU stay, and mortality were recorded. COPD subjects were grouped according to eosinophil levels (>2% or ≤2%) (group 1, eosinophilic; group 2, non-eosinophilic). These groups were compared with the recorded data. Results Over the study period, 647 eligible COPD subjects were enrolled (62 [40.3% female] in group 1 and 585 [33.5% female] in group 2). Group 2 had significantly higher C-reactive protein, neutrophils, NLR, delta NLR, and hemoglobin, but a lower lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet count than group 1, on admission to and discharge from the ICU. Median (interquartile range) length of ICU stay and mortality in the ICU in groups 1 and 2 were 4 days (2–7 days) vs 6 days (3–9 days) (P2%. NLR and peripheral eosinophilia may be helpful indicators for steroid and antibiotic management. PMID:26392758

  16. Parameter estimation of the Huxley cross-bridge muscle model in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, Alistair N; de Vlugt, Erwin; van der Helm, Frans C T

    2012-01-01

    The Huxley model has the potential to provide more accurate muscle dynamics while affording a physiological interpretation at cross-bridge level. By perturbing the wrist at different velocities and initial force levels, reliable Huxley model parameters were estimated in humans in vivo using a Huxley muscle-tendon complex. We conclude that these estimates may be used to investigate and monitor changes in microscopic elements of muscle functioning from experiments at joint level.

  17. Parameters Estimation for the Spherical Model of the Human Knee Joint Using Vector Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszkiewicz, A.; Knapczyk, J.

    2014-08-01

    Position and displacement analysis of a spherical model of a human knee joint using the vector method was presented. Sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation were performed using the evolutionary algorithm method. Computer simulations for the mechanism with estimated parameters proved the effectiveness of the prepared software. The method itself can be useful when solving problems concerning the displacement and loads analysis in the knee joint

  18. Parameters Estimation For A Patellofemoral Joint Of A Human Knee Using A Vector Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszkiewicz, A.; Knapczyk, J.

    2015-08-01

    Position and displacement analysis of a spherical model of a human knee joint using the vector method was presented. Sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation were performed using the evolutionary algorithm method. Computer simulations for the mechanism with estimated parameters proved the effectiveness of the prepared software. The method itself can be useful when solving problems concerning the displacement and loads analysis in the knee joint.

  19. BLOOD EOSINOPHIL NUMBERS AND ACTIVITY DURING 24 HOURS - EFFECTS OF TREATMENT WITH BUDESONIDE AND BAMBUTEROL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEMPE, JB; TAMMELING, EP; KOETER, GH; HAKANSSON, L; VENGE, P; POSTMA, DS

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide and the oral long-acting beta-agonist bambuterol on circadian variation of blood eosinophil numbers, serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), serum eosinophil chemotactic activity (ECA), and serum neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) we

  20. IL-33 activates eosinophils of visceral adipose tissue both directly and via innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Masaaki; Kashiwakura, Yuji; Kojima, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Ayano; Kanno, Yumiko; Kobata, Tetsuji

    2015-03-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes involved in allergic reactions as well as adipose tissue regulation. IL-5 is required for eosinophil survival; however, the in vivo mechanisms of eosinophil regulation are not fully understood. A tg mouse model with il5 promoter-driven EGFP expression was established for detecting the IL-5-producing cells in vivo. Il5-egfp tg mice expressed high levels of EGFP in gonadal adipose tissue (GAT) cells. EGFP(+) cells in GAT were mainly group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). IL-33 preferentially expanded EGFP(+) cells and eosinophils in GAT in vivo. EGFP(+) ILCs were found to upregulate prg2 mRNA expression in GAT eosinophils. These results demonstrate that ILCs activate eosinophils in GAT. The blockage of IL-33Rα, on the other hand, did not impair EGFP(+) ILC numbers but did impair eosinophil numbers in vivo. GAT eosinophils expressed IL-33Rα and IL-33 expanded eosinophil numbers in CD90(+) cell-depleted mice. IL-33 was further observed to induce the expression of retnla and epx mRNA in eosinophils. These findings demonstrate that IL-33 directly activates eosinophils in GAT, and together with our other findings described above, our findings show that IL-33 has dual pathways via which it activates eosinophils in vivo: a direct activation pathway and a group 2 ILC-mediated pathway.

  1. Diesel exposure suppresses natural killer cell function and resolution of eosinophil inflammation: a randomized controlled trial of exposure in allergic rhinitics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Erica A; Noah, Terry L; Zhou, Haibo; Chehrazi, Claire; Robinette, Carole; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Müller, Loretta; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-05-06

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is known to exacerbate allergic inflammation, including virus-induced eosinophil activation in laboratory animals. We have previously shown that in human volunteers with allergic rhinitis a short-term exposure to DE prior to infection with the live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) increases markers of allergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa. Specifically, levels of eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) were significantly enhanced in individuals exposed to DE prior to inoculation with LAIV and this effect was maintained for at least seven days. However, this previous study was limited in its scope of nasal immune endpoints and did not explore potential mechanisms mediating the prolonged exacerbation of allergic inflammation caused by exposure to DE prior to inoculation with LAIV. In this follow-up study, the methods were modified to expand experimental endpoints and explore the potential role of NK cells. The data presented here suggest DE prolongs viral-induced eosinophil activation, which was accompanied by decreased markers of NK cell recruitment and activation. Separate in vitro studies showed that exposure to DE particles decreases the ability of NK cells to kill eosinophils. Taken together, these follow-up studies suggest that DE-induced exacerbation of allergic inflammation in the context of viral infections may be mediated by decreased activity of NK cells and their ability to clear eosinophils.

  2. Eosinophil-derived leukotriene C4 signals via type 2 cysteinyl leukotriene receptor to promote skin fibrosis in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoshi, Michiko K; He, Rui; Kanaoka, Yoshihide; ElKhal, Abdallah; Kawamoto, Seiji; Lewis, Christopher N; Austen, K Frank; Geha, Raif S

    2012-03-27

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) skin lesions exhibit epidermal and dermal thickening, eosinophil infiltration, and increased levels of the cysteinyl leukotriene (cys-LT) leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)). Epicutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin of WT mice but not ΔdblGATA mice, the latter of which lack eosinophils, caused skin thickening, collagen deposition, and increased mRNA expression of the cys-LT generating enzyme LTC(4) synthase (LTC(4)S). Skin thickening and collagen deposition were significantly reduced in ovalbumin-sensitized skin of LTC(4)S-deficient and type 2 cys-LT receptor (CysLT(2)R)-deficient mice but not type 1 cys-LT receptor (CysLT(1)R)-deficient mice. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived eosinophils from WT but not LTC(4)S-deficient mice restored skin thickening and collagen deposition in epicutaneous-sensitized skin of ΔdblGATA recipients. LTC(4) stimulation caused increased collagen synthesis by human skin fibroblasts, which was blocked by CysLT(2)R antagonism but not CysLT(1)R antagonism. Furthermore, LTC(4) stimulated skin fibroblasts to secrete factors that elicit keratinocyte proliferation. These findings establish a role for eosinophil-derived cys-LTs and the CysLT(2)R in the hyperkeratosis and fibrosis of allergic skin inflammation. Strategies that block eosinophil infiltration, cys-LT production, or the CysLT(2)R might be useful in the treatment of AD.

  3. Infection of IL5 transgenic mice with Mesocestoides corti induces very high levels of IL5 but depressed production of eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strath, M; Dent, L; Sanderson, C

    1992-02-01

    Transgenic mice expressing interleukin 5 (IL5) have been demonstrated to show a lifelong high level eosinophilia. These mice were produced using a construct in which the dominant control region (DCR) of the human CD2 gene was ligated to a 10-kb fragment containing the mouse IL5 gene. The construct allows the expression of the IL5 gene under the control of its own promoter, but the DCR ensures constitutive expression by all T cells. Infection of these transgenic mice with Mesocestoides corti, which is itself a potent inducer of eosinophilia, increases serum IL5 to very high levels. This demonstrates that the transgenes retain inducibility, which is a feature of the endogenous gene. However, despite the high levels of IL5, the numbers of eosinophils in the blood, marrow, and spleen decrease during the period 1-4 weeks after infection. Furthermore, there is a decrease in eosinophil precursors, as assessed by the capacity of bone marrow to produce eosinophils in culture. After this decrease eosinophils return to their previous high levels, although the levels of IL5 remain high. These results suggest that a control mechanism is operating to limit the numbers of eosinophils produced. This control appears to act at the level of the precursor production and may not be directly related to the high levels of IL5.

  4. Image-based human age estimation by manifold learning and locally adjusted robust regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guodong; Fu, Yun; Dyer, Charles R; Huang, Thomas S

    2008-07-01

    Estimating human age automatically via facial image analysis has lots of potential real-world applications, such as human computer interaction and multimedia communication. However, it is still a challenging problem for the existing computer vision systems to automatically and effectively estimate human ages. The aging process is determined by not only the person's gene, but also many external factors, such as health, living style, living location, and weather conditions. Males and females may also age differently. The current age estimation performance is still not good enough for practical use and more effort has to be put into this research direction. In this paper, we introduce the age manifold learning scheme for extracting face aging features and design a locally adjusted robust regressor for learning and prediction of human ages. The novel approach improves the age estimation accuracy significantly over all previous methods. The merit of the proposed approaches for image-based age estimation is shown by extensive experiments on a large internal age database and the public available FG-NET database.

  5. A human genotyping trial to estimate the post-feeding time from mosquito blood meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshige, Yuuji; Hara, Masaaki; Nagai, Atsushi; Hikitsuchi, Tomoyuki; Umeda, Mitsuo; Kawajiri, Yumi; Nakayama, Koji; Suzuki, Koichi; Takada, Aya; Ishii, Akira; Yamamoto, Toshimichi

    2017-01-01

    Mosquitoes occur almost worldwide, and females of some species feed on blood from humans and other animals to support ovum maturation. In warm and hot seasons, such as the summer in Japan, fed mosquitoes are often observed at crime scenes. The current study attempted to estimate the time that elapsed since feeding from the degree of human DNA digestion in mosquito blood meals and also to identify the individual human sources of the DNA using genotyping in two species of mosquito: Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes albopictus. After stereomicroscopic observation, the extracted DNA samples were quantified using a human DNA quantification and quality control kit and were genotyped for 15 short tandem repeats using a commercial multiplexing kit. It took about 3 days for the complete digestion of a blood meal, and genotyping was possible until 2 days post-feeding. The relative peak heights of the 15 STRs and DNA concentrations were useful for estimating the post-feeding time to approximately half a day between 0 and 2 days. Furthermore, the quantitative ratios derived from STR peak heights and the quality control kit (Q129/Q41, Q305/Q41, and Q305/Q129) were reasonably effective for estimating the approximate post-feeding time after 2-3 days. We suggest that this study may be very useful for estimating the time since a mosquito fed from blood meal DNA, although further refinements are necessary to estimate the times more accurately.

  6. Revised Estimates for the Number of Human and Bacteria Cells in the Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sender, Ron; Fuchs, Shai; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-01

    Reported values in the literature on the number of cells in the body differ by orders of magnitude and are very seldom supported by any measurements or calculations. Here, we integrate the most up-to-date information on the number of human and bacterial cells in the body. We estimate the total number of bacteria in the 70 kg "reference man" to be 3.8·1013. For human cells, we identify the dominant role of the hematopoietic lineage to the total count (≈90%) and revise past estimates to 3.0·1013 human cells. Our analysis also updates the widely-cited 10:1 ratio, showing that the number of bacteria in the body is actually of the same order as the number of human cells, and their total mass is about 0.2 kg.

  7. ESTIMATION OF CURRENT AND PERSPECTIVE ACCUMULATION LEVELOF NATIONAL HUMAN CAPITAL IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Баранова, Н.М.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main indicators of the knowledge economy in some countries, determining the economic condition of the state. In the "Concept 2020" long-term Russian development a large role human capital as a key factor of long-term sustainable economic growth. Examining the relationship between level of education and income of the individual obtained in the course of life. Examining the main engines of development of human capital and providing estimates of its accumulation.

  8. Generating human reliability estimates using expert judgment. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comer, M.K.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1984-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting a research program to determine the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of several different methods for obtaining human reliability data and estimates that can be used in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). One method, investigated as part of this overall research program, uses expert judgment to generate human error probability (HEP) estimates and associated uncertainty bounds. The project described in this document evaluated two techniques for using expert judgment: paired comparisons and direct numerical estimation. Volume 1 of this report provides a brief overview of the background of the project, the procedure for using psychological scaling techniques to generate HEP estimates and conclusions from evaluation of the techniques. Results of the evaluation indicate that techniques using expert judgment should be given strong consideration for use in developing HEP estimates. In addition, HEP estimates for 35 tasks related to boiling water reactors (BMRs) were obtained as part of the evaluation. These HEP estimates are also included in the report.

  9. Generating human reliability estimates using expert judgment. Volume 2. Appendices. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comer, M.K.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1984-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting a research program to determine the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of several different methods for obtaining human reliability data and estimates that can be used in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). One method, investigated as part of this overall research program, uses expert judgment to generate human error probability (HEP) estimates and associated uncertainty bounds. The project described in this document evaluated two techniques for using expert judgment: paired comparisons and direct numerical estimation. Volume 2 provides detailed procedures for using the techniques, detailed descriptions of the analyses performed to evaluate the techniques, and HEP estimates generated as part of this project. The results of the evaluation indicate that techniques using expert judgment should be given strong consideration for use in developing HEP estimates. Judgments were shown to be consistent and to provide HEP estimates with a good degree of convergent validity. Of the two techniques tested, direct numerical estimation appears to be preferable in terms of ease of application and quality of results.

  10. Regulation of serotonin-induced trafficking and migration of eosinophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bit Na Kang

    Full Text Available Association of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT with the pathogenesis of allergic asthma is well recognized and its role as a chemoattractant for eosinophils (Eos in vitro and in vivo has been previously demonstrated. Here we have examined the regulation of 5-HT-induced human and murine Eos trafficking and migration at a cellular and molecular level. Eos from allergic donors and bone marrow-derived murine Eos (BM-Eos were found to predominantly express the 5-HT2A receptor. Exposure to 5-HT or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI, a 5-HT2A/C selective agonist, induced rolling of human Eos and AML14.3D10 human Eos-like cells on vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 under conditions of flow in vitro coupled with distinct cytoskeletal and cell shape changes as well as phosphorylation of MAPK. Blockade of 5-HT2A or of ROCK MAPK, PI3K, PKC and calmodulin, but not G(αi-proteins, with specific inhibitors inhibited DOI-induced rolling, actin polymerization and changes in morphology of VCAM-1-adherent AML14.3D10 cells. More extensive studies with murine BM-Eos demonstrated the role of 5-HT in promoting rolling in vivo within inflamed post-capillary venules of the mouse cremaster microcirculation and confirmed that down-stream signaling of 5-HT2A activation involves ROCK, MAPK, PI3K, PKC and calmodulin similar to AML14.3D10 cells. DOI-induced migration of BM-Eos is also dependent on these signaling molecules and requires Ca(2+. Further, activation of 5-HT2A with DOI led to an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ levels in murine BM-Eos. Overall, these data demonstrate that 5-HT (or DOI/5-HT2A interaction regulates Eos trafficking and migration by promoting actin polymerization associated with changes in cell shape/morphology that favor cellular trafficking and recruitment via activation of specific intracellular signaling molecules (ROCK, MAPK, PI3K and the PKC-calmodulin pathway.

  11. Lack of autologous tissue transmission of eosinophilic plaques in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, K A; Kunkle, G; Miller, L M; Crowley, A

    1990-07-01

    Autologous tissue transmission of spontaneously developing feline eosinophilic plaques was attempted in 5 cats. Macerated tissue from the plaque was vigorously rubbed onto 2 scarified skin sites in each cat. The inoculated areas were observed daily for 30 days. During that time, no clinical or histologic evidence of transmission was found.

  12. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity caused by Streptomyces albus antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiko Ogawa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman is reported with atopic cough, in whom bronchoprovocation with Streptomyces albus antigen induced cough and bronchoscopic biopsy revealed eosinophilic tracheobronchitis. She was admitted for the diagnosis and treatment of severe non-productive cough. Although her induced sputum contained 8% eosinophils of nucleated cells and bronchoscopic biopsy specimens revealed eosinophil infiltration in both tracheal and bronchial wall, she did not have bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine or heightened bronchomotor tone. Bronchodilator therapy was not effective for her coughing. Her symptoms worsened on returning home, suggesting the existence of some etiologic agents in her house. Streptomyces albus was isolated from her house. A high titer of anti-S. albus antibody was detected in her serum and the bronchoprovocation test with S. albus antigen was positive: development of coughing 15 min later and decrease in cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin 24 h later (3.9 μmol/L from 31.3 μmol/L prechallenge. This is the first report on eosinophilic tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity caused by allergic reaction to S. albus antigen.

  13. Eosinophilic vasculitis in an isolated central nervous system distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, R Brian; Noble, James M; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Delapaz, Robert; Wright, Clinton B

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic vasculitis has been described as part of the Churg–Strauss syndrome, but affects the central nervous system (CNS) in <10% of cases. A 39-year-old woman with a history of migraine without aura presented to an institution in an acute confusional state with concurrent headache and left-sided weakness. Laboratory evaluation showed an increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level, but otherwise unremarkable serologies. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bifrontal polar gyral-enhancing brain lesions. Her symptoms resolved over two weeks without residual deficits. Eighteen months later the patient presented with similar symptoms and neuroradiological findings showed involvement of territories different from those in her first episode. Brain biopsy showed transmural, predominantly eosinophilic, inflammatory infiltrates and fibrinoid necrosis without granulomas. She improved when treated with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, this is the first case of non-granulomatous eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. No aetiology for this patient’s primary CNS eosinophilic vasculitis has yet been identified. PMID:21686608

  14. A Case of Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Tobacco Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yoshioka

    2011-01-01

    Discussion: Green tobacco sickness, a type of nicotine poisoning caused by the dermal absorption of nicotine, is a well known occupational illness of tobacco harvesters. Although it is unclear whether the present case could be identified as a subtype of green tobacco sickness, this is the first report of eosinophilic pneumonia occurred in a tobacco harvester which was possibly induced by tobacco leaf exposure.

  15. [Acute abdomen caused by eosinophilic enteritis: six observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ubieto, Fernando; Bueno-Delgado, Alvaro; Jiménez-Bernadó, Teresa; Santero Ramírez, María Pilar; Arribas-Del Amo, Dolores; Martínez-Ubieto, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rather rare condition characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by eosinophils; as a casue of acute abdomen it is really exceptional. The etiology is unclear and its description in the literature is sparse, but associations have been made with collagen vascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy and parasitic infections as it was confirmed in one of our pathologic studies. From 1997 to 2011 six cases of eosinophilic enteritis that involved a small bowel segment were diagnosed. A partial resection by an irreversible necrosis was necessary in three of them; in the other three only a biopsy was necessary due to the inflammatory aspect of the affected loop causing the acute abdomen. Eosinophilic enteritis can originate acute abdomen processes where an urgent surgical treatment is necessary. The intraoperative aspect can be from a segment of small bowel with inflammatory signs up to a completely irrecoverable loop, where removing of the affected segment is the correct treatment, which can be done laparoscopically.

  16. Eosinophilic Fasciitis: an Atypical Presentation of a Rare Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Poradosu

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis is challenging due to the lack of pathognomonic signs and symptoms. As spontaneous resolution has been described, watchful waiting is defendable depending on the clinical presentation. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be useful in establishing the diagnosis, a deep muscle biopsy remains the gold standard diagnostic tool.

  17. Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Larry A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayo Clinic, Division of Pediatric Radiology, E-2, Rochester, MN (United States); Lorenz, Emily A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Di Lorenzo, Carlo [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Columbus, OH (United States); Kahwash, Samir [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia or food impaction in pediatric patients. It has a high male predominance and is often associated with a history of allergy or asthma. To correlate fluoroscopic findings in eosinophilic esophagitis with the endoscopic and histologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) findings of eosinophilic esophagitis and correlated them with the clinical, endoscopic and histologic findings in a series of 17 children (12 boys, 5 girls). UGI findings were normal in 12 children, including 4 who had a normal UGI exam after endoscopic disimpaction for an obstructing food bolus. Five children had strictures identified on UGI: one was demonstrated with endoscopy. This suggests that the impactions and strictures were due to an esophageal dysmotility rather than a fixed anatomic abnormality. Because the UGI findings are frequently normal in eosinophilic esophagitis, radiologists need to have a high index of suspicion for this disease. In children with a strong clinical history, especially impaction in the absence of an esophageal stricture, endoscopy and biopsy are indicated for further evaluation. (orig.)

  18. To a Question of Research Team’s Human Capital Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Aivazyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The approach based on the concept of stochastic frontier, to assessing of research team’s human capital, performing research with the financial support of the Science Foundation. The relevance of the problem is determined by the expansion of the use of competitive basis funding for research. As an estimate of research team’s human capital accepted the potential size of the financing in terms of effective use of research team’s human capital. Presents an econometric model, allowed to obtain estimates of the efficiency of research team’s human capital, have received financial support fund for scientific research. As a measure of efficiency is considered matching the size of the financial support of his research team characteristics of human capital. Formulated statistical hypothesis, test results which can be used to improve the competitive application forms and expert profiles, used the fund. It is noted, that when checking the hypothesis of no inefficiency of research team’s human capital, should be used the machine of copula functions, expanding the scope of the stochastic frontier methodology at the expense of rejection of the assumption of independence of the random components of the econometric model and allowing a correct estimates of the efficiency in terms of their dependence.

  19. ESTIMATING TOTAL GLOMERULAR NUMBER IN HUMAN KIDNEYS WITH A PHYSICAL DISECTOR/FRACTIONATOR COMBINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli J Johnson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available End-stage renal disease (ESRD has emerged as a major health issue for Australian Aborigines. This phenomenon is paralleled in other populations that have adopted a Westernised lifestyle, including African Americans. It has been suggested that abnormal glomerular hypertrophy (glomerulomegaly is an important predisposing factor for ESRD. The pathogenesis of glomerulomegaly remains unknown. It may represent a compensatory hypertrophic response to decreased nephron endowment during fetal development. Alternatively, glomerulomegaly may represent an abnormal haemodynamic/metabolic response to repeated infections, including renal infections during postnatal life. Since glomerular number and size are important issues associated with ESRD, an optimum quantitative method is required for estimating these parameters in human kidneys. The total number of glomeruli in the normal human kidney appears to vary by a factor of three or more, ranging from approximately 300,000 to more than 1 million. Recently, unbiased stereological methods for estimating total glomerular number in kidneys have been developed. The general aim of the present study was to evaluate (in terms of precision and efficiency a stereological method for estimating total glomerular number in human kidneys; the physical disector/fractionator combination. This method provided consistent estimates of total glomerular number. Estimates of total glomerular number obtained for four human kidneys ranged from 364,161 to 586,094 (coefficients of variation 9.2% to 20.0%. Mean glomerular volume for the four kidneys ranged from 6.04 to 10.32 μm3 x 106. These results indicate that this method is a precise and consistent method for estimating total glomerular number in human kidneys. The simple sampling technique developed in this study will be employed in future studies to determine if there is a difference in total glomerular, and hence nephron, number between Australian Aborigines and Caucasians, and

  20. Eosinophils are important for protection, immunoregulation and pathology during infection with nematode microfilariae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma T Cadman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil responses typify both allergic and parasitic helminth disease. In helminthic disease, the role of eosinophils can be both protective in immune responses and destructive in pathological responses. To investigate whether eosinophils are involved in both protection and pathology during filarial nematode infection, we explored the role of eosinophils and their granule proteins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1, during infection with Brugia malayi microfilariae. Using eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL, we further clarify the role of eosinophils in clearance of microfilariae during primary, but not challenge infection in vivo. Deletion of EPO or MBP-1 alone was insufficient to abrogate parasite clearance suggesting that either these molecules are redundant or eosinophils act indirectly in parasite clearance via augmentation of other protective responses. Absence of eosinophils increased mast cell recruitment, but not other cell types, into the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during challenge infection. In addition absence of eosinophils or EPO alone, augmented parasite-induced IgE responses, as measured by ELISA, demonstrating that eosinophils are involved in regulation of IgE. Whole body plethysmography indicated that nematode-induced changes in airway physiology were reduced in challenge infection in the absence of eosinophils and also during primary infection in the absence of EPO alone. However lack of eosinophils or MBP-1 actually increased goblet cell mucus production. We did not find any major differences in cytokine responses in the absence of eosinophils, EPO or MBP-1. These results reveal that eosinophils actively participate in regulation of IgE and goblet cell mucus production via granule secretion during nematode-induced pathology and highlight their importance both as effector cells, as damage-inducing cells and as supervisory cells that shape both innate and adaptive immunity.

  1. Eosinophilic esophagitis in Saudi children: Symptoms, histology and endoscopy results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y Hasosah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is a clinicopathologic entity characterized by esophageal symptoms in association with a dense eosinophilic infiltrate currently defined as >15 eosinophils per high power field in the appropriate clinical context. This is the first pediatric study in Saudi Arabia to give the experience with EE and examine its symptom, histology and endoscopy results. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review of all patients diagnosed with EE at National Guard Hospital, Jeddah Between 2007 and 2009. The authors identified EE on histologic criteria (≥15 eosinophils per high-power field together with their clinical context. The authors reviewed medical records for details of clinical presentation, laboratory data, radiologic, endoscopic, and histologic findings, and the results of treatment. Results: We identified 15 patients in our database in the last three years. 100% of the patients were males. The median age at presentation was 10 years (range, 3-17 years. The commonly reported symptoms were failure to thrive (86%, epigastric abdominal pain (53%, poor eating (40%, dysphagia with solid food (26%, food impaction (13%, and vomiting (20%. Asthma was reported in 46% and allergic rhinitis in 40%. Peripheral eosinophilia (>0.7 Χ 10/l was found in 66%. High serum IgE Level (>60 IU/ml was found in 60%. Upper endoscopic analysis revealed esophageal trachealization in 46%, esophageal erythema in 46%, white specks on the esophageal mucosa in 33%, esophageal narrowing in 13%, and normal endoscopy in 13%. The mean eosinophils per high-power field was 30.4 (range, 20-71. Histologic characteristics included degranulated eosinophils (86%, basal cell hyperplasia (93% and eosinophils clusters (micro-abscess in 73%. The treatment of EE revealed that they used swallowed corticosteroid in 50%, proton pump inhibitors in 66%, elemental diet/ food elimination in 13% and systemic corticosteroid in 13%. Conclusions: Failure to

  2. Diesel exposure suppresses natural killer cell function and resolution of eosinophil inflammation: a randmonized controlled trial of exposure in allergic rhinitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is known to exacerbate allergic inflammation, including virus induced eosinophil activation in laboratory animals. We have previously shown that in human volunteers with allergic rhinitis a short-term exposure to DE prior to infection with the live...

  3. Diesel exposure suppresses natural killer cell function and resolution of eosinophil inflammation: a randmonized controlled trial of exposure in allergic rhinitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is known to exacerbate allergic inflammation, including virus induced eosinophil activation in laboratory animals. We have previously shown that in human volunteers with allergic rhinitis a short-term exposure to DE prior to infection with the live...

  4. Beneficial effect of Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 in a murine model of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, S; Doucet-Ladevèze, R; Perrot, M; Barretto, C; Nutten, S; Blanchard, C

    2016-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a severe inflammatory disease of the esophagus which is characterized histologically by an eosinophilic infiltration into the esophageal tissue. The efficacy of probiotics in the context of atopic diseases has been well investigated but, to date, there has been no study which has evaluated probiotic effects on EoE inflammation. This study sought to identify a probiotic which improves esophageal inflammation in experimental EoE. Two candidate probiotics, Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 and Bifidobacterium lactis NCC 2818, were tested in a murine model of EoE elicited by epicutaneous sensitization with Aspergillus fumigatus protein extract. Administration of bacterial strains in drinking water was used, respectively, as a preventive or treatment measure, or continuously throughout the study. Inflammatory parameters were assessed in the esophagus, skin, and lungs after allergen challenge. In this EoE model, supplementation with L. lactis NCC 2287 significantly decreased esophageal and bronchoalveolar eosinophilia but only when given as a therapeutic treatment. No significant effect on eosinophilia was observed when NCC 2287 was given as a preventive or a continuous intervention. NCC 2287 supplementation had no significant effect on immunoglobulin levels, skin symptom scores, or on transepidermal water loss. Supplementation with another probiotic, B. lactis NCC 2818, had no significant effect on esophageal eosinophilia. We identified a L. lactis strain, able to attenuate esophageal eosinophilic inflammation in a preclinical model of EoE. This effect is strain specific and depends on the timing and duration of bacterial supplementation. Confirmation of these observations in human clinical trials is warranted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. IgE, mast cells, and eosinophils in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Tong; Goodarzi, Heidi; Chen, Huan-Yuan

    2011-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with specific immune and inflammatory mechanisms. Atopy is among the major features of the diagnosis criteria for AD but is not an essential feature. Thus, patients diagnosed with AD can be atopic or non-atopic. This review focuses on the role of IgE, mast cells, and eosinophils in the pathogenesis of AD. The known functions of IgE in allergic inflammation suggest that IgE and IgE-mediated mast cell and eosinophil activation contribute to AD, but direct evidence supporting this is scarce. The level of IgE (thus the degree of allergic sensitization) is associated with severity of AD and contributed by abnormality of skin barrier, a key feature of AD. The function of IgE in development of AD is supported by the beneficial effect of anti-IgE therapy in a number of clinical studies. The role of mast cells in AD is suggested by the increase in the mast cell number and mast cell activation in AD lesions and the association between mast cell activation and AD. It is further suggested by their role in mouse models of AD as well as by the effect of therapeutic agents for AD that can affect mast cells. The role of eosinophils in AD is suggested by the presence of eosinophilia in AD patients and eosinophil infiltrates in AD lesions. It is further supported by information that links AD to cytokines and chemokines associated with production, recruitment, and activation of eosinophils.

  6. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorder in Coeliac Disease: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis N. F. Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder is a rare disorder characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. There are various gastrointestinal manifestations with eosinophilic ascites being the most unusual and rare presentation. Diagnosis requires high index of suspicion and exclusion of various disorders associated with peripheral eosinophilia. There are no previous case reports to suggest an association between eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder and coeliac disease in adults. We report a case of eosinophilic ascites and gastroenteritis in a 30-year-old woman with a known history of coeliac disease who responded dramatically to a course of steroids.

  7. Human Pose Estimation from Silhouettes. A Consistent Approach Using Distance Level Sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminchisescu, C.; Telea, A.

    2002-01-01

    We present a novel similarity measure (likelihood) for estimating three-dimensional human pose from image silhouettes in model-based vision applications. One of the challenges in such approaches is the construction of a model-to-image likelihood that truly reflects the good configurations of the pro

  8. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based human exposure modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER meas...

  9. Estimation of selenium bioavailability from human, cow's, goat and sheep milk by an in vitro method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Dael, van P.; Luten, J.; Deelstra, H.

    1996-01-01

    The trace element selenium (Se) has been recognized to be essential for human health. The dependence of infants on milk as their principal food source, generally low in Se content, makes them more vulnerable to inadequate Se intake. The present study compared the Se availability as estimated by a si

  10. Multi-view 3D human pose estimation in complex environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hofmann; D.M. Gavrila

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a framework for unconstrained 3D human upper body pose estimation from multiple camera views in complex environment. Its main novelty lies in the integration of three components: single-frame pose recovery, temporal integration and model texture adaptation. Single-frame pose recovery co

  11. Multi-view 3D Human Pose Estimation in Complex Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a framework for unconstrained 3D human upper body pose estimation from multiple camera views in complex environment. Its main novelty lies in the integration of three components: single-frame pose recovery, temporal integration and model texture adaptation. Single-frame pose recovery co

  12. Eosinophil cationic protein stimulates and major basic protein inhibits airway mucus secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Davey, R T; Lundgren, B

    1991-01-01

    Possible roles of eosinophil (EO) products in modulating the release of mucus from airway explants were investigated. Cell- and membrane-free lysates from purified human EOs (1 to 20 x 10(5)) caused a dose-dependent release of respiratory glycoconjugates (RGC) from cultured feline tracheal explants...... chromatography. ECP (0.025 to 25 micrograms/ml) caused a dose-dependent increase in RGC release from both feline and human airway explants and also stimulated the release of the serous cell-marker, lactoferrin, from human bronchial explants. EO-derived neurotoxin (0.025 to 50 micrograms/ml) failed to affect RGC...... release, whereas MBP (50 micrograms/ml) significantly inhibited RGC release from feline explants. Thus, ECP stimulates RGC and lactoferrin release from airway explants, whereas MBP inhibits RGC release....

  13. WearDY: Wearable dynamics. A prototype for human whole-body force and motion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latella, Claudia; Kuppuswamy, Naveen; Nori, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Motion capture is a powerful tool used in a large range of applications towards human movement analysis. Although it is a well-established technique, its main limitation is the lack of dynamic information such as forces and torques during the motion capture. In this paper, we present a novel approach for human wearable dynamic (WearDY) motion capture for the simultaneous estimation of whole-body forces along with the motion. Our conceptual framework encompasses traditional passive markers based methods, inertial and contact force sensor modalities and harnesses a probabilistic computational framework for estimating dynamic quantities originally proposed in the domain of humanoid robot control. We present preliminary experimental analysis of our framework on subjects performing a two Degrees-of-Freedom bowing task and we estimate the motion and dynamic quantities. We discuss the implication of our proposal towards the design of a novel wearable force and motion capture suit and its applications.

  14. Curcumin alleviates eosinophilic meningitis through reduction of eosinophil count following albendazole treatment against Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Chang, Han-Hsin; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Lin, David Pei-Cheng; Teng, Ying-Hock; Lee, Hsiu-Hsiung

    2012-03-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is the most common cause of parasitic eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. By using an animal model of BALB/c mice infected with A. cantonensis, previous studies indicated that the anthelmintic drug, albendazole, could kill A. cantonensis larvae and prevent further infection. However, the dead larvae will induce severe immune responses targeting at brain tissues. To alleviate the detrimental effects caused by the dead larvae, we administered curcumin, a traditional anti-inflammatory agent, as a complementary treatment in addition to albendazole therapy, to determine whether curcumin could be beneficial for treatment. The results showed that although curcumin treatment alone did not reduce worm number, combined treatment by albendazole and curcumin helped to reduce eosinophil count in the cerebrospinal fluid, better than using albendazole alone. This alleviating effect did not affect albendazole treatment alone, since histological analysis showed similar worm eradication with or without addition of curcumin. Nevertheless, curcumin treatment alone and combined albendazole-curcumin treatment did not inhibit MMP-9 expression in the brain tissue. In conclusion, curcumin, when used as a complementary treatment to albendazole, could help to alleviate eosinophilic meningitis through suppression of eosinophil count in the cerebrospinal fluid.

  15. Human eosinophil–airway smooth muscle cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Margaret Hughes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are present throughout the airway wall of asthmatics. The nature of the interaction between human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC and eosinophils was investigated in this study. We demonstrated, using light microscopy, that freshly isolated eosinophils from healthy donors rapidly attach to ASMC in vitro. Numbers of attached eosinophils were highest at 2 h, falling to 50% of maximum by 20 h. Eosinophil attachment at 2 h was reduced to 72% of control by anti-VCAM-1, and to 74% at 20 h by anti-ICAM-1. Pre-treatment of ASMC for 24 h with TNF-α, 10 nM, significantly increased eosinophil adhesion to 149 and 157% of control after 2 and 20 h. These results provide evidence that eosinophil interactions with ASMC involve VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and are modulated by TNF-α.

  16. Assessing the value of mepolizumab for severe eosinophilic asthma: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; McQueen, R Brett; Ollendorf, Daniel A; Tice, Jeffrey A; Chapman, Richard H; Pearson, Steven D; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2017-02-01

    Adding mepolizumab to standard treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and controller medications could decrease asthma exacerbations and use of long-term oral steroids in patients with severe disease and increased eosinophils; however, mepolizumab is costly and its cost effectiveness is unknown. To estimate the cost effectiveness of mepolizumab. A Markov model was used to determine the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for mepolizumab plus standard of care (SoC) and for SoC alone. The population, adults with severe eosinophilic asthma, was modeled for a lifetime time horizon. A responder scenario analysis was conducted to determine the cost effectiveness for a cohort able to achieve and maintain asthma control. Over a lifetime treatment horizon, 23.96 exacerbations were averted per patient receiving mepolizumab plus SoC. Avoidance of exacerbations and decrease in long-term oral steroid use resulted in more than $18,000 in cost offsets among those receiving mepolizumab, but treatment costs increased by more than $600,000. Treatment with mepolizumab plus SoC vs SoC alone resulted in a cost-effectiveness estimate of $386,000 per QALY. To achieve cost effectiveness of approximately $150,000 per QALY, mepolizumab would require a more than 60% price discount. At current pricing, treating a responder cohort yielded cost-effectiveness estimates near $160,000 per QALY. The estimated cost effectiveness of mepolizumab exceeds value thresholds. Achieving these thresholds would require significant discounts from the current list price. Alternatively, treatment limited to responders improves the cost effectiveness toward, but remains still slightly above, these thresholds. Payers interested in improving the efficiency of health care resources should consider negotiations of the mepolizumab price and ways to predict and assess the response to mepolizumab. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  17. RELAP5/MOD3.3 Best Estimate Analyses for Human Reliability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Prošek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the success criteria time windows of operator actions the conservative approach was used in the conventional probabilistic safety assessment (PSA. The current PSA standard recommends the use of best-estimate codes. The purpose of the study was to estimate the operator action success criteria time windows in scenarios in which the human actions are supplement to safety systems actuations, needed for updated human reliability analysis (HRA. For calculations the RELAP5/MOD3.3 best estimate thermal-hydraulic computer code and the qualified RELAP5 input model representing a two-loop pressurized water reactor, Westinghouse type, were used. The results of deterministic safety analysis were examined what is the latest time to perform the operator action and still satisfy the safety criteria. The results showed that uncertainty analysis of realistic calculation in general is not needed for human reliability analysis when additional time is available and/or the event is not significant contributor to the risk.

  18. Estimating the risk of rabies transmission to humans in the U.S.: a delphi analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltzer Martin I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, the risk of rabies transmission to humans in most situations of possible exposure is unknown. Controlled studies on rabies are clearly not possible. Thus, the limited data on risk has led to the frequent administration of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, often in inappropriate circumstances. Methods We used the Delphi method to obtain an expert group consensus estimate of the risk of rabies transmission to humans in seven scenarios of potential rabies exposure. We also surveyed and discussed the merits of recommending rabies PEP for each scenario. Results The median risk of rabies transmission without rabies PEP for a bite exposure by a skunk, bat, cat, and dog was estimated to be 0.05, 0.001, 0.001, and 0.00001, respectively. Rabies PEP was unanimously recommended in these scenarios. However, rabies PEP was overwhelmingly not recommended for non-bite exposures (e.g. dog licking hand but unavailable for subsequent testing, estimated to have less than 1 in 1,000,000 (0.000001 risk of transmission. Conclusions Our results suggest that there are many common situations in which the risk of rabies transmission is so low that rabies PEP should not be recommended. These risk estimates also provide a key parameter for cost-effective models of human rabies prevention and can be used to educate health professionals about situation-specific administration of rabies PEP.

  19. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-03-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states.

  20. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-03-21

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects' affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain's motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states.

  1. Human Age Estimation Method Robust to Camera Sensor and/or Face Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Cho, So Ra; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-08-31

    Human age can be employed in many useful real-life applications, such as customer service systems, automatic vending machines, entertainment, etc. In order to obtain age information, image-based age estimation systems have been developed using information from the human face. However, limitations exist for current age estimation systems because of the various factors of camera motion and optical blurring, facial expressions, gender, etc. Motion blurring can usually be presented on face images by the movement of the camera sensor and/or the movement of the face during image acquisition. Therefore, the facial feature in captured images can be transformed according to the amount of motion, which causes performance degradation of age estimation systems. In this paper, the problem caused by motion blurring is addressed and its solution is proposed in order to make age estimation systems robust to the effects of motion blurring. Experiment results show that our method is more efficient for enhancing age estimation performance compared with systems that do not employ our method.

  2. Human Age Estimation Method Robust to Camera Sensor and/or Face Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human age can be employed in many useful real-life applications, such as customer service systems, automatic vending machines, entertainment, etc. In order to obtain age information, image-based age estimation systems have been developed using information from the human face. However, limitations exist for current age estimation systems because of the various factors of camera motion and optical blurring, facial expressions, gender, etc. Motion blurring can usually be presented on face images by the movement of the camera sensor and/or the movement of the face during image acquisition. Therefore, the facial feature in captured images can be transformed according to the amount of motion, which causes performance degradation of age estimation systems. In this paper, the problem caused by motion blurring is addressed and its solution is proposed in order to make age estimation systems robust to the effects of motion blurring. Experiment results show that our method is more efficient for enhancing age estimation performance compared with systems that do not employ our method.

  3. Real-time estimation of 3D human arm motion from markerless images for human-machine interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Siddharth; Kofman, Jonathan

    2003-10-01

    Vision-based motion tracking is commonly used in surveillance, human-machine interfaces in robotics and automation, virtual and augmented reality applications and biomechanics. Most techniques require markers, use a predefined motion sequence or user-intervention for initialization, and do not process in real-time. This paper describes the implementation of a vision-based non-invasive technique for markerless real-time tracking of human-arm motion. Human-arm motion is tracked by processing images from two calibrated cameras in real-time to estimate the position of the 3D joint centers of the wrist and elbow, and determine the orientation of the hand from the 3D positions of the index finger and thumb. Tracking of the hand and arm was carried out without any prior knowledge of subject's arm length, texture, width and distance from the camera.

  4. Eosinophils and type 2 cytokine signaling in macrophages orchestrate development of functional beige fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yifu; Nguyen, Khoa D.; Odegaard, Justin I.; Cui, Xiaojin; Tian, Xiaoyu; Locksley, Richard M.; Palmiter, Richard D.; Chawla, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beige fat, which expresses the thermogenic protein UCP1, provides a defense against cold and obesity. Although a cold environment is the physiologic stimulus for inducing beige fat in mice and humans, the events that lead from the sensing of cold to the development of beige fat remain poorly understood. Here, we identify the efferent beige fat thermogenic circuit, consisting of eosinophils, type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4/13 and alternatively activated macrophages. Genetic loss of eosinophils or IL-4/13 signaling impairs cold-induced biogenesis of beige fat. Mechanistically, macrophages recruited to cold-stressed subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) undergo alternative activation to induce tyrosine hydroxylase expression and catecholamine production, factors required for browning of scWAT. Conversely, administration of IL-4 to thermoneutral mice increases beige fat mass and thermogenic capacity to ameliorate pre-established obesity. Together, our findings have uncovered the efferent circuit controlling biogenesis of beige fat and provide support for its targeting to treat obesity. PMID:24906148

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of limonene from yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka) essential oil on eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Ryoji; Roger, Ngatu Nlandu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Song, Hee-Sun; Sawamura, Masayoshi; Suganuma, Narufumi

    2010-04-01

    Yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka) has been used as a traditional medicine in Japan. We investigated in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of limonene from yuzu peel on human eosinophilic leukemia HL-60 clone 15 cells. To examine anti-inflammatory effects of limonene on the cells, we measured the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), nuclear factor (NF) kappa B, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We found that low concentration of limonene (7.34 mmol/L) inhibited the production of ROS for eotaxin-stimulated HL-60 clone 15 cells. 14.68 mmol/L concentration of limonene diminished MCP-1 production via NF-kappa B activation comparable to the addition of the proteasomal inhibitor MG132. In addition, it inhibited cell chemotaxis in a p38 MAPK dependent manner similar to the adding of SB203580. These results suggest that limonene may have potential anti-inflammatory efficacy for the treatment of bronchial asthma by inhibiting cytokines, ROS production, and inactivating eosinophil migration.

  6. Robustness of Input features from Noisy Silhouettes in Human Pose Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Wenjuan; Fihl, Preben; Gonzàlez, Jordi;

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, we explore this problem. First, We compare performances of several image features widely used for human pose estimation and explore their performances against each other and select one with best performance. Second, iterative closest point algorithm is introduced for a new quantitative...... measurement of noisy inputs. The proposed measurement is able to automatically discard noise, like camouflage from the background or shadows. With the proposed measurement, we split inputs into different noise levels and assess their pose estimation accuracies. Furthermore, we explore performances...

  7. Estimation and harvesting of human heat power for wearable electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziurdzia, P.; Brzozowski, I.; Bratek, P.; Gelmuda, W.; Kos, A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of self-powered wearable electronic devices that are capable of harvesting free available energy dissipated by the user in the form of human heat. The free energy source is intended to be used as a secondary power source supporting primary battery in a sensor bracelet. The main scope of the article is a presentation of the concept for a measuring setup used to quantitative estimation of heat power sources in different locations over the human body area. The crucial role in the measurements of the human heat plays a thermoelectric module working in the open circuit mode. The results obtained during practical tests are confronted with the requirements of the dedicated thermoelectric generator. A prototype design of a human warmth energy harvester with an ultra-low power DC-DC converter based on the LTC3108 circuit is analysed.

  8. Assessment of Schistosoma mansoni induced intestinal inflammation by means of eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil protein X and myeloperoxidase before and after treatment with praziquantel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, Claus Michael; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.;

    2008-01-01

    Faecal concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil protein X (EPX) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in extracts of stool samples obtained from a cohort of people (n=182) living in Bugoigo, a fishing community on the Eastern shore of Lake Albert, Buliisa District, in Nor...

  9. Induction of Eosinophilic Esophagitis by Sublingual Pollen Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Miehlke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT is increasingly investigated and utilized for the treatment of food and pollen allergies. Previous case reports suggested that eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE might develop as a long-term complication in children after completion of oral immunotherapy. Here, we describe a 44-year-old female with a medical history of pollinosis who for the first time in her life developed complete manifestation of EoE (peak eosinophils 164/high power field 4 weeks after initiation of SLIT using specific soluble allergens (hazelnut, birch, alder according to previous specific serum IgE testing. After discontinuation of SLIT, EoE resolved completely within 4 weeks without any other medical intervention. During a follow-up of 12 months the patient remained free of any esophageal symptoms. This is the first case report demonstrating a close and therefore likely causative association between pollen SLIT and EoE in an adult patient.

  10. [Esophageal diseases: GERD, Barrett, achalasia and eosinophilic esophagitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Xavier; Villoria, Albert

    2014-09-01

    At Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2014, developments in esophageal disease were presented. Highlights include: the usefulness of impedancemetry to diagnose reflux disease, or the effectiveness of PPIs for treating non-cardiac chest pain. Concerning Barrett's esophagus, its prevalence is identical in patients with and without reflux symptoms, Barrett segments less than 1cm probably do not require follow-up, and in older patients with long-segment Barrett, initial endoscopies overlooked up to 2% of significant lesions. Regarding achalasia, surgical myotomy is no more effective than endoscopic dilation and may even be less effective than peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). In terms of eosinophilic esophagitis, it is important to systematically take biopsies in patients with dysphagia so that cases of eosinophilic esophagitis are not overlooked. In addition, for this condition, routine endoscopic dilations not only do not seem useful in improving the course of the disease, but could also worsen the response to medical treatment.

  11. Eosinophil alveolitis in two patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Ninna; Rasmussen, Finn; Poletti, Venerino; Bendstrup, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is typically characterized by a neutrophil inflammatory pattern and to a lesser extent (alveolitis. We here present two patients with a definite usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern on high-resolution computed tomography of the thorax (HRCT) which demonstrated unusually high eosinophil counts in the BALF (40% and 51%). Based on HRCT, lack of response to steroids and the disease course they were both diagnosed as IPF after a multidisciplinary team discussion. This report discusses the diagnostic and etiological considerations of a coexisting UIP pattern and an eosinophil alveolitis. We conclude that these cases illustrate that high level BALF eosinophilia (40-50%) may occur among patients with IPF.

  12. Eosinophilic Enteritis with Ascites in a Patient with Overlap Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Aslanidis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, however, has only rarely been described in rheumatological conditions, despite its reported connection to autoimmune diseases, such as hypereosinophilic syndrome, vasculitides, and systemic mastoidosis. It presents typically with abdominal pain and diarrhea and is only exceptionally associated with ascites. Diagnosis can be problematic, as several other clinical conditions (malignancies, infection/tuberculosis, and inflammatory bowel diseases have to be ruled out. It is basically a nonsurgical disease, with excellent recovery on conservative treatment. We report the rare case of a young woman with overlap syndrome who presented with abdominal pain and ascites. The diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis was made based on clinical, radiological, and laboratory criteria. The patient was treated with corticosteroids with excellent response.

  13. Eosinophilic cholecystitis with common bile duct stricture: a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Daniel; Naseem, Zainab; Mustaev, Muslim

    2016-05-24

    Although the most common cause of cholecystitis is gallstones, other conditions may present as acute cholecystitis. We describe a case of eosinophilic cholecystitis with common bile duct stricture. A 36-year-old woman initially had generalised abdominal pain and peripheral eosinophilia. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed eosinophilic ascites and necrotic nodules on the posterior abdominal wall. She was treated with anthelminthics on presumption of toxacara infection based on borderline positivity of serological tests. She later presented with acute cholecystitis and had a cholecystectomy and choledocotomy. Day 9 T-tube cholangiogram showed irregular narrowing of the distal common bile duct. The patient's symptoms were improved with steroids and the T-tube was subsequently removed.

  14. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Jung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity.

  15. [Differencial diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease -- eosinophilic esophagitis: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzius, M; Stolte, M; Porschen, R

    2005-04-01

    We report on a 22-year-old man with dysphagia and repeated bolus impaction in the esophagus for 10 years. Bolus impactions were frequently mobilised using an endoscope. At endoscopy, esophagitis IV degrees was described. After treatment with omeprazol there was no improvement. The patient was submitted to our hospital for fundoplication. pH-metry demonstrated an increased reflux. At endoscopy of the esophagus, we found red stripes which did not show the typical appearance of erosions. Manometry and X-ray films of the esophagus did not reveal any pathological findings. In combination with anamnesis, symptoms, and endoscopy, the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis was documented by histology. After administration of oral corticosteroids a rapid improvement of the clinical symptoms was observed. The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis should be kept in mind in patients with chronic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux persisting despite medical therapy, pathological pH-metry and repeated bolus impactions.

  16. Eosinophilic/T-cell Chorionic Vasculitis: Histological and Clinical Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Bradley; Heinrich, Stephen; Ward, Kenneth; Craver, Randall

    2015-04-01

    Eosinophilic T-cell chorionic vasculitis (E/TCV) is composed of eosinophils and T-lymphocytes originating within chorionic vessels, radiating toward the intervillous space and away from the amnion in a fashion different from the fetal vascular response seen in amnionitis. Clinical significance and risk factors are not well established. We report four pregnancies (five infants, one triplet was spared) with E/TCV, gestational ranging from 23 weeks to term. All had concurrent acute chorioamnionitis, three had the typical acute fetal inflammatory response. One had placental fetal obstructive vasculopathy and an upper extremity reduction defect (radio-ulnar synostosis), the mother had pre-eclampsia. A second case involved 2 of 3 23 week previable triplets. Our third case had a metatarsus varus resistant to casting, the mother had gestational diabetes. The last case was a normal infant. We review the literature, discuss the clinical findings and present the histologic characteristics of this infrequently recognized lesion.

  17. Mosquito bite-caused eosinophilic dermatitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, K V; Evans, A G

    1991-06-15

    Eight cats had lesions on the nasal bridge, ears, and footpads, with histologic and hematologic features of a recently described seasonal form of eosinophilic granuloma complex. Four cats were examined in detail, and it was established that 2 of the 4 reacted to mosquito extract on intradermal skin testing read at 20 minutes. Neither of the 2 cats tested had deposits of immunoglobulins in lesional or perilesional skin. Lesions on all 4 cats resolved when kept at home behind insect screening, but flared up if the screening was removed. Mosquitoes that were observed to be biting and causing lesions were collected and identified. Other species of laboratory-reared mosquitoes were allowed to bite nonlesional skin of 1 affected cat, causing pruritus, erythematous crusting, and ulcerative lesions at the bite site, which was characterized histologically as eosinophilic dermatitis.

  18. Emphysematous Eosinophilic Lymphangitis in the Ruminal Submucosa of Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohfuji, S

    2015-11-01

    Twenty cattle (14 Holstein-Friesian, 3 Japanese Black, 3 Aberdeen Angus) ranging in age from 3 months to 8 years exhibited, at slaughter, emphysematous thickening of the ruminal submucosa owing to the appearance of numerous, contiguous, small gas bubbles. Microscopic changes in the ruminal submucosa consisted of (1) multiple cystic (emphysematous) lymphangiectasis that was frequently lined or occluded by granulomatous inflammatory infiltrates including macrophages, multinucleate giant cells, and eosinophils; (2) intralymphatic phagocytosis by macrophages and giant cells of eosinophils that showed positive labeling with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay; and (3) an inflammatory infiltrate extending from the area of lymphangitis into surrounding tissue, as well as edema, hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, fibroplasia, or capillary proliferation throughout the lesional submucosa. In addition, 15 (75%) of the cattle had globular leukocyte infiltrates in the mucosal epithelia of the rumen.

  19. Moving human full body and body parts detection, tracking, and applications on human activity estimation, walking pattern and face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new way for detection and tracking of human full-body and body-parts with color (intensity) patch morphological segmentation and adaptive thresholding for security surveillance cameras. An adaptive threshold scheme has been developed for dealing with body size changes, illumination condition changes, and cross camera parameter changes. Tests with the PETS 2009 and 2014 datasets show that we can obtain high probability of detection and low probability of false alarm for full-body. Test results indicate that our human full-body detection method can considerably outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in both detection performance and computational complexity. Furthermore, in this paper, we have developed several methods using color features for detection and tracking of human body-parts (arms, legs, torso, and head, etc.). For example, we have developed a human skin color sub-patch segmentation algorithm by first conducting a RGB to YIQ transformation and then applying a Subtractive I/Q image Fusion with morphological operations. With this method, we can reliably detect and track human skin color related body-parts such as face, neck, arms, and legs. Reliable body-parts (e.g. head) detection allows us to continuously track the individual person even in the case that multiple closely spaced persons are merged. Accordingly, we have developed a new algorithm to split a merged detection blob back to individual detections based on the detected head positions. Detected body-parts also allow us to extract important local constellation features of the body-parts positions and angles related to the full-body. These features are useful for human walking gait pattern recognition and human pose (e.g. standing or falling down) estimation for potential abnormal behavior and accidental event detection, as evidenced with our experimental tests. Furthermore, based on the reliable head (face) tacking, we have applied a super-resolution algorithm to enhance

  20. Eosinophilic pleural or peritoneal effusions in dogs and cats: 14 cases (1986-1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, T W; Wellman, M; Relford, R L; Slater, M R

    1993-06-01

    Case records of 9 dogs and 5 cats with eosinophilic effusions were reviewed. The animals ranged from 11 months to 13 years old. Seven animals had pleural effusions, 5 had peritoneal effusions, and 2 had pleural and peritoneal effusions. Neoplasia was confirmed in 6 animals and suspected in 1. Eosinophilic pleural effusion was diagnosed 2 days after pneumothorax developed as a consequence of thoracic tube placement in a cat, and pneumothorax was diagnosed in another cat with eosinophilic peritoneal effusion. Other abnormalities seen in 1 or 2 animals associated with eosinophilic effusion were radiographic signs of interstitial or peribronchial pulmonary infiltrates, a history of allergic respiratory tract and skin disease, intestinal lymphangiectasia and lung lobe torsion, chylothorax, bite wounds causing intestinal perforation, and feline leukemia virus infection. Based only on the protein concentration of the effusion, 7 effusions were classified as transudates and 7 were classified as exudates. Five of the 14 animals had eosinophilia (> 1,200 eosinophils/microliters); 3 of these animals had neoplastic disease. Mean eosinophil count in blood samples was not significantly different between animals with neoplasia and those without. Eosinophil counts in blood samples were not linearly related to counts in effusions; however, in some animals the number of eosinophils in the effusion was much higher than the eosinophil count in blood, suggesting concentration of eosinophils in the effusion.

  1. Small intestinal eosinophils regulate Th17 cells by producing IL-1 receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Reiko; Lee, Eun-Jung; Jang, Min Seong; Jeun, Eun-Ji; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Park, Areum; Yun, Chang Ho; Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, You-Me; Seoh, Ju-Young; Jung, YunJae; Surh, Charles D; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho

    2016-04-04

    Eosinophils play proinflammatory roles in helminth infections and allergic diseases. Under steady-state conditions, eosinophils are abundantly found in the small intestinal lamina propria, but their physiological function is largely unexplored. In this study, we found that small intestinal eosinophils down-regulate Th17 cells. Th17 cells in the small intestine were markedly increased in the ΔdblGATA-1 mice lacking eosinophils, and an inverse correlation was observed between the number of eosinophils and that of Th17 cells in the small intestine of wild-type mice. In addition, small intestinal eosinophils suppressed the in vitro differentiation of Th17 cells, as well as IL-17 production by small intestinal CD4(+)T cells. Unlike other small intestinal immune cells or circulating eosinophils, we found that small intestinal eosinophils have a unique ability to constitutively secrete high levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a natural inhibitor of IL-1β. Moreover, small intestinal eosinophils isolated from IL-1Ra-deficient mice failed to suppress Th17 cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that small intestinal eosinophils play a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by regulating Th17 cells via production of IL-1Ra.

  2. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Xayavong, Maniphet; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Park, Sarah Y.; Whelen, A. Christian; Calimlim, Precilia S.; Sciulli, Rebecca H.; Honda, Stacey A. A.; Higa, Karen; Kitsutani, Paul; Chea, Nora; Heng, Seng; Johnson, Stuart; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Fox, LeAnne M.; da Silva, Alexandre J.

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningitis. Timely diagnosis of these infections is difficult, partly because reliable laboratory diagnostic methods are unavailable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of A. cantonensis DNA in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. A total of 49 CSF specimens from 33 patients with eosinophilic meningitis were included: A. cantonensis DNA was detected in 32 CSF specimens, from 22 patients. Four patients had intermittently positive and negative real-time PCR results on subsequent samples, indicating that the level of A. cantonensis DNA present in CSF may fluctuate during the course of the illness. Immunodiagnosis and/or supplemental PCR testing supported the real-time PCR findings for 30 patients. On the basis of these observations, this real-time PCR assay can be useful to detect A. cantonensis in the CSF from patients with eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:26526920

  3. Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with eosinophilic enteritis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kalany Mohammad; Abdollahi Pejman; Asadi Gharabaghi Mehrnaz; Sotoudeh Masoud

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder that may present with various symptoms. It may involve the gastrointestinal tract in a variety of ways; some of the most well-known ones are transaminitis, lupus mesenteric vasculitis, lupus enteritis and mesenteric vascular leakage. We describe a case of a patient with SLE who presented with a five-month history of diarrhea caused by eosinophilic enteritis. To the best of our knowledge, there are few cases rep...

  4. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Antibiotics against Eosinophilic Pustular Folliculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ono

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF is a chronic intractable pruritic dermatosis. Although indomethacin is generally effective against EPF and considered as a first-line therapy, quite a few patients with indomethacin still suffer from the symptoms. Among other therapeutic options, some antibiotics have been reported to be effective; however, there has been no epidemiological description regarding oral antibiotics use in patients with EPF. In this study, we investigated the frequency of antibiotics use and the effectiveness in patients with EPF.

  5. Comment on "Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: Clinical experience with 15 patients"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter J Kerr

    2004-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: I recently read the paper by Chen et al.[1] published in your Journal. The paper shows that there have been a few cases where medications have caused eosinophilia. Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication that can cause eosinophilia. It is pointed out in your paper "The diagnostic criteria included... 5), exclusion of intestinal lymphoma, Crohn's disease or other tumors." Table 2 shows symptoms associated with eosinophilic gastroenteritis,which are very like those in Crohn's disease.

  6. Snake remedies and eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutboul, Ronit

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) is a syndrome occurring in cats, characterized by lesions affecting the skin and the oral cavity. Conventional treatment is mainly symptomatic and may have undesirable side effects. This paper summarizes homeopathic treatment with snake remedies of cats suffering from EGC. Snake remedies were chosen by individual repertorizations and administered in different dilutions. Reactions were mostly quick, leading to significant improvements, including complete recoveries.

  7. Eosinophilic fibrosing gastritis and toxoplasmosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, James F; Sparkes, Andrew H; Blunden, Anthony S; Neath, Prue J; Sansom, Jane

    2007-02-01

    A 3-year-old, neutered male Tiffany cat was presented to the Animal Health Trust for investigation of pyrexia and a gastric lesion. Radiography and ultrasound showed severe thickening of the gastric wall and regional lymphadenopathy. There was altered gastric wall layering, predominately due to muscularis thickening. Histopathology confirmed eosinophilic fibrosing gastritis. The cat also had evidence of generalised Toxoplasma gondii infection, which may have been responsible for the gastric changes.

  8. Eosinophilic rhinosinusitis is not a disease of ostiomeatal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snidvongs, Kornkiat; Chin, David; Sacks, Raymond; Earls, Peter; Harvey, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Ostiomeatal complex (OMC) occlusion may play a role in the pathogenesis of some chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) subgroups, but its role in diffuse mucosal inflammation is strongly debated. The association between radiological OMC occlusion and its draining sinuses in patients with eosinophilic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) compared to non-ECRS is investigated. Case-control study. Patients with CRS who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery were investigated. Preoperative computed tomography scans were evaluated. Structured histopathology reporting was performed. The study group was patients with high tissue eosinophil >10/high power fields (HPF), and the control group was patients with low tissue eosinophil ≤ 10/HPF. The radiological relationship of OMC occlusion to the draining sinuses was analyzed in each group. Seventy patients with a mean age of 49.7 ± 14.1 years were analyzed. Forty-one (58.6%) patients had high tissue eosinophil >10/HPF. All patients with ECRS had maxillary disease, and there were 36.2% without OMC occlusion. There was no association of OMC occlusion to either the anterior ethmoid (ECRS: odds ratio [OR], 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-14.14; P = .55; non-ECRS: OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.34-7.33; P = .56) or frontal sinuses (ECRS: OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.12-3.82; P = .65; non-ECRS: OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 0.45-5.54; P = .47). For patients with non-ECRS, maxillary sinus diseases was present in 96.2% of those with OMC occlusion and 50% of those without (OR, 25.0; 95% CI, 2.77-226.08; P OMC occlusion is not associated with draining sinuses for patients with ECRS. Simple surgical interventions directed at the OMC are unlikely to be of benefit to this CRS subgroup. 3b. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Identification of a purine-rich intronic enhancer element in the mouse eosinophil-associated ribonuclease 2 (mEar 2) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Kimberly D; Nitto, Takeaki; Moreau, Joanne M; McDevitt, Amanda L; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2004-02-01

    The Mus musculus eosinophil-associated ribonuclease (mEar) gene cluster includes multiple distinct coding sequences that are highly divergent orthologs of the human eosinophil ribonucleases, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN/RNase 2) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP/RNase 3). We present a transcriptional analysis of the gene encoding mEar 2, the only member of this cluster with a well-defined expression profile. In this work, we demonstrate that the presence of non-coding exon 1 and the intron in tandem with a 361-bp 5' promoter of mEar 2 results in enhanced reporter gene expression, as much as 6-to 10-fold over the activity observed with the 5' promoter alone. We have identified a conserved purine-rich element in the intron of the mEar 2 gene that is necessary for maximum transcription and that interacts specifically with NFAT-binding proteins in nuclear extracts derived from the mouse LA4 epithelial cell line. Similar intronic enhancers have been described as regulating transcription of the human EDN gene, suggesting an overall conservation of an important regulatory strategy.

  10. Potential Use of Bacterial Community Succession in Decaying Human Bone for Estimating Postmortem Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damann, Franklin E; Williams, Daniel E; Layton, Alice C

    2015-07-01

    Bacteria are taphonomic agents of human decomposition, potentially useful for estimating postmortem interval (PMI) in late-stage decomposition. Bone samples from 12 individuals and three soil samples were analyzed to assess the effects of decomposition and advancing time on bacterial communities. Results indicated that partially skeletonized remains maintained a presence of bacteria associated with the human gut, whereas bacterial composition of dry skeletal remains maintained a community profile similar to soil communities. Variation in the UniFrac distances was significantly greater between groups than within groups (p < 0.001) for the unweighted metric and not the weighted metric. The members of the bacterial communities were more similar within than between decomposition stages. The oligotrophic environment of bone relative to soft tissue and the physical protection of organic substrates may preclude bacterial blooms during the first years of skeletonization. Therefore, community membership (unweighted) may be better for estimating PMI from skeletonized remains than community structure (weighted).

  11. Estimation of the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. A methodological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg Damsgaard, T M; Windelborg Nielsen, B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. Using 50 microns-thick paraffin sections, made from a systematic random sample of umbilical cord, the total number of mast cells per cord was estimated using a combination of the optical...... disector and fractionated sampling. The mast cell of the human umbilical cord was found in Wharton's jelly, most frequently in close proximity to the three blood vessels. No consistent pattern of variation in mast cell numbers from the fetal end of the umbilical cord towards the placenta was seen....... The total number of mast cells found in the umbilical cord was 5,200,000 (median), range 2,800,000-16,800,000 (n = 7), that is 156,000 mast cells per gram umbilical cord (median), range 48,000-267,000. Thus, the umbilical cord constitutes an adequate source of mast cells for further investigation...

  12. Topological Pressure and Coding Sequence Density Estimation in the Human Genome

    CERN Document Server

    Koslicki, David

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by concepts from ergodic theory, we give new insight into coding sequence (CDS) density estimation for the human genome. Our approach is based on the introduction and study of topological pressure: a numerical quantity assigned to any finite sequence based on an appropriate notion of `weighted information content'. For human DNA sequences, each codon is assigned a suitable weight, and using a window size of approximately 60,000bp, we obtain a very strong positive correlation between CDS density and topological pressure. The weights are selected by an optimization procedure, and can be interpreted as quantitative data on the relative importance of different codons for the density estimation of coding sequences. This gives new insight into codon usage bias which is an important subject where long standing questions remain open. Inspired again by ergodic theory, we use the weightings on the codons to define a probability measure on finite sequences. We demonstrate that this measure is effective in disti...

  13. Pathogenetic studies on feline eosinophilic granuloma complex

    OpenAIRE

    Fondati, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 12 de juliol de 2004 En el gat, encara que amb freqüència es parla dels desordres associats a eosinòfils, inclòs el EGC, són poc coneguts i en general s'associen a causes immuno-mediades o parasitàries, anàlegs als seus equivalents humans. Tot i així, el contingut i les funcions dels eosinòfils dels gats, encara que es consideren similars als eosinòfils humans, no es coneixen. Per tot això, els objectius d'aquesta tesi varen ser estudiar el EGC felí i obtenir info...

  14. Raman spectroscopy of human skin: looking for a quantitative algorithm to reliably estimate human age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Boffelli, Marco; Miyamori, Daisuke; Uemura, Takeshi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Zhu, Wenliang; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of examining soft tissues by Raman spectroscopy is challenged in an attempt to probe human age for the changes in biochemical composition of skin that accompany aging. We present a proof-of-concept report for explicating the biophysical links between vibrational characteristics and the specific compositional and chemical changes associated with aging. The actual existence of such links is then phenomenologically proved. In an attempt to foster the basics for a quantitative use of Raman spectroscopy in assessing aging from human skin samples, a precise spectral deconvolution is performed as a function of donors' ages on five cadaveric samples, which emphasizes the physical significance and the morphological modifications of the Raman bands. The outputs suggest the presence of spectral markers for age identification from skin samples. Some of them appeared as authentic "biological clocks" for the apparent exactness with which they are related to age. Our spectroscopic approach yields clear compositional information of protein folding and crystallization of lipid structures, which can lead to a precise identification of age from infants to adults. Once statistically validated, these parameters might be used to link vibrational aspects at the molecular scale for practical forensic purposes.

  15. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stereological estimation of total cell numbers in the human cerebral and cerebellar cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Walløe, Solveig; Pakkenberg, Bente; Fabricius, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the relationship between brain structure and cognitive function is still limited. Human brains and individual cortical areas vary considerably in size and shape. Studies of brain cell numbers have historically been based on biased methods, which did not always result in correct estimates and were often very time-consuming. Within the last 20–30 years, it has become possible to rely on more advanced and unbiased methods. These methods have provided us with information about fe...

  17. Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with eosinophilic enteritis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalany Mohammad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disorder that may present with various symptoms. It may involve the gastrointestinal tract in a variety of ways; some of the most well-known ones are transaminitis, lupus mesenteric vasculitis, lupus enteritis and mesenteric vascular leakage. We describe a case of a patient with SLE who presented with a five-month history of diarrhea caused by eosinophilic enteritis. To the best of our knowledge, there are few cases reported in the literature of patients with SLE who initially present with chronic diarrhea due to eosinophilic enteritis. Case presentation A 38-year-old Persian Iranian woman was admitted with a five-month history of diarrhea and abdominal pain. A physical examination showed nothing abnormal. Initially, she had only lymphopenia and mild eosinophilia. No autoimmune or infectious etiology was detected to justify these abnormalities. A thorough evaluation was not helpful in finding the etiology, until she developed a scalp lesion similar to discoid lupus erythematosus. Computed tomography showed small bowel wall thickening. Briefly, she manifested full-blown SLE, and it was revealed that the diarrhea was caused by eosinophilic enteritis. Conclusion Considering SLE in a patient who presents with chronic diarrhea and lymphopenia may be helpful in earlier diagnosis and therapy. This is an original case report of interest to physicians who practice internal medicine, family medicine and gastroenterology.

  18. Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis: A Rare Case of Neonatal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison J. Pollock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background - Eosinophilic endomyocarditis (EEM is a rare diagnosis that is extremely uncommon in newborns. This case report aimed to present a case of neonatal mortality from acute cardiac failure due to EEM. Case - Our report presents a term male neonate with minor complications in the immediate postnatal course, who was discharged at 48 hours of life, but who developed unexpected respiratory distress, followed by cardiac arrest and death at 3 days of life. One day after discharge, the infant developed respiratory distress and cool skin, and then developed cardiac arrest at the pediatrician's office, undergoing resuscitation with intravenous fluid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, epinephrine, atropine, and failed intubation. Autopsy revealed EEM, an inflammatory infiltrative process involving the endomyocardium. Pathology - Pathogenesis involves three stages: (1 myocarditis with an acute eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate followed by (2 myocyte necrosis and eventually (3 fibrosis in the final stage of the disease. Discussion - The cause of death was acute cardiac failure due to intense eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation with early subendocardial myocyte necrosis but before development of extensive myocyte necrosis. This case appears to be the youngest patient reported with EEM.

  19. Eosinophils in fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit eGhosh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease.

  20. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsler JB

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Joshua B Wechsler, Sally Schwartz, Katie Amsden, Amir F Kagalwalla Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. Keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, dietary therapy, empiric elimination, elemental, allergy test-directed

  1. Acute Eosinophilic Ascites in a Middle-Aged Man

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    Fadi Bleibel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition characterized by recurrent eosinophilic infiltration of portions of the GI tract and presenting with nonspecific GI symptoms in association with peripheral eosinophilia. Its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear and its symptoms overlap with many GI and systemic diseases. Thus, both gastroenterologists and general internists need to be aware of this rare condition. We present a case of a 55-year-old male with diffuse abdominal pain and distention for two weeks. His physical examination was significant for moderate ascites. Initial work-up demonstrated severe peripheral blood eosinophilia, normal liver function tests, thickening of the stomach and small bowel wall, and elevated serum IgE. Upper endoscopy and extensive testing for malignancy and parasitic infections failed to establish a diagnosis. Ascitic fluid analysis showed significant eosinophilia. Further, a full-thickness jejunal showed marked eosinophilic infiltration of the serosa and muscularis propria. Subsequent treatment with oral prednisone resulted in normalization of laboratory and radiologic abnormalities in a few week period.

  2. Acute Eosinophilic Ascites in a Middle-Aged Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleibel, Fadi; Fragoza, Keith; Faller, Garrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition characterized by recurrent eosinophilic infiltration of portions of the GI tract and presenting with nonspecific GI symptoms in association with peripheral eosinophilia. Its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear and its symptoms overlap with many GI and systemic diseases. Thus, both gastroenterologists and general internists need to be aware of this rare condition. We present a case of a 55-year-old male with diffuse abdominal pain and distention for two weeks. His physical examination was significant for moderate ascites. Initial work-up demonstrated severe peripheral blood eosinophilia, normal liver function tests, thickening of the stomach and small bowel wall, and elevated serum IgE. Upper endoscopy and extensive testing for malignancy and parasitic infections failed to establish a diagnosis. Ascitic fluid analysis showed significant eosinophilia. Further, a full-thickness jejunal showed marked eosinophilic infiltration of the serosa and muscularis propria. Subsequent treatment with oral prednisone resulted in normalization of laboratory and radiologic abnormalities in a few week period. PMID:22649743

  3. Head Pose Estimation Using Multilinear Subspace Analysis for Robot Human Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Tonislav; Matthies, Larry; Vasilescu, M. Alex O.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile robots, operating in unconstrained indoor and outdoor environments, would benefit in many ways from perception of the human awareness around them. Knowledge of people's head pose and gaze directions would enable the robot to deduce which people are aware of the its presence, and to predict future motions of the people for better path planning. To make such inferences, requires estimating head pose on facial images that are combination of multiple varying factors, such as identity, appearance, head pose, and illumination. By applying multilinear algebra, the algebra of higher-order tensors, we can separate these factors and estimate head pose regardless of subject's identity or image conditions. Furthermore, we can automatically handle uncertainty in the size of the face and its location. We demonstrate a pipeline of on-the-move detection of pedestrians with a robot stereo vision system, segmentation of the head, and head pose estimation in cluttered urban street scenes.

  4. Head Pose Estimation Using Multilinear Subspace Analysis for Robot Human Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Tonislav; Matthies, Larry; Vasilescu, M. Alex O.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile robots, operating in unconstrained indoor and outdoor environments, would benefit in many ways from perception of the human awareness around them. Knowledge of people's head pose and gaze directions would enable the robot to deduce which people are aware of the its presence, and to predict future motions of the people for better path planning. To make such inferences, requires estimating head pose on facial images that are combination of multiple varying factors, such as identity, appearance, head pose, and illumination. By applying multilinear algebra, the algebra of higher-order tensors, we can separate these factors and estimate head pose regardless of subject's identity or image conditions. Furthermore, we can automatically handle uncertainty in the size of the face and its location. We demonstrate a pipeline of on-the-move detection of pedestrians with a robot stereo vision system, segmentation of the head, and head pose estimation in cluttered urban street scenes.

  5. Estimated financial and human resources requirements for the treatment of malaria in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria fever is a common medical presentation and diagnosis in Malawi. The national malaria policy supports self-diagnosis and self-medication for uncomplicated malaria with first line anti-malaria drugs. While a qualitative appreciation of the burden of malaria on the health system is recognized, there is limited quantitative estimation of the burden malaria exacts on the health system, especially with regard to human resources and financial burden on Malawi. Methods The burden of malaria was assessed based on estimated incidence rates for a high endemic country of which Malawi is one. Data on the available human resources and financial resources committed towards malaria from official Malawi government documents and programme reports were obtained. The amount of human and financial resources that would be required to treat 65% or 85% of symptomatic malaria cases as per the Roll Back Malaria partnership and the US President's Malaria Initiative targets. Results Based on a malaria incidence rate of 1.4 episodes per year per person it was estimated that there would be 3.71 million symptomatic episodes of malaria among children Conclusion Malaria exacts a heavy toll on the health system in Malawi. The national recommendation of self-medication with first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria is justified as there are not enough clinicians to provide clinical care for all cases. The Malawi Ministry of Health's promotion of malaria drug prescription including other lower cadre health workers may be justified.

  6. Whole body [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine imaging of baboons: biodistribution and human radiation dosimetry estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, Rajan [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Harris, Paul; Leibel, Rudolph [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Simpson, Norman; Parsey, Ramin [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Van Heertum, Ronald [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Mann, J.J. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 abundance quantified using the radiotracer [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) has been used to study diagnosis and pathogenesis of dementia and psychiatric disorders in humans. In addition, it may be a surrogate marker for insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell mass, useful for longitudinal measurements using positron emission tomography to track progression of autoimmune diabetes. To support the feasibility of long-term repeated administrations, we estimate the biodistribution and dosimetry of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ in humans. Five baboon studies were acquired using a Siemens ECAT camera. After transmission scanning, 165-210 MBq of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ were injected, and dynamic whole body emission scans were conducted. Time-activity data were used to obtain residence times and estimate absorbed radiation dose according to the MIRD model. Most of the injected tracer localized to the liver and the lungs, followed by the intestines, brain, and kidneys. The highest estimated absorbed radiation dose was in the stomach wall. The largest radiation dose from [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ is to the stomach wall. This dose estimate, as well as the radiation dose to other radiosensitive organs, must be considered in evaluating the risks of multiple administrations. (orig.)

  7. Age estimation in fossil hominins: comparing dental development in early Homo with modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M Christopher; Liversidge, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have used molar tooth eruption as a comparative marker of maturation in early fossil hominins. However, tooth eruption and tooth formation are independent maturational processes. To determine whether estimates of age for entering a stage of dental development in three early hominin fossils fell within the distribution of a modern human sample. This study used a comparative model of dental development to identify the stages of dental development most likely to provide information about length of the growth period in early fossil hominins. Age estimates for stages of dental development in fossils were superimposed onto a normal distribution of the same radiographically defined stages derived from a sample of 6540 children of diverse geographical origin. Both within the dentition of S7-37, from Sangiran, Java, but also for stages of two other specimens (KNM-WT 15000 from Kenya and StW 151 from South Africa), all age estimates for later stages of tooth formation fell within the modern sample range. A pattern appears to exist in early Homo where, both within and between developing dentitions, age estimates for stages of P4, M2 and M3 tooth formation fell consistently among the more advanced individuals of the modern human sample.

  8. Comparison of chlorzoxazone one-sample methods to estimate CYP2E1 activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Iza; Dalhoff, Kim; Clemmesen, Jens O

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Comparison of a one-sample with a multi-sample method (the metabolic fractional clearance) to estimate CYP2E1 activity in humans. METHODS: Healthy, male Caucasians ( n=19) were included. The multi-sample fractional clearance (Cl(fe)) of chlorzoxazone was compared with one...... estimates, Cl(est) at 3 h or 6 h, and MR at 3 h, can serve as reliable markers of CYP2E1 activity. The one-sample clearance method is an accurate, renal function-independent measure of the intrinsic activity; it is simple to use and easily applicable to humans.......-time-point clearance estimation (Cl(est)) at 3, 4, 5 and 6 h. Furthermore, the metabolite/drug ratios (MRs) estimated from one-time-point samples at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h were compared with Cl(fe). RESULTS: The concordance between Cl(est) and Cl(fe) was highest at 6 h. The minimal mean prediction error (MPE) of Cl...

  9. Estimation of Physical Human-Robot Interaction Using Cost-Effective Pneumatic Padding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Wilkening

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The idea to use a cost-effective pneumatic padding for sensing of physical interaction between a user and wearable rehabilitation robots is not new, but until now there has not been any practical relevant realization. In this paper, we present a novel method to estimate physical human-robot interaction using a pneumatic padding based on artificial neural networks (ANNs. This estimation can serve as rough indicator of applied forces/torques by the user and can be applied for visual feedback about the user’s participation or as additional information for interaction controllers. Unlike common mostly very expensive 6-axis force/torque sensors (FTS, the proposed sensor system can be easily integrated in the design of physical human-robot interfaces of rehabilitation robots and adapts itself to the shape of the individual patient’s extremity by pressure changing in pneumatic chambers, in order to provide a safe physical interaction with high user’s comfort. This paper describes a concept of using ANNs for estimation of interaction forces/torques based on pressure variations of eight customized air-pad chambers. The ANNs were trained one-time offline using signals of a high precision FTS which is also used as reference sensor for experimental validation. Experiments with three different subjects confirm the functionality of the concept and the estimation algorithm.

  10. Joint Estimation of Contamination, Error and Demography for Nuclear DNA from Ancient Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Racimo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available When sequencing an ancient DNA sample from a hominin fossil, DNA from present-day humans involved in excavation and extraction will be sequenced along with the endogenous material. This type of contamination is problematic for downstream analyses as it will introduce a bias towards the population of the contaminating individual(s. Quantifying the extent of contamination is a crucial step as it allows researchers to account for possible biases that may arise in downstream genetic analyses. Here, we present an MCMC algorithm to co-estimate the contamination rate, sequencing error rate and demographic parameters-including drift times and admixture rates-for an ancient nuclear genome obtained from human remains, when the putative contaminating DNA comes from present-day humans. We assume we have a large panel representing the putative contaminant population (e.g. European, East Asian or African. The method is implemented in a C++ program called 'Demographic Inference with Contamination and Error' (DICE. We applied it to simulations and genome data from ancient Neanderthals and modern humans. With reasonable levels of genome sequence coverage (>3X, we find we can recover accurate estimates of all these parameters, even when the contamination rate is as high as 50%.

  11. /sup 111/In-labeled eosinophils: localization of inflammatory lesions and parasitic infections in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Based upon recent development of practical isolation techniques for eosinophils, labeling and in vivo imaging of eosinophils has been achieved. Isolation of cells was performed utilizing a Percoll density gradient. The eosinophils were subsequently labeled by a modified /sup 111/In-oxine method. Migration of eosinophils in response to intradermal ear-pinna injections of SEA (soluble schistosoma egg antigen), S. mansoni eggs, E. coli, and turpentine was followed with gamma-ray camera imaging from 4 to 48 h. Maximal localization, determined by Gamma 11 data processing, occurred by 4-h post-injection of radiolabel. SEA and S. mansoni eggs provided a greater stimulus for localization than E. coli or turpentine. Neutrophils did not preferentially accumulate. Tissue distribution of labeled eosinophils was greatest in the spleen, followed by liver and bone. /sup 111/In-labeled-eosinophil scans are sensitive to parasitic infections, although somewhat nonspecific.

  12. Unified Structured Learning for Simultaneous Human Pose Estimation and Garment Attribute Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Liu, Guangcan; Chen, Jia; Fang, Yuqiang; Xie, Jianbin; Yu, Yong; Yan, Shuicheng

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we utilize structured learning to simultaneously address two intertwined problems: human pose estimation (HPE) and garment attribute classification (GAC), which are valuable for a variety of computer vision and multimedia applications. Unlike previous works that usually handle the two problems separately, our approach aims to produce a jointly optimal estimation for both HPE and GAC via a unified inference procedure. To this end, we adopt a preprocessing step to detect potential human parts from each image (i.e., a set of "candidates") that allows us to have a manageable input space. In this way, the simultaneous inference of HPE and GAC is converted to a structured learning problem, where the inputs are the collections of candidate ensembles, the outputs are the joint labels of human parts and garment attributes, and the joint feature representation involves various cues such as pose-specific features, garment-specific features, and cross-task features that encode correlations between human parts and garment attributes. Furthermore, we explore the "strong edge" evidence around the potential human parts so as to derive more powerful representations for oriented human parts. Such evidences can be seamlessly integrated into our structured learning model as a kind of energy function, and the learning process could be performed by standard structured Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm. However, the joint structure of the two problems is a cyclic graph, which hinders efficient inference. To resolve this issue, we compute instead approximate optima by using an iterative procedure, where in each iteration the variables of one problem are fixed. In this way, satisfactory solutions can be efficiently computed by dynamic programming. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets show the state-of-the-art performance of our approach.

  13. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia presenting with ipsilateral pleural effusion: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sriratanaviriyakul, Narin; La, Hanh H.; Albertson, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare idiopathic interstitial lung disease. The nearly pathognomonic radiographic finding is the peripheral distribution of alveolar opacities. Pleural effusions are rarely seen. We report a case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia with transudative eosinophilic pleural effusion. Case presentation A 57-year-old Hispanic woman, a nonsmoker with a history of controlled asthma, presented to the hospital with unresolving pneumonia despite three rounds o...

  14. Intestinal perforation in a two-year-old child with eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agertoft, A; Husby, S; Høst, A

    1991-01-01

    A two-year-old boy underwent a laparatomy for an intestinal perforation due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis. He had marked peripheral blood eosinophilia and a small duodenal biopsy showed heavy eosinophilic infiltration in the mucosa. After 1 1/2 year on a restricted diet, a control duodenal biopsy...... showed only slight eosinophilia. Perforation of the small intestine is a rare but serious complication in eosinophilic gastroenteritis....

  15. Regulation of Eosinophil Recruitment and Activation by Galectins in Allergic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita P. Rao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are differentiated granulocytes that are recruited from the bone marrow to sites of inflammation via the vascular system. Allergic asthma is characterized by the presence of large numbers of eosinophils in the lungs and airways. Due to their capacity to rapidly release inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and cytotoxic granule proteins upon stimulation, eosinophils play a critical role in pro-inflammatory processes in allergen-exposed lungs. Identifying key players and understanding the molecular mechanisms directing eosinophil trafficking and recruitment to inflamed airways is a key to developing therapeutic strategies to limit their influx. Recent studies have brought to light the important role of glycans and glycan binding proteins in regulating recruitment of eosinophils. In addition to the role of previously identified eosinophil- and endothelial-expressed adhesion molecules in mediating eosinophil trafficking and recruitment to the inflamed airways, studies have also indicated a role for galectins (galectin-3 in this process. Galectins are mammalian lectins expressed by various cell types including eosinophils. Intracellularly, they can regulate biological processes such as cell motility. Extracellularly, galectins interact with β-galactosides in cell surface-expressed glycans to regulate cellular responses like production of inflammatory mediators, cell adhesion, migration, and apoptosis. Eosinophils express galectins intracellularly or on the cell surface where they interact with cell surface glycoconjugate receptors. Depending on the type (galectin-1, -3, etc. and location (extracellular or intracellular, endogenous or exogenously delivered, galectins differentially regulate eosinophil recruitment, activation, and apoptosis and thus exert a pro- or anti-inflammatory outcome. Here, we have reviewed information pertaining to galectins (galectin-1, -3 -9, and -10 that are expressed by

  16. An optimal state estimation model of sensory integration in human postural balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Arthur D.

    2005-09-01

    We propose a model for human postural balance, combining state feedback control with optimal state estimation. State estimation uses an internal model of body and sensor dynamics to process sensor information and determine body orientation. Three sensory modalities are modeled: joint proprioception, vestibular organs in the inner ear, and vision. These are mated with a two degree-of-freedom model of body dynamics in the sagittal plane. Linear quadratic optimal control is used to design state feedback and estimation gains. Nine free parameters define the control objective and the signal-to-noise ratios of the sensors. The model predicts statistical properties of human sway in terms of covariance of ankle and hip motion. These predictions are compared with normal human responses to alterations in sensory conditions. With a single parameter set, the model successfully reproduces the general nature of postural motion as a function of sensory environment. Parameter variations reveal that the model is highly robust under normal sensory conditions, but not when two or more sensors are inaccurate. This behavior is similar to that of normal human subjects. We propose that age-related sensory changes may be modeled with decreased signal-to-noise ratios, and compare the model's behavior with degraded sensors against experimental measurements from older adults. We also examine removal of the model's vestibular sense, which leads to instability similar to that observed in bilateral vestibular loss subjects. The model may be useful for predicting which sensors are most critical for balance, and how much they can deteriorate before posture becomes unstable.

  17. Eosinophils elicit proliferation of naive and fungal-specific cells in vivo so enhancing a T helper type 1 cytokine profile in favour of a protective immune response against Cryptococcus neoformans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garro, Ana P; Chiapello, Laura S; Baronetti, Jose L; Masih, Diana T

    2011-10-01

    Experimental Cryptococcus neoformans infection in rats has been shown to have similarities with human cryptococcosis, because as in healthy humans, rats can effectively contain cryptococcal infection. Moreover, it has been shown that eosinophils are components of the immune response to C. neoformans infections. In a previous in vitro study, we demonstrated that rat peritoneal eosinophils phagocytose opsonized live yeasts of C. neoformans, thereby triggering their activation, as indicated by the up-regulation of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules and the increase in interleukin-12, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ production. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that C. neoformans-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes cultured with these activated C. neoformans-pulsed eosinophils proliferated, and produced important amounts of T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines in the absence of Th2 cytokine synthesis. In the present in vivo study, we have shown that C. neoformans-pulsed eosinophils are also able to migrate into lymphoid organs to present C. neoformans antigens, thereby priming naive and re-stimulating infected rats to induce T-cell and B-cell responses against infection with the fungus. Furthermore, the antigen-specific immune response induced by C. neoformans-pulsed eosinophils, which is characterized by the development of a Th1 microenvironment with increased levels of NO synthesis and C. neoformans-specific immunoglobulin production, was demonstrated to be able to protect rats against subsequent infection with fungus. In summary, the present work demonstrates that eosinophils act as antigen-presenting cells for the fungal antigen, hence initiating and modulating a C. neoformans-specific immune response. Finally, we suggest that C. neoformans-loaded eosinophils might participate in the protective immune response against these fungi.

  18. Total artificial heart implantation for biventricular failure due to eosinophilic myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabori, Masashi; Kurihara, Chitaru; Miller, Yair; Heck, Kent A; Bogaev, Roberta C; Civitello, Andrew B; Cohn, William E; Frazier, O H; Morgan, Jeffrey A

    2017-03-27

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome is a condition of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation of eosinophils and their infiltration into tissues. Although cardiac involvement is rare, eosinophilic myocarditis can lead to life-threating fulminant congestive heart failure. Treatment of patients with eosinophilic myocarditis is challenging as heart failure can be caused by biventricular dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature describing a patient with acute severe biventricular heart failure caused by eosinophilic myocarditis with mural left ventricular apical thrombus who was successfully treated with implantation of a total artificial heart as a bridge to heart transplant.

  19. 5-Lipoxygenase-Dependent Recruitment of Neutrophils and Macrophages by Eotaxin-Stimulated Murine Eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Luz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of eosinophils in antimicrobial defense remain incompletely understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, eosinophils are selectively recruited to the peritoneal cavity by antigen, eotaxin, or leukotriene(LTB4, a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO metabolite. 5-LO blockade prevents responses to both antigen and eotaxin. We examined responses to eotaxin in the absence of sensitization and their dependence on 5-LO. BALB/c or PAS mice and their mutants (5-LO-deficient ALOX; eosinophil-deficient GATA-1 were injected i.p. with eotaxin, eosinophils, or both, and leukocyte accumulation was quantified up to 24 h. Significant recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin in BALB/c, up to 24 h, was accompanied by much larger numbers of recruited neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These effects were abolished by eotaxin neutralization and 5-LO-activating protein inhibitor MK886. In ALOX (but not PAS mice, eotaxin recruitment was abolished for eosinophils and halved for neutrophils. In GATA-1 mutants, eotaxin recruited neither neutrophils nor macrophages. Transfer of eosinophils cultured from bone-marrow of BALB/c donors, or from ALOX donors, into GATA-1 mutant recipients, i.p., restored eotaxin recruitment of neutrophils and showed that the critical step dependent on 5-LO is the initial recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin, not the secondary neutrophil accumulation. Eosinophil-dependent recruitment of neutrophils in naive BALB/c mice was associated with increased binding of bacteria.

  20. Dyspnea and Wheezing after Adenosine Injection in a Patient with Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cartin-Ceba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old nonsmoker female was referred for evaluation of chronic cough of 13 months duration. After an initial work-up, the patient was diagnosed to have chronic cough due to eosinophilic bronchitis. The diagnostic work-up for eosinophilic bronchitis and bronchial biopsy is discussed. Eosinophilic bronchitis is differentiated from asthma. In addition, the patient developed dyspnea, flushing, and wheezing after the administration of adenosine during a cardiac stress test in spite of a negative methacholine challenge. This indirect stimulus of airway hyperresponsiveness suggests the possible involvement of mast cells in eosinophilic bronchitis.

  1. PECULIARITIES OF THE FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF BLOOD EOSINOPHIL GRANULOCYTES IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Kolobovnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are polyfunctional leukocytes detected in excess in blood and in the focus of granulomatous inflammation in pulmonary TB.The research objective was to evaluate the adhesive properties as well as cytokine-secretory and antibacterial activity of blood eosinophils in pulmonary TB.The research has been conducted on eosinophils isolated from peripheral blood of 43 patients with freshly identified progressive destructive TB with and without eosinophilia. Using flow cytometry and ELISA, expression of CD9 and CD18 adhesion molecules on blood eosinophils has been studied along with the phagocyte and cytokine-secretory functions and activity of eosinophil granulocyte peroxidase.As a result of the research it has been established that in TB patients with eosinophilia the number of CD18-expressing eosinophils rises, whereas the amount of CD9+ remains within norm. Activation of the phagocyte function of blood eosinophil granulocytes is associated with the decrease in eosinophil peroxidase activity, while the increase in IL-5 and TNFα secretory reactivity is connected with oppositely directed changes in  IL-2 basal secretion by eosinophils in vitro (a fall in infiltrative TB and a rise in disseminated TB.

  2. EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND FOOD ALLERGY AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Shumilov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the structure of the inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract among children, one may single out a specific group of the chronic pathology of the digestive apparatus — eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastroenterological manifestations of the food allergy. The food allergy is characterized by the pathologic immune reactivity among commonly genetically predisposed people. Depending on the peculiarities of the immune reactivity of a sick person and the nature of the allergen, the allergic reaction may evolve with primary involvement of the different mechanisms or th2 IgE-mediated, or Th1 non-igecmediated. Clinical picture of the food allergy is the manifestation of the immunoinflammatory process caused by the interaction of the food antigens with the structures of the lymphoid tissues associated with the mucous membranes of this or that target organ. The morphological basis of the clinical picture is mostly immune inflammation with primarily eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The eosinophilic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, eosinophilic colitis, eosinophilic proctitis and other states. During the food allergy each of the clinical forms of the gastrointestinal tract lesion has its own peculiarities with regards to the primary development mechanism, age of manifestation, character of the run and behaviour tactics.Key words: eosinophilic inflammation, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, colitis, food allergy.

  3. A Review on the Computational Methods for Emotional State Estimation from the Human EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Miyoung; Oh, Eunmi

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of affective computing researches recently developed a computer system that can recognize an emotional state of the human user to establish affective human-computer interactions. Various measures have been used to estimate emotional states, including self-report, startle response, behavioral response, autonomic measurement, and neurophysiologic measurement. Among them, inferring emotional states from electroencephalography (EEG) has received considerable attention as EEG could directly reflect emotional states with relatively low costs and simplicity. Yet, EEG-based emotional state estimation requires well-designed computational methods to extract information from complex and noisy multichannel EEG data. In this paper, we review the computational methods that have been developed to deduct EEG indices of emotion, to extract emotion-related features, or to classify EEG signals into one of many emotional states. We also propose using sequential Bayesian inference to estimate the continuous emotional state in real time. We present current challenges for building an EEG-based emotion recognition system and suggest some future directions.   PMID:23634176

  4. Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor Selectively Inhibits the Endothelium-Driven Transmigration of Eosinophils In Vitro and Airway Eosinophilia in OVA-Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Schnyder-Candrian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion molecules are involved in cell recruitment in an allergic airway response and therefore provide a target for pharmaceutical intervention. Neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF, derived from canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, binds selectively and competes with the A-domain of CD11b for binding to ICAM-1. The effect of recombinant NIF was investigated. Intranasal administration of rNIF reduced pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and Th2 cytokine production in OVA-sensitized mice. In vitro, transendothelial migration of human blood eosinophils across IL-4-activated umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers was inhibited by rNIF (IC50: 4.6±2.6 nM; mean ± SEM, but not across TNF or IL-1-activated HUVEC monolayers. Treatment of eosinophils with rNIF together with mAb 60.1 directed against CD11b or mAb 107 directed against the metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS of the CD11b A-domain resulted in no further inhibition of transendothelial migration suggesting shared functional epitopes. In contrast, rNIF increased the inhibitory effect of blocking mAbs against CD18, CD11a, and VLA-4. Together, we show that rNIF, a selective antagonist of the A-domain of CD11b, has a prominent inhibitory effect on eosinophil transendothelial migration in vitro, which is congruent to the in vivo inhibition of OVA-induced allergic lung inflammation.

  5. Human intake fractions of pesticides via greenhouse tomato consumption: comparing model estimates with measurements for Captan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraske, R; Antón, A; Castells, F; Huijbregts, M A J

    2007-04-01

    Human intake due to pesticide residues in food commodities can be much higher than those related to water consumption and air inhalation, stressing the importance to correctly estimate pesticide uptake into plants and predict subsequent intake by humans. We calculated the human intake fraction of captan via tomato consumption taking into account the time between pesticide application and harvest, the time between harvest and consumption, the absorption of spray deposit on plant surfaces, transfer properties through the cuticle, degradation inside the plant and loss due to food processing. Human population intake fractions due to ingestion were calculated for complete, washed and peeled tomatoes. The calculated intake fractions were compared with measurements derived from an experimental setup in a Mediterranean greenhouse. The fraction of captan applied in the greenhouse as plant treatment that eventually is ingested by the human population is on average 10(-2)-10(-5), depending on the time between pesticide application and ingestion of tomatoes and the processing step considered. Model and experimentally derived intake fractions deviated less than a factor of 2 for complete and washed tomatoes and a factor of 3 for peeled tomatoes. Intake fractions due to air inhalation and consumption of drinking water are expected to be significantly lower (5-9 orders of magnitude) than those induced by the intake of tomatoes in this case study.

  6. Design of a wearable perturbator for human knee impedance estimation during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Michael R; Moser, Adrian; Lambercy, Olivier; Sulzer, James; Gassert, Roger

    2013-06-01

    Mechanical impedance modulation is the key to natural, stable and efficient human locomotion. An improved understanding of this mechanism is necessary for the development of the next generation of intelligent prosthetic and orthotic devices. This paper documents the design methodologies that were employed to realize a knee perturbator that can experimentally estimate human knee impedance during gait through the application of angular velocity perturbations. The proposed experiment requires a light, transparent, wearable, and remotely actuated device that closely follows the movement of the biological joint. A genetic algorithm was used to design a polycentric hinge whose instantaneous center of rotation is optimized to be kinematically compatible with the human knee. A wafer disc clutch was designed to switch between a high transparency passive mode and a high impedance actuated mode. A remote actuation and transmission scheme was designed to enable high power output perturbations while minimizing the device's mass. Position and torque sensors were designed for device control and to provide data for post-processing and joint impedance estimation. Pending the fabrication and mechanical testing of the device, we expect this knee perturbator to be a valuable tool for experimental investigation of locomotive joint impedance modulation.

  7. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients in cold and windy environments estimated from human experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shabat, Yael; Shitzer, Avraham

    2012-07-01

    Facial heat exchange convection coefficients were estimated from experimental data in cold and windy ambient conditions applicable to wind chill calculations. Measured facial temperature datasets, that were made available to this study, originated from 3 separate studies involving 18 male and 6 female subjects. Most of these data were for a -10°C ambient environment and wind speeds in the range of 0.2 to 6 m s(-1). Additional single experiments were for -5°C, 0°C and 10°C environments and wind speeds in the same range. Convection coefficients were estimated for all these conditions by means of a numerical facial heat exchange model, applying properties of biological tissues and a typical facial diameter of 0.18 m. Estimation was performed by adjusting the guessed convection coefficients in the computed facial temperatures, while comparing them to measured data, to obtain a satisfactory fit (r(2) > 0.98, in most cases). In one of the studies, heat flux meters were additionally used. Convection coefficients derived from these meters closely approached the estimated values for only the male subjects. They differed significantly, by about 50%, when compared to the estimated female subjects' data. Regression analysis was performed for just the -10°C ambient temperature, and the range of experimental wind speeds, due to the limited availability of data for other ambient temperatures. The regressed equation was assumed in the form of the equation underlying the "new" wind chill chart. Regressed convection coefficients, which closely duplicated the measured data, were consistently higher than those calculated by this equation, except for one single case. The estimated and currently used convection coefficients are shown to diverge exponentially from each other, as wind speed increases. This finding casts considerable doubts on the validity of the convection coefficients that are used in the computation of the "new" wind chill chart and their applicability to humans in

  8. The estimated lifetime probability of acquiring human papillomavirus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Dunne, Eileen F; Hariri, Susan; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2014-11-01

    Estimates of the lifetime probability of acquiring human papillomavirus (HPV) can help to quantify HPV incidence, illustrate how common HPV infection is, and highlight the importance of HPV vaccination. We developed a simple model, based primarily on the distribution of lifetime numbers of sex partners across the population and the per-partnership probability of acquiring HPV, to estimate the lifetime probability of acquiring HPV in the United States in the time frame before HPV vaccine availability. We estimated the average lifetime probability of acquiring HPV among those with at least 1 opposite sex partner to be 84.6% (range, 53.6%-95.0%) for women and 91.3% (range, 69.5%-97.7%) for men. Under base case assumptions, more than 80% of women and men acquire HPV by age 45 years. Our results are consistent with estimates in the existing literature suggesting a high lifetime probability of HPV acquisition and are supported by cohort studies showing high cumulative HPV incidence over a relatively short period, such as 3 to 5 years.

  9. Estimation of Human Arm Joints Using Two Wireless Sensors in Robotic Rehabilitation Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Lledó, Luis D; Díez, Jorge A; Catalan, Jose M; Ezquerro, Santiago; Badesa, Francisco J; Garcia-Aracil, Nicolas

    2015-12-04

    This paper presents a novel kinematic reconstruction of the human arm chain with five degrees of freedom and the estimation of the shoulder location during rehabilitation therapy assisted by end-effector robotic devices. This algorithm is based on the pseudoinverse of the Jacobian through the acceleration of the upper arm, measured using an accelerometer, and the orientation of the shoulder, estimated with a magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG) device. The results show a high accuracy in terms of arm joints and shoulder movement with respect to the real arm measured through an optoelectronic system. Furthermore, the range of motion (ROM) of 50 healthy subjects is studied from two different trials, one trying to avoid shoulder movements and the second one forcing them. Moreover, the shoulder movement in the second trial is also estimated accurately. Besides the fact that the posture of the patient can be corrected during the exercise, the therapist could use the presented algorithm as an objective assessment tool. In conclusion, the joints' estimation enables a better adjustment of the therapy, taking into account the needs of the patient, and consequently, the arm motion improves faster.

  10. Estimation of Human Arm Joints Using Two Wireless Sensors in Robotic Rehabilitation Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Bertomeu-Motos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel kinematic reconstruction of the human arm chain with five degrees of freedom and the estimation of the shoulder location during rehabilitation therapy assisted by end-effector robotic devices. This algorithm is based on the pseudoinverse of the Jacobian through the acceleration of the upper arm, measured using an accelerometer, and the orientation of the shoulder, estimated with a magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG device. The results show a high accuracy in terms of arm joints and shoulder movement with respect to the real arm measured through an optoelectronic system. Furthermore, the range of motion (ROM of 50 healthy subjects is studied from two different trials, one trying to avoid shoulder movements and the second one forcing them. Moreover, the shoulder movement in the second trial is also estimated accurately. Besides the fact that the posture of the patient can be corrected during the exercise, the therapist could use the presented algorithm as an objective assessment tool. In conclusion, the joints’ estimation enables a better adjustment of the therapy, taking into account the needs of the patient, and consequently, the arm motion improves faster.

  11. Innovative techniques for estimating illegal activities in a human-wildlife-management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cross

    Full Text Available Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles is considered an important vector in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in cattle herds. Land managers in high bTB prevalence areas of the UK can cull badgers under license. However, badgers are also known to be killed illegally. The extent of illegal badger killing is currently unknown. Herein we report on the application of three innovative techniques (Randomized Response Technique (RRT; projective questioning (PQ; brief implicit association test (BIAT for investigating illegal badger killing by livestock farmers across Wales. RRT estimated that 10.4% of farmers killed badgers in the 12 months preceding the study. Projective questioning responses and implicit associations relate to farmers' badger killing behavior reported via RRT. Studies evaluating the efficacy of mammal vector culling and vaccination programs should incorporate estimates of non-compliance. Mitigating the conflict concerning badgers as a vector of bTB requires cross-disciplinary scientific research, departure from deep-rooted positions, and the political will to implement evidence-based management.

  12. Successful early diagnosis and treatment in a case of Toxocara canis-induced eosinophilic myocarditis with eosinophil-rich pericardial effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangen, Hideto; Tanabe, Jun; Takano, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Wataru

    2015-09-03

    Fulminant myocarditis can become fatal if left untreated. Treatments for most types of myocarditis, including mechanical support, are limited. However, immediate systemic corticosteroids are known to be effective against eosinophilic myocarditis; therefore, prompt diagnosis of this disease is crucial. Unfortunately, the standard diagnostic tool for myocarditis, endomyocardial biopsy, does not provide immediate histopathological findings. Thus, a rapid diagnostic tool for identifying types of myocarditis is urgently required. We report here the first case of Toxocara canis-induced eosinophilic fulminant myocarditis which was diagnosed based on eosinophil-rich pericardial effusion where the patient recovered with early corticosteroid therapy.

  13. Estimating limits for natural human embryo mortality [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin E. Jarvis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural human embryonic mortality is generally considered to be high. Values of 70% and higher are widely cited. However, it is difficult to determine accurately owing to an absence of direct data quantifying embryo loss between fertilisation and implantation. The best available data for quantifying pregnancy loss come from three published prospective studies (Wilcox, Zinaman and Wang with daily cycle by cycle monitoring of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG in women attempting to conceive. Declining conception rates cycle by cycle in these studies indicate that a proportion of the study participants were sub-fertile. Hence, estimates of fecundability and pre-implantation embryo mortality obtained from the whole study cohort will inevitably be biased. This new re-analysis of aggregate data from these studies confirms the impression that discrete fertile and sub-fertile sub-cohorts were present. The proportion of sub-fertile women in the three studies was estimated as 28.1% (Wilcox, 22.8% (Zinaman and 6.0% (Wang. The probability of conceiving an hCG pregnancy (indicating embryo implantation was, respectively, 43.2%, 38.1% and 46.2% among normally fertile women, and 7.6%, 2.5% and 4.7% among sub-fertile women. Pre-implantation loss is impossible to calculate directly from available data although plausible limits can be estimated. Based on this new analysis and a model for evaluating reproductive success and failure it is proposed that a plausible range for normal human embryo and fetal mortality from fertilisation to birth is 40-60%.

  14. Chronic rhinitis: Effects of local corticosteroids on eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursulović Dejan D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestation of chronic rhinitis is due to local release of mediators from inflammatory cells. Eosinophil leukocytes are important in pathogenesis of nasal hypersensitivity as well as nasal hyperreactivity [1,2]. The aim of the study was to follow-up the effect of local corticosteroid treatment on a number of eosinophils in nasal secretion of patients with chronic rhinitis. The study was prospective and controlled. A total number of 88 subjects was included in the study. Patients with chronic rhinitis who were treated with local corticosteroids (63 constituted the experimental group (37 with isolated allergic rhinitis, 10 with isolated nonallergic noninfective hyperreactive rhinitis, 10 with allergic rhinitis associated with nasal polyposis and 6 with nonallergic noninfective hyperreactive rhinitis associated with nasal polyposis. There were 25 patients with chronic rhinitis in the control group (18 with iso- lated allergic rhinitis, 2 with isolated nonallergic noninfective hyperreactive rhinitis, 3 with allergic rhinitis associated with nasal polyposis, and 2 with nonallergic noninfective, hyperreactive rhinitis associated with nasal polyposis. During the treatment with beclomethasone dipropionate aqueous nasal spray (daily dose was 400 micrograms during 6 weeks for isolated rhinitis and 6 months for associated forms of rhinitis, control examinations were regularly performed. The first control was after one week the second after six weeks, the third after three months and the fourth after six months. The same control was carried out in the control group of patients who were without therapy. Cytological examination of nasal secretions included brush method of collecting secretions, staining smears with Leishman's stain and light microscopic scrutinising of nasal smear magnified up to 1000 times. The results of the study demonstrated the highly significant decrease in the number of eosinophils after the therapy in patients with isolated

  15. Peak muscle perfusion and oxygen uptake in humans: importance of precise estimates of muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Râdegran, G; Blomstrand, E; Saltin, B

    1999-12-01

    The knee extensor exercise model was specifically developed to enable in vivo estimates of peak muscle blood flow and O(2) uptake in humans. The original finding, using thermodilution measurements to measure blood flow in relation to muscle mass [P. Andersen and B. Saltin. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 366: 233-249, 1985], was questioned, however, as the measurements were two- to threefold higher than those previously obtained with the (133)Xe clearance and the plethysmography technique. As thermodilution measurements have now been confirmed by other methods and independent research groups, we aimed to address the impact of muscle mass estimates on the peak values of muscle perfusion and O(2) uptake. In the present study, knee extensor volume was determined from multiple measurements with computer tomography along the full length of the muscle. In nine healthy humans, quadriceps muscle volume was 2.36 +/- 0.17 (range 1. 31-3.27) liters, corresponding to 2.48 +/- 0.18 (range 1.37-3.43) kg. Anthropometry overestimated the muscle volume by approximately 21-46%, depending on whether quadriceps muscle length was estimated from the patella to either the pubic bone, inguinal ligament, or spina iliaca anterior superior. One-legged, dynamic knee extensor exercise up to peak effort of 67 +/- 7 (range 55-100) W rendered peak values for leg blood flow (thermodilution) of 5.99 +/- 0.66 (range 4.15-9.52) l/min and leg O(2) uptake of 856 +/- 109 (range 590-1,521) ml/min. Muscle perfusion and O(2) uptake reached peak values of 246 +/- 24 (range 149-373) and 35.2 +/- 3.7 (range 22.6-59. 6) ml. min(-1). 100 g muscle(-1), respectively. These peak values are approximately 19-33% larger than those attained by applying anthropometric muscle mass estimates. In conclusion, the present findings emphasize that peak perfusion and O(2) uptake in human skeletal muscle may be up to approximately 30% higher than previous anthropometric-based estimates that use equivalent techniques for blood flow

  16. Multimodel estimates of premature human mortality due to intercontinental transport of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Sudo, K.; Lund, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Takemura, T.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous modeling studies indicate that emissions from one continent influence air quality over others. Reducing air pollutant emissions from one continent can therefore benefit air quality and health on multiple continents. Here, we estimate the impacts of the intercontinental transport of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on premature human mortality by using an ensemble of global chemical transport models coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). We use simulations of 20% reductions of all anthropogenic emissions from 13 regions (North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia, and Australia) to calculate their impact on premature mortality within each region and elsewhere in the world. To better understand the impact of potential control strategies, we also analyze premature mortality for global 20% perturbations from five sectors individually: power and industry, ground transport, forest and savannah fires, residential, and others (shipping, aviation, and agriculture). Following previous studies, premature human mortality resulting from each perturbation scenario is calculated using a health impact function based on a log-linear model for O3 and an integrated exposure response model for PM2.5 to estimate relative risk. The spatial distribution of the exposed population (adults aged 25 and over) is obtained from the LandScan 2011 Global Population Dataset. Baseline mortality rates for chronic respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer are estimated from the GBD 2010 country-level mortality dataset for the exposed population. Model results are regridded from each model's original grid to a common 0.5°x0.5° grid used to estimate mortality. We perform uncertainty analysis and evaluate the sensitivity

  17. Economy-wide estimates of the implications of climate change. Human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosello, Francesco [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Venice (Italy); Roson, Roberto [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Tol, Richard S.J. [Centre for Marine and Climate Research, Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-06-25

    We study the economic impacts of climate-change-induced change in human health, viz. cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, diarrhoea, malaria, dengue fever and schistosomiasis. Changes in morbidity and mortality are interpreted as changes in labour productivity and demand for health care, and used to shock the GTAP-E computable general equilibrium model, calibrated for the year 2050. GDP, welfare and investment fall (rise) in regions with net negative (positive) health impacts. Prices, production, and terms of trade show a mixed pattern. Direct cost estimates, common in climate change impact studies, underestimate the true welfare losses. (author)

  18. Internal strain estimation for quantification of human heel pad elastic modulus: A phantom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Karen; Liebgott, Hervé; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2013-01-01

    Shock absorption is the most important function of the human heel pad. However, changes in heel pad elasticity, as seen in e.g. long-distance runners, diabetes patients, and victims of Falanga torture are affecting this function, often in a painful manner. Assessment of heel pad elasticity......, and the three hard phantoms were 89kPa, 153kPa, and 168kPa, respectively. The combination of ultrasound images and force measurements provided an effective way of assessing the elastic properties of the heel pad due to the internal strain estimation....

  19. Role of IgE in Eosinophilic Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Iino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM is an intractable otitis media characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellow effusion containing eosinophils. It mainly occurs in patients with bronchial asthma and is resistant to conventional treatments for otitis media. Here we discuss the role of IgE in the pathogenesis of EOM. In middle ear effusion, a significantly higher IgE level was detected in EOM patients than in control patients with common otitis media with effusion. This IgE level was significantly higher (about 10 fold than the serum IgE level. In addition, many IgE-immunopositive cells were found in the middle ear mucosa. The IgE staining was mainly observed on mast cell surfaces, but also partially in the cytoplasm of cells that appeared to be plasma cells. These results suggested that IgE is produced locally in the middle ear mucosa. The existence of high-level IgE may exacerbate eosinophilic inflammation in the middle ear. One of the most distinct characteristics of EOM is the high incidence of sensory hearing loss independent of age. High-tone hearing loss is more frequently found and more severe in EOM patients than in control patients with common chronic otitis media. The concentration of IgE in middle ear effusion significantly and positively correlated with bone conduction hearing levels at 2 kHz and 4 kHz in EOM patients. Overproduction of IgE locally in the middle ear may be related to the pathological condition of EOM and eventually cause inner ear damage.

  20. Do endoscopic features suggesting eosinophilic esophagitis represent histological eosinophilia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kazutoshi; Watari, Jiro; Fukui, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Junji; Tomita, Toshihiko; Sakurai, Jun; Kondo, Takashi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Toyoshima, Fumihiko; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Okugawa, Takuya; Miwa, Hiroto

    2014-03-01

    Esophageal linear furrows, corrugated rings, and/or white exudates are often seen in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE); however, whether these are specific to EoE remains unclear. Endoscopic surveillance of these features was conducted to determine whether these represent esophageal eosinophilia, which is essential for the diagnosis of EoE. Two thousand seven hundred and sixty-three patients were enrolled consecutively. Target biopsy was carried out when the above features were seen. Histological eosinophilia was defined as 24 or more eosinophils per high-power field (HPF). Associations between features and eosinophilia were analyzed statistically. Two thousand five hundred and forty-five patients completed the study. Linear furrows, corrugated rings and white exudates were seen in 24, 15 and 45 patients, respectively. These findings somewhat overlapped. Among 58 biopsied patients withany of the above features, these features represented eosinophilia in 14% (3/21), 23% (3/13), and 5% (2/43), respectively. None of the 199 patients who received biopsy for other features had eosinophilia. Two of five eosinophilia patients were diagnosed with EoE. Multiple comparisons revealed that eosinophil counts in linear furrows and corrugated rings but not white exudates were significantly greater than those in other features (12, 9, 1, and eosinophilia and is non-specific for EoE, although it reminds endoscopists of the presence of EoE. The diagnostic utility of linear furrows or corrugated rings for esophageal eosinophilia is superior to that of white exudates. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  1. Estimating three-dimensional orientation of human body parts by inertial/magnetic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2011-01-01

    User-worn sensing units composed of inertial and magnetic sensors are becoming increasingly popular in various domains, including biomedical engineering, robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space. Although they are a promising choice as wearable sensors under many respects, the inertial and magnetic sensors currently in use offer measuring performance that are critical in order to achieve and maintain accurate 3D-orientation estimates, anytime and anywhere. This paper reviews the main sensor fusion and filtering techniques proposed for accurate inertial/magnetic orientation tracking of human body parts; it also gives useful recipes for their actual implementation.

  2. Eosinophil peroxidase in sputum represents a unique biomarker of airway eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P; Ochkur, S I; Protheroe, C; Radford, K; Efthimiadis, A; Lee, N A; Lee, J J

    2013-09-01

    Sputum eosinophilia has been shown to be a predictor of response to anti-eosinophil therapies in patients with airway diseases. However, quantitative cell counts and differentials of sputum are labor intensive. The objective of this study was to validate a novel ELISA-based assay of eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) in sputum as a rapid and reliable marker of airway eosinophils. The utility of EPX-based ELISA as an eosinophil-specific assay was achieved through comparisons with sputum eosinophil differential counts in freshly prepared and archived patient samples from a variety of clinical settings. EPX levels in sputum correlated with eosinophil percentage (r(s) = 0.84) in asthma patients with varying degrees of airway eosinophilia. Significantly, unlike assays of other eosinophil granule proteins (e.g., ECP and EDN), which often detect the presence of these proteins even in asthma patients with neutrophilic bronchitis, EPX-based ELISA levels are not increased in this subset of asthma patients or in COPD patients lacking evidence of an airway eosinophilia. Moreover, sputum EPX was a surrogate marker of airway eosinophilia in other patient studies (e.g., allergen inhalation and treatment trials the anti-(IL-5) therapeutic Mepolizumab™). Finally, EPX levels in cytocentrifuged prepared sputum supernatants correlated with those from rapidly prepared noncentrifuged filtrates of sputum (r(s) = 0.94). EPX-based ELISA is a valid, reliable, repeatable, and specific surrogate marker of eosinophils and/or eosinophil degranulation in the sputum of respiratory patients. The novel EPX assay is a valid and reproducible eosinophil-specific assay that can potentially be developed into a point-of-care assessment of eosinophil activity in airway secretions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Myeloprolipherative disorder type chronic myeloid leukemia--eosinophilic form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautovic-Custovic, Aida; Hasic, Samira; Kopic, Emina; Jahic, Azra; Jovic, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a very rare form of leucemia in the western world. Adequate response is seldomly achieved after treatment with corticosteroids, interferon-alfa (INF-alfa) and medications containing hydroxi-urea (Litalir). The study presents a patient with CEL with no initial therapeutic response to the use of corticosteroids, INF-alfa and hydroxy-urea, and with neither clinical nor hematological response. After setting a diagnosis of CEL, patient was ordinated Imatinib (Glivec tabbletes) in a daily dose of 200 mg. Two days afterwards there was an evident withdrawal of subjective and clinical symptoms of disease, and the complete blood count showed significant amendment.

  4. Eosinophilic pneumonia due to toxocariasis: an adult case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Mustafa; Unlü, Mehmet; Fidan, Fatma; Kaya, Selçuk

    2012-01-01

    Toxocara is a roundworm, a common parasite of dogs (T. canis) and cats (T. cati). Toxocariasis or Visceral larva migrans (VLM) are diseases caused by the larvae of Toxocara sp., which may involve many organs, but pulmonary symptoms such as coughing and wheezing and allergic symptoms are seen in more than 80% of patients. It is known that, although the risk of infection is present, the worldwide diagnosis of toxocariasis is difficult since clinical and laboratory data provide insufficient evidence for the diagnosis. Nowadays, the diagnosis of toxocariasis is performed by serologic methods. We describe herein a case of toxocariasis with eosinophilic pneumonia that was diagnosed using serologic methods.

  5. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junji Takeyama; Daiki Abukawa; Katsushi Miura

    2007-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy developed transient protein-losing gastroenteropathy associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Both IgG and IgM antibodies to CMV were positive in a serologic blood test. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed multiple erosions throughout the body of the stomach, without enlarged gastric folds. Histological examination of the biopsy specimens indicated eosinophilic gastroenteritis and CMV infection. The patient had complete resolution without specific therapy for CMV in four weeks. An allergic reaction as well as CMV infection played important roles in the pathogenesis of this case.

  6. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis and Diffuse Gastrointestinal Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Franco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, formerly named Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare systemic small- and medium-sized-vessel vasculitis, characterized by the presence of severe asthma as well as blood and tissue eosinophilia. Gastrointestinal (GI symptoms, like diarrhea and abdominal pain, are common; however, there are few reports of histologic evidence of GI involvement. We report the case of a patient on treatment for EGPA who presented with recurrent small bowel obstruction and choledocholithiasis. Biopsies of the esophagus, small bowel and common bile duct showed diffuse eosinophilia, with clear EGPA in the GI tract. Improved awareness of GI EGPA may allow for timely management of this disorder.

  7. Human body mass estimation: a comparison of "morphometric" and "mechanical" methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Benjamin M; Ruff, Christopher B

    2004-12-01

    In the past, body mass was reconstructed from hominin skeletal remains using both "mechanical" methods which rely on the support of body mass by weight-bearing skeletal elements, and "morphometric" methods which reconstruct body mass through direct assessment of body size and shape. A previous comparison of two such techniques, using femoral head breadth (mechanical) and stature and bi-iliac breadth (morphometric), indicated a good general correspondence between them (Ruff et al. [1997] Nature 387:173-176). However, the two techniques were never systematically compared across a large group of modern humans of diverse body form. This study incorporates skeletal measures taken from 1,173 Holocene adult individuals, representing diverse geographic origins, body sizes, and body shapes. Femoral head breadth, bi-iliac breadth (after pelvic rearticulation), and long bone lengths were measured on each individual. Statures were estimated from long bone lengths using appropriate reference samples. Body masses were calculated using three available femoral head breadth (FH) formulae and the stature/bi-iliac breadth (STBIB) formula, and compared. All methods yielded similar results. Correlations between FH estimates and STBIB estimates are 0.74-0.81. Slight differences in results between the three FH estimates can be attributed to sampling differences in the original reference samples, and in particular, the body-size ranges included in those samples. There is no evidence for systematic differences in results due to differences in body proportions. Since the STBIB method was validated on other samples, and the FH methods produced similar estimates, this argues that either may be applied to skeletal remains with some confidence.

  8. Differential expression of the interleukin 5 receptor alpha isoforms in blood and tissue eosinophils of nasal polyp patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gevaert, Philippe; Hellman, C.; Lundblad, L.; J. Lundahl; Holtappels, Gabriële; Van Cauwenberge, Paul; Tavernier, Jan; Bachert, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Given the key role of interleukin-5 (IL-5) in eosinophil function, we investigated the regulated expression of the membrane-anchored (TM-IL-5R alpha) isoform, or a secreted (SOL IL-5R alpha) isoform, on both protein and transcript level in vitro and in vivo. A real-time PCR, FACS and ELISA were established to determine IL-5R alpha isoform expression in peripheral blood and nasal tissue from control subjects and nasal polyp (NP) patients with or without asthma. Human peripheral blood eosino...

  9. Human Respiration Rate Estimation Using Ultra-wideband Distributed Cognitive Radar System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifan Chen; Predrag Rapajic

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that remote monitoring of pulmonary activity can be achieved using ultra-wideband (UWB) systems,which shows promise in home healthcare, rescue, and security applications. In this paper, we first present a multi-ray propagation model for UWB signal, which is traveling through the human thorax and is reflected on the air/dry-skin/fat/muscle interfaces. A geometry-based statistical channel model is then developed for simulating the reception of UWB signals in the indoor propagation environment. This model enables replication of time-varying multipath profiles due to the displacement of a human chest. Subsequently,a UWB distributed cognitive radar system (UWB-DCRS) is developed for the robust detection of chest cavity motion and the accurate estimation of respiration rate. The analytical framework can serve as a basis in the planning and evaluation of future measurement programs. We also provide a case study on how the antenna beamwidth affects the estimation of respiration rate based on the proposed propagation models and system architecture.

  10. Estimation of the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. A methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg Damsgaard, T M; Windelborg Nielsen, B; Sørensen, F B; Henriques, U; Schiøtz, P O

    1992-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. Using 50 microns-thick paraffin sections, made from a systematic random sample of umbilical cord, the total number of mast cells per cord was estimated using a combination of the optical disector and fractionated sampling. The mast cell of the human umbilical cord was found in Wharton's jelly, most frequently in close proximity to the three blood vessels. No consistent pattern of variation in mast cell numbers from the fetal end of the umbilical cord towards the placenta was seen. The total number of mast cells found in the umbilical cord was 5,200,000 (median), range 2,800,000-16,800,000 (n = 7), that is 156,000 mast cells per gram umbilical cord (median), range 48,000-267,000. Thus, the umbilical cord constitutes an adequate source of mast cells for further investigation of these cells in the newborn, e.g. for describing their functional and secretory characteristics and possible clinical relevance in relation to the development of allergic, inflammatory and immunological diseases in infancy and childhood.

  11. Source attribution of human salmonellosis: an overview of methods and estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Sara M; Vieira, Antonio R; Hald, Tine; Cole, Dana

    2014-09-01

    Reducing the burden of foodborne salmonellosis is challenging. It requires identification of the most important food sources causing disease and prioritization of effective intervention strategies. For this purpose, a variety of methods to estimate the relative contribution of different sources of Salmonella infections have been applied worldwide. Each has strengths and limitations, and the usefulness of each depends on the public health questions being addressed. In this study, we reviewed the source attribution methods and outcomes of several studies developed in different countries and settings, comparing approaches and regional differences in attribution estimates. Reviewed results suggest that illnesses and outbreaks are most commonly attributed to exposure to contaminated food, and that eggs, broiler chickens, and pigs are among the top sources. Although most source attribution studies do not attribute salmonellosis to produce, outbreak data in several countries suggest that exposure to raw vegetables is also an important source. International travel was also a consistently important exposure in several studies. Still, the relative contribution of specific sources to human salmonellosis varied substantially between studies. Although differences in data inputs, methods, and the point in the food system where attribution was estimated contribute to variability between studies, observed differences also suggest regional differences in the epidemiology of salmonellosis.

  12. Methodology for estimating human perception to tremors in high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenqi; Goh, Key Seng; Pan, Tso-Chien

    2016-12-01

    Human perception to tremors during earthquakes in high-rise buildings is usually associated with psychological discomfort such as fear and anxiety. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the level of perception to tremors for occupants living in high-rise buildings subjected to ground motion excitations. Unlike other approaches based on empirical or historical data, the proposed methodology performs a regression analysis using the analytical results of two generic models of 15 and 30 stories. The recorded ground motions in Singapore are collected and modified for structural response analyses. Simple predictive models are then developed to estimate the perception level to tremors based on a proposed ground motion intensity parameter—the average response spectrum intensity in the period range between 0.1 and 2.0 s. These models can be used to predict the percentage of occupants in high-rise buildings who may perceive the tremors at a given ground motion intensity. Furthermore, the models are validated with two recent tremor events reportedly felt in Singapore. It is found that the estimated results match reasonably well with the reports in the local newspapers and from the authorities. The proposed methodology is applicable to urban regions where people living in high-rise buildings might feel tremors during earthquakes.

  13. Modeling Human Exposure to Phthalate Esters: A Comparison of Indirect and Biomonitoring Estimation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathryn E.; David, Raymond M.; Guinn, Richard; Kramarz, Kurt W.; Lampi, Mark A.; Staples, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Humans are potentially exposed to phthalate esters (PEs) through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Studies quantifying exposure to PEs include “biomarker studies” and “indirect studies.” Biomarker studies use measurements of PE metabolites in urine to back-calculate exposure to the parent diester, while indirect studies use the concentration of the PE in each medium of exposure and the rate of intake of that medium to quantify intake of the PE. In this review, exposure estimates from biomarker and indirect studies are compiled and compared for seven PEs to determine if there are regional differences and if there is a preferred approach. The indirect and biomarker methods generally agree with each other within an order of magnitude and discrepancies are explained by difficulties in accounting for use of consumer products, uncertainty concerning absorption, regional differences, and temporal changes. No single method is preferred for estimating intake of all PEs; it is suggested that biomarker estimates be used for low molecular weight PEs for which it is difficult to quantify all sources of exposure and either indirect or biomarker methods be used for higher molecular weight PEs. The indirect methods are useful in identifying sources of exposure while the biomarker methods quantify exposure. PMID:23087593

  14. A Method to Accurately Estimate the Muscular Torques of Human Wearing Exoskeletons by Torque Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beomsoo Hwang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user’s muscular effort is important to recognize the user’s motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users’ muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user’s limb accurately from the measured torque. The user’s limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user’s muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions.

  15. Integrated estimation of the effect of physical factors on human functional state during mental work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, G A; Afanasieva, R F; Mikhailova, N S; Babayan, M A; Bobrov, A F; Sokolov, S N

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model for an integrated estimation of the functional state of the human organism (FSHO) and an integral estimation of physical factors (PF) for hygienic rating. Tests were performed twice with 3 men in 0.7-clo clothing during 4-hr mental work with 9 combinations of 4 PF: wideband noise (55- 83 dB(A)), whole-body vibration (6 Hz, a(z) = 0.2-1.8 ms(-2)), air temperature (18-30 degrees C), and illumination (1, 3, 5 lx). Thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and psychophysiological reactions and temporary threshold of hearing (TTS2) shifts were studied. For the integral estimation of PF influence on FSHO the model F(y1,y2..........ym) = f(x1,x2,.......xn) was used, relating both FSHO and PF sets. The most important physiological parameters in creating FSHO are defined and the contribution of individual parameters of FSHO and PF is found.

  16. A Method to Accurately Estimate the Muscular Torques of Human Wearing Exoskeletons by Torque Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Beomsoo; Jeon, Doyoung

    2015-01-01

    In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user’s muscular effort is important to recognize the user’s motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users’ muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user’s limb accurately from the measured torque. The user’s limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user’s muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions. PMID:25860074

  17. Methodology for estimating human perception to tremors in high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenqi; Goh, Key Seng; Pan, Tso-Chien

    2017-07-01

    Human perception to tremors during earthquakes in high-rise buildings is usually associated with psychological discomfort such as fear and anxiety. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the level of perception to tremors for occupants living in high-rise buildings subjected to ground motion excitations. Unlike other approaches based on empirical or historical data, the proposed methodology performs a regression analysis using the analytical results of two generic models of 15 and 30 stories. The recorded ground motions in Singapore are collected and modified for structural response analyses. Simple predictive models are then developed to estimate the perception level to tremors based on a proposed ground motion intensity parameter—the average response spectrum intensity in the period range between 0.1 and 2.0 s. These models can be used to predict the percentage of occupants in high-rise buildings who may perceive the tremors at a given ground motion intensity. Furthermore, the models are validated with two recent tremor events reportedly felt in Singapore. It is found that the estimated results match reasonably well with the reports in the local newspapers and from the authorities. The proposed methodology is applicable to urban regions where people living in high-rise buildings might feel tremors during earthquakes.

  18. Estimation of calcaneal loading during standing from human footprint depths using 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Dwi Basuki; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Widodo, Achmad; Rahayu, Sri Puji

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the relationship between footprint depths and load in the calcaneal area when human standing in an upright posture. Footprint depths are deformation in the calcaneal area obtained from the z-value extraction of the Boolean operation acquired from unloaded foot scanning using 3D scanner and loaded foot using foot plantar scanner. To compare peak loads estimated from footprint depth maximum, force sensing resistor (FSR) sensor is attached over the shoe insole with zero heel height in the calcaneal area. Twenty participants were selected from students of Mechanical Engineering Department Diponegoro University with the average the age and the body weight 19.5 years and 55.27 kg respectively. Results that were relatively accurate was found on the calcaneal loading estimation by footprint depth is presented by curve and data distribution which are in good agreement with the result of the measurement. A significant difference in estimating calcaneal loading is mainly caused by plantar foot position of research subjects which is not perpendicular to foot ankle and hallux. In addition, plantar foot position which bends to front/back/side affects the result of footprint depths.

  19. Real-time estimation of small-area populations with human biomarkers in sewage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daughton, Christian G., E-mail: daughton.christian@epa.gov

    2012-01-01

    account for urine dilution), the biomarker with the most potential for the SCIM concept for real-time measurement of population was determined to be coprostanol - the major sterol produced by microbial reduction of cholesterol in the colon. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New concept proposed for estimating small-area human populations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sewage Chemical-Information Mining (SCIM) measures biomarkers in sewage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Real-time estimation of populations (accommodating influx and efflux) is possible. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coprostanol is identified as a candidate biomarker for estimating population size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite biomarkers having complementary properties could improve accuracy.

  20. Eosinophillic myocarditis and coronary arteritis in a fatal case of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupani Asha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mortality is very unusual in the case of asthma. We recently came across a fatal case of asthma which showed a rare combination of unusual complications like eosinophilic myocarditis, coronary arteritis, biventricular cardiac hypertrophy, eosinophilic pneumonitis and pulmonary hypertension.

  1. Sequence variants affecting eosinophil numbers associate with asthma and myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Bjornsdottir, Unnur S.; Halapi, Eva; Helgadottir, Anna; Sulem, Patrick; Jonsdottir, Gudrun M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Helgadottir, Hafdis; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Williams, Carolyn; Hui, Jennie; Beilby, John; Warrington, Nicole M.; James, Alan; Palmer, Lyle J.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Heinzmann, Andrea; Krueger, Marcus; Boezen, H. Marike; Wheatley, Amanda; Altmuller, Janine; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Uh, Soo-Taek; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Jonsdottir, Brynja; Gislason, David; Park, Choon-Sik; Rasmussen, Linda M.; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Hansen, Jakob W.; Backer, Vibeke; Werge, Thomas; Janson, Christer; Joensson, Ulla-Britt; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Chan, Juliana; So, Wing Yee; Ma, Ronald; Shah, Svati H.; Granger, Christopher B.; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Levey, Allan I.; Vaccarino, Viola; Reilly, Muredach P.; Rader, Daniel J.; Williams, Michael J. A.; van Rij, Andre M.; Jones, Gregory T.; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Malerba, Giovanni; Pignatti, Pier Franco; Boner, Attilio; Pescollderungg, Lydia; Girelli, Domenico; Olivieri, Oliviero; Martinelli, Nicola; Ludviksson, Bjorn R.; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I.; Arnar, David; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Deichmann, Klaus; Thompson, Philip J.; Wjst, Matthias; Hall, Ian P.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Gislason, Thorarinn; Gulcher, Jeffrey; Kong, Augustine; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses and thus have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Here we describe a genome-wide association scan for sequence variants affecting eosinophil counts in blo

  2. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia within the syndrom of 'pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, J.; Schmidt, M.; Kulke, H.; Daemmrich, J.

    1988-06-01

    Typical diagnostic findings of the chronic eosinophilic pneumonia within the syndrom of 'pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia' are described. We demonstrate one case of chronic eosinophilia pneumonia of unknown aetiology investigated clinically, by chest radiography, lung biopsy, bronchial lavage and lung function. The importance of chest radiography in the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is presented.

  3. Effect of selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors on the rat eosinophil chemotactic response in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra C Alves

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have performed a comparative analysis of the effect of selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase (PDE type III, IV and V on eosinophil chemotaxis triggered by platelet activating factor (PAF and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 in vitro. The effect of the analogues N6-2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cyclic AMP and N2-2'-O- dibutyrylguanosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cyclic GMP has also been determined. The eosinophils were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of naive Wistar rats and purified in discontinuous Percoll gradients to 85-95% purity. We observed that pre-incubation of eosinophils with the PDE type IV inhibitor rolipram suppressed the chemotactic response triggered by PAF and LTB4, in association with an increase in the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. In contrast, neither zaprinast (type V inhibitor nor type III inhibitors milrinone and SK&F 94836 affected the eosinophil migration. Only at the highest concentration tested did the analogue Bt2 cyclic AMP suppress the eosinophil chemotaxis, under conditions where Bt2 cyclic GMP was ineffective. We have concluded that inhibition of PDE IV, but not PDE III or V, was able to block the eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro, suggesting that the suppressive activity of selective PDE IV inhibitors on tissue eosinophil accumulation may, at least, be partially dependent on their ability to directly inhibit the eosinophil migration.

  4. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by infection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in a traveler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Hongzhi; HOI Chupeng; CUI Liying; CHEN Lin

    2013-01-01

    A 55 - year - old female traveler returning from South China with acute onset of meningitis, presenting with eosinophilic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid was reported. The etiological diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis was confirmed by detection of specific serum antibody against Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Angiostrongyliasis should be considered as a major differential diagnosis for eosinophilic meningitis in the travelers to endemic regions.

  5. A flow-cytometric method to evaluate eosinophil-mediated uptake of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Laura S; Brenner, Todd A; Krumholz, Julia O; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2017-03-27

    Eosinophils are resident leukocytes of gut mucosa. Here we present a combined flow cytometric-antibiotic protection assay to identify mouse eosinophils capable of bacterial uptake, specifically, Gram-positive Lactobacillus reuteri, in studies performed ex vivo. The assay may be adapted for use in vivo.

  6. A kinematic model to estimate effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Yamada, T.

    2013-05-01

    The great earthquake occurred in the north-east area in Japan in March 11, 2011. Facility system to control Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was completely destroyed by the following giant tsunami. From the damaged reactor containment vessels, an amount of radioactive substances had leaked and diffused in the vicinity of this station. Radiological internal exposure became a serious social issue both in Japan and all over the world. The present study provides an easily understandable, kinematic-based model to estimate the effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body by simplifying the complicated mechanism of metabolism. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed a sophisticated model, which is well-known as a standard method to calculate the effective dose for radiological protection. However, owing to that ICRP method is fine, it is rather difficult for non-professional people of radiology to gasp the whole images of the movement and the influences of radioactive substances in a human body. Therefore, in the present paper we propose a newly-derived and easily-understandable model to estimate the effective dose. The present method is very similar with the traditional and conventional tank model in hydrology. Ingestion flux of radioactive substances corresponds to rain intensity and the storage of radioactive substances to the water storage in a basin in runoff analysis. The key of the present method is to estimate the energy radiated in the radioactive nuclear disintegration of an atom by using classical theory of β decay and special relativity for various kinds of radioactive atoms. The parameters used in this model are only physical half-time and biological half-time, and there are no operational parameters or coefficients to adjust our theoretical runoff to ICRP. Figure shows the time-varying effective dose with ingestion duration, and we can confirm the validity of our model. The time-varying effective dose with

  7. An evaluation of soil chemistry in human cadaver decomposition islands: Potential for estimating postmortem interval (PMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, J P; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A; Farris, T; Mix, K; Schwab, A P; Wescott, D J; Hamilton, M D

    2017-08-18

    Soil samples from the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, were analyzed for multiple soil characteristics from cadaver decomposition islands to a depth of 5centimeters (cm) from 63 human decomposition sites, as well as depths up to 15cm in a subset of 11 of the cadaver decomposition islands plus control soils. Postmortem interval (PMI) of the cadaver decomposition islands ranged from 6 to 1752 days. Some soil chemistry, including nitrate-N (NO3-N), ammonium-N (NH4-N), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), peaked at early PMI values and their concentrations at 0-5cm returned to near control values over time likely due to translocation down the soil profile. Other soil chemistry, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), orthophosphate-P (PO4-P), sodium (Na(+)), and potassium (K(+)), remained higher than the control soil up to a PMI of 1752days postmortem. The body mass index (BMI) of the cadaver appeared to have some effect on the cadaver decomposition island chemistry. To estimate PMI using soil chemistry, backward, stepwise multiple regression analysis was used with PMI as the dependent variable and soil chemistry, body mass index (BMI) and physical soil characteristics such as saturated hydraulic conductivity as independent variables. Measures of soil parameters derived from predator and microbial mediated decomposition of human remains shows promise in estimating PMI to within 365days for a period up to nearly five years. This persistent change in soil chemistry extends the ability to estimate PMI beyond the traditionally utilized methods of entomology and taphonomy in support of medical-legal investigations, humanitarian recovery efforts, and criminal and civil cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular, genetic, and cellular bases for treating eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Marc E

    2015-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was historically distinguished from gastroesophageal reflux disease on the basis of histology and lack of responsiveness to acid suppressive therapy, but it is now appreciated that esophageal eosinophilia can respond to proton pump inhibitors. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to risk for EoE, particularly early-life events. Disease pathogenesis involves activation of epithelial inflammatory pathways (production of eotaxin-3 [encoded by CCL26]), impaired barrier function (mediated by loss of desmoglein-1), increased production and/or activity of transforming growth factor-β, and induction of allergic inflammation by eosinophils and mast cells. Susceptibility has been associated with variants at 5q22 (TSLP) and 2p23 (CAPN14), indicating roles for allergic sensitization and esophageal specific protease pathways. We propose that EoE is a unique disease characterized by food hypersensitivity; strong hereditability influenced by early-life exposures and esophageal-specific genetic risk variants; and allergic inflammation and that the disease is remitted by disrupting inflammatory and T-helper type 2 cytokine-mediated responses and through dietary elimination therapy.

  9. Role of PGE2 in Asthma and Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Beatriz; del Pozo, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but unlike asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Several studies suggest that prostaglandins may play an important role in orchestrating interactions between different cells in several inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PGE2 is important because of the multiplicity of its effects on immune response in respiratory diseases; however, respiratory system appears to be unique in that PGE2 has beneficial effects. We described that the difference in airway function observed in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma could be due to differences in PGE2 production. PGE2 present in induced sputum supernatant from NAEB patients decreases BSMC proliferation, probably due to simultaneous stimulation of EP2 and EP4 receptors with inhibitory activity. This protective effect of PGE2 may not only be the result of a direct action exerted on airway smooth-muscle proliferation but may also be attributable to the other anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:22529528

  10. Formation of reactive halide species by myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalteholz, Holger; Panasenko, Oleg M; Arnhold, Juergen

    2006-01-15

    The formation of chloro- and bromohydrins from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine following incubation with myeloperoxidase or eosinophil peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, chloride and/or bromide was analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These products were only formed below a certain pH threshold value, that increased with increasing halide concentration. Thermodynamic considerations on halide and pH dependencies of reduction potentials of all redox couples showed that the formation of a given reactive halide species in halide oxidation coupled with the reduction of compound I of heme peroxidases is only possible below a certain pH threshold that depends on halide concentration. The comparison of experimentally derived and calculated data revealed that Cl(2), Br(2), or BrCl will primarily be formed by the myeloperoxidase-H(2)O(2)-halide system. However, the eosinophil peroxidase-H(2)O(2)-halide system forms directly HOCl and HOBr.

  11. Eosinophilic ulcer of the lateral tongue: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Myriam Costa de Medeiros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa (EUOM is a lesion manifesting as ulcer with elevated margins. The lesion is self-limiting and develops rapidly usually disappearing after several weeks. The exact pathogenetic mechanisms implicated in its development are poorly understood, however, the possibility that trauma may play a role has been often postulated. Case report: A 63 year-old male patient had presented whit a chief complaint of painful ulcerated nodule on the tongue. Oral examination revealed a firm, raised and indurated erythematous nodule with a central ulcer that had a yellow fibrinous base. Clinical diagnosis hypothesis was either traumatic ulcer or oral squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathologic analysis revealed an ulcerated lesion with a dense mixed infiltrate of eosinophils, variably sized lymphocytes and epithelioid cells extending into submucosa. These cells exhibited pleomorphism, voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with prominent nucleolus and were identified by immunohistochemical method as CD68+ cells. The histological diagnosis was EUOM. At 1-year follow-up there was no recurrence. Conclusion: Our case provides useful information on clinical and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of EUOM, as suggesting the possible etiology of this uncommon lesion because it is poorly described in the literature.

  12. Perforated duodenal ulcer: An unusual manifestation of allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggle, Kevin M; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Williams, Elizabeth M; Riehle, Kimberly J

    2015-11-28

    Spontaneous perforation of a duodenal ulcer secondary to allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) has not been previously reported. We present such a case in a teenager who presented with peritonitis. After exploration and operative repair of his ulcer, he continued to experience intermittent abdominal pain, and further evaluation revealed eosinophilic gastroenteritis in the setting of multiple food allergies. His EGE resolved after adhering to a restrictive diet. Both duodenal ulcers and EGE are very rarely seen in pediatric patients. EGE has a variable presentation depending on the layer(s) of bowel wall affected and the segment of the gastrointestinal tract that is involved. Once diagnosed, it may respond to dietary changes in patients with recognized food allergies, or to steroids in patients in whom an underlying cause is not identified. Our case highlights the need to keep EGE in the differential diagnosis when treating pediatric patients with duodenal ulcers. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of EGE are also discussed, along with a review of the current literature.

  13. CAPN3 mutations in patients with idiopathic eosinophilic myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Martin; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Bernard, Rafaëlle; Pécheux, Christophe; Testard, Hervé; Pena-Segura, José L; Yoldi, Eugenia; Cabello, Ana; Romero, Norma B; Poza, Juan J; Bouillot-Eimer, Sandrine; Ferrer, Xavier; Goicoechea, Maria; Garcia-Bragado, Federico; Leturcq, France; Urtizberea, J Andoni; Lévy, Nicolas

    2006-06-01

    Eosinophilic myositis (EM) constitutes a rare pathological entity characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of skeletal muscles, usually associated with parasite infections, systemic disorders, or the intake of drugs or L-tryptophan. The exclusion of such causes defines the spectrum of idiopathic EM. Based on a protein analysis performed in one affected patient, we identified the gene encoding calpain-3, CAPN3, as a candidate for a subset of idiopathic EM. We screened CAPN3 for mutations using DHPLC and direct sequencing in six unrelated patients, recruited for EM diagnosed after histological examination of muscle biopsy samples, without any identified causative factor. We identified CAPN3 mutations in the six unrelated patients originally diagnosed with idiopathic EM. Mutations in CAPN3 can cause EM. Thus, a subset of idiopathic EM is genetically determined, with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Patients presented with a triad that appears to be indicative of CAPN3 mutations: (1) EM in the first decade, (2) elevated serum creatine phosphokinase levels (isolated or with little corresponding weakness), and (3) inconstant peripheral hypereosinophilia. However, that EM represents a distinct phenotype associated to CAPN3 mutations or, rather, an early histopathological picture of LGMD2A must be further evaluated. Our findings should be of interest toward further investigating the role of calpain-3 in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, patients with idiopathic EM should undergo calpain-3 protein analysis and be considered for subsequent molecular analysis of the CAPN3 gene.

  14. [Eosinophilic esophagitis--pathogenesis, clinical presentation and therapeutic management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arnim, U; Mönkemüller, K; Malfertheiner, P; Straumann, A

    2007-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a relatively new, chronic, TH 2-type allergic inflammation of the esophagus. EE occurs more frequently in men. Allergic diseases such as asthma or atopic dermatitis are present in 50-70 % of patients or their relatives. In adults, the most common presenting symptom of EE is dysphagia, with or without food bolus impaction. Endoscopic findings of EE include mucosal furrows, corrugated or concentric rings or ridges in the esophagus ("feline esophagus"), with or without tiny whitish exudates. The diagnosis is confirmed by the observation of high counts of eosinophils in the esophageal epithelium (at least 24 /HPF). The cornerstones of medical therapy are either topical or systemic corticosteroids. Additional therapies included leukotriene receptor antagonists (montelukast) and IL-5 blockers (Mepolizumab). Complications of EE such as esophageal strictures should be carefully dilated using either bougies or a balloon. Currently it is still not known whether the late complications of EE can be prevented by the use of anti-inflammatory agents and this can only be demonstrated through further long-term follow-up studies.

  15. Recent discoveries and emerging therapeutics in eosinophilic esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aakash Goyal; Edaire Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis(Eo E) is an allergy-mediated disease culminating in severe eosinophilic inflammation and dysfunction of the esophagus. This chronic disorder of the esophagus causes significant morbidity, poor quality of life, and complications involving fibrosis and esophageal remodeling. Overlapping features between EoE and gastroesophageal reflux disease(GERD) pose great challenges to differentiating the two conditions, although the two disorders are not mutually exclusive. Recent findings suggest that the confounding condition proton pump inhibitor- responsive esophageal eosinophilia(PPI-REE) is likely a subset of EoE. Since PPIs have therapeutic properties that can benefit EoE, PPIs should be considered as a therapeutic option for Eo E rather than a diagnostic screen to differentiate GERD, PPIREE, and EoE. Other current treatments include dietary therapy, corticosteroids, and dilation. Immunomodulators and biologic agents might have therapeutic value, and larger trials are needed to assess efficacy and safety. Understanding the pathophysiology of EoE is critical to the development of novel therapeutics.

  16. Update on Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis and Its Clinical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; da Silva, Ana Cristina Arámburu; Yoshimura, Kentaro

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is caused by a variety of helminthic infections. These worm-specific infections are named after the causative worm genera, the most common being angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, baylisascariasis, and paragonimiasis. Worm parasites enter an organism through ingestion of contaminated water or an intermediate host and can eventually affect the central nervous system (CNS). These infections are potentially serious events leading to sequelae or death, and diagnosis depends on currently limited molecular methods. Identification of parasites in fluids and tissues is rarely possible, while images and clinical examinations do not lead to a definitive diagnosis. Treatment usually requires the concomitant administration of corticoids and anthelminthic drugs, yet new compounds and their extensive and detailed clinical evaluation are much needed. Eosinophilia in fluids may be detected in other infectious and noninfectious conditions, such as neoplastic disease, drug use, and prosthesis reactions. Thus, distinctive identification of eosinophils in fluids is a necessary component in the etiologic diagnosis of CNS infections. PMID:19366917

  17. Stereological estimation of the number of neurons in the human amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Cynthia Mills; Amaral, David G

    2005-10-31

    Pathological changes in neuronal density in the amygdaloid complex have been associated with various neurological disorders. However, due to variable shrinkage during tissue processing, the only way to determine changes in neuron number unambiguously is to estimate absolute counts, rather than neuronal density. As the first stage in evaluating potential neuropathology of the amygdala in autism, the total number of neurons was estimated in the control human amygdaloid complex by using stereological sampling. The intact amygdaloid complex from one hemisphere of 10 brains was frozen and sectioned. One 100-microm section was selected every 500 microm and stained by the standard Nissl method. The entire amygdaloid complex was outlined and then further partitioned into five reliably defined subdivisions: 1) the lateral nucleus, 2) the basal nucleus, 3) the accessory basal nucleus, 4) the central nucleus, and 5) the remaining nuclei (including anterior cortical, anterior amygdaloid area, periamygdaloid cortex, medial, posterior cortical, nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, amygdalohippocampal area, and intercalated nuclei). The number of neurons was measured by using an optical fractionator with Stereoinvestigator software. The mean number of neurons (x 10(6)) for each region was as follows: lateral nucleus 4.00, basal nucleus 3.24, accessory basal nucleus 1.28, central nucleus 0.36, remaining nuclei 3.33, and total amygdaloid complex 12.21. The stereological assessment of neuron number in the human amygdala provides an essential baseline for comparison of patient populations, such as autism, in which the amygdala may develop abnormally. To facilitate these types of analyses, this paper provides a detailed anatomical description of the methods used to define subdivisions of the human amygdaloid complex.

  18. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting as small bowel obstruction: A case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Young Yun; Young Up Cho; In Suh Park; Sun Keun Choi; Sei Joong Kim; Seok Hwan Shin; Kyung Rae Kim

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall to a variable depth and symptoms associated with gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the authors experienced a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting as small bowel obstruction. A 51-year old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen with diffuse tenderness. Complete blood count showed mild leukocytosis without eosinophilia. Computed tomography confirmed a dilatation of the small intestine with ascites. An emergency laparotomy was performed for a diagnosis of peritonitis due to intestinal obstruction. Segmental resection of the ileum and end to end anastomosis were performed. Histologically, there was a dense infiltration of eosinophils throughout the entire thickness of ileal wall and eosinophilic enteritis was diagnosed. The patient recovered well, and was free from gastrointestinal symptoms at the time when we reported her disease.

  19. Glucocorticosteroid-sensitive inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in an adolescent: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Chuangyu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder is a rare inflammatory bladder disease. The etiology and pathophysiology of this condition are still unclear. Few case reports have described inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in adults or children. Although benign, this disease is occasionally clinically aggressive and locally invasive, thus open surgical removal or complete transurethral resection is recommended. Case presentation We present the case of a biopsy-proven inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in a previously healthy 16-year-old male adolescent with 2-month history of frequent micturition and dysuria with no significant apparent causative factors. The tumor regressed after a 6-week course of glucocorticosteroids. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, our case is a rare case of inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder treated with complete conservative management. Due to its glucocorticosteroid-sensitive nature, we postulate that this disease belongs to a subgroup of eosinophilic disorders.

  20. Kinetics of indium-III-labeled eosinophils in two patients with eosinophilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yutaka

    1989-05-01

    The kinetics of /sup III/In-labeled eosinophils was evaluated in two cases of eosinophilia by means of external and blood cell counting. In both cases, the labeled blood eosinophils decreased rapidly for a few h after injection and then increased progressively up to the 20th and the 12th h, respectively. The changes of radioactivity with time in the liver, spleen and lungs correlated with that in the blood eosinophils. However, in both cases radioactivity of the thoracic spine increased rapidly for a few h after injection of the labeled eosinophils and subsequently decreased. This result suggests that some of the eosinophils recirculate between the marginal pool of marrow and the intravascular space.